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Sample records for rutt hints kalle

  1. Hints.

    PubMed

    Abu-Mostafa, Y S

    1995-07-01

    The systematic use of hints in the learning-from-examples paradigm is the subject of this review. Hints are the properties of the target function that are known to use independently of the training examples. The use of hints is tantamount to combining rules and data in learning, and is compatible with different learning models, optimization techniques, and regularization techniques. The hints are represented to the learning process by virtual examples, and the training examples of the target function are treated on equal footing with the rest of the hints. A balance is achieved between the information provided by the different hints through the choice of objective functions and learning schedules. The Adaptive Minimization algorithm achieves this balance by relating the performance on each hint to the overall performance. The application of hints in forecasting the very noisy foreign-exchange markets is illustrated. On the theoretical side, the information value of hints is contrasted to the complexity value and related to the VC dimension.

  2. HINTS Puerto Rico: Final Report

    Cancer.gov

    This final report describes HINTS implementation in Puerto Rico. The report addresses sampling; staffing, training and management of data collection; calling protocol; findings from the CATI Operations, and sample weights.

  3. Active Learning Using Hint Information.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Liang; Ferng, Chun-Sung; Lin, Hsuan-Tien

    2015-08-01

    The abundance of real-world data and limited labeling budget calls for active learning, an important learning paradigm for reducing human labeling efforts. Many recently developed active learning algorithms consider both uncertainty and representativeness when making querying decisions. However, exploiting representativeness with uncertainty concurrently usually requires tackling sophisticated and challenging learning tasks, such as clustering. In this letter, we propose a new active learning framework, called hinted sampling, which takes both uncertainty and representativeness into account in a simpler way. We design a novel active learning algorithm within the hinted sampling framework with an extended support vector machine. Experimental results validate that the novel active learning algorithm can result in a better and more stable performance than that achieved by state-of-the-art algorithms. We also show that the hinted sampling framework allows improving another active learning algorithm designed from the transductive support vector machine.

  4. Hints to blood groupers, 1950.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Paul J; Greenwalt, Tibor J

    2006-03-01

    Sixty years ago, the premier blood grouping laboratory was that of Robert Race in London. Agglutination tests and blood grouping had provided breakthroughs in immunology, genetics, and the solution of clinical problems. The significance of immunohematology was recognized by the clinical hematology community as a potent force in the expanding field of disorders of the blood and blood-forming organs. The instructions by Race to his London workers entitled Hints to Blood Groupers provide a picture of the immunohematology laboratory even before automation and differed slightly from the American techniques that derived from Landsteiner. Before agglutination is replaced in the near future by the emergence of molecular methods, the detailed method of a superb laboratory is recorded.

  5. Enhancing the Automatic Generation of Hints with Expert Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamper, John; Barnes, Tiffany; Croy, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    The Hint Factory is an implementation of our novel method to automatically generate hints using past student data for a logic tutor. One disadvantage of the Hint Factory is the time needed to gather enough data on new problems in order to provide hints. In this paper we describe the use of expert sample solutions to "seed" the hint generation…

  6. Enhancing the Automatic Generation of Hints with Expert Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamper, John; Barnes, Tiffany; Croy, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    The Hint Factory is an implementation of our novel method to automatically generate hints using past student data for a logic tutor. One disadvantage of the Hint Factory is the time needed to gather enough data on new problems in order to provide hints. In this paper we describe the use of expert sample solutions to "seed" the hint generation…

  7. Cosmological hints of modified gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The recent measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies made by the Planck satellite have provided impressive confirmation of the Λ CDM cosmological model. However interesting hints of slight deviations from Λ CDM have been found, including a 95% C.L. preference for a "modified gravity" (MG) structure formation scenario. In this paper we confirm the preference for a modified gravity scenario from Planck 2015 data, find that modified gravity solves the so-called Alens anomaly in the CMB angular spectrum, and constrains the amplitude of matter density fluctuations to σ8=0.81 5-0.048+0.032 , in better agreement with weak lensing constraints. Moreover, we find a lower value for the reionization optical depth of τ =0.059 ±0.020 (to be compared with the value of τ =0.079 ±0.017 obtained in the standard scenario), more consistent with recent optical and UV data. We check the stability of this result by considering possible degeneracies with other parameters, including the neutrino effective number, the running of the spectral index and the amount of primordial helium. The indication for modified gravity is still present at about 95% C.L., and could become more significant if lower values of τ were to be further confirmed by future cosmological and astrophysical data. When the CMB lensing likelihood is included in the analysis the statistical significance for MG simply vanishes, indicating also the possibility of a systematic effect for this MG signal.

  8. Health Hints: Use Caution with Pain Relievers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for You Health Hints: Use Caution with Pain Relievers. Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Pin it Email Print PDF version (447KB) (NAPS) -- Pain relievers, when used correctly, are safe and effective. Millions ...

  9. Study Surfaces Helpful Hints for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational R&D Report, 1979

    1979-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT Far West Laboratory researchers involved in the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study contend that increasing Academic Learning Time promotes basic skills achievement among elementary school children. During the course of the six-year study, researchers identified numerous "helpful hints" for…

  10. Study Surfaces Helpful Hints for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational R&D Report, 1979

    1979-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT Far West Laboratory researchers involved in the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study contend that increasing Academic Learning Time promotes basic skills achievement among elementary school children. During the course of the six-year study, researchers identified numerous "helpful hints" for…

  11. Hints on storing timber to prevent decay

    Treesearch

    Forest Products Laboratory

    1919-01-01

    Many serious losses from decay in wooden structures are due to the fact that the timbers used were infected with wood-destroying fungi while in storage. These losses can be greatly reduced by keeping lumber storage yards in a sanitary condition. Some hints as to how to do this are given below.

  12. Interpreting hints for lepton flavor universality violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Stangl, Peter; Straub, David M.

    2017-09-01

    We interpret the recent hints for lepton flavor universality violation in rare B meson decays. Based on a model-independent effective Hamiltonian approach, we determine regions of new physics parameter space that give a good description of the experimental data on RK and RK*, which is in tension with Standard Model predictions. We suggest further measurements that can help narrowing down viable new physics explanations. We stress that the measured values of RK and RK* are fully compatible with new physics explanations of other anomalies in rare B meson decays based on the b →s μ μ transition. If the hints for lepton flavor universality violation are the first signs of new physics, perturbative unitarity implies new phenomena below a scale of ˜100 TeV .

  13. Helpful hints to painless payload processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terhune, Terry; Carson, Maggie

    1995-01-01

    The helpful hints herein describe, from a system perspective, the functional flow of hardware and software. The flow will begin at the experiment development stage and continue through build-up, test, verification, delivery, launch and deintegration of the experiment. An effort will be made to identify those interfaces and transfer functions of processing that can be improved upon in the new world of 'Faster, Better, and Cheaper.' The documentation necessary to ensure configuration and processing requirements satisfaction will also be discussed. Hints and suggestions for improvements to enhance each phase of the flow will be derived from extensive experience and documented lessons learned. Charts will be utilized to define the functional flow and a list of 'lessons learned' will be addressed to show applicability. In conclusion, specific improvements for several areas of hardware processing, procedure development and quality assurance, that are generic to all Small Payloads, will be identified.

  14. Data-Driven Hint Generation from Peer Debugging Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Zhongxiu

    2015-01-01

    Data-driven methods have been a successful approach to generating hints for programming problems. However, the majority of previous studies are focused on procedural hints that aim at moving students to the next closest state to the solution. In this paper, I propose a data-driven method to generate remedy hints for BOTS, a game that teaches…

  15. Increased anxiety-related behaviour in Hint1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Varadarajulu, Jeeva; Lebar, Maria; Krishnamoorthy, Gurumoorthy; Habelt, Sonja; Lu, Jia; Bernard Weinstein, I; Li, Haiyang; Holsboer, Florian; Turck, Christoph W; Touma, Chadi

    2011-07-07

    Several reports have implicated a role for the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein-1 (Hint1) in psychiatric disorders. We have studied the emotional behaviour of male Hint1 knockout (Hint1 KO) mice in a battery of tests and performed biochemical analyses on brain tissue. The behavioural analysis revealed that Hint1 KO mice exhibit an increased emotionality phenotype compared to wildtype (WT) mice, while no significant differences in locomotion or general exploratory activity were noted. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, the Hint1 KO animals entered the open arms of the apparatus less often than WT littermates. Similarly, in the dark-light box test, Hint1 KO mice spent less time in the lit compartment and the number of entries were reduced, which further confirmed an increased anxiety-related behaviour. Moreover, the Hint1 KO animals showed significantly more struggling and less floating behaviour in the forced swim test (FST), indicating an increased emotional arousal in aversive situations. Hint1 is known as a protein kinase C (PKC) interacting protein. Western blot analysis showed that PKCγ expression was elevated in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. Interestingly, PKCγ mRNA levels of the two groups did not show a significant difference, implying a post-transcriptional PKCγ regulation. In addition, PKC enzymatic activity was increased in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. In summary, our results indicate a role for Hint1 and PKCγ in modulating anxiety-related and stress-coping behaviour in mice.

  16. User's guide for the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) RUT-S and RUT-T data sets: October 31, 1978 to November 1, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, A. J.; Heath, D. F.; Klenk, K. F.; Oslik, N.; Lee, K. D.; Park, H.; Bhartia, P. K.; Gordon, D.

    1983-01-01

    Raw data from the Solar Backscattered Ultrviolet/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (SBUV/TOMS) Nimbus 7 operation are available on computer tape. These data are contained on two separate sets of RUTs (Raw Units Tapes) for SBUV and TOMS, labelled RUT-S and RUT-T respectively. The RUT-S and RUT-T tapes contain uncalibrated radiance and irradiance data, housekeeping data, wavelength and electronic calibration data, instrument field-of-view location and solar ephemeris information. These tapes also contain colocated cloud, terrain pressure and snow/ice thickness data, each derived from an independent source. The "RUT User's Guide" describes the SBUV and TOMS experiments, the instrument calibration and performance, operating schedules, and data coverage, and provides an assessment of RUT-S and -T data quality. It also provides detailed information on the data available on the computer tapes.

  17. HINTS 2013 Conference Summaries of Presentations and Posters

    Cancer.gov

    Summaries of Presentations and Poster Abstracts for the HINTS 2013 Conference titled A Decade of HINTS: Quantifying the Health Information Revolution through Data Innovation and Collaboration and held on October 2-3, 2013 at the Natcher building on the NIH campus in Bethesda, MD

  18. Structured hints : extracting and abstracting domain expertise.

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Stevens, R.; Sterling, T.; Gao, G. R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; California Inst. of Tech.; Louisiana State Univ.; Univ. of Delaware

    2009-03-16

    We propose a new framework for providing information to help optimize domain-specific application codes. Its design addresses problems that derive from the widening gap between the domain problem statement by domain experts and the architectural details of new and future high-end computing systems. The design is particularly well suited to program execution models that incorporate dynamic adaptive methodologies for live tuning of program performance and resource utilization. This new framework, which we call 'structured hints', couples a vocabulary of annotations to a suite of performance metrics. The immediate target is development of a process by which a domain expert describes characteristics of objects and methods in the application code that would not be readily apparent to the compiler; the domain expert provides further information about what quantities might provide the best indications of desirable effect; and the interactive preprocessor identifies potential opportunities for the domain expert to evaluate. Our development of these ideas is progressing in stages from case study, through manual implementation, to automatic or semi-automatic implementation. In this paper we discuss results from our case study, an examination of a large simulation of a neural network modeled after the neocortex.

  19. Flexible synthesis of video frames based on motion hints.

    PubMed

    Naman, Aous Thabit; Taubman, David

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose the use of "motion hints" to produce interframe predictions. A motion hint is a loose and global description of motion that can be communicated using metadata; it describes a continuous and invertible motion model over multiple frames, spatially overlapping other motion hints. A motion hint provides a reasonably accurate description of motion but only a loose description of where it is applicable; it is the task of the client to identify the exact locations where this motion model is applicable. The focus of this paper is a probabilistic multiscale approach to identifying these locations of applicability; the method is robust to noise, quantization, and contrast changes. The proposed approach employs the Laplacian pyramid; it generates motion hint probabilities from observations at each scale of the pyramid. These probabilities are then combined across the scales of the pyramid starting from the coarsest scale. The computational cost of the approach is reasonable, and only the neighborhood of a pixel is employed to determine a motion hint probability, which makes parallel implementation feasible. This paper also elaborates on how motion hint probabilities are exploited in generating interframe predictions. The scheme of this paper is applicable to closed-loop prediction, but it is more useful in open-loop prediction scenarios, such as using prediction in conjunction with remote browsing of surveillance footage, communicated by a JPEG2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP) server. We show that the interframe predictions obtained using the proposed approach are good both visually and in terms of PSNR.

  20. Measuring Learning from hints in Web-based Socratic Tutor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Jin; Pritchard, D. E.

    2006-12-01

    We present a study of the usefulness of various hints implemented in a Web-based homework tutor MasteringPhysics. Problem solving skill of students and difficulty of problems were first determined by applying Item Response Theory (IRT) to the first answers of students working on homework problems of an introductory Newtonian physics course. The usefulness of hints were then measured by the changes in their problem solving skill on the second attempt at answering the problems they had previously failed after they went through different learning paths, e.g. using different hints provided by the online tutor. We found that the changes in problem solving skill depended strongly on the learning paths students took. The most effective path (about plus 1.8 standard deviation above untutored expectation) was for students who requested hints and subtasks prior to attempting to answer. They may be displaying metacognitive ability.

  1. 108. Photocopy of frontispiece in Owen, Hints. MAIN ENTRANCE, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. Photocopy of frontispiece in Owen, Hints. MAIN ENTRANCE, NORTH FRONT, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 107. Photocopy of plate opposite page 104 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. Photocopy of plate opposite page 104 in Owen, Hints. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, FROM THE NORTH-EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 112. Photocopy of plate opposite page 43 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. Photocopy of plate opposite page 43 in Owen, Hints. CENTRAL SOUTHERN TOWER, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION; FROM THE SOUTH-WEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 109. Photocopy of plate opposite page 75 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. Photocopy of plate opposite page 75 in Owen, Hints. WEST WING, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION: FROM THE NORTH-EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 110. Photocopy of plate opposite page 19 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. Photocopy of plate opposite page 19 in Owen, Hints. CAMPANILE, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, FROM THE NORTH-EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 113. Photocopy of illustration on page 109 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. Photocopy of illustration on page 109 in Owen, Hints. SOUTHERN GATEWAY, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 111. Photocopy of plate opposite page 108 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. Photocopy of plate opposite page 108 in Owen, Hints. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION FROM THE SOUTH WEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 106. Photocopy of plate opposite pge 99 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. Photocopy of plate opposite pge 99 in Owen, Hints. GOTHIC DESIGN FOR SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. Axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia: there is a HINT.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Kristien; Chamova, Teodora; Tournev, Ivailo; Jordanova, Albena

    2017-04-01

    Recessive mutations in the gene encoding the histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1) were recently shown to cause a motor-predominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. About 80% of the patients exhibit neuromyotonia, a striking clinical and electrophysiological hallmark that can help to distinguish this disease and to guide diagnostic screening. HINT1 neuropathy has worldwide distribution and is particularly prevalent in populations inhabiting central and south-eastern Europe. With 12 different mutations identified in more than 60 families, it ranks among the most common subtypes of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. This article provides an overview of the present knowledge on HINT1 neuropathy with the aim to increase awareness and spur interest among clinicians and researchers in the field. We propose diagnostic guidelines to recognize and differentiate this entity and suggest treatment strategies to manage common symptoms. As a recent player in the field of hereditary neuropathies, the role of HINT1 in peripheral nerves is unknown and the underlying disease mechanisms are unexplored. We provide a comprehensive overview of the structural and functional characteristics of the HINT1 protein that may guide further studies into the molecular aetiology and treatment strategies of this peculiar Charcot-Marie-Tooth subtype. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  10. Axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia: there is a HINT

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Kristien; Chamova, Teodora; Tournev, Ivailo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recessive mutations in the gene encoding the histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1) were recently shown to cause a motor-predominant Charcot–Marie–Tooth neuropathy. About 80% of the patients exhibit neuromyotonia, a striking clinical and electrophysiological hallmark that can help to distinguish this disease and to guide diagnostic screening. HINT1 neuropathy has worldwide distribution and is particularly prevalent in populations inhabiting central and south-eastern Europe. With 12 different mutations identified in more than 60 families, it ranks among the most common subtypes of axonal Charcot–Marie–Tooth neuropathy. This article provides an overview of the present knowledge on HINT1 neuropathy with the aim to increase awareness and spur interest among clinicians and researchers in the field. We propose diagnostic guidelines to recognize and differentiate this entity and suggest treatment strategies to manage common symptoms. As a recent player in the field of hereditary neuropathies, the role of HINT1 in peripheral nerves is unknown and the underlying disease mechanisms are unexplored. We provide a comprehensive overview of the structural and functional characteristics of the HINT1 protein that may guide further studies into the molecular aetiology and treatment strategies of this peculiar Charcot–Marie–Tooth subtype. PMID:28007994

  11. An analytical model of the HINT performance metric

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Q.O.; Gustafson, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    The HINT benchmark was developed to provide a broad-spectrum metric for computers and to measure performance over the full range of memory sizes and time scales. We have extended our understanding of why HINT performance curves look the way they do and can now predict the curves using an analytical model based on simple hardware specifications as input parameters. Conversely, by fitting the experimental curves with the analytical model, hardware specifications such as memory performance can be inferred to provide insight into the nature of a given computer system.

  12. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: Emergency "Go-Kits"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Tara

    2006-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools (OSDFS) encourages schools to consider emergency management in the context of its four phases: mitigation and prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. The preparedness phase…

  13. Some Field Hints from an Old Top Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Seimon W.

    1983-01-01

    Suggestions for successful geology field trips are provided. These "field hints" focus on geological reasoning; equipment; notes; samples and records; field practices, including mapping; camping; working with associates in the field; and general considerations such as carrying along a few textbooks, finding out about an area before the trip, and…

  14. Study Hints for Learning a Foreign/Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    A list of basic study practices and strategies, with examples and alternatives that focus on both receptive and productive skills and the value in interaction, is presented. The following hints are included: (1) don't study a language by yourself and in silence, but study aloud and with another person; (2) use the target language as much as…

  15. HINTS for differentiating peripheral from central causes of vertigo.

    PubMed

    Jaynstein, Dayna

    2016-10-01

    Dizziness and vertigo are common and difficult complaints encountered by providers. The differential diagnosis is large and varies from benign to life-threatening disorders. The true challenge becomes differentiating benign peripheral vertigo from central vertigo. The HINTS examination can help differentiate peripheral from central causes of dizziness and vertigo.

  16. Hints on the use of the PCMDI Visualization and Computation System (VCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.; Drach, R. S.; Mobley, R. L.; Phillips, T. J.

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the Hints interactive displays that assist a user of the PCMDI Visualization and Computation System (VCS). These Hints describe the purpose of the VCS panels and provide basic instructions on their use.

  17. A two-Higgs-doublet model facing experimental hints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Physics beyond the Standard Model has so far eluded our experimental probes. Nevertheless, a number of interesting anomalies have accumulated that can be taken as hints towards new physics: BaBar, Belle, and LHCb have found deviations of approximately 3:8σ in B → Dτν and B → D*τν; the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon differs by about 3σ from the theoretic prediction; the branching ratio for τ → μνν is about 2σ above the Standard Model expectation; and CMS and ATLAS found hints for a non-zero decay rate of h → μτ at 2.6σ. Here we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model with additional non-standard Yukawa couplings and show how (and which of) these excesses can be accommodated.

  18. [Peripheral vertigo versus central vertigo. Application of the HINTS protocol].

    PubMed

    Batuecas-Caletrío, Ángel; Yáñez-González, Raquel; Sánchez-Blanco, Carmen; González-Sánchez, Enrique; Benito, José; Gómez, José Carlos; Santa Cruz-Ruiz, Santiago

    2014-10-16

    Introduccion. Uno de los dilemas mas importantes concernientes al vertigo en urgencias es su diagnostico diferencial. Existen signos de alarma de gran sensibilidad en la exploracion que pueden ponernos en la pista de encontrarnos ante un vertigo central. Objetivo. Determinar la eficacia de la aplicacion del protocolo HINTS en el diagnostico del accidente cerebrovascular que simula un vertigo periferico. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional descriptivo sobre pacientes ingresados con diagnostico de sindrome vestibular agudo en urgencias. Todos los pacientes fueron objeto de un seguimiento diario hasta la mejoria de sus sintomas con informacion del nistagmo, la maniobra de impulso oculocefalico y el test de skew. Se comparan los resultados del estudio de resonancia magnetica con la alteracion en alguno de esos tres signos a lo largo del ingreso del enfermo. Resultados. Se reunio a 91 pacientes, con una edad media de 55,8 años. Se objetivo un accidente cerebrovascular en ocho de ellos. De estos (edad media: 71 años), en siete existia una alteracion en alguno de los signos HINTS y en uno el estudio fue normal (sensibilidad: 0,88; especificidad: 0,96). Todos ellos tenian algun factor de riesgo vascular. Conclusiones. Una exploracion adecuada y dirigida ante un paciente que acude a urgencias con un sindrome vestibular agudo resulta de vital importancia para establecer el diagnostico diferencial entre la patologia periferica y la central, ya que algunos accidentes cerebrovasculares se pueden presentar bajo la apariencia de un vertigo agudo. Aplicar un protocolo como HINTS permite sospechar la patologia central con una gran sensibilidad y especificidad.

  19. Legacy limits and hints of New Physics at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Duperrin, Arnaud; /Marseille, CPPM

    2011-12-01

    This paper reviews results of beyond-the-standard model searches at the Tevatron presented in a plenary talk at the Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics (EPS-HEP) in Grenoble. Here I present a selection of results from the CDF and D0 experiments that were shown at the conference during the parallel sessions. Much more is available and can be found at the experiment's web pages. This proceeding essentially focuses on searches in the dilepton, diboson, and t{bar t} final states. Throughout the paper, hints of new physics observed at the Tevatron are also briefly discussed.

  20. Hints for a nonstandard Higgs boson from the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Raidal, Martti; Strumia, Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    We reconsider Higgs boson invisible decays into Dark Matter in the light of recent Higgs searches at the LHC. Present hints in the Compact Muon Solenoid and ATLAS data favor a nonstandard Higgs boson with approximately 50% invisible branching ratio, and mass around 143 GeV. This situation can be realized within the simplest thermal scalar singlet Dark Matter model, predicting a Dark Matter mass around 50 GeV and direct detection cross section just below present bound. The present runs of the Xenon100 and LHC experiments can test this possibility.

  1. The Effects of Cognitive Styles on the Use of Hints in Academic English: A Learning Analytics Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sherry Y.; Yeh, Chia-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Various hints have been proposed to scaffold students. Such hints can be broadly divided into direct hints and indirect hints. On the other hand, individual differences existed among learners. In particular, cognitive styles greatly affect student learning. However, there is a lack of studies to investigate how cognitive styles affect students'…

  2. Transfer of metacognitive skills and hint seeking in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kornell, Nate; Son, Lisa K; Terrace, Herbert S

    2007-01-01

    Metacognition is knowledge that can be expressed as confidence judgments about what one knows (monitoring) and by strategies for learning what one does not know (control). Although there is a substantial literature on cognitive processes in animals, little is known about their metacognitive abilities. Here we show that rhesus macaques, trained previously to make retrospective confidence judgments about their performance on perceptual tasks, transferred that ability immediately to a new perceptual task and to a working memory task. We also show that monkeys can learn to request "hints" when they are given problems that they would otherwise have to solve by trial and error. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that nonhuman primates share with humans the ability to monitor and transfer their metacognitive ability both within and between different cognitive tasks, and to seek new knowledge on a need-to-know basis.

  3. Hints of quantum gravity from the horizon fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropp, Bethan; Bhattacharya, Swastik; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2017-01-01

    For many years, researchers have tried to glean hints about quantum gravity from black hole thermodynamics. However, black hole thermodynamics suffers from the problem of universality—at leading order, several approaches with different microscopic degrees of freedom lead to Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We attempt to bypass this issue by using a minimal statistical mechanical model for the horizon fluid based on the Damour-Navier-Stokes (DNS) equation. For stationary asymptotically flat black hole spacetimes in general relativity, we show explicitly that, at equilibrium, the entropy of the horizon fluid is the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Further, we show that, for the bulk viscosity of the fluctuations of the horizon fluid to be identical to Damour, a confinement scale exists for these fluctuations, implying quantization of the horizon area. The implications and possible mechanisms from the fluid point of view are discussed.

  4. Understanding Attention to Adaptive Hints in Educational Games: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conati, Cristina; Jaques, Natasha; Muir, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a user study that investigates the factors affecting student attention to user-adaptive hints during interaction with an educational computer game. The study focuses on Prime Climb, an educational game designed to provide individualized support for learning number factorization skills in the form of textual hints based on a…

  5. Understanding Attention to Adaptive Hints in Educational Games: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conati, Cristina; Jaques, Natasha; Muir, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a user study that investigates the factors affecting student attention to user-adaptive hints during interaction with an educational computer game. The study focuses on Prime Climb, an educational game designed to provide individualized support for learning number factorization skills in the form of textual hints based on a…

  6. Particle Swarm Optimization algorithms for geophysical inversion, practical hints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Gonzalo, E.; Fernandez Martinez, J.; Fernandez Alvarez, J.; Kuzma, H.; Menendez Perez, C.

    2008-12-01

    PSO is a stochastic optimization technique that has been successfully used in many different engineering fields. PSO algorithm can be physically interpreted as a stochastic damped mass-spring system (Fernandez Martinez and Garcia Gonzalo 2008). Based on this analogy we present a whole family of PSO algorithms and their respective first order and second order stability regions. Their performance is also checked using synthetic functions (Rosenbrock and Griewank) showing a degree of ill-posedness similar to that found in many geophysical inverse problems. Finally, we present the application of these algorithms to the analysis of a Vertical Electrical Sounding inverse problem associated to a seawater intrusion in a coastal aquifer in South Spain. We analyze the role of PSO parameters (inertia, local and global accelerations and discretization step), both in convergence curves and in the a posteriori sampling of the depth of an intrusion. Comparison is made with binary genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. As result of this analysis, practical hints are given to select the correct algorithm and to tune the corresponding PSO parameters. Fernandez Martinez, J.L., Garcia Gonzalo, E., 2008a. The generalized PSO: a new door to PSO evolution. Journal of Artificial Evolution and Applications. DOI:10.1155/2008/861275.

  7. 'Hints' in the horn: diagnostic clues in the stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, José Carlos; Veraitch, Ophelia; Gianotti, Raffaele; Ferrara, Gerardo; Tomasini, Carlo F; Singh, Manuraj; Zalaudek, Iris; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2017-03-01

    The stratum corneum or horny layer is the uppermost layer of the epidermis, and is mainly responsible for the skin's barrier function. In spite of its complexity at the ultrastructural and molecular level, the features accessible to visualization on conventional histology are relatively limited. Nevertheless, knowledge of subtle clues that one may observe in the stratum corneum can prove useful in a wide range of situations in dermatopathology. We herein review a selection of common and rare entities in which the horny layer may reveal significantly important hints for the diagnosis. These clues include parakeratosis and its different patterns (focal, confluent, alternating, associated with spongiosis, epidermal hyperplasia or lichenoid changes), subcorneal acantholysis, infectious organisms in the stratum corneum (including fungal, bacterial and parasitic), thickening or thinning of the stratum corneum and the presence of different kinds of pigment. Even when normal, the horny layer may prove to be useful when seen in association with severe epidermal damage, a combination of features testifying to the acute nature of the underlying pathological process. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Hints for Enhanced b -> sg From Charm and Kaon Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Rathsman, Johan

    2003-05-09

    Previously, motivation for enhanced b {yields} sg from new flavor physics has centered on discrepancies between theory and experiment. Here two experimental hints are considered: (1) updated measurements of the charm multiplicity and {Beta}({bar B} {yields} X{sub c{bar c}s}) at the {Upsilon}(4S) imply {Beta}(B {yields} X{sub no charm}) {approx} 12.4 {+-} 5.6%, (2) the {bar B} {yields} K{sup -}X and {bar B} {yields} K{sup +}/K{sup -}X branching fractions are in excess of conventional {bar B} {yields} X{sub c} {yields} KX yields by about 16.9 {+-} 5.6% and 18 {+-} 5.3%, respectively. JETSET 7.4 was used to estimate kaon yields from s{bar s} popping in {bar B} {yields} X{sub c{bar u}d} decays. JETSET 7.4 Monte Carlos for {Beta}({bar B} {yields} X{sub sg}) {approx} 15% imply that the additional kaon production would lead to 1{sigma} agreement with observed charged and neutral kaon yields. The K{sub s} momentum spectrum would be consistent with recent CLEO bounds in the end point region. Search strategies for enhanced b {yields} sg are discussed in light of large theoretical uncertainty in the standard model fast kaon background from b {yields} s penguin operators.

  9. Hint1 suppresses migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro by modulating girdin activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Song; Bao, Tian-Hao; Ke, Yang; Sun, De-Yun; Shi, Zhi-Tian; Tang, Hao-Ran; Wang, Lin

    2016-11-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (Hint1) is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene. Its role in cancer cell migration has not been previously speculated. In the current study, we examined the expression of Hint1 in metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and further elucidated the effect of Hint1 expression on girdin expression and phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2 and on the migration of HCC cells in vitro. Expression of Hint1 and girdin in primary HCC tissues and metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes was determined by RT-PCR assays. HepG2 cells were transfected with plasmid vectors overexpressing Hint1 or small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Hint1, girdin, Hint1 plus girdin, or the scrambled RNA. Migration and invasion of HCC cells were examined by wound and Transwell assays. Protein expression was detected by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays. RT-PCR assays revealed that the messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript levels of Hint1 were markedly lower than those of primary HCC tissues and non-metastatic lymph nodes (P < 0.01). By contrast, the mRNA transcript levels of girdin were significantly higher than non-metastatic lymph nodes (P < 0.05). Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of HINT1 resulted in a significant increase in the mRNA transcript levels of girdin in HepG2 cells (P < 0.05). Wound assays and Transwell assays showed that Hint1 knockdown by siRNA significantly enhanced the migration and invasion of HepG2 cells compared to HepG2 cells transfected with scrambled siRNA. Hint1 knockdown also led to significantly increased phosphorylation of girdin and AKT in HepG2 cells (P < 0.05), which, however, was effectively aborted by girdin knockdown by siRNA (P < 0.05). Hint1 is downregulated in metastatic lymph nodes and is implicated in migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro by modulating girdin and AKT expression and phosphorylation. The Hint1-girdin-AKT signaling axis should be

  10. Basics of compounding: Tips and hints, part 4: lollipops/lozenges, gummy bears, patches, flavoring/coloring, sweeteners, and packaging.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2014-01-01

    Just a reminder--shortcuts, tips, hints, new techniques, etc. help make every compounder's job easier and enhance patient care. Keep a list of these tips and hints and add to them as new techniques are developed.

  11. 10 Helpful hints for dementia design at home 10 Helpful hints for dementia design at home June Andrews and Colm Cunningham Dementia Services Development Centre £7.50 54pp 9781857692549 1857692543 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2012-02-24

    THERE ARE more than 40 pages of hints in this short booklet, covering lighting, sound, interior decor and the use of assistive technology among other areas. Each section has an illustration relevant to one of the hints. A short paragraph is included about each hint and there are many illustrations of the experiences of people living with dementia.

  12. [HINT1--a novel tumor suppressor protein of the HIT superfamily].

    PubMed

    Ozga, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The histidine triad nucleotide binding protein1 (Hint1) belongs to the first branch of the HIT superfamily. Hint1 catalyses the process of hydrolysis of the P-N bond in AMP-lysine, AMP-alanine, AMP-NH2. The physiological role of this enzyme is still unclear. There is accumulating evidence that HINT1 is a novel tumor suppressor protein, albeit the mechanism of action of HINT1 in respect to tumor suppression is not fully understood. Recent findings have shown that Hint1 inhibits the activity of the transcription factors AP1, MITF and USF2, as well as influences the transcription process of some genes of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Thereby, it seems that Hint1 exerts its major cellular function as gene transcription regulator, and thus, this function provides its potential role as a tumor suppressor protein. The clinical relevance of impairments in the Hint1 expression with the respect to specific human cancers is still a matter of extensive studies.

  13. Lack of Neuropathy-Related Phenotypes in Hint1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seburn, Kevin L.; Morelli, Kathryn H.; Jordanova, Albena; Burgess, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in HINT1, the gene encoding histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1), cause a recessively inherited peripheral neuropathy that involves primarily motor dysfunction and is usually associated with neuromyotonia, i.e. prolonged muscle contraction resulting from hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve. Because these mutations are hypothesized to cause loss of function, we analyzed Hint1 knockout mice for their relevance as a disease model. Mice lacking Hint1 were normal in appearance and in behavioral tests or motor performance, although they moved slower and for a smaller fraction of time than wild-type (WT) mice in an open field arena. Muscles, neuromuscular junctions, and nodes of Ranvier are anatomically normal and did not show evidence of degeneration or regeneration. Axon numbers and myelination in peripheral nerves were normal at 4 and 13 months of age. Axons were slightly smaller than those in WT mice at 4 months of age, but this did not cause a decrease in conduction velocity, and no differences in axon diameters were detected at 13 months. Using electromyography, we were unable to detect neuromyotonia, even using supra-physiological stimuli and stressors such as reduced temperature or 3,4 diaminopyridine to block potassium channels. Therefore, we conclude that Hint1 knockout mice may be useful for studying the biochemical activities of HINT1, but these mice do not provide a disease model or a means for investigating the basis of HINT1-associated neuropathy and neuromyotonia. PMID:24918641

  14. Hints of Period Change for OGLE-TR-113b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth R.; Lopez-Morales, M.; Elliot, J. L.; Seager, S.; Osip, D. J.

    2010-10-01

    We present six new transits of the hot Jupiter OGLE-TR-113b observed with MagIC on the Magellan Telescopes between January 2007 and May 2009. We update the system parameters and revise the planetary radius, where the error is dominated by stellar radius uncertainties. The new transit midtimes reveal no transit timing variations from a constant ephemeris over two years, which places an upper limit of 1-2 Earth masses on any perturber in a 1:2 or 2:1 mean-motion resonance with OGLE-TR-113b. Combining the new transit epochs with five epochs published between 2002 and 2006, we find hints that the orbital period of the planet may not be constant, with the best fit indicating the period is decreasing by 60±15 milliseconds per year. If real, this change in period could result from either a long-period (more than 8 years) timing variation due to an external perturber, or more intriguingly from the orbital decay of the planet. The detection of a changing period is still tentative and must be checked with additional observations. If a period decay is confirmed, OGLE-TR-113b will be the first planet observed to be falling onto its star. This would enable direct tests of tidal stability and dynamical models of close-in planets and place observational constraints on the value of stellar tidal energy dissipation factors. This work was supported in part by NASA Origins grant NNX07AN63G and Hubble Fellowship grant HF-01210.01-A/HF-51233.01 awarded by the STScI, which is operated by the AURA, Inc. for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555.

  15. Algebra and Trigonometry Review Workbook. Exercises with Hints and Complete Solutions in Algebra and Trigonometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Petrushka, Sharon

    This workbook is designed to be used as a review at the end of a college level course in algebra and trigonometry. Four review sheets containing 117 problems provide hints and detailed solutions for each problem. (YP)

  16. Lithospheric Decoupling and Rotations: Hints from Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muluneh, A. A.; Cuffaro, M.; Doglioni, C.; Kidane, T.

    2014-12-01

    Plates move relative to the mantle because some torques are acting on them. The shear in the low-velocity zone (LVZ) at the base of the lithosphere is the expression of these torques. The decoupling is allowed by the low viscosity in the LVZ, which is likely few orders of magnitudes lower than previously estimated. The viscosity value in the LVZ controls the degree of coupling/decoupling between the lithosphere and the underlying mantle. Lateral variations in viscosity within the LVZ may explain the velocity gradient among tectonic plates as the one determining the Ethiopian Rift (ER) separating Africa from Somalia. While it remains not fully understood the mechanisms of the torques acting on the lithosphere (thermally driven mantle convection or the combination of mantle convection with astronomical forces such as the Earth's rotation and tidal drag), the stresses are transmitted across the different mechanical layers (e.g., the brittle upper crust, down to the viscous-plastic ductile lower crust and upper mantle). Differential basal shear traction at the base of the lithosphere beneath the two sides of the East African Rift System (EARS) is assumed to drive and sustain rifting. In our analysis, the differential torques acting on the lithospheric/crustal blocks drive kinematics and block rotations. Since, ER involves the whole lithosphere, we do not expect large amount of rotation. Rotation can be the result of the whole plate motion on the sphere moving along the tectonic equator, or the second order sub-rotation of a single plate. Further rotation may occur along oblique plate boundaries (e.g., left lateral transtensional setting at the ER). Small amount of vertical axis rotation of blocks in northern ER could be related to the presence of local, shallower decollement layers. Shallow brittle-ductile transition (BDT) zone and differential tilting of crustal blocks in the northern ER could hint a possibility of detachment surface between the flow in the lower

  17. Kinetic Mechanism of Human Histidine Triad Nucleotide Binding Protein 1 (Hint1)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Chou, Tsui-Fen; Aubol, Brandon E; Park, Chin Ju; Wolfenden, Richard; Adams, Joseph; Wagner, Carston R.

    2013-01-01

    Human histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (hHint1) is a member of a ubiquitous and ancient branch of the histidine triad (HIT) protein superfamily. hHint1 is a homodimeric protein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of model substrates, phosphoramidate (TpAd) and acyl adenylate (AIPA), with a high efficiency. Recently, catalytically inactive hHint1 has been identified as the cause of inherited peripheral neuropathy (1). We have carried out the first detailed kinetic mechanistic studies of hHint1 and have found that the reaction mechanism is consistent with a double displacement mechanism, in which the active site nucleophile His112 is first adenylylated by the substrate, followed by hydrolysis of the AMP-enzyme intermediate. A transient burst phase followed by a linear phase from the stopped-flow fluorescence assay indicated that enzyme adenylylation was faster than the subsequent intermediate hydrolysis and product release. Solvent viscosity experiments suggested that both chemical transformation and diffusion-sensitive events (product release or protein conformational change) limit the overall turnover. The catalytic trapping experiments and data simulation indicated that the true koff rate of the final product AMP is unlikely to control the overall kcat. Therefore, a protein conformational change associated with product release is likely rate limiting. In addition, the rate of Hint1 adenylylation was found to be dependent on two residues with pKas of 6.5 and 8, with the former pKa agreeing well with the NMR titration results for the pKa of the active site nucleophile His112. When compared to the uncatalyzed rates, hHint1 was shown to enhance acyl-AMP and AMP phosphoramidate hydrolysis by 106 to 108- fold. Taken together, our analysis indicates that hHint1 catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphoramidate and acyl adenylate with high efficiency, through a mechanism that relies on rapid adenylylation of the active residue, His-112, while being partially rate limited

  18. A Nonresponse Bias Analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    PubMed

    Maitland, Aaron; Lin, Amy; Cantor, David; Jones, Mike; Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W; Davis, Terisa; Blake, Kelly D

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a nonresponse bias analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 4, Cycles 1 and 3, collected in 2011 and 2013, respectively, using three analysis methods: comparison of response rates for subgroups, comparison of estimates with weighting adjustments and external benchmarks, and level-of-effort analysis. Areas with higher concentrations of low socioeconomic status, higher concentrations of young households, and higher concentrations of minority and Hispanic populations had lower response rates. Estimates of health information seeking behavior were higher in HINTS compared to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The HINTS estimate of doctors always explaining things in a way that the patient understands was not significantly different from the same estimate from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS); however, the HINTS estimate of health professionals always spending enough time with the patient was significantly lower than the same estimate from MEPS. A level-of-effort analysis found that those who respond later in the survey field period were less likely to have looked for information about health in the past 12 months, but found only small differences between early and late respondents for the majority of estimates examined. There is some evidence that estimates from HINTS could be biased toward finding higher levels of health information seeking.

  19. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra craters, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, Riccardo; Pio Rossi, Angelo; Massironi, Matteo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Pondrelli, Monica; Marinangeli, Lucia; Unnithan, Vikram

    2014-05-01

    during bulge sequences deposition. One or - more likely - multiple layers of sulfates below the shallower levels of Arabia Terra surface need, in our opinion, to be hypothesized in order to explain all these contrasting observations. Indeed impact cratering on such an evaporate bearing layered target might have provided the ideal conditions of faulting, interconnectivity of evaporatic beds and lithostatic load release to allow diapirs ascent, In turn diapirism could have been responsible for central bulging as testified by outward dipping strata on stratified bulges, broad un-stratified bulges and folding (see Jackson and Vendeville, 1994 for typical salt tectonics). The depth of the fluid source calculated with a fractal method (Pozzobon et al., 2013) using the position of the small widespread mounds within Firsoff and Crommelin craters can give a hint of the average depth of the evaportic horizons (~4 km). As further developments we plan to test and quantify our model to take into account geological evidences, possible kinematics, rheology and stratigraphic constrains. References: Andrews-Hanna, J.C., and Lewis, K.W., 2011, Early Mars hydrology: 2. Hydrological evolution in the Noachian and Hesperian epochs: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 116, p. E02007, doi: 10.1029/2010JE003709. Franchi, F., Rossi, A. P., Pondrelli, M., Cavalazzi, B. (2014) Geometry, stratigraphy and evidences for fluid expulsion within Crommelin crater deposits, Arabia Terra, Mars. Planet Space Sci., in press. DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2013.12.013, Jackson M.P.A. & Vendeville B.C. (1994) - Regional extension as a geologic trigger for diapirism, GSA Bulletin, 106: 57-73, Pondrelli, M., Rossi, A. P., Ori, G.G., van Gasselt, S., Praeg, D., and Ceramicola, S., 2011, Mud volcanoes in the geologic record of Mars: The case of Firsoff crater: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 304, p. 511-519, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.02.027., Pozzobon R. et al. (2013), AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract #1797270.

  20. Semantic Elaboration through Integration: Hints Both Facilitate and Inform the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Varga, Nicole L.; King, Jessica E.; Nolen, Ayla M.; White, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic knowledge can be extended in a variety of ways, including self-generation of new facts through integration of separate yet related episodes. We sought to promote integration and self-generation by providing "hints" to help 6-year-olds (Experiment 1) and 4-year-olds (Experiment 2) see the relevance of separate episodes to one…

  1. Adult Participation in Children's Word Searches: On the Use of Prompting, Hinting, and Supplying a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Although word searching in children is very common, very little is known about how adults support children in the turns following the child's search behaviours, an important topic because of the social, educational, and clinical implications. This study characterizes, in detail, teachers' use of prompting, hinting, and supplying a model. From a…

  2. Hint of CPT Violation in Short-Baseline Electron Neutrino Disappearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2011-12-01

    We analyzed the electron neutrino data of the Gallium radioactive source experiments and the electron antineutrino data of the reactor Bugey and Chooz experiments in terms of neutrino oscillations. We found a hint of a CPT-violating asymmetry of the effective neutrino and antineutrino mixing angles.

  3. Interaction Networks: Generating High Level Hints Based on Network Community Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagle, Michael; Johnson, Matthew; Barnes, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel data structure, the Interaction Network, for representing interaction-data from open problem solving environment tutors. We show how using network community detecting techniques are used to identify sub-goals in problems in a logic tutor. We then use those community structures to generate high level hints between sub-goals.…

  4. Data-Driven Hint Generation in Vast Solution Spaces: A Self-Improving Python Programming Tutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Kelly; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    To provide personalized help to students who are working on code-writing problems, we introduce a data-driven tutoring system, ITAP (Intelligent Teaching Assistant for Programming). ITAP uses state abstraction, path construction, and state reification to automatically generate personalized hints for students, even when given states that have not…

  5. Evident or doubtful? How lexical hints in written information influence laypersons' understanding of influenza.

    PubMed

    Mayweg-Paus, Elisabeth; Jucks, Regina

    2015-01-01

    There are clear differences in the way written information on health issues presents research findings. In some cases, the source of a piece of information (e.g. "expert professor") is highlighted to emphasize its credibility and relevance. In other cases, the impact of a certain argument is stressed by avoiding hints on tentativeness such as "mostly" or "up to now." This article examines whether and how far such differences influence laypersons' comprehension of the contents provided. In an experimental setting, 157 laypersons were asked to read an online article on a new approach to preventing influenza. The texts manipulated whether there were (a) hints on the source of information and (b) lexical hints on the tentativeness of the information (hedges). After reading the text, participants were asked to write an essay reporting their opinion on the topic. Their argumentation on vaccination was assessed with content analysis and their attitudes toward vaccination were surveyed with a questionnaire. Results indicated that when lexical hints were given, tentativeness led participants to focus more on the actual information in the text. Additionally, decisions more strongly favored the direction implied in the text when the source of the medical information was not reported. Consequences for the way health information should be presented to laypersons are discussed.

  6. Data-Driven Hint Generation in Vast Solution Spaces: A Self-Improving Python Programming Tutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Kelly; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    To provide personalized help to students who are working on code-writing problems, we introduce a data-driven tutoring system, ITAP (Intelligent Teaching Assistant for Programming). ITAP uses state abstraction, path construction, and state reification to automatically generate personalized hints for students, even when given states that have not…

  7. Semantic Elaboration through Integration: Hints Both Facilitate and Inform the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Varga, Nicole L.; King, Jessica E.; Nolen, Ayla M.; White, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic knowledge can be extended in a variety of ways, including self-generation of new facts through integration of separate yet related episodes. We sought to promote integration and self-generation by providing "hints" to help 6-year-olds (Experiment 1) and 4-year-olds (Experiment 2) see the relevance of separate episodes to one…

  8. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: Steps for Developing a School Emergency Management Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools strongly encourages schools and school districts to develop emergency management plans within the context of the four phases of emergency management:…

  9. Enhancement of Student Learning through the Use of a Hinting Computer E-Learning System and Comparison with Human Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Merino, P. J.; Kloos, C. D.; Munoz-Organero, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment in a Computer Architecture Laboratory course classroom session, in which students were divided into two groups for interaction both with a hinting e-learning system and with human teachers generating hints. The results show that there were high learning gains for both groups, demonstrating the…

  10. Stoic Behavior Hypothesis in Hint Seeking and Development of Reversi Learning Environment as Work Bench for Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miwa, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Kazuaki; Terai, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Tutoring systems provide students with various types of on-demand and context-sensitive hints. Students are required to consciously adapt their help-seeking behavior, proactively seek help in some situations, and solve problems independently without supports in other situations. We define the latter behavior as stoic behavior in hint seeking. In…

  11. Rationale, Procedures, and Response Rates for the 2015 Administration of NCI's Health Information National Trends Survey: HINTS-FDA 2015.

    PubMed

    Blake, Kelly D; Portnoy, David B; Kaufman, Annette R; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan; Lo, Serena C; Backlund, Eric; Cantor, David; Hicks, Lloyd; Lin, Amy; Caporaso, Andrew; Davis, Terisa; Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W

    2016-12-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to monitor population trends in cancer communication practices, information preferences, health risk behaviors, attitudes, and cancer knowledge. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognized HINTS as a unique data resource for informing its health communication endeavors and partnered with NCI to field HINTS-FDA 2015. HINTS-FDA 2015 was a self-administered paper instrument sent by mail May 29 to September 8, 2015, using a random probability-based sample of U.S. postal addresses stratified by county-level smoking rates, with an oversampling of high and medium-high smoking strata to increase the yield of current smokers responding to the survey. The response rate for HINTS-FDA 2015 was 33% (N = 3,738). The yield of current smokers (n = 495) was lower than expected, but the sampling strategy achieved the goal of obtaining more former smokers (n = 1,132). Public-use HINTS-FDA 2015 data and supporting documentation have been available for download and secondary data analyses since June 2016 at http://hints.cancer.gov . NCI and FDA encourage the use of HINTS-FDA for health communication research and practice related to tobacco-related communications, public knowledge, and behaviors as well as beliefs and actions related to medical products and dietary supplements.

  12. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Elisabeth; Wang, Jia Bei

    2009-11-13

    Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1) is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO) mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT) littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST) and the tail suspension (TST) tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS.

  13. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1) is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO) mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT) littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST) and the tail suspension (TST) tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. Conclusion PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS. PMID:19912621

  14. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Truncal Ataxia and HINTS as Cardinal Signs for Acute Vestibular Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Sergio; Martínez, Carlos; Zalazar, Guillermo; Moro, Marcela; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Luis, Leonel; Gordon, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew (HINTS) protocol set a new paradigm to differentiate peripheral vestibular disease from stroke in patients with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The relationship between degree of truncal ataxia and stroke has not been systematically studied in patients with AVS. We studied a group of 114 patients who were admitted to a General Hospital due to AVS, 72 of them with vestibular neuritis (based on positive head impulse, abnormal caloric tests, and negative MRI) and the rest with stroke: 32 in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory (positive HINTS findings, positive MRI) and 10 in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory (variable findings and grade 3 ataxia, positive MRI). Truncal ataxia was measured by independent observers as grade 1, mild to moderate imbalance with walking independently; grade 2, severe imbalance with standing, but cannot walk without support; and grade 3, falling at upright posture. When we applied the HINTS protocol to our sample, we obtained 100% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity, similar to previously published findings. Only those patients with stroke presented with grade 3 ataxia. Of those with grade 2 ataxia (n = 38), 11 had cerebellar stroke and 28 had vestibular neuritis, not related to the patient’s age. Grade 2–3 ataxia was 92.9% sensitive and 61.1% specific to detect AICA/PICA stroke in patients with AVS, with 100% sensitivity to detect AICA stroke. In turn, two signs (nystagmus of central origin and grade 2–3 Ataxia) had 100% sensitivity and 61.1% specificity. Ataxia is less sensitive than HINTS but much easier to evaluate. PMID:27551274

  15. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Truncal Ataxia and HINTS as Cardinal Signs for Acute Vestibular Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Sergio; Martínez, Carlos; Zalazar, Guillermo; Moro, Marcela; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Luis, Leonel; Gordon, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew (HINTS) protocol set a new paradigm to differentiate peripheral vestibular disease from stroke in patients with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The relationship between degree of truncal ataxia and stroke has not been systematically studied in patients with AVS. We studied a group of 114 patients who were admitted to a General Hospital due to AVS, 72 of them with vestibular neuritis (based on positive head impulse, abnormal caloric tests, and negative MRI) and the rest with stroke: 32 in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory (positive HINTS findings, positive MRI) and 10 in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory (variable findings and grade 3 ataxia, positive MRI). Truncal ataxia was measured by independent observers as grade 1, mild to moderate imbalance with walking independently; grade 2, severe imbalance with standing, but cannot walk without support; and grade 3, falling at upright posture. When we applied the HINTS protocol to our sample, we obtained 100% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity, similar to previously published findings. Only those patients with stroke presented with grade 3 ataxia. Of those with grade 2 ataxia (n = 38), 11 had cerebellar stroke and 28 had vestibular neuritis, not related to the patient's age. Grade 2-3 ataxia was 92.9% sensitive and 61.1% specific to detect AICA/PICA stroke in patients with AVS, with 100% sensitivity to detect AICA stroke. In turn, two signs (nystagmus of central origin and grade 2-3 Ataxia) had 100% sensitivity and 61.1% specificity. Ataxia is less sensitive than HINTS but much easier to evaluate.

  16. Comparison of Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) Scores Using Three Different Transducers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    earphones , and Group #3 was tested with the CEP. Presentation sequence of all speech materials was randomized using a Latin Squares design to reduce...between the THD-39P results and those obtained from the other two insert earphones in the quite condition that was likely due to a calibration issue...Conclusion: Insert-type earphones should be considered for administration of the HINT once a correction factor has been established. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  17. Exome sequencing reveals HINT1 mutations as a cause of distal hereditary motor neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Race, Valérie; Matthijs, Gert; De Jonghe, Peter; Robberecht, Wim; Lambrechts, Diether; Van Damme, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMNs) are a heterogenous group of genetic disorders with length-dependent degeneration of motor axons. Obtaining a genetic diagnosis in patients with dHMN remains challenging. We performed exome sequencing in a diagnostic setting in 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of dHMN. Potential disease-causing variants in genes associated with dHMN and other forms of inherited neuropathies/motor neuron diseases were validated using Sequenom. The coverage in the genes studied was >95% with an average coverage of >50 times. In none of the patients a mutations was found in genes previously reported to be associated with dHMN. However, in 2/12 patients a recessive mutation in histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1, recently discovered as a cause of axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia) was identified. Our results demonstrate the diagnostic value of exome sequencing for patients with inherited neuropathies. The phenotypic spectrum of recessive mutations in HINT1 includes dHMN. HINT1 should be added to the list of genes to check for in dHMN. PMID:24105373

  18. Helpful Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides directives for the assembly of a skin sensitivity tester that can be used to examine the skin's function of feeling. Procedures for this experiment are reviewed and a chart for recording the data is also included. (ML)

  19. Crystallographic studies of the complex of human HINT1 protein with a non-hydrolyzable analog of Ap4A.

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafał; Kaczmarek, Renata; Sęda, Aleksandra; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Baraniak, Janina; Nawrot, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch in the histidine triad proteins superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes, and it has been found in many species. Here, we report the first structure (at a 2.34Å resolution) of a complex of human HINT1 with a non-hydrolyzable analog of an Ap4A dinucleotide, containing bis-phosphorothioated glycerol mimicking a polyphosphate chain, obtained from a primitive monoclinic space group P21 crystal. In addition, the apo form of hHINT1 at the space group P21 refined to 1.92Å is reported for comparative studies.

  20. The boy who would be queen: hints and closets on children's television.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Jeffery P

    2009-01-01

    Although American television programs targeted at children and adolescents posit universal heterosexuality and never openly allude to LGBT persons, a content analysis of 102 episodes of 25 contemporary children's programs revealed many examples of resistance to the heteronormative ideology: intimate same-sex friendships; inclusive statements or stage business; scenes that hint at the existence of same-sex desire; gender-transgressive or otherwise gay-stereotyped characters; and jokes and references that require a knowledge of gay culture. The impact of this resistance on viewers is analyzed through fan fiction and artwork, and potential explanations are examined.

  1. P80, the HinT interacting membrane protein, is a secreted antigen of Mycoplasma hominis

    PubMed Central

    Hopfe, Miriam; Hoffmann, Ricarda; Henrich, Birgit

    2004-01-01

    Background Mycoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria which encode a minimal set of proteins. In Mycoplasma hominis, the genes encoding the surface-localized membrane complex P60/P80 are in an operon with a gene encoding a cytoplasmic, nucleotide-binding protein with a characteristic Histidine triad motif (HinT). HinT is found in both procaryotes and eukaryotes and known to hydrolyze adenosine nucleotides in eukaryotes. Immuno-precipitation and BIACore analysis revealed an interaction between HinT and the P80 domain of the membrane complex. As the membrane anchored P80 carries an N-terminal uncleaved signal peptide we have proposed that the N-terminus extends into the cytoplasm and interacts with the cytosolic HinT. Results Further characterization of P80 suggested that the 4.7 kDa signal peptide is protected from cleavage only in the membrane bound form. We found several proteins were released into the supernatant of a logarithmic phase mycoplasma culture, including P80, which was reduced in size by 10 kDa. Western blot analysis of recombinant P80 mutants expressed in E. coli and differing in the N-terminal region revealed that mutation of the +1 position of the mature protein (Asn to Pro) which is important for signal peptidase I recognition resulted in reduced P80 secretion. All other P80 variants were released into the supernatant, in general as a 74 kDa protein encompassing the helical part of P80. Incubation of M. hominis cells in phosphate buffered saline supplemented with divalent cations revealed that the release of mycoplasma proteins into the supernatant was inhibited by high concentrations of calciumions. Conclusions Our model for secretion of the P80 protein of M. hominis implies a two-step process. In general the P80 protein is transported across the membrane and remains complexed to P60, surface-exposed and membrane anchored via the uncleaved signal sequence. Loss of the 4.7 kDa signal peptide seems to be a pre-requisite for P80 secretion, which is

  2. Hints from Run 1 and prospects from Run 2 at ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Bernius, Catrin

    2016-06-21

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN has allowed the ATLAS experiment to collect a large amount of proton-proton collision data at 7 TeV and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energies throughout Run 1. This dataset was used to discover a Higgs boson with Standard Model-like properties at a mass of about 125 GeV. Furthermore, an impressive number of searches for deviations from the Standard Model expectations have been carried out. To date, no evidence for new physics beyond the SM has been found. However, a few hints in form of 2-3 σ deviations have been observed. After an 18-month shutdown, in which the ATLAS detector has undergone various upgrades, the LHC has again started to deliver collision data at an increased centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, providing a much improved sensitivity for various searches, in particular for high mass particles. Some representative hints at the LHC Run 1 are presented, a brief overview of ATLAS upgrades and prospects for SUSY searches with early Run 2 data are given.

  3. [Adaptation of the Hinting Task theory of the mind test to Spanish].

    PubMed

    Gil, David; Fernández-Modamio, Mar; Bengochea, Rosario; Arrieta, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have found that patients with schizophrenia have a deficit in theory of mind. Some authors associate this deficit with the presence of symptoms, while others maintain that it can also be observed in patients in the remission phase. There is no reference test to assess theory of mind in schizophrenia, although one of the most used is the Hinting Task. The aim of the present study consists of adapting and validating, in Spanish, the 10 histories that make up this test. The study was conducted on a sample of 39 control subjects and 40 patients with schizophrenia. The internal consistency and the between-observer reliability and test-retest were assessed in both sample groups. The performance of the patients and control subjects were also compared. Good reliability data was obtained in the inter-observer and test-retest in the two samples. On the other hand, the internal consistency was somewhat low for all of the 10 histories. For this reason, and starting from a previous study, a reduced version of 5 histories was prepared, which showed good internal consistency. The patients with schizophrenia obtained a significantly lower score than the control subjects in 8 out of the 10 histories. The reduced Spanish version of the Hinting Task demonstrated good psychometric properties. When compared to the control group, the patients with schizophrenia had a deficit in theory of mind. Copyright © 2011 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Hints from Run 1 and prospects from Run 2 at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernius, Catrin

    2016-06-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN has allowed the ATLAS experiment to collect a large amount of proton-proton collision data at 7 TeV and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energies throughout Run 1. This dataset was used to discover a Higgs boson with Standard Model-like properties at a mass of about 125 GeV. Furthermore, an impressive number of searches for deviations from the Standard Model expectations have been carried out. To date, no evidence for new physics beyond the SM has been found. However, a few hints in form of 2-3 σ deviations have been observed. After an 18-month shutdown, in which the ATLAS detector has undergone various upgrades, the LHC has again started to deliver collision data at an increased centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, providing a much improved sensitivity for various searches, in particular for high mass particles. Some representative hints at the LHC Run 1 are presented, a brief overview of ATLAS upgrades and prospects for SUSY searches with early Run 2 data are given.

  5. Performance of bilingual speakers on the English and Spanish versions of the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Deborah; Dempsey, James J

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the performance of bilingual participants on the English and Spanish versions of the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). The participants were divided into an early bilingual (EB) group and a late bilingual (LB) group based on age of second-language acquisition. All participants acquired Spanish as their first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Care was taken to ensure that all participants demonstrated at least a "good competence level" for self-rated speaking, understanding, reading, and writing skills in both English and Spanish. Results revealed superior performance on the Spanish HINT versus the English HINT in both quiet and in noise for both groups of participants. Significant differences in performance were noted for the EB versus the LB participants. A number of possible explanations for superior performance in L1 are provided, and implications for educating students in their L2 are discussed.

  6. Hints of theta13>0 from global neutrino data analysis.

    PubMed

    Fogli, G L; Lisi, E; Marrone, A; Palazzo, A; Rotunno, A M

    2008-10-03

    Nailing down the unknown neutrino mixing angle theta{13} is one of the most important goals in current lepton physics. In this context, we perform a global analysis of neutrino oscillation data, focusing on theta{13}, and including recent results [ (unpublished)]. We discuss two converging hints of theta{13}>0, each at the level of approximately 1sigma: an older one coming from atmospheric neutrino data, and a newer one coming from the combination of solar and long-baseline reactor neutrino data. Their combination provides the global estimate sin{2}theta{13}=0.016+/-0.010(1sigma), implying a preference for theta{13}>0 with non-negligible statistical significance ( approximately 90% C.L.). We discuss possible refinements of the experimental data analyses, which might sharpen such intriguing indications.

  7. Updating and Maintaining School Emergency Management Plans. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management. Volume 2, Issue 3, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. Developing and implementing comprehensive, multi-hazard emergency management plans is an ongoing process that must be consistently reinforced and strengthened. Opportunities for reviewing, strengthening and updating…

  8. What Does the Public Know about Preventing Cancer? Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Nikki A.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Peipins, Lucy A.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides information about the public's familiarity with cancer prevention strategies and examines the association between this familiarity and actual prevention behavior. Data from interviews with 5,589 adults included in the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were analyzed. Most respondents were able to cite one or…

  9. What Does the Public Know about Preventing Cancer? Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Nikki A.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Peipins, Lucy A.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides information about the public's familiarity with cancer prevention strategies and examines the association between this familiarity and actual prevention behavior. Data from interviews with 5,589 adults included in the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were analyzed. Most respondents were able to cite one or…

  10. Rationale, Procedures, and Response Rates for the 2015 Administration of NCI’s Health Information National Trends Survey: HINTS-FDA 2015

    PubMed Central

    BLAKE, KELLY D.; PORTNOY, DAVID B.; KAUFMAN, ANNETTE R.; LIN, CHUNG-TUNG JORDAN; LO, SERENA C.; BACKLUND, ERIC; CANTOR, DAVID; HICKS, LLOYD; LIN, AMY; CAPORASO, ANDREW; DAVIS, TERISA; MOSER, RICHARD P.; HESSE, BRADFORD W.

    2016-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to monitor population trends in cancer communication practices, information preferences, health risk behaviors, attitudes, and cancer knowledge. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognized HINTS as a unique data resource for informing its health communication endeavors and partnered with NCI to field HINTS-FDA 2015. HINTS-FDA 2015 was a self-administered paper instrument sent by mail May 29 to September 8, 2015, using a random probability-based sample of U.S. postal addresses stratified by county-level smoking rates, with an oversampling of high and medium-high smoking strata to increase the yield of current smokers responding to the survey. The response rate for HINTS-FDA 2015 was 33% (N = 3,738). The yield of current smokers (n = 495) was lower than expected, but the sampling strategy achieved the goal of obtaining more former smokers (n = 1,132). Public-use HINTS-FDA 2015 data and supporting documentation have been available for download and secondary data analyses since June 2016 at http://hints.cancer.gov. NCI and FDA encourage the use of HINTS-FDA for health communication research and practice related to tobacco-related communications, public knowledge, and behaviors as well as beliefs and actions related to medical products and dietary supplements. PMID:27892827

  11. The ON:OFF switch, σ1R-HINT1 protein, controls GPCR-NMDA receptor cross-regulation: Implications in neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Cortés-Montero, Elsa; Pozo-Rodrigálvarez, Andrea; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar; Garzón-Niño, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the brain, the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) and sigma 1 receptors (σ1Rs) coordinate the activity of certain G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) with that of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). To determine the role of HINT1-σ1R in the plasticity of GPCR-NMDAR interactions, substances acting at MOR, cannabinoid CB1 receptor, NMDAR and σ1R were injected into mice, and their effects were evaluated through in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro assays. It was observed that HINT1 protein binds to GPCRs and NMDAR NR1 subunits in a calcium-independent manner, whereas σ1R binding to these proteins increases in the presence of calcium. In this scenario, σ1R agonists keep HINT1 at the GPCR and stimulate GPCR-NMDAR interaction, whereas σ1R antagonists transfer HINT1 to NR1 subunits and disengage both receptors. This regulation is lost in σ1R−/− mice, where HINT1 proteins mostly associate with NMDARs, and GPCRs are physically and functionally disconnected from NMDARs. In HINT1−/− mice, ischemia produces low NMDAR-mediated brain damage, suggesting that several different GPCRs enhance glutamate excitotoxicity via HINT1-σ1R. Thus, several GPCRs associate with NMDARs by a dynamic process under the physiological control of HINT1 proteins and σ1Rs. The NMDAR-HINT1-σ1R complex deserves attention because it offers new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:26461475

  12. Inhibition by divalent metal ions of human histidine triad nucleotide binding protein1 (hHint1), a regulator of opioid analgesia and neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rachit; Chou, Tsui-Fen; Maize, Kimberly M; Strom, Alexander; Finzel, Barry C; Wagner, Carston R

    2017-09-23

    Human histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (hHint1) is a purine nucleoside phosphoramidase and adenylate hydrolase that has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for the management of pain. However, the molecular mechanism of Hint1 in the signaling pathway has remained less clear. The role of metal ions in regulating postsynaptic transmission is well known, and the active site of hHint1 contains multiple histidines. Here we have investigated the effect of divalent metal ions (Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), and Zn(2+)) on the structural integrity and catalytic activity of hHint1. With the exception of Mg(2+), all the divalent ions inhibited hHint1, the rank of order was found to be Cu(2+) >Zn(2+) >Cd(2+) ≥Ni(2+) >Mn(2+) based on their IC50 and kin/KI values. A crystal structure of hHint1 with bound Cu(2+) is described to explain the competitive reversible inactivation of hHint1 by divalent cations. All the metal ions exhibited time- and concentration- dependent inhibition, with the rate of inactivation highly dependent on alterations of the C-terminus. With the exception of Cu(2+); restoration of inhibition was observed for all the metal ions after treatment with EDTA. Our studies reveal a loss in secondary structure and aggregation of hHint1 upon incubation with 10-fold excess of copper. Thus, hHint1 appears to be structurally sensitive to irreversible inactivation by copper, which may be of neurotoxicological and pharmacological significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Health Information National Trends Survey in American Sign Language (HINTS-ASL): Protocol for the Cultural Adaptation and Linguistic Validation of a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Harris, Raychelle; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Hoglind, TraciAnn

    2017-09-13

    The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) collects nationally representative data about the American's public use of health-related information. This survey is available in English and Spanish, but not in American Sign Language (ASL). Thus, the exclusion of ASL users from these national health information survey studies has led to a significant gap in knowledge of Internet usage for health information access in this underserved and understudied population. The objectives of this study are (1) to culturally adapt and linguistically translate the HINTS items to ASL (HINTS-ASL); and (2) to gather information about deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. We modified the standard procedures developed at the US National Center for Health Statistics Cognitive Survey Laboratory to culturally adapt and translate HINTS items to ASL. Cognitive interviews were conducted to assess clarity and delivery of these HINTS-ASL items. Final ASL video items were uploaded to a protected online survey website. The HINTS-ASL online survey has been administered to over 1350 deaf adults (ages 18 to 90 and up) who use ASL. Data collection is ongoing and includes deaf adult signers across the United States. Some items from HINTS item bank required cultural adaptation for use with deaf people who use accessible services or technology. A separate item bank for deaf-related experiences was created, reflecting deaf-specific technology such as sharing health-related ASL videos through social network sites and using video remote interpreting services in health settings. After data collection is complete, we will conduct a series of analyses on deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. HINTS-ASL is an accessible health information national trends survey, which includes a culturally appropriate set of items that are relevant to the experiences of deaf people who use ASL. The final HINTS

  14. Diagnosing Stroke in Acute Vertigo: The HINTS Family of Eye Movement Tests and the Future of the "Eye ECG".

    PubMed

    Newman-Toker, David E; Curthoys, Ian S; Halmagyi, G Michael

    2015-10-01

    Patients who present to the emergency department with symptoms of acute vertigo or dizziness are frequently misdiagnosed. Missed opportunities to promptly treat dangerous strokes can result in poor clinical outcomes. Inappropriate testing and incorrect treatments for those with benign peripheral vestibular disorders leads to patient harm and unnecessary costs. Over the past decade, novel bedside approaches to diagnose patients with the acute vestibular syndrome have been developed and refined. A battery of three bedside tests of ocular motor physiology known as "HINTS" (head impulse, nystagmus, test of skew) has been shown to identify acute strokes more accurately than even magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging (MRI-DWI) when applied in the early acute period by eye-movement specialists. Recent advances in lightweight, high-speed video-oculography (VOG) technology have made possible a future in which HINTS might be applied by nonspecialists in frontline care settings using portable VOG. Use of technology to measure eye movements (VOG-HINTS) to diagnose stroke in the acute vestibular syndrome is analogous to the use of electrocardiography (ECG) to diagnose myocardial infarction in acute chest pain. This "eye ECG" approach could transform care for patients with acute vertigo and dizziness around the world. In the United States alone, successful implementation would likely result in improved quality of emergency care for hundreds of thousands of peripheral vestibular patients and tens of thousands of stroke patients, as well as an estimated national health care savings of roughly $1 billion per year. In this article, the authors review the origins of the HINTS approach, empiric evidence and pathophysiologic principles supporting its use, and possible uses for the eye ECG in teleconsultation, teaching, and triage.

  15. Development and Validation of a Novel Generic Health-related Quality of Life Instrument With 20 Items (HINT-20)

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Few attempts have been made to develop a generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument and to examine its validity and reliability in Korea. We aimed to do this in our present study. Methods After a literature review of existing generic HRQoL instruments, a focus group discussion, in-depth interviews, and expert consultations, we selected 30 tentative items for a new HRQoL measure. These items were evaluated by assessing their ceiling effects, difficulty, and redundancy in the first survey. To validate the HRQoL instrument that was developed, known-groups validity and convergent/discriminant validity were evaluated and its test-retest reliability was examined in the second survey. Results Of the 30 items originally assessed for the HRQoL instrument, four were excluded due to high ceiling effects and six were removed due to redundancy. We ultimately developed a HRQoL instrument with a reduced number of 20 items, known as the Health-related Quality of Life Instrument with 20 items (HINT-20), incorporating physical, mental, social, and positive health dimensions. The results of the HINT-20 for known-groups validity were poorer in women, the elderly, and those with a low income. For convergent/discriminant validity, the correlation coefficients of items (except vitality) in the physical health dimension with the physical component summary of the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2) were generally higher than the correlations of those items with the mental component summary of the SF-36v2, and vice versa. Regarding test-retest reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient of the total HINT-20 score was 0.813 (p<0.001). Conclusions A novel generic HRQoL instrument, the HINT-20, was developed for the Korean general population and showed acceptable validity and reliability. PMID:28173686

  16. Precursory Hints of June 23-2001 Earthquake in Southern Peru Seismic Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocola, L.

    2001-12-01

    On June 23, 2001, a destructive 8.3 Mw, shallow depth, shallow-dip thrust-mechanism earthquake shook southern Peru. The hypocenter was located under the ocean floor, at the northern end of the southern Peru seismic gap. The gap is about 500 km long, located between 16\\deg-19\\deg S, parallel to Peru-Chile trench. It delineates the rupture zone of the 1868, 9.0-9.3 Mw, earthquake; the largest historically documented "terremoto" in this region. This gap and the northern Chile gap have been known for several decades and they belong to a normal-subduction segment delimited by the Nazca-Abancay (northern end) and Copiapo-Tucuman (southern end) contortions of the Wadati-Benioff subduction zone. The Peru-Chile trench and the Central Andean Active Volcanic Zone axis run nearly parallel to each other in this subduction segment. Regional seismicity (1999-2000) was the clearest indicator of the proximity of incoming event. It showed a striking deficiency of activity in the southern Peru gap region which has a good spatial correlation with a negative anomaly of the rate of change of the GPS vertical component in, approximately, the same region. Since it was not possible to issue a prediction on the incoming event, an hypothetical scenario was computed for a 9.3 Mw earthquake and reported to the Civil Defense Agency in order to implement preventive measures for disaster mitigation. The June 23-2001, 8.3 Mw , earthquake occurred in the northern extreme of the hypothetical rupture zone. However, about one half of the rupture zone is to go in the near future to cover the 1868-earthquake equivalent rupture zone. In summary, the following precursory hints could be identified before the June 23-2001 earthquake: Deficiency of regional seismic activity, negative tendency on the rate of change of the GPS vertical component, seismicity on the near surface fault system in the gap region.

  17. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E

    2017-08-31

    Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitting, other health behaviors, physical and mental health, health care access, and Internet and technology utilization using a nationally representative sample of US adult smokers. Data were from the National Cancer Institute's 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4), Cycle 4. This mailed survey targeted noninstitutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older using two-stage stratified random sampling. For this analysis, we restricted the sample to current smokers with complete data on smartphone ownership (n=479). Nearly two-thirds (weighted percent=63.8%, 248/479) of smokers reported owning a smartphone. Those who were younger (P<.001), employed (P=.002), never married (P=.002), and had higher education (P=.002) and income (P<.001) had the highest rates of ownership. Smartphone owners did not differ from nonowners on frequency of smoking, recent quit attempts, or future plans to quit smoking, although they reported greater belief in the benefits of quitting (P=.04). Despite being equally likely to be overweight or obese, smartphone owners reported greater fruit and vegetable consumption (P=.03) and were more likely to report past-year efforts to increase exercise (P=.001) and to lose weight (P=.02). No differences in health care access and utilization were found. Smartphone owners reported better physical and mental health in several domains and higher access to and utilization of technology and the Internet, including for health reasons. Smartphone ownership among smokers mirrors

  18. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data

    PubMed Central

    Mull, Kristin E

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. Objective To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitting, other health behaviors, physical and mental health, health care access, and Internet and technology utilization using a nationally representative sample of US adult smokers. Methods Data were from the National Cancer Institute’s 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4), Cycle 4. This mailed survey targeted noninstitutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older using two-stage stratified random sampling. For this analysis, we restricted the sample to current smokers with complete data on smartphone ownership (n=479). Results Nearly two-thirds (weighted percent=63.8%, 248/479) of smokers reported owning a smartphone. Those who were younger (P<.001), employed (P=.002), never married (P=.002), and had higher education (P=.002) and income (P<.001) had the highest rates of ownership. Smartphone owners did not differ from nonowners on frequency of smoking, recent quit attempts, or future plans to quit smoking, although they reported greater belief in the benefits of quitting (P=.04). Despite being equally likely to be overweight or obese, smartphone owners reported greater fruit and vegetable consumption (P=.03) and were more likely to report past-year efforts to increase exercise (P=.001) and to lose weight (P=.02). No differences in health care access and utilization were found. Smartphone owners reported better physical and mental health in several domains and higher access to and utilization of technology and the Internet, including for health reasons

  19. PsHint1, associated with the G-protein α subunit PsGPA1, is required for the chemotaxis and pathogenicity of Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhai, Chunhua; Hua, Chenlei; Qiu, Min; Hao, Yujuan; Nie, Pingping; Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-02-01

    Zoospore chemotaxis to soybean isoflavones is essential in the early stages of infection by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae. Previously, we have identified a G-protein α subunit encoded by PsGPA1 which regulates the chemotaxis and pathogenicity of P. sojae. In the present study, we used affinity purification to identify PsGPA1-interacting proteins, including PsHint1, a histidine triad (HIT) domain-containing protein orthologous to human HIT nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1). PsHint1 interacted with both the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)- and guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound forms of PsGPA1. An analysis of the gene-silenced transformants revealed that PsHint1 was involved in the chemotropic response of zoospores to the isoflavone daidzein. During interaction with a susceptible soybean cultivar, PsHint1-silenced transformants displayed significantly reduced infectious hyphal extension and caused a strong cell death in plants. In addition, the transformants displayed defective cyst germination, forming abnormal germ tubes that were highly branched and exhibited apical swelling. These results suggest that PsHint1 not only regulates chemotaxis by interacting with PsGPA1, but also participates in a Gα-independent pathway involved in the pathogenicity of P. sojae. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  20. Increased PKC activity and altered GSK3β/NMDAR function drive behavior cycling in HINT1-deficient mice: bipolarity or opposing forces

    PubMed Central

    Garzón-Niño, Javier; Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Cortés-Montero, Elsa; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Mice with histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) deletion exhibit manic-like symptoms that evolve into depressive-like behavior in response to stressful paradigms. Molecular and electrophysiological studies have indicated that HINT1−/− mice exhibit increased PKC, PKA, and GSK3β activities, as well as glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptor (AMPAR) and NR2B/NR2A subunit ratios. Pharmacological interventions stabilized their behavior but through different mechanisms. GSK3β inhibitors and valproate directly attenuated the expression of the manic-like symptoms, whereas PKC inhibition, lamotrigine, or risperidone promoted NMDAR-mediated depressive-like behaviors that counterbalanced the preexisting manic-like symptoms. Naïve HINT1−/− mice exposed to stressful paradigms rapidly manifested depressive-like behaviors in subsequent stressful situations, a capacity that persisted for a couple of weeks thereafter. During the depressive-like phase, citalopram, amitriptyline and MK801 precipitated manic-like behaviors in stressed HINT1−/− mice. Notably, the antagonism of NMDARs prevented HINT1−/− mice from alternating behaviors in response to stress. A comparison with “manic” Black Swiss mice indicated that in HINT1−/− mice, PKC supports manic-like symptoms and reduces the expression of depressive-like behaviors via activation of GSK3β and regulation of NR2B-enriched NMDARs. HINT1−/− mice represent a suitable model for studying human BPD and may facilitate the identification of novel targets and drugs to treat this mental disorder. PMID:28240305

  1. Increased PKC activity and altered GSK3β/NMDAR function drive behavior cycling in HINT1-deficient mice: bipolarity or opposing forces.

    PubMed

    Garzón-Niño, Javier; Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Cortés-Montero, Elsa; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar

    2017-02-27

    Mice with histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) deletion exhibit manic-like symptoms that evolve into depressive-like behavior in response to stressful paradigms. Molecular and electrophysiological studies have indicated that HINT1(-/-) mice exhibit increased PKC, PKA, and GSK3β activities, as well as glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptor (AMPAR) and NR2B/NR2A subunit ratios. Pharmacological interventions stabilized their behavior but through different mechanisms. GSK3β inhibitors and valproate directly attenuated the expression of the manic-like symptoms, whereas PKC inhibition, lamotrigine, or risperidone promoted NMDAR-mediated depressive-like behaviors that counterbalanced the preexisting manic-like symptoms. Naïve HINT1(-/-) mice exposed to stressful paradigms rapidly manifested depressive-like behaviors in subsequent stressful situations, a capacity that persisted for a couple of weeks thereafter. During the depressive-like phase, citalopram, amitriptyline and MK801 precipitated manic-like behaviors in stressed HINT1(-/-) mice. Notably, the antagonism of NMDARs prevented HINT1(-/-) mice from alternating behaviors in response to stress. A comparison with "manic" Black Swiss mice indicated that in HINT1(-/-) mice, PKC supports manic-like symptoms and reduces the expression of depressive-like behaviors via activation of GSK3β and regulation of NR2B-enriched NMDARs. HINT1(-/-) mice represent a suitable model for studying human BPD and may facilitate the identification of novel targets and drugs to treat this mental disorder.

  2. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2 (hHINT2)

    PubMed Central

    Dolot, Rafał; Włodarczyk, Artur; Bujacz, Grzegorz D.; Nawrot, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2 (HINT2) is a mitochondrial adenosine phosphoramidase mainly expressed in the pancreas, liver and adrenal gland. HINT2 possibly plays a role in apoptosis, as well as being involved in steroid biosynthesis, hepatic lipid metabolism and regulation of hepatic mitochondria function. The expression level of HINT2 is significantly down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. To date, endogenous substrates for this enzyme, as well as the three-dimensional structure of human HINT2, are unknown. In this study, human HINT2 was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystallization was performed at 278 K using PEG 4000 as the main precipitant; the crystals, which belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212 with unit-cell parameters a = b = 76.38, c = 133.25 Å, diffracted to 2.83 Å resolution. Assuming two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 2.63 Å3 Da−1 and 53.27%, respectively. PMID:23832208

  3. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2 (hHINT2).

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafał; Włodarczyk, Artur; Bujacz, Grzegorz D; Nawrot, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2 (HINT2) is a mitochondrial adenosine phosphoramidase mainly expressed in the pancreas, liver and adrenal gland. HINT2 possibly plays a role in apoptosis, as well as being involved in steroid biosynthesis, hepatic lipid metabolism and regulation of hepatic mitochondria function. The expression level of HINT2 is significantly down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. To date, endogenous substrates for this enzyme, as well as the three-dimensional structure of human HINT2, are unknown. In this study, human HINT2 was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystallization was performed at 278 K using PEG 4000 as the main precipitant; the crystals, which belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212 with unit-cell parameters a = b = 76.38, c = 133.25 Å, diffracted to 2.83 Å resolution. Assuming two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 2.63 Å(3) Da(-1) and 53.27%, respectively.

  4. The σ1 Receptor Engages the Redox-Regulated HINT1 Protein to Bring Opioid Analgesia Under NMDA Receptor Negative Control

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar; Herrero-Labrador, Raquel; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; Merlos, Manuel; Vela, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The in vivo pharmacology of the sigma 1 receptor (σ1R) is certainly complex; however, σ1R antagonists are of therapeutic interest, because they enhance mu-opioid receptor (MOR)-mediated antinociception and reduce neuropathic pain. Thus, we investigated whether the σ1R is involved in the negative control that glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate acid receptors (NMDARs) exert on opioid antinociception. Results: The MOR C terminus carries the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) coupled to the regulator of G-protein signaling RGSZ2-neural nitric oxide synthase assembly. Activated MORs stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), and the redox zinc switch RGSZ2 converts this signal into free zinc ions that are required to recruit the redox sensor PKCγ to HINT1 proteins. Then, PKCγ impairs HINT1-RGSZ2 association and enables σ1R-NR1 interaction with MOR-HINT1 complexes to restrain opioid signaling. The inhibition of NOS or the absence of σ1Rs prevents HINT1-PKCγ interaction, and MOR-NMDAR cross-regulation fails. The σ1R antagonists transitorily remove the binding of σ1Rs to NR1 subunits, facilitate the entrance of negative regulators of NMDARs, likely Ca2+-CaM, and prevent NR1 interaction with HINT1, thereby impairing the negative feedback of glutamate on opioid analgesia. Innovation: A redox-regulated process situates MOR signaling under NMDAR control, and in this context, the σ1R binds to the cytosolic C terminal region of the NMDAR NR1 subunit. Conclusion: The σ1R antagonists enhance opioid analgesia in naïve mice by releasing MORs from the negative influence of NMDARs, and they also reset antinociception in morphine tolerant animals. Moreover, σ1R antagonists alleviate neuropathic pain, probably by driving the inhibition of up-regulated NMDARs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 799–818. PMID:25557043

  5. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: The National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Schools. Frequently Asked Questions and FY 2006 NIMS Compliance Activities for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The National Incident Management System (NIMS) is a comprehensive system that improves tribal and local emergency response operations through the use of the Incident Command System (ICS) and the application of standardized…

  6. Histidine Triad Nucleotide-binding Protein 1 (HINT-1) Phosphoramidase Transforms Nucleoside 5′-O-Phosphorothioates to Nucleoside 5′-O-Phosphates*

    PubMed Central

    Ozga, Magdalena; Dolot, Rafal; Janicka, Magdalena; Kaczmarek, Renata; Krakowiak, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    Nucleoside 5′-O-phosphorothioates are formed in vivo as primary products of hydrolysis of oligo(nucleoside phosphorothioate)s (PS-oligos) that are applied as antisense therapeutic molecules. The biodistribution of PS-oligos and their pharmacokinetics have been widely reported, but little is known about their subsequent decay inside the organism. We suggest that the enzyme responsible for nucleoside 5′-O-monophosphorothioate ((d)NMPS) metabolism could be histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (Hint-1), a phosphoramidase belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily that is present in all forms of life. An additional, but usually ignored, activity of Hint-1 is its ability to catalyze the conversion of adenosine 5′-O-monophosphorothioate (AMPS) to 5′-O-monophosphate (AMP). By mutagenetic and biochemical studies, we defined the active site of Hint-1 and the kinetic parameters of the desulfuration reaction (P-S bond cleavage). Additionally, crystallographic analysis (resolution from 1.08 to 1.37 Å) of three engineered cysteine mutants showed the high similarity of their structures, which were not very different from the structure of WT Hint-1. Moreover, we found that not only AMPS but also other ribonucleoside and 2′-deoxyribonucleoside phosphorothioates are desulfurated by Hint-1 at the following relative rates: GMPS > AMPS > dGMPS ≥ CMPS > UMPS > dAMPS ≫ dCMPS > TMPS, and during the reaction, hydrogen sulfide, which is thought to be the third gaseous mediator, was released. PMID:20940308

  7. NK Cells, Tumor Cell Transition, and Tumor Progression in Solid Malignancies: New Hints for NK-Based Immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Cantoni, Claudia; Huergo-Zapico, Leticia; Parodi, Monica; Pedrazzi, Marco; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Alessandro; Sparatore, Bianca; Gonzalez, Segundo; Olive, Daniel; Bottino, Cristina; Castriconi, Roberta; Vitale, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Several evidences suggest that NK cells can patrol the body and eliminate tumors in their initial phases but may hardly control established solid tumors. Multiple factors, including the transition of tumor cells towards a proinvasive/prometastatic phenotype, the immunosuppressive effect of the tumor microenvironment, and the tumor structure complexity, may account for limited NK cell efficacy. Several putative mechanisms of NK cell suppression have been defined in these last years; conversely, the cross talk between NK cells and tumor cells undergoing different transitional phases remains poorly explored. Nevertheless, recent in vitro studies and immunohistochemical analyses on tumor biopsies suggest that NK cells could not only kill tumor cells but also influence their evolution. Indeed, NK cells may induce tumor cells to change the expression of HLA-I, PD-L1, or NKG2D-L and modulate their susceptibility to the immune response. Moreover, NK cells may be preferentially located in the borders of tumor masses, where, indeed, tumor cells can undergo Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) acquiring prometastatic phenotype. Finally, the recently highlighted role of HMGB1 both in EMT and in amplifying the recruitment of NK cells provides further hints on a possible effect of NK cells on tumor progression and fosters new studies on this issue.

  8. Maximum Time-to-Rescue After the 1908 Messina-Reggio Calabria Earthquake was 20 Days: Hints for Disaster Planning?

    PubMed

    De Santo, Natale Gaspare; Bisaccia, Carmela; De Santo, Luca Salvatore

    2017-06-01

    Introduction Maximum time-to-rescue has been studied accurately for many earthquakes in the years 1985-2004. No study is available for historical quakes. Hypothesis/Problem This study aimed to evaluate long-term survivors (from the fifth day after the quake) of the Messina-Reggio Calabria earthquake (1908; Italy), which is considered, historically, to be the worst seismic event in Europe. Accurate readings of 11 national newspapers from the fifth day after the quake looking for rescued persons and transferring, to an ad hoc form, all data relating to each rescued person. The maximum time-to rescue was 20 days. There were 225 survivors, among them 51 children (22.6 %). For 23 out 225 rescued persons, there was evidence of availability of foods and drinkable fluids while under the rubble. The maximum time-to-rescue under the debris following this historical earthquake far exceeds that of all other quakes that occurred in the years 1985-2004. The long survival under debris was probably due to the lack of an order to stop search and rescue. Recent strategies reducing the time for search and rescue carry the risk of missing survivors. De Santo NG , Bisaccia C , De Santo LS . Maximum time-to-rescue after the 1908 Messina-Reggio Calabria Earthquake was 20 days: hints for disaster planning? Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):249-252.

  9. Smokers who use internet and smokers who don't: data from the Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Jacqueline L; Augustson, Erik M

    2006-12-01

    Web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATI) have proliferated in recent years, but little is known about those such sites are reaching and those who might be reached in the future. A better understanding of factors that differentiate smokers who do and do not use the Internet could help developers of smoking cessation resources optimize the content and dissemination of resources to these two groups. Using the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults, we compared smokers using the Internet (n=728) with smokers not using the Internet (n=516) on demographics, smoking history, healthcare (status, care, access, and use), beliefs about lung cancer risks, and media preferences. Our results showed that compared with smokers not on the Internet, those using the Internet had a higher income and were more likely to be employed, despite having a younger age. Internet-connected smokers also reported less psychological distress, fewer barriers to healthcare, and a greater interest in quitting smoking. Preferences for media also differed by Internet status: Those on the Internet spent less time on television and more time with newspapers and magazines than those not on the Internet. These and other differences may assist the public health community with both the design and dissemination of resources to help smokers quit.

  10. NK Cells, Tumor Cell Transition, and Tumor Progression in Solid Malignancies: New Hints for NK-Based Immunotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Huergo-Zapico, Leticia; Parodi, Monica; Pedrazzi, Marco; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Sparatore, Bianca; Gonzalez, Segundo; Olive, Daniel; Bottino, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Several evidences suggest that NK cells can patrol the body and eliminate tumors in their initial phases but may hardly control established solid tumors. Multiple factors, including the transition of tumor cells towards a proinvasive/prometastatic phenotype, the immunosuppressive effect of the tumor microenvironment, and the tumor structure complexity, may account for limited NK cell efficacy. Several putative mechanisms of NK cell suppression have been defined in these last years; conversely, the cross talk between NK cells and tumor cells undergoing different transitional phases remains poorly explored. Nevertheless, recent in vitro studies and immunohistochemical analyses on tumor biopsies suggest that NK cells could not only kill tumor cells but also influence their evolution. Indeed, NK cells may induce tumor cells to change the expression of HLA-I, PD-L1, or NKG2D-L and modulate their susceptibility to the immune response. Moreover, NK cells may be preferentially located in the borders of tumor masses, where, indeed, tumor cells can undergo Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) acquiring prometastatic phenotype. Finally, the recently highlighted role of HMGB1 both in EMT and in amplifying the recruitment of NK cells provides further hints on a possible effect of NK cells on tumor progression and fosters new studies on this issue. PMID:27294158

  11. Racial and ethnic differences in direct-to-consumer genetic tests awareness in HINTS 2007: sociodemographic and numeracy correlates.

    PubMed

    Langford, Aisha T; Resnicow, Ken; Roberts, J Scott; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J

    2012-06-01

    To examine the association of 1) race/ethnicity and 2) numeracy with awareness of DTC genetic tests. Secondary analysis of 6,754 Hispanic, black, and white adult respondents to the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Logistic regression was used to examine sociodemographic predictors of DTC genetic tests awareness including race/ethnicity, income, education, and gender. Next, two numeracy variables were added to the model. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, black respondents were significantly less likely to have heard of DTC genetic tests compared to white respondents (OR = 0.79; CI: 0.65-0.97). When numeracy variables were added to the model, the effect of black race was no longer significant (OR = 0.84; CI: 0.69-1.04). Hispanic respondents did not significantly differ from white respondents in awareness of DTC genetic tests. Other significant correlates of DTC genetic tests awareness in the full model included education, income, age, and numeracy variables including degree to which people use medical statistics and numbers to make health decisions, and preference for words or numbers when discussing "the chance of something happening." Although black respondents were generally less aware of DTC genetic tests than white respondents, this relationship appears to be partially mediated by numeracy.

  12. Earnings in e-learning: knowledge, CME credits or both? Hints from analysis of attendance dynamics and users' behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mazzoleni, M Cristina; Rognoni, Carla; Finozzi, Enrico; Landro, Mauro; Capodaglio, Edda; Imbriani, Marcello; Giorgi, Ines

    2010-01-01

    Many papers report and convey positive opinion about the use of e-learning in the healthcare sector. The issue is how to exploit at best such a powerful instrument. Starting from data regarding the usage of a CME e-learning course, attendance dynamics and users' behaviour have been inspected with the aim of getting some hints about how to improve the development and the delivery of e-learning courses for CME, and to promote knowledge acquisition at best. The different paths followed by 7811 users have been modeled, from enrolment to conclusion/drop-out, then the behaviour in terms of effort, elapsed time, achieved result have been analyzed. The obtained results point out: good acceptance (retention rate 83%) of a not basic educational model and effectiveness (success rate 79%). At the same time the inspection of behaviour has shown that there is a good margin of possible improvement in terms of knowledge acquisition. Conclusions provide a list of issues to keep in mind during system development, in order to provide CME e-learning meeting both credit and knowledge acquisition goals.

  13. Evolution of hedgehog and hedgehog-related genes, their origin from Hog proteins in ancestral eukaryotes and discovery of a novel Hint motif

    PubMed Central

    Bürglin, Thomas R

    2008-01-01

    Background The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays important roles in human and animal development as well as in carcinogenesis. Hh molecules have been found in both protostomes and deuterostomes, but curiously the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans lacks a bona-fide Hh. Instead a series of Hh-related proteins are found, which share the Hint/Hog domain with Hh, but have distinct N-termini. Results We performed extensive genome searches such as the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis and several nematodes to gain further insights into Hh evolution. We found six genes in N. vectensis with a relationship to Hh: two Hh genes, one gene with a Hh N-terminal domain fused to a Willebrand factor type A domain (VWA), and three genes containing Hint/Hog domains with distinct novel N-termini. In the nematode Brugia malayi we find the same types of hh-related genes as in C. elegans. In the more distantly related Enoplea nematodes Xiphinema and Trichinella spiralis we find a bona-fide Hh. In addition, T. spiralis also has a quahog gene like C. elegans, and there are several additional hh-related genes, some of which have secreted N-terminal domains of only 15 to 25 residues. Examination of other Hh pathway components revealed that T. spiralis - like C. elegans - lacks some of these components. Extending our search to all eukaryotes, we recovered genes containing a Hog domain similar to Hh from many different groups of protists. In addition, we identified a novel Hint gene family present in many eukaryote groups that encodes a VWA domain fused to a distinct Hint domain we call Vint. Further members of a poorly characterized Hint family were also retrieved from bacteria. Conclusion In Cnidaria and nematodes the evolution of hh genes occurred in parallel to the evolution of other genes that contain a Hog domain but have different N-termini. The fact that Hog genes comprising a secreted N-terminus and a Hog domain are found in many protists indicates that this gene family must have

  14. Family history of gastric cancer correlates with decreased expression of HINT1 tumor suppressor gene in gastric mucosa of dyspeptic patients

    PubMed Central

    ZUK, KAROLINA; PECZEK, LUKASZ; STEC-MICHALSKA, KRYSTYNA; MEDREK, MARTA; NAWROT, BARBARA

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Approximately 10% of gastric cancers are hereditary and a small percentage of these cases (1–3%) have been classified as a single hereditary syndrome (hereditary diffuse gastric cancer). We previously demonstrated that a family history of gastric cancer (FHGC) contributes to a predisposition towards the development of gastric cancer. Our data revealed that for dyspeptic patients whose first-degree relative(s) succumbed to GC, the levels of the fragile histidine triad pro-apoptotic protein in gastric mucosa were decreased. Another member of the histidine triad protein superfamily is histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1), a novel tumor suppressor that plays an inhibitory role in the control of gene transcription. The study comprised 38 ethnically homogeneous patients with dyspeptic symptoms without concomitant chronic diseases (18 controls/20 patients with FHGC). The results showed that the samples from the control patients predominantly exhibited non-atrophic changes (approximately 90%), whereas atrophic changes occurred more frequently in patients with FHGC. Notably, the expression levels of the HINT1 gene were markedly higher in the samples with atrophy taken from the antrum of FHGC patients compared to the non-atrophic samples. Moreover, the levels of HINT1 mRNA in samples obtained from the antrum of patients with FHGC were lower compared to analogous samples from the control individuals. The decreased levels of HINT1 mRNA in the antrum samples of patients with the FHGC indicate that it is a factor predisposing those patients to the development of gastric cancer. PMID:22740884

  15. Overcoming students' misconceptions concerning thermal physics with the aid of hints and peer interaction during a lecture course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2013-12-01

    As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures and homework sessions, and it consisted of three phases: individual working, hinting, and peer discussion. To probe students’ conceptual understanding before, during, and after the intervention, use was made of a diagnostic test related to the multiphased process of an ideal gas [D. E. Meltzer, Am. J. Phys. 72, 1432 (2004)AJPIAS0002-950510.1119/1.1789161]. The students’ conceptions were monitored by analyzing the explanations they provided and by recording the peer discussions of five voluntary pairs. The intervention helped students to realize the flaws in their explanations and increased the proportion of their scientific explanations, the increase being statistically significant in five tasks out of seven. When the same themes were addressed in a post-test, it was shown that the level of accurate explanations remained almost constant after the intervention, and hence it could be deduced that the impact had not been short-lived. In comparison with earlier studies conducted with the same material, our intervention produced a better learning outcome, the difference being 15-20 percentage points. In addition, the number of misconceptions on the part of the students was smaller in our study, although with individual exceptions. Hence, we conclude that the intervention was successful and that similar interventions could also be designed and implemented in other areas of physics.

  16. Perturbed Lepton-Specific Two-Higgs-Doublet Model Facing Experimental Hints for Physics beyond the Standard Model.

    PubMed

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-02-26

    BABAR, Belle, and LHCb Collaborations report evidence for new physics in B→Dτν and B→D^{*}τν of approximately 3.8σ. There is also the long lasting discrepancy of about 3σ in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the branching ratio for τ→μνν is 1.8σ (2.4σ) above the standard model expectation using the HFAG (PDG) values. Furthermore, CMS Collaboration finds hints for a nonzero decay rate of h→μτ. Interestingly, all these observations can be explained by introducing new scalars. In this Letter we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model (i.e., of type X) with additional nonstandard Yukawa couplings. It is found that one can accommodate τ→μνν with modified Higgs-τ couplings. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon can be explained if the additional neutral CP-even Higgs boson H is light (below 100 GeV). Also R(D) and R(D^{*}) can be easily explained by additional t-c-Higgs couplings. Combining these t-c couplings with a light H the decay rate for t→Hc can be in a testable range for the LHC. Effects in h→μτ are also possible, but in this case a simultaneous explanation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is difficult due to the unavoidable τ→μγ decay.

  17. Trends in cancer survivors' experience of patient-centered communication: results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    PubMed

    Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Chawla, Neetu; Moser, Richard P; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Hesse, Bradford W; Arora, Neeraj K

    2016-12-01

    Two Institute of Medicine reports almost a decade apart suggest that cancer survivors often feel "lost in transition" and experience suboptimal quality of care. The six core functions of patient-centered communication: managing uncertainty, responding to emotions, making decisions, fostering healing relationships, enabling self-management, and exchanging information, represent a central aspect of survivors' care experience that has not been systematically investigated. Nationally representative data from four administrations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was merged with combined replicate weights using the jackknife replication method. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess (1) characteristics of cancer survivors (N = 1794) who report suboptimal patient-centered communication and (2) whether survivors' patient-centered communication experience changed from 2007 to 2013. One third to one half of survivors report suboptimal patient-centered communication, particularly on core functions of providers helping manage uncertainty (48 %) and responding to emotions (49 %). In a fully adjusted linear regression model, survivors with more education (Wald F = 2.84, p = .04), without a usual source of care (Wald F = 11.59, p < .001), and in poorer health (Wald F = 9.08, p < .001) were more likely to report less patient-centered communication. Although ratings of patient-centered communication improved over time (p trend = .04), this trend did not remain significant in fully adjusted models. Despite increased attention to survivorship, many survivors continue to report suboptimal communication with their health care providers. Survivorship communication should include managing uncertainty about future risk and address survivors' emotional needs. Efforts to improve patient-centered communication should focus on survivors without a usual source of care and in poorer health.

  18. Perturbed Lepton-Specific Two-Higgs-Doublet Model Facing Experimental Hints for Physics beyond the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-02-01

    BABAR, Belle, and LHCb Collaborations report evidence for new physics in B →D τ ν and B →D*τ ν of approximately 3.8 σ . There is also the long lasting discrepancy of about 3 σ in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the branching ratio for τ →μ ν ν is 1.8 σ (2.4 σ ) above the standard model expectation using the HFAG (PDG) values. Furthermore, CMS Collaboration finds hints for a nonzero decay rate of h →μ τ . Interestingly, all these observations can be explained by introducing new scalars. In this Letter we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model (i.e., of type X) with additional nonstandard Yukawa couplings. It is found that one can accommodate τ →μ ν ν with modified Higgs-τ couplings. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon can be explained if the additional neutral C P -even Higgs boson H is light (below 100 GeV). Also R (D ) and R (D*) can be easily explained by additional t -c -Higgs couplings. Combining these t -c couplings with a light H the decay rate for t →H c can be in a testable range for the LHC. Effects in h →μ τ are also possible, but in this case a simultaneous explanation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is difficult due to the unavoidable τ →μ γ decay.

  19. Could structural similarity of specific domains between animal globins and plant antenna proteins provide hints important for the photoprotection mechanism?

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-07

    Non photochemical quenching is a fundamental mechanism in photosynthesis, which protects plants against excess excitation energy and is of crucial importance for their survival and fitness. In the last decades hundreds of papers have appeared that describe the role of antenna regulation in protection or the so called qE response. However, the exact quenching site is still obscure. Previously overlooked features of the antenna may provide hints towards the elucidation of its functionality and of the quenching mechanism. Recently it was demonstrated that the catalytic domain of human myoglobin that binds the pigment (i.e. heme) is similar in structure to the domain of the light harvesting complex II of pea that binds Chl a 614 (former known as b3). In addition, it is well accepted that conformational changes of the chlorophyll macrocycle result in reversible changes of fluorescence (the lowest fluorescence corresponds to non planar macrocycle). Here we put forward a hypothesis regarding the molecular mechanism that leads to the formation of a quenching center inside the antenna proteins. Our main suggestion is that a conformational change of helix H5 (known also as helix D) forces conformational changes in the macrocycle of Chl a 614 is implicated in the ΔA535 absorbance change and quenching during photoprotective qE. The specific features (some of them similar to those of heme domain of globins) of the b3 domain account for these traits. The model predicts that antenna proteins having b3 pigments (i.e. LHCII, CP29, CP26) can act as potential quenchers.

  20. Enhanced models for stellar Doppler noise reveal hints of a 13-year activity cycle of 55 Cancri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, Roman V.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the impact of Doppler noise models on the statistical robustness of the exoplanetary radial velocity fits. We show that the traditional model of the Doppler noise with an additive jitter can generate large non-linearity effects, decreasing the reliability of the fit, especially in the cases when a correlated Doppler noise is involved. We introduce a regularization of the additive noise model that can gracefully eliminate its singularities together with the associated non-linearity effects. We apply this approach to Doppler time series data of several exoplanetary systems. It demonstrates that our new regularized noise model yields orbital fits that have either increased or at least the same statistical robustness, in comparison with the simple additive jitter. Various statistical uncertainties in the parametric estimations are often reduced, while planet detection significance is often increased. Concerning the 55 Cnc five-planet system, we show that its Doppler data contain significant correlated (`red') noise. Its correlation time-scale is in the range from days to months, and its magnitude is much larger than the effect of the planetary N-body perturbations in the radial velocity (these perturbations thus appear undetectable). Characteristics of the red noise depend on the spectrograph/observatory, and also show a cyclic time variation in phase with the public Ca II H&K and photometry measurements. We interpret this modulation as a hint of the long-term activity cycle of 55 Cnc, similar to the solar 11-yr cycle. We estimate the 55 Cnc activity period by 12.6± ^{2.5}_{1.0} yr, with the nearest minimum presumably expected in 2014 or 2015.

  1. Quantitative analysis of BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 protein over-expression in human prostate cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Symes, Andrew J; Eilertsen, Marte; Millar, Michael; Nariculam, Joseph; Freeman, Alex; Notara, Maria; Feneley, Mark R; Patel, Hitendra R H; Patel, Hitenedra R H; Masters, John R W; Ahmed, Aamir

    2013-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma is the most common cancer in men with few, quantifiable, biomarkers. Prostate cancer biomarker discovery has been hampered due to subjective analysis of protein expression in tissue sections. An unbiased, quantitative immunohistochemical approach provided here, for the diagnosis and stratification of prostate cancer could overcome this problem. Antibodies against four proteins BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 were used in a prostate tissue array (> 500 individual tissue cores from 82 patients, 41 case pairs matched with one patient in each pair had biochemical recurrence). Protein expression, quantified in an unbiased manner using an automated analysis protocol in ImageJ software, was increased in malignant vs non-malignant prostate (by 2-2.5 fold, p<0.0001). Operating characteristics indicate sensitivity in the range of 0.68 to 0.74; combination of markers in a logistic regression model demonstrates further improvement in diagnostic power. Triple-labeled immunofluorescence (BTF3, HINT1 and NDRG1) in tissue array showed a significant (p<0.02) change in co-localization coefficients for BTF3 and NDRG1 co-expression in biochemical relapse vs non-relapse cancer epithelium. BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 could be developed as epithelial specific biomarkers for tissue based diagnosis and stratification of prostate cancer.

  2. Healthy household hints.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P

    1999-01-01

    Ten commonly found items that can help keep your home clean are listed. Baking soda and vinegar are effective in cleaning drains. Certain plants, including English ivy and the spider plant, filter carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide out of the air. In addition, specific brand-name products, such as Bon Ami and "Simple Green", are also good alternative cleansers. Contact information is provided.

  3. Hints on Sharing Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Mary E., Comp.; Horne, Ulysses G., Comp.

    Based on the realization that each child must be given the opportunity to develop as a unique individual and that exposure to books expands a child's world, stimulating his creative thinking and his desire for new experiences, this booklet presents in outline form a variety of suggestions for encouraging children to share the books they have read.…

  4. High-resolution X-ray structure of the rabbit histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (rHINT1)-adenosine complex at 1.10 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafał; Ozga, Magdalena; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2011-07-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch in the histidine-triad protein superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes and has been found in many species. Here, the first complete structure of the rabbit HINT1-adenosine complex is reported at 1.10 Å resolution, which is one of the highest resolutions obtained for a HINT1 structure. The final structure has an R(cryst) of 14.25% (R(free) = 16.77%) and the model exhibits good stereochemical qualities. A detailed analysis of the atomic resolution data allowed an update of the details of the protein structure in comparison to previously published data.

  5. Using the Internet to Help With Diet, Weight, and Physical Activity: Results From the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    PubMed Central

    McCully, Scout N; Don, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet offers a viable platform for cost-effective and wide-reaching health interventions. However, little is known about use of the Internet to help with diet, weight, and physical activity (DWPA) using a nationally representative sample from the United States. Objective To (1) assess the demographic characteristics of people who use the Internet to help with DWPA, (2) assess whether usage trends changed over time, and (3) investigate the associations between using the Internet for DWPA and health behaviors. Methods Data on Internet users from the 2007 and 2011 iterations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), N=4827 were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the demographic correlates of using the Internet for help with DWPA. Multiple linear regression was used to test the associations between Internet use for DWPA and three health behaviors: fruit intake, vegetable intake, and physical activity. Results A larger percentage of Internet users used the Internet for DWPA in 2011 (42.83%) than in 2007 (40.43%). In general, Internet users who were younger (OR 0.98, P<.001), more educated (OR 1.40, P<.001), married (OR 1.06, P=.03), of a minority race (non-Hispanic blacks: OR 1.14, P=.02; Hispanics: OR 1.42, P=.01), and who had a higher Body Mass Index (BMI) (OR 1.04, P<.001) were more likely to use the Internet for DWPA. Across survey years, gender was not associated with using the Internet for DWPA (OR 1.03, P=.12), but there was a significant interaction between survey year and gender (OR 1.95, P=.002); in 2007, men were more likely to use the Internet for DWPA, but women were more likely to do so in 2011. Using the Internet for DWPA was associated with more vegetable intake (B=.22, P=.002), more fruit intake (B=.19, P=.001), and more moderate exercise (B=.25, P=.001), although the strength of the associations between using the Internet for DWPA and fruit intake and exercise was weaker in 2011 than in 2007

  6. A new crystal form of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (hHINT1) in complex with adenosine 5′-monophosphate at 1.38 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Dolot, Rafał; Ozga, Magdalena; Włodarczyk, Artur; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch of the histidine triad protein superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes and has been found in many species. Here, the structure of the human HINT1–adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) complex at 1.38 Å resolution obtained from a new monoclinic crystal form is reported. The final structure has R cryst = 0.1207 (R free = 0.1615) and the model exhibits good stereochemical quality. Detailed analysis of the high-resolution data allowed the details of the protein structure to be updated in comparison to the previously published data. PMID:22869114

  7. A new crystal form of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (hHINT1) in complex with adenosine 5'-monophosphate at 1.38 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafał; Ozga, Magdalena; Włodarczyk, Artur; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch of the histidine triad protein superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes and has been found in many species. Here, the structure of the human HINT1-adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) complex at 1.38 Å resolution obtained from a new monoclinic crystal form is reported. The final structure has R(cryst) = 0.1207 (R(free) = 0.1615) and the model exhibits good stereochemical quality. Detailed analysis of the high-resolution data allowed the details of the protein structure to be updated in comparison to the previously published data.

  8. Use of the Internet to Communicate with Health Care Providers in the United States: Estimates from the 2003 and 2005 Health Information National Trends Surveys (HINTS)

    PubMed Central

    Finney Rutten, Lila J; Squiers, Linda; Arora, Neeraj K; Volckmann, Lindsey; Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite substantial evidence that the public wants access to Internet-based communication with health care providers, online patient-provider communication remains relatively uncommon, and few studies have examined sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with the use of online communication with health care providers at a population level. Objective The aim of the study was to use nationally representative data to report on the prevalence of and changes in use of online patient-provider communication in 2003 and 2005 and to describe sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with its use. Methods Data for this study are from two iterations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2003, HINTS 2005). In both years, respondents were asked whether they had ever used email or the Internet to communicate with a doctor or a doctor’s office. Adult Internet users in 2003 (n = 3982) and 2005 (n = 3244) were included in the present study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors for electronic communication with health care providers. Results In 2003, 7% of Internet users had communicated online with an health care provider; this prevalence significantly increased to 10% in 2005. In multivariate analyses, Internet users with more years of education, who lived in a metro area, who reported poorer health status or who had a personal history of cancer were more likely to have used online patient-provider communication. Conclusions Despite wide diffusion of the Internet, online patient-provider communication remains uncommon but is slowly increasing. Policy-level changes are needed to maximize the availability and effectiveness of online patient-provider communication for health care consumers and health care providers. Internet access remains a significant barrier to online patient-provider communication. PMID:17627929

  9. Hints for cyclical recruitment of atelectasis during ongoing mechanical ventilation in lavage and oleic acid lung injury detected by SpO₂ oscillations and electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Bodenstein, Marc; Boehme, Stefan; Wang, Hemei; Duenges, Bastian; Markstaller, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    Detection of cyclical recruitment of atelectasis after induction of lavage (LAV) or oleic acid injury (OAI) in mechanically ventilated pigs. Primary hypothesis is that oxygen oscillations within the respiratory cycle can be detected by SpO₂ recordings (direct hint). SpO₂ oscillations reflect shunt oscillations that can only be explained by cyclical recruitment of atelectasis. Secondary hypothesis is that electrical impedance tomography (EIT) depicts specific regional changes of lung aeration and of pulmonary mechanical properties (indirect hint). Three groups (each n = 7) of mechanically ventilated pigs were investigated applying above mentioned methods before and repeatedly after induction of lung injury: (1) sham treated animals (SHAM), (2) LAV, and (3) OAI. Early oxygen oscillations occurred in the LAV group (mean calculated amplitude: 73.8 mmHg reflecting shunt oscillation of 11.2% in mean). In the OAI group oxygen oscillations occurred hours after induction of lung injury (mean calculated amplitude: 57.1 mmHg reflecting shunt oscillations of 8.4% in mean). The SHAM group had no relevant oxygen oscillations (<30 mmHg, shunt oscillations < 1.5%). Synchronously to oxygen oscillations, EIT depicted (1) a decrease of ventilation in dorsal areas, (2) an increase in ventral areas, (3) a decrease of especially dependent expiratory impedance, 3) an increase in late inspiratory flow especially in the dependant areas, (4) an increase in the speed of peak expiratory flow (PEF), and (5) a decrease of dorsal late expiratory flow. SpO2 and EIT recordings detect events that are interpreted as cyclical recruitment of atelectasis.

  10. Profiling and quantitative evaluation of three Nickel-Coated magnetic matrices for purification of recombinant proteins: lelpful hints for the optimized nanomagnetisable matrix preparation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several materials are available in the market that work on the principle of protein magnetic fishing by their histidine (His) tags. Little information is available on their performance and it is often quoted that greatly improved purification of histidine-tagged proteins from crude extracts could be achieved. While some commercial magnetic matrices could be used successfully for purification of several His-tagged proteins, there are some which have been proved to operate just for a few extent of His-tagged proteins. Here, we address quantitative evaluation of three commercially available Nickel nanomagnetic beads for purification of two His-tagged proteins expressed in Escherichia coli and present helpful hints for optimized purification of such proteins and preparation of nanomagnetisable matrices. Results Marked differences in the performance of nanomagnetic matrices, principally on the basis of their specific binding capacity, recovery profile, the amount of imidazole needed for protein elution and the extent of target protein loss and purity were obtained. Based on the aforesaid criteria, one of these materials featured the best purification results (SiMAG/N-NTA/Nickel) for both proteins at the concentration of 4 mg/ml, while the other two (SiMAC-Nickel and SiMAG/CS-NTA/Nickel) did not work well with respect to specific binding capacity and recovery profile. Conclusions Taken together, functionality of different types of nanomagnetic matrices vary considerably. This variability may not only be dependent upon the structure and surface chemistry of the matrix which in turn determine the affinity of interaction, but, is also influenced to a lesser extent by the physical properties of the protein itself. Although the results of the present study may not be fully applied for all nanomagnetic matrices, but provide a framework which could be used to profiling and quantitative evaluation of other magnetisable matrices and also provide helpful hints for those

  11. Computational chemistry study of 3D-structure-function relationships for enzymes based on Markov models for protein electrostatic, HINT, and van der Waals potentials.

    PubMed

    Concu, Riccardo; Podda, Gianni; Uriarte, Eugenio; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2009-07-15

    In a significant work, Dobson and Doig (J Mol Biol 2003, 330, 771) illustrated protein prediction as enzymatic or not from spatial structure without resorting to alignments. They used 52 protein features and a nonlinear support vector machine model to classify more than 1000 proteins collected from the PDB with a 77% overall accuracy. The most useful features were: the secondary-structure content, the amino acid frequencies, the number of disulphide bonds, and the largest cleft size. Working on the same dataset used by D&D, in this article we reported a good and simple model, based on the Markov chain models (MCM), to classify protein 3D structures as enzymatic or not, taking into consideration the spatial structure without resorting to alignments. Here we define, for the first time, a general MCM to calculate the electrostatic potential, molecular vibrations, van der Waals (vdw) interactions, and hydrophobic interactions (HINT) and use them in comparative studies of potential fields and/or protein function prediction. The dataset is composed of 1371 proteins divided into 689 enzymes and 682 nonenzymes, all proteins were collected from the PDB. The best model we found was a linear model carried out with the linear discriminant analysis; it was able to classify 74.18% of the proteins using only two electrostatic potentials. In the work described here, we define 3D-HINT potentials (mu(k)) and use them for the first time to derive a classifier for protein enzymes. We analyzed ROC curves, domain of applicability, parametric assumptions, desirability maps, and also tested other nonlinear artificial neural network models which did not improve the linear model. In closing, this MCM allows a fast calculation and comparison of different potentials deriving into accurate protein 3D structure-function relationships, notably simpler than the previous.

  12. Observations of Infalling and Rotational Motions on a 1000 AU Scale around 17 Class 0 and 0/I Protostars: Hints of Disk Growth and Magnetic Braking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2015-02-01

    We perform imaging and analyses of SMA 1.3 mm continuum, C18O (2-1) and 12CO (2-1) line data of 17 Class 0 and 0/I protostars to study their gas kinematics on a 1000 AU scale. Continuum and C18O (2-1) emission are detected toward all the sample sources and show central primary components with sizes of ~600-1500 AU associated with protostars. The velocity gradients in C18O (2-1) have wide ranges of orientations from parallel to perpendicular to the outflows, with magnitudes from ~1 to ~530 km s-1 pc-1. We construct a simple kinematic model to reproduce the observed velocity gradients, estimate the infalling and rotational velocities, and infer the disk radii and the protostellar masses. The inferred disk radii range from <5 AU to >500 AU with estimated protostellar masses from <0.1 M ⊙ to >1 M ⊙. Our results hint that both large and small disks are possibly present around Class 0 protostars, which could be a sign of disk growth at the Class 0 stage. In addition, the directions of the overall velocity gradients in 7 out of the 17 sources are close to perpendicular to their outflow axes (Δθ > 65°), which is a signature of significant rotational motions. From our model fitting, the specific angular momenta in these sources are estimated to be >2 × 10-4 km s-1 pc, suggesting that magnetic braking is unlikely efficient on a 1000 AU scale in these Class 0 and 0/I sources. In a sub-sample with observed magnetic field orientations, we find no source with large specific angular momenta together with closely aligned magnetic field and outflow axes. This possibly hints that the magnetic field, if originally aligned with the rotational axis, can play a role in removing angular momentum from infalling material at the Class 0 stage. We discuss our results in comparison with theoretical models of collapsing dense cores with and without magnetic fields in the context of disk formation.

  13. OBSERVATIONS OF INFALLING AND ROTATIONAL MOTIONS ON A 1000 AU SCALE AROUND 17 CLASS 0 AND 0/I PROTOSTARS: HINTS OF DISK GROWTH AND MAGNETIC BRAKING?

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2015-02-01

    We perform imaging and analyses of SMA 1.3 mm continuum, C{sup 18}O (2-1) and {sup 12}CO (2-1) line data of 17 Class 0 and 0/I protostars to study their gas kinematics on a 1000 AU scale. Continuum and C{sup 18}O (2-1) emission are detected toward all the sample sources and show central primary components with sizes of ∼600-1500 AU associated with protostars. The velocity gradients in C{sup 18}O (2-1) have wide ranges of orientations from parallel to perpendicular to the outflows, with magnitudes from ∼1 to ∼530 km s{sup –1} pc{sup –1}. We construct a simple kinematic model to reproduce the observed velocity gradients, estimate the infalling and rotational velocities, and infer the disk radii and the protostellar masses. The inferred disk radii range from <5 AU to >500 AU with estimated protostellar masses from <0.1 M {sub ☉} to >1 M {sub ☉}. Our results hint that both large and small disks are possibly present around Class 0 protostars, which could be a sign of disk growth at the Class 0 stage. In addition, the directions of the overall velocity gradients in 7 out of the 17 sources are close to perpendicular to their outflow axes (Δθ > 65°), which is a signature of significant rotational motions. From our model fitting, the specific angular momenta in these sources are estimated to be >2 × 10{sup –4} km s{sup –1} pc, suggesting that magnetic braking is unlikely efficient on a 1000 AU scale in these Class 0 and 0/I sources. In a sub-sample with observed magnetic field orientations, we find no source with large specific angular momenta together with closely aligned magnetic field and outflow axes. This possibly hints that the magnetic field, if originally aligned with the rotational axis, can play a role in removing angular momentum from infalling material at the Class 0 stage. We discuss our results in comparison with theoretical models of collapsing dense cores with and without magnetic fields in the context of disk

  14. Familial clustering of Taenia solium cysticercosis in the rural pigs of Mexico: hints of genetic determinants in innate and acquired resistance to infection.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, E; Martínez, J J; Huerta, M; Avila, R; Fragoso, G; Villalobos, N; de Aluja, A; Larralde, C

    2003-10-20

    In two rural villages of the state of Puebla, Mexico, where Taenia solium pig cysticercosis is highly endemic, 120 pairs of young out-bred piglets were used to assay what proved to be an effective synthetic peptide vaccine against naturally acquired cysticercosis. Because the piglets used were all sired by one of three distinct studs in many different out-bred sows, the prevalence and intensity of infection, as well as degree of protection conferred by the vaccine, could be related to each of the three stud families (A-C). The highest prevalence was found in the C family (25%), whilst the prevalence of B and A families were 21.6 and 4.4%, respectively. Familial clustering of cases was even more conspicuous in vaccinated pigs than in not-vaccinated ones: seven of the nine cysticercosis cases that occurred in the vaccinated group belonged to the C family (7/26) and two to the B family (2/23), whilst the vaccine rendered the A family totally resistant (0/71). Parasite numbers were also higher in the C family in both nai;ve and vaccinated pigs. Familial clustering of cases and of large parasite numbers in naive and vaccinated pigs hint to the relevance of their genetic background in their innate and acquired resistance to cysticercosis.

  15. Pronounced enhancement of glucocorticoid-induced gene expression following severe heat shock of heat-conditioned cells hints to intricate cell survival tactics.

    PubMed

    Mitsiou, Dimitra J; Florentin, Ida; Baki, Lia; Georgakopoulos, Anastasios; Alexis, Michael N

    2005-02-01

    We have previously reported that severe heat shock of HeLa cells stably transfected with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, transcription of which is controlled by two glucocorticoid-responsive elements and a minimal promoter, pronouncedly enhanced glucocorticoid-induced CAT expression compared to that of non-heated cells, in spite of the glucocorticoid-receptor-mediated transcription of the gene being temporarily compromised by the shock. We now report that prolonged severe heat shock of properly heat-conditioned cells resulted in far more pronounced enhancement of glucocorticoid-induced CAT mRNA and protein expressions, in spite of a similar heat-induced loss of receptor-mediated CAT gene transcription. During recovery from the shock the hormonal activation of transcription exceeded that of non-heated cells. While CAT mRNA translation was restored appreciably later than CAT gene transcription, mRNA and protein expressions were thermally enhanced to a comparable extent, consistent with the integrity of CAT mRNA being preserved during recovery. CAT mRNA turnover was fully impaired during early recovery, suggesting that stabilisation of CAT mRNA as well as stimulation of the hormonal activation of CAT gene transcription account for the thermal enhancement of glucocorticoid-induced CAT expression. This data hint to cell survival tactics designed to safeguard high expression of genes of stress-enduring function.

  16. Population Estimates of Meeting Strength Training and Aerobic Guidelines, by Gender and Cancer Survivorship Status: Findings From the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    PubMed

    Ottenbacher, Allison; Yu, Mandi; Moser, Richard P; Phillips, Siobhan M; Alfano, Catherine; Perna, Frank M

    2015-05-01

    Evidence is building that strength training may reduce complications associated with cancer such as fatigue, muscle wasting, and lymphedema, particularly among breast and prostate cancer survivors. Population estimates are available for rates of aerobic physical activity; however, data on strength training in this population are limited. The objective of this study was to identify rates of meeting public health recommendations for strength training and aerobic activity among cancer survivors and individuals with no cancer history. Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), Iteration 4 Cycle 1 and Cycle 2 were combined to conduct the analyses. Missing data were imputed, and weighted statistical analyses were conducted in SAS. The proportion of individuals meeting both strength training and aerobic guidelines were low for both cancer survivors and those without a history of cancer. The odds of meeting strength training guidelines were significantly lower for women with a history of any cancer except breast, compared with women with no history of cancer (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.51-0.96). More work needs to be done to understand why women with cancers other than breast, may be less inclined to engage in aerobic physical activity and strength training.

  17. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS IN ORBITAL/SUPERORBITAL PHASE SPACE AND HINTS OF SUPERORBITAL VARIABILITY IN THE HARD X-RAYS OF LS I +61°303

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jian; Torres, Diego F.; Zhang, Shu

    2014-04-10

    We present an INTEGRAL spectral analysis in the orbital/superorbital phase space of LS I +61°303. A hard X-ray spectrum with no cutoff is observed at all orbital/superorbital phases. The hard X-ray index is found to be uncorrelated with the radio index (non-simultaneously) measured at the same orbital and superorbital phases. In particular, the absence of an X-ray spectrum softening during periods of negative radio index does not favor a simple interpretation of the radio index variations in terms of a microquasar's changes of state. We uncover hints of superorbital variability in the hard X-ray flux, in phase with the superorbital modulation in soft X-rays. An orbital phase drift of the radio peak flux and index along the superorbital period is observed in the radio data. We explore its influence on a previously reported double-peak structure of a radio orbital light curve, and present it as a plausible explanation.

  18. The expression of the neonatal sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump (SERCA1b) hints to a role in muscle growth and development.

    PubMed

    Zádor, Erno; Vangheluwe, Peter; Wuytack, Frank

    2007-04-01

    The neonatal isoform of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 1 (SERCA1b) is a Ca2+ pump with a well-known developmentally regulated transcript level but an undefined protein expression and function. Specific antibodies were generated to show that SERCA1b is exclusively expressed in myoblasts and myotubes of cultured and regenerating muscle. However, the SERCA1b protein was not detectable in normal adult fast and slow muscles. Studies of the in vitro differentiating myogenic cell lines C2C12 and sol8 showed that SERCA1b is the main SERCA1 protein isoform induced during differentiation and that it is found in the myotubes. Remarkably in BC3H1 cells, which show incomplete differentiation and are reluctant to form myotubes, express the SERCA1b mRNA but not the corresponding protein. SERCA1b protein was also absent from stretched or denervated adult soleus, in spite of the fact that its mRNA level was upregulated. SERCA1b accounts for nearly the total of SERCA1 expression in the diaphragm of newborn mice, which suggests that the insufficient function and development of the diaphragm in the SERCA1 null mutant mice may be due to the lack of SERCA1b. Our studies point to an important regulation of SERCA1b expression at the protein level and hints to a role in the growth of the developing muscle.

  19. Structure and energy level alignment at the dye-electrode interface in p-type DSSCs: new hints on the role of anchoring modes from ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-García, Ana B; Pavone, Michele

    2015-05-14

    p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) represent the complementary photocathodes to the well-studied n-type DSSCs (Grätzel cells), but their low performances have hindered the development of convenient tandem solar cells based on cost-effective n- and p-type DSSCs. Because of their low efficiencies, experimental investigations highlighted the role of hole-electron transport processes at the dye-electrode interface. However, the effects of the dye anchoring groups on interfacial electronic features are still unclear. We report here a first principles study of a benchmark p-type DSSC model, namely the widely used Coumarin-based dye C343 adsorbed on the p-NiO surface. Together with the original carboxylic acid, we test the alternative phosphonic acid as the anchoring group. We investigate binding energies, structural features and electronic energy level alignments: our results highlight that these properties are highly sensitive to the binding modes. In particular, both the chemical nature of the anchoring group and the binding mode strongly affect the thermodynamic driving force for the dye-electrode hole injection process. From analysis of the electronic densities, we find that favorable driving forces are correlated with small values of the interfacial electrostatic dipole that is formed upon dye adsorption. From our results, we derive new hints for improving open circuit potential and the hole injection process in p-type DSSCs based on NiO electrodes.

  20. Turner syndrome and schizophrenia: a further hint for the role of the X-chromosome in the pathogenesis of schizophrenic disorders.

    PubMed

    Roser, Patrik; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2010-03-01

    Abnormalities of sex chromosomes are associated with various forms of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Turner syndrome occurs approximately threefold more frequently in female schizophrenics compared to the general female population. A single case is reported. We report on a case of a 41-year-old woman with Turner syndrome, schizophrenia, mental retardation, and hypothyroidism. A polymorphism of the HOPA gene within Xq13 termed HOPA(12bp) is associated with schizophrenia, mental retardation, and hypothyroidism. Interestingly, Xq13 is the X-chromosome region that contains the X-inactivation center and a gene escaping X-inactivation whose gene product may be involved in the X-inactivation process as well as in the pathogenesis of sex chromosome anomalies such as Turner syndrome. These genes that escape X-inactivation may produce their gene products in excess, influencing normal brain growth and differentiation. Our case gives a further hint for an involvement of the X-chromosome in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  1. Hints of a Shrinking Moon?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Newly discovered cliffs in the lunar crust indicate the moon shrank globally in the geologically recent past and might still be shrinking today, according to a team analyzing new images from NASA's...

  2. Learner Differences in Hint Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Ilya M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Aleven, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Although ITSs are supposed to adapt to differences among learners, so far, little attention has been paid to how they might adapt to differences in how students learn from help. When students study with an Intelligent Tutoring System, they may receive multiple types of help, but may not comprehend and make use of this help in the same way. To…

  3. Humor Hints for School Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bryan

    An attempt is made to show or suggest to the newcomer, whether adviser or reporter, some of the humor forms, devices, or ideas that can be used in a school publication. Twenty-four different types of humorous devices are included. These are boners (humorous errors); howlers (play on words); the pun; ethical light verse and limericks; humorous…

  4. The National Cancer Institute’s Health Information National Trends Survey [HINTS]: a national cross-sectional analysis of talking to your doctor and other healthcare providers for health information

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The need to understand preferred sources of health information remains important to providing patient-centered care. The Internet remains a popular resource for health information, but more traditional sources may still be valid for patients during a recent health need. This study sought to understand the characteristics of patients that turn to their doctor or healthcare provider first for a recent health or medical information need. Methods Using the national cross-sectional survey, Health Information National Trend Study [HINTS], characteristics of those who sought a doctor or healthcare provider for a recent health information need were compared to other sources. Weighted survey responses from Cycle 1 and Cycle 2 of the HINTS survey were used for multivariable logistic regression. Results A total 5,307 patient responses were analyzed. Overall, those who seek a doctor or healthcare provider first for a health need are female, 46–64 years, White non-Hispanic, educated, in good health and users of the Internet. Yet, adjusted logistic regressions showed that those who sought a doctor or healthcare provider first during a recent health information need compared to other sources were most likely to be 65+ years, in poor health, less educated and have health insurance. Conclusions Patients who seek their doctor or healthcare provider first for health information rather than other sources of information represent a unique population. Doctors or healthcare providers remain an important resource for these patients during recent needs, despite the wide use of the Internet as a source of health information. PMID:24906558

  5. Let's stop passing around and work together for the next! ; HiNT, an organization creating new businesses in Hokkaido by exchanging people, information and technology ; Taking a close look at Mr.Eijun Ohta, a coordinator of cooperation among the government, industry and academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Utako

    Let's stop passing around and work together for the next! ; HiNT, an organization creating new businesses in Hokkaido by exchanging people, information and technology ; Taking a close look at Mr.Eijun Ohta, a coordinator of cooperation among the government, industry and academia

  6. Nursing knowledge: hints from the placebo effect.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Renzo; Chiffi, Daniele

    2017-07-01

    Nursing knowledge stems from a dynamic interplay between population-based scientific knowledge (the general) and specific clinical cases (the particular). We compared the 'cascade model of knowledge translation', also known as 'classical biomedical model' in clinical practice (in which knowledge gained at population level may be applied directly to a specific clinical context), with an emergentist model of knowledge translation. The structure and dynamics of nursing knowledge are outlined, adopting the distinction between epistemic and non-epistemic values. Then, a (moderately) emergentist approach to nursing knowledge is proposed, based on the assumption of a two-way flow from the general to the particular and vice versa. The case of the 'placebo effect' is analysed as an example of emergentist knowledge. The placebo effect is usually considered difficult to be explained within the classical biomedical model, and we underscore its importance in shaping nursing knowledge. In fact, nurses are primarily responsible for administering placebo in the clinical setting and have an essential role in promoting the placebo effect and reducing the nocebo effect. The beliefs responsible for the placebo effect are as follows: (1) interactive, because they depend on the relationship between patients and health care professionals; (2) situated, because they occur in a given clinical context related to certain rituals; and (3) grounded on higher order beliefs concerning what an individual thinks about the beliefs of others. It is essential to know the clinical context and to understand other people's beliefs to make sense of the placebo effect. The placebo effect only works when the (higher order) beliefs of doctors, nurses and patients interact in a given setting. Finally, we argue for a close relationship between placebo effect and nursing knowledge. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Hints of a Fundamental Misconception in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Edward E.; Slater, Timothy F.; Offerdahl, Erika G.

    To explore the frequency and range of student ideas regarding the Big Bang, nearly 1,000 students from middle school, secondary school, and college were surveyed and asked if they had heard of the Big Bang and, if so, to describe it. In analyzing their responses, we uncovered an unexpected result that more than half of the students who stated that they had heard of the Big Bang also provided responses that suggest they believe that the Big Bang was a phenomenon that organized pre-existing matter. To further examine this result, a second group of college students was asked specifically to describe what existed or occurred before, during, and after the Big Bang. Nearly 70% gave responses clearly stating that matter existed prior to the Big Bang. These results are interpreted as strongly suggesting that most students are answering these questions by employing an internally consistent element of knowledge or reasoning (often referred to as a phenomenological primitive, or p-prim), consistent with the idea that "you can't make something from nothing." These results inform the debate about the extent to which college students have pre-existing notions that are poised to interfere with instructional efforts about contemporary physics and astronomy topics.

  8. Writing for Profit: A Catalog of Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnum, Carol M.

    1981-01-01

    Offers tips to business communication teachers on how to write for money. Tips include: (1) Begin by writing for free, (2) use business contacts, (3) vary approaches to writing, and (4) write about personal experiences. (FL)

  9. Hints for the Health Education Student Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Elmer A.

    1977-01-01

    Views are presented on education and health education that a student teacher should consider in a search for excellence in teaching, including the interest of health education to the student, nature of the learning process, development of a learning climate, and others. (MJB)

  10. Lasers and Physics: A Pretty Good Hint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schawlow, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    The monochromaticity, directionality, and intensity of laser light make possible spectroscopic investigations of previously unimagined precision. Several of these investigations and their applications are discussed. (Author/JN)

  11. Helpful Hints for New BIA Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Window Rock, AZ.

    A series of short articles gives suggestions for new Bureau of Indian Affairs teachers preparing to teach Navajo children in Arizona. The topics considered include 1) Navajo children as they are the first day (week, two weeks) of school, from beginners through eighth graders; 2) a beginning teacher's first impressions of Navajo high school…

  12. Suprapatellar nailing of tibial fractures: surgical hints.

    PubMed

    Brink, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing of the tibia with suprapatellar entry and semi-extended positioning makes it technically easier to nail the proximal and distal fractures. The purpose of this article was to describe a simple method for suprapatellar nailing (SPN). A step-by-step run through of the surgical technique is described, including positioning of the patient. There are as yet only a few clinical studies that illustrate the complications with this method, and there has been no increased frequency of intraarticular damage. Within the body of the manuscript, information is included about intraarticular damage and comments with references about anterior knee pain.

  13. Suprapatellar nailing of tibial fractures: surgical hints

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing of the tibia with suprapatellar entry and semi-extended positioning makes it technically easier to nail the proximal and distal fractures. The purpose of this article was to describe a simple method for suprapatellar nailing (SPN). A step-by-step run through of the surgical technique is described, including positioning of the patient. There are as yet only a few clinical studies that illustrate the complications with this method, and there has been no increased frequency of intraarticular damage. Within the body of the manuscript, information is included about intraarticular damage and comments with references about anterior knee pain. PMID:27340503

  14. Environmental Psychology: Hints of a New Technology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal W.

    1980-01-01

    The author briefly reports some significant findings concerning the impact of the environment on human perception, behavior, and performance, touching particularly on color, seating arrangement and crowding, and music and noise. Implications for schools are discussed. (PGD)

  15. Election Year Hints at Shifts for Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali; Keller, Bess

    2008-01-01

    The National Education Association is poised for a change in leadership this year as its president of six years, Reg Weaver, bumps up against term limits. Now, speculation is widespread that Edward J. McElroy, his counterpart at the American Federation of Teachers, might not seek re-election in July. The possible exit of Mr. McElroy--and the…

  16. Hints at Ceres Composition from Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-30

    This map-projected view of Ceres was created from images taken by NASA's Dawn spacecraft during its high-altitude mapping orbit, in August and September, 2015. Images taken using infrared (920 nanometers), red (750 nanometers) and blue (440 nanometers) spectral filters were combined to create this false-color view. Redder colors indicate places on Ceres' surface that reflect light strongly in the infrared, while bluish colors indicate enhanced reflectivity at short (bluer) wavelengths; green indicates places where albedo, or overall brightness, is strongly enhanced. Scientists use this technique in order to highlight subtle color differences across Ceres, which would appear fairly uniform in natural color. This can provide valuable insights into the mineral composition of the surface, as well as the relative ages of surface features. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19977

  17. Word Recognition: Theoretical Issues and Instructional Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward E.; Kleiman, Glenn M.

    Research on adult readers' word recognition skills is used in this paper to develop a general information processing model of reading. Stages of the model include feature extraction, interpretation, lexical access, working memory, and integration. Of those stages, particular attention is given to the units of interpretation, speech recoding and…

  18. Practical Hints on Greek and Latin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jopes, James

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of some of the difficulties and procedures in translating classical quotations occurring in a modern text. Some of the topics covered are: use of published translations, transliteration from ancient Greek, and non-classical idioms such as medieval and botanical Latin. (AMH)

  19. Hints to an Effective Personalized Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruskin, Robert S.

    1976-01-01

    Five basic features of PSI are emphasized: written materials (i.e., study guides) specifically designed to supplement existing traditional texts; a "mastery" philosophy of learning which allows the learner to progress only after he or she has successfully demonstrated complete knowledge of the previous material; self-pacing; the use of…

  20. Practical Hints on Greek and Latin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jopes, James

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of some of the difficulties and procedures in translating classical quotations occurring in a modern text. Some of the topics covered are: use of published translations, transliteration from ancient Greek, and non-classical idioms such as medieval and botanical Latin. (AMH)

  1. Hints for Teaching Success in Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Robert E.

    This book offers support for middle school teachers and suggestions on how they can help their students be more successful, both in the classroom and in life. Thirteen chapters cover being a teacher, the classroom, students and the challenges they face, communication, teaching, testing, working with parents, staff relations and job stress, public…

  2. Helpful hints for physical solvent absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfer, W.

    1982-11-01

    Review of experience with natural gas treatment using physical solvents points to design and operating suggestions. Experiences with three plants using either Selexol or Sepasolv MPE solvent shows that both solvents perform well. The solvents offer economical and problem-free purification of natural gas. The Sepasolv MPE and Selexol solvents are very similar in chemical structure and physical properties. Thus, their application range is almost similar. An exchange is possible in most plants without equipment modification and/or process data.

  3. Turbulence, flow and transport: hints from reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2006-04-01

    The interplay between sheared E × B flows and turbulence has been experimentally investigated in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Electrostatic fluctuations are found to rule the momentum balance equation representing the main driving term for sheared flows which counterbalances anomalous viscous damping. The driving role of electrostatic fluctuations is proved by the spatial structure of the Reynolds stress and by the time behaviour of the mean energy production term which supports the existence of an energy exchange from the small scales of turbulence to the larger scales of the mean flow.

  4. Hints on nuclear effects from ArgoNeuT data

    SciTech Connect

    Palamara, Ornella

    2015-05-15

    Initial results from a topological analysis of CC “0 pion” muon neutrino events in LAr collected by the ArgoNeuT experiment on the NuMI LE beam at Fermilab (in the few GeV energy region) are presented and compared with predictions from MC simulations. A new analysis method, based on the reconstruction of exclusive topologies, fully exploiting the LArTPC technique capabilities, is used to analyze the events and study nuclear effects in neutrino interactions on Argon nuclei. Multiple protons accompanying the leading muon and the presence of vertex activity are clearly visible (and measured) in the events. Ratios among rates of different exclusive topologies provide indications of the size of nuclear effects in neutrino-nucleus interactions in LAr.

  5. Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others

    The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

  6. Prediction horizon effects on stochastic modelling hints for neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Drossu, R.; Obradovic, Z.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between stochastic models and neural network (NN) approaches to time series modelling. Experiments on a complex real life prediction problem (entertainment video traffic) indicate that prior knowledge can be obtained through stochastic analysis both with respect to an appropriate NN architecture as well as to an appropriate sampling rate, in the case of a prediction horizon larger than one. An improvement of the obtained NN predictor is also proposed through a bias removal post-processing, resulting in much better performance than the best stochastic model.

  7. Household Hints for the Working Woman: With or Without Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Associates, Framingham, MA.

    The purpose of the report is the presentation of ideas and information to help the working woman save time, effort, and money. Chapter one offers suggestions for child care arrangements such as babysitters, transportation needs, and the possibilities for home employment. Chapter two includes shopping and specific management tips for both clothing…

  8. Some Broader Hints on Establishing a Language Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edberg, George J.

    1965-01-01

    A general survey of U.S. schools and universities in 1965 suggests that 50 percent of them do not feature proper language laboratory facilities. Aimed at prospective laboratory buyers and those seeking equipment replacements, the article analyzes the laboratory's mechanical aspects, accessible locations, physical facilities and equipment…

  9. The perfect photo book: hints for the image selection process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fageth, Reiner; Schmidt-Sacht, Wulf

    2007-01-01

    An ever increasing amount of digital images are being captured. This increase is due to several reasons. People are afraid of not "capturing the moment" and pressing the shutter is not directly liked to costs as was the case with silver halide photography. This behaviour seems to be convenient but can result in a dilemma for the consumer. This paper presents tools designed to help the consumer overcome the time consuming image selection process while turning the chore of selecting the images for prints or placing them automatically into a photo book into a fun experience.

  10. A "g" beyond "Homo Sapiens"? Some Hints and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James J.

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes that a complete account of cognitive evolution may have to accommodate a domain-general source of variance in mental abilities accounting for differences among primate taxa. Deaner, van Schaik, and Johnson [Deaner, R.O., van Schaik, C.P. and Johnson, V.E. (2006). Do some taxa have better domain-general cognition than others?…

  11. On reducing terrorism power: a hint from physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge; Mauger, Alain

    2003-05-01

    The September 11 attack on the US has revealed an unprecedented terrorism worldwide range of destruction. Recently, it has been related to the percolation of worldwide spread passive supporters. This scheme puts the suppression of the percolation effect as the major strategic issue in the fight against terrorism. Accordingly the world density of passive supporters should be reduced below the percolation threshold. In terms of solid policy, it means to neutralize millions of random passive supporters, which is contrary to ethics and out of any sound practical scheme. Given this impossibility we suggest instead a new strategic scheme to act directly on the value of the terrorism percolation threshold itself without harming the passive supporters. Accordingly we identify the space hosting the percolation phenomenon to be a multi-dimensional virtual social space which extends the ground earth surface to include the various independent terrorist-fighting goals. The associated percolating cluster is then found to create long-range ground connections to terrorism activity. We are thus able to modify the percolation threshold pc in the virtual space to reach p

  12. Learning To Learn: 15 Vocabulary Acquisition Activities. Tips and Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, William R.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a variety of ways learners can help themselves remember new words, choosing the ones that best suit their learning styles. It is asserted that repeated exposure to new lexical items using a variety of means is the most consistent predictor of retention. The use of verbal, visual, tactile, textual, kinesthetic, and sonic…

  13. Lepton flavour violation:. hints on the SUSY seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    We address the constraints on the supersymmetric seesaw parameters arising from Lepton Flavour Violation observables, namely tau and muon decays, and μ - e conversion in nuclei. We work in the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model extended by three right-handed (s)neutrinos, considering scenarios of universal and non-universal soft supersymmetry breaking Higgs masses at the gauge coupling unification scale. We compare the obtained predictions with the present experimental bounds and future sensitivities, discussing the most promising processes, and how these can offer a new insight into the supersymmetric seesaw parameters.

  14. Artists' Brushstrokes May Offer First Hints of Brain Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... quality of life for those persons living with cognitive disorders," study author Alex Forsythe said. Forsythe is a senior lecturer and director of studies in applied psychology at the University of Liverpool in England. "We ...

  15. Jens’ Map Reading Hints, Number 1: Quick Compass Conversions,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    protractor/scale becomes the magnetized needle of a compass . Since the magnetized needle will seek magnetic north, pivot the protractor/scale (your...imagined compass ) about the center cross- hairs In the direction of magnetic -north. The number of degrees pivoted should equal the G-M angle (See Fig 2). In...our example, left 70. Last, the magnetic azimuth on your compass reading can now be read directly from the protractor/scale where the line you drew

  16. SGML: The Reason Why and the First Published Hint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Charles F.

    1997-01-01

    This article is a commentary on the first published paper on need for Standard Generalized Markup Language, "An Online System for Integrated Text Processing," presented at the 33rd annual meeting of the American Society for Information Science in Philadelphia, in October 15, 1970. Details the history of an online integrated text…

  17. Eating Hints: Before, During, and After Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Levels of Evidence: Integrative Therapies Fact Sheets NCI Dictionaries NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms NCI Drug Dictionary ...

  18. Innovative chemical synthesis and conformational hints on the lipopeptide liraglutide.

    PubMed

    Guryanov, Ivan; Bondesan, Alex; Visentini, Dario; Orlandin, Andrea; Biondi, Barbara; Toniolo, Claudio; Formaggio, Fernando; Ricci, Antonio; Zanon, Jacopo; Cabri, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Liraglutide is a new generation lipopeptide drug used for the treatment of type II diabetes. In this work, we describe new approaches for its preparation fully by chemical methods. The key step of these strategies is the synthesis in solution of the Lys/γ-Glu building block, Fmoc-Lys-(Pal-γ-Glu-OtBu)-OH, in which Lys and Glu residues are linked through their side chains and γ-Glu is N(α) -palmitoylated. This dipeptide derivative is then inserted into the peptide sequence on solid phase. As liraglutide is obtained with great purity and high yield, our approach can be particularly attractive for an industrial production. We also report here the results of a circular dichroism conformational analysis in a membrane mimetic environment that offers new insights into the mechanism of action of liraglutide. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Close PMS Binaries Evolution - Hints for Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez De Castro, Ana; Bisikalo, Dmitry; Sytov, Alexey; Ustamujic, Sabina

    2016-07-01

    In close PMS systems, accretion disks can either take up or release angular momentum and the details of evolution depend on the mass ratio between the two stars and on the orbit eccentricity (Artymowicz & Lubow, 1994; Bate & Bonnell, 1997; Hanawa et al., 2010, de Val Borro et al., 2011, Shi et al., 2012). Highly eccentric orbits favour the formation of spiral waves within the inner disk that do channel the flow as the accreting gas streams onto each star. In this framework, PMS binaries represent a special kind of interacting binaries where the circumbinary disk mediates in the star-star interaction as a continuous supply of angular momentum (and matter) to the system. The most general configuration consists of a circumbinary disk with inner radius about three times the semimajor axis and a variable distribution of matter within the hole. Circumstellar structures similar to disks are occasionally formed around the stars chanelling the accretion flow. The ultraviolet radiation generated by the stars and the accretion shocks can be used to map the distribution of matter in the hole and the CS environment (Gómez de Castro et al. 2016). In this contribution we describe monitoring strategies to map the variable distribution of CS matter in these systems and its extension to the study of exoplanetary systems hosting hot Jupiters.

  20. Does Saint Nicholas provoke seizures? Hints from Google Trends.

    PubMed

    van Campen, Jolien S; van Diessen, Eric; Otte, Willem M; Joels, Marian; Jansen, Floor E; Braun, Kees P J

    2014-03-01

    Stress is the most often reported seizure-precipitant in epilepsy. As most evidence for the relation between stress and epilepsy is derived from human self-reports, observational studies including a larger part of the population could provide additional proof. A stressor often reported to increase seizure frequency in children with epilepsy in the Netherlands is the national celebration of Saint Nicholas' eve (December 5) and the weeks before; this is the main period of festivities for children in this country. To study the relation between stress and epilepsy, we analyzed epilepsy information-seeking behavior on the Internet, an indirect measure of seizure frequency, around this national children's celebration. Google Trends was used to extract relative search percentages for 'epilepsy' on Google in the Netherlands, the United States, and the United Kingdom between 2004 and 2013. Relative search percentages during the Saint Nicholas period were compared with baseline. Epilepsy searches increased by 14% in the Saint Nicholas period compared with baseline (p<0.001). This effect was not found for searches performed in the same period in the United States or the United Kingdom, countries where this holiday is not celebrated. The increase in epilepsy information-seeking behavior in the Saint Nicholas period is possibly caused by an increased occurrence of epileptic seizures. This underscores the potential of health information-seeking behavior on the Internet to answer clinically relevant research questions and provides circumstantial evidence for a relation between stress and the occurrence of epileptic seizures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Riemannian geometry of Hamiltonian chaos: Hints for a general theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerruti-Sola, Monica; Ciraolo, Guido; Franzosi, Roberto; Pettini, Marco

    2008-10-01

    We aim at assessing the validity limits of some simplifying hypotheses that, within a Riemmannian geometric framework, have provided an explanation of the origin of Hamiltonian chaos and have made it possible to develop a method of analytically computing the largest Lyapunov exponent of Hamiltonian systems with many degrees of freedom. Therefore, a numerical hypotheses testing has been performed for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam β model and for a chain of coupled rotators. These models, for which analytic computations of the largest Lyapunov exponents have been carried out in the mentioned Riemannian geometric framework, appear as paradigmatic examples to unveil the reason why the main hypothesis of quasi-isotropy of the mechanical manifolds sometimes breaks down. The breakdown is expected whenever the topology of the mechanical manifolds is nontrivial. This is an important step forward in view of developing a geometric theory of Hamiltonian chaos of general validity.

  2. Helpful Hints for Successful 1-to-1 Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurster, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In the book, "1-to-1 Learning: Laptop Programs That Work," author Pamela Livingston begins with an important point for those who are considering a laptop program for the first time: Newcomers are fortunate to be able to learn from the educators who have started down the 1-to-1 road before them. This proved to be true for two neighboring…

  3. Analysis Sharpens Mars Hydrogen Map, Hinting Equatorial Water Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Re-analysis of 2002-2009 data from a hydrogen-finding instrument on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter increased the resolution of maps of hydrogen abundance. The reprocessed data (lower map) shows more "water-equivalent hydrogen" (darker blue) in some parts of this equatorial region of Mars. Puzzingly, this suggests the possible presence of water ice just beneath the surface near the equator, though it would not be thermodynamically stable there. The upper map uses raw data from Odyssey's neutron spectrometer instrument, which senses the energy state of neutrons coming from Mars, providing an indication of how much hydrogen is present in the top 3 feet (1 meter) of the surface. Hydrogen detected by Odyssey at high latitudes of Mars in 2002 was confirmed to be in the form of water ice by the follow-up NASA Phoenix Mars Lander mission in 2008. A 2017 reprocessing of the older data applied image-reconstruction techniques often used to reduce blurring from medical imaging data. The results are shown here for an area straddling the equator for about one-fourth the circumference of the planet, centered at 175 degrees west longitude. The white contours outline lobes of a formation called Medusae Fossae, coinciding with some areas of higher hydrogen abundance in the enhanced-resolution analysis. The black line indicates the limit of a relatively young lava plain, coinciding with areas of lower hydrogen abundance in the enhanced-resolution analysis. The color-coding key for hydrogen abundance in both maps is indicated by the horizontal bar, in units expressed as how much water would be present in the ground if the hydrogen is all in the form of water. Units of the equivalent water weight, as a percentage of the material in the ground, are correlated with counts recorded by the spectrometer, ranging from less than 1 weight-percent water equivalent (red) to more than 30 percent (dark blue). https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21848

  4. Informed walks: whispering hints to gene hunters inside networks' jungle.

    PubMed

    Bourdakou, Marilena M; Spyrou, George M

    2017-10-11

    Systemic approaches offer a different point of view on the analysis of several types of molecular associations as well as on the identification of specific gene communities in several cancer types. However, due to lack of sufficient data needed to construct networks based on experimental evidence, statistical gene co-expression networks are widely used instead. Many efforts have been made to exploit the information hidden in these networks. However, these approaches still need to capitalize comprehensively the prior knowledge encrypted into molecular pathway associations and improve their efficiency regarding the discovery of both exclusive subnetworks as candidate biomarkers and conserved subnetworks that may uncover common origins of several cancer types. In this study we present the development of the Informed Walks model based on random walks that incorporate information from molecular pathways to mine candidate genes and gene-gene links. The proposed model has been applied to TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) datasets from seven different cancer types, exploring the reconstructed co-expression networks of the whole set of genes and driving to highlighted sub-networks for each cancer type. In the sequel, we elucidated the impact of each subnetwork on the indication of underlying exclusive and common molecular mechanisms as well as on the short-listing of drugs that have the potential to suppress the corresponding cancer type through a drug-repurposing pipeline. We have developed a method of gene subnetwork highlighting based on prior knowledge, capable to give fruitful insights regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms and valuable input to drug-repurposing pipelines for a variety of cancer types.

  5. A "g" beyond "Homo Sapiens"? Some Hints and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James J.

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes that a complete account of cognitive evolution may have to accommodate a domain-general source of variance in mental abilities accounting for differences among primate taxa. Deaner, van Schaik, and Johnson [Deaner, R.O., van Schaik, C.P. and Johnson, V.E. (2006). Do some taxa have better domain-general cognition than others?…

  6. Teach with Leach: Hints for Teachers of MBI Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Ethel

    Briefly described are approximately 110 activities appropriate for use with minimally brain injured children. Examples of activities are sorting beans, tracing pictures from coloring books, making a 'catch and pitch' mitt out of an empty bleach bottle, and using the Viewmaster to encourage interest in geography. Also included are directions for…

  7. Cough induced syncope: A hint to cardiac tamponade diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Roberto; Lasam, Glenmore

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of a 75-year-old male with history of lung adenocarcinoma who presented with shortness of breath and frequent episodes of cough-induced syncope. A large pericardial effusion was found on echocardiogram suggestive of cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was done which improved the dyspnea and eventually resolved the syncope. There are only two other cases reported in the literature with cough-induced syncope in the setting of pericardial effusion or cardiac tamponade. Our clinical vignette also highlights the importance of pulsus paradoxus identification in patients with cough induced syncope to rule out cardiac tamponade since this is the most sensitive physical finding for its diagnosis. PMID:28603595

  8. Study Hints At Link Between Some Statins, Parkinson's Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... But so far, studies have come to mixed conclusions, according to Huang. Some have tied statins to ... been controversial. "We can't really make any conclusions," said Dr. Olga Waln, who specializes in treating ...

  9. Placental dichotomy: a hint in twin anemia polycythemia sequence.

    PubMed

    Stritzke, Amelie; Thomas, Sumesh; Somerset, David

    2014-12-01

    Contexte : Les grossesses monochorioniques représentent une partie significative de la charge de travail en imagerie diagnostique et doivent fréquemment faire l’objet d’une évaluation aux fins de la détection du syndrome transfuseur-transfusé. Il est important de reconnaître la présence d’une dichotomie placentaire au cours de la tenue d’une étude Doppler régulière de l’artère cérébrale fœtale, et ce, de façon à pouvoir alerter le clinicien quant à la présence possible d’une séquence anémie polyglobulie gémellaire (un sous-ensemble important du syndrome transfuseur-transfusé). Cas : Une multigravide de 36 ans connaissant une grossesse gémellaire a accouché à 33 semaines de gestation, à la suite de l’identification d’une détresse fœtale. Une séquence anémie polyglobulie gémellaire a été diagnostiquée à la suite de l’accouchement. Les échographies prénatales régulières n’avaient pas détecté la présence d’un oligohydramnios ou d’un polyhydramnios. L’analyse rétrospective des images échographiques du placenta a mis au jour la présence d’une dichotomie marquée, la partie relevant du jumeau anémique y apparaissant comme étant hyperéchogène. Conclusion : L’identification de la dichotomie placentaire (s’ajoutant au dépistage au moyen d’études Doppler cérébrales) pourrait mener à l’identification précoce de la séquence anémie polyglobulie gémellaire et à l’amélioration des issues.

  10. Hyperon puzzle: hints from quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

    PubMed

    Lonardoni, Diego; Lovato, Alessandro; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco

    2015-03-06

    The onset of hyperons in the core of neutron stars and the consequent softening of the equation of state have been questioned for a long time. Controversial theoretical predictions and recent astrophysical observations of neutron stars are the grounds for the so-called hyperon puzzle. We calculate the equation of state and the neutron star mass-radius relation of an infinite systems of neutrons and Λ particles by using the auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm. We find that the three-body hyperon-nucleon interaction plays a fundamental role in the softening of the equation of state and for the consequent reduction of the predicted maximum mass. We have considered two different models of three-body force that successfully describe the binding energy of medium mass hypernuclei. Our results indicate that they give dramatically different results on the maximum mass of neutron stars, not necessarily incompatible with the recent observation of very massive neutron stars. We conclude that stronger constraints on the hyperon-neutron force are necessary in order to properly assess the role of hyperons in neutron stars.

  11. Cough induced syncope: A hint to cardiac tamponade diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Roberto; Lasam, Glenmore

    2017-05-26

    We report a case of a 75-year-old male with history of lung adenocarcinoma who presented with shortness of breath and frequent episodes of cough-induced syncope. A large pericardial effusion was found on echocardiogram suggestive of cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was done which improved the dyspnea and eventually resolved the syncope. There are only two other cases reported in the literature with cough-induced syncope in the setting of pericardial effusion or cardiac tamponade. Our clinical vignette also highlights the importance of pulsus paradoxus identification in patients with cough induced syncope to rule out cardiac tamponade since this is the most sensitive physical finding for its diagnosis.

  12. Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others

    The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

  13. Scans Hint At Running's Brain Benefits, Even When Young

    MedlinePlus

    ... study co-designer Gene Alexander. He is a psychology professor at the University of Arizona in Tucson. " ... The study was published online recently in the journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience . SOURCE: University of Arizona, ...

  14. An Impending geomagnetic transition? Hints from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The rapid decrease of the geomagnetic field intensity in the last centuries together with a growth of the South Atlantic Anomaly has led to speculations that an attempt to a reversal or an excursion might be under way. Here we investigate this hypothesis by examining past records of geomagnetic field intensity obtained from sedimentary cores and from the study of cosmogenic nuclides. The selected records describe geomagnetic changes with an unprecedented temporal resolution between 20 and 75 kyr B.P. The precise age model and the accurate calibration of intensities on absolute scale allow to calculate the duration and the rate of change of the field during the well documented excursions of Laschamp and Mono Lake. The rate of decay of the field intensity during these excursions is is virtually similar to that observed over the last few centuries and much higher than that observed for other low intensity periods of the same duration but not associated to any polarity change. Although these records do not provide undisputable information on future evolution of the field, we find that some aspects of the present-day geomagnetic field have some similarities with those documented for the Laschamp excursion 41 kyr ago. Under the assumption that the dynamo processes for an eventual future reversal or excursion would be similar to those of the Laschamp excursion, we tentatively suggest that, whilst irreversible processes that will drive the geodynamo into a polarity change may have already started, a reversal or an excursion should not be expected before 500 to 1000 years.

  15. An Impending geomagnetic transition? Hints from the past.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    The rapid decrease of the geomagnetic field intensity in the last centuries has led to speculations that an attempt to a reversal or an excursion might be under way. Here we investigate this hypothesis by examining past records of geomagnetic field intensity obtained from sedimentary cores and from the study of cosmogenic nuclides. The selected records describe geomagnetic changes with an unprecedented temporal resolution between 20 and 75 kyr B.P. We find that some aspects of the present-day geomagnetic field have some similarities with those documented for the Laschamp excursion 41 kyr ago. Under the assumption that the dynamo processes for an eventual future reversal or excursion would be similar to those of the Laschamp excursion, we tentatively suggest that, whilst irreversible processes that will drive the geodynamo into a polarity change may have already started, a reversal or an excursion should not be expected before 500 to 1000 years.

  16. Observational hints of radial migration in disc galaxies from CALIFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Lara, T.; Pérez, I.; Florido, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Sánchez, S. F.; Lyubenova, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Marino, R. A.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Costantin, L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; García-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Kehrig, C.; Márquez, I.; Mast, D.; Walcher, C. J.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.; Califa Team

    2017-07-01

    Context. According to numerical simulations, stars are not always kept at their birth galactocentric distances but they have a tendency to migrate. The importance of this radial migration in shaping galactic light distributions is still unclear. However, if radial migration is indeed important, galaxies with different surface brightness (SB) profiles must display differences in their stellar population properties. Aims: We investigate the role of radial migration in the light distribution and radial stellar content by comparing the inner colour, age, and metallicity gradients for galaxies with different SB profiles. We define these inner parts, avoiding the bulge and bar regions and up to around three disc scale lengths (type I, pure exponential) or the break radius (type II, downbending; type III, upbending). Methods: We analysed 214 spiral galaxies from the CALIFA survey covering different SB profiles. We made use of GASP2D and SDSS data to characterise the light distribution and obtain colour profiles of these spiral galaxies. The stellar age and metallicity profiles were computed using a methodology based on full-spectrum fitting techniques (pPXF, GANDALF, and STECKMAP) to the Integral Field Spectroscopic CALIFA data. Results: The distributions of the colour, stellar age, and stellar metallicity gradients in the inner parts for galaxies displaying different SB profiles are unalike as suggested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling tests. We find a trend in which type II galaxies show the steepest profiles of all, type III show the shallowest, and type I display an intermediate behaviour. Conclusions: These results are consistent with a scenario in which radial migration is more efficient for type III galaxies than for type I systems, where type II galaxies present the lowest radial migration efficiency. In such a scenario, radial migration mixes the stellar content, thereby flattening the radial stellar properties and shaping different SB profiles. However, in light of these results we cannot further quantify the importance of radial migration in shaping spiral galaxies, and other processes, such as recent star formation or satellite accretion, might play a role. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/A4

  17. Teach with Leach: Hints for Teachers of MBI Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Ethel

    Briefly described are approximately 110 activities appropriate for use with minimally brain injured children. Examples of activities are sorting beans, tracing pictures from coloring books, making a 'catch and pitch' mitt out of an empty bleach bottle, and using the Viewmaster to encourage interest in geography. Also included are directions for…

  18. Hints of nonhierarchical folding of acidic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Jesús M; Jiménez, M Angeles; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2002-02-12

    We have analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) the helical propensity of the all-beta protein acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and two peptides corresponding to beta-strand 8 (beta8 peptide, amino acids 95-107) and the beta-strand 8/turn/beta-strand 9 hairpin (beta8/9 peptide, amino acids 95-114), which has been involved in receptor binding. A secondary structure prediction of aFGF carried out by several procedures labels the 95-104 sequence as predominantly alpha-helical. A titration of aFGF with 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) induces a change in the far-UV CD spectrum of the protein giving rise to a prominent alpha-helical shape (22% alpha-helix). The cooperativity of the transition and the moderate TFE concentrations used (midpoint at 24%) suggest that the effect of TFE is specific. Moreover, a titration performed at pH 2 yields a higher amount of alpha-helix (55%) at a smaller TFE concentration. Synthetic peptides containing the beta8 and beta8/9 sequences display a random coil conformation at pH 7 but acquire alpha-helical structure in the presence of TFE, methanol, and SDS micelles. At pH below 3.0 a significant amount (20-30%) of alpha-helical conformation is present in both the beta8 and beta8/9 peptides even in the absence of other solvent additives. The secondary structure of the peptides was determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). These results suggest that the 95-114 sequence of aFGF has helical propensity and that the protein may fold nonhierarchically in the early steps of folding, acquiring its final beta-structure by a later interaction with the rest of the polypeptide.

  19. DO SYMPTOMS OF ILLNESS SERVE SIGNALING FUNCTIONS? (HINT: YES).

    PubMed

    Tiokhin, Leonid

    2016-06-01

    Symptoms of illness provide information about an organism's underlying state. This notion has inspired a burgeoning body of research on organisms' adaptations for detecting and changing behavior toward ill individuals. However, little attention has been paid to a likely outcome of these dynamics. Once an organism's fitness is affected by others' responses to symptoms of illness, natural selection can favor individuals who alter symptom expression to influence the behavior of others. That is, many symptoms may originate as cues, but will evolve into signals. In this paper, I develop the hypothesis that symptoms of illness serve signaling functions, and provide a comprehensive review of relevant evidence from diverse disciplines. I also develop novel empirical predictions generated by this hypothesis and discuss its implications for public health. Signaling provides an ultimate explanation for otherwise opaque aspects of symptom expression, such as why symptoms fluctuate in social contexts, and can exist without underlying pathology, and why individuals deliberately generate symptoms of illness. This analysis suggests that signaling theory is a major organizing framework for understanding symptom etiology.

  20. "To Improve upon Hints of Things": Illustrating Isaac Newton.

    PubMed

    Schilt, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    When Isaac Newton died in 1727 he left a rich legacy in terms of draft manuscripts, encompassing a variety of topics: natural philosophy, mathematics, alchemy, theology, and chronology, as well as papers relating to his career at the Mint. One thing that immediately strikes us is the textuality of Newton's legacy: images are sparse. Regarding his scholarly endeavours we witness the same practice. Newton's extensive drafts on theology and chronology do not contain a single illustration or map. Today we have all of Newton's draft manuscripts as witnesses of his working methods, as well as access to a significant number of books from his own library. Drawing parallels between Newton's reading practices and his natural philosophical and scholarly work, this paper seeks to understand Newton's recondite writing and publishing politics.

  1. Automatic Hint Generation for Logic Proof Tutoring Using Historical Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Tiffany; Stamper, John

    2010-01-01

    In building intelligent tutoring systems, it is critical to be able to understand and diagnose student responses in interactive problem solving. However, building this understanding into a computer-based intelligent tutor is a time-intensive process usually conducted by subject experts. Much of this time is spent in building production rules that…

  2. Riemannian geometry of Hamiltonian chaos: hints for a general theory.

    PubMed

    Cerruti-Sola, Monica; Ciraolo, Guido; Franzosi, Roberto; Pettini, Marco

    2008-10-01

    We aim at assessing the validity limits of some simplifying hypotheses that, within a Riemmannian geometric framework, have provided an explanation of the origin of Hamiltonian chaos and have made it possible to develop a method of analytically computing the largest Lyapunov exponent of Hamiltonian systems with many degrees of freedom. Therefore, a numerical hypotheses testing has been performed for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam beta model and for a chain of coupled rotators. These models, for which analytic computations of the largest Lyapunov exponents have been carried out in the mentioned Riemannian geometric framework, appear as paradigmatic examples to unveil the reason why the main hypothesis of quasi-isotropy of the mechanical manifolds sometimes breaks down. The breakdown is expected whenever the topology of the mechanical manifolds is nontrivial. This is an important step forward in view of developing a geometric theory of Hamiltonian chaos of general validity.

  3. Grapevine under deficit irrigation: hints from physiological and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Chaves, M M; Zarrouk, O; Francisco, R; Costa, J M; Santos, T; Regalado, A P; Rodrigues, M L; Lopes, C M

    2010-05-01

    A large proportion of vineyards are located in regions with seasonal drought (e.g. Mediterranean-type climates) where soil and atmospheric water deficits, together with high temperatures, exert large constraints on yield and quality. The increasing demand for vineyard irrigation requires an improvement in the efficiency of water use. Deficit irrigation has emerged as a potential strategy to allow crops to withstand mild water stress with little or no decreases of yield, and potentially a positive impact on fruit quality. Understanding the physiological and molecular bases of grapevine responses to mild to moderate water deficits is fundamental to optimize deficit irrigation management and identify the most suitable varieties to those conditions. How the whole plant acclimatizes to water scarcity and how short- and long-distance chemical and hydraulic signals intervene are reviewed. Chemical compounds synthesized in drying roots are shown to act as long-distance signals inducing leaf stomatal closure and/or restricting leaf growth. This explains why some plants endure soil drying without significant changes in shoot water status. The control of plant water potential by stomatal aperture via feed-forward mechanisms is associated with 'isohydric' behaviour in contrast to 'anysohydric' behaviour in which lower plant water potentials are attained. This review discusses differences in this respect between grapevines varieties and experimental conditions. Mild water deficits also exert direct and/or indirect (via the light environment around grape clusters) effects on berry development and composition; a higher content of skin-based constituents (e.g. tannins and anthocyanins) has generally being reported. Regulation under water deficit of genes and proteins of the various metabolic pathways responsible for berry composition and therefore wine quality are reviewed.

  4. Grapevine under deficit irrigation: hints from physiological and molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, M. M.; Zarrouk, O.; Francisco, R.; Costa, J. M.; Santos, T.; Regalado, A. P.; Rodrigues, M. L.; Lopes, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background A large proportion of vineyards are located in regions with seasonal drought (e.g. Mediterranean-type climates) where soil and atmospheric water deficits, together with high temperatures, exert large constraints on yield and quality. The increasing demand for vineyard irrigation requires an improvement in the efficiency of water use. Deficit irrigation has emerged as a potential strategy to allow crops to withstand mild water stress with little or no decreases of yield, and potentially a positive impact on fruit quality. Understanding the physiological and molecular bases of grapevine responses to mild to moderate water deficits is fundamental to optimize deficit irrigation management and identify the most suitable varieties to those conditions. Scope How the whole plant acclimatizes to water scarcity and how short- and long-distance chemical and hydraulic signals intervene are reviewed. Chemical compounds synthesized in drying roots are shown to act as long-distance signals inducing leaf stomatal closure and/or restricting leaf growth. This explains why some plants endure soil drying without significant changes in shoot water status. The control of plant water potential by stomatal aperture via feed-forward mechanisms is associated with ‘isohydric’ behaviour in contrast to ‘anysohydric’ behaviour in which lower plant water potentials are attained. This review discusses differences in this respect between grapevines varieties and experimental conditions. Mild water deficits also exert direct and/or indirect (via the light environment around grape clusters) effects on berry development and composition; a higher content of skin-based constituents (e.g. tannins and anthocyanins) has generally being reported. Regulation under water deficit of genes and proteins of the various metabolic pathways responsible for berry composition and therefore wine quality are reviewed. PMID:20299345

  5. Hints for Leptonic C P Violation or New Physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forero, David V.; Huber, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    One of the major open questions in the neutrino sector is the issue of leptonic C P violation. Current global oscillation data show a mild preference for a large, potentially maximal value for the Dirac C P phase in the neutrino mixing matrix. In this Letter, we point out that new physics in the form of neutral-current-like nonstandard interactions with real couplings would likely yield a similar conclusion even if C P in the neutrino sector were conserved. Therefore, the claim for a discovery of leptonic C P violation will require a robust ability to test new physics scenarios.

  6. Extended write combining using a write continuation hint flag

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Vranas, Pavlos

    2013-06-04

    A computing apparatus for reducing the amount of processing in a network computing system which includes a network system device of a receiving node for receiving electronic messages comprising data. The electronic messages are transmitted from a sending node. The network system device determines when more data of a specific electronic message is being transmitted. A memory device stores the electronic message data and communicating with the network system device. A memory subsystem communicates with the memory device. The memory subsystem stores a portion of the electronic message when more data of the specific message will be received, and the buffer combines the portion with later received data and moves the data to the memory device for accessible storage.

  7. HINT for Squint: A Computer Reliant Diagnostic Aid for Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Gieszl, Louis R.; Morris, Jacqueline; Guyton, David L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper provides an outline of methods used for the implementation of a computer reliant diagnostic aid in the medical specialty of Ophthalmology. Some problems have been associated with many previous diagnostic models. A careful review indicates that the most serious problems were: • inability to handle: - multiple diseases coexistent in the patient - partially described diseases - extraneous input symptoms - quantitative signs along with symptoms • inflexible and non-extendible prototype models • lack of inclusive physician-approved data banks The use of computer techniques developed for large scale wargaming has allowed the construction of an extendable prototype model. The hierarchical searching techniques used provided the necessary partial matching solution to the above set of computational problems. An active physician-analyst dialogue permitted the avoidance of the last problem, since the actual data and diagnostic logic was physician input.

  8. Ace Your Accounting Classes: 12 Hints to Maximize Your Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, W. David

    2008-01-01

    Many students experience difficulties when they try to get good grades in their accounting classes, and they are searching for answers. There is no single answer. Getting a good grade in an accounting class results from a process. If you know and understand the process--and can apply it--then your chances are much improved for getting a good…

  9. Adaptability in Crisis Management: The Role of Organizational Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Peeters , van Tuijl, Rutte, & Reymen, 2006). Applying the same logic as the analyses performed on mean scores, ANOVAs were run first on standard... Peeters , M.A.G., van Tuijl, H.F.J.M., Rutte, C.G., & Reymen, I.M.M.J. (2006). Personality and team performance: A meta-analysis. European Journal of...Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. van Bezooijen, B. J. A., Essens, P. J. M. D., & Vogelaar, A. L. W. (2006

  10. Turbulent energy transfer in electromagnetic turbulence: hints from a Reversed Field Pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Bergsaker, H.

    2005-10-01

    The relationship between electromagnetic turbulence and sheared plasma flow in a Reversed Field Pinch is addressed. ExB sheared flows and turbulence at the edge tends to organize themeselves near marginal stability, suggesting an underlying energy exchange process between turbulence and mean flow. In MHD this process is well described through the quantity P which represents the energy transfer (per mass and time unit) from turbulence to mean fields. In the edge region of RFP configuration, where magnetic field is mainly poloidal and the mean ExB is consequently toroidal, the quantity P results: P =[ -ρμ0 + ]Vφr where Vφ is the mean ExB toroidal flow, ρ the mean mass density and b and v the fluctuations of velocity and magnetic field respectively. Both the radial profiles and the temporal evolution of P have been measured in the edge region of Extrap-T2R Reversed Field Pinch experiment. The results support the existence of oscillating energy exchange process between fluctuations and mean flow.

  11. Hints of a rotating spiral structure in the innermost regions around IRC +10216.

    PubMed

    Quintana-Lacaci, G; Cernicharo, J; Agúndez, M; Prieto, L Velilla; Castro-Carrizo, A; Marcelino, N; Cabezas, C; Peña, I; Alonso, J L; Zúñiga, J; Requena, A; Bastida, A; Kalugina, Y; Lique, F; Guélin, M

    2016-02-20

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is allowing us to study the innermost regions of the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars with un-precedented precision and sensitivity. Key processes in the ejection of matter and dust from these objects occur in their inner zones. In this work, we present sub-arcsecond interferometric maps of transitions of metal-bearing molecules towards the prototypical C-rich evolved star IRC +10216. While Al-bearing molecules seem to be present as a roughly spherical shell, the molecular emission from the salts NaCl and KCl presents an elongation in the inner regions, with a central minimum. In order to accurately analyze the emission from the NaCl rotational lines, we present new calculations of the collisional rates for this molecule based on new spectroscopic constants. The most plausible interpretation for the spatial distribution of the salts is a spiral with a NaCl mass of 0.08M☉. Alternatively, a torus of gas and dust would result in similar structures as those observed. From the torus scenario we derive a mass of ~ 1.1 × 10(-4)M☉. In both cases, the spiral and the torus, the NaCl structure presents an inner minimum of 27 AU. In the case of the torus, the outer radius is 73 AU. The kinematics of both the spiral and the torus suggests that they are slowly expanding and rotating. Alternative explanations for the presence of the elongation are explored. The presence of these features only in KCl and NaCl might be a result of their comparatively high dipole moment with respect to the Al-bearing species.

  12. Hints for the Improvement of Quality Teaching in Introductory Engineering Statistics Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta Felipe M. Aparicio

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a way to improve the quality of statistics teaching to undergraduate engineering students. Teaching quality can be understood as a goal to be achieved in three nurtured phases: (1) course planning; (2) adoption of methodological approach; and (3) evaluation of results. (Author/SAH)

  13. Origin and Evolution of Retinoid Isomerization Machinery in Vertebrate Visual Cycle: Hint from Jawless Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B.; Redmond, T. Michael

    2012-01-01

    In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65’s substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc.) in the last common ancestor of the jawless and jawed vertebrates. PMID:23209628

  14. Of Foreign Languages... Some Hints on Do-It-Yourself Public Relations for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorke, Harvey F.

    1972-01-01

    Seeking to help language teachers improve their public relations programs, the author analyzes fundamental principles of public relations and communications theory. Discussion centers on group dynamics and communications, differences between public relations and teaching, the importance of the message, and market analysis. Teachers are advised on…

  15. UnCover on the Web: search hints and applications in library environments.

    PubMed

    Galpern, N F; Albert, K M

    1997-01-01

    Among the huge maze of resources available on the Internet, UnCoverWeb stands out as a valuable tool for medical libraries. This up-to-date, free-access, multidisciplinary database of periodical references is searched through an easy-to-learn graphical user interface that is a welcome improvement over the telnet version. This article reviews the basic and advanced search techniques for UnCoverWeb, as well as providing information on the document delivery functions and table of contents alerting service called Reveal. UnCover's currency is evaluated and compared with other current awareness resources. System deficiencies are discussed, with the conclusion that although UnCoverWeb lacks the sophisticated features of many commercial database search services, it is nonetheless a useful addition to the repertoire of information sources available in a library.

  16. Proteomic analysis of Daphnia magna hints at molecular pathways involved in defensive plastic responses.

    PubMed

    Otte, Kathrin A; Fröhlich, Thomas; Arnold, Georg J; Laforsch, Christian

    2014-04-24

    Phenotypic plasticity in defensive traits occurs in many species when facing heterogeneous predator regimes. The waterflea Daphnia is well-known for showing a variety of these so called inducible defences. However, molecular mechanisms underlying this plasticity are poorly understood so far. We performed proteomic analysis on Daphnia magna exposed to chemical cues of the predator Triops cancriformis. D. magna develops an array of morphological changes in the presence of Triops including changes of carapace morphology and cuticle hardening. Using the 2D-DIGE technique, 1500 protein spots could be matched and quantified. We discovered 179 protein spots with altered intensity when comparing Triops exposed animals to a control group, and 69 spots were identified using nano-LC MS/MS. Kairomone exposure increased the intensity of spots containing muscle proteins, cuticle proteins and chitin-modifying enzymes as well as enzymes of carbohydrate and energy metabolism. The yolk precursor protein vitellogenin decreased in abundance in 41 of 43 spots. Identified proteins may be either directly involved in carapace stability or reflect changes in energy demand and allocation costs in animals exposed to predator kairomones. Our results present promising candidate proteins involved in the expression of inducible defences in Daphnia and enable further in depth analysis of this phenomenon.

  17. GRB spectra in the MeV range: hints from INTEGRAL

    SciTech Connect

    Bulik, Tomasz; Denis, Miroslaw; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Goldoni, Paolo; Laurent, Philip; Osuch, Lukasz

    2007-07-12

    INTEGRAL detects a large number of gamma-ray bursts outside of its field of view with the SPI ACS. Several of these bursts are also detected by IBIS. We present the results of the spectral analysis using the ISRGI, PICSIT and Compton mode data of several bursts. These bursts show very hard spectra with the high energy index reaching -2 above 1 MeV We show that there is a group of bursts with the peak energy Epeak in the MeV range. We discuss the implications of these findings for GLAST.

  18. Melatonin, Noncoding RNAs, Messenger RNA Stability and Epigenetics—Evidence, Hints, Gaps and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hardeland, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is a highly pleiotropic regulator molecule, which influences numerous functions in almost every organ and, thus, up- or down-regulates many genes, frequently in a circadian manner. Our understanding of the mechanisms controlling gene expression is actually now expanding to a previously unforeseen extent. In addition to classic actions of transcription factors, gene expression is induced, suppressed or modulated by a number of RNAs and proteins, such as miRNAs, lncRNAs, piRNAs, antisense transcripts, deadenylases, DNA methyltransferases, histone methylation complexes, histone demethylases, histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases. Direct or indirect evidence for involvement of melatonin in this network of players has originated in different fields, including studies on central and peripheral circadian oscillators, shift work, cancer, inflammation, oxidative stress, aging, energy expenditure/obesity, diabetes type 2, neuropsychiatric disorders, and neurogenesis. Some of the novel modulators have also been shown to participate in the control of melatonin biosynthesis and melatonin receptor expression. Future work will need to augment the body of evidence on direct epigenetic actions of melatonin and to systematically investigate its role within the network of oscillating epigenetic factors. Moreover, it will be necessary to discriminate between effects observed under conditions of well-operating and deregulated circadian clocks, and to explore the possibilities of correcting epigenetic malprogramming by melatonin. PMID:25310649

  19. Melatonin, noncoding RNAs, messenger RNA stability and epigenetics--evidence, hints, gaps and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hardeland, Rüdiger

    2014-10-10

    Melatonin is a highly pleiotropic regulator molecule, which influences numerous functions in almost every organ and, thus, up- or down-regulates many genes, frequently in a circadian manner. Our understanding of the mechanisms controlling gene expression is actually now expanding to a previously unforeseen extent. In addition to classic actions of transcription factors, gene expression is induced, suppressed or modulated by a number of RNAs and proteins, such as miRNAs, lncRNAs, piRNAs, antisense transcripts, deadenylases, DNA methyltransferases, histone methylation complexes, histone demethylases, histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases. Direct or indirect evidence for involvement of melatonin in this network of players has originated in different fields, including studies on central and peripheral circadian oscillators, shift work, cancer, inflammation, oxidative stress, aging, energy expenditure/obesity, diabetes type 2, neuropsychiatric disorders, and neurogenesis. Some of the novel modulators have also been shown to participate in the control of melatonin biosynthesis and melatonin receptor expression. Future work will need to augment the body of evidence on direct epigenetic actions of melatonin and to systematically investigate its role within the network of oscillating epigenetic factors. Moreover, it will be necessary to discriminate between effects observed under conditions of well-operating and deregulated circadian clocks, and to explore the possibilities of correcting epigenetic malprogramming by melatonin.

  20. Hint of CPT violation in short-baseline electron neutrino disappearance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2010-12-01

    We analyzed the electron neutrino data of the Gallium radioactive source experiments and the electron antineutrino data of the reactor Bugey and Chooz experiments in terms of neutrino oscillations allowing for a CPT-violating difference of the squared masses and mixings of neutrinos and antineutrinos. We found that the discrepancy between the disappearance of electron neutrinos indicated by the data of the Gallium radioactive source experiments and the limits on the disappearance of electron antineutrinos given by the data of reactor experiments reveal a positive CPT-violating asymmetry of the effective neutrino and antineutrino mixing angles (with a statistical significance of about 3.5σ), whereas the squared-mass asymmetry is practically not bounded.

  1. Bird Flight: Hints to Be Obtained from It for Use in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnan,

    1923-01-01

    This report is a comprehensive study of birds and how their shapes have been molded by the resistance of the air. 500 species of birds were studied and nearly 30,000 ratios calculated. The author makes a distinction between flapping and soaring flight.

  2. The bioethics and law paradox: an argument to maintain separateness with a hint of togetherness.

    PubMed

    Werren, Julia

    2007-10-01

    This article analyses how bioethics and law interact and work together. The first half of the article provides definitions of both ethics and bioethics. The article then considers a number of different bioethical standpoints to demonstrate the variance of views in relation to bioethics. In addition, the first half of the article focuses on the different regulatory possibilities in regard to bioethical contexts. This demonstrates that law is of central importance to bioethics. This part also shows that even though law and ethics are often used simultaneously to achieve bioethical goals, law and ethics cannot be used interchangeably. Thus, even though it is somewhat inevitable that law will be used in the pursuit of the goals of bioethics, bioethics and bioethical principle should not be merely a vehicle for law-makers to utilise. The second half of the article focuses on the issues of autonomy and consent to demonstrate how law and ethics have developed in one of the foundation areas of bioethics.

  3. What triggers the rising of an intraspecific biodiversity hotspot? Hints from the agile frog.

    PubMed

    Canestrelli, Daniele; Bisconti, Roberta; Sacco, Florinda; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2014-05-23

    Hotspots of genetic diversity are regions of utmost importance for species survival and conservation, and their intimate link with the geographic location of glacial refugia has been well established. Nonetheless, the microevolutionary processes underlying the generation of hotspots in such regions have only recently become a fervent field of research. We investigated the phylogeographic and population genetic structure of the agile frog, Rana dalmatina, within its putative refugium in peninsular Italy. We found this region to harbour far more diversity, phylogeographic structure, and lineages of ancient origin than that by the rest of the species' range in Europe. This pattern appeared to be well explained by climate-driven microevolutionary processes that occurred during both glacial and interglacial epochs. Therefore, the inferred evolutionary history of R. dalmatina in Italy supports a view of glacial refugia as 'factories' rather than as repositories of genetic diversity, with significant implications for conservation strategies for hotspots.

  4. Ignoring Memory Hints: The Stubborn Influence of Environmental Cues on Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selmeczy, Diana; Dobbins, Ian G.

    2017-01-01

    Recognition judgments can benefit from the use of environmental cues that signal the general likelihood of encountering familiar versus unfamiliar stimuli. While incorporating such cues is often adaptive, there are circumstances (e.g., eyewitness testimony) in which observers should fully ignore environmental cues in order to preserve memory…

  5. On (Not) Representing Sex in Preschool and Kindergarten: A Psychoanalytic Reflection on Orders and Hints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Colette A.

    2007-01-01

    In this conceptual piece I use two pedagogical texts or moments--a preschool/kindergarten diagram representing body parts, and an adult dance class--to explore gaps in curricula and practice with respect to the treatment of young children's sexual curiosity. Looking first at social constructs of children's sexuality and sexual curiosity, and at…

  6. Spleen histology in children with sickle cell disease and hereditary spherocytosis: hints on the disease pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Pizzi, Marco; Fuligni, Fabio; Santoro, Luisa; Sabattini, Elena; Ichino, Martina; De Vito, Rita; Zucchetta, Pietro; Colombatti, Raffaella; Sainati, Laura; Gamba, Piergiorgio; Alaggio, Rita

    2017-02-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and sickle cell disease (SCD) are associated with splenomegaly and spleen dysfunction in pediatric patients. Scant data exist on possible correlations between spleen morphology and function in HS and SCD. This study aimed to assess the histologic and morphometric features of HS and SCD spleens, to get possible correlations with disease pathophysiology. In a large series of spleens from SCD, HS, and control patients, the following parameters were considered: (i) macroscopic features, (ii) lymphoid follicle (LF) density, (iii) presence of perifollicular marginal zones, (iv) presence of Gamna-Gandy bodies, (v) density of CD8-positive sinusoids, (vi) density of CD34-positive microvessels, (vii) presence/distribution of fibrosis and smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive myoid cells, and (viii) density of CD68-positive macrophages. SCD and HS spleens had similar macroscopic features. SCD spleens had lower LF density and fewer marginal zones than did HS spleens and controls. SCD also showed lower CD8-positive sinusoid density, increased CD34-positive microvessel density and SMA-positive myoid cells, and higher prevalence of fibrosis and Gamna-Gandy bodies. HS had lower LF and CD8-positive sinusoid density than did controls. No significant differences were noted in red pulp macrophages. By multivariate analysis, most HS spleens clustered with controls, whereas SCD grouped separately. A multiparametric score could predict the degree of spleen changes irrespective of the underlying disease. In conclusion, SCD spleens display greater histologic effacement than HS, and SCD-related changes suggest impaired function due to vascular damage. These observations may contribute to guide the clinical management of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical hints and precipitating factors in patients suffering from Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Steven D

    2010-10-01

    Meniere disease is one of the most fascinating and most vexing of all clinical conditions encountered by the otolaryngologist. Operationally speaking, a Meniere ear is a fragile ear. In fact, Meniere disease can and should be redefined as a degenerating inner ear that has impairment of one or more homeostatic systems, resulting in instability of hearing and balance function. This updated definition is a valuable guide to the clinical epidemiology and presentation of Meniere disease and to understanding the effects of conservative treatments. In the absence of a definitive test for Meniere disease, the greatest challenge for the clinician may be differentiating this condition from migraine. Ultimately, Meniere vertigo attacks are controllable in more than 99% of cases, but hearing loss and other auditory symptoms tend to be unresponsive to treatment.

  8. Procedural versus Content-Related Hints for Word Problem Solving: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kock, W. D.; Harskamp, E. G.

    2016-01-01

    For primary school students, mathematical word problems are often more difficult to solve than straightforward number problems. Word problems require reading and analysis skills, and in order to explain their situational contexts, the proper mathematical knowledge and number operations have to be selected. To improve students' ability in solving…

  9. Teaching Database Modeling and Design: Areas of Confusion and Helpful Hints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, George C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies several areas of database modeling and design that have been problematic for students and even are likely to confuse faculty. Major contributing factors are the lack of clarity and inaccuracies that persist in the presentation of some basic database concepts in textbooks. The paper analyzes the problems and discusses ways to…

  10. Hints of correlation between broad-line and radio variations for 3C 120

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H. T.; Bai, J. M.; Li, S. K.; Wang, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the correlation between broad-line and radio variations for the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 120. By the z-transformed discrete correlation function method and the model-independent flux randomization/random subset selection (FR/RSS) Monte Carlo method, we find that broad Hβ line variations lead the 15 GHz variations. The FR/RSS method shows that the Hβ line variations lead the radio variations by a factor of τ{sub ob} = 0.34 ± 0.01 yr. This time lag can be used to locate the position of the emitting region of radio outbursts in the jet, on the order of ∼5 lt-yr from the central engine. This distance is much larger than the size of the broad-line region. The large separation of the radio outburst emitting region from the broad-line region will observably influence the gamma-ray emission in 3C 120.

  11. They can take a hint: Older adults effectively integrate memory cues during recognition.

    PubMed

    Konkel, Alex; Selmeczy, Diana; Dobbins, Ian G

    2015-12-01

    Adaptively biasing recognition judgments in light of environmental cues improves net accuracy. Based on previous work suggesting that strategically shifting biases on a trial-wise basis should be cognitively demanding, the authors predicted that older adults would not achieve the same accuracy benefits from environmental cues as the young. However, despite showing clear declines in cognitive control as indexed by complex span, older adults demonstrated similar accuracy gains and similar alterations of response probabilities with cues of 75% reliability (Experiment 1) and more complex cues spanning 3 levels of reliability (Experiment 2). Despite preserved gains in accuracy, older adults clearly demonstrated disproportionate slowing that was specific to trials in which cues were invalid. This slowing may reflect impairments in behavioral inhibition that could impinge upon accuracy were responding increasingly sped and future work manipulating response speed and measures of inhibition may yield further insights.

  12. Helpful Hints: Q and A for Use of the e-TSCA/e-PMN Submission Software

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The documentexplains some of the electronic reporting requirements in 40 CFR parts 720, 723 and 725applicable to documents submitted pursuant to those provisions. The document also discussesrecommended practices for such submission.

  13. Challenge of liver disease in systemic lupus erythematosus: Clues for diagnosis and hints for pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bessone, Fernando; Poles, Natalia; Roma, Marcelo G

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) encompass a broad spectrum of liver diseases. We propose here to classify them as follows: (1) immunological comorbilities (overlap syndromes); (2) non-immunological comorbilities associated to SLE; and (3) a putative liver damage induced by SLE itself, referred to as “lupus hepatitis”. In the first group, liver injury can be ascribed to overlapping hepatopathies triggered by autoimmune mechanisms other than SLE occurring with higher incidence in the context of lupus (e.g., autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis). The second group includes non-autoimmune liver diseases, such as esteatosis, hepatitis C, hypercoagulation state-related liver lesions, hyperplasic parenchymal and vascular lesions, porphyria cutanea tarda, and drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Finally, the data in the literature to support the existence of a hepatic disease produced by SLE itself, or the occurrence of a SLE-associated prone condition that increases susceptibility to acquire other liver diseases, is critically discussed. The pathological mechanisms underlying each of these liver disorders are also reviewed. Despite the high heterogeneity in the literature regarding the prevalence of SLE-associated liver diseases and, in most cases, lack of histopathological evidence or clinical studies large enough to support their existence, it is becoming increasingly apparent that liver is an important target of SLE. Consequently, biochemical liver tests should be routinely carried out in SLE patients to discard liver disorders, particularly in those patients chronically exposed to potentially hepatotoxic drugs. Diagnosing liver disease in SLE patients is always challenging, and the systematization of the current information carried out in this review is expected to be of help both to attain a better understanding of pathogenesis and to build an appropriate work-up for diagnosis. PMID:25018850

  14. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: an analysis of epidemiological studies and hints for pathologists.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Vera Cavalcanti; Passador-Santos, Fabricio; Turssi, Cecilia; Soares, Andresa Borges; de Araujo, Ney Soares

    2013-01-15

    This study is an analysis of the prevalence of polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) in epidemiological surveys of salivary tumors published in the English language from 1992 to 2012. These surveys included studies from different researchers, countries and continents. The 57 surveys for which it was possible to calculate the percentage of PLGAs among all malignant minor salivary gland tumors (MMSGT) were included in this review. The statistical analyses show significant differences in the PLGA percentage by time period, country and continent in the studies included in this review. The percentage of PLGAs among MMSGTs varied among the studies, ranging from 0.0% to 46.8%. PLGA rates have varied over the period studied and have most recently increased. The frequency of reported PLGA cases also varied from 0.0% to 24.8% by the country in which the MMSGT studies were performed. The PLGA percentages also varied significantly by continent, with frequencies ranging from 3.9% in Asia to 20.0% in Oceania Based on these results, we concluded that although the accuracy of PLGA diagnoses has improved, they remain a challenge for pathologists. To facilitate PLGA diagnoses, we have therefore made some suggestions for pathologists regarding tumors composed of single-layer strands of cells that form all of the histological patterns present in the tumor, consistency of the cytological appearance and uniformly positive CK7, vimentin and S100 immunohistochemistry, which indicate a single PLGA phenotype. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1059098656858324.

  15. What triggers the rising of an intraspecific biodiversity hotspot? Hints from the agile frog

    PubMed Central

    Canestrelli, Daniele; Bisconti, Roberta; Sacco, Florinda; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Hotspots of genetic diversity are regions of utmost importance for species survival and conservation, and their intimate link with the geographic location of glacial refugia has been well established. Nonetheless, the microevolutionary processes underlying the generation of hotspots in such regions have only recently become a fervent field of research. We investigated the phylogeographic and population genetic structure of the agile frog, Rana dalmatina, within its putative refugium in peninsular Italy. We found this region to harbour far more diversity, phylogeographic structure, and lineages of ancient origin than that by the rest of the species' range in Europe. This pattern appeared to be well explained by climate-driven microevolutionary processes that occurred during both glacial and interglacial epochs. Therefore, the inferred evolutionary history of R. dalmatina in Italy supports a view of glacial refugia as ‘factories' rather than as repositories of genetic diversity, with significant implications for conservation strategies for hotspots. PMID:24853644

  16. Human melody singing by bullfinches (Pyrrhula pyrrula) gives hints about a cognitive note sequence processing.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, Jürgen; Gundacker, Christina; Teeselink, Katharina; Güttinger, Hans Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We studied human melody perception and production in a songbird in the light of current concepts from the cognitive neuroscience of music. Bullfinches are the species best known for learning melodies from human teachers. The study is based on the historical data of 15 bullfinches, raised by 3 different human tutors and studied later by Jürgen Nicolai (JN) in the period 1967-1975. These hand-raised bullfinches learned human folk melodies (sequences of 20-50 notes) accurately. The tutoring was interactive and variable, starting before fledging and JN continued it later throughout the birds' lives. All 15 bullfinches learned to sing alternately melody modules with JN (alternate singing). We focus on the aspects of note sequencing and timing studying song variability when singing the learned melody alone and the accuracy of listening-singing interactions during alternatively singing with JN by analyzing song recordings of 5 different males. The following results were obtained as follows: (1) Sequencing: The note sequence variability when singing alone suggests that the bullfinches retrieve the note sequence from the memory as different sets of note groups (=modules), as chunks (sensu Miller in Psychol Rev 63:81-87, 1956). (2) Auditory-motor interactions, the coupling of listening and singing the human melody: Alternate singing provides insights into the bird's brain melody processing from listening to the actually whistled part of the human melody by JN to the bird's own accurately singing the consecutive parts. We document how variable and correctly bullfinches and JN alternated in their singing the note sequences. Alternate singing demonstrates that melody-singing bullfinches did not only follow attentively the just whistled note contribution of the human by auditory feedback, but also could synchronously anticipate singing the consecutive part of the learned melody. These data suggest that both listening and singing may depend on a single learned human melody representation (=coupling between perception and production).

  17. Considering Homeschooling Your Child on the Autism Spectrum? Some Helpful Hints and Suggestions for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlbutt, Karen

    2010-01-01

    With the increase in the numbers of diagnosed children on the autism spectrum, schools are being challenged to provide proper educational services for these children. In Educating Children with Autism, the National Research Council recommended that educational programs for students with autism include three basic components. These are direct…

  18. Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Poliakov, Eugenia; Gubin, Alexander N; Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B; Redmond, T Michael

    2012-01-01

    In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65's substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc.) in the last common ancestor of the jawless and jawed vertebrates.

  19. Hints on the nature of dark matter from the properties of Milky Way satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Anderhalden, Donnino; Diemand, Juerg; Schneider, Aurel; Macciò, Andrea V.; Bertone, Gianfranco E-mail: aurel.schneider@sussex.ac.uk E-mail: diemand@physik.uzh.ch

    2013-03-01

    The nature of dark matter is still unknown and one of the most fundamental scientific mysteries. Although successfully describing large scales, the standard cold dark matter model (CDM) exhibits possible shortcomings on galactic and sub-galactic scales. It is exactly at these highly non-linear scales where strong astrophysical constraints can be set on the nature of the dark matter particle. While observations of the Lyman-α forest probe the matter power spectrum in the mildly non-linear regime, satellite galaxies of the Milky Way provide an excellent laboratory as a test of the underlying cosmology on much smaller scales. Here we present results from a set of high resolution simulations of a Milky Way sized dark matter halo in eight distinct cosmologies: CDM, warm dark matter (WDM) with a particle mass of 2 keV and six different cold plus warm dark matter (C+WDM) models, varying the fraction, f{sub wdm}, and the mass, m{sub wdm}, of the warm component. We used three different observational tests based on Milky Way satellite observations: the total satellite abundance, their radial distribution and their mass profile. We show that the requirement of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints sets very strong limits on the nature of dark matter. This shows the power of a multi-dimensional small scale approach in ruling out models which would be still allowed by large scale observations.

  20. SPINS OF LARGE ASTEROIDS: A HINT OF A PRIMORDIAL DISTRIBUTION IN THEIR SPIN RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, Elad; Sari, Re’em

    2015-04-15

    The Asteroid Belt and the Kuiper Belt are relics from the formation of our solar system. Understanding the size and spin distribution of the two belts is crucial for a deeper understanding of the formation of our solar system and the dynamical processes that govern it. In this paper, we investigate the effect of collisions on the evolution of the spin distribution of asteroids and KBOs. We find that the power law nature of the impactors’ size distribution leads to a Lévy distribution of the spin rates. This results in a power law tail in the spin distribution, in stark contrast to the usually quoted Maxwellian distribution. We show that for bodies larger than 10 km, collisions alone lead to spin rates peaking at 0.15–0.5 revolutions per day. Comparing that to the observed spin rates of large asteroids (R > 50 km), we find that the spins of large asteroids, peaking at ∼1–2 revolutions per day, are dominated by a primordial component that reflects the formation mechanism of the asteroids. Similarly, the Kuiper Belt has undergone virtually no collisional spin evolution, assuming current densities. Collisions contribute a spin rate of ∼0.01 revolutions per day, thus the observed fast spin rates of KBOs are also primordial in nature.

  1. Hints for Hidden Planetary Companions to Hot Jupiters in Stellar Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamers, Adrian S.

    2017-02-01

    Searches for stellar companions to hot Jupiters (HJs) have revealed that planetary systems hosting an HJ are approximately three times more likely to have a stellar companion with a semimajor axis between 50 and 2000 au, compared to field stars. This correlation suggests that HJ formation is affected by the stellar binary companion. A potential model is high-eccentricity migration, in which the binary companion induces high-eccentricity Lidov–Kozai (LK) oscillations in the proto-HJ orbit, triggering orbital migration driven by tides. A pitfall of this “binary-LK” model is that the observed stellar binaries hosting HJs are typically too wide to produce HJs in sufficient numbers because of suppression by short-range forces. We propose a modification to the binary-LK model in which there is a second giant planet orbiting the proto-HJ at a semimajor axis of several tens of au. Such companions are currently hidden to observations, but their presence could be manifested by a propagation of the perturbation of the stellar binary companion inward to the proto-HJ, thereby overcoming the barrier imposed by short-range forces. Our model does not require the planetary companion orbit to be eccentric and/or inclined with respect to the proto-HJ, but its semimajor axis should lie in a specific range given the planetary mass and binary semimajor axis, and the inclination with respect to the binary should be near 40° or 140°. Our prediction for planetary companions to HJs in stellar binaries should be testable by future observations.

  2. "A hint of it, with initials": adultery, textuality and publicity in Jane Austen's Lady Susan.

    PubMed

    Russell, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    In spite of Jane Austen's professed “eye” for an adulteress, comparatively little attention has been paid to adultery and divorce as themes and contexts of her fiction. Her unpublished epistolary novel Lady Susan has a distinctive status in Austen's oeuvre, recognized as being exemplary of her “style” and yet atypical of her later achievement. A neglected context for the novel is the extensive reporting of adultery trials in contemporary print culture and the moral panic concerning adultery in the 1780s and 1790s, focusing initially on the adulteress as the brazen woman of fashion and later as a figure of sentimentalized abjection. A particularly notorious case, that involving Lady Henrietta Grosvenor and George III's brother, the Duke of Cumberland, is directly alluded to in Lady Susan. The textual strategies of adultery trial literature, particularly its emphasis on indirection through the use of detail or “hint”, had a long-term influence on the development of Austen's fiction and her positioning of herself as a professional writer after the 1790s.

  3. Building Models to Predict Hint-or-Attempt Actions of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Francisco Enrique Vicente; Adjei, Seth; Colombo, Tyler; Heffernan, Neil

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of research in educational data mining is geared towards predicting student performance. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing, Performance Factors Analysis, and the different variations of these have been introduced and have had some success at predicting student knowledge. It is worth noting, however, that very little has been done to…

  4. Association of Tinnitus and Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity: Hints for a Shared Pathophysiology?

    PubMed Central

    Landgrebe, Michael; Frick, Ulrich; Hauser, Simone; Hajak, Goeran; Langguth, Berthold

    2009-01-01

    Background Tinnitus is a frequent condition with high morbidity and impairment in quality of life. The pathophysiology is still incompletely understood. Electromagnetic fields are discussed to be involved in the multi-factorial pathogenesis of tinnitus, but data proofing this relationship are very limited. Potential health hazards of electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been under discussion for long. Especially, individuals claiming themselves to be electromagnetic hypersensitive suffer from a variety of unspecific symptoms, which they attribute to EMF-exposure. The aim of the study was to elucidate the relationship between EMF-exposure, electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus using a case-control design. Methodology Tinnitus occurrence and tinnitus severity were assessed by questionnaires in 89 electromagnetic hypersensitive patients and 107 controls matched for age-, gender, living surroundings and workplace. Using a logistic regression approach, potential risk factors for the development of tinnitus were evaluated. Findings Tinnitus was significantly more frequent in the electromagnetic hypersensitive group (50.72% vs. 17.5%) whereas tinnitus duration and severity did not differ between groups. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus were independent risk factors for sleep disturbances. However, measures of individual EMF-exposure like e.g. cell phone use did not show any association with tinnitus. Conclusions Our data indicate that tinnitus is associated with subjective electromagnetic hypersensitivity. An individual vulnerability probably due to an over activated cortical distress network seems to be responsible for, both, electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus. Hence, therapeutic efforts should focus on treatment strategies (e.g. cognitive behavioral therapy) aiming at normalizing this dysfunctional distress network. PMID:19325894

  5. Hints of a rotating spiral structure in the innermost regions around IRC +10216

    PubMed Central

    Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Cernicharo, J.; Agúndez, M.; Prieto, L. Velilla; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Marcelino, N.; Cabezas, C.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J.L.; Zúñiga, J.; Requena, A.; Bastida, A.; Kalugina, Y.; Lique, F.; Guélin, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is allowing us to study the innermost regions of the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars with un-precedented precision and sensitivity. Key processes in the ejection of matter and dust from these objects occur in their inner zones. In this work, we present sub-arcsecond interferometric maps of transitions of metal-bearing molecules towards the prototypical C-rich evolved star IRC +10216. While Al-bearing molecules seem to be present as a roughly spherical shell, the molecular emission from the salts NaCl and KCl presents an elongation in the inner regions, with a central minimum. In order to accurately analyze the emission from the NaCl rotational lines, we present new calculations of the collisional rates for this molecule based on new spectroscopic constants. The most plausible interpretation for the spatial distribution of the salts is a spiral with a NaCl mass of 0.08M☉. Alternatively, a torus of gas and dust would result in similar structures as those observed. From the torus scenario we derive a mass of ~ 1.1 × 10−4M☉. In both cases, the spiral and the torus, the NaCl structure presents an inner minimum of 27 AU. In the case of the torus, the outer radius is 73 AU. The kinematics of both the spiral and the torus suggests that they are slowly expanding and rotating. Alternative explanations for the presence of the elongation are explored. The presence of these features only in KCl and NaCl might be a result of their comparatively high dipole moment with respect to the Al-bearing species. PMID:26997665

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CALIFA galaxies observational hints (Ruiz-Lara+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Lara, T.; Perez, I.; Florido, E.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Sanchez-Menguiano, L.; Sanchez, S. F.; Lyubenova, M.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Marino, R. A.; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A.; Catalan-Torrecilla, C.; Costantin, L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; Garcia-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Kehrig, C.; Marquez, I.; Mast, D.; Walcher, C. J.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegle, B.; Califa Team

    2017-05-01

    Characterisation of the sample of galaxies under analysis in the paper. The sample comprises 214 galaxies from the CALIFA survey. For each galaxy the name, equatorial coordinates, morphological type, presence of a bar, surface brightness profile type, inner disc scale length (kpc), outer disc scale length (kpc), and break radius in units of the inner disc scale length are given. Columns (1), (2), (3), and (4) from the CALIFA general sample characterisation (Walcher et al., 2014A&A...569A...1W). Columns (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), and (10) from the 2D decomposition performed in Mendez-Abreu et al. (2017, Cat. J/A+A/598/A32). (1 data file).

  7. RADIO CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS OF 47 TUCANAE AND {omega} CENTAURI: HINTS FOR INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES?

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ting-Ni; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2011-03-10

    We present results of deep radio continuum observations of two galactic globular clusters 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc) and {omega} Centauri ({omega} Cen) with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. No statistically significant evidence for radio emission was found from the central region for the two clusters. However, both clusters show a 2.5{sigma} detection near the center that may be confirmed by future deeper radio observations. The 3{sigma} upper limits of the radio observations are 20 and 40 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} for {omega} Cen and 47 Tuc, respectively. By using the fundamental plane of accreting black holes, which describes the relationship between radio luminosity, X-ray luminosity, and black hole mass, we constrain the mass of a possible intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) in the globualar clusters. We also compare our results with other globular clusters and discuss the existence of IMBHs in globular clusters.

  8. Magic, Nostalgia and a Hint of Greatness in the Workaday World of the Building Types Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles W.; Oliver, Richard B.

    1977-01-01

    The Architectural Record's Building Types Studies, now forty years old, exist as a compendium of raw material for an esthetic, stylistic, sociopolitical, and technological evaluation of contemporary U.S. architecture as it actually was built. (Author/MLF)

  9. Perceptual strategies of pigeons to detect a rotational centre--a hint for star compass learning?

    PubMed

    Alert, Bianca; Michalik, Andreas; Helduser, Sascha; Mouritsen, Henrik; Güntürkün, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy.

  10. Airborne multisensor pod system (AMPS) data: Multispectral data integration and processing hints

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, T.J.; Lamb, A.

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Non-Proliferation (NN-20) has developed a suite of airborne remote sensing systems that simultaneously collect coincident data from a US Navy P-3 aircraft. The primary objective of the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) Program is {open_quotes}to collect multisensor data that can be used for data research, both to reduce interpretation problems associated with data overload and to develop information products more complete than can be obtained from any single sensor.{close_quotes} The sensors are housed in wing-mounted pods and include: a Ku-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar; a CASI Hyperspectral Imager; a Daedalus 3600 Airborne Multispectral Scanner; a Wild Heerbrugg RC-30 motion compensated large format camera; various high resolution, light intensified and thermal video cameras; and several experimental sensors (e.g. the Portable Hyperspectral Imager of Low-Light Spectroscopy (PHILLS)). Over the past year or so, the Coastal Marine Resource Assessment (CAMRA) group at the Florida Department of Environmental Protection`s Marine Research Institute (FMRI) has been working with the Department of Energy through the Naval Research Laboratory to develop applications and products from existing data. Considerable effort has been spent identifying image formats integration parameters. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Spatially Resolved Spectroscopic Star Formation Histories of nearby Disks: Hints of Stellar Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoachim, Peter; Roškar, Rok; Debattista, Victor P.

    2012-06-01

    We use the Mitchell Spectrograph (formerly VIRUS-P) to observe 12 nearby disk galaxies. We successfully measure ages in the outer disk in six systems. In three cases (NGC 2684, NGC 6155, and NGC 7437), we find that a downward break in the disk surface brightness profile corresponds with a change in the dominant stellar population with the interior being dominated by active star formation and the exterior having older stellar populations that are best fit with star formation histories that decline with time. The observed increase in average stellar ages beyond a profile break is similar to theoretical models that predict surface brightness breaks are caused by stellar migration, with the outer disk being populated from scattered old interior stars. In three more cases (IC 1132, NGC 4904, and NGC 6691), we find no significant change in the stellar population as one crosses the break radius. In these galaxies, both the inner and outer disks are dominated by active star formation and younger stellar populations. While radial migration can contribute to the stellar populations beyond the break, it appears that more than one mechanism is required to explain all of our observed stellar profile breaks. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  12. Understanding Public Engagement in Water Conservation Behaviors and Knowledge of Water Policy: Promising Hints for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2015-01-01

    Sustaining water resources is a primary issue facing Florida Extension. The study reported here identified how experience with water issues and familiarity with water policies affected individuals' engagement in water conservation behaviors. A public opinion survey was conducted online to capture Florida residents' responses. The findings…

  13. Globalization or Hegemony? Childcare on the Brink: Hints from Three Geographically Distant Localities in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, John P.; Thirumurthy, Vidya; Field, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    In a previous publication the authors examined selected aspects of the structure and curriculum of fifteen childcare centers located in three geographically distant locations in North America and determined that contrasts within and between the regions in terms of structure and curriculum guided by the National Association for the Education of…

  14. Theoretical study on the acidities of chiral phosphoric acids in dimethyl sulfoxide: hints for organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Xue, Xiao-Song; Jin, Jia-Lu; Li, Xin; Cheng, Jin-Pei

    2013-07-19

    The pKa values of 41 chiral phosphoric acid-family catalysts in DMSO were predicted using the SMD/M06-2x/6-311++G(2df,2p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d) method for the first time. The study showed that the calculated pKa's range from -4.23 to 6.16 for absolute pKa values and from -4.21 to 6.38 for relative pKa values. Excellent agreement between the calculated and experimental pKa's was achieved for the few available cases (to a precision of around 0.4 pKa unit), indicating that this strategy may be suitable for calculating highly accurate pKa's. A good linear correlation between the pKa's for 3 and 3' disubstituted phenyl BINOL phosphoric acids and the Hammett constants was obtained. The relationship between the acidities of phosphoric acid catalysts and their reaction activity and selectivity was also discussed. Knowledge of the pKa values of phosphoric acids should be of great value for the understanding of chiral Brønsted acid-catalyzed reactions and may aid in future catalyst design.

  15. Estimating Dynamical Systems: Derivative Estimation Hints from Sir Ronald A. Fisher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboeck, Pascal R.

    2010-01-01

    The fitting of dynamical systems to psychological data offers the promise of addressing new and innovative questions about how people change over time. One method of fitting dynamical systems is to estimate the derivatives of a time series and then examine the relationships between derivatives using a differential equation model. One common…

  16. Are You a Gut Responder? Hints on Coping with an Irritable Bowel

    MedlinePlus

    ... embarrassment. Loss of control, loss of dignity, altered body image, reduced physical activity, and dietary restrictions may all be problems to contend with. These can interfere with work or school and social functions both in obvious and subtle ways – including ...

  17. Fermionic dark matter through a light pseudoscalar portal: Hints from the DAMA results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kwei-Chou

    2016-08-01

    We study the fermionic dark matter (DM) particle interacting with Standard Model quarks via a light pseudoscalar mediator. We consider separately the scenarios for which the DM-pseudoscalar coupling is C P conserving or C P violating. We show that taking a contact interaction is not suitable, even when the mediator has a mass of the same order of magnitude as the typical momentum transfer at the direct-detection experiments, such that the allowed DAMA region is excluded or considerably modified by the correct relic density requirement. The DAMA result seems to indicate that the C P -violating interaction is dominant at direct searches. We find that, if the proton-to-neutron effective coupling ratio is -60 ˜-40 , the exclusion limits set by SuperCDMS, XENON100, and LUX are highly suppressed, and the DAMA signal can thus be easily reconciled with these null measurements. For this model, the allowed region determined by the DAMA signal and correct relic density can successfully satisfy the conditions required by the thermal equilibrium, big bang nucleosynthesis, and DM self-interactions. The results of future measurements on flavor physics will provide important constraints on the related models. Precise measurements performed by COUPP, PICASSO, SIMPLE, and KIMS should be able to test this model in the near future.

  18. How Intelligence and Education Contribute to Substance Use: Hints from the Minnesota Twin Family Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Hicks, Brian M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    In old and even middle age, there are associations between physical health and both intelligence and education. This may occur because intelligence and/or education exert effects on lifestyle choices that, in turn, affect later health. Substance use is one aspect of lifestyle choice in young adulthood that could play such a role. The effects of…

  19. Hints of Habitable Environments on Mars Challenge Our Studies of Mars-Analog Sites on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desMarais, David J

    2009-01-01

    Life as we know it requires water with a chemical activity (alpha) >or approx.0.6 and sources of nutrients and useful energy. Some biota can survive even if favorable conditions occur only intermittently, but the minimum required frequency of occurrences is poorly understood. Recent discoveries have vindicated the Mars exploration strategy to follow the water. Mars Global Surveyor s Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) found coarse-grained hematite at Meridiani Planum. Opportunity rover confirmed this and also found evidence of ancient sulfate-rich playa lakes and near-surface groundwater. Elsewhere, TES found evidence of evaporitic halides in topographic depressions. But alpha might not have approached 0.6 in these evaporitic sulfate- and halide-bearing waters. Mars Express (MEX) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) found extensive sulfate evaporites in Meridiani and Valles Marineris. MEX found phyllosilicates at several sites, most notably Mawrth Valles and Nili Fossae. MRO's CRISM near-IR mapper extended the known diversity and geographic distribution of phyllosilicates to include numerous Noachian craters. Phyllosilicates typically occur at the base of exposed ancient rock sections or in sediments in early Hesperian craters. It is uncertain whether the phyllosilicates developed in surface or subsurface aqueous environments and how long aqueous conditions persisted. Spirit rover found remarkably pure ferric sulfate, indicating oxidation and transport of Fe and S, perhaps in fumaroles or hot springs. Spirit also found opaline silica, consistent with hydrothermal activity. CRISM mapped extensive silica deposits in the Valles Marineris region, consistent with aqueous weathering and deposition. CRISM also found ultramafic rocks and magnesite at Nili Fossae, consistent with serpentinization, a process that can sustain habitable environments on Earth. The report of atmospheric methane implies subsurface aqueous conditions. A working hypothesis is that aqueous environments persisted in the near-subsurface for hundreds of millions of years and might exist even today. Studies of Mars-analog environments must better understand subsurface nonphotosynthetic ecosystems and their biosignatures in mafic and ultramafic terranes. Studies must determine minimum needs for water activity and energy and also establish survival limits when conditions that support active metabolism and propagation become progressively less frequent over time.

  20. CoRoT-2a Magnetic Activity: Hints for Possible Star-Planet Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Isabella; Lanza, Antonino F.; Leto, Giuseppe; Messina, Sergio; Barge, Pierre; Baglin, Annie

    2009-09-01

    CoRoT-2a is a young (≈0.5 Gyr) G7V star accompanied by a transiting hot-Jupiter, discovered by the CoRoT satellite (Alonso et al. Astron Astrophys 482:L21, 2008; Bouchy et al. Astron Astrophys 482:L25, 2008). An analysis of its photospheric activity, based on spot modelling techniques previously developed by our group for the analysis of the Sun as a star, shows that the active regions on CoRoT-2a arised within two active longitudes separated by about 180° and rotating with periods of 4.5221 and 4.5543 days, respectively, at epoch of CoRoT observations (112 continous days centered at ≈2007.6). We show that the total spotted area oscillates with a period of about 28.9 days, a value close to 10 times the synodic period of the planet with respect to the active longitude pattern rotating in 4.5221 days. Moreover, the variance of the stellar flux is modulated in phase with the planet orbital period. This suggests a possible star-planet magnetic interaction, a phenomenon already seen in other extrasolar planetary systems hosting hot-Jupiters.

  1. 76 FR 22714 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4) (NCI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget... the table below. There are no Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and/or Maintenance Costs to report...

  2. How Intelligence and Education Contribute to Substance Use: Hints from the Minnesota Twin Family Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Hicks, Brian M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    In old and even middle age, there are associations between physical health and both intelligence and education. This may occur because intelligence and/or education exert effects on lifestyle choices that, in turn, affect later health. Substance use is one aspect of lifestyle choice in young adulthood that could play such a role. The effects of…

  3. Hints against the cold and collisionless nature of dark matter from the galaxy velocity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Aurel; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Reed, Darren S.; Lake, George

    2017-09-01

    The observed number of dwarf galaxies as a function of rotation velocity is significantly smaller than predicted by the standard model of cosmology. This discrepancy cannot be simply solved by assuming strong baryonic feedback processes, since they would violate the observed relation between maximum circular velocity (vmax) and baryon mass of galaxies. A speculative but tantalizing possibility is that the mismatch between observation and theory points towards the existence of non-cold or non-collisionless dark matter (DM). In this paper, we investigate the effects of warm (WDM), mixed (MDM, i.e. warm plus cold), and self-interacting DM (SIDM) scenarios on the abundance of dwarf galaxies and the relation between observed H I line width and maximum circular velocity. Both effects have the potential to alleviate the apparent mismatch between the observed and theoretical abundance of galaxies as a function of vmax. For the case of WDM and MDM, we show that the discrepancy disappears, even for lukewarm models that evade stringent bounds from the Lyman-α forest. SIDM scenarios can also provide a solution as long as they lead to extended (≳1.5 kpc) DM cores in the density profiles of dwarf galaxies. Only models with velocity-dependent cross-sections can yield such cores without violating other observational constraints at larger scales.

  4. Impact of simulated microgravity on human bone stem cells: New hints for space medicine.

    PubMed

    Cazzaniga, Alessandra; Maier, Jeanette A M; Castiglioni, Sara

    2016-04-22

    Bone loss is a well known early event in astronauts and represents one of the major obstacle to space exploration. While an imbalance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity has been described, less is known about the behavior of bone mesenchymal stem cells in microgravity. We simulated microgravity using the Random Positioning Machine and found that mesenchymal stem cells respond to gravitational unloading by upregulating HSP60, HSP70, cyclooxygenase 2 and superoxyde dismutase 2. Such an adaptive response might be involved in inducing the overexpression of some osteogenic transcripts, even though the threshold to induce the formation of bone crystal is not achieved. Indeed, only the addition of an osteogenic cocktail activates the full differentiation process both in simulated microgravity and under static 1G-conditions. We conclude that simulated microgravity alone reprograms bone mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteogenic phenotype which results in complete differentiation only after exposure to a specific stimulus.

  5. 'Hints' in the killer protein gasdermin D: unveiling the secrets of gasdermins driving cell death.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shiqiao; Liu, Jing; Xing, Feiyue

    2017-04-01

    Pyroptosis is a lytic form of cell death distinguished from apoptosis, ferroptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, NETosis, oncosis, pyronecrosis and autophagy. Proinflammatory caspases cleave a gasdermin D (GSDMD) protein to generate a 31 kDa N-terminal domain. The cleavage relieves the intramolecular inhibition on the gasdermin-N domain, which then moves to the plasma membrane to exhibit pore-forming activity. Thus, GSDMD acts as the final and direct executor of pyroptotic cell death. Owing to the selective targeting of the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane with the pore-forming that determines pyroptotic cell death, GSDMD could be a potential target to control cell death or extracellular bacterial infections. Intriguingly, other gasdermin family members also share similar N-terminal domains, but they present different cell death programs. Herein, we summarize features and functions of the novel player proteins in cell death, including GSDMD triggering pyroptosis, Gsdma3/GSDMA initiating autophagy/apoptosis and DFNA5 inducing apoptosis/secondary necrosis. The gasdermin N terminus appears to be a novel pore-forming protein. This provides novel insight into the underlying roles and mechanisms of lytic or nonlytic forms of programmed cell death, as well as their potential applications in inflammation-associated diseases.

  6. NASA Study Hints at Possible Change in Water ‘Fingerprint’ of Comet

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    A trip past the sun may have selectively altered the production of one form of water in a comet – an effect not seen by astronomers before, a new NASA study suggests. Astronomers from NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, observed the Oort cloud comet C/2014 Q2, also called Lovejoy, when it passed near Earth in early 2015. Through NASA’s partnership in the W. M. Keck Observatory on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, the team observed the comet at infrared wavelengths a few days after Lovejoy passed its perihelion – or closest point to the sun. The team focused on Lovejoy’s water, simultaneously measuring the release of H2O along with production of a heavier form of water, HDO. Water molecules consist of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. A hydrogen atom has one proton, but when it also includes a neutron, that heavier hydrogen isotope is called deuterium, or the “D” in HDO. From these measurements, the researchers calculated the D-to-H ratio – a chemical fingerprint that provides clues about exactly where comets (or asteroids) formed within the cloud of material that surrounded the young sun in the early days of the solar system. Researchers also use the D-to-H value to try to understand how much of Earth’s water may have come from comets versus asteroids. Read more: go.nasa.gov/2lvd6Vt NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  7. "Don juan-fracture" as a hint to aortic isthmus rupture.

    PubMed

    Suksompong, Sirilak; von Bormann, Benno

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of thoracic aortic rupture after blunt trauma in a 23-year-old male patient. The initial investigation found no external injury or bleeding, only a slightly widened mediastinum and a broken left calcaneus. Abdominal lavage was negative, biochemistry was normal, and breathing and oxygenation were not compromised. When changing his position during diagnostics, the patient all of a sudden developed cardiac arrest and typical signs of hypovolemic shock. An immediate sternotomy was done without any further diagnostics on suspicion of aortic isthmus injury. A circular avulsion at the ligamentum arteriosum was found as assumed and repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient left the hospital for rehabilitation after 12 days in adequate health status. Biodynamics of blunt trauma after high-speed frontal impact and the relationship between calcaneus fracture, called "Don-Juan fracture," and aortic rupture at the site of ligamentum arteriosum are discussed.

  8. Perceptual Strategies of Pigeons to Detect a Rotational Centre—A Hint for Star Compass Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Helduser, Sascha; Mouritsen, Henrik; Güntürkün, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy. PMID:25807499

  9. [Health inequalities among occupations: epidemiologic hints for labour and social protection policies].

    PubMed

    Costa, G

    2005-01-01

    Based on existing information systems in Italy, a program can be created for monitoring and surveillance of occupational differences in health. In recent years, a number of proposals were made for defining wearing-out jobs and for reforming the retirement age and/or required number of years of contributions: on these occasions the need to create a programme for monitoring occupational health was stressed. To this end, ISPESL (the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention), in cooperation with the Epidemiology Unit of the Piedmont Region of Italy, assessed the validity of epidemiological indicators from existing sources and their use in creating a surveillance system of wearing-out jobs. The main results of the evaluations performed to date are presented herein. The results are discussed in relation to the information needs for developing both health policies and other types of policies addressing occupation. Each of the articles in this issue deals with a specific model (based on information sources available in Italy in the 1990's) for studying the relationship between health [general and cause-specific mortality; accidents and accident proneness; the main causes of chronic morbidity (cancer, diabetes, and vascular and respiratory diseases); self-reported health: perceived health, chronic illnesses; absenteeism, lifestyles, stress, working conditions] and occupation (most recent occupation or the main lifetime occupation recorded by the specific information source, using a 55-item classification created especially for this research). Here, the statistically significant associations are compared with data in the literature and discussed in light of the information needs for developing health policies and other pertinent policies. For men, the data on health indicators taken from the available information sources were adequate for identifying occupational differences in health. Certain occupations were consistently disadvantaged: masons and construction vehicle operators, transport-vehicle operators, miners, quarry workers, and agricultural workers. Foundry workers and forgers showed less consistent excesses. A greater risk for the majority of health indicators considered was also observed for those manual jobs that require fewer specialised skills: cleaning staff refuse collectors, and waste-treatment workers; porters and unloaders; custodians and watchmen. Among women, the health indicators were much more dissociated: the gender differences seem to precede the occupational differences and require the planning of a more precise and sensitive system. The occupational differences in health represent the final outcome of exposure not only to occupational risk factors but also to psycho-social factors (e.g., nutritional, environmental, and relational problems in early childhood; lifestyles; difficult access to timely and effective healthcare), which must thus be taken into account when evaluating retirement age; to ensure that workers have equality of treatment. The synoptic and integrated use of diverse information sources was extremely complex. Whereas an occupation may show excess risk for health indicators derived from one source, the same occupation may not necessarily show the same excess when the indicators are derived from another source. This can be attributed to: the limited specificity of the classification system; low statistical power; the possibility that the presence of excesses (e.g., in mortality and morbidity) may simply be due to chance; the local or specific nature of the information source; the level of specificity or sensitivity of the health indicators to the risk factors. The studies described in this issue demonstrate that if the existing information sources in Italy are integrated through proper record-linkage, they can be used to follow health outcomes over time in relation to occupational history or income, providing useful information for developing or revising retirement policies. If it were possible to progress from this phase of evaluation of predictive validity of the informative sources examined, to the implementation of their routine use in conducting studies and surveillance of health inequalities between occupations, Italy would gain a place in the forefront in Europe in this field.

  10. Geoepidemiological hints about Streptococcus pyogenes strains in relationship with acute rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Fastiggi, Michele; Fumagalli, Monica; Andreozzi, Laura; Rigante, Donato

    2015-07-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) strains are lately classified on the basis of sequence variations in the emm gene encoding the M protein, but despite the high number of distinct emm genotypes, the spectrum of phenotypes varying from invasive suppurative to non-suppurative GAS-related disorders has still to be defined. The relationship of GAS types with the uprising of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), a multisystemic disease caused by misdirected anti-GAS response in predisposed people, is also obscure. Studies published over the last 15 years were retrieved from PubMed using the keywords: "Streptococcus pyogenes" or "group A Streptococcus" and "acute rheumatic fever": the prevalence of peculiar emm types across different countries of the world is highly variable, depending on research designs, year of observation, country involved, patients' age, and gender. Most studies revealed that a relatively small number of specific emm/M protein types can be considered "rheumatogenic", as potentially characterized by the possibility of inducing ARF, with remarkable differences between developing and developed countries. The association between emm types and post-streptococcal manifestations is challenging, however surveillance of disease-causing variants in a specific community with high rate of ARF should be reinforced with the final goal of developing a potential primary prophylaxis against GAS infections.

  11. Atypical p-ANCA in PSC and AIH: a hint toward a "leaky gut"?

    PubMed

    Terjung, Birgit; Spengler, Ulrich

    2009-02-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) are enigmatic chronic inflammatory diseases of the liver, which are frequently associated with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Both types of liver disease share various distinct autoantibodies such as atypical perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA), and thus are considered autoimmune disorders with atypical features. The discovery that atypical p-ANCA recognize both tubulin beta isoform 5 in human neutrophils and the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ has renewed the discussion on the potential role of microorganisms in the pathogenesis of both diseases. In this paper, we review the evidence for microbial infection in PSC and AIH and discuss new concepts how cross-recognition between microbial antigens in the gut and host components by the immune system along with stimulation of pattern recognition receptors might give rise to chronic hepatic inflammatory disorders with features of autoimmunity.

  12. Understanding Public Engagement in Water Conservation Behaviors and Knowledge of Water Policy: Promising Hints for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2015-01-01

    Sustaining water resources is a primary issue facing Florida Extension. The study reported here identified how experience with water issues and familiarity with water policies affected individuals' engagement in water conservation behaviors. A public opinion survey was conducted online to capture Florida residents' responses. The findings…

  13. Hints for Small Disks around Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendler, Nathanial P.; Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Greenwood, Aaron; Kamp, Inga; Henning, Thomas; Ménard, François; Dent, William R. F.; Evans, Neal J., II

    2017-06-01

    The properties of disks around brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (hereafter VLMOs) provide important boundary conditions on the process of planet formation and inform us about the numbers and masses of planets than can form in this regime. We use the Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectrometer to measure the continuum and [O i] 63 μm line emission toward 11 VLMOs with known disks in the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions. We fit radiative transfer models to the spectral energy distributions of these sources. Additionally, we carry out a grid of radiative transfer models run in a regime that connects the luminosity of our sources with brighter T Tauri stars. We find that VLMO disks with sizes 1.3-78 au, smaller than typical T Tauri disks, fit well the spectral energy distributions assuming that disk geometry and dust properties are stellar mass independent. Reducing the disk size increases the disk temperature, and we show that VLMOs do not follow previously derived disk temperature-stellar luminosity relationships if the disk outer radius scales with stellar mass. Only 2 out of 11 sources are detected in [O i] despite a better sensitivity than was achieved for T Tauri stars, suggesting that VLMO disks are underluminous. Using thermochemical models, we show that smaller disks can lead to the unexpected [O i] 63 μm nondetections in our sample. The disk outer radius is an important factor in determining the gas and dust observables. Hence, spatially resolved observations with ALMA—to establish if and how disk radii scale with stellar mass—should be pursued further. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  14. The Principal's Companion: Strategies and Hints To Make the Job Easier. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Pam; Alvy, Harvey B.

    Despite the administrative leadership that most principals receive in university courses, their most useful learning occurs once they are on the job. The new knowledge--much of it the result of trial and error--is gained in relative isolation. This second edition provides ideas, approaches, strategies, resources, tools, techniques, and reflective…

  15. The 1998 earthquake sequence south of Long Valley Caldera, California: Hints of magmatic involvement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Dollar, R.S.; Johnson, P.

    2000-01-01

    A significant episode of seismic and geodetic unrest took place at Long Valley Caldera, California, beginning in the summer of 1997. Activity through late May of 1998 was concentrated in and around the south moat and the south margin of the resurgent dome. The Sierran Nevada block (SNB) region to the south/southeast remained relatively quiet until a M 5.1 event occurred there on 9 June 1998 (UT). A second M 5.1 event followed on 15 July (UT); both events were followed by appreciable aftershock sequences. An additional, distinct burst of activity began on 1 August 1998. The number of events in the August sequence (over the first week or two) was similar to the aftershock sequence of the 15 July 1998 M 5.1 event, but the later sequence was not associated with any events larger than M 4.3. All of the summer 1998 SNB activity was considered tectonic rather than magmatic; in general the SNB is considered an unlikely location for future eruptions. However, the August sequence-an 'aftershock sequence without a mainshock'-is suggestive of a strain event larger than the cumulative seismotectonic strain release. Moreover, a careful examination of waveforms from the August sequence reveals a small handful of events whose spectral signature is strikingly harmonic. We investigate the waveforms of these events using spectral, autocorrelation, and empirical Green's function techniques and conclude that they were most likely associated with a fluid-controlled source. Our observations suggest that there may have been some degree of magma or magma-derived fluid involvement in the 1998 SNB sequence.

  16. Squint surgery in TED -- hints and fints, or why Graves' patients are difficult patients.

    PubMed

    Nardi, M

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine ophthalmopathy is the most common cause of acute onset diplopia in middle aged or older individuals. Ocular muscle involvement is characterized by myositis followed by fibrosis: this causes a stiffness and a shortening of the muscles involved with restriction of ocular movements: so the impairment of rotation is due to a mechanical obstacle and not to a paresis. Prisms are rarely useful in relieving diplopia and the majority of symptomatic patients need squint surgery. Timing of surgery is very important and two considerations are to be kept in mind: first, the systemic disease must be in remission and the ocular deviation must be stable for at least six months; second, if more than one surgical procedure is needed for the ophthalmopathy, muscle surgery has its right place after orbital surgery and before lid surgery. Obviously dealing with restrictive disorders, surgery is based on weakening procedures of the affected muscles: identifying the affected muscles is of crucial importance and may be sometime difficult for the presence of misleading signs; great advances have been made in surgical technique with the development of adjustable sutures and of topical anesthesia. Prognosis is usually good with more than 80% of patients recovering a useful field of binocular single vision with one procedure and more than 90% with two or more procedures.

  17. Design of sweet protein based sweeteners: hints from structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Rega, Michele Fortunato; Di Monaco, Rossella; Leone, Serena; Donnarumma, Federica; Spadaccini, Roberta; Cavella, Silvana; Picone, Delia

    2015-04-15

    Sweet proteins represent a class of natural molecules, which are extremely interesting regarding their potential use as safe low-calories sweeteners for individuals who need to control sugar intake, such as obese or diabetic subjects. Punctual mutations of amino acid residues of MNEI, a single chain derivative of the natural sweet protein monellin, allow the modulation of its taste. In this study we present a structural and functional comparison between MNEI and a sweeter mutant Y65R, containing an extra positive charge on the protein surface, in conditions mimicking those of typical beverages. Y65R exhibits superior sweetness in all the experimental conditions tested, has a better solubility at mild acidic pH and preserves a significant thermal stability in a wide range of pH conditions, although slightly lower than MNEI. Our findings confirm the advantages of structure-guided protein engineering to design improved low-calorie sweeteners and excipients for food and pharmaceutical preparations.

  18. Hints for the Improvement of Quality Teaching in Introductory Engineering Statistics Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta Felipe M. Aparicio

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a way to improve the quality of statistics teaching to undergraduate engineering students. Teaching quality can be understood as a goal to be achieved in three nurtured phases: (1) course planning; (2) adoption of methodological approach; and (3) evaluation of results. (Author/SAH)

  19. Mobile Students' Appraisals of Keys to a Successful Stay Abroad Experience: Hints from the IEREST Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Maele, Jan; Vassilicos, Basil; Borghetti, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide better support for students in higher education throughout a mobility experience, it is important to understand their point of view regarding stay abroad. This paper analyzes the responses of pre-departure, while-abroad, and upon-return students of different academic backgrounds (N = 990) to an open question that asked them to…

  20. Advice and Hints in Training the Mentally Handicapped to Drive Electric Wheelchairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birath, Gunnar

    The booklet is intended to help train people with mild mental retardation to drive electric wheelchairs. The systematic training incorporates features of adequate time, stress upon generalization, and a relaxed and secure environment. Lessons are presented on the following skill areas: preparation, starting and stopping, driving straight ahead,…

  1. Hint-seeking behaviour of western scrub-jays in a metacognition task.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Arii; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    Metacognitive processes during memory retrieval can be tested by examining whether or not animals can assess their knowledge state when they are faced with a memory test. In a typical foraging task, food is hidden in one of the multiple tubes and the subjects are given an opportunity to check the contents of the tubes before choosing the one that they thought contained food. Following the findings from our previous study that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) can make prospective metacognition judgements, this study tested the scrub-jays' concurrent metacognition judgements. In a series of experiments, uncertainty about the food location was induced in three ways: by making the baiting process visibly unavailable, by inserting a delay between the baiting and food retrieval, and by moving the location of the bait. The jays looked into the tubes more often during the conditions that were consistent with high uncertainty. In addition, their looking behaviour was associated not with the sight of food but with information about the location of the food. These findings suggest that the jays can differentiate the states of knowing and not knowing about certain information and take appropriate action to complement their missing knowledge.

  2. Hints for an extension of the early exercise premium formula for American options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermin, Hans-Peter; Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo; Perelló, Josep

    2005-09-01

    There exists a non-closed formula for the American put option price and non-trivial computations are required to solve it. Strong efforts have been made to propose efficient numerical techniques but few have strong mathematical reasoning to ascertain why they work well. We present an extension of the American put price aiming to catch weaknesses of the numerical methods based on their non-fulfillment of the smooth pasting condition.

  3. Identification of an ovarian voltage-activated Na+-channel type: hints to involvement in luteolysis.

    PubMed

    Bulling, A; Berg, F D; Berg, U; Duffy, D M; Stouffer, R L; Ojeda, S R; Gratzl, M; Mayerhofer, A

    2000-07-01

    An endocrine type of voltage-activated sodium channel (eNaCh) was identified in the human ovary and human luteinized granulosa cells (GC). Whole-cell patch-clamp studies showed that the eNaCh in GC is functional and tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitive. The luteotrophic hormone human CG (hCG) was found to decrease the peak amplitude of the sodium current within seconds. Treatment with hCG for 24-48 h suppressed not only eNaCh mRNA levels, but also mean Na+ peak currents and resting membrane potentials. An unexpected role for eNaChs in regulating cell morphology and function was indicated after pharmacological modulation of presumed eNaCh steady-state activity in GC cultures for 24-48 h using TTX (NaCh blocker) and veratridine (NaCh activator). TTX preserved a highly differentiated cellular phenotype. Veratridine not only increased the number of secondary lysosomes but also led to a significantly reduced progesterone production. Importantly, endocrine cells of the nonhuman primate corpus luteum (CL), which represent in vivo counterparts of luteinized GC, also contain eNaCh mRNA. Although the mechanism of channel activity under physiological conditions is not clear, it may include persistent Na+ currents. As observed in GC in culture, abundant secondary lysosomes were particularly evident in the regressing CL, suggesting a functional link between eNaCh activity and this form of cellular regression in vivo. Our results identify eNaCh in ovarian endocrine cells and demonstrate that their expression is under the inhibitory control of hCG. Activation of eNaChs in luteal cells, due to loss of gonadotropin support, may initiate a cascade of events leading to decreased CL function, a process that involves lysosomal activation and autophagy. These results imply that ovarian eNaChs are involved in the physiological demise of the temporary endocrine organ CL in the primate ovary during the menstrual cycle. Because commonly used drugs, including phenytoin, target NaChs, these results may be of clinical relevance.

  4. Cadmium stress responses in Brassica juncea: hints from proteomics and metabolomics.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Taamalli, Manel; Gevi, Federica; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2013-11-01

    Among heavy metal stressors, cadmium (Cd) pollution is one leading threat to the environment. In this view, research efforts have been increasingly put forward to promote the individuation of phytoextractor plants that are capable of accumulating and withstanding the toxic metals, including Cd, in the aerial parts. We hereby adopted the hyperaccumulator B. juncea (Indian mustard) as a model to investigate plant responses to Cd stress at low (25 μM) and high (100 μM) doses. Analytical strategies included mass-spectrometry-based determination of Cd and the assessment of its effect on the leaf proteome and metabolome. Results were thus integrated with routine physiological data. Taken together, physiology results highlighted the deregulation of photosynthesis efficiency, ATP synthesis, reduced transpiration, and the impairment of light-independent carbon fixation reactions. These results were supported at the proteomics level by the observed Cd-dependent alteration of photosystem components and the alteration of metabolic enzymes, including ATP synthase subunits, carbonic anhydrase, and enzymes involved in antioxidant responses (especially glutathione and phytochelatin homeostasis) and the Calvin cycle. Metabolomics results confirmed the alterations of energy-generating metabolic pathways, sulfur-compound metabolism (GSH and PCs), and Calvin cycle. Besides, metabolomics results highlighted the up-regulation of phosphoglycolate, a byproduct of the photorespiration metabolism. This was suggestive of the likely increased photorespiration rate as a means to cope with Cd-induced unbalance in stomatal conductance and deregulation of CO2 homeostasis, which would, in turn, promote CO2 depletion and O2 (and thus oxidative stress) accumulation under prolonged photosynthesis in the leaves from plants exposed to high doses of CdCl2. Overall, it emerges that Cd-stressed B. juncea might rely on photorespiration, an adaptation that would prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and photoinhibition.

  5. Estimating Dynamical Systems: Derivative Estimation Hints from Sir Ronald A. Fisher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboeck, Pascal R.

    2010-01-01

    The fitting of dynamical systems to psychological data offers the promise of addressing new and innovative questions about how people change over time. One method of fitting dynamical systems is to estimate the derivatives of a time series and then examine the relationships between derivatives using a differential equation model. One common…

  6. Hints of R-parity violation in B decays into τν

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, N. G.; Menon, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we show that the recently observed enhanced semi-leptonic and leptonic decay rates of the B meson into τν modes can be explained within the frame work of R-parity violating (RPV) MSSM. In particular, RPV contributions involving the exchange of right-handed down-type squarks can give a universal contribution to the B + → τν, B→ Dτν and the B→ D * τν decaysinthemodelwepropose. Wefindthatthemasses and couplings that explain the enhanced B decay rates are phenomelogically viable and the squarks can possibly be observed at the LHC.

  7. Full sky harmonic analysis hints at large ultra-high energy cosmic ray deflections

    SciTech Connect

    Tinyakov, P. G. Urban, F. R.

    2015-03-15

    The full-sky multipole coefficients of the ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) flux have been measured for the first time by the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array collaborations using a joint data set with E > 10 EeV. We calculate these harmonic coefficients in the model where UHECR are protons and sources trace the local matter distribution, and compare our results with observations. We find that the expected power for low multipoles (dipole and quadrupole, in particular) is sytematically higher than in the data: the observed flux is too isotropic. We then investigate to which degree our predictions are influenced by UHECR deflections in the regular Galactic magnetic field. It turns out that the UHECR power spectrum coefficients C{sub l} are quite insensitive to the effects of the Galactic magnetic field, so it is unlikely that the discordance can be reconciled by tuning the Galactic magnetic field model. On the contrary, a sizeable fraction of uniformly distributed flux (representing for instance an admixture of heavy nuclei with considerably larger deflections) can bring simulations and observations to an accord.

  8. Hints about Dark, Light-Bending Matter in the Distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-07-01

    New infrared observations of a gravitational lens About 20 cases of gravitationally lensed (GL) quasars are known. This special physical effect, also known as a cosmic mirage, occurs when the rays of light of a distant quasar on their way to us pass near a massive object, for instance a galaxy. As a result, two or more images of the same quasar will be seen near each other. This phenomenon is described in more detail in the Appendix. A new study by a group of three European astronomers, headed by Frederic Courbin ( Institut d'Astrophysique, Universite de Liege, Belgium, and Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, France) [1], has led to the discovery of the object responsible for the double images of a remote quasar in the gravitational lens HE 1104-1805 . The investigation is based on infrared observations at the ESO La Silla Observatory in Chile and the `lensing system' turns out to be a distant, massive galaxy. Nevertheless, the geometry of the object is unusual and an additional gravitational lens of `dark' (invisible) matter may possibly be involved. This gravitational lens is also particularly well suited for future cosmological studies that aim at the determination of the Hubble constant and the expansion rate of the Universe. A new and detailed study of gravitational lenses It is rare among the relatively few, confirmed cases of gravitational lensing in the distant Universe, that the distribution of matter in the lensing system is well known. However, it is exactly this information that is needed to derive cosmological parameters by means of photometric monitoring of the brightness of the individual images in a gravitational lens [2]. The three astronomers have therefore undertaken a detailed study of some previously known gravitational lenses (or good candidate objects) with the primary aim to detect and map the associated lensing matter (refered to as the gravitational deflector or lensing object ). This is observationally quite difficult and time-consuming since the huge masses responsible for the gravitational bending of light are almost always located at very large distances from us. Thus they are quite faint and can only be observed with large telescopes and state-of-the-art equipment. Moreover, the faint images of lensing objects are located between the much brighter quasar images they lens. This makes the discovery of a lensing object and the recording of its image a most challenging task. The advantage of infrared observations The image of a remote galaxy is usually very faint at visible wavelengths, but it is brighter in the infra-red part of the spectrum. This is because the wavelength of maximum intensity in the spectrum of a rapidly receding, distant galaxy (a composite of the spectra of the stars of which it consists) is redshifted from the visual into the infrared region of the spectrum. For instance, galaxies with redshifts around z = 1 [3] are best observed in the J -band near the near-infrared wavelength of 1.25 microns (about twice that of red light), while the images of galaxies with even higher redshifts and velocities are better recorded in the 2.2 micron K -band. The present search for gravitational deflectors is therefore conducted in the infrared spectral region, using the ESO/MPI 2.2-m telescope and the IR detector IRAC 2b . Such a survey has the further advantage of revealing, if present, additional lensed images of the quasars, that may be heavily obscured by intervening dust, for example by the dust contained in the lensing galaxy. A new and powerful image combination/deconvolution algorithm These investigations have always been difficult because of the small angular separations in such lensed objects, of the order of one arcsecond, or even less in many cases. This corresponds to the image-smearing (seeing) effects introduced by atmospheric turbulence under common ground-based observing conditions. Detailed observations of such objects are therefore normally best made from space-based observatories, like the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). However, an alternative method of obtaining high-resolution images is to combine numerous exposures of the same object in an optimised way; this allows to `eliminate' most of the image degradation caused by atmospheric effects. New and powerful software for this procedure has recently been developed at the Astrophysical Institute in Liege, cf. http://vela.astro.ulg.ac.be/imaproc. The new algorithm allows to treat (`deconvolve') simultaneously a large number of exposures - especially in the infrared - and yields high-resolution, combined images of the celestial objects on which precise brightness and positional measurements can be performed. Detection of the lensing galaxy in HE 1104-1805 During the present programme, the astronomers recently observed HE 1104-1805 , a gravitational lens with a doubly imaged quasar with a redshift of z = 2.316 that was discovered in 1993 at the La Silla Observatory. Observations in 1995, made in the I -waveband (0.9 micron) under poor seeing conditions, showed a very faint feature between the quasar images but the observations did not allow to ascertain the nature of this object. Caption to ESO PR Photo 21/97 [JPEG, 55k] New infrared images were obtained during the night of April 14-15, 1997. They were then processed with the new software and the resulting, detailed images with high-angular resolution, 0.27 arcsec, now show very clearly the lensing object, a remote, elliptical galaxy, between the quasar images. The image displayed in ESO Press Photo 21/97 was obtained in the near-infrared J-band, where the lensing galaxy in HE 1104-1805 is quite faint, but still well visible and measurable after `deconvolution'. The observed, infrared colour, i.e. the difference in brightness of its image in the J- and K-bands (the (J-K) index ), is compatible with that of a high-redshift elliptical galaxy, at a distance corresponding to a redshift somewhere between z = 1 and z = 1.8. The brightest of the two quasar images (`A'; the upper one in ESO PR Photo 21/97) shows absorption lines in its spectrum which have been redshifted at z = 1.66. Since the lensing galaxy is situated at a small angular distance from this component, it is quite likely that these spectral lines are produced by this galaxy. Thus, the gravitational deflector in HE 1104-1805 is most probably an elliptical galaxy at redshift z = 1.66. This corresponds to a recession velocity of about 200,000 km/sec and a distance that, depending on the adopted Hubble relation, is of the order of 6,000 - 9,000 million light-years. Since this galaxy is comparatively bright in the infrared, this may be checked in the near future by taking an infrared spectrum, for example with the future IR instrument of the ESO New Technology Telescope, SOFI, cf. ESO Press Photo 17/97. Continued studies of HE 1104-1805 This gravitational lens is known to show brightness variations with time. It is therefore a good candidate for continued photometric monitoring which may possibly yield a new and independent determination of the Hubble constant [2], as this was recently done for another gravitational lens, PG 1115+080 [4]. If the lensing galaxy is actually located at redshift z = 1.66, then the time delay expected for brightness variations of the two lensed quasar images is of the order of 3 to 4 years, depending on the model. This should be easily measurable. A `Dark Lens' in HE 1104-1805? The observed geometry of HE 1104-1805 is somewhat surprising, since current lens models predict that the position of the deflector, as seen in the sky, is closer to the fainter quasar image than to the brighter one; here the contrary is the case. This would suggest that the distribution of the lensing matter is more complex than that of a single elliptical galaxy. In addition, the brightness of the lensing galaxy in the K-band is somewhat too high for a normal one. This may indicate the presence of a more massive object, for example a cluster of galaxies. This may not be the case, though, since the present, very deep observations would have allowed the detection of any normal cluster of galaxies between us and the quasar whose light is being split by the lens. An interesting question is therefore: do we `see' the effects of a lens of dark matter in HE 1104-1805? Only future observations, for instance with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) , will tell. Where to find additional information More details about the image deconvolution techniques used for this investigation is available at the WWW pages of the Liege group. Information about another gravitational-lens related discovery by astronomers at the Institut d'Astrophysique in Liege have been reported in ESO Press Release 04/96 (9 February 1996). Notes: [1] The group consists of Frederic Courbin (Institut d'Astrophysique, Universite de Liege, Belgium, and Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, France) and Pierre Magain (Institut d'Astrophysique, Universite de Liege, Belgium) and Chris Lidman (ESO). [2] The careful observation of similar, but time-shifted brightness variations of the individual images of a quasar in a gravitational lens may sometimes lead to a determination of the distance to the lensing object (normally a distant galaxy). This is because the measured time delay of such variations (from some months to several years), from the known speed of light, will provide a direct indication of the difference in the length of the two light paths, expressed in kilometres. If moreover the overall distribution of the matter that causes the lensing effect is known (from observations of the shape of the lens) and thus the relative geometry of the lensing system and the light paths, it is then possible to estimate the absolute size of the system. When this is compared with its angular size (as seen in the sky on direct images), the true distance to the lensing object can be found. Dividing this distance with the measured recession velocity (along the line-of-sight), finally gives an independent value of the expansion rate of the Universe, the famous Hubble constant . [3] In astronomy, the redshift denotes the fraction by which the lines in the spectrum of an object are shifted towards longer wavelengths. The observed redshift of a distant galaxy or quasar gives a direct estimate of the apparent recession velocity as caused by the universal expansion. Since the expansion rate increases with the distance, the velocity is itself a function (the Hubble relation) of the distance to the object. A redshift of z = 1 corresponds to a recession velocity of 180,000 km/sec; z = 2 to 214,300 km/sec, z = 3 to 233,300 km/sec, and z = 4 to 245,500 km/sec; the non-proportionality is a relativistic effect. [4] Detailed information about PG 1115+080 may be found in the scientific papers by Schechter et al. (1997, ApJ, 475, L85) and Courbin et al. (1997, SISSA preprint astro-ph/9705093, A&A Letters, in press). Appendix: What is a gravitational lens? The physical principle behind a gravitational lens (also known as a cosmic mirage ) has been known since 1916 as a consequence of Einstein's General Relativity Theory. The gravitational field of a massive object curves the local geometry of the Universe, so light rays passing close to the object are also curved (in the same way as a `straight line' on the surface of the Earth is necessarily curved because of the curvature of the Earth's surface). This effect was first observed by astronomers in 1919 during a total solar eclipse. Accurate positional measurements of stars seen in the dark sky near the eclipsed Sun indicated an apparent displacement in the direction opposite to the Sun, about as much as predicted by the theory. The effect was obviously due to the gravitational attraction of the stellar photons when they passed near the Sun on their way to us. This was a direct confirmation of a new phenomenon and represented a milestone in physics. In the 1930's, astronomer Fritz Zwicky (1898 - 1974), of Swiss nationality and working at the Mount Wilson Observatory in California, realised that the same effect may also happen far out in space where galaxies and large galaxy clusters may be sufficiently compact and massive to bend the light from even more distant objects. However, it was only five decades later, in 1979, that his ideas were observationally confirmed when the first example of a cosmic mirage was discovered. In this connection, it is of particular interest, that this gravitational lensing effect may not only result in double or multiple images of the same object, but also that the intensities of these images increase significantly, just as it is the case with an ordinary optical lens. Distant galaxies, galaxy clusters, etc. may thereby act as natural telescopes which allow us to observe objects that would otherwise have been too faint to be detected with currently available astronomical telescopes. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  9. HINT modeling of three-dimensional tokamaks with resonant magnetic perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2017-05-01

    In order to consider the nonlinear three-dimensional (3D) equilibrium response of the resonant magnetic perturbation field, the nonlinear 3D equilibrium is discussed for the 3D perturbed tokamak. To model the magnetic topology, a nonlinear 3D equilibrium calculation code, which has been developed in stellarator research, is applied to the perturbed tokamak. That code does not assume the existence of perfectly nested flux surfaces. In the nonlinear 3D equilibrium calculation, the change of the magnetic topology is due to the nonlinear 3D equilibrium response, which is the lowest order plasma response appearing in the 3D steady state. The parallel current flow along perturbed field lines three-dimensionally drives the perturbed field to break the magnetic topology. This effect is significant along the separatrix and must be considered to interpret the experimental observations.

  10. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: an analysis of epidemiological studies and hints for pathologists

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study is an analysis of the prevalence of polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) in epidemiological surveys of salivary tumors published in the English language from 1992 to 2012. Methods These surveys included studies from different researchers, countries and continents. The 57 surveys for which it was possible to calculate the percentage of PLGAs among all malignant minor salivary gland tumors (MMSGT) were included in this review. Results The statistical analyses show significant differences in the PLGA percentage by time period, country and continent in the studies included in this review. The percentage of PLGAs among MMSGTs varied among the studies, ranging from 0.0% to 46.8%. PLGA rates have varied over the period studied and have most recently increased. The frequency of reported PLGA cases also varied from 0.0% to 24.8% by the country in which the MMSGT studies were performed. The PLGA percentages also varied significantly by continent, with frequencies ranging from 3.9% in Asia to 20.0% in Oceania Conclusion Based on these results, we concluded that although the accuracy of PLGA diagnoses has improved, they remain a challenge for pathologists. To facilitate PLGA diagnoses, we have therefore made some suggestions for pathologists regarding tumors composed of single-layer strands of cells that form all of the histological patterns present in the tumor, consistency of the cytological appearance and uniformly positive CK7, vimentin and S100 immunohistochemistry, which indicate a single PLGA phenotype. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1059098656858324 PMID:23320410

  11. Geothermal test hints at oil potential in eastern Arizona volcanic field

    SciTech Connect

    Rauzi, S.L. )

    1993-01-03

    A recently drilled geothermal well, funded by the US Department of Energy and the Arizona Department of Commerce, has provided information about the geology of east-central Arizona and west-central New Mexico. Tonto Drilling Services in cooperation with New Mexico State University completed the well, the 1 Alpine-Federal, at a total depth of 4,505 ft. The well is located among volcanic rocks in the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest about 6 miles north of the town of Alpine and 6.2 miles west of the Arizona-New Mexico line. The well was drilled to determine the hot dry rock geothermal potential of Precambrian rocks. The operator expected to penetrate Precambrian at about 4,200 ft, but the hole was still in Permian rocks at that depth and was in a mafic dike that intruded the Permian rocks at the total depth of 4,505 ft. The hole did show that Cretaceous and Permian strata contain potentially important source rocks for oil and gas that are apparently unaffected by nearby volcanism. These potential oil source rocks are the focus of this article.

  12. The nature of very faint X-ray binaries: hints from light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinke, C. O.; Bahramian, A.; Degenaar, N.; Wijnands, R.

    2015-03-01

    Very faint X-ray binaries (VFXBs), defined as having peak luminosities LX of 1034-1036 erg s-1, have been uncovered in significant numbers, but remain poorly understood. We analyse three published outburst light curves of two transient VFXBs using the exponential and linear decay formalism of King & Ritter. The decay time-scales and brink luminosities suggest orbital periods of order 1 h. We review various estimates of VFXB properties, and compare these with suggested explanations of the nature of VFXBs. We suggest that: (1) VFXB outbursts showing linear decays might be explained as partial drainings of the disc of `normal' X-ray transients, and many VFXB outbursts may belong to this category; (2) VFXB outbursts showing exponential decays are best explained by old, short-period systems involving mass transfer from a low-mass white dwarf or brown dwarf; (3) persistent (or quasi-persistent) VFXBs, which maintain an LX of 1034-1035 erg s-1 for years, may be explained by magnetospheric choking of the accretion flow in a propeller effect, permitting a small portion of the flow to accrete on to the neutron star's surface. We thus predict that (quasi-) persistent VFXBs may also be transitional millisecond pulsars, turning on as millisecond radio pulsars when their LX drops below 1032 erg s-1.

  13. Digging for answers, smelling a hint of success and tasting triumph

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Joseph P

    2010-01-01

    The C12 ‘earthy’ odorant geosmin is derived from the C15 metabolite farnesyl diphosphate. Metabolic transformation now seems to be catalyzed by a bifunctional protein having two operatively independent sesquiterpene synthase domains. The domains are catalytically linked through the passive diffusion of a C15 alcohol product of the N-terminal catalytic domain to the C-terminal catalytic domain for the final steps of geosmin formation. PMID:17948014

  14. Observational hints of a real age spread in the young LMC star cluster NGC 1971

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Cole, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We report that the serendipitous young Large Magellanic Cloud cluster NGC 1971 exhibits an extended main-sequence turn-off (eMSTO) possibly originated mostly by a real age spread. We used CT1 Washington photometry to produce a colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) with the fiducial cluster features. From its eMSTO, we estimated an age spread of ∼170 Myr (observed age range 100-280 Myr), once observational errors, stellar binarity, overall metallicity variations and stellar rotation effects were subtracted in quadrature from the observed age width.

  15. Halogen atoms in the modern medicinal chemistry: hints for the drug design.

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Marcelo Zaldini; Cavalcanti, Suellen Melo T; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo M; de Azevedo Junior, Walter Filgueira; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima

    2010-03-01

    A significant number of drugs and drug candidates in clinical development are halogenated structures. For a long time, insertion of halogen atoms on hit or lead compounds was predominantly performed to exploit their steric effects, through the ability of these bulk atoms to occupy the binding site of molecular targets. However, halogens in drug - target complexes influence several processes rather than steric aspects alone. For example, the formation of halogen bonds in ligand-target complexes is now recognized as a kind of intermolecular interaction that favorably contributes to the stability of ligand-target complexes. This paper is aimed at introducing the fascinating versatility of halogen atoms. It starts summarizing the prevalence of halogenated drugs and their structural and pharmacological features. Next, we discuss the identification and prediction of halogen bonds in protein-ligand complexes, and how these bonds should be exploited. Interesting results of halogen insertions during the processes of hit-to-lead or lead-to-drug conversions are also detailed. Polyhalogenated anesthetics and protein kinase inhibitors that bear halogens are analyzed as cases studies. Thereby, this review serves as one guide for the virtual screening of libraries containing halogenated compounds and may be a source of inspiration for the medicinal chemists.

  16. Intelligent Tutoring for Programming Tasks: Using Plan Analysis to Generate Better Hints.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    construction and execution of a BASIC proqram that assiqns an integer value to a variable and then prints the value of that integer. - ARTICHOKE : assign...the string " ARTICHOKE " to a string variable, assiqn the value of that variable to a second variable, and print the second variable. -SINOP: qet two...the first five tasks: GREENFLAG, ARTICHOKE , SINOP, NINOP, and TWOS. Because the protocols are very lonq, it was necessary to condense them into a

  17. The Principal's Companion: Strategies and Hints To Make the Job Easier. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Pam; Alvy, Harvey B.

    Despite the administrative leadership that most principals receive in university courses, their most useful learning occurs once they are on the job. The new knowledge--much of it the result of trial and error--is gained in relative isolation. This second edition provides ideas, approaches, strategies, resources, tools, techniques, and reflective…

  18. Immunoglobulin gene repertoire in ocular adnexal lymphomas: hints on the nature of the antigenic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dagklis, A; Ponzoni, M; Govi, S; Cangi, M G; Pasini, E; Charlotte, F; Vino, A; Doglioni, C; Davì, F; Lossos, I S; Ntountas, I; Papadaki, T; Dolcetti, R; Ferreri, A J M; Stamatopoulos, K; Ghia, P

    2012-04-01

    Evidence from certain geographical areas links lymphomas of the ocular adnexa marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (OAMZL) with Chlamydophila psittaci (Cp) infection, suggesting that lymphoma development is dependent upon chronic stimulation by persistent infections. Notwithstanding that, the actual immunopathogenetical mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. As in other B-cell lymphomas, insight into this issue, especially with regard to potential selecting ligands, could be provided by analysis of the immunoglobulin (IG) receptors of the malignant clones. To this end, we studied the molecular features of IGs in 44 patients with OAMZL (40% Cp-positive), identifying features suggestive of a pathogenic mechanism of autoreactivity. Herein, we show that lymphoma cells express a distinctive IG repertoire, with electropositive antigen (Ag)-binding sites, reminiscent of autoantibodies (auto-Abs) recognizing DNA. Additionally, five (11%) cases of OAMZL expressed IGs homologous with autoreactive Abs or IGs of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, a disease known for the expression of autoreactive IGs by neoplastic cells. In contrast, no similarity with known anti-Chlamydophila Abs was found. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that OAMZL may originate from B cells selected for their capability to bind Ags and, in particular, auto-Ags. In OAMZL associated with Cp infection, the pathogen likely acts indirectly on the malignant B cells, promoting the development of an inflammatory milieu, where auto-Ags could be exposed and presented, driving proliferation and expansion of self-reactive B cells.

  19. Evolving visual pigments: hints from the opsin-based proteins in a phylogenetically old "eyeless" invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Santillo, Silvia; Orlando, Pierangelo; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Cristino, Luigia; Guglielmotti, Vittorio; Musio, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    Visual pigments are photosensitive receptor proteins that trigger the transduction process producing the visual excitation once they have absorbed photons. In spite of the molecular and morpho-functional complexity that has characterized the development of animal eyes and eyeless photoreceptive systems, opsin-based protein family appears ubiquous along metazoan visual systems. Moreover, in addition to classic rhodopsin photoreceptors, all Metazoa have supplementary non-visual photosensitive structures, mainly located in the central nervous system, that sense light without forming an image and that rather regulate the organism's temporal physiology. The investigation of novel non-visual photopigments exerting extraretinal photoreception is a challenging field in vision research. Here we propose the cnidarian Hydra as a useful tool of investigation for molecular and functional differences between these pigment families. Hydra is the first metazoan owning a nervous system and it is an eyeless invertebrate showing only an extraocular photoreception, as it has no recognized visual or photosensitive structures. In this paper we provide an overview of the molecular and functional features of the opsin-based protein subfamilies and preliminary evidences in a phylogenetically old species of both image-forming and non-visual opsins. Then we give new insights on the molecular biology of Hydra photoreception and on the evolutionary pathways of visual pigments.

  20. [Communication with children: practical hints and tools for the anesthesiology routine].

    PubMed

    Zech, N; Seemann, M; Signer-Fischer, S; Hansen, E

    2015-03-01

    Pediatric patients represent a special challenge both for the management of anesthesia and for communication, especially the anxious and screaming child. Children have specific features of fears, cognition, comprehension and skills depending on the stage of development. In addition, behavior and anxiety are strongly shaped by the parents who have to be incorporated. This article presents the special features of children as well as practical strategies and aids for dealing with children in a perioperative setting. In children suggestibility and susceptibility to placebo and nocebo effects are increased. This makes them more sensitive to negative factors but can also be utilized for positive, constructive effects. Possibilities are presented which make use of the special characteristics of children. A number of examples from daily clinical routine are given. A child's imagination, creativity and capability for dissociation in particular allow an effective application of indirect suggestion, metaphors, stories, changes in focus of attention, retreat to an inner or imagined safe place, reframing of disturbing noises and events, pacing and leading in small steps and an activation of inner resources. A hand puppet, a pet toy, a little magic trick, introducing a magic friend, acupoint for palpitations with self-affirmation, stick figure drawings, ceiling pictures or holding hands can be quite helpful. All medical devices and interventions can be explained in a way that children can understand and in positive statements without lying or neglecting the need for information. Meeting at eye level, talking to the child instead of just about it, a language appropriate for children but not childish, comprehensible information and explanations, return of control and care more than pure technical distance, all play an important role. A serious look into such communication strategies can help the anesthetist to overcome uncertainties that a child can easily sense.

  1. Cutaneous melanoma: hints from occupational risks by anatomic site in Swedish men

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Gomez, B; Pollan, M; Gustavsson, P; Plato, N; Aragones, N; Lopez-Abente, G

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To improve knowledge of the epidemiology of melanoma by comparing occupational risks of cutaneous melanoma (CM) by anatomic site in Swedish workers. Methods: Male workers employed in 1970 and living in the country in 1960 were followed up from 1971 to 1989 using the Swedish Registers of Death and Cancer. A more specifically exposed subcohort included men reporting the same occupation in 1960 and 1970. For each location, occupational risk ratios (RRs) were extracted from Poisson regression models adjusted by age, period, town size, and geographical area. To diminish the influence of socioeconomic factors, intrasector analyses, comparing only jobs belonging to the same occupational sector, were performed. Risk patterns for different locations were compared. Results: High RRs for different sites were found among workers exposed to UV sources (dentists, physiotherapists, and lithographers), and sun exposed workers (harbour masters, and lighthouse/related work). Risk excesses were seen in fur tailors, tanners/fur dressers, patternmakers/cutters, electrical fitters/wiremen, telephone/telegraph installers/repairmen, and some glass/pottery/tile workers. Results for lower and upper limbs were significantly correlated but somewhat independent of those found in thorax, the most frequent location. Correlation between head/neck and thorax was moderate. Specific risk excesses were found for rolling mill workers in head/neck, for chimney sweeps in upper limbs, and for aircraft pilots/navigators/flight engineers in lower limbs. Conclusions: High RRs in the trunk among occupations with UV exposure from artificial sources suggest an effect not restricted to exposed sites. An unusual distribution of cases and RRs in chimney sweeps, rolling-mill, or glass/pottery/tile workers suggests local effects of exposures. The not previously reported risk excess in this job and in fur related processes, and the RR in electrical fitters and telephone/telegraph installers deserve further investigation. Disparities between locations, as RRs in thorax and limbs, may reflect differences in aetiological mechanisms. PMID:14739377

  2. Hints of Thermal Fragmentation in the Primordial Substructure of NGC2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, P. S.; Lada, C. J.; Young, E. T.; Marengo, M.; Muench, A.; Muzerolle, J.; Siegler, N.; Rieke, G.; Hartmann, L.; Megeath, T.; Fazio, G.

    2005-12-01

    We present Spitzer observations of a young star forming region within NGC2264. These observations reveal new 24 micron sources in curious linear alignments, extending radially like spokes on a wheel from a previously known luminous young protostar. These 24 micron sources are found to be mostly ( ˜60%) Class I protostars that are highly embedded within dense filamentary molecular material. The protostars still retain the primordial substructuring of the parental cloud. We find the protostars to be separated by regular intervals that are consistent with the Jeans length for the average density of the associated molecular material, suggesting that thermal fragmentation played an important role during the star forming process in this region. The figure shows a false color image of this young region built from MIPS 24 micron (red), IRAC 8 micron (green), and IRAC 3.6 micron (blue) data. PT acknowledges support from the scholarship SFRH/BD/13984/2003 FCT, Portugal.

  3. Hox cluster characterization of Banna caecilian (Ichthyophis bannanicus) provides hints for slow evolution of its genome.

    PubMed

    Wu, Riga; Liu, Qingfeng; Meng, Shaoquan; Zhang, Peng; Liang, Dan

    2015-06-18

    Caecilians, with a discrete lifestyle, are the least explored group of amphibians. Though with distinct traits, many aspects of their biology are poorly investigated. Obtaining the caecilian genomic sequences will offer new perspectives and aid the fundamental studies in caecilian biology. The caecilian genomic sequences are also important and practical in the comparative genomics of amphibians. Currently, however, only sparse genomic sequences of caecilians are available. Hox genes, an old family of transcription factors playing central roles in the establishment of metazoan body plan. Understanding their structure and genomic organization may provide insights into the animal's genome, which is valuable for animals without a sequenced genome. We sequenced and characterized the Hox clusters of Banna caecilian (Ichthyophis bannanicus) with a strategy combining long range PCR and genome walking. We obtained the majority of the four caecilian Hox clusters and identified 39 Hox genes, 5 microRNA genes and 1 pseudogene (ψHoxD12). There remained seven intergenic gaps we were unable to fill. From the obtained sequences, the caecilian Hox clusters contained less repetitive sequences and more conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) than the frog counterparts. We found that caecilian and coelacanth shared many more CNEs than frog and coelacanth did. Relative rate of sequence evolution showed that caecilian Hox genes evolved significantly more slowly than the other tetrapod species used in this study and were comparable to the slowly evolving coelacanth Hox genes. Phylogenetic tree of the four Hox clusters also revealed shorter branch length especially for the caecilian HoxA, HoxB and HoxD clusters. These features of the caecilian Hox clusters suggested a slowly evolving genome, which was supported by further analysis of a large orthologous protein dataset. Our analyses greatly extended the knowledge about the caecilian Hox clusters from previous PCR surveys. From the obtained Hox sequences and the orthologous protein dataset, the caecilian Hox loci and its genome appear evolving comparatively slowly. As the basal lineage of amphibians and land vertebrate, this characteristic of the caecilian genome is valuable in the study concerning the genome biology and evolution of amphibians and early tetrapods.

  4. Integrated near surface geophysics across the active Mount Marzano Fault System (southern Italy): seismogenic hints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P. A. C.; Giocoli, A.; Peronace, E.; Piscitelli, S.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe an original geophysical multi-method approach applied to the Mount Marzano Fault System. This is one of the most hazardous seismogenic faults of the Apennines (Irpinia, southern Italy), and it was responsible for the 1980, Mw 6.9, earthquake, along with many others before. We carried out electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements, and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) microtremor analysis along several common transects designed across the potential and/or certain fault traces. The data obtained from these non-invasive, inexpensive, expeditious methods mutually integrate with and complement each other, providing a valuable subsurface image of the near surface fault architecture. ERT depicts the general shallow image of the fault zone and of the fault-controlled sedimentary basin, with the depth of the buried bedrock cross-correlated through ambient-noise HVSR results. GPR delineates the very shallow geometry of the fault and of the associated deformation. Coupled with previous paleoseismological studies, these data allow the evaluation of some fault parameters and the precise locating of the fault trace, to aid future paleoseismological investigations aimed at seismic risk reduction programs.

  5. The Million Dollar Letter: Some Hints on How to Write One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Marshall

    2004-01-01

    This article suggests ways of writing a truly effective cover letter, an extremely important document in the search for a job. First, features gleaned from 13 model letters in technical writing textbooks yield figures on the number of words, sentences, and paragraphs per letter, plus the average number of words per sentence and paragraph,…

  6. Support for Learning with Computer Simulations: Giving Hints, Supporting Learning Processes, and Providing Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njoo, Melanie; de Jong, Ton

    This paper contains the results of a study on the importance of discovery learning using computer simulations. The purpose of the study was to identify what constitutes discovery learning and to assess the effects of instructional support measures. College students were observed working with an assignment and a computer simulation in the domain of…

  7. Denitrification by large NAT particles: the impact of reduced settling velocities and hints on particle characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woiwode, W.; Grooß, J.-U.; Oelhaf, H.; Molleker, S.; Borrmann, S.; Ebersoldt, A.; Frey, W.; Gulde, T.; Khaykin, S.; Maucher, G.; Piesch, C.; Orphal, J.

    2014-03-01

    Vertical redistribution of HNO3 through condensation, sedimentation and evaporation of large HNO3-containing particles inside polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) plays an important role in the chemistry of the Arctic winter stratosphere. In situ observations by the particle probe FSSP-100 during the RECONCILE campaign indicate unexpected large potential NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) particles inside PSCs. The observations can hardly be explained assuming particles with compact morphology and spherical shape due to limited growing time at temperatures below the existence temperature of NAT (TNAT). Utilizing simulations by the CLaMS and measurements by the airborne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer MIPAS-STR we study the impact of reduced settling velocities of NAT particles on vertical HNO3 redistribution. Reduced settling velocities are expected for spherical NAT particles with low mass density or aspheric NAT particles that might explain the maximum sizes of the particles observed in situ. The results of our study support the hypothesis that denitrification is produced by significantly aspheric (i.e. columnar) compact NAT particles which are characterised by reduced settling velocities.

  8. Denitrification by large NAT particles: the impact of reduced settling velocities and hints on particle characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woiwode, W.; Grooß, J.-U.; Oelhaf, H.; Molleker, S.; Borrmann, S.; Ebersoldt, A.; Frey, W.; Gulde, T.; Khaykin, S.; Maucher, G.; Piesch, C.; Orphal, J.

    2014-10-01

    Vertical redistribution of HNO3 through large HNO3-containing particles associated with polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) plays an important role in the chemistry of the Arctic winter stratosphere. During the RECONCILE (Reconciliation of essential process parameters for an enhanced predictability of Arctic stratospheric ozone loss and its climate interactions) campaign, apparently very large NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) particles were observed by the airborne in situ probe FSSP-100 (Molleker et al., 2014). Our analysis shows that the FSSP-100 observations associated with the flight on 25 January 2010 cannot easily be explained assuming compact spherical NAT particles due to much too short growing time at temperatures below the existence temperature of NAT (TNAT). State-of-the-art simulations using CLaMS (Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere; Grooß et al., 2014) suggest considerably smaller particles. We consider the hypothesis that the simulation reproduces the NAT particle masses in a realistic way, but that real NAT particles may have larger apparent sizes compared to compact spherical particles, e.g. due to non-compact morphology or aspheric shape. Our study focuses on the consequence that such particles would have reduced settling velocities compared to compact spheres, altering the vertical redistribution of HNO3. Utilising CLaMS simulations, we investigate the impact of reduced settling velocities of NAT particles on vertical HNO3 redistribution and compare the results with observations of gas-phase HNO3 by the airborne Fourier transform spectrometer MIPAS-STR associated with two RECONCILE flights. The MIPAS-STR observations confirm conditions consistent with denitrification by NAT particles for the flight on 25 January 2010 and show good agreement with the simulations within the limitations of the comparison. Best agreement is found if settling velocities between 100 and 50% relative to compact spherical particles are considered (slight preference for the 70% scenario). In contrast, relative settling velocities of 30% result in too weak vertical HNO3 redistribution. Sensitivity simulations considering temperature biases of ±1 K and multiplying the simulated nucleation rates by factors of 0.5 and 2.0 affect the comparisons to a similar extent, but result in no effective improvement compared to the reference scenario. Our results show that an accurate knowledge of the settling velocities of NAT particles is important for quantitative simulations of vertical HNO3 redistribution.

  9. Can cold neutrons give hint to understanding nature of dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybolt, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The composition of Dark Matter remains a mystery despite numerous searches. We explore an alternative to the WIMP paradigm in which Ordinary Matter and Dark Matter ``Mirror'' sectors are made of the same particles with the Standard Model interactions in each sector, except two sectors do not interact with each other by the Standard Model interactions. They only interact gravitationally and by some BSM mechanisms that can mix neutral components from both sectors. Thus, for example, photons can mix with sterile mirror photons via ``kinetic mixing'' mechanism, neutrinos can oscillate into sterile mirror neutrinos, and neutrons into sterile mirror neutrons. I explore the possibility to search for this Dark ``Mirror'' Sector by looking at mixing between neutron and mirror neutron. This can be done in a cold neutron beam where neutrons can oscillate into mirror neutrons and pass through a neutron absorber and then transform back into ordinary neutrons where they are detected. The regeneration of neutron depends on the magnitude and direction of a magnetic field.

  10. Star on the Run - Speeding Star Observed with VLT hints at Massive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers [1] have recorded a massive star moving at more than 2.6 million kilometres per hour. Stars are not born with such large velocities. Its position in the sky leads to the suggestion that the star was kicked out from the Large Magellanic Cloud, providing indirect evidence for a massive black hole in the Milky Way's closest neighbour. These results will soon be published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters [2]. "At such a speed, the star would go around the Earth in less than a minute!", says Uli Heber, one of the scientists at the Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte (University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany) and the Centre for Astrophysics Research (University of Hertfordshire, UK) who conducted the study. The hot massive star was discovered in the framework of the Hamburg/ESO sky survey far out in the halo of the Milky Way, towards the Doradus Constellation ("the Swordfish"). "This is a rather unusual place for such a star: massive stars are ordinarily found in the disc of the Milky Way", explains Ralf Napiwotzki, another member of the team. "Our data obtained with the UVES instrument on the Very Large Telescope, at Paranal (Chile), confirm the star to be rather young and to have a chemical composition similar to our Sun." The data also revealed the high speed of the star, solving the riddle of its present location: the star did not form in the Milky Way halo, but happens to be there while on its interstellar - or intergalactic - travel. "But when we calculated how long it would take for the star to travel from the centre of our Galaxy to its present location, we found this to be more than three times its age", says Heber. "Either the star is older than it appears or it was born and accelerated elsewhere", he adds. As a matter of fact, HE0457-5439 - as the star is called - lies closer to one of the Milky Way satellite galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), located 160,000 light-years away from us. The astronomers find it likely for the star to have reached its present position had it been ejected from the centre of the LMC. This could suggest the existence of a massive black hole inside the LMC, in order to have imparted the speeding star the necessary kick. Another explanation would require the star to be the result of the merging of two stars. In this case, the star could be older that presently thought, giving it time to have travelled all the way from the Milky Way Centre. This scenario, however, requires quite some fine-tuning. The astronomers are now planning new observations to confirm one of the two scenarios. See also the associated Web Story.

  11. Some Biological Hints on the Control of Heat and Mass Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Yoshimichi

    This review paper explores the possibilities of the control of heat and mass transfer associated with drought tolerance and freeze tolerance. The accumulation of some metabolites, such as proline and trehalose, are effective for drought tolerance. The special microstructures on the surfaces of some plants and insects in deserts are effective for collecting moisture in the air. Methods of preserving crops will be improved by the mimetic of the drought tolerance. Calcium ions and a protein are effective for the retrieval of damaged cell membrane due to ice formation. Ice crystal growth is inhibited by some substances such as antifreeze proteins. The cryopreservation of foods and organs will be improved by the mimetic of the freeze tolerance.

  12. Proteomic analysis of Daphnia magna hints at molecular pathways involved in defensive plastic responses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Phenotypic plasticity in defensive traits occurs in many species when facing heterogeneous predator regimes. The waterflea Daphnia is well-known for showing a variety of these so called inducible defences. However, molecular mechanisms underlying this plasticity are poorly understood so far. We performed proteomic analysis on Daphnia magna exposed to chemical cues of the predator Triops cancriformis. D. magna develops an array of morphological changes in the presence of Triops including changes of carapace morphology and cuticle hardening. Results Using the 2D-DIGE technique, 1500 protein spots could be matched and quantified. We discovered 179 protein spots with altered intensity when comparing Triops exposed animals to a control group, and 69 spots were identified using nano-LC MS/MS. Kairomone exposure increased the intensity of spots containing muscle proteins, cuticle proteins and chitin-modifying enzymes as well as enzymes of carbohydrate and energy metabolism. The yolk precursor protein vitellogenin decreased in abundance in 41 of 43 spots. Conclusion Identified proteins may be either directly involved in carapace stability or reflect changes in energy demand and allocation costs in animals exposed to predator kairomones. Our results present promising candidate proteins involved in the expression of inducible defences in Daphnia and enable further in depth analysis of this phenomenon. PMID:24762235

  13. “Don Juan-Fracture” as a Hint to Aortic Isthmus Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Suksompong, Sirilak; von Bormann, Benno

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of thoracic aortic rupture after blunt trauma in a 23-year-old male patient. The initial investigation found no external injury or bleeding, only a slightly widened mediastinum and a broken left calcaneus. Abdominal lavage was negative, biochemistry was normal, and breathing and oxygenation were not compromised. When changing his position during diagnostics, the patient all of a sudden developed cardiac arrest and typical signs of hypovolemic shock. An immediate sternotomy was done without any further diagnostics on suspicion of aortic isthmus injury. A circular avulsion at the ligamentum arteriosum was found as assumed and repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient left the hospital for rehabilitation after 12 days in adequate health status. Biodynamics of blunt trauma after high-speed frontal impact and the relationship between calcaneus fracture, called “Don-Juan fracture,” and aortic rupture at the site of ligamentum arteriosum are discussed. PMID:25478249

  14. Teaching Database Modeling and Design: Areas of Confusion and Helpful Hints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, George C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies several areas of database modeling and design that have been problematic for students and even are likely to confuse faculty. Major contributing factors are the lack of clarity and inaccuracies that persist in the presentation of some basic database concepts in textbooks. The paper analyzes the problems and discusses ways to…

  15. Towards understanding mechanisms governing cytotoxicity of metal oxides nanoparticles: hints from nano-QSAR studies.

    PubMed

    Gajewicz, Agnieszka; Schaeublin, Nicole; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Hussain, Saber; Leszczynska, Danuta; Puzyn, Tomasz; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2015-05-01

    The production of nanomaterials increases every year exponentially and therefore the probability these novel materials that they could cause adverse outcomes for human health and the environment also expands rapidly. We proposed two types of mechanisms of toxic action that are collectively applied in a nano-QSAR model, which provides governance over the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles to the human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). The combined experimental-theoretical studies allowed the development of an interpretative nano-QSAR model describing the toxicity of 18 nano-metal oxides to the HaCaT cell line, which is a common in vitro model for keratinocyte response during toxic dermal exposure. The comparison of the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles to bacteria Escherichia coli (prokaryotic system) and a human keratinocyte cell line (eukaryotic system), resulted in the hypothesis that different modes of toxic action occur between prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems.

  16. Human Viperin Causes Radical SAM-Dependent Elongation of Escherichia coli, Hinting at Its Physiological Role.

    PubMed

    Nelp, Micah T; Young, Anthony P; Stepanski, Branden M; Bandarian, Vahe

    2017-08-01

    Viperin (virus inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, interferon-inducible) is a widely distributed protein that is expressed in response to infection and causes antiviral effects against a broad spectrum of viruses. Viperin is a member of the radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) superfamily of enzymes, which typically employ a 4Fe-4S cluster to reductively cleave SAM to initiate chemistry. Though the specific reaction catalyzed by viperin remains unknown, it has been shown that expression of viperin causes an increase in the fluidity of lipid membranes, which impedes the budding of nascent viral particles from the membrane inhibiting propagation of the infection. Herein, we show that expression of the human viperin homologue induces a dramatically elongated morphology of the host Escherichia coli cells. Mutation of an essential cysteine that coordinates the radical SAM cluster abrogates this effect. Thus, the native radical SAM activity of viperin is likely occurring in the host bacteria, indicating the elusive substrate is shared between both bacteria and humans, significantly narrowing the range of potential candidate substrates and providing a convenient bacterial platform from which future studies can occur.

  17. Succeeding in Undergraduate Student Research: A Few Helpful Hints for Advisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Lora

    2013-01-01

    This article offers some insights into successfully engaging students in research. While most schools encourage undergraduate research, there is little guidance specific to mathematics on how to make it a rewarding experience for both the student and the advisor. With a small support group and a goal-oriented time line, students will be able to…

  18. Multiple magma emplacement and its effect on the superficial deformation: hints from analogue models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Domenico; Bonini, Marco; Corti, Giacomo; del Ventisette, Chiara

    2017-04-01

    To test the effect exerted by multiple magma emplacement on the deformation pattern, we have run analogue models with synchronous, as well as diachronous magma injection from different, aligned inlets. The distance between injection points, as well as the activation in time of injection points was varied for each model. Our model results show how the position and activation in time of injection points (which reproduce multiple magma batches in nature) strongly influence model evolution. In the case of synchronous injection at different inlets, the intrusions and associated surface deformation were elongated. Forced folds and annular bounding reverse faults were quite elliptical, and with the main axis of the elongated dome trending sub-parallel to the direction of the magma input points. Model results also indicate that the injection from multiple aligned sources could reproduce the same features of systems associated with planar feeder dikes, thereby suggesting that caution should be taken when trying to infer the feeding areas on the basis of the deformation features observed at the surface or in seismic profiles. Diachronous injection from different injection points showed that the deformation observed at surface does not necessarily reflect the location and/or geometry of their feeders. Most notably, these experiments suggest that coeval magma injection from different sources favor the lateral migration of magma rather than the vertical growth, promoting the development of laterally interconnected intrusions. Recently, some authors (Magee et al., 2014, 2016; Schofield et al., 2015) have suggested that, based on seismic reflection data analysis, interconnected sills and inclined sheets can facilitate the transport of magma over great vertical distances and laterally for large distances. Intrusions and volcanoes fed by sill complexes may thus be laterally offset significantly from the melt source. Our model results strongly support these findings, by reproducing in the laboratory a strong lateral magma migration, and suggesting a possible mechanism. The models also confirmed that lateral magma migration could take place with little or no accompanying surface deformation. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement No. 608553 (Project IMAGE). References: Magee et al., 2014. Basin Research, v. 26, p. 85-105, doi: 10 .1111 /bre.12044. Magee et al., 2016. Geosphere, v. 12, p. 809-841, ISSN: 1553-040X. Schofield et al., 2015. Basin Research, v. 29, p. 41-63, doi:10.1111/bre.12164.

  19. Shell quenching in Ni78: A hint from the structure of neutron-rich copper isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieja, K.; Nowacki, F.

    2010-06-01

    Recent progress in experimental techniques allows us to study very exotic systems like neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of Ni78. The spectroscopy of this region can nowadays be studied theoretically in the large scale shell model calculations. In this work, we perform a shell model study of odd copper nuclei with N=40-50, in a large valence space with the Ca48 core, using a realistic interaction derived from the CD-Bonn potential. We present the crucial importance of the proton core excitations for the description of spectra and magnetic moments, which are for the first time correctly reproduced in theoretical calculations. Shell evolution from Ni68 to Ni78 is discussed in detail. A weakening of the Z=28 gap when approaching the N=50 shell closure, suggested by the experimental evidence, is confirmed in the calculations.

  20. Considering Homeschooling Your Child on the Autism Spectrum? Some Helpful Hints and Suggestions for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlbutt, Karen

    2010-01-01

    With the increase in the numbers of diagnosed children on the autism spectrum, schools are being challenged to provide proper educational services for these children. In Educating Children with Autism, the National Research Council recommended that educational programs for students with autism include three basic components. These are direct…

  1. Teaching Pre- and Semi-Literate Laotian and Cambodian Adolescents To Read: Helpful Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Charles R.; And Others

    The handbook details techniques and approaches for teaching adolescent Laotian and Cambodian refugees, aged 10-17, to read. It evolved from a workshop for teachers of English as a Second Language (ESL) in which 17 such students participated. The book begins by looking at reading as a psycholinguistic guessing game, then proceeds to classroom…

  2. How Parents Influence School Grades: Hints from a Sample of Adoptive and Biological Families

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Using the biological and adoptive families in the Minnesota-based Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, we investigated the associations among genetic and environmental influences on IQ, parenting, parental expectations for offspring educational attainment, engagement in school, and school grades. All variables showed substantial genetic influence, and very modest shared environmental influence. No gender differences were evident. There were significant genetic influences common to IQ and parental expectations of educational attainment, parenting and engagement in school, school grades and engagement in school, parental expectations for offspring educational attainment and school grades, and IQ and school grades. A possible interpretation of the common genetic influences involving parenting is that parents use their own experience with school in shaping the ways in which they parent their offspring. PMID:19081831

  3. 3rd Circuit hints it may reconsider McNemar reasoning.

    PubMed

    1997-10-17

    The [name removed] v. The Disney Store ruling is under criticism and the 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals may reconsider its 1996 decision to not allow employees who receive disability benefits to sue under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). A panel of 3rd Circuit judges, working on [name removed] v. American Sterilizer Co., asserts that the [name removed] decision should not be used to assume that an individual's ADA claims are barred because of prior representations of disability. [Name removed] is suing American Sterilizer under the retaliation provisions of the ADA. Other courts are criticizing the [name removed] decision, including the District of Columbia Court in [name removed] v. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. The [name removed] court assets that a statement made in the context of a disability application does not preclude an ADA claim brought by a worker for illegal discrimination because the ADA and the Social Security Act differ in their statutory intent. AIDS advocates state that the [name removed] decision places a plaintiff in the position of having to choose between asserting a legal right or maintaining an income. Alan Epstein, who represented [name removed], is pleased by the criticism but explains that [name removed], who died this summer, will not be vindicated.

  4. [Widened forwarding total laryngectomy ("squared laryngectomy"). Hints of surgical techniques and personal experience].

    PubMed

    Croce, A; Moretti, A; Bianchedi, M; Neri, G; Falcone, G

    1995-10-01

    Primitive T4 laryngeal neoplasms with anterior invasion and neoplasm recurring after partial and subtotal intervention often invade the soft prelaryngeal tissues and in these cases the neoplastic illness can be no longer be controlled be "organ surgery". The widened forwarding total laryngectomy, "squared" or "carrè" laryngectomy according to some Authors of French School, is a surgical procedure not "on an organ" but "in an area" or "region" which proposes to delete, in one step, the larynx, the bone hyoid, the fasciae and the prelaryngeal muscles, the thyroid gland and, if necessary, a more or less large quantity of anterior cervical skin. If the removal involves a vast cutaneous area, it is necessary to mend the loss of substance by wrapping around a miocutaneous flap of pectoralis mayor muscle. In the last five years, 4 male patients, between 48 and 73 years, were treated with widened forwarding total laryngectomy. They were all carriers of epidermoid laryngeal carcinomas with various degrees of differentation: primitive in one patients, recidivist after performance of partial (cordectomy) and subtotal (two Labayle) surgery in the other three patients. In the only case of T4 primitive laryngeal neoplasm it was necessary to carry out a functional neck dissection bilaterally. Loss of substance always required the use of a miocutaneous flap of pectoralis mayor muscle except in one patient in which the removal of the prelaryngeal tissues was limited and therefore it was possible to make a direct seam. We always completely removed the thyroid gland, the prelaryngeal muscular system and skin of the preceding stomy (in the Labayle) sparing, on the other hand, the hyoid bone. Only one patient, who died due to recurrence a year after surgery, underwent complemental percutaneous radiotherapy. At present, three patients are alive and NED: one after 5 years, the others are in excellent conditions although the follow-up is still brief. According to our experience, we can affirm that in selected cases, after an accurate general evaluation of the patient (exclusion of distant metastases, preparation from a metabolic and psychological point of view) a widened forwarding total laryngectomy is a valid procedure since surgery (together with other complementary therapies), is still today the best treatment in forms with anterior evolution.

  5. Maximum number of habitable planets at the time of Earth's origin: new hints for panspermia?

    PubMed

    von Bloh, Werner; Franck, Siegfried; Bounama, Christine; Schellnhuber, Hans-Joachim

    2003-04-01

    New discoveries have fuelled the ongoing discussion of panspermia, i.e. the transport of life from one planet to another within the solar system (interplanetary panspermia) or even between different planetary systems (interstellar panspermia). The main factor for the probability of interstellar panspermia is the average density of stellar systems containing habitable planets. The combination of recent results for the formation rate of Earth-like planets with our estimations of extrasolar habitable zones allows us to determine the number of habitable planets in the Milky Way over cosmological time scales. We find that there was a maximum number of habitable planets around the time of Earth's origin. If at all, interstellar panspermia was most probable at that time and may have kick-started life on our planet.

  6. Globalization or Hegemony? Childcare on the Brink: Hints from Three Geographically Distant Localities in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, John P.; Thirumurthy, Vidya; Field, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    In a previous publication the authors examined selected aspects of the structure and curriculum of fifteen childcare centers located in three geographically distant locations in North America and determined that contrasts within and between the regions in terms of structure and curriculum guided by the National Association for the Education of…

  7. Breastfeeding: Hints to Help You Get Off to a Good Start

    MedlinePlus

    ... runny at fiHow can I increase my milk supply?If you think your baby needs more milk, increase the number of feedings a day. It's also important for you to get plenty of rest and eat right. Give your body time to catch up to your baby's demands.Don't start giving your baby formula or ...

  8. Spectroscopic hint of a cold stream in the direction of the globular cluster NGC 1851

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollima, A.; Gratton, R. G.; Carballo-Bello, J. A.; Martínez-Delgado, D.; Carretta, E.; Bragaglia, A.; Lucatello, S.; Peñarrubia, J.

    2012-10-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic survey performed in the outskirts of the globular cluster NGC 1851 with VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph (VIMOS)/Very Large Telescope (VLT). The radial velocities of 107 stars in a region between 12 and 33 arcmin around the cluster have been derived. We clearly identify the cluster stellar population over the entire field of view, indicating the presence of a significant fraction of stars outside the tidal radius predicted by King models. We also find tentative evidence of a cold (σv ≤ 20 km s-1) peak in the distribution of velocities at vr ˜ 180 km s-1 constituted mainly by main-sequence stars whose location in the colour-magnitude diagram is compatible with a stream at a similar distance to this cluster. If confirmed, this evidence would strongly support the extragalactic origin of this feature. Based on VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph (VIMOS) observations collected with the Very Large Telescope at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, within the observing programme 082.D-0244.Alexander von Humboldt Fellow for Advanced Research.

  9. Clinical challenges in HIV/AIDS: Hints for advancing prevention and patient management strategies.

    PubMed

    Sued, Omar; Figueroa, María Inés; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome has been one of the most devastating epidemics of the last century. The current estimate for people living with the HIV is 36.9 million. Today, despite availability of potent and safe drugs for effective treatment, lifelong therapy is required for preventing HIV re-emergence from a pool of latently infected cells. However, recent evidence show the importance to expand HIV testing, to offer antiretroviral treatment to all infected individuals, and to ensure retention through all the cascade of care. In addition, circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and other biomedical tools are now available for included in a comprehensive preventive package. Use of all the available tools might allow cutting the HIV transmission in 2030. In this article, we review the status of the epidemic, the latest advances in prevention and treatment, the concept of treatment as prevention and the challenges and opportunities for the HIV cure agenda.

  10. Hints of Habitable Environments on Mars Challenge Our Studies of Mars-Analog Sites on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desMarais, David J

    2009-01-01

    Life as we know it requires water with a chemical activity (alpha) >or approx.0.6 and sources of nutrients and useful energy. Some biota can survive even if favorable conditions occur only intermittently, but the minimum required frequency of occurrences is poorly understood. Recent discoveries have vindicated the Mars exploration strategy to follow the water. Mars Global Surveyor s Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) found coarse-grained hematite at Meridiani Planum. Opportunity rover confirmed this and also found evidence of ancient sulfate-rich playa lakes and near-surface groundwater. Elsewhere, TES found evidence of evaporitic halides in topographic depressions. But alpha might not have approached 0.6 in these evaporitic sulfate- and halide-bearing waters. Mars Express (MEX) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) found extensive sulfate evaporites in Meridiani and Valles Marineris. MEX found phyllosilicates at several sites, most notably Mawrth Valles and Nili Fossae. MRO's CRISM near-IR mapper extended the known diversity and geographic distribution of phyllosilicates to include numerous Noachian craters. Phyllosilicates typically occur at the base of exposed ancient rock sections or in sediments in early Hesperian craters. It is uncertain whether the phyllosilicates developed in surface or subsurface aqueous environments and how long aqueous conditions persisted. Spirit rover found remarkably pure ferric sulfate, indicating oxidation and transport of Fe and S, perhaps in fumaroles or hot springs. Spirit also found opaline silica, consistent with hydrothermal activity. CRISM mapped extensive silica deposits in the Valles Marineris region, consistent with aqueous weathering and deposition. CRISM also found ultramafic rocks and magnesite at Nili Fossae, consistent with serpentinization, a process that can sustain habitable environments on Earth. The report of atmospheric methane implies subsurface aqueous conditions. A working hypothesis is that aqueous environments persisted in the near-subsurface for hundreds of millions of years and might exist even today. Studies of Mars-analog environments must better understand subsurface nonphotosynthetic ecosystems and their biosignatures in mafic and ultramafic terranes. Studies must determine minimum needs for water activity and energy and also establish survival limits when conditions that support active metabolism and propagation become progressively less frequent over time.

  11. Hints for families of gamma-ray bursts improving the Hubble diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, Vincenzo F.; Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2013-09-01

    As soon as their extragalactic origins were established, the hope to make gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) standardizeable candles to probe the very high-z universe has opened the search for scaling relations between redshift-independent observable quantities and distance-dependent ones. Although some remarkable success has been achieved, the empirical correlations thus found are still affected by a significant intrinsic scatter which downgrades the precision in the inferred GRB Hubble diagram. We investigate here whether this scatter may come from fitting together objects belonging to intrinsically different classes. To this end, we rely on a cladistics analysis to partition GRBs in homogenous families according to their rest-frame properties. Although the poor statistics prevent us from drawing a definitive answer, we find that both the intrinsic scatter and the coefficients of the Epeak-Eiso and Epeak-L correlations significantly change depending on which sub-sample is fitted. It turns out that the fit to the full sample leads to a scaling relation which approximately follows the diagonal of the region delimited by the fits to each homogenous class. We therefore argue that a preliminary identification of the class a GRB belongs to is necessary in order to select the right scaling relation to be used in order to not bias the distance determination and hence the Hubble diagram.

  12. The infrared medium-deep survey. II. How to trigger radio AGNs? Hints from their environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin; Chapman, Scott; Pak, Soojong; Edge, Alastair

    2014-12-10

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ∼25 deg{sup 2} and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (M{sub u} – M{sub r} ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  13. Magic, Nostalgia and a Hint of Greatness in the Workaday World of the Building Types Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles W.; Oliver, Richard B.

    1977-01-01

    The Architectural Record's Building Types Studies, now forty years old, exist as a compendium of raw material for an esthetic, stylistic, sociopolitical, and technological evaluation of contemporary U.S. architecture as it actually was built. (Author/MLF)

  14. First hints of large scale structures in the ultrahigh energy sky?

    SciTech Connect

    Cuoco, A.; Miele, G.; Serpico, Pasquale D.; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01

    The result of the recent publication [1] of a broad maximum around 25 degrees in the two-point autocorrelation function of ultra-high energy cosmic ray arrival directions has been intriguingly interpreted as the first imprint of the large scale structures (LSS) of baryonic matter in the near universe. We analyze this suggestion in light of the clustering properties expected from the PSCz astronomical catalogue of LSS. The chance probability of the signal is consistent within 2 {sigma} with the predictions based on the catalogue. No evidence for a significant cross-correlation of the observed events with known overdensities in the LSS is found, which may be due to the role of the galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields, and is however consistent with the limited statistics. The larger statistics to be collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory is needed to answer definitely the question.

  15. Assessing the Role of Anhydrite in the KT Mass Extinction: Hints from Shock-loading Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skala, R.; Lnagenhorst, F.; Hoerz, F.

    2004-01-01

    Various killing mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the mass extinctions at the KT boundary, including severe, global deterioration of the atmosphere and hydrosphere due to SO(x) released from heavily shocked, sulfate-bearing target rocks. The devolatilization of anhydrite is predominantly inferred from thermodynamic considerations and lacks experimental confirmation. To date, the experimentally determined shock behavior of anhydrite is limited to solid-state effects employing X-ray diffraction methods. The present report employs additional methods to characterize experimentally shocked anhydrite.

  16. Hipp's Helpful Hints for Hitting the Highway (The Information Highway, That Is).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipp, Fran

    2001-01-01

    Presents a pathfinder to help elementary school teachers connect to the Internet. Includes basics of the Internet; links to other helpful Web sites; lesson plans ready to use in the classroom; sites with resources for teachers to create their own lesson plans; North Carolina resources; and print resources. (LRW)

  17. Diphoton channel at the LHC experiments to find a hint for a new heavy gauge boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneta, Kunio; Kang, Subeom; Lee, Hye-Sung

    2016-09-01

    Recently there has been a huge interest in the diphoton excess around 750 GeV reported by both ATLAS and CMS collaborations, although the newest analysis with more statistics does not seem to support the excess. Nevertheless, the diphoton channel at the LHC experiments are a powerful tool to probe a new physics. One of the most natural explanations of a diphoton excess, if it occurs, could be a new scalar boson with exotic colored particles. In this setup, it would be legitimate to ask what is the role of this new scalar in nature. A heavy neutral gauge boson (Z‧) is one of the traditional targets of the discovery at the collider experiments with numerous motivations. While the Landau-Yang theorem dictates the diphoton excess cannot be this spin-1 gauge boson, there is a strong correlation of a new heavy gauge boson and a new scalar boson which provides a mass to the gauge boson being at the same mass scale. In this paper, we point out a simple fact that a new scalar with a property similar to the recently highlighted 750 GeV would suggest an existence of a TeV scale Z‧ gauge boson that might be within the reach of the LHC Run 2 experiments. We take a scenario of the well-motivated and popular gauged B - L symmetry and require the gauge coupling unification to predict the mass and other properties of the Z‧ and illustrate the discovery of the Z‧ would occur during the LHC experiments.

  18. Mobile Students' Appraisals of Keys to a Successful Stay Abroad Experience: Hints from the IEREST Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Maele, Jan; Vassilicos, Basil; Borghetti, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide better support for students in higher education throughout a mobility experience, it is important to understand their point of view regarding stay abroad. This paper analyzes the responses of pre-departure, while-abroad, and upon-return students of different academic backgrounds (N = 990) to an open question that asked them to…

  19. Design and structure of an equilibrium protein folding intermediate: a hint into dynamical regions of proteins.

    PubMed

    Ayuso-Tejedor, Sara; Angarica, Vladimir Espinosa; Bueno, Marta; Campos, Luis A; Abián, Olga; Bernadó, Pau; Sancho, Javier; Jiménez, M Angeles

    2010-07-23

    Partly unfolded protein conformations close to the native state may play important roles in protein function and in protein misfolding. Structural analyses of such conformations which are essential for their fully physicochemical understanding are complicated by their characteristic low populations at equilibrium. We stabilize here with a single mutation the equilibrium intermediate of apoflavodoxin thermal unfolding and determine its solution structure by NMR. It consists of a large native region identical with that observed in the X-ray structure of the wild-type protein plus an unfolded region. Small-angle X-ray scattering analysis indicates that the calculated ensemble of structures is consistent with the actual degree of expansion of the intermediate. The unfolded region encompasses discontinuous sequence segments that cluster in the 3D structure of the native protein forming the FMN cofactor binding loops and the binding site of a variety of partner proteins. Analysis of the apoflavodoxin inner interfaces reveals that those becoming destabilized in the intermediate are more polar than other inner interfaces of the protein. Natively folded proteins contain hydrophobic cores formed by the packing of hydrophobic surfaces, while natively unfolded proteins are rich in polar residues. The structure of the apoflavodoxin thermal intermediate suggests that the regions of natively folded proteins that are easily responsive to thermal activation may contain cores of intermediate hydrophobicity.

  20. Hints of a Rotating Spiral Structure in the Innermost Regions around IRC+10216

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Cernicharo, J.; Agúndez, M.; Velilla Prieto, L.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Marcelino, N.; Cabezas, C.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J. L.; Zúñiga, J.; Requena, A.; Bastida, A.; Kalugina, Y.; Lique, F.; Guélin, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array is allowing us to study the innermost regions of the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars with unprecedented precision and sensitivity. Key processes in the ejection of matter and dust from these objects occur in their inner zones. In this work, we present sub-arcsecond interferometric maps of transitions of metal-bearing molecules toward the prototypical C-rich evolved star IRC +10216. While Al-bearing molecules seem to be present as a roughly spherical shell, the molecular emission from the salts NaCl and KCl presents an elongation in the inner regions with a central minimum. In order to accurately analyze the emission from the NaCl rotational lines, we present new calculations of the collisional rates for this molecule based on new spectroscopic constants. The most plausible interpretation for the spatial distribution of the salts is a spiral with a NaCl mass of 0.08 {M}⊙ . Alternatively, a torus of gas and dust would result in structures similar to those observed. From the torus scenario we derive a mass of ˜1.1 × 10-4 {M}⊙ . In both cases, the spiral and the torus, the NaCl structure presents an inner minimum of 27 AU. In the case of the torus, the outer radius is 73 AU. The kinematics of both the spiral and the torus suggests that they are slowly expanding and rotating. Alternative explanations for the presence of the elongation are explored. The presence of these features only in KCl and NaCl might be a result of their comparatively high dipole moment with respect to the Al-bearing species.

  1. Issue Brief #2: Metrics for Improving Cost Accountability (Hint: Not More Detailed Cost Accounting...)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Project on Postsecondary Education Costs, Productivity and Accountability, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Most fiscal reporting focuses on revenues (whether or not they go to core purposes), tuition and fees, and financial aid. "How" the money is spent is something that remains shrouded in too much mystery. Several national efforts to address this problem have largely come to naught--probably because those common methodologies are simultaneously not…

  2. Homology modeling of 5-lipoxygenase and hints for better inhibitor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparoy, P.; Reddy, R. N.; Guruprasad, Lalitha; Reddy, M. R.; Reddanna, P.

    2008-09-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a group of enzymes involved in the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among these 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is the key enzyme leading to the formation of pharmacologically important leukotrienes and lipoxins, the mediators of inflammatory and allergic disorders. In view of close functional similarity to mammalian lipoxygenase, potato 5-LOX is used extensively. In this study, the homology modeling technique has been used to construct the structure of potato 5-LOX. The amino acid sequence identity between the target protein and sequence of template protein 1NO3 (soybean LOX-3) searched from NCBI protein BLAST was 63%. Based on the template structure, the protein model was constructed by using the Homology program in InsightII. The protein model was briefly refined by energy minimization steps and validated using Profile-3D, ERRAT and PROCHECK. The results showed that 99.3% of the amino acids were in allowed regions of Ramachandran plot, suggesting that the model is accurate and its stereochemical quality good. Like all LOXs, 5-LOX also has a two-domain structure, the small N-terminal β-barrel domain and a larger catalytic domain containing a single atom of non-heme iron coordinating with His525, His530, His716 and Ile864. Asn720 is present in the fifth coordination position of iron. The sixth coordination position faces the open cavity occupied here by the ligands which are docked. Our model of the enzyme is further validated by examining the interactions of earlier reported inhibitors and by energy minimization studies which were carried out using molecular mechanics calculations. Four ligands, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) having IC50 of 1.5 μM and analogs of benzyl propargyl ethers having IC50 values of 760 μM, 45 μM, and no inhibition respectively were selected for our docking and energy minimization studies. Our results correlated well with the experimental data reported earlier, which proved the quality of the model. This model generated can be further used for the design and development of more potent 5-LOX inhibitors.

  3. Improving HIV coreceptor usage prediction in the clinic using hints from next-generation sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Nico; Lengauer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Due to the high mutation rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), drug-resistant-variants emerge frequently. Therefore, researchers are constantly searching for new ways to attack the virus. One new class of anti-HIV drugs is the class of coreceptor antagonists that block cell entry by occupying a coreceptor on CD4 cells. This type of drug just has an effect on the subset of HIVs that use the inhibited coreceptor. A good prediction of whether the viral population inside a patient is susceptible to the treatment is hence very important for therapy decisions and pre-requisite to administering the respective drug. The first prediction models were based on data from Sanger sequencing of the V3 loop of HIV. Recently, a method based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data was introduced that predicts labels for each read separately and decides on the patient label through a percentage threshold for the resistant viral minority. Results: We model the prediction problem on the patient level taking the information of all reads from NGS data jointly into account. This enables us to improve prediction performance for NGS data, but we can also use the trained model to improve predictions based on Sanger sequencing data. Therefore, also laboratories without NGS capabilities can benefit from the improvements. Furthermore, we show which amino acids at which position are important for prediction success, giving clues on how the interaction mechanism between the V3 loop and the particular coreceptors might be influenced. Availability: A webserver is available at http://coreceptor.bioinf.mpi-inf.mpg.de. Contact: nico.pfeifer@mpi-inf.mpg.de PMID:22962486

  4. The Effect of Hints and Model Answers in a Student-Controlled Problem-Solving Program for Secondary Physics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Many students experience difficulties in solving applied physics problems. Most programs that want students to improve problem-solving skills are concerned with the development of content knowledge. Physhint is an example of a student-controlled computer program that supports students in developing their strategic knowledge in combination with…

  5. Estimation of Directed Effective Connectivity from fMRI Functional Connectivity Hints at Asymmetries of Cortical Connectome

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Matthieu; Moreno-Bote, Ruben; Ponce-Alvarez, Adrián; Ritter, Petra; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The brain exhibits complex spatio-temporal patterns of activity. This phenomenon is governed by an interplay between the internal neural dynamics of cortical areas and their connectivity. Uncovering this complex relationship has raised much interest, both for theory and the interpretation of experimental data (e.g., fMRI recordings) using dynamical models. Here we focus on the so-called inverse problem: the inference of network parameters in a cortical model to reproduce empirically observed activity. Although it has received a lot of interest, recovering directed connectivity for large networks has been rather unsuccessful so far. The present study specifically addresses this point for a noise-diffusion network model. We develop a Lyapunov optimization that iteratively tunes the network connectivity in order to reproduce second-order moments of the node activity, or functional connectivity. We show theoretically and numerically that the use of covariances with both zero and non-zero time shifts is the key to infer directed connectivity. The first main theoretical finding is that an accurate estimation of the underlying network connectivity requires that the time shift for covariances is matched with the time constant of the dynamical system. In addition to the network connectivity, we also adjust the intrinsic noise received by each network node. The framework is applied to experimental fMRI data recorded for subjects at rest. Diffusion-weighted MRI data provide an estimate of anatomical connections, which is incorporated to constrain the cortical model. The empirical covariance structure is reproduced faithfully, especially its temporal component (i.e., time-shifted covariances) in addition to the spatial component that is usually the focus of studies. We find that the cortical interactions, referred to as effective connectivity, in the tuned model are not reciprocal. In particular, hubs are either receptors or feeders: they do not exhibit both strong incoming and outgoing connections. Our results sets a quantitative ground to explore the propagation of activity in the cortex. PMID:26982185

  6. Gamma-ray timing of redback PSR J2339-0533: Hints for gravitational quadrupole moment changes

    DOE PAGES

    Pletsch, Holger J.; Clark, Colin J.

    2015-06-25

    Here, we present the results of precision gamma-ray timing measurements of the binary millisecond pulsar PSR J2339–0533, an irradiating system of the "redback" type, using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We describe an optimized analysis method to determine a long-term phase-coherent timing solution spanning more than six years, including a measured eccentricity of the binary orbit and constraints on the proper motion of the system. A major result of this timing analysis is the discovery of an extreme variation of the nominal 4.6 hr orbital periodmore » $${P}_{\\mathrm{orb}}$$ over time, showing alternating epochs of decrease and increase. We inferred a cyclic modulation of $${P}_{\\mathrm{orb}}$$ with an approximate cycle duration of 4.2 yr and a modulation amplitude of $${\\rm{\\Delta }}{P}_{\\mathrm{orb}}/{P}_{\\mathrm{orb}}=2.3\\times {10}^{-7}$$. Considering different possible physical causes, the observed orbital-period modulation most likely results from a variable gravitational quadrupole moment of the companion star due to cyclic magnetic activity in its convective zone.« less

  7. Gamma-ray timing of redback PSR J2339-0533: Hints for gravitational quadrupole moment changes

    SciTech Connect

    Pletsch, Holger J.; Clark, Colin J.

    2015-06-25

    Here, we present the results of precision gamma-ray timing measurements of the binary millisecond pulsar PSR J2339–0533, an irradiating system of the "redback" type, using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We describe an optimized analysis method to determine a long-term phase-coherent timing solution spanning more than six years, including a measured eccentricity of the binary orbit and constraints on the proper motion of the system. A major result of this timing analysis is the discovery of an extreme variation of the nominal 4.6 hr orbital period ${P}_{\\mathrm{orb}}$ over time, showing alternating epochs of decrease and increase. We inferred a cyclic modulation of ${P}_{\\mathrm{orb}}$ with an approximate cycle duration of 4.2 yr and a modulation amplitude of ${\\rm{\\Delta }}{P}_{\\mathrm{orb}}/{P}_{\\mathrm{orb}}=2.3\\times {10}^{-7}$. Considering different possible physical causes, the observed orbital-period modulation most likely results from a variable gravitational quadrupole moment of the companion star due to cyclic magnetic activity in its convective zone.

  8. Reflexivity, Self-Identity and Resilience in Career Development: Hints from a Qualitative Research Study in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    One of the most typical features characterising modern ways of living and working is represented by the dynamism required by individuals in navigating their career paths. This article explores some case studies of career development collected through biographical interviews carried out within the Italian strand of the Cedefop project. These relate…

  9. Synchrotron FT-IR analyses of microstructured biomineral domains: Hints to the biomineralization processes in freshwater cultured pearls.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Gasharova, B.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    Recent investigations in freshwater cultured pearls (bio-carbonate) by micro-Raman spectroscopy (Wehrmeister et al., 2008; Soldati et al., 2008), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging (Jacob et al., 2008) show that the pearl biomineralisation starts with a self assembling process in which an existing gel matrix of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and organic substances reorganizes and conglomerates in small domains; these conglomerates then form prisms and mature nacreous tablets of aragonite or vaterite. Raman spectroscopy shows that the calcium carbonate polymorphs have decreasing luminescence in the order ACC>Vaterite>Aragonite, coinciding with decreasing quantities of S and P (related to the organic matrix) measured by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) and Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA). Although little is known about the process of transformation of the ACC gel into vaterite and aragonite, it is speculated that this probably involves dehydration and change of the accompanying organic matrix. This is also supported by our laboratory FT-IR analysis. However, due to the small size of the areas of ACC (about 10 ?m) and the biogenic crystals an in-situ high spatially resolved IR-method is needed to record how the water content and organic matrix change in the biomineralisation sequence, to understand which processes take place in the self-organization. The beamline IR-1 at the ANKA synchrotron source (Karlsruhe, Germany) was used for this experiment. Freshwater cultured pearls from China cultured in Hyriopsis cumingii mussels by tissue nucleation methods (so-called beadless pearls) as well as by bead implantation methods (aragonite nucleus) were studied. The pearls were cut in half with a diamond-plated saw and polished with diamond paste on a copper plate. Micro-Raman spectroscopy maps (Department of Geosciences, at the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz) were generated to identify and pre-select those pearls containing ACC. Infrared absorption spectra were measured using a Ge ATR objective on 100-200 ?m thin sections and polished pearl sections. Attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy gives the opportunity to measure the infrared absorption in a reflectance mode directly without necessity to apply Kramers-Kronig transformation. The spectral range available is 650-5000 cm-1when using a Ge ATR crystal with the MCT detector at the ANKA-IR microscope and allowed the detection of the ?4 in-plane bending band (around 750 cm-1 in vaterite and 710 cm-1 in aragonite), the ?1 symmetric stretching bands (1070-7085 cm-1 for vaterite4 and 1082-1084 cm-1 in aragonite5), the ?2 out-of-plane bending vibration of the CO3 groups (855 cm-1 for vaterite and 857-877 cm-1 in aragonite) and the ?3 asymmetric stretching (1420-1490 cm-1 in vaterite and 1480 cm-1 in aragonite) respectively (Sato and Masuda, 1969; Yamoto et al., 1974).Water was detected by the presence of the O-H stretching at around 3500 cm-1. Proteins and sugars included in the biogenic carbonates were recognized through the N-H and C-H bands, for example 1717-1575 cm-1 for aspartic acid, 1712-1558 cm-1 for glutamic acid, 1500 to 2000 cm-1 amide I and II (Dauphin et al., 2006). References WEHRMEISTER U., JACOB D.E., SOLDATI A.L., HÄGER T. & HOFMEISTER W. 2007. Vaterite in freshwater cultured pearls from China and Japan. The Journal of Gemmology; 31: 269-276. SOLDATI A.L., JACOB D.E., WEHRMEISTER U.& HOFMEISTER W. 2008. Structural characterization and chemical composition of aragonite and vaterite in freshwater cultured pearls. Mineralogical Magazine 72: 577-590. JACOB, D.E., SOLDATI, A.L., WIRTH, R., HUTH, J., WEHRMEISTER, U. & HOFMEISTER, W. 2008. Nanostructure, composition and mechanisms of bivalve shell growth. Geochimica et Coscmochimica Acta 72: 5401-5415. SATO M. & MATSUDA S. 1969. Structure of vaterite and infrared spectra. Z. Kistalography 129: 405-410. YAMAMOTO A, SHIRO Y & MURATA H. 1974 Optically-active vibrations and elastic constants of calcite and aragonite. Bulletin Chemical Society Japan, 47:265-273. DAUPHIN Y. 2006. Structure and composition of steptal nacreous layer of Nautilus macromphalus L. (Mollusca, Cephalopoda). Zoology 109: 95-95.

  10. Paralog-divergent Features May Help Reduce Off-target Effects of Drugs: Hints from Glucagon Subfamily Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sa, Zhining; Zhou, Jingqi; Zou, Yangyun; Su, Zhixi; Gu, Xun

    2017-08-01

    Side effects from targeted drugs remain a serious concern. One reason is the nonselective binding of a drug to unintended proteins such as its paralogs, which are highly homologous in sequences and have similar structures and drug-binding pockets. To identify targetable differences between paralogs, we analyzed two types (type-I and type-II) of functional divergence between two paralogs in the known target protein receptor family G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) at the amino acid level. Paralogous protein receptors in glucagon-like subfamily, glucagon receptor (GCGR) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), exhibit divergence in ligands and are clinically validated drug targets for type 2 diabetes. Our data showed that type-II amino acids were significantly enriched in the binding sites of antagonist MK-0893 to GCGR, which had a radical shift in physicochemical properties between GCGR and GLP-1R. We also examined the role of type-I amino acids between GCGR and GLP-1R. The divergent features between GCGR and GLP-1R paralogs may be helpful in their discrimination, thus enabling the identification of binding sites to reduce undesirable side effects and increase the target specificity of drugs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Planning and Conducting a Functional Exercise. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management. Volume 2, Issue 4, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    A key component of comprehensive school and school district emergency management plans is an exercise program that includes the five types of exercises: (1) orientation seminars; (2) drills; (3) tabletop exercises; and (4) functional exercises. Functional exercises are excellent tools for testing the extent to which an existing emergency…

  12. Practical Parenting Tips: Over 1,500 Helpful Hints for the First Five Years. Revised and Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansky, Vicki

    Noting that other parents can be an excellent source of practical parenting advice, this book compiles over a thousand practical tips--those not generally found in baby care books or pediatrician's offices--with over 400 new tips compiled since the book's 1982 version. Major topics include: (1) new baby care, including cesarean deliveries,…

  13. When can Empirical Green Functions be computed from Noise Cross-Correlations? Hints from different Geographical and Tectonic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Catarina; Silveira, Graça; Custódio, Susana; Domingues, Ana; Dias, Nuno; Fonseca, João F. B.; Matias, Luís; Krueger, Frank; Carrilho, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Noise cross-correlations are now widely used to extract Green functions between station pairs. But, do all the cross-correlations routinely computed produce successful Green Functions? What is the relationship between noise recorded in a couple of stations and the cross-correlation between them? During the last decade, we have been involved in the deployment of several temporary dense broadband (BB) networks within the scope of both national projects and international collaborations. From 2000 to 2002, a pool of 8 BB stations continuously operated in the Azores in the scope of the Memorandum of Understanding COSEA (COordinated Seismic Experiment in the Azores). Thanks to the Project WILAS (West Iberia Lithosphere and Astenosphere Structure, PTDC/CTE-GIX/097946/2008) we temporarily increased the number of BB deployed in mainland Portugal to more than 50 (permanent + temporary) during the period 2010 - 2012. In 2011/12 a temporary pool of 12 seismometers continuously recorded BB data in the Madeira archipelago, as part of the DOCTAR (Deep Ocean Test Array Experiment) project. Project CV-PLUME (Investigation on the geometry and deep signature of the Cape Verde mantle plume, PTDC/CTE-GIN/64330/2006) covered the archipelago of Cape Verde, North Atlantic, with 40 temporary BB stations in 2007/08. Project MOZART (Mozambique African Rift Tomography, PTDC/CTE-GIX/103249/2008), covered Mozambique, East Africa, with 30 temporary BB stations in the period 2011 - 2013. These networks, located in very distinct geographical and tectonic environments, offer an interesting opportunity to study seasonal and spatial variations of noise sources and their impact on Empirical Green functions computed from noise cross-correlation. Seismic noise recorded at different seismic stations is evaluated by computation of the probability density functions of power spectral density (PSD) of continuous data. To assess seasonal variations of ambient noise sources in frequency content, time-series of PSD at different frequency bands have been computed. The influence of the spatial and seasonal variation is evaluated by analysis of the one-day length cross-correlations, stacked with a 30-day moving window and with an overlap of 30 days. To inspect the effects of frequency content variations, 30-day cross-correlograms have also been computed at different frequency bands. This work is supported by project QuakeLoc-PT (PTDC/GEO-FIQ/3522/2012) and a contribution to project AQUAREL (PTDC/CTE-GIX/116819/2010).

  14. Hints of an axion-like particle mixing in the GeV gamma-ray blazar data?

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, Olga; Razzaque, Soebur E-mail: srazzaque@uj.ac.za

    2013-11-01

    Axion-Like Particles (ALPs), if exist in nature, are expected to mix with photons in the presence of an external magnetic field. The energy range of photons which undergo strong mixing with ALPs depends on the ALP mass, on its coupling with photons as well as on the external magnetic field and particle density configurations. Recent observations of blazars by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope in the 0.1–300 GeV energy range show a break in their spectra in the 1–10 GeV range. We have modeled this spectral feature for the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C454.3 during its November 2010 outburst, assuming that a significant fraction of the gamma rays convert to ALPs in the large scale jet of this blazar. Using theoretically motivated models for the magnetic field and particle density configurations in the kiloparsec scale jet, outside the broad-line region, we find an ALP mass m{sub a} ∼ (1−3)⋅10{sup −7} eV and coupling g{sub aγ} ∼ (1−3)⋅10{sup −10} GeV{sup −1} after performing an illustrative statistical analysis of spectral data in four different epochs of emission. The precise values of m{sub a} and g{sub aγ} depend weakly on the assumed particle density configuration and are consistent with the current experimental bounds on these quantities. We apply this method and ALP parameters found from fitting 3C454.3 data to another flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS1222+216 (4C+21.35) data up to 400 GeV, as a consistency check, and found good fit. We find that the ALP-photon mixing effect on the GeV spectra may not be washed out for any reasonable estimate of the magnetic field in the intergalactic media.

  15. How Large Are Returns to Schooling? Hint: Money Isn't Everything. NBER Working Paper No. 15339

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oreopoulos, Philip; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the many avenues by which schooling affects lifetime well-being. Experiences and skills acquired in school reverberate throughout life, not just through higher earnings. Schooling also affects the degree one enjoys work and the likelihood of being unemployed. It leads individuals to make better decisions about health, marriage,…

  16. The Effect of Hints and Model Answers in a Student-Controlled Problem-Solving Program for Secondary Physics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Many students experience difficulties in solving applied physics problems. Most programs that want students to improve problem-solving skills are concerned with the development of content knowledge. Physhint is an example of a student-controlled computer program that supports students in developing their strategic knowledge in combination with…

  17. Shell quenching in {sup 78}Ni: A hint from the structure of neutron-rich copper isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Sieja, K.; Nowacki, F.

    2010-06-15

    Recent progress in experimental techniques allows us to study very exotic systems like neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of {sup 78}Ni. The spectroscopy of this region can nowadays be studied theoretically in the large scale shell model calculations. In this work, we perform a shell model study of odd copper nuclei with N=40-50, in a large valence space with the {sup 48}Ca core, using a realistic interaction derived from the CD-Bonn potential. We present the crucial importance of the proton core excitations for the description of spectra and magnetic moments, which are for the first time correctly reproduced in theoretical calculations. Shell evolution from {sup 68}Ni to {sup 78}Ni is discussed in detail. A weakening of the Z=28 gap when approaching the N=50 shell closure, suggested by the experimental evidence, is confirmed in the calculations.

  18. Reflexivity, Self-Identity and Resilience in Career Development: Hints from a Qualitative Research Study in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    One of the most typical features characterising modern ways of living and working is represented by the dynamism required by individuals in navigating their career paths. This article explores some case studies of career development collected through biographical interviews carried out within the Italian strand of the Cedefop project. These relate…

  19. The Xe-Q in lodranites and a hint for Xe-L. FRO90011 another lodranite?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eugster, O.; Weigel, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Lodran achondrite contains about one-quarter metallic Fe/Ni, two-thirds olivine and pyroxene, some troilite, plus minor phases. In a previous study we demonstrated that Lodran and three other lodranites - LEW88280, Yamato-791491, and MAC88177 - yield the same cosmic-ray exposure age of a few million years, suggesting that they originate from the same parent body. In the present work we show that the mineral phases of Lodran contain large concentrations of planetary-type but no solar-type trapped noble gases. Surprisingly, the highest concentrations were observed in the Fe/Ni-phase (e.g. 1520 x 10(exp -12) cc STP per g (132)Xe). A large fraction of the trapped gas is released between 1200 C and 1400 C. The Xe isotopic pattern is similar to that of Xe-Q. The 1400 C fraction of the Fe/Ni-phase shows excesses of (124)Xe, (126)Xe, and (128)Xe similar to Xe-L (pre-solar Xe enriched in the light isotopes) that has, until now, only been observed in combination with Xe-H (pre-solar Xe enriched in the heavy isotopes).

  20. Seismicity patterns of earthquake swarms in the West-Bohemia/Vogtland as a hint to their triggering mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Hainzl, S.; Horalek, J.; Michalek, J.

    2009-04-01

    The distribution of West-Bohemia/Vogtland seismicity is clustered both in time and space. The time occurrence is manifested in a variety of forms including both swarms with fast and with slow energy release that last from hours to months and also solitary events. The lateral distribution of seismicity is limited to a small number of focal zones, which have been periodically reactivated during the past 18 years of instrumental observations. We don't observe an apparent migration of seismic activity. Instead, the activity has been switching between the focal zones with its largest part residing in the area of Nový Kostel, which dominates with 85% of energy release. Analysis of the activity in the period 1991-2007 has revealed that the interevent times of the seismic activity measured between events in separated focal zones show increased occurrence for time intervals below 8 hours. This fast switching of activity among focal zones with mutual distances above 10 km shows that the seismicity is correlated in a broader area and points to a common triggering force acting in the whole region of West-Bohemia/Vogtland. This force could be stress changes due to earth tides, barometric pressure disturbances, or an abrupt change of the crustal fluid pore pressure. It would trigger the activity in the focal zones which are close to failure. Depending on the local stress and mechanical conditions in each zone, the activity could either cease or an earthquake swarm could be initiated. To disclose the forces governing the already running swarm activity we investigated the space-time relations between consecutive earthquakes of the 2000 swarm. The swarm lasted four months and consisted of more that 8000 M=3.3 strike-slip microearthquakes, which were located along a fault plane at depths 6.5-10.5 km and showed a common rake angle of 30°. We found that the relative positions of consecutive event pairs showed maximum occurrence in the slip-parallel directions. Comparison with the complete Coulomb stress change upon the fault plane due to a typical rupture showed that the observed elongation of the space-time distribution of the relative positions can be explained by a common effect of both static and dynamic stress changes, which act on different distance and timescale. The relatively small magnitudes of the Coulomb stress changes upon the fault plane in the order of 10 kPa, which are supposed to trigger the swarm events, support the idea that high pressurized crustal fluids increase the pore pressure and bring the fault close to its critical state. This is in accordance with the results of our model of the 2000 swarm which took into account both the fluid diffusion and stress triggering. The model consisted of a planar brittle patch placed in a 3-D elastic half-space divided into the number of cells with variable strength. The individual cells rupture when the Coulomb failure criterion including both shear stress and pore pressure is fulfilled. The initial tectonic loading of the patch is presumed subcritical until the pore pressure of diffused fluids brings it into a critical state. Then the earthquake activity is governed by the stress changes due to the co-seismic and post-seismic slip, so that mutual triggering between ruptured cells occurs. It turns out that once the pressurized crustal fluids bring a fault from a subcritical steady-state into a critical state, the self-organization prevails in governing the swarm activity. This is in accordance with the possible effect of a regionally scaled force bringing one or multiple focal zones to the critical state and trigger seismicity. The recent M=3.7 swarm from October 2008 occurred at the identical fault plane as the 2000 swarm and showed a similar areal extent of the ruptured area. The overall migration of activity with first events at the bottom of the activated fault patch and the last events in the northward tail at its top indicates similar triggering scenario. However, the step-wise monotonous event migration in the first swarm period differs significantly from the complex migration patterns of the 2000 swarm, A further analysis is needed to learn if such a pattern could be due to a fluid or magma propagation along the fault plane.

  1. Chlorophyll-a Estimation Around the Antarctica Peninsula Using Satellite Algorithms: Hints from Field Water Leaving Reflectance.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chen; Xu, Huiping; Fischer, Andrew M

    2016-12-07

    Ocean color remote sensing significantly contributes to our understanding of phytoplankton distribution and abundance and primary productivity in the Southern Ocean (SO). However, the current SO in situ optical database is still insufficient and unevenly distributed. This limits the ability to produce robust and accurate measurements of satellite-based chlorophyll. Based on data collected on cruises around the Antarctica Peninsula (AP) on January 2014 and 2016, this research intends to enhance our knowledge of SO water and atmospheric optical characteristics and address satellite algorithm deficiency of ocean color products. We collected high resolution in situ water leaving reflectance (±1 nm band resolution), simultaneous in situ chlorophyll-a concentrations and satellite (MODIS and VIIRS) water leaving reflectance. Field samples show that clouds have a great impact on the visible green bands and are difficult to detect because NASA protocols apply the NIR band as a cloud contamination threshold. When compared to global case I water, water around the AP has lower water leaving reflectance and a narrower blue-green band ratio, which explains chlorophyll-a underestimation in high chlorophyll-a regions and overestimation in low chlorophyll-a regions. VIIRS shows higher spatial coverage and detection accuracy than MODIS. After coefficient improvement, VIIRS is able to predict chlorophyll a with 53% accuracy.

  2. Cystic fibrosis carriership and tuberculosis: hints toward an evolutionary selective advantage based on data from the Brazilian territory.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Lander; Bosch, Barbara; De Boeck, Kris; Nawrot, Tim; Meyts, Isabelle; Vanneste, Dominique; Le Bourlegat, Cleonice Alexandre; Croda, Julio; da Silva Filho, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira

    2017-05-12

    The reason why Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most common fatal genetic disease among Caucasians has been incompletely studied. We aimed at deepening the hypothesis that CF carriers have a relative protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Applying spatial epidemiology, we studied the link between CF carriership rate and tuberculosis (TB) incidence in Brazil. We corrected for 5 potential environmental and 2 immunological confounders in this relation: monthly income, sanitary provisions, literacy rates, racial composition and population density along with AIDS incidence rates and diabetes mellitus type 2. Smoking data were incomplete and not available for analysis. A significant, negative correlation between CF carriership rate and TB incidence, independent of any of the seven confounders was found. We provide exploratory support for the hypothesis that carrying a single CFTR mutation arms against Mtb infections.

  3. The 2011 outburst of recurrent nova T PYX: Radio observations reveal the ejecta mass and hint at complex mass loss

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Thomas; Chomiuk, Laura; Roy, Nirupam; Krauss, Miriam I.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Rupen, Michael P.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Weston, Jennifer; Mukai, Koji

    2014-04-10

    Despite being the prototype of its class, T Pyx is arguably the most unusual and poorly understood recurrent nova. Here, we use radio observations from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to trace the evolution of the ejecta over the course of the 2011 outburst of T Pyx. The radio emission is broadly consistent with thermal emission from the nova ejecta. However, the radio flux began rising surprisingly late in the outburst, indicating that the bulk of the radio-emitting material was either very cold, or expanding very slowly, for the first ∼50 days of the outburst. Considering a plausible range of volume filling factors and geometries for the ejecta, we find that the high peak flux densities of the radio emission require a massive ejection of (1-30) × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉}. This ejecta mass is much higher than the values normally associated with recurrent novae, and is more consistent with a nova on a white dwarf well below the Chandrasekhar limit.

  4. Allometric Scaling of Patrolling Rate and Nest Volume in Constrictotermes cyphergaster Termites: Hints on the Settlement of Inquilines

    PubMed Central

    DeSouza, Og; Araújo, Ana Paula Albano; Florencio, Daniela Faria; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Marins, Alessandra; Costa, Diogo Andrade; Rodrigues, Vinicius Barros; Cristaldo, Paulo Fellipe

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional traits of organisms are known to be related to the size of individuals and to the size of their colonies when they belong to one. Among such traits, propensity to inquilinism in termites is known to relate positively to colony size. Larger termitaria hold larger diversity of facultative inquilines than smaller nests, whereas obligate inquilines seem unable to settle in nests smaller than a threshold volume. Respective underlying mechanisms, however, remain hypothetical. Here we test one of such hypotheses, namely, that nest defence correlates negatively to nest volume in Constrictotermes cyphergaster termites (Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae). As a surrogate to defence, we used ‘patrolling rate’, i.e., the number of termite individuals attending per unit time an experimentally damaged spot on the outer wall of their termitaria. We found that patrolling rate decayed allometrically with increasing nest size. Conspicuously higher patrolling rates occurred in smaller nests, while conspicuously lower rates occurred in larger nests presenting volumes in the vicinity of the threshold value for the establishment of inquilinism. This could be proven adaptive for the host and guest. At younger nest age, host colonies are smaller and presumably more vulnerable and unstable. Enhanced defence rates may, hence, prevent eventual risks to hosts from inquilinism at the same time that it prevents inquilines to settle in a still unstable nest. Conversely, when colonies grow and maturate enough to stand threats, they would invest in priorities other than active defence, opening an opportunity for inquilines to settle in nests which are more suitable or less risky. Under this two-fold process, cohabitation between host and inquiline could readily stabilize. PMID:26808197

  5. Morphological Differences between Larvae of the Ciona intestinalis Species Complex: Hints for a Valid Taxonomic Definition of Distinct Species

    PubMed Central

    Pennati, Roberta; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Brunetti, Riccardo; Caicci, Federico; Gasparini, Fabio; Griggio, Francesca; Sato, Atsuko; Stach, Thomas; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Gissi, Carmela; Manni, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan ascidian Ciona intestinalis is the most common model species of Tunicata, the sister-group of Vertebrata, and widely used in developmental biology, genomics and evolutionary studies. Recently, molecular studies suggested the presence of cryptic species hidden within the C. intestinalis species, namely C. intestinalis type A and type B. So far, no substantial morphological differences have been identified between individuals belonging to the two types. Here we present morphometric, immunohistochemical, and histological analyses, as well as 3-D reconstructions, of late larvae obtained by cross-fertilization experiments of molecularly determined type A and type B adults, sampled in different seasons and in four different localities. Our data point to quantitative and qualitative differences in the trunk shape of larvae belonging to the two types. In particular, type B larvae exhibit a longer pre-oral lobe, longer and relatively narrower total body length, and a shorter ocellus-tail distance than type A larvae. All these differences were found to be statistically significant in a Discriminant Analysis. Depending on the number of analyzed parameters, the obtained discriminant function was able to correctly classify > 93% of the larvae, with the remaining misclassified larvae attributable to the existence of intra-type seasonal variability. No larval differences were observed at the level of histology and immunohistochemical localization of peripheral sensory neurons. We conclude that type A and type B are two distinct species that can be distinguished on the basis of larval morphology and molecular data. Since the identified larval differences appear to be valid diagnostic characters, we suggest to raise both types to the rank of species and to assign them distinct names. PMID:25955391

  6. Simple heuristics in over-the-counter drug choices: a new hint for medical education and practice

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Silvia; Monti, Marco; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are widely available and often purchased by consumers without advice from a health care provider. Many people rely on self-management of medications to treat common medical conditions. Although OTC medications are regulated by the National and the International Health and Drug Administration, many people are unaware of proper dosing, side effects, adverse drug reactions, and possible medication interactions. Purpose This study examined how subjects make their decisions to select an OTC drug, evaluating the role of cognitive heuristics which are simple and adaptive rules that help the decision-making process of people in everyday contexts. Subjects and methods By analyzing 70 subjects’ information-search and decision-making behavior when selecting OTC drugs, we examined the heuristics they applied in order to assess whether simple decision-making processes were also accurate and relevant. Subjects were tested with a sequence of two experimental tests based on a computerized Java system devised to analyze participants’ choices in a virtual environment. Results We found that subjects’ information-search behavior reflected the use of fast and frugal heuristics. In addition, although the heuristics which correctly predicted subjects’ decisions implied significantly fewer cues on average than the subjects did in the information-search task, they were accurate in describing order of information search. A simple combination of a fast and frugal tree and a tallying rule predicted more than 78% of subjects’ decisions. Conclusion The current emphasis in health care is to shift some responsibility onto the consumer through expansion of self medication. To know which cognitive mechanisms are behind the choice of OTC drugs is becoming a relevant purpose of current medical education. These findings have implications both for the validity of simple heuristics describing information searches in the field of OTC drug choices and for current medical education, which has to prepare competent health specialists to orientate and support the choices of their patients. PMID:23745077

  7. Seismic Q estimates in Umbria Marche (Central Italy): hints for the retrieval of a new attenuation law for seismic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisconti, Angelo; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca; de Lorenzo, Salvatore

    2015-06-01

    In the Umbria-Marche (Central Italy) region an important earthquake sequence occurred in 1997, characterized by nine earthquakes with magnitudes in the range between 5 and 6, that caused important damages and causalities. In the present paper, we separately estimate intrinsic and scattering Q-1 parameters, using the classical multiple lapse time window analysis (MLTWA) approach in the assumption of a half-space model. The results clearly show that the attenuation parameters Qi-1 and Qs-1 are frequency dependent. This estimate is compared with other attenuation studies carried out in the same area, and with all the other MLTWA estimates obtained till now in other tectonic environments in the Earth. The bias introduced by the half-space assumption is investigated through numerical solutions of the energy transport equation in the more realistic assumption of a heterogeneous crust overlying a transparent mantle, with a Moho located at a depth ranging between 35 and 45 km below the surface. The bias introduced by the half-space assumption is significant only at high frequency. We finally show how the attenuation estimates, calculated with different techniques, lead to different peak ground acceleration decay with distance relationships, using the well-known and well proven Boore's method. This last result indicates that care must be used in selecting the correct estimate of the attenuation parameters for seismic risk purposes. We also discuss the reason why MLTWA may be chosen among all the other available techniques, due to its intrinsic stability, to obtain the right attenuation parameters.

  8. Steps for Developing a School Emergency Management Plan. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management. Volume 2, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools strongly encourages schools and school districts to develop emergency management plans within the context of the four phases of emergency management: prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. In addition, schools should collaborate closely with police, fire…

  9. 76 FR 37356 - Submission for OMB review; comment request Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    .... adults (persons aged 18+). The annual reporting burden is documented in the table below. There are no Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and/or Maintenance Costs to report. Average time per Annual...

  10. Analysis of 1SWASP J140747.93-394542.6 eclipse fine-structure: hints of exomoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Werkhoven, T. I. M.; Kenworthy, M. A.; Mamajek, E. E.

    2014-07-01

    A recently discovered V = 12.3 mag K5 pre-main-sequence star in the SuperWASP (Super Wide Angle Search for Planets) data base shows a peculiar light curve with a highly structured eclipse pattern covering a timespan of at least 54 d with maximum dimming of at least 3.3 mag. The central eclipse is surrounded by two 1 mag eclipses at ±12 and ±26 d. The authors speculate that the star is eclipsed by a substellar companion with an extended and highly structured ring system. To investigate the nightly light-curve structure and to confirm the multiple-ring hypothesis, we have carried out a calibrated reduction of the SuperWASP data, removing both systematic errors and periodic stellar variability. We count at least 24 inflection points on ingress and 16 on egress, consistent with the presence of at least 24 rings in this disc. By measuring the light-curve slope, we find implied speeds for the eclipsing object that are incompatible with a closed Kepler orbit with P = 2.3 yr. We propose several scenarios that could give rise to such light-curve slopes and find that azimuthal ring structure (analogous to `spokes' seen in Saturn's rings) can account for the observed light curve. The highly structured ring system also implies the presence of exomoons orbiting the secondary companion.

  11. ABUNDANCES FOR A LARGE SAMPLE OF RED GIANTS IN NGC 1851: HINTS FOR A MERGER OF TWO CLUSTERS?

    SciTech Connect

    Carretta, E.; Bragaglia, A.; Gratton, R. G.; Lucatello, S.; Momany, Y.; D'Orazi, V.; Catanzaro, G.; Leone, F.; Cassisi, S.; D'Antona, F.; Ortolani, S. E-mail: angela.bragaglia@oabo.inaf.i E-mail: sara.lucatello@oapd.inaf.i

    2010-10-10

    We present the abundance analysis of a sample of more than 120 red giants in the globular cluster (GC) NGC 1851, based on FLAMES spectra. We find a small but detectable metallicity spread. This spread is compatible with the presence of two different groups of stars with a metallicity difference of 0.06-0.08 dex, in agreement with earlier photometric studies. If stars are divided into these two groups according to their metallicity, both components show Na-O anticorrelation (signature of a genuine GC nature) of moderate extension. The metal-poor stars are more concentrated than the metal-rich ones. We tentatively propose the hypothesis that NGC 1851 formed from a merger of two individual GCs with a slightly different Fe and {alpha}-element content and possibly an age difference up to 1 Gyr. This is also supported by number ratios of stars on the split subgiant and on the bimodal horizontal branches. The distribution of n-capture process elements in the two components also supports the idea that the enrichment must have occurred in each of the structures separately and not as a continuum of events in a single GC. The most probable explanation is that the proto-clusters formed into a (now dissolved) dwarf galaxy and later merged to produce the present GC.

  12. A Hint of Whiteness: History Textbooks and Social Construction of Race in the Wake of the Sixties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    As historians and publishers scrambled to revise American history textbooks in the wake of the 1960s, textbooks increasingly strove to include the experiences of African Americans and avoid dangerous racial stereotypes. After the Civil Rights movement and decades before scathing criticism of textbooks for their inability to address racism in…

  13. The Emilia 2012 seismic sequence: hints on incipient basement-involved deformation in the foreland of the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argnani, Andrea; Carannante, Simona; Massa, Marco; D'Alema, Ezio; Lovati, Sara

    2015-04-01

    The deformation front of the Northern Apennines is buried under the sediments of the Po Plain and was formed mainly during the Pliocene. The remarkably arcuate shape of the thrust front contrasts with the linear northwestern trend of the pede-Apennines, where recent deformation is documented by both geological and geodetic evidence. This study presents new geological and seismological data that are used to assess the structural style of the Ferrara Arc, a sector of the Northern Apennine front that was hit by two strong earthquakes on May 20 (MW 6.1) and May 29 (MW 6.0), 2012. The proposed interpretation is based on a dense grid of commercial seismic profiles and exploration wells, and high-quality relocation of ~5,300 earthquakes (the Emilia sequence). The seismicity was used to calibrate new one-dimensional and three-dimensional local Vp and Vs velocity models for the area. On the basis of these new models, the initial sparse hypocenters were then relocated in absolute mode and adjusted using the double-difference relative location algorithm. Seismicity distribution is elongated in the W-NW to E-SE directions, reaching a depth of 10-12 km. The aftershocks of the May 20 mainshock appear to be distributed on a rupture surface that dips ~45° SSW, and the surface projection indicates an area ~10 km wide and 23 km long. The aftershocks of the May 29 second mainshock followed a steep rupture surface that is well constrained within the investigated volume, whereby the surface projection of the blind source indicates an area ~6 km wide and 33 km long. The analysed multichannel seismic profiles highlight the presence of relevant lateral variations in the structural style of the Ferrara folds that developed during the Pliocene and Pleistocene, and also show the occurrence of a Mesozoic extensional fault system in the Ferrara arc, which in places has been seismically reactivated. These geological and seismological observations suggest that the 2012 Emilia earthquakes were related to ruptures along blind fault surfaces that are not part of the Pliocene-Pleistocene structural system, but are instead related to a deeper system that is itself closely related to re-activation of a Mesozoic extensional fault system. The implication is that the Emilia 2012 seismic sequence was related to activation of a new deformation system that has developed since the late Pleistocene and that affects the deeper structural levels within the Adriatic crust. This interpretation has major relevance for the seismotectonic characterization of the Po Plain, because the location and extent of the Ferrara folds, that were formed during the Pliocene-Pleistocene, cannot simply be used to estimate the seismogenic potential of the Ferrara Arc region.

  14. Morphological Differences between Larvae of the Ciona intestinalis Species Complex: Hints for a Valid Taxonomic Definition of Distinct Species.

    PubMed

    Pennati, Roberta; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Brunetti, Riccardo; Caicci, Federico; Gasparini, Fabio; Griggio, Francesca; Sato, Atsuko; Stach, Thomas; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Gissi, Carmela; Manni, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan ascidian Ciona intestinalis is the most common model species of Tunicata, the sister-group of Vertebrata, and widely used in developmental biology, genomics and evolutionary studies. Recently, molecular studies suggested the presence of cryptic species hidden within the C. intestinalis species, namely C. intestinalis type A and type B. So far, no substantial morphological differences have been identified between individuals belonging to the two types. Here we present morphometric, immunohistochemical, and histological analyses, as well as 3-D reconstructions, of late larvae obtained by cross-fertilization experiments of molecularly determined type A and type B adults, sampled in different seasons and in four different localities. Our data point to quantitative and qualitative differences in the trunk shape of larvae belonging to the two types. In particular, type B larvae exhibit a longer pre-oral lobe, longer and relatively narrower total body length, and a shorter ocellus-tail distance than type A larvae. All these differences were found to be statistically significant in a Discriminant Analysis. Depending on the number of analyzed parameters, the obtained discriminant function was able to correctly classify > 93% of the larvae, with the remaining misclassified larvae attributable to the existence of intra-type seasonal variability. No larval differences were observed at the level of histology and immunohistochemical localization of peripheral sensory neurons. We conclude that type A and type B are two distinct species that can be distinguished on the basis of larval morphology and molecular data. Since the identified larval differences appear to be valid diagnostic characters, we suggest to raise both types to the rank of species and to assign them distinct names.

  15. Searching for signatures of cold adaptations in modern and archaic humans: hints from the brown adipose tissue genes.

    PubMed

    Sazzini, M; Schiavo, G; De Fanti, S; Martelli, P L; Casadio, R; Luiselli, D

    2014-09-01

    Adaptation to low temperatures has been reasonably developed in the human species during the colonization of the Eurasian landmass subsequent to Out of Africa migrations of anatomically modern humans. In addition to morphological and cultural changes, also metabolic ones are supposed to have favored human isolation from cold and body heat production and this can be hypothesized also for most Neandertal and at least for some Denisovan populations, which lived in geographical areas that strongly experienced the last glacial period. Modulation of non-shivering thermogenesis, for which adipocytes belonging to the brown adipose tissue are the most specialized cells, might have driven these metabolic adaptations. To perform an exploratory analysis aimed at looking into this hypothesis, variation at 28 genes involved in such functional pathway was investigated in modern populations from different climate zones, as well as in Neandertal and Denisovan genomes. Patterns of variation at the LEPR gene, strongly related to increased heat dissipation by mitochondria, appeared to have been shaped by positive selection in modern East Asians, but not in Europeans. Moreover, a single potentially cold-adapted LEPR allele, different from the supposed adaptive one identified in Homo sapiens, was found also in Neandertal and Denisovan genomes. These findings suggest that independent mechanisms for cold adaptations might have been developed in different non-African human groups, as well as that the evolution of possible enhanced thermal efficiency in Neandertals and in some Denisovan populations has plausibly entailed significant changes also in other functional pathways than in the examined one.

  16. Factors Influencing Communication with Doctors via the Internet: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of 2014 HINTS Survey.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shaohai; Street, Richard L

    2017-02-01

    Based on Street's (2003) ecological framework of communication in medical encounters, this study examined personal, interpersonal, and media factors that could influence patients' use of the Internet to communicate with doctors. Results from data analysis of responses from the 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey showed that patient activation and ease of Internet access were two positive predictors of online doctor-patient communication. In addition, patients' trust in doctors positively moderated the relationships between patient activation and online doctor-patient communication, and between perceived health status and online doctor-patient communication. Finally, the quality of patients' past experiences communicating with doctors had a positive moderation effect on the association between health information seeking behavior and online doctor-patient communication. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  17. Overcoming Students' Misconceptions Concerning Thermal Physics with the Aid of Hints and Peer Interaction during a Lecture Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2013-01-01

    As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures…

  18. Spiral-shells and nascent bipolar outflow in CIT 6: hints for an eccentric-orbit binary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyosun; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Hirano, Naomi; Zhao-Geisler, Ronny; Trejo, Alfonso; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Taam, Ronald E.; Kemper, Francisca; Kim, Jongsoo; Byun, Do-Young; Liu, Tie

    2016-07-01

    We present the essential results pointed out in a recently published paper, Kim et al. 2015, Astrophys. J., 814, 61. The carbon star CIT 6 reveals evidences for a binary in a high-resolution CO line emission map of its circumstellar envelope taken with the Submillimeter Array. The morphology of the outflow described by the spiral-shell pattern, bipolar (or possibly multipolar) outflow, one-sided interarm gaps, and double spiral feature point to a plausible scenario that CIT 6 is a binary system in an eccentric orbit with the mass losing star evolving from the AGB.

  19. Practical Parenting Tips: Over 1,500 Helpful Hints for the First Five Years. Revised and Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansky, Vicki

    Noting that other parents can be an excellent source of practical parenting advice, this book compiles over a thousand practical tips--those not generally found in baby care books or pediatrician's offices--with over 400 new tips compiled since the book's 1982 version. Major topics include: (1) new baby care, including cesarean deliveries,…

  20. Insights into the structure activity relationship of mPGES-1 inhibitors: Hints for better inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashish; Aparoy, Polamarasetty

    2016-07-01

    Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is a membrane protein which plays crucial role in arachidonic acid metabolism, in the catalysis of PGH2 to PGE2. It is a potential drug target involved in variety of human cancers and inflammatory disorders. In the present study we made an attempt to identify crucial amino acid residues involved in the effective binding of its inhibitors at the active site. Molecular docking and Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) studies were performed. In the present study 127 inhibitors having significant variability in parent scaffold were considered. The results clearly indicated that in the GSH and PGH2 binding site Arg70, Arg73, Asn74, Glu77, His113, Tyr117, Arg126, Ser127, Tyr130, Thr131 and Ala138 consistently form crucial interactions with inhibitors of different classes/scaffolds. These findings are consistent with that of existing reports on the active site residues pivotal at mPGES-1 active site. Further analysis suggested that out of all important amino acid residues identified; Arg73, Asn74, His113, Tyr117, Arg126, Ser127, Tyr130, Thr131 and Ala138 play a crucial role in hydrogen and π-π interactions. The identified amino acid residues can act as target sites for the design and development of drug candidates against mPGES-1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Computer-determined dosage of insulin in the management of neonatal hyperglycaemia (HINT2): protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Alsweiler, Jane; Williamson, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Frank; Chase, Geoffrey; Harding, Jane

    2017-03-06

    Neonatal hyperglycaemia is frequently treated with insulin, which may increase the risk of hypoglycaemia. Computer-determined dosage of insulin (CDD) with the STAR-GRYPHON program uses a computer model to predict an effective dose of insulin to treat hyperglycaemia while minimising the risk of hypoglycaemia. However, CDD models can require more frequent blood glucose testing than common clinical protocols. The aim of this trial is to determine if CDD using STAR-GRYPHON reduces hypoglycaemia in hyperglycaemic preterm babies treated with insulin independent of the frequency of blood glucose testing. Design: Multicentre, non-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Neonatal intensive care units in New Zealand and Australia. 138 preterm babies ≤30 weeks' gestation or ≤1500 g at birth who develop hyperglycaemia (two consecutive blood glucose concentrations ≥10 mmol/L, at least 4 hours apart) will be randomised to one of three groups: (1) CDD using the STAR-GRYPHON model-based decision support system: insulin dose and frequency of blood glucose testing advised by STAR-GRYPHON, with a maximum testing interval of 4 hours; (2) bedside titration: insulin dose determined by medical staff, maximum blood glucose testing interval of 4 hours; (3) standard care: insulin dose and frequency of blood glucose testing determined by medical staff. The target range for blood glucose concentrations is 5-8 mmol/L in all groups. A subset of babies will have masked continuous glucose monitoring. is the number of babies with one or more episodes of hypoglycaemia (blood glucose concentration <2.6 mmol/L), during treatment with insulin. This protocol has been approved by New Zealand's Health and Disability Ethics Committee: 14/STH/26. A data safety monitoring committee has been appointed to oversee the trial. Findings will be disseminated to participants and carers, peer-reviewed journals, guideline developers and the public. 12614000492651. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. AMS-02 positron excess: New bounds on dark matter models and hint for primary electron spectrum hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lei; Yang, Rui-Zhi; He, Hao-Ning; Dong, Tie-Kuang; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Chang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The data collected by ATIC, CREAM and PAMELA all display remarkable cosmic ray nuclei spectrum hardening above the magnetic rigidity ∼240 GV. One natural speculation is that the primary electron spectrum also gets hardened (possibly at ∼80 GV) and the hardening partly accounts for the electron/positron total spectrum excess discovered by ATIC, HESS and Fermi-LAT. If it is the case, the increasing behavior of the subsequent positron-to-electron ratio will get flattened and the spectrum hardening should be taken into account in the joint fit of the electron/positron data otherwise the inferred parameters will be biased. Our joint fits of the latest AMS-02 positron fraction data together with the PAMELA/Fermi-LAT electron/positron spectrum data suggest that the primary electron spectrum hardening is needed in most though not all modelings. The bounds on dark matter models have also been investigated. In the presence of spectrum hardening of primary electrons, the amount of dark-matter-originated electron/positron pairs needed in the modeling is smaller. Even with such a modification, the annihilation channel χχ→μ+μ- has been tightly constrained by the Fermi-LAT Galactic diffuse emission data. The decay channel χ→μ+μ- is found to be viable.

  3. Do not hesitate to use Tversky-and other hints for successful active analogue searches with feature count descriptors.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Dragos; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexandre

    2013-07-22

    This study is an exhaustive analysis of the neighborhood behavior over a large coherent data set (ChEMBL target/ligand pairs of known Ki, for 165 targets with >50 associated ligands each). It focuses on similarity-based virtual screening (SVS) success defined by the ascertained optimality index. This is a weighted compromise between purity and retrieval rate of active hits in the neighborhood of an active query. One key issue addressed here is the impact of Tversky asymmetric weighing of query vs candidate features (represented as integer-value ISIDA colored fragment/pharmacophore triplet count descriptor vectors). The nearly a 3/4 million independent SVS runs showed that Tversky scores with a strong bias in favor of query-specific features are, by far, the most successful and the least failure-prone out of a set of nine other dissimilarity scores. These include classical Tanimoto, which failed to defend its privileged status in practical SVS applications. Tversky performance is not significantly conditioned by tuning of its bias parameter α. Both initial "guesses" of α = 0.9 and 0.7 were more successful than Tanimoto (at its turn, better than Euclid). Tversky was eventually tested in exhaustive similarity searching within the library of 1.6 M commercial + bioactive molecules at http://infochim.u-strasbg.fr/webserv/VSEngine.html , comparing favorably to Tanimoto in terms of "scaffold hopping" propensity. Therefore, it should be used at least as often as, perhaps in parallel to Tanimoto in SVS. Analysis with respect to query subclasses highlighted relationships of query complexity (simply expressed in terms of pharmacophore pattern counts) and/or target nature vs SVS success likelihood. SVS using more complex queries are more robust with respect to the choice of their operational premises (descriptors, metric). Yet, they are best handled by "pro-query" Tversky scores at α > 0.5. Among simpler queries, one may distinguish between "growable" (allowing for active analogs with additional features), and a few "conservative" queries not allowing any growth. These (typically bioactive amine transporter ligands) form the specific application domain of "pro-candidate" biased Tversky scores at α < 0.5.

  4. ALMA hints at the existence of an unseen reservoir of diffuse molecular gas in the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerin, M.; Liszt, H.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: We aim to understand the unexpected presence of mm-wave molecular absorption at -200 km s-1 1.5 kpc, conventional measures such as the standard CO-H2 conversion factor and locally observed N(HCO+)/N(H2) ratio separately imply that H I and H2 contribute about equally to N(H), and the gas-derived N(H) values are in broad agreement with those derived from E(J-K). Within the Galactic bulge at Rgal< 1.5 kpc, H I contributes less than 10% of the material inferred from E(J-K), so that the molecular absorption detected here is needed to understand the extinction.

  5. A low-velocity mantle beneath SW Anatolia imaged from surface waves : hint of a wide slab tear?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaün, G.; Paul, A.; Pedersen, H.; Karabulut, H.; Hatzidimitriou, P.; Farra, V.

    2010-05-01

    In the Aegean-Anatolian domain, one of the key questions is the mantle structure between the Hellenic arc and Eastern Anatolia. The SIMBAAD temporary seismic experiment was designed to address this question and image the diffuse boundary between the Aegean and Anatolian plates. Deployed during 2 years, the SIMBAAD experiment is a dense seismic broadband network over continental Greece, the Aegean, South Bulgaria and Western Turkey, arranged to fill-in the gaps between permanent broadband stations. The database includes continuous records of 146 true broadband (cut-off period ≥ 90s) seismic stations, both temporary and permanent, with a spacing of about 80km. This study uses records of 400 teleseismic events of magnitude ≥ 6. We present results of fundamental mode Rayleigh wave travel-time tomography in the entire region [20-40°E; 35-42°N]. We apply semi-automatic time-frequency filtering to encompass the amount of data and retrieve the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves. The time-delay inversion method includes paraxial ray tracing and allows for non-planar incoming wave-fronts. This inversion produces phase velocity maps for periods between 30 and 180s. In this period range, the phase velocity is retrieved with an a posteriori error smaller than 1.25%. The a posteriori error varies with station density, the amount of data and the strength of the a priori constraints at each period. The most prominent feature is a broad slow-velocity anomaly under Southwestern Anatolia extending from Rhodos Island to the East of Isparta Angle. Its continuity is remarkable between 80 and 180s of period. This structure appears to separate the continuous Hellenic slab from a NNW-oriented fast-velocity structure between 30 and 35°E well defined from 110 to 180s of period. We aim at providing a high resolution (100-300km) 3D S-velocity model of the mantle by inverting the phase velocity data. SIMBAAD team : T. Afacan(2), M. Aktar(2), K. Bourova-Flin(1), D. Childs(2), L. Dimitrova(5), D. Hatzfeld(1), F. Hubans(1), E. Karagianni(3), I. Karagianni(3), D. Kementzetzidou(3), A. Komec Mutlu(2), Y. Ozakin(2), C. Papazachos(3), C. Péquegnat(1), S. Roussel(1), D. Samut(2), M. Scordilis(3), D. Vamvakaris(3)

  6. Computer-determined dosage of insulin in the management of neonatal hyperglycaemia (HINT2): protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Alsweiler, Jane; Williamson, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Neonatal hyperglycaemia is frequently treated with insulin, which may increase the risk of hypoglycaemia. Computer-determined dosage of insulin (CDD) with the STAR-GRYPHON program uses a computer model to predict an effective dose of insulin to treat hyperglycaemia while minimising the risk of hypoglycaemia. However, CDD models can require more frequent blood glucose testing than common clinical protocols. The aim of this trial is to determine if CDD using STAR-GRYPHON reduces hypoglycaemia in hyperglycaemic preterm babies treated with insulin independent of the frequency of blood glucose testing. Methods and analysis Design: Multicentre, non-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Setting: Neonatal intensive care units in New Zealand and Australia. Participants: 138 preterm babies ≤30 weeks' gestation or ≤1500 g at birth who develop hyperglycaemia (two consecutive blood glucose concentrations ≥10 mmol/L, at least 4 hours apart) will be randomised to one of three groups: (1) CDD using the STAR-GRYPHON model-based decision support system: insulin dose and frequency of blood glucose testing advised by STAR-GRYPHON, with a maximum testing interval of 4 hours; (2) bedside titration: insulin dose determined by medical staff, maximum blood glucose testing interval of 4 hours; (3) standard care: insulin dose and frequency of blood glucose testing determined by medical staff. The target range for blood glucose concentrations is 5–8 mmol/L in all groups. A subset of babies will have masked continuous glucose monitoring. Primary outcome: is the number of babies with one or more episodes of hypoglycaemia (blood glucose concentration <2.6 mmol/L), during treatment with insulin. Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by New Zealand's Health and Disability Ethics Committee: 14/STH/26. A data safety monitoring committee has been appointed to oversee the trial. Findings will be disseminated to participants and carers, peer-reviewed journals, guideline developers and the public. Trial registration number 12614000492651 PMID:28264826

  7. Generation, Propagation and Impact of Giant Tsunamis of Tectonic Origin in the Mediterranean Sea: Some Hints From Preliminary Scenario Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, S.; Armigliato, A.; Pagnoni, G.; Tonini, R.; Zaniboni, F.

    2006-12-01

    The recent catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami occurred on December 26, 2004 raised a number of urgent issues regarding tsunamis worldwide. The event pointed out that we have very little knowledge on mega- tsunamis and on their potential impact on human habitat. The international community is starting to define a common strategy of how to deal with these mega-events, and several projects focussed on tsunamis, with emphasis on hazard and risk assessment, have recently started or are going to start soon worldwide both at national and international levels. Properly dealing with tsunami hazard and risk is of great importance also for the Mediterranean countries, that are known to have been attacked by numerous tsunamis in the past, several of which had catastrophic size and impact. Scenarios represent a very useful technique for the definition and evaluation of tsunami hazard and risk for any given region, and a basic step in the frame of tsunami mitigation and preparedness and of sustainable coastal zone development. We present some simple scenarios of earthquake-generated tsunamis in the Mediterranean. Based on earthquake and tsunami catalogues as well as on basic seismotectonics, we identify four different seismogenic areas in the western, central and eastern sectors of the Mediterranean Sea. In each case, we choose a fault system capable of generating an earthquake with magnitude equal or larger than the highest magnitude registered in that region in historical times. We simulate the propagation of each scenario tsunami by means of a shallow-water finite-element numerical code, discuss the basic features of the wave propagation and roughly identify the Mediterranean coastal sectors expected to suffer the heaviest tsunami effects. One important outcome is that all the studied scenario tsunamis are able to produce relevant effects both locally and at trans-Mediterranean distances. Furthermore, the tsunami waves attack the nearest coasts within at most 15 minutes, which poses serious constraints for designing appropriate TEWS for the Mediterranean.

  8. Hints on the Gradual Resizing of the Torus in AGNs through Decomposition of Spitzer/IRS Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Martín, Omaira; Masegosa, Josefa; Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Márquez, Isabel; Ramos Almeida, Cristina; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Aretxaga, Itziar; Rodríguez-Espinosa, José Miguel; Acosta-Pulido, Jose Antonio; Hernández-García, Lorena; Esparza-Arredondo, Donaji; Martínez-Paredes, Mariela; Bonfini, Paolo; Pasetto, Alice; Dultzin, Deborah

    2017-05-01

    Several authors have claimed that less luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are not capable of sustaining a dusty torus structure. Thus, a gradual resizing of the torus is expected when the AGN luminosity decreases. Our aim is to examine mid-infrared observations of local AGNs of different luminosities for the gradual resizing and disappearance of the torus. We applied the decomposition method described by Hernán-Caballero et al. to a sample of ˜100 Spitzer/IRS spectra of low-luminosity AGNs and powerful Seyferts in order to decontaminate the torus component from other contributors. We have also included Starburst objects to ensure secure decomposition of the Spitzer/IRS spectra. We have used the affinity propagation (AP) method to cluster the data into five groups within the sample according to torus contribution to the 5-15 μm range ({C}{torus}) and bolometric luminosity ({L}{bol}). The AP groups show a progressively higher torus contribution and an increase of the bolometric luminosity from Group 1 ({C}{torus}˜ 0 % and {log}({L}{bol})˜ 41) up to Group 5 ({C}{torus}˜ 80 % and {log}({L}{bol})˜ 44). We have fitted the average spectra of each of the AP groups to clumpy models. The torus is no longer present in Group 1, supporting its disappearance at low luminosities. We were able to fit the average spectra for the torus component in Groups 3 ({C}{torus}˜ 40 % and {log}({L}{bol})˜ 42.6), 4 ({C}{torus}˜ 60 % and {log}({L}{bol})˜ 43.7), and 5 to Clumpy torus models. We did not find a good fitting to Clumpy torus models for Group 2 ({C}{torus}˜ 18 % and {log}({L}{bol})˜ 42). This might suggest a different configuration and/or composition of the clouds for Group 2, which is consistent with the different gas content seen in Groups 1, 2, and 3, according to detections of {{{H}}}2 molecular lines. Groups 3, 4, and 5 show a trend of decreasing torus width (which leads to a likely decrease of the geometrical covering factor), although we cannot confirm it with the present data. Finally, Groups 3, 4, and 5 show an increase of the outer radius of the torus for higher luminosities, consistent with a resizing of the torus according to AGN luminosity.

  9. Recent insights on the medicinal chemistry of metal-based compounds: hints for the successful drug design.

    PubMed

    Hernandes, M Z; de S Pontes, F J; Coelho, L C D; Moreira, D R M; Pereira, V R A; Leite, A C L

    2010-01-01

    Although more complex than usually described, the anticancer action mechanism of cisplatin is based on binding to DNA. Following this line of reasoning, most the metal-based compounds discovered soon after cisplatin were designed to acting as DNA-binding agents and their pharmacological properties were thought to be correlated with this mechanism. Apart from the DNA structure, a significant number of proteins and biochemical pathways have been described as drug targets for metal-based compounds. This paper is therefore aimed at discussing the most recent findings on the medicinal chemistry of metal-based drugs. It starts illustrating the design concept behind the bioinorganic chemistry of anticancer complexes. Anticancer metallic compounds that inhibit the protein kinases are concisely discussed as a case study. The accuracy and limitations of molecular docking programs currently available to predict the binding mode of metallic complexes in molecular targets are further discussed. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of different in vitro screenings are briefly commented.

  10. Hint of the Standard Model Higgs boson in its decay to H going to ZZ(*) going to 4l

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios R., Ryan

    The Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson may be searched for at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in various decay channels, the choice of which is determined by the signal rates and the signal-to-background ratios in various mass regions. This dissertation presents the search for the SM Higgs boson in the mass range from 110 to 600 GeV/c2 in the golden channel - H → ZZ(*) → ℓ +ℓ-ℓ'+ℓ'- , where ℓ, ℓ‧ = e, mu. It is one of the most promising experimental searches and is characterized by high signal-to-background ratios in the low-mass Higgs region where mH < 2mZ. In this low-mass region, one of the Z bosons decays on-shell ensuring high efficiency (i.e., H → ZZ*). In the high-Higgs-mass region ( mH < 2mZ), the channel performs well, with both Z bosons decaying on-shell; this allows the search range to be extended to 600 GeV/c2 (i.e., H → ZZ). 4.8-4.9 fb-1 of data at s = 7 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector from the 2011 pp collision run is used in the search that is presented. While a direct discovery of a Standard Model Higgs boson has not been made with the present analysis, exclusion limits are set on possible Higgs masses, and evidence points strongly to a low-mass Higgs near 125 GeV/c2.

  11. Light scattering observations and simulations, as hints about the media encountered by future rendezvous missions to comets and asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal

    The success of future rendezvous mission to comets (i.e. Rosetta, which will explore the innermost coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, before deploying a lander on its nucleus in 2014) and asteroids (e.g. Marco-Polo candidate mission for ESA Cosmic Vision) require some understanding of the physical properties of the dust particles encountered in the coma (if any) and on the solid surface. Analysis of observations of the linear polarization of solar light scattered by such media may provide clues to their properties [1]. The polarization is actually a dimension-less ratio, which only varies with the geometry of the observations (i.e. phase angle), with the wavelength, and with the properties of the scattering medium. Comparisons between the shapes of the polarimetric phase curves of asteroids [2] and comets [3] provide a classification with respect to the dust properties. As far as asteroids are concerned, this classification is reminiscent of the taxonomic classes, and more information is expected from detailed studies of the wavelength dependence. As far as comets are concerned, an extensive programme of numerical and laboratory simulations with various irregular compact grains and aggregates has been developed in the past years [4,5]. Comparisons of the results with observations (tentatively on a large range of phase angles and wavelengths) have allowed us to suggest that cometary dust particles are built of both very fluffy aggregates and of more compact grains, with significant proportions of both rather transparent silicates and absorbing materials [6]. These estimations are confirmed by the analysis of Stardust samples, with, e.g. evidence for dense grains and aggregates with low bulk density within the coma of comet Wild 2 [7]. It may thus be concluded that the analysis of remote light scattering observations allows us to infer some properties of the scattering media, to point out some similarities and discrepancies between small solar system bodies, and to contribute to the success of future space missions. [1] Levasseur-Regourd and Hadamcik, J. Quant. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer 79, 903-910, 2003. [2] Pentill¨ et al., Astron. Astrophys. 432, 1081-1090, 2005. [3] Levasseur-Regourd a et al., Astron. Astrophys. 313, 327-333, 1996. [4] Lasue and Levasseur-Regourd, J. Quant. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer 100, 220-236, 2006. [5] Hadamcik et al., Icarus 190, 660-671, 2007. [6] Levasseur-Regourd et al., Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1010-1020, 2007. [7] H¨rz et al., Science o 314, 1716-1719 (2006).

  12. Expanded oxygen minimum zones during the late Paleocene-early Eocene: Hints from multiproxy comparison and ocean modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Thomas, E.; Winguth, A. M. E.; Ridgwell, A.; Scher, H.; Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Rickaby, R. E. M.; Lu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic warming could well drive depletion of oceanic oxygen in the future. Important insight into the relationship between deoxygenation and warming can be gleaned from the geological record, but evidence is limited because few ocean oxygenation records are available for past greenhouse climate conditions. We use I/Ca in benthic foraminifera to reconstruct late Paleocene through early Eocene bottom and pore water redox conditions in the South Atlantic and Southern Indian Oceans and compare our results with those derived from Mn speciation and the Ce anomaly in fish teeth. We conclude that waters with lower oxygen concentrations were widespread at intermediate depths (1.5-2 km), whereas bottom waters were more oxygenated at the deepest site, in the Southeast Atlantic Ocean (>3 km). Epifaunal benthic foraminiferal I/Ca values were higher in the late Paleocene, especially at low-oxygen sites, than at well-oxygenated modern sites, indicating higher seawater total iodine concentrations in the late Paleocene than today. The proxy-based bottom water oxygenation pattern agrees with the site-to-site O2 gradient as simulated in a comprehensive climate model (Community Climate System Model Version 3), but the simulated absolute dissolved O2 values are low (< 35 µmol/kg), while higher O2 values ( 60-100 µmol/kg) were obtained in an Earth system model (Grid ENabled Integrated Earth system model). Multiproxy data together with improvements in boundary conditions and model parameterization are necessary if the details of past oceanographic oxygenation are to be resolved.

  13. A Hint of Whiteness: History Textbooks and Social Construction of Race in the Wake of the Sixties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    As historians and publishers scrambled to revise American history textbooks in the wake of the 1960s, textbooks increasingly strove to include the experiences of African Americans and avoid dangerous racial stereotypes. After the Civil Rights movement and decades before scathing criticism of textbooks for their inability to address racism in…

  14. A Novel Topology of Proline-rich Transmembrane Protein 2 (PRRT2): HINTS FOR AN INTRACELLULAR FUNCTION AT THE SYNAPSE.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Pia; Sterlini, Bruno; Castroflorio, Enrico; Marte, Antonella; Onofri, Franco; Valtorta, Flavia; Maragliano, Luca; Corradi, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-03-18

    Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) has been identified as the single causative gene for a group of paroxysmal syndromes of infancy, including epilepsy, paroxysmal movement disorders, and migraine. On the basis of topology predictions, PRRT2 has been assigned to the recently characterized family of Dispanins, whose members share the two-transmembrane domain topology with a large N terminus and short C terminus oriented toward the outside of the cell. Because PRRT2 plays a role at the synapse, it is important to confirm the exact orientation of its N and C termini with respect to the plasma membrane to get clues regarding its possible function. Using a combination of different experimental approaches, including live immunolabeling, immunogold electron microscopy, surface biotinylation and computational modeling, we demonstrate a novel topology for this protein. PRRT2 is a type II transmembrane protein in which only the second hydrophobic segment spans the plasma membrane, whereas the first one is associated with the internal surface of the membrane and forms a helix-loop-helix structure without crossing it. Most importantly, the large proline-rich N-terminal domain is not exposed to the extracellular space but is localized intracellularly, and only the short C terminus is extracellular (N cyt/C exo topology). Accordingly, we show that PRRT2 interacts with the Src homology 3 domain-bearing protein Intersectin 1, an intracellular protein involved in synaptic vesicle cycling. These findings will contribute to the clarification of the role of PRRT2 at the synapse and the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms on the basis of PRRT2-related neurological disorders.

  15. Chlorophyll-a Estimation Around the Antarctica Peninsula Using Satellite Algorithms: Hints from Field Water Leaving Reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chen; Xu, Huiping; Fischer, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean color remote sensing significantly contributes to our understanding of phytoplankton distribution and abundance and primary productivity in the Southern Ocean (SO). However, the current SO in situ optical database is still insufficient and unevenly distributed. This limits the ability to produce robust and accurate measurements of satellite-based chlorophyll. Based on data collected on cruises around the Antarctica Peninsula (AP) on January 2014 and 2016, this research intends to enhance our knowledge of SO water and atmospheric optical characteristics and address satellite algorithm deficiency of ocean color products. We collected high resolution in situ water leaving reflectance (±1 nm band resolution), simultaneous in situ chlorophyll-a concentrations and satellite (MODIS and VIIRS) water leaving reflectance. Field samples show that clouds have a great impact on the visible green bands and are difficult to detect because NASA protocols apply the NIR band as a cloud contamination threshold. When compared to global case I water, water around the AP has lower water leaving reflectance and a narrower blue-green band ratio, which explains chlorophyll-a underestimation in high chlorophyll-a regions and overestimation in low chlorophyll-a regions. VIIRS shows higher spatial coverage and detection accuracy than MODIS. After coefficient improvement, VIIRS is able to predict chlorophyll a with 53% accuracy. PMID:27941596

  16. Media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs: Findings from the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS-FDA 2015).

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Hoffman, Allison C; Zandberg, Izabella; Blake, Kelly D

    2017-09-01

    Addiction beliefs about tobacco use are associated with intentions to use and use of tobacco products. Exposure to information about tobacco products in media sources may affect addiction beliefs. To examine the relationship between media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs. A nationally representative sample of US adults (n=3738) from the 2015 National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey was used to examine addiction beliefs about cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, hookah/waterpipe tobacco, and roll-your-own cigarettes. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between media exposure and addiction beliefs. We defined media exposure by hours exposed, as well as exposure to tobacco use health effects information through media sources including social media. We categorized media sources by whether respondents actively or passively engaged with the source. A majority (60.6% to 87.3%) of respondents believed that cigarettes, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes and smokeless tobacco are addictive. Less than half of respondents believed that electronic cigarettes or hookah/waterpipes are addictive (45.2% and 49.8%, respectively). Respondents exposed to messages about tobacco use health effects on active media channels (e.g., social media) had greater odds of believing that smokeless tobacco (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.48), hookah/waterpipe (AOR=1.69), and roll-your-own cigarettes (AOR=1.61) are addictive. Respondents exposed to tobacco use health effects messages on passive media channels (e.g., television), had greater odds of believing that cigarettes (AOR=2.76) and electronic cigarettes (AOR=2.12) are addictive. US adult exposure to information about the health effects of tobacco use was associated with addiction beliefs about tobacco products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Apparent non-penetrance for dystopia in Waardenburg syndrome type I, with some hints on the diagnosis of dystopia canthorum.

    PubMed

    Arias, S; Mota, M

    1978-06-01

    Two large pedigrees with Waardenburg syndrome type I (W--I), i.e. with dystopia canthorum and blepharophimosis, are described to show both the variable expressivity of dystopia canthorum, which may be confused with non-penetrance of this sign, and the possibility to firmly diagnosis it with the new biometric index W, which differentiates a dystopic from a non-dystopic or a non-apparent dystopic subject, the latter within a defined biometric range. A general discussion of the relative value of blepharophimosis and dystopia canthorum as diagnostic features in W--I is presented, to conclude on the greater value of dystopia canthorum, which can be identified with confidence in more than 96% of carriers. Empirical probabilities are given for dystopia canthorum and blepharophimosis in the general populations, based on data from the world literature, useful for all ethnic groups.

  18. Ticks per thought or thoughts per tick? A selective review of time perception with hints on future research.

    PubMed

    Gorea, Andrei

    2011-12-01

    The last decade underwent a revival of interest in the perception of time and duration. The present short essay does not compete with the many other recent reviews and books on this topic. Instead, it is meant to emphasize the notion that humans (and most likely other animals) have at their disposal more than one time measuring device and to propose that they use these devices jointly to appraise the passage of time. One possible consequence of this conjecture is that the same physical duration can be judged differently depending on the reference 'clock' used in any such judgment. As this view has not yet been tested empirically, several experimental manipulations susceptible to directly test it are suggested. Before, are summarized a number of its latent precursors, namely the relativity of perceived duration, current trends in modeling time perception and its neural and pharmacological substrate, the experimental literature supporting the existence of multiple 'clocks' and a selected number of experimental manipulations known to induce time perception illusions which together with many others are putatively accountable in terms of alternative clock readings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Breast cancer arising within fibroadenoma: collective analysis of case reports in the literature and hints on treatment policy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Chih-Jung; Kuo, Yao-Lung; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Chen, Dar-Ren; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Lai, Hung-Wen

    2014-11-10

    Breast cancer arising within a fibroadenoma (BcaFad) is rare; the rate varies from 0.002% to 0.125% in fibroadenoma specimens. Owing to its rarity, the clinicopathologic feature and treatment principle of BcaFad is still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a collective analysis of case reports in the literature to identify the characteristics and optimal treatment for BcaFad. We analyzed an aggregated sample of 30 patients with BcaFad from case reports in the literature (n=24 cases) and our present study (n=6 cases). We collected and analyzed the clinicopathologic features and prognoses of patients with BcaFad, as well as treatments they received. The patients' mean age at diagnosis was 46.9 years. Twenty BcaFad patients (66.7%) received breast-conserving surgery (BCS), and nine other patients (30.0%) were treated with mastectomy. The rate of lymph node metastasis in BcaFad patients was 23.8%. The breakdown of the histological types of BcaFad was invasive ductal carcinoma (53.3%), followed by ductal carcinoma in situ (23.3%), lobular carcinoma in situ (16.7%) and invasive lobular carcinoma (13.3%). More than half of patients with positive hormone receptor status received hormone therapy. Most BcaFad patients with lymph node metastases received chemotherapy, and 20.0% of BcaFad patients treated with BCS received further radiotherapy. Only one patient had recurrence after surgery, and another had lung metastasis when diagnosed with BcaFad. Most BcaFad patients could be managed by BCS. Adjuvant radiotherapy could be performed, but was not mandatory. Chemotherapy should be considered as a treatment option in the presence of lymph node metastasis.

  20. Input pathways of organochlorine pesticides to typical freshwater cultured fish ponds of South China: hints for pollution control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Yu, Huan-Yun; You, Jing; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2011-06-01

    Air, rain, pond water, bank soil, pond sediment, fish feed, and fish were sampled from four freshwater cultured fish ponds (FWCFPs) in rural areas within the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of South China. Compositional analyses indicated that historical residues were the main sources of DDXs (defined as the sum of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and 1-chloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDMU)), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in the FWCFPs. The input fluxes to the FWCFPs were estimated at 4.0, 1.6, 15, and -0.92 µg/m(2) ·year for DDXs and 3.8, 0.92, 2.9, and -1.4 µg/m(2) ·year for HCHs for dry deposition, wet deposition, feeding, and net air-water exchange in Dongguan, and 3.8, 1.2, 137, and -1.2 µg/m(2) ·year for DDXs and 3.6, 0.66, 5.0, and -1.0 µg/m(2) ·year for HCHs in Shunde, respectively. These results indicated that fish feed was the dominant input source of DDXs to the FWCFPs. As for HCHs, fluxes via dry deposition and feeding were similar and slightly higher than those via wet deposition. Biological effects due to the occurrence of DDXs in the FWCFPs were minimal, and consumption of freshwater fish from the PRD appeared to pose insignificant risk to human health based on some existing regulations and guidelines. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  1. Patient-provider discussions about lung cancer screening pre- and post-guidelines: Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    PubMed

    Carter-Harris, Lisa; Tan, Andy S L; Salloum, Ramzi G; Young-Wolff, Kelly C

    2016-11-01

    In 2013, the USPSTF issued a Grade B recommendation that long-term current and former smokers receive lung cancer screening. Shared decision-making is important for individuals considering screening, and patient-provider discussions an essential component of the process. We examined prevalence and predictors of lung cancer screening discussions pre- and post-USPSTF guidelines. Data were obtained from two cycles of the Health Information National Trends Survey (2012; 2014). The analyzed sample comprised screening-eligible current and former smokers with no personal history of lung cancer (n=746 in 2012; n=795 in 2014). Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted; patient-reported discussion about lung cancer screening with provider was the outcome of interest. Contrary to expectations, patient-provider discussions about lung cancer screening were more prevalent pre-guideline, but overall patient-provider discussions were low in both years (17% in 2012; 10% in 2014). Current smokers were more likely to have had a discussion than former smokers. Significant predictors of patient-provider discussions included family history of cancer and having healthcare coverage. The prevalence of patient-provider discussions about lung cancer screening is suboptimal. There is a critical need for patient and provider education about shared decision-making and its importance in cancer screening decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Different distal-proximal movement balances in right- and left-hand writing may hint at differential premotor cortex involvement.

    PubMed

    Potgieser, A R E; de Jong, B M

    2011-12-01

    Right-handed people generally write with their right hand. Language expressed in script is thus performed with the hand also preferred for skilled motor tasks. This may suggest an efficient functional interaction between the language area of Broca and the adjacent ventral premotor cortex (PMv) in the left (dominant) hemisphere. Pilot observations suggested that distal movements are particularly implicated in cursive writing with the right hand and proximal movements in left-hand writing, which generated ideas concerning hemisphere-specific roles of PMv and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd). Now we examined upper-limb movements in 30 right-handed participants during right- and left-hand writing, respectively. Quantitative description of distal and proximal movements demonstrated a significant difference between movements in right- and left-hand writing (p<.001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). A Distal Movement Excess (DME) characterized writing with the right hand, while proximal and distal movements similarly contributed to left-hand writing. Although differences between non-language drawings were not tested, we propose that the DME in right-hand writing may reflect functional dominance of PMv in the left hemisphere. More proximal movements in left-hand writing might be related to PMd dominance in right-hemisphere motor control, logically implicated in spatial visuomotor transformations as seen in reaching.

  3. Helpful Hints: Caregiver-Generated Asthma Management Strategies and Their Relation to Pediatric Asthma Symptoms and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Kimberly P.; Winter, Marcia A.; Knestel, Andrea; Everhart, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This mixed-methods study examined the relation between caregiver-generated asthma management strategies and asthma severity in a sample of 200 children with persistent asthma (ages 5–12 years). Methods Caregivers were interviewed about asthma management strategies they found helpful in controlling their child's symptoms. A qualitative content analysis was used to identify household strategies. Indicators of asthma severity included lung functioning (FEV1) and functional severity (FSS). Child quality of life was also assessed (PQLQ). Results Six primary household strategies were identified: Reactive, Planning Ahead, Social, Emotional, Avoiding Triggers, and Cleaning. In general, strategies offered by caregivers did not differ by socioeconomic status. Caregivers who endorsed Avoiding Triggers as effective strategies had children with better lung functioning. Caregivers who endorsed Planning Ahead or Emotional strategies had children with better asthma-related quality of life. Conclusion These household strategies hold promise for reducing pediatric asthma symptoms and improving child quality of life. PMID:22408054

  4. Preliminary numerical simulations of the 27 February 2010 Chile tsunami: first results and hints in a tsunami early warning perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, S.; Tonini, R.; Armigliato, A.; Zaniboni, F.; Pagnoni, G.; Gallazzi, Sara; Bressan, Lidia

    2010-05-01

    The tsunamigenic earthquake (M 8.8) that occurred offshore central Chile on 27 February 2010 can be classified as a typical subduction-zone earthquake. The effects of the ensuing tsunami have been devastating along the Chile coasts, and especially between the cities of Valparaiso and Talcahuano, and in the Juan Fernandez islands. The tsunami propagated across the entire Pacific Ocean, hitting with variable intensity almost all the coasts facing the basin. While the far-field propagation was quite well tracked almost in real-time by the warning centres and reasonably well reproduced by the forecast models, the toll of lives and the severity of the damage caused by the tsunami in the near-field occurred with no local alert nor warning and sadly confirms that the protection of the communities placed close to the tsunami sources is still an unresolved problem in the tsunami early warning field. The purpose of this study is two-fold. On one side we perform numerical simulations of the tsunami starting from different earthquake models which we built on the basis of the preliminary seismic parameters (location, magnitude and focal mechanism) made available by the seismological agencies immediately after the event, or retrieved from more detailed and refined studies published online in the following days and weeks. The comparison with the available records of both offshore DART buoys and coastal tide-gauges is used to put some preliminary constraints on the best-fitting fault model. The numerical simulations are performed by means of the finite-difference code UBO-TSUFD, developed and maintained by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, Italy, which can solve both the linear and non-linear versions of the shallow-water equations on nested grids. The second purpose of this study is to use the conclusions drawn in the previous part in a tsunami early warning perspective. In the framework of the EU-funded project DEWS (Distant Early Warning System), we will try to give some clues for discussion on the deficiencies of the existing tsunami early warning concepts as regards the warning to the areas which are found close to the tsunami source, and on the strategies that should be followed in the near future in order to make significant progress in the protection and safeguarding of local communities.

  5. Web application for studying the free energy of binding and protonation states of protein-ligand complexes based on HINT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayden, Alexander S.; Fornabaio, Micaela; Scarsdale, J. Neel; Kellogg, Glen E.

    2009-09-01

    A public web server performing computational titration at the active site in a protein-ligand complex has been implemented. This calculation is based on the Hydropathic interaction noncovalent force field. From 3D coordinate data for the protein, ligand and bridging waters (if available), the server predicts the best combination of protonation states for each ionizable residue and/or ligand functional group as well as the Gibbs free energy of binding for the ionization-optimized protein-ligand complex. The 3D structure for the modified molecules is available as output. In addition, a graph depicting how this energy changes with acidity, i.e., as a function of added protons, can be obtained. This data may prove to be of use in preparing models for virtual screening and molecular docking. A few illustrative examples are presented. In β secretase (2va7) computational titration flipped the amide groups of Gln12 and Asn37 and protonated a ligand amine yielding an improvement of 6.37 kcal mol-1 in the protein-ligand binding score. Protonation of Glu139 in mutant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (2opq) allows a water bridge between the protein and inhibitor that increases the protein-ligand interaction score by 0.16 kcal mol-1. In human sialidase NEU2 complexed with an isobutyl ether mimetic inhibitor (2f11) computational titration suggested that protonating Glu218, deprotonating Arg237, flipping the amide bond on Tyr334, and optimizing the positions of several other polar protons would increase the protein-ligand interaction score by 0.71 kcal mol-1.

  6. MULTI-FREQUENCY, MULTI-EPOCH STUDY OF Mrk 501: HINTS FOR A TWO-COMPONENT NATURE OF THE EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, A.; Chitnis, V. R.; Singh, B. B.; Acharya, B. S.; Anupama, G. C.; Prabhu, T. P.; Vishwanath, P. R.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Britto, R. J.; Saha, L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the detection of very high energy (VHE) γ-rays from Mrk 501, its broadband emission of radiation was mostly and quite effectively modeled using the one zone emission scenario. However, broadband spectral and flux variability studies enabled by the multi-wavelength campaigns carried out during the recent years have revealed the rather complex behavior of Mrk 501. The observed emission from Mrk 501 could be due to a complex superposition of multiple emission zones. Moreover, new evidence of detection of very hard intrinsic γ-ray spectra obtained from Fermi-LAT observations has challenged the theories about the origin of VHE γ-rays. Our studies based on Fermi-LAT data indicate the existence of two separate components in the spectrum, one for low-energy γ-rays and the other for high-energy γ-rays. Using multi-waveband data from several ground- and space-based instruments, in addition to HAGAR data, the spectral energy distribution of Mrk 501 is obtained for various flux states observed during 2011. In the present work, this observed broadband spectral energy distribution is reproduced with a leptonic, multi-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model.

  7. Overcoming Students' Misconceptions Concerning Thermal Physics with the Aid of Hints and Peer Interaction during a Lecture Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2013-01-01

    As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures…

  8. Hints for Metal-Preference Protein Sequence Determinants: Different Metal Binding Features of the Five Tetrahymena thermophila Metallothioneins

    PubMed Central

    Espart, Anna; Marín, Maribel; Gil-Moreno, Selene; Palacios, Òscar; Amaro, Francisco; Martín-González, Ana; Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Capdevila, Mercè; Atrian, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    The metal binding preference of metallothioneins (MTs) groups them in two extreme subsets, the Zn/Cd- and the Cu-thioneins. Ciliates harbor the largest MT gene/protein family reported so far, including 5 paralogs that exhibit relatively low sequence similarity, excepting MTT2 and MTT4. In Tetrahymena thermophila, three MTs (MTT1, MTT3 and MTT5) were considered Cd-thioneins and two (MTT2 and MTT4) Cu-thioneins, according to gene expression inducibility and phylogenetic analysis. In this study, the metal-binding abilities of the five MTT proteins were characterized, to obtain information about the folding and stability of their cognate- and non-cognate metal complexes, and to characterize the T. thermophila MT system at protein level. Hence, the five MTTs were recombinantly synthesized as Zn2+-, Cd2+- or Cu+-complexes, which were analyzed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), circular dichroism (CD), and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Among the Cd-thioneins, MTT1 and MTT5 were optimal for Cd2+ coordination, yielding unique Cd17- and Cd8- complexes, respectively. When binding Zn2+, they rendered a mixture of Zn-species. Only MTT5 was capable to coordinate Cu+, although yielding heteronuclear Zn-, Cu-species or highly unstable Cu-homometallic species. MTT3 exhibited poor binding abilities both for Cd2+ and for Cu+, and although not optimally, it yielded the best result when coordinating Zn2+. The two Cu-thioneins, MTT2 and MTT4 isoforms formed homometallic Cu-complexes (major Cu20-MTT) upon synthesis in Cu-supplemented hosts. Contrarily, they were unable to fold into stable Cd-complexes, while Zn-MTT species were only recovered for MTT4 (major Zn10-MTT4). Thus, the metal binding preferences of the five T. thermophila MTs correlate well with their previous classification as Cd- and Cu-thioneins, and globally, they can be classified from Zn/Cd- to Cu-thioneins according to the gradation: MTT1>MTT5>MTT3>MTT4>MTT2. The main mechanisms underlying the evolution and specialization of the MTT metal binding preferences may have been internal tandem duplications, presence of doublet and triplet Cys patterns in Zn/Cd-thioneins, and optimization of site specific amino acid determinants (Lys for Zn/Cd- and Asn for Cu-coordination). PMID:25798065

  9. Implications of social media use on health information technology engagement: Data from HINTS 4 cycle 3.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Devlon N; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Coa, Kisha I; Oh, April; Hesse, Bradford

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about the association between Internet/social media use and health information technology (HIT) engagement. This study examines patterns of social media use and HIT engagement in the U.S.A. using data from the 2013 Health Information National Trends Survey (N = 3,164). Specifically, predictors of two HIT activities (i.e., communicating with a healthcare provider using the Internet or email and tracking personal health information electronically) are examined. Persons who were females, higher education, non-Hispanic others, having a regular healthcare provider, and ages 35-44 were more likely to participate in HIT activities. After controlling for sociodemographics and health correlates, social media use was significantly associated with HIT engagement. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to systematically examine the use and relationships across multiple types of health-related online media.

  10. Computed inundation heights of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami compared to measured run-up data: hints for tsunami source inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, G.; Tinti, S.; Armigliato, A.

    2012-04-01

    The 11 March 2011 earthquake that took place off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, North Honshu, with Mw = 9.0, is the largest earthquake ever occurred in Japan, and generated a big tsunami that spread across the Pacific Ocean, causing devastating effects in the prefectures of Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima. It caused more than 15,000 casualties, swept away the low-land quarters of several villages and moreover was the primary cause of the severe nuclear accident in the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. There is a very large set of observations covering both the earthquake and the tsunami, and almost certainly this is the case with the most abundant dataset of high-quality data in the history of seismology and of tsunami science. Local and global seismic networks, continuous GPS networks, coastal tide gauges in Japan ports and across the Pacific, local buoys cabled deep ocean-bottom pressure gauges (OBPG) and deep-ocean buoys (such as DART) mainly along the foot of the margins of the pacific continents, all contributed essential data to constrain the source of the earthquake and of the tsunami. In this paper we will use also the observed run-up data to put further constraints on the source and to better determine the distribution of the slip on the offshore fault. This will be done through trial-and-error forward modeling, that is by comparing inundation data calculated by means of numerical tsunami simulations in the near field to tsunami run-up heights measured during field surveys conducted by several teams and made available on the net. Major attention will be devoted to reproduce observations in the prefectures that were more affected and where run-up heights are very large (namely Iwate and Miyagi). The simulations are performed by means of the finite-difference code UBO-TSUFD, developed and maintained by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, Italy, that can solve both the linear and non-linear versions of the shallow-water equations on nested grids and with dynamically moving shorelines.

  11. Regional climate pattern during two millennia estimated from annual tree rings of Yaku cedar trees: a hint for solar variability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraki, Yasushi; Mitsutani, Takumi; Shibata, Shoichi; Kuramata, Syuichi; Masuda, Kimiaki; Nagaya, Kentaro

    2015-02-01

    We analyzed trees that have survived on Yaku island (Yakushima) for 2,000 years. Quite surprisingly, the Fourier and wavelet analyses of the annual growth rate identified 2 cycles of periodicities of 11 and (24 ± 4) years during the Oort, Wolf, Spörer, Maunder, and Dalton minima. The 11-year periodicity originated from solar activity, while the (24 ± 4)-year periodicity may be related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). In particular, we have discovered an 11-year periodicity in the meteorological daylight-hour data from Yakushima in the month of June during 1938 to 2013 and a 24-year periodicity in July. The growth rate of the tree rings may be affected by the variation of the daylight hour.

  12. Tracing the radiation of Maniola (Nymphalidae) butterflies: new insights from phylogeography hint at one single incompletely differentiated species complex

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzinger, Angelina J; Fiedler, Konrad; Letsch, Harald; Grill, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The use of DNA sequence data often leads to the recognition of cryptic species within putatively well-known taxa. The opposite case, detecting less diversity than originally described, has, however, far more rarely been documented. Maniola jurtina, the Meadow Brown butterfly, occurs all over Europe, whereas all other six species in the genus Maniola are restricted to the Mediterranean area. Among them, three are island endemics on Sardinia, Cyprus, and Chios, respectively. Maniola species are almost indistinguishable morphologically, and hybridization seems to occur occasionally. To clarify species boundaries and diversification history of the genus, we reconstructed the phylogeography and phylogeny of all seven species within Maniola analyzing 138 individuals from across its range using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers. Examination of variation in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA surprisingly revealed a case of taxonomic “oversplitting”. The topology of the recovered phylogenetic tree is not consistent with accepted taxonomy, but rather reveals haplotype clades that are incongruent with nominal species boundaries: instead of seven species, we recognized only two major, yet incompletely segregated, lineages. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that Maniola originated in Africa. We suggest that one lineage dispersed over the Strait of Gibraltar and the Iberian Peninsula to the west of Europe, while the other lineage spreads eastward through Asia Minor and over the Bosporus to Eastern Europe. PMID:25628863

  13. Long-term eclipse timing of white dwarf binaries: an observational hint of a magnetic mechanism at work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bours, M. C. P.; Marsh, T. R.; Parsons, S. G.; Dhillon, V. S.; Ashley, R. P.; Bento, J. P.; Breedt, E.; Butterley, T.; Caceres, C.; Chote, P.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Hardy, L. K.; Hermes, J. J.; Irawati, P.; Kerry, P.; Kilkenny, D.; Littlefair, S. P.; McAllister, M. J.; Rattanasoon, S.; Sahman, D. I.; Vučković, M.; Wilson, R. W.

    2016-08-01

    We present a long-term programme for timing the eclipses of white dwarfs in close binaries to measure apparent and/or real variations in their orbital periods. Our programme includes 67 close binaries, both detached and semi-detached and with M-dwarfs, K-dwarfs, brown dwarfs or white dwarfs secondaries. In total, we have observed more than 650 white dwarf eclipses. We use this sample to search for orbital period variations and aim to identify the underlying cause of these variations. We find that the probability of observing orbital period variations increases significantly with the observational baseline. In particular, all binaries with baselines exceeding 10 yr, with secondaries of spectral type K2 - M5.5, show variations in the eclipse arrival times that in most cases amount to several minutes. In addition, among those with baselines shorter than 10 yr, binaries with late spectral type (>M6), brown dwarf or white dwarf secondaries appear to show no orbital period variations. This is in agreement with the so-called Applegate mechanism, which proposes that magnetic cycles in the secondary stars can drive variability in the binary orbits. We also present new eclipse times of NN Ser, which are still compatible with the previously published circumbinary planetary system model, although only with the addition of a quadratic term to the ephemeris. Finally, we conclude that we are limited by the relatively short observational baseline for many of the binaries in the eclipse timing programme, and therefore cannot yet draw robust conclusions about the cause of orbital period variations in evolved, white dwarf binaries.

  14. West Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Trade Deficit Up 151 FINLAND Finnish-Built Railcar Facility in USSR May Ease Stock Shortage (Kalle Heiskanen ; HELSINGIN SANOMAT, 13 Jun 85) 152...Country’s Firm Wins Orders for Large Projects in USSR (Kalle Heiskanen ; HELSINGIN SANOMAT, 14 Jun 85) 154 - d - Soviets Hold Out Prospects for Kola...Mineral Projects (Kalle Heiskanen ; HELSINGIN SANOMAT, 12 Jun 85)..... 157 GREECE Balance of Payments: Disappointing Results 15Q (I KATHIMERINI, 14

  15. Agent-based Approaches to Dynamic Team Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    behavior. The second section reviews agent-based models of teamwork describing work involving both teamwork approaches to design of multiagent systems...there is less direct evidence for teams. Hough (1992), for example, found that ratings on conscientiousness, emotional stability, and agreeableness...Peeters, Rutte, Tuijl, and Reymen (2006) who found agreeableness and emotional stability positively related to satisfaction with the team make

  16. Making It Happen: Examples of Good Practice in Special Needs Education & Community-Based Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Special Education.

    This monograph presents 12 reports of successful programs serving children with special needs in various nations. The program locations and the program report titles and authors are as follows: (1) Austria: "Integration Models for Elementary and Secondary Schools in Austria" (Volker Rutte); (2) China: "Integrated Education Project,…

  17. Utilization of potatoes for life support in space. V. Evaluation of cultivars in response to continuous light and high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Bennett, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars from different regions of the world were evaluated in terms of their responses to continuous light (24 h photoperiod) and to high temperature (30 C) in two separate experiments under controlled environments. In each experiment, a first evaluation of the cultivars was made at day 35 after transplanting, at which time 12 cultivars exhibiting best growth and tuber initiation were selected. A final evaluation of the 12 cultivars was made after an additional 21 days of growth, at which time plant height, total dry weight, tuber dry weight, and tuber number were determined. In the continuous light evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alaska 114, Atlantic, Bintje, Denali, Desiree, Haig, New York 81, Ottar, Rutt, Snogg, Snowchip, and Troll. In the high temperature evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alpha, Atlantic, Bake King, Denali, Desiree, Haig, Kennebec, Norland, Russet Burbank, Rutt, Superior, and Troll. Among the cultivars selected under continuous irradiation, Desiree, Ottar, Haig, Rutt, Denali and Alaska showed the best potential for high productivity whereas New York 81 and Bintje showed the least production capability. Among the cultivars selected under high temperature, Rutt, Haig, Troll and Bake King had best performance whereas Atlantic, Alpha, Kennebec and Russet Burbank exhibited the least production potential. Thus, Haig and Rutt were the two cultivars that performed well under continuous irradiation and high temperature conditions, and could have maximum potential for adaptation to varying stress environments. These two cultivars may have the best potential for use in future space farming in which continuous light and/or high temperature conditions may exist. However, cultivar responses under combined conditions of continuous light and high temperature remains for further validation.

  18. Utilization of potatoes for life support in space. V. Evaluation of cultivars in response to continuous light and high temperature.

    PubMed

    Tibbitts, T W; Cao, W; Bennett, S M

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars from different regions of the world were evaluated in terms of their responses to continuous light (24 h photoperiod) and to high temperature (30 C) in two separate experiments under controlled environments. In each experiment, a first evaluation of the cultivars was made at day 35 after transplanting, at which time 12 cultivars exhibiting best growth and tuber initiation were selected. A final evaluation of the 12 cultivars was made after an additional 21 days of growth, at which time plant height, total dry weight, tuber dry weight, and tuber number were determined. In the continuous light evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alaska 114, Atlantic, Bintje, Denali, Desiree, Haig, New York 81, Ottar, Rutt, Snogg, Snowchip, and Troll. In the high temperature evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alpha, Atlantic, Bake King, Denali, Desiree, Haig, Kennebec, Norland, Russet Burbank, Rutt, Superior, and Troll. Among the cultivars selected under continuous irradiation, Desiree, Ottar, Haig, Rutt, Denali and Alaska showed the best potential for high productivity whereas New York 81 and Bintje showed the least production capability. Among the cultivars selected under high temperature, Rutt, Haig, Troll and Bake King had best performance whereas Atlantic, Alpha, Kennebec and Russet Burbank exhibited the least production potential. Thus, Haig and Rutt were the two cultivars that performed well under continuous irradiation and high temperature conditions, and could have maximum potential for adaptation to varying stress environments. These two cultivars may have the best potential for use in future space farming in which continuous light and/or high temperature conditions may exist. However, cultivar responses under combined conditions of continuous light and high temperature remains for further validation.

  19. Utilization of potatoes for life support in space. V. Evaluation of cultivars in response to continuous light and high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Bennett, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars from different regions of the world were evaluated in terms of their responses to continuous light (24 h photoperiod) and to high temperature (30 C) in two separate experiments under controlled environments. In each experiment, a first evaluation of the cultivars was made at day 35 after transplanting, at which time 12 cultivars exhibiting best growth and tuber initiation were selected. A final evaluation of the 12 cultivars was made after an additional 21 days of growth, at which time plant height, total dry weight, tuber dry weight, and tuber number were determined. In the continuous light evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alaska 114, Atlantic, Bintje, Denali, Desiree, Haig, New York 81, Ottar, Rutt, Snogg, Snowchip, and Troll. In the high temperature evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alpha, Atlantic, Bake King, Denali, Desiree, Haig, Kennebec, Norland, Russet Burbank, Rutt, Superior, and Troll. Among the cultivars selected under continuous irradiation, Desiree, Ottar, Haig, Rutt, Denali and Alaska showed the best potential for high productivity whereas New York 81 and Bintje showed the least production capability. Among the cultivars selected under high temperature, Rutt, Haig, Troll and Bake King had best performance whereas Atlantic, Alpha, Kennebec and Russet Burbank exhibited the least production potential. Thus, Haig and Rutt were the two cultivars that performed well under continuous irradiation and high temperature conditions, and could have maximum potential for adaptation to varying stress environments. These two cultivars may have the best potential for use in future space farming in which continuous light and/or high temperature conditions may exist. However, cultivar responses under combined conditions of continuous light and high temperature remains for further validation.

  20. Wolof Syllable Structure: Evidence from a Secret Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka, Omar

    A structural analysis provides new evidence concerning the internal structure of the syllable in Wolof, a West African language, through examination of the secret code called Kall, spoken mainly in Senegal's Ceneba area. It is proposed that Kall is better described as involving primarily a reduplication of the prosodic word. The first section…

  1. West Europe Report Tables of Contents JPRS-WER-86-064, 2 July 1986 JPRS-WER-86-124, 31 Dec 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-30

    Kjaer 84 FINLAND Sorsa Rejects Assertions Finnish-USSR Trade in Crisis (Kalle Heiskanen ; HELSINGIN SANOMAT, 17 Jun 86) 86 ITALY Further Growth...to Balance Trade, by Kalle Heiskanen ^ 54 Chernobyl Accident Aids Exports, by Saska Saarikoski 56 Paper Comments on Visit, Editorial 57 FRANCE

  2. A three-dimensional morphometric analysis of upper forelimb morphology in the enigmatic tapir (Perissodactyla: Tapirus) hints at subtle variations in locomotor ecology.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, Jamie A; Nauwelaerts, Sandra

    2016-11-01

    Forelimb morphology is an indicator for terrestrial locomotor ecology. The limb morphology of the enigmatic tapir (Perissodactyla: Tapirus) has often been compared to that of basal perissodactyls, despite the lack of quantitative studies comparing forelimb variation in modern tapirs. Here, we present a quantitative assessment of tapir upper forelimb osteology using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics to test whether the four modern tapir species are monomorphic in their forelimb skeleton. The shape of the upper forelimb bones across four species (T. indicus; T. bairdii; T. terrestris; T. pinchaque) was investigated. Bones were laser scanned to capture surface morphology and 3D landmark analysis was used to quantify shape. Discriminant function analyses were performed to reveal features which could be used for interspecific discrimination. Overall our results show that the appendicular skeleton contains notable interspecific differences. We demonstrate that upper forelimb bones can be used to discriminate between species (>91% accuracy), with the scapula proving the most diagnostic bone (100% accuracy). Features that most successfully discriminate between the four species include the placement of the cranial angle of the scapula, depth of the humeral condyle, and the caudal deflection of the olecranon. Previous studies comparing the limbs of T. indicus and T. terrestris are corroborated by our quantitative findings. Moreover, the mountain tapir T. pinchaque consistently exhibited the greatest divergence in morphology from the other three species. Despite previous studies describing tapirs as functionally mediportal in their locomotor style, we find osteological evidence suggesting a spectrum of locomotor adaptations in the tapirs. We conclude that modern tapir forelimbs are neither monomorphic nor are tapirs as conserved in their locomotor habits as previously described. J. Morphol. 277:1469-1485, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Multifractality in individual honeybee behavior hints at colony-specific social cascades: Reanalysis of radio-frequency identification data from five different colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, Nicole S.; Kelty-Stephen, Damian G.

    2017-02-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) exhibit complex coordination and interaction across multiple behaviors such as swarming. This coordination among honeybees in the same colony is remarkably similar to the concept of informational cascades. The multifractal geometry of cascades suggests that multifractal measures of individual honeybee activity might carry signatures of these colony-wide coordinations. The present work reanalyzes time stamps of entrances to and exits from the hive captured by radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensors reading RFID tags on individual bees. Indeed, both multifractal spectrum width for individual bees' inter-reading interval series and differences of those widths from surrogates significantly predicted not just whether the individual bee's hive had a mesh enclosure but also predicted the specific membership of individual bees in one of five colonies. The significant effects of multifractality in matching honeybee activity to type of colony and, further, matching individual honeybees to their exact home colony suggests that multifractality quantifies key features of the colony-wide interactions across many scales. This relevance of multifractality to predicting colony type or colony membership adds additional credence to the cascade metaphor for colony organization. Perhaps, multifractality provides a new tool for exploring the relationship between individual organisms and larger, more complex social behaviors.

  4. Hints of the early Jehol Biota: important dinosaur footprint assemblages from the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary Tuchengzi Formation in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lida; Zhang, Jianping; Lockley, Martin G; McCrea, Richard T; Klein, Hendrik; Alcalá, Luis; Buckley, Lisa G; Burns, Michael E; Kümmell, Susanna B; He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    New reports of dinosaur tracksites in the Tuchengzi Formation in the newly established Yanqing Global Geopark, Beijing, China, support previous inferences that the track assemblages from this formation are saurischian-dominated. More specifically, the assemblages appear theropod-dominated, with the majority of well-preserved tracks conforming to the Grallator type (sensus lato), thus representing relatively small trackmakers. Such ichnofaunas supplement the skeletal record from this unit that lacks theropods thus far, proving a larger diversity of dinosaur faunas in that region. Sauropods are represented by medium to large sized and narrow and wide-gauge groups, respectively. The latter correspond with earlier discoveries of titanosauriform skeletons in the same unit. Previous records of ornithischian tracks cannot be positively confirmed. Purported occurrences are re-evaluated here, the trackways and imprints, except of a single possible specimen, re-assigned to theropods. Palecologically the Tuchengzi ichnofauna is characteristic of semi-arid fluvio-lacustrine inland basins with Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous deposits in northern China that all show assemblages with abundant theropod and sauropod tracks and minor components of ornithopod, pterosaur and bird tracks.

  5. RAPID EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE DURING THE IMPULSIVE PHASE OF A MICROFLARE OBSERVED WITH THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER ABOARD HINODE: HINTS OF CHROMOSPHERIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.

    2013-11-10

    We obtained rapid cadence (11.2 s) EUV stare spectra of a solar microflare with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode. The intensities of lines formed at temperatures too cool to be found in the corona brightened by factors around 16 early during this event, indicating that we observed a site of energy deposition in the chromosphere. We derive the density evolution of the flare plasma at temperature around 2 MK from the intensity ratio of Fe XIV lines at 264.789 Å and 274.204 Å. From both lines we removed the bright pre-flare quiescent emission, and from 274.204 we removed the blended emission of Si VII λ274.180 based on the Si VII λ274.180/275.361 intensity ratio, which varies only slightly with density. In this way the flare electron density is derived with emission from only the flare plasma. The density increased by an order of magnitude from its pre-flare quiescent average of (3.43 ± 0.19) × 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3} to its maximum impulsive phase value of (3.04 ± 0.57) × 10{sup 10} cm{sup –3} in 2 minutes. The fact that this rapid increase in density is not accompanied by systematic, large upward velocities indicates that the density increase is not due to the filling of loops with evaporated chromospheric material, but rather due to material being directly heated in the chromosphere, likely by magnetic reconnection. The density increase may be due to a progression of reconnection sites to greater depths in the chromosphere, where it has access to larger densities, or it may be due to compression of 2 MK plasma by the 10 MK plasma as it attempts to expand against the high-density chromospheric plasma.

  6. Binding Characteristics of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate to ApoM hints to Assisted Release Mechanism via the ApoM Calyx-Opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hansi; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Jiang, Zhenyan; Böckmann, Rainer A.

    2016-08-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysophospholipid mediator carried by the HDL-associated apoM protein in blood, regulating many physiological processes by activating the G protein-coupled S1P receptor in mammals. Despite the solved crystal structure of the apoM-S1P complex, the mechanism of S1P release from apoM as a part of the S1P pathway is unknown. Here, the dynamics of the wild type apoM-S1P complex as well as of mutants were investigated by means of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The potential of mean force for S1P unbinding from apoM reflected a large binding strength of more than 60 kJ/mol. This high unbinding free energy for S1P underlines the observed specificity of the physiological effects of S1P as it suggests that the spontaneous release of S1P from apoM is unlikely. Instead, S1P release and thus the control of this bioactive lipid probably requires the tight interaction with other molecules, e.g. with the S1P receptor. Mutations of specific S1P anchoring residues of apoM decreased the energetic barrier by up to 20 kJ/mol. Moreover, the ligand-free apoM protein is shown to adopt a more open upper hydrophilic binding pocket and to result in complete closure of the lower hydrophobic cavity, suggesting a mechanism for adjusting the gate for ligand access.

  7. Exploring the predictive value of the evoked potentials score in MS within an appropriate patient population: a hint for an early identification of benign MS?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prognostic value of evoked potentials (EPs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been fully established. The correlations between the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) at First Neurological Evaluation (FNE) and the duration of the disease, as well as between EDSS and EPs, have influenced the outcome of most previous studies. To overcome this confounding relations, we propose to test the prognostic value of EPs within an appropriate patient population which should be based on patients with low EDSS at FNE and short disease duration. Methods We retrospectively selected a sample of 143 early relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients with an EDSS < 3.5 from a larger database spanning 20 years. By means of bivariate logistic regressions, the best predictors of worsening were selected among several demographic and clinical variables. The best multivariate logistic model was statistically validated and prospectively applied to 50 patients examined during 2009–2011. Results The Evoked Potentials score (EP score) and the Time to EDSS 2.0 (TT2) were the best predictors of worsening in our sample (Odds Ratio 1.10 and 0.82 respectively, p=0.001). Low EP score (below 15–20 points), short TT2 (lower than 3–5 years) and their interaction resulted to be the most useful for the identification of worsening patterns. Moreover, in patients with an EP score at FNE below 6 points and a TT2 greater than 3 years the probability of worsening was 10% after 4–5 years and rapidly decreased thereafter. Conclusions In an appropriate population of early RRMS patients, the EP score at FNE is a good predictor of disability at low values as well as in combination with a rapid buildup of disability. Interestingly, an EP score at FNE under the median together with a clinical stability lasting more than 3 years turned out to be a protective pattern. This finding may contribute to an early identification of benign patients, well before the term required to diagnose Benign MS (BMS). PMID:22913733

  8. Novel papillomaviruses in free-ranging Iberian bats: no virus-host co-evolution, no strict host specificity, and hints for recombination.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Raquel; Ibáñez, Carlos; Godínez, Jose M; Aréchiga, Nidia; Garin, Inazio; Pérez-Suárez, Gonzalo; de Paz, Oscar; Juste, Javier; Echevarría, Juan E; Bravo, Ignacio G

    2014-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are widespread pathogens. However, the extent of PV infections in bats remains largely unknown. This work represents the first comprehensive study of PVs in Iberian bats. We identified four novel PVs in the mucosa of free-ranging Eptesicus serotinus (EserPV1, EserPV2, and EserPV3) and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (RferPV1) individuals and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships within the viral family. We further assessed their prevalence in different populations of E. serotinus and its close relative E. isabellinus. Although it is frequent to read that PVs co-evolve with their host, that PVs are highly species-specific, and that PVs do not usually recombine, our results suggest otherwise. First, strict virus-host co-evolution is rejected by the existence of five, distantly related bat PV lineages and by the lack of congruence between bats and bat PVs phylogenies. Second, the ability of EserPV2 and EserPV3 to infect two different bat species (E. serotinus and E. isabellinus) argues against strict host specificity. Finally, the description of a second noncoding region in the RferPV1 genome reinforces the view of an increased susceptibility to recombination in the E2-L2 genomic region. These findings prompt the question of whether the prevailing paradigms regarding PVs evolution should be reconsidered.

  9. HINTW, a W-chromosome HINT gene in chick, is expressed ubiquitously and is a robust female cell marker applicable in intraspecific chimera studies.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Hiroki; Sezaki, Maiko; Bertocchini, Federica; Fukuda, Kimiko; Sheng, Guojun

    2014-05-01

    Grafting and transplantation experiments in embryology require proper distinction between host and donor tissues. For the avian model this has traditionally been achieved by using two closely related species (e.g., chick and quail) followed by species-specific antibody staining. Here, we show that an in situ hybridization probe against the HINTW gene is a robust and reliable marker for female-derived chicken cells. At all pre-circulation stages tested, all cells in female embryos, independently confirmed by PCR analysis, were strongly positive for HINTW, whereas all male embryos were negative. This probe is broadly applicable in intra-specific chick/chick chimera studies, and as a proof of principle, we utilized this probe to detect female cells in three experimental settings: (1) to mark female donor cells in a node transplantation assay; (2) to distinguish female cells in male/female twins generated by the Cornish pasty culture; and (3) to detect female half of the embryo in artificially generated bilateral gynandromorphs. A rapid, PCR based pre-screening step increases the efficiency of obtaining desired donor/host sex combination from 25% to 100%. For most avian chimera studies, this female-specific in situ probe is a low cost alternative to the commonly used QCPN antibody and to ubiquitous-GFP chicken strains which are not widely available to the research community. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Human mtDNA hypervariable regions, HVR I and II, hint at deep common maternal founder and subsequent maternal gene flow in Indian population groups.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Swarkar; Saha, Anjana; Rai, Ekta; Bhat, Audesh; Bamezai, Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    We have analysed the hypervariable regions (HVR I and II) of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in individuals from Uttar Pradesh (UP), Bihar (BI) and Punjab (PUNJ), belonging to the Indo-European linguistic group, and from South India (SI), that have their linguistic roots in Dravidian language. Our analysis revealed the presence of known and novel mutations in both hypervariable regions in the studied population groups. Median joining network analyses based on mtDNA showed extensive overlap in mtDNA lineages despite the extensive cultural and linguistic diversity. MDS plot analysis based on Fst distances suggested increased maternal genetic proximity for the studied population groups compared with other world populations. Mismatch distribution curves, respective neighbour joining trees and other statistical analyses showed that there were significant expansions. The study revealed an ancient common ancestry for the studied population groups, most probably through common founder female lineage(s), and also indicated that human migrations occurred (maybe across and within the Indian subcontinent) even after the initial phase of female migration to India.

  11. Probing the magnetosphere of the M8.5 dwarf TVLM 513-46546 by modelling its auroral radio emission. Hint of star exoplanet interaction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leto, P.; Trigilio, C.; Buemi, C. S.; Umana, G.; Ingallinera, A.; Cerrigone, L.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we simulate the cyclic circularly polarized pulses of the ultracool dwarf TVLM 513-46546, observed with the Very Large Array at 4.88 and 8.44 GHz on 2006 May, by using a three-dimensional model of the auroral radio emission from the stellar magnetosphere. During this epoch, the radio light curves are characterized by two pulses left-hand polarized at 4.88 GHz, and one doubly peaked (of opposite polarizations) pulse at 8.44 GHz. To take into account the possible deviation from the dipolar symmetry of the stellar magnetic-field topology, the model described in this paper is also able to simulate the auroral radio emission from a magnetosphere shaped like an offset dipole. To reproduce the timing and pattern of the observed pulses, we explored the space of parameters controlling the auroral beaming pattern and the geometry of the magnetosphere. Through the analysis of the TVLM 513-46546 auroral radio emission, we derive some indications on the magnetospheric field topology that is able to simultaneously reproduce the timing and patterns of the auroral pulses measured at 4.88 and 8.44 GHz. Each set of model solutions simulates two auroral pulses (singly or doubly peaked) per period. To explain the presence of only one 8.44 GHz pulse per period, we analyse the case of auroral radio emission limited only to a magnetospheric sector activated by an external body, like the case of the interaction of Jupiter with its moons.

  12. OPTICAL-TO-NEAR-INFRARED SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS FOR THE HOT URANUS GJ3470b: A HINT OF A CLOUD-FREE ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Akihiko; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Narita, Norio; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Kawauchi, Kiyoe; Nagayama, Shogo; Kurosaki, Kenji; Ikoma, Masahiro; Ohnuki, Hiroshi; Onitsuka, Masahiro; Suenaga, Takuya; Hirano, Teruyuki; Ohta, Kouji; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2013-06-20

    We present optical (g', R{sub c}, and I{sub c}) to near-infrared (J) simultaneous photometric observations for a primary transit of GJ3470b, a Uranus-mass transiting planet around a nearby M dwarf, by using the 50 cm MITSuME telescope and the 188 cm telescope, both at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. From these data, we derive the planetary mass, radius, and density as 14.1 {+-} 1.3 M{sub Circled-Plus }, 4.32{sup +0.21}{sub -0.10} R{sub Circled-Plus }, and 0.94 {+-} 0.12 g cm{sup -3}, respectively, thus confirming the low density that was reported by Demory et al. based on the Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 {mu}m photometry (0.72{sup +0.13}{sub -0.12} g cm{sup -3}). Although the planetary radius is about 10% smaller than that reported by Demory et al., this difference does not alter their conclusion that the planet possesses a hydrogen-rich envelope whose mass is approximately 10% of the planetary total mass. On the other hand, we find that the planet-to-star radius ratio (R{sub p} /R{sub s} ) in the J band (0.07577{sup +0.00072}{sub -0.00075}) is smaller than that in the I{sub c} (0.0802 {+-} 0.0013) and 4.5 {mu}m (0.07806{sup +0.00052}{sub -0.00054}) bands by 5.8% {+-} 2.0% and 2.9% {+-} 1.1%, respectively. A plausible explanation for the differences is that the planetary atmospheric opacity varies with wavelength due to absorption and/or scattering by atmospheric molecules. Although the significance of the observed R{sub p} /R{sub s} variations is low, if confirmed, this fact would suggest that GJ3470b does not have a thick cloud layer in the atmosphere. This property would offer a wealth of opportunity for future transmission-spectroscopic observations of this planet to search for certain molecular features, such as H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO, without being prevented by clouds.

  13. THE PUZZLING EARLY DETECTION OF LOW VELOCITY {sup 56}Ni DECAY LINES IN SN 2014J: HINTS OF A COMPACT REMNANT

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyed, Rachid; Leahy, Denis; Koning, Nico; Staff, Jan

    2015-03-01

    We show that the low-velocity {sup 56}Ni decay lines detected earlier than expected in the type Ia SN 2014J find an explanation in the quark-nova Ia model, which involves the thermonuclear explosion of a tidally disrupted sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarf (WD) in a tight neutron-star-WD binary system. The explosion is triggered by impact from the quark-nova (QN) ejecta on the WD material; the QN is the explosive transition of the neutron star to a quark star (QS) triggered by accretion from a CO torus (the circularized WD material). The presence of a compact remnant (the QS) provides: (1) an additional energy source (spin-down power) which allows us to fit the observed light-curve including the steep early rise; (2) a central gravitational potential which slows down some of the {sup 56}Ni produced to velocities of a few 10{sup 3} km s{sup –1}. In our model, the {sup 56}Ni decay lines become optically visible at ∼20 days from explosion time in agreement with observations. We list predictions that can provide important tests for our model.

  14. ON THE e{sup +}e{sup -} EXCESSES AND THE KNEE OF THE COSMIC RAY SPECTRA-HINTS OF COSMIC RAY ACCELERATION IN YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Hongbo; Yuan Qiang; Wang Bo; Fan Chao; Zhang Jianli; Bi Xiaojun

    2009-08-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) have long been regarded as sources of the Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) up to petaelectronvolts, but convincing evidence is still lacking. In this work we explore the common origin of the subtle features of the CR spectra, such as the knee of CR spectra and the excesses of electron/positron fluxes recently observed by ATIC, H.E.S.S., Fermi-LAT, and PAMELA. Numerical calculation shows that those features of CR spectra can be well reproduced in a scenario with e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production by interactions between high-energy CRs and background photons in an environment similar to the young SNR. The success of such a coherent explanation serves in turn as evidence that at least a portion of CRs might be accelerated in young SNRs.

  15. Sink or swim: Updated knowledge on marine fungi associated with wood substrates in the Mediterranean Sea and hints about their potential to remediate hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzoli, Laura; Gnavi, Giorgio; Tamma, Federica; Tosi, Solveig; Varese, Giovanna C.; Picco, Anna M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper provides the first update in more than twenty years on the available knowledge about lignicolous marine fungi in the Mediterranean Sea. Fungi found on collected wood samples were analyzed using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. Almost 90% of the samples were colonized by fungi. The total number of recorded taxa, which amounted to 57 in the late 1990s, has now risen to 93. Wood-inhabiting marine fungi are good producers of ligninolytic enzymes, which can degrade several aromatic and recalcitrant environmental pollutants. In light of bioremediation technologies, this study also evaluated the potential of the isolated strains to remediate complex hydrocarbon substrates. Seventeen isolates were shown to be able to grow on hydrocarbon media as a sole carbon source; enhanced performances were achieved in the presence of NaCl, suggesting that these fungi adapt well to marine conditions and confirming that salt can trigger specific metabolic pathways in marine fungi.

  16. An Evaluation of the BKB-SIN, HINT, QuickSIN, and WIN Materials on Listeners with Normal Hearing and Listeners with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Richard H.; McArdle, Rachel A.; Smith, Sherri L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine in listeners with normal hearing and listeners with sensorineural hearing loss the within- and between-group differences obtained with 4 commonly available speech-in-noise protocols. Method: Recognition performances by 24 listeners with normal hearing and 72 listeners with sensorineural hearing…

  17. Mesenchymal stromal cells having inactivated RB1 survive following low irradiation and accumulate damaged DNA: Hints for side effects following radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Alessio, Nicola; Capasso, Stefania; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Casale, Fiorina; Calarco, Anna; Cipollaro, Marilena; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Following radiotherapy, bone sarcomas account for a significant percentage of recurring tumors. This risk is further increased in patients with hereditary retinoblastoma that undergo radiotherapy. We analyzed the effect of low and medium dose radiation on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) with inactivated RB1 gene to gain insights on the molecular mechanisms that can induce second malignant neoplasm in cancer survivors. MSC cultures contain subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells and committed progenitors that can differentiate into mesodermal derivatives: adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. These stem cells and committed osteoblast precursors are the cell of origin in osteosarcoma, and RB1 gene mutations have a strong role in its pathogenesis. Following 40 and 2000 mGy X-ray exposure, MSCs with inactivated RB1 do not proliferate and accumulate high levels of unrepaired DNA as detected by persistence of gamma-H2AX foci. In samples with inactivated RB1 the radiation treatment did not increase apoptosis, necrosis or senescence versus untreated cells. Following radiation, CFU analysis showed a discrete number of cells with clonogenic capacity in cultures with silenced RB1. We extended our analysis to the other members of retinoblastoma gene family: RB2/P130 and P107. Also in the MSCs with silenced RB2/P130 and P107 we detected the presence of cells with unrepaired DNA following X-ray irradiation. Cells with unrepaired DNA may represent a reservoir of cells that may undergo neoplastic transformation. Our study suggests that, following radiotherapy, cancer patients with mutations of retinoblastoma genes may be under strict controls to evaluate onset of secondary neoplasms following radiotherapy. PMID:27124644

  18. Modelling the UV spectrum of SDSS-III/BOSS galaxies: hints towards the detection of the UV upturn at high-z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Cras, Claire; Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel; York, Donald G.

    2016-09-01

    We exploit stellar population models of absorption line indices in the ultraviolet (from 2000 to 3200 Å) to study the spectra of massive galaxies. Our central aim is to investigate the occurrence at high redshift of the UV upturn, i.e. the increased UV emission due to old stars observed in massive galaxies and spiral bulges in the local Universe. We use a large (˜275 000) sample of z ˜ 0.6 massive (M*/M⊙ > 11.5) galaxies using both individual spectra and stacks and employ a suite of models including a UV contribution from old populations, spanning various effective temperatures, fuel consumptions and metallicities. We find that a subset of our indices; Mg I, Fe I, and BL3096, are able to differentiate between old and young UV ages. We find evidence for old stars contributing to the UV in massive galaxies, rather than star formation. The data favour models with low/medium upturn temperatures (10 000-25 000 K) consistent with local galaxies, depending on the assumed metallicity, and with a larger fuel (f ˜ 6.5× 10^{-2} {M}_{⊙}). Models with one typical temperature are favoured over models with a temperature range, which would be typical of an extended horizontal branch. Old UV-bright populations are found in the whole galaxy sample (92 per cent), with a mass fraction peaking around 20-30 per cent. Upturn galaxies are massive and have redder colours, in agreement with findings in the local Universe. We find that the upturn phenomenon appears at z ˜ 1 and its frequency increases towards lower redshift, as expected by stellar evolution of low-mass stars. Our findings will help constrain stellar evolution in the exotic UV upturn phase.

  19. The Role of Insulin C-Peptide in the Coevolution Analyses of the Insulin Signaling Pathway: A Hint for Its Functions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Wei, Wei; Zheng, Yadong; Hou, Junling; Dou, Yongxi; Zhang, Shaohua; Luo, Xuenong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2012-01-01

    As the linker between the A chain and B chain of proinsulin, C-peptide displays high variability in length and amino acid composition, and has been considered as an inert byproduct of insulin synthesis and processing for many years. Recent studies have suggested that C-peptide can act as a bioactive hormone, exerting various biological effects on the pathophysiology and treatment of diabetes. In this study, we analyzed the coevolution of insulin molecules among vertebrates, aiming at exploring the evolutionary characteristics of insulin molecule, especially the C-peptide. We also calculated the correlations of evolutionary rates between the insulin and the insulin receptor (IR) sequences as well as the domain-domain pairs of the ligand and receptor by the mirrortree method. The results revealed distinctive features of C-peptide in insulin intramolecular coevolution and correlated residue substitutions, which partly supported the idea that C-peptide can act as a bioactive hormone, with significant sequence features, as well as a linker assisting the formation of mature insulin during synthesis. Interestingly, the evolution of C-peptide exerted the highest correlation with that of the insulin receptor and its ligand binding domain (LBD), implying a potential relationship with the insulin signaling pathway. PMID:23300796

  20. New potential eukaryotic substrates of the mycobacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase PtpA: hints of a bacterial modulation of macrophage bioenergetics state.

    PubMed

    Margenat, Mariana; Labandera, Anne-Marie; Gil, Magdalena; Carrion, Federico; Purificação, Marcela; Razzera, Guilherme; Portela, María Magdalena; Obal, Gonzalo; Terenzi, Hernán; Pritsch, Otto; Durán, Rosario; Ferreira, Ana María; Villarino, Andrea

    2015-03-06

    The bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase PtpA is a key virulence factor released by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the cytosol of infected macrophages. So far only two unrelated macrophage components (VPS33B, GSK3α) have been identified as PtpA substrates. As tyrosine phosphatases are capable of using multiple substrates, we developed an improved methodology to pull down novel PtpA substrates from an enriched P-Y macrophage extract using the mutant PtpA D126A. This methodology reduced non-specific protein interactions allowing the identification of four novel putative PtpA substrates by MALDI-TOF-MS and nano LC-MS: three mitochondrial proteins - the trifunctional enzyme (TFP), the ATP synthase, and the sulfide quinone oxidoreductase - and the cytosolic 6-phosphofructokinase. All these proteins play a relevant role in cell energy metabolism. Using surface plasmon resonance, PtpA was found to bind immunopurified human TFP through its catalytic site since TFP-PtpA association was inhibited by a specific phosphatase inhibitor. Moreover, PtpA wt was capable of dephosphorylating immunopurified human TFP in vitro supporting that TFP may be a bona fide PtpA susbtrate. Overall, these results suggest a novel scenario where PtpA-mediated dephosphorylation may affect pathways involved in cell energy metabolism, particularly the beta oxidation of fatty acids through modulation of TFP activity and/or cell distribution.

  1. Hints of the Early Jehol Biota: Important Dinosaur Footprint Assemblages from the Jurassic-Cretaceous Boundary Tuchengzi Formation in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lida; Zhang, Jianping; Lockley, Martin G.; McCrea, Richard T.; Klein, Hendrik; Alcalá, Luis; Buckley, Lisa G.; Burns, Michael E.; Kümmell, Susanna B.; He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    New reports of dinosaur tracksites in the Tuchengzi Formation in the newly established Yanqing Global Geopark, Beijing, China, support previous inferences that the track assemblages from this formation are saurischian-dominated. More specifically, the assemblages appear theropod-dominated, with the majority of well-preserved tracks conforming to the Grallator type (sensus lato), thus representing relatively small trackmakers. Such ichnofaunas supplement the skeletal record from this unit that lacks theropods thus far, proving a larger diversity of dinosaur faunas in that region. Sauropods are represented by medium to large sized and narrow and wide-gauge groups, respectively. The latter correspond with earlier discoveries of titanosauriform skeletons in the same unit. Previous records of ornithischian tracks cannot be positively confirmed. Purported occurrences are re-evaluated here, the trackways and imprints, except of a single possible specimen, re-assigned to theropods. Palecologically the Tuchengzi ichnofauna is characteristic of semi-arid fluvio-lacustrine inland basins with Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous deposits in northern China that all show assemblages with abundant theropod and sauropod tracks and minor components of ornithopod, pterosaur and bird tracks. PMID:25901363

  2. Examining the Role of Ideological and Political Education on University Students' Civic Perceptions and Civic Participation in Mainland China: Some Hints from Contemporary Citizenship Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chong; Fagan, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    A long existing compulsive curriculum of ideological and political education is employed by the Chinese government to promote citizenship education among Chinese university students. This article builds on the findings of a mixed-methods research that examined the role of ideological and political education on university students' civic…

  3. Preliminary Results from the AIDP-2 and AIDP-3 Drill Cores Hint at Systematic Mo Enrichments in the ~2.65 Ga Roy Hill Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M.; Ostrander, C. M.; Lyons, T. W.; Olson, S. L.; Buick, R.; Anbar, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    In order to better understand the timing of the earliest oxygenation of Earth's surface environment, we are pursuing a multi-proxy investigation of paleoredox conditions in diamond drill cores through sedimentary rocks of the Archean Fortescue & Hamersley Groups. These cores were recovered in 2012 by the Agouron Institute from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The AIDP-2 core samples a stratigraphic succession of carbonate and sulfidic, organic-rich shale in the Carawine Dolomite and Jeerinah Formation representing a shallow near-shore depositional setting. Core AIDP-3 samples a transition from BIF in the Marra Mamba Formation to organic-rich shales in the underlying Jeerinah Formation representing a deeper offshore depositional setting. We have analyzed 322 black shale samples from the Roy Hill Member of the Jeerinah Formation deposited just before the transition from the Fortescue to Hamersley Group. Roy Hill black shale units are mostly pyritic in AIDP-3, but are less so in AIDP-2. The Roy Hill Member of AIDP-3 extends from 2.629 Ga to2.676 Ga and contains the 2.632Ga Jeerinah impact layer, whereas the Roy Hill member of AIDP-2 is slightly older, lying beneath the Jeerinah impact layer, and has been dated to 2.636 Ga to >2.643 Ga [1]. Our initial findings reveal that Mo concentrations range between 0.7 and 7 ppm in the Roy Hill black shale member of AIDP-2 and AIDP-3. Corresponding Mo/Al ratios range between 1-9×10-5 ppm/ppm, indicating slight Mo enrichment relative to average continental crust. These results are consistent with a previous study by Scott et al. [2], which suggested little or no Mo enrichment. However, the higher resolution sampling in this study allows us to clearly resolve the Mo/Al depth profiles in these late Archean cores. These data suggest that the variations we see are not due to analytical scatter or sample variability, but instead represent real variations in Mo scavenged into these sediments. Ongoing work is focused on obtaining additional complementary datasets including Fe-speciation, TOC, and traditional and non-traditional isotopes. These data will provide the additional constraints needed to understand the origin and significance of Mo enrichments in these Archean sediments. [1] Rasmussen & Fletcher (2010) Geology, 38: 299-302 [2] Scott et al. (2011) Geology, 39:119-122.

  4. Changes in optical characteristics of surface microlayers hint to photochemically and microbially mediated DOM turnover in the upwelling region off the coast of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgani, Luisa; Engel, Anja

    2016-04-01

    The coastal upwelling system off the coast of Peru is characterized by high biological activity and a pronounced subsurface oxygen minimum zone, as well as associated emissions of atmospheric trace gases such as N2O, CH4 and CO2. From 3 to 23 December 2012, R/V Meteor (M91) cruise took place in the Peruvian upwelling system between 4.59 and 15.4° S, and 82.0 to 77.5° W. During M91 we investigated the composition of the sea-surface microlayer (SML), the oceanic uppermost boundary directly subject to high solar radiation, often enriched in specific organic compounds of biological origin like chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and marine gels. In the SML, the continuous photochemical and microbial recycling of organic matter may strongly influence gas exchange between marine systems and the atmosphere. We analyzed SML and underlying water (ULW) samples at 38 stations focusing on CDOM spectral characteristics as indicator of photochemical and microbial alteration processes. CDOM composition was characterized by spectral slope (S) values and excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEMs), which allow us to track changes in molecular weight (MW) of DOM, and to determine potential DOM sources and sinks. Spectral slope S varied between 0.012 to 0.043 nm-1 and was quite similar between SML and ULW, with no significant differences between the two compartments. Higher S values were observed in the ULW of the southern stations below 15° S. By EEMs, we identified five fluorescent components (F1-5) of the CDOM pool, of which two had excitation/emission characteristics of amino-acid-like fluorophores (F1, F4) and were highly enriched in the SML, with a median ratio SML : ULW of 1.5 for both fluorophores. In the study region, values for CDOM absorption ranged from 0.07 to 1.47 m-1. CDOM was generally highly concentrated in the SML, with a median enrichment with respect to the ULW of 1.2. CDOM composition and changes in spectral slope properties suggested a local microbial release of DOM directly in the SML as a response to light exposure in this extreme environment. In a conceptual model of the sources and modifications of optically active DOM in the SML and underlying seawater (ULW), we describe processes we think may take place (Fig. 1); the production of CDOM of higher MW by microbial release through growth, exudation and lysis in the euphotic zone, includes the identified fluorophores (F1, F2, F3, F4, F5). Specific amino-acid-like fluorophores (F1, F4) accumulate in the SML with respect to the ULW, as photochemistry may enhance microbial CDOM release by (a) photoprotection mechanisms and (b) cell-lysis processes. Microbial and photochemical degradation are potential sinks of the amino-acid-like fluorophores (F1, F4), and potential sources of reworked and more refractory humic-like components (F2, F3, F5). In the highly productive upwelling region along the Peruvian coast, the interplay of microbial and photochemical processes controls the enrichment of amino-acid-like CDOM in the SML. We discuss potential implications for air-sea gas exchange in this area.

  5. Changes in optical characteristics of surface microlayers hint to photochemically and microbially-mediated DOM turnover in the upwelling region off Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgani, L.; Engel, A.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal upwelling system off Peru is characterized by high biological activity and a pronounced subsurface oxygen minimum zone, as well as associated emissions of atmospheric trace gases such as N2O, CH4 and CO2. During the Meteor (M91) cruise to the Peruvian upwelling system in 2012, we investigated the composition of the sea-surface microlayer (SML), the oceanic uppermost boundary directly subject to high solar radiation, often enriched in specific organic compounds of biological origin like Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and marine gels. In the SML, the continuous photochemical and microbial recycling of organic matter may strongly influence gas exchange between marine systems and the atmosphere. In order to understand organic matter cycling in surface films, we analyzed SML and underlying water samples at 38 stations determining DOC concentration, amino acid composition, marine gels, CDOM and bacterial and phytoplankton abundance as indicators of photochemical and microbial alteration processes. CDOM composition was characterized by spectral slope (S) values and Excitation-Emission Matrix fluorescence (EEMs), which allow to track changes in molecular weight (MW) of DOM, and to determine potential DOM sources and sinks. We identified five fluorescent components of the CDOM pool, of which two had excitation/emission characteristics of protein-like fluorophores and were highly enriched in the SML. CDOM composition and changes in spectral slope properties suggested a local microbial release of HMW DOM directly in the SML as a response to light exposure in this extreme environment. Our results suggest that microbial and photochemical processes play an important role for the production, alteration and loss of optically active substances in the SML.

  6. A HOT COCOON IN THE ULTRALONG GRB 130925A: HINTS OF A POPIII-LIKE PROGENITOR IN A LOW-DENSITY WIND ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Luigi; Troja, Eleonora; Kidd, Lauren A.; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Ricci, Roberto; Bannister, Keith; Fiore, Fabrizio; Piranomonte, Silvia; Wieringa, Mark H.

    2014-08-01

    GRB 130925A is a peculiar event characterized by an extremely long gamma-ray duration (≈7 ks), as well as dramatic flaring in the X-rays for ≈20 ks. After this period, its X-ray afterglow shows an atypical soft spectrum with photon index Γ ∼ 4, as observed by Swift and Chandra, until ≈10{sup 7} s, when XMM-Newton observations uncover a harder spectral shape with Γ ∼ 2.5, commonly observed in gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. We find that two distinct emission components are needed to explain the X-ray observations: a thermal component, which dominates the X-ray emission for several weeks, and a non-thermal component, consistent with a typical afterglow. A forward shock model well describes the broadband (from radio to X-rays) afterglow spectrum at various epochs. It requires an ambient medium with a very low-density wind profile, consistent with that expected from a low-metallicity blue supergiant (BSG). The thermal component has a remarkably constant size and a total energy consistent with those expected by a hot cocoon surrounding the relativistic jet. We argue that the features observed in this GRB (its ultralong duration, the thermal cocoon, and the low-density wind environment) are associated with a low metallicity BSG progenitor and, thus, should characterize the class of ultralong GRBs.

  7. Examining the Role of Ideological and Political Education on University Students' Civic Perceptions and Civic Participation in Mainland China: Some Hints from Contemporary Citizenship Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chong; Fagan, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    A long existing compulsive curriculum of ideological and political education is employed by the Chinese government to promote citizenship education among Chinese university students. This article builds on the findings of a mixed-methods research that examined the role of ideological and political education on university students' civic…

  8. The moon-Earth system...As a vacuum gravity energy machine? A Hint about the Nature of Universal Gravity that May Have Been Overlooked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Roy

    2011-10-01

    We revisit the theories describing the moon raising the tides by virtue of pull gravity combined with the moon's centripetal angular momentum. We show that if gravity is considered as the attractive interaction between individual bodies, then a laboring moon doing work would have fallen to earth eons ago. Isaac Newton's laws of motion cannot work with pull gravity, but they do with Einstein's gravity as a property of the universe, which produces a continuous infusion of energy. In other words, the moon-Earth system becomes the first observable vacuum gravity energy machine. In other words the dynamics of what appears to be a closed system has been producing energy that continues raising the tides into perpetuity along with the force needed for the moon to escape the Earth's gravitational pull 4cm per year. All this is in defiance of Newton's first law which says ``If no force is added to a body it cannot accelerate.'' In this theory, a flowing space-time curves with three dimensions of force. A (flowing) spatial fabric bends around mass and displaces the inverse square field vanishing point property of matter with the appearance of a push-force square of the distance. In other words, the immeasurable universal gravity field appears as measurable local gravitation, concentrating universal gravitational pressure with the square of the distance from the very point was supposed to have disappeared. Needless to say such ``gravity'' necessitates a different beginning.

  9. A potential determinant role of adiponectin and receptors for the early embryo development in PCOS patients with obesity hinted by quantitative profiling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Hao, Cuifang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Shouxin; Zhang, Fengrong; Zhuang, Lili; Zhao, Dongmei

    2017-02-01

    To identify the quantitative profiling of adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1, AdipoR2, and T-cadherin) in cumulus cells (CCs) and to evaluate their roles in the early embryo development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients, in part, with obesity. Fifty-five subjects were divided into two groups according to the body mass index. Oocytes were further inseminated and only mature and normal fertilized oocytes (2PN) were included in this research. Real-time PCR and western blot were performed to identify adiponectin and its receptors in CCs. Adiponectin and receptors were ubiquitously expressed in CCs of PCOS and non-PCOS patients. The level of AdipoR2 in CCs from the oocytes yielding blastocyst after 5/6 days in vitro culture was markedly higher than in those from oocytes could not develop to blastocyst stage after Day 6, for non-obese or obese PCOS patients (0.1647 ± 0.0161 versus 0.0783 ± 0.0385, 0.1948 ± 0.0307 versus 0.1057 ± 0.0236, respectively, p < 0.05). In addition, only in patients with PCOS and concurrent obesity the AdipoR1 in CCs was considerably increased in CC-B(+) compared with CC-B(-) subgroup (0.5162 ± 0.0371 versus 0.2448 ± 0.0333, p < 0.01). The development of early embryo was associated with the up-regulation of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in PCOS patients. Our results suggested that adiponectin could positively modulate embryo development in humans. Further investigations should be carried out to unlock the crucial role that adiponectin plays in embryo development.

  10. Shear wave splitting hints at dynamical features of mantle convection: a global study of homogeneously processed source and receiver side upper mantle anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walpole, J.; Wookey, J. M.; Masters, G.; Kendall, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The asthenosphere is embroiled in the process of mantle convection. Its viscous properties allow it to flow around sinking slabs and deep cratonic roots as it is displaced by intruding material and dragged around by the moving layer above. As the asthenosphere flows it develops a crystalline fabric with anisotropic crystals preferentially aligned in the direction of flow. Meanwhile, the lithosphere above deforms as it is squeezed and stretched by underlying tectonic processes, enabling anisotropic fabrics to develop and become fossilised in the rigid rock and to persist over vast spans of geological time. As a shear wave passes through an anisotropic medium it splits into two orthogonally polarised quasi shear waves that propagate at different velocities (this phenomenon is known as shear wave splitting). By analysing the polarisation and the delay time of many split waves that have passed through a region it is possible to constrain the anisotropy of the medium in that region. This anisotropy is the key to revealing the deformation history of the deep Earth. In this study we present measurements of shear wave splitting recorded on S, SKS, and SKKS waves from earthquakes recorded at stations from the IRIS DMC catalogue (1976-2010). We have used a cluster analysis phase picking technique [1] to pick hundreds of thousands of high signal to noise waveforms on long period data. These picks are used to feed the broadband data into an automated processing workflow that recovers shear wave splitting parameters [2,3]. The workflow includes a new method for making source and receiver corrections, whereby the stacked error surfaces are used as input to correction rather than a single set of parameters, this propagates uncertainty information into the final measurement. Using SKS, SKKS, and source corrected S, we recover good measurements of anisotropy beneath 1,569 stations. Using receiver corrected S we recover good measurements of anisotropy beneath 470 events. We compare our results to a large compilation of previous regional studies and find good agreement. Our results are compared with upper mantle anisotropy recovered from surface waves, and other seismic observables such as wave speed tomography. The comparison with tomography beneath the USA is particularly interesting; here we observe the vivid toroidal swirl beneath Nevada branching off along the Snake River Plateau in excellent agreement with tomographic images at 150 km depth. We compare our results to absolute plate motion vectors to see how well drag from the plate can explain the development of anisotropic fabric; and to a more sophisticated asthenospheric flow model which takes into account the effect of mantle density heterogeneities [4]. Finally, we investigate patterns in the source side anisotropy, globally we detect a fabric with a fast shear wave polarisation parallel to the strike of subducting slabs, however, in several regions interesting deviations are found. [1] Houser et al. (2008) Geophys. J. Int. (2008) 174, 195-212. [2] Teanby et al. (2004). Bulletin Of The Seismological Society Of America, 94(2), 453-463. [3] Wuestefeld et al. (2010). Geophysical Prospecting, 58(5), 753-771. [4] Conrad & Behn (2010). Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 11.

  11. It Is More about Telling Interesting Stories: Use Explicit Hints in Storytelling to Help College Students Solve Ill-defined Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hseih, Wen-Lan; Smith, Brian K.; Stephanou, Spiro E.

    2004-01-01

    A team consisting of three faculty members from Agricultural Economics, Agribusiness management, and Food Science with two research assistants at Penn State University has been working for three years on creating a food product case library for a problem-based learning and case-based instruction course. With the assistance of experts from the food…

  12. Searching for Dark Matter in Unification Models: A Hint from Indirect Sensitivities towards Future Signals in Direct Detection and B-decays

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.

    2006-11-28

    A comparison is made between accelerator and direct detection constraints in constrained versions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Models considered are based on mSUGRA, where scalar and gaugino masses are unified at the GUT scale. In addition, the mSUGRA relation between the (unified) A and B parameters is assumed, as is the relation between m0 and gravitino mass. Also considered are models where the latter two conditions are dropped (the CMSSM), and a less constrained version where the Higgs soft masses are not unified at the GUT scale (the NUHM)

  13. Complications of rectal anastomoses with end-to-end anastomosis (EEA) stapling instrument. Clinical and radiological leak rates and some practical hints.

    PubMed Central

    Dorricott, N. J.; Baddeley, R. M.; Keighley, M. R.; Lee, J.; Oates, G. D.; Alexander-Williams, J.

    1982-01-01

    The complications and results of rectal anastomoses carried out with the end-to-end anastomosis (EEA) stapling instrument on 50 patients by 5 consultant surgeons are recorded. There was a clinical leakage rate of 6% and a radiological leakage rate of 20% assessed by water-soluble contrast enema. The technique has advantages compared with hand-suture by allowing low anastomoses and preservation of sphincters and is accompanied by an acceptably low leakage rate. Despite the cost of disposable cartridges these advantages make the technique economical because of the avoidance of colostomies and reduction in hospital stay. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:7044253

  14. Hints to the diagnosis of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma on pancreatic fine-needle aspiration: avoiding a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Peggy S; Clebanoff, Jennifer L; Hirschowitz, Sharon L

    2013-01-01

    Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma (MAEC) is a rare mixed tumor of the pancreas defined by both acinar and endocrine cell differentiation. We present 2 cases of MAEC initially diagnosed as pancreatic endocrine neoplasm on fine-needle aspiration. Both patients were male, aged 51 and 75 years, and presented with 16-mm and 6-mm pancreatic masses, respectively. Aspirates showed loose aggregates and dispersed single plasmacytoid cells with moderate nuclear size variation, slightly irregular nuclear contours, fine to coarsely granular chromatin, occasional prominent nucleoli, and scant to moderate finely granular cytoplasm. Rare mitotic figures and pyknotic forms were noted in one of the cases. Endocrine differentiation was confirmed by immunocytochemistry which led to an initial diagnosis of pancreatic endocrine neoplasm. Trypsin and lipase immunocytochemistry were later obtained, confirming a component of acinar cell differentiation. Findings were confirmed on surgical excision. Because of their potentially more aggressive clinical course and different therapeutic implications, MAECs are an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms. Certain cytomorphologic features and immunocytochemical markers of acinar cell differentiation may be helpful in raising the possibility of MAEC on cytology. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Binding Characteristics of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate to ApoM hints to Assisted Release Mechanism via the ApoM Calyx-Opening

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hansi; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Jiang, Zhenyan; Böckmann, Rainer A.

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysophospholipid mediator carried by the HDL-associated apoM protein in blood, regulating many physiological processes by activating the G protein-coupled S1P receptor in mammals. Despite the solved crystal structure of the apoM-S1P complex, the mechanism of S1P release from apoM as a part of the S1P pathway is unknown. Here, the dynamics of the wild type apoM-S1P complex as well as of mutants were investigated by means of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The potential of mean force for S1P unbinding from apoM reflected a large binding strength of more than 60 kJ/mol. This high unbinding free energy for S1P underlines the observed specificity of the physiological effects of S1P as it suggests that the spontaneous release of S1P from apoM is unlikely. Instead, S1P release and thus the control of this bioactive lipid probably requires the tight interaction with other molecules, e.g. with the S1P receptor. Mutations of specific S1P anchoring residues of apoM decreased the energetic barrier by up to 20 kJ/mol. Moreover, the ligand-free apoM protein is shown to adopt a more open upper hydrophilic binding pocket and to result in complete closure of the lower hydrophobic cavity, suggesting a mechanism for adjusting the gate for ligand access. PMID:27476912

  16. Hypertension Intervention Nurse Telemedicine Study (HINTS): testing a multifactorial tailored behavioral/educational and a medication management intervention for blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Bosworth, Hayden B; Olsen, Maren K; McCant, Felicia; Harrelson, Mikeal; Gentry, Pamela; Rose, Cynthia; Goldstein, Mary K; Hoffman, Brian B; Powers, Benjamin; Oddone, Eugene Z

    2007-06-01

    Only 31% of Americans with hypertension have their blood pressure (BP) under effective control. We describe a study that tests 3 different interventions in a randomized controlled trial using home BP telemedicine monitoring. A sample of hypertensive patients with poor BP control at baseline (N = 600) are randomized to 1 of 4 arms: (1) control group--a group of hypertensive patients who receive usual care; (2) nurse-administered tailored behavioral intervention; (3) nurse-administered medication management according to a hypertension decision support system; (4) combination of the 2 interventions. The interventions are triggered based on home BP values transmitted via telemonitoring devices over standard telephone lines. The tailored behavioral intervention involves promoting adherence with medication and health behaviors. Patients randomized to the medication management or the combined arm have their hypertension regimen changed by the study team using a validated hypertension decision support system based on evidence-based hypertension treatment guidelines and individualized to patients' comorbid illnesses. The primary outcome is BP control: < or = 140/90 mm Hg (nondiabetic) and < or = 130/80 mm Hg (diabetics) measured at 6-month intervals over 18 months (4 total measurements). Given the increasing prevalence of hypertension and our inability to achieve adequate BP control using traditional models of care, testing novel interventions in patients' homes may improve access, quality, and outcomes.

  17. Reduced dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens of quinpirole-sensitized rats hints at inhibitory D2 autoreceptor function.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Angélica P; Cornejo, Francisca A; Olivares-Costa, Montserrat; González, Marcela; Fuentealba, José A; Gysling, Katia; España, Rodrigo A; Andrés, María E

    2015-09-01

    Dopamine from the ventral tegmental area and glutamate from several brain nuclei converge in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) to drive motivated behaviors. Repeated activation of D2 receptors with quinpirole (QNP) induces locomotor sensitization and compulsive behaviors, but the mechanisms are unknown. In this study, in vivo microdialysis and fast scan cyclic voltammetry in adult anesthetized rats were used to investigate the effect of repeated QNP on dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission within the NAc. Following eight injections of QNP, a significant decrease in phasic and tonic dopamine release was observed in rats that displayed locomotor sensitization. Either a systemic injection or the infusion of QNP into the NAc decreased dopamine release, and the extent of this effect was similar in QNP-sensitized and control rats, indicating that inhibitory D2 autoreceptor function is maintained despite repeated activation of D2 receptors and decreased dopamine extracellular levels. Basal extracellular levels of glutamate in the NAc were also significantly lower in QNP-treated rats than in controls. Moreover, the increase in NAc glutamate release induced by direct stimulation of medial prefrontal cortex was significantly lower in QNP-sensitized rats. Together, these results indicate that repeated activation of D2 receptors disconnects NAc from medial prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area. Repeated administration of the dopamine D2 receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) induces locomotor sensitization. We found that the NAc of QNP-sensitized rats has reduced glutamate levels coming from prefrontal cortex together with a decreased phasic and tonic dopamine neurotransmission but a conserved presynaptic D2 receptor function. We suggest that locomotor sensitization is because of increased affinity state of D2 post-synaptic receptors. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. The MeCP2/YY1 interaction regulates ANT1 expression at 4q35: novel hints for Rett syndrome pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Forlani, Greta; Giarda, Elisa; Ala, Ugo; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Salani, Monica; Tupler, Rossella; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2010-08-15

    Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder mainly caused by mutations in the transcriptional regulator MeCP2. Although there is no effective therapy for Rett syndrome, the recently discovered disease reversibility in mice suggests that there are therapeutic possibilities. Identification of MeCP2 targets or modifiers of the phenotype can facilitate the design of curative strategies. To identify possible novel MeCP2 interactors, we exploited a bioinformatic approach and selected Ying Yang 1 (YY1) as an interesting candidate. We demonstrate that MeCP2 interacts in vitro and in vivo with YY1, a ubiquitous zinc-finger epigenetic factor regulating the expression of several genes. We show that MeCP2 cooperates with YY1 in repressing the ANT1 gene encoding a mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase. Importantly, ANT1 mRNA levels are increased in human and mouse cell lines devoid of MeCP2, in Rett patient fibroblasts and in the brain of Mecp2-null mice. We further demonstrate that ANT1 protein levels are upregulated in Mecp2-null mice. Finally, the identified MeCP2-YY1 interaction, together with the well-known involvement of YY1 in the regulation of D4Z4-associated genes at 4q35, led us to discover the anomalous depression of FRG2, a subtelomeric gene of unknown function, in Rett fibroblasts. Collectively, our data indicate that mutations in MeCP2 might cause the aberrant overexpression of genes located at a specific locus, thus providing new candidates for the pathogenesis of Rett syndrome. As both ANT1 mutations and overexpression have been associated with human diseases, we consider it highly relevant to address the consequences of ANT1 deregulation in Rett syndrome.

  19. HIV Testing in Non-Traditional Settings – The HINTS Study: A Multi-Centre Observational Study of Feasibility and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Rayment, Michael; Thornton, Alicia; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Elam, Gillian; Atkins, Mark; Jones, Rachael; Nardone, Anthony; Roberts, Patrick; Tenant-Flowers, Melinda; Anderson, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Background UK guidelines recommend routine HIV testing in healthcare settings if the local diagnosed HIV prevalence >2/1000 persons. This prospective study assessed the feasibility and acceptability, to patients and staff, of routinely offering HIV tests in four settings: Emergency Department, Acute Care Unit, Dermatology Outpatients and Primary Care. Modelling suggested the estimated prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection in attendees would exceed 1/1000 persons. The prevalence identified prospectively was not a primary outcome. Methods Permanent staff completed questionnaires assessing attitudes towards routine HIV testing in their workplace before testing began. Subsequently, over a three-month period, patients aged 16–65 were offered an HIV test by study staff. Demographics, uptake, results, and departmental activity were collected. Subsets of patients completed questionnaires. Analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with test uptake. Findings Questionnaires were received from 144 staff. 96% supported the expansion of HIV testing, but only 54% stated that they would feel comfortable delivering testing themselves, with 72% identifying a need for training. Of 6194 patients offered a test, 4105 (66·8%) accepted (61·8–75·4% across sites). Eight individuals were diagnosed with HIV (0–10/1000 across sites) and all transferred to care. Younger people, and males, were more likely to accept an HIV test. No significant associations were found between uptake and ethnicity, or clinical site. Questionnaires were returned from 1003 patients. The offer of an HIV test was acceptable to 92%. Of respondents, individuals who had never tested for HIV before were more likely to accept a test, but no association was found between test uptake and sexual orientation. Conclusions HIV testing in these settings is acceptable, and operationally feasible. The strategy successfully identified, and transferred to care, HIV-positive individuals. However, if HIV testing is to be included as a routine part of patients’ care, additional staff training and infrastructural resources will be required. PMID:22745777

  20. A Eukaryotic green alga, Picocystis, dominates Mono Lake, California in an algal bloom - Hints at cryptic oxygen cycle in euxinic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tookmanian, E. M.; Bauer, K. W.; Thompson, K.; Waldeck, A.; Berelson, W.; Stevenson, B. S.; Stamps, B. W.; Johnson, H.; Sessions, A. L.; Miller, L. G.; Oremland, R. S.; Rosen, M. R.; Corsetti, F. A.; Spear, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Mono Lake is a closed-basin stratified soda lake (pH = 9.8; salinity = 60 g/L) that supports high rates of primary productivity (annual average of 100 mmol C m-2 d-1), and is dominated by a eukaryotic alga, Picocystis strain ML. To further investigate the unique biology of the lake, we sampled the water column during an algal bloom when productivity was on the order of 1500 mmol C m-2 d-1 at 2 m depth. Picocystis was abundant at all depths in SSU rRNA gene sequencing libraries. Interestingly, the relative abundance of Picocystis was greatest at 20 m depth. This part of the water column was well below the oxycline (12 m) and detectable photosynthetically active radiation (5 m). Sulfide concentrations from previous work increased just below 20 m to millimolar concentrations; however, analysis of metatranscriptomic data indicated that genes involved in both photosystem I and II were expressed at 25 m. This suggests that photosynthesis was active despite euxinic waters and light conditions below our detectable limit. Metagenomes and metatranscriptomes at 20 and 25 m depth also revealed an abundance of sulfide oxidizing genes (soxA and soxB). These metabolisms are often mixotrophic, using oxygen as their electron acceptor, presenting further support for photosynthetic oxygen production at depth. We suggest that Picocystis may be producing oxygen through photosynthesis in the euxinic bottom waters of Mono Lake. The oxygen produced would be extremely transient, consumed in either abiotic or microbially-mediated oxidation of sulfide, or both. This potential cryptic oxygen cycle in the euxinic bottom waters of Mono Lake could explain the fate of large sulfide fluxes from sediments, as well as offer an opportunity to explore the biogeochemistry of this site to inform how we approach the rise of oxygen and early evolution of life.

  1. New potential eukaryotic substrates of the mycobacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase PtpA: hints of a bacterial modulation of macrophage bioenergetics state

    PubMed Central

    Margenat, Mariana; Labandera, Anne-Marie; Gil, Magdalena; Carrion, Federico; Purificação, Marcela; Razzera, Guilherme; Portela, María Magdalena; Obal, Gonzalo; Terenzi, Hernán; Pritsch, Otto; Durán, Rosario; Ferreira, Ana María; Villarino, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase PtpA is a key virulence factor released by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the cytosol of infected macrophages. So far only two unrelated macrophage components (VPS33B, GSK3α) have been identified as PtpA substrates. As tyrosine phosphatases are capable of using multiple substrates, we developed an improved methodology to pull down novel PtpA substrates from an enriched P-Y macrophage extract using the mutant PtpA D126A. This methodology reduced non-specific protein interactions allowing the identification of four novel putative PtpA substrates by MALDI-TOF-MS and nano LC-MS: three mitochondrial proteins - the trifunctional enzyme (TFP), the ATP synthase, and the sulfide quinone oxidoreductase - and the cytosolic 6-phosphofructokinase. All these proteins play a relevant role in cell energy metabolism. Using surface plasmon resonance, PtpA was found to bind immunopurified human TFP through its catalytic site since TFP-PtpA association was inhibited by a specific phosphatase inhibitor. Moreover, PtpA wt was capable of dephosphorylating immunopurified human TFP in vitro supporting that TFP may be a bona fide PtpA susbtrate. Overall, these results suggest a novel scenario where PtpA-mediated dephosphorylation may affect pathways involved in cell energy metabolism, particularly the beta oxidation of fatty acids through modulation of TFP activity and/or cell distribution. PMID:25743628

  2. Chromaffin cells in the adrenal homolog of Aphanius fasciatus (teleost fish) express piecemeal degranulation in response to osmotic stress: a hint for a conservative evolutionary process.

    PubMed

    Crivellato, Enrico; Civinini, Annalena; Gallo, Valentina Patrizia

    2006-10-01

    The effect of severe osmotic stress on the ultrastructural morphology of chromaffin cells in the adrenal homolog of Aphanius fasciatus, a small eurhyaline teleost living in saltpans, was evaluated by electron microscopy quantitative analysis. Fishes were transferred from salt water, whose salinity was 3.7%, to dechlorinated tap water and chromaffin cells were studied at resting condition and after 2 and 48 hr from the beginning of the experiment. Ultrastructural examination revealed a series of granule and cytoplasmic changes highly specific for piecemeal degranulation (PMD), a secretory process based on vesicular transport of cargoes from within granules for extracellular release, which was previously described in chromaffin cells of the mouse, rat, and human adrenal medulla. There was indeed a significant trend toward loss of content material from chromaffin granules accompanied by enlargement of granule size. Remarkably, chromaffin granules maintained their individual close structure during the whole releasing process and eventually transformed into large empty containers. A dramatic increase in the density of small, membrane-bound, variably electron-dense vesicles free in the cytoplasm or attached to granules was recognized during the first 2 hr of stress response. These features fell to control levels after 48 hr. A similar time-course pattern was observed concerning the formation of budding projections from the surface of chromaffin granules. This study provides new insight into PMD physiology and suggests that PMD is part of an adaptive secretory response to severe osmotic stress in fishes. From an evolutionary point of view, this study lends support to the concept that PMD is a secretory mechanism highly conserved throughout vertebrate classes.

  3. The first toxicological study of the antiozonant and research tool ethylene diurea (EDU) using a Lemna minor L. bioassay: Hints to its mode of action.

    PubMed

    Agathokleous, Eugenios; Mouzaki-Paxinou, Akrivi-Chara; Saitanis, Costas J; Paoletti, Elena; Manning, William J

    2016-06-01

    The antiozonant and research tool ethylene diurea (EDU) is widely studied as a phytoprotectant against the widespread pollutant ground-surface ozone. Although it has been extensively used, its potential toxicity in the absence of ozone is unknown and its mode of action is unclear. The purpose of this research was to toxicologically assess EDU and to further investigate its mode of action using Lemna minor L. as a model organism. Application of EDU concentrations greater than 593 mg L(-1) (practically 600 mg L(-1)) resulted in adverse inhibition of colony growth. As no-observed-toxic-effects concentration (NOEL) we recommend a concentration of 296 mg L(-1) (practically 300 mg L(-1)). A hormetic response was detected, i.e. stimulatory effects of low EDU concentrations, which may indicate overcompensation in response to disruption in homeostasis. Growth inhibition and suppressed biomass were associated with impacted chlorophyll a fluorescence (ΦPSII, qP and ETR). Furthermore, EDU increased mesophyll thickness, as indicated by frond succulence index. Applications of concentrations ≥593 mg L(-1) to uncontrolled environments should be avoided due to potential toxicity to sensitive organisms and the environment.

  4. A Systematic Evaluation of the N-F Bond Strength of Electrophilic N-F Reagents: Hints for Atomic Fluorine Donating Ability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Dong; Wang, Ya; Xue, Xiao-Song; Cheng, Jin-Pei

    2017-04-03

    The recent discovery of the radical reactivity of a few traditionally electrophilic N-F reagents has sparked a renaissance of radical fluorination. A knowledge of the N-F bond dissociation enthalpies (BDE) of electrophilic N-F reagents is essential for understanding of their reactivities. However, a thorough literature survey revealed that such information is extremely sparse. This prompted us to carry out the first systematic computation on the N-F BDEs of electrophilic N-F reagents. The calculated N-F BDE scale of 88 electrophilic N-F reagents ranges from 49.3 to 80.0 kcal mol(-1) in acetonitrile. The large variety of N-F reagents and wide span of N-F BDEs make the scale a useful tool not only for the future rational design of novel reagents but also for judicious selection of appropriate ones to explore new radical fluorinations.

  5. Gene Expression Profiling on Global cDNA Arrays Gives Hints Concerning Potential Signal Transduction Pathways Involved in Cardiac Fibrosis of Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Ridinger, Heidrun; Rutenberg, Christiane; Ritz, Eberhard; Mall, Gerhard; Maercker, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Cardiac remodelling with interstitial fibrosis in renal failure, which so far is only poorly understood on the molecular level, was investigated in the rat model by a global gene expression profiling analysis. Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to subtotal nephrectomy (SNX) or sham operation (sham) and followed for 2 and 12 weeks, respectively. Heart-specific gene expression profiling, with RZPD Rat Unigene-1 cDNA arrays containing about 27 000 gene and EST sequences revealed substantial changes in gene expression in SNX compared to sham animals. Motor protein genes, growth and differentiation markers, and extracellular matrix genes were upregulated in SNX rats. Obviously, not only genes involved in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, but also genes involved in the expansion of non-vascular interstitial tissue are activated very early in animals with renal failure. Together with earlier findings in the SNX model, the present data suggest the hypothesis that the local renin–angiotensin system (RAS) may be activated by at least two pathways: (a) via second messengers and Gproteins (short-term signalling); and (b) via motor proteins, actins and integrins (longterm signalling). The study documents that complex hybridization analysis yields reproducible and promising results of patterns of gene activation pointing to signalling pathways involved in cardiac remodelling in renal failure. The complete array data are available via http://www.rzpd.de/cgi-bin/services/exp/viewExpressionData.pl.cgi PMID:18629021

  6. An Evaluation of the BKB-SIN, HINT, QuickSIN, and WIN Materials on Listeners with Normal Hearing and Listeners with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Richard H.; McArdle, Rachel A.; Smith, Sherri L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine in listeners with normal hearing and listeners with sensorineural hearing loss the within- and between-group differences obtained with 4 commonly available speech-in-noise protocols. Method: Recognition performances by 24 listeners with normal hearing and 72 listeners with sensorineural hearing…

  7. Is social support from family associated with PSA testing? An exploratory analysis using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2005.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kamilah B; Simpson, Sean L; Tarver, Will L; Gwede, Clement K

    2010-03-01

    African American and White men have the highest rates of prostate cancer in the United States. Families represent important social contexts within which illness occurs.The purpose of this study is to explore whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is associated with instrumental and informational social support from family members among a sample of Black and White men aged 45 and older. Data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed using logistic regression. The dependent variable was having a PSA test within the past year or less. The independent variables consisted of selected demographic and family informational and instrumental social support variables. The statistically significant variables included age and having a family member with cancer. Additional studies to elucidate the mechanisms of social support from family for prostate cancer are needed.

  8. Adaptation of Bacillus subtilis cells to Archean-like UV climate: relevant hints of microbial evolution to remarkably increased radiation resistance.

    PubMed

    Wassmann, Marko; Moeller, Ralf; Reitz, Günther; Rettberg, Petra

    2010-01-01

    In a precursory study for the space experiment ADAPT ("Molecular adaptation strategies of microorganisms to different space and planetary UV climate conditions"), cells of Bacillus subtilis 168 were continuously cultured for 700 generations under periodic polychromatic UV irradiation (200-400 nm) to model the suggested UV radiation environment on early Earth at the origin of the first microbial ecosystem during the Archean eon when Earth lacked a significant ozone layer. Populations that evolved under UV stress were about 3-fold more resistant than the ancestral and non-UV-evolved populations. UV-evolved cells were 7-fold more resistant to ionizing radiation than their non-UV-exposed evolved relatives and ancestor. In addition to the acquired increased UV resistance, further changes in microbial stress response to hydrogen peroxide, increased salinity, and desiccation were observed in UV-evolved cells. This indicates that UV-sensitive ancestral cells are capable of adapting to periodically applied UV stress via the evolution of cells with an increased UV resistance level and further enhanced responses to other environmental stressors, which thereby allows them to survive and reproduce under extreme UV radiation as a selection pressure.

  9. The 2012-2016 eruptive cycle at Copahue volcano (Argentina) versus the peripheral gas manifestations: hints from the chemical and isotopic features of fumarolic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, F.; Agusto, M.; Lamberti, C.; Caselli, A. T.; Pecoraino, G.; Caponi, C.; Szentiványi, J.; Venturi, S.; Vaselli, O.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents the chemical and isotopic compositions of hydrothermal gases from fumaroles discharging around Copahue volcano (Argentina). Gas samples, including those from two fumaroles at the active summit crater, were collected during 13 surveys carried out by different research teams from 1976 to February 2016. The time-series of H2, CO and light hydrocarbons showed episodic increases related to the main events of the last eruptive cycle that started on 19 July 2012. Concentration peaks were likely caused by enhanced input of hot magmatic fluids affecting the hydrothermal reservoir. These data contrast with the temporal variations shown by Rc/ Ra and δ13C-CO2 values in 2012-2014, which indicated an increasing input from a crustal fluid source. In 2015-2016, however, these isotopic parameters showed opposite trends; their composition became closer to that of the two summit fumaroles, which possibly corresponds to that of the deep magmatic-related end-member. The delayed and reduced compositional changes in the peripheral hydrothermal fluid discharge in response to the 2012-2016 eruptive events suggest that geochemical surveys of these emissions are unlikely to provide premonitory signals of volcanic unrest if the volcanic activity remains centered in the main crater. Instead, an instrument which is able to provide measurements of volcanic gases in the air (e.g. MultiGAS) may be used to detect changes at the summit crater. Otherwise, monitoring of seismic activity and ground deformation, as well as the periodic measurement of the chemistry of the water in the Rio Agrio, which is fed by thermal discharge from the summit crater, seem to represent the most reliable means of monitoring at Copahue. However, the relative compositional stability of the hydrothermal reservoir is a great advantage in terms of geothermal resource exploitation and could encourage new investments in the Copahue geothermal project which was abandoned in the 1990s.

  10. Long-term sonographic and serological follow-up of inactive echinococcal cysts of the liver: hints for a "watch-and-wait" approach.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Luca; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Cattaneo, Federico; Mariconti, Mara; Filice, Carlo; Bruno, Antonella; Brunetti, Enrico

    2014-08-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis is a chronic, complex and neglected infection. Its clinical management has evolved over decades without adequate evaluation of efficacy. Recent expert opinion recommends that uncomplicated inactive cysts of the liver should be left untreated and solely monitored over time ("watch-and-wait" approach). However, clinical data supporting this approach are still scant and published mostly as conference proceedings. In this study, we report our experience with long-term sonographic and serological follow-up of inactive cysts of the liver. From March 1994 to October 2013, 38 patients with 47 liver cysts, diagnosed as inactive without any previous treatment history, were followed with ultrasound and serology at 6-12 months intervals for a period of at least 24 months (median follow-up 51.95 months) in our outpatient clinic. In 97.4% of patients, the cysts remained inactive over time and in only one case was reactivation of the cyst detected. No complications occurred during the time of monitoring. During follow-up, serology tests for CE were negative at diagnosis or became negative in 74.1% and were positive or became positive in 25.9% of cases. Patients with inactive cysts on ultrasound but positive serological tests were also investigated by CT scan (chest and abdomen) to rule out extra-hepatic cyst localization. This study confirms the importance of a stage-specific approach to the management of cystic echinococcosis and supports the use of a monitoring-only approach to inactive, uncomplicated cysts of the liver. It also confirms that serology plays only an ancillary role in the clinical management of these patients, compared to ultrasound and other imaging techniques. The implications of these findings for clinical management and natural history of cystic echinococcosis are discussed.

  11. Depletion of selected polychlorinated biphenyl, dibenzodioxin, and dibenzofuran congeners in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): a hint for safer fish farming.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Fochi, Igor; Iacovella, Nicola; Miniero, Roberto; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Farmed fish can be exposed to persistent organic contaminants--such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)--via feed, this eventually resulting in accumulation levels of health concern. To study the correlation between feed contamination, chemical accumulation in fish muscle (fillet), and chemical depletion, an all-vegetal base (or blank) feed was prepared and fortified with a commercial PCB mixture (Aroclor 1254) and six PCDD and PCDF congeners (namely, 2,3,7,8-T(4)CDD, 2,3,7,8-T(4)CDF, 1,2,3,7,8-P(5)CDD, 1,2,3,7,8-P(5)CDF, O(8)CDD, and O(8)CDF) to reproduce realistic low, medium, and high contamination levels. After a 1-month exposure, trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed with the blank feed and sacrificed every 0.5 months over a 3-month period from exposure end; fillet specimens were sampled at each time. In all groups, the average fish weight increased linearly through the observation period. The chemical diminishing patterns observed were due to the combined effect of clearance and growth dilution: for 10 PCB and four PCDD and PCDF congeners, patterns were described with an empirical one-compartment (fish muscle) model. The canonical pseudo-first-order kinetic equation used was also modified into the form C=[C(0)exp(-k(C)t)] (m(W)t+1)(-1) to distinguish between the contributions to depletion from clearance, exp(-k(C)t), and growth dilution, (m(W)t+1)(-1). Most mean clearance half-life (HL(C)) estimates appear to be greater than 4 months, in a number of cases reaching magnitudes well over 10 months or even negative, thus clearly indicating a non-negligible contribution from a second compartment. Based on means and their 95% confidence intervals, the depletion HL(D) estimates of the 14 selected congeners seem to be comprised between 1.2-3.4 and 1.0-5.0 months, respectively: these values, accounting for both clearance and growth dilution, provide an indication of the relevance of a blank feed as a management option to reduce the overall PCB, PCDD, and PCDF content in farmed trout. Due to a lack of bioaccumulation, O(8)CDD and O(8)CDF yielded no results for evaluation, whereas for many PCB congeners results were insufficient for empirical modelling.

  12. Analysis of the preliminary results based on the first source solutions for the 29th September 2009 Samoan tsunami: hints for a tsunami early warning system strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Tonini, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    The 29 September 2009 Samoan tsunami was triggered by a strong earthquake (Mw=8.1) that occurred at 17:48 UTC offshore south of Samoa Islands. This earthquake represents an example of the so-called "outer-rise" earthquakes, that occur in the subducting plate before it enters in the subduction zone and their fault mechanism is normal instead of thrust as expected inside the subduction zone. The areas most affected were the south coasts of Western and American Samoa, where maximum peak-to-peak height of about 3.5 meters and 1.5 meters were recorded by tide-gauge stations respectively at Pago-Pago (American Samoa) and at Apia (Western Samoa). Almost 200 persons were killed and run-up heights were measured in excess of 5 meters on several locations along the coast. This "anomalous" event is considered here "a posteriori" as a good case to test (and to open a discussion on) the today strategies used to forecast tsunami characteristics in the frame of Tsunami Early Warning Systems. In this work different fault models based on the focal mechanism solution proposed by Harvard CMT and USGS immediately after the 2009 Samoan earthquake are considered and tested by comparing some recorded signals (three offshore DART buoys and the two coastal tide gauges located at Apia and Pago-Pago) to the synthetic signals resulting from the numerical simulations provided by the UBO-TSUFD code, that is developed and maintained by the Tsunami Research Team of Bologna University. The analysis found out that all the considered sources lead to some discrepancies between observed and computed signals, though some of them reproduce some of the records quite well. These results suggest some important considerations on the tsunami forecast methods as well as on the difficulty and need of issuing timely and reliable warning in case of complex hazardous situation, which is a task that may require sophisticated decision-making platforms. This work has been conducted in the frame of the European project DEWS.

  13. A sodium channel inhibitor ISTX-I with a novel structure provides a new hint at the evolutionary link between two toxin folds

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Mingqiang; Liu, Jiangxin; Zhang, Meilin; Wang, Gan; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Yaping; Hu, Kaifeng; Lai, Ren

    2016-01-01

    Members of arachnida, such as spiders and scorpions, commonly produce venom with specialized venom glands, paralyzing their prey with neurotoxins that specifically target ion channels. Two well-studied motifs, the disulfide-directed hairpin (DDH) and the inhibitor cystine knot motif (ICK), are both found in scorpion and spider toxins. As arachnids, ticks inject a neurotoxin-containing cocktail from their salivary glands into the host to acquire a blood meal, but peptide toxins acting on ion channels have not been observed in ticks. Here, a new neurotoxin (ISTX-I) that acts on sodium channels was identified from the hard tick Ixodes scapularis and characterized. ISTX-I exhibits a potent inhibitory function with an IC50 of 1.6 μM for sodium channel Nav1.7 but not other sodium channel subtypes. ISTX-I adopts a novel structural fold and is distinct from the canonical ICK motif. Analysis of the ISTX-I, DDH and ICK motifs reveals that the new ISTX-I motif might be an intermediate scaffold between DDH and ICK, and ISTX-I is a clue to the evolutionary link between the DDH and ICK motifs. These results provide a glimpse into the convergent evolution of neurotoxins from predatory and blood-sucking arthropods. PMID:27407029

  14. Soil remediation with a microbial community established on a carrier: strong hints for microbial communication during 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene degradation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Fekete, Agnes; Harir, Mourad; Chen, Xiao; Dörfler, Ulrike; Rothballer, Michael; Jiang, Xin; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schroll, Reiner

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to get more insight into the mechanisms that govern the high mineralization potential of a microbial community attached on a carrier material, as we found in an earlier study (Wang et al., 2010). A 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB) degrading microbial community - attached (MCCP) and non-attached (MCLM) on clay particles - was inoculated into a simplified mineral medium system. Signaling molecules (AHLs), cell growth and 1,2,4-TCB mineralization were measured at different sampling points. The production of AHLs in the MCCP system increased continuously with increasing key degrader (Bordetella sp.) cell growth and a positive correlation was observed between the production of AHLs and 1,2,4-TCB mineralization. In the MCLM system, however, 1,2,4-TCB mineralization was lower than in the MCCP system; the AHLs production per Bordetella cell was higher than in MCCP and there was no correlation between AHLs and mineralization. Moreover, in the MCCP system less different AHLs were produced than in the MCLM system. These results indicate that a microbial community attached on a carrier material has an advantage over a non-attached community: it produces signaling molecules with much less energy and effort to achieve a well-directed cell-to-cell communication resulting in a high and effective mineralization.

  15. Novel Papillomaviruses in Free-Ranging Iberian Bats: No Virus–Host Co-evolution, No Strict Host Specificity, and Hints for Recombination

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Raquel; Ibáñez, Carlos; Godínez, Jose M.; Aréchiga, Nidia; Garin, Inazio; Pérez-Suárez, Gonzalo; de Paz, Oscar; Juste, Javier; Echevarría, Juan E.; Bravo, Ignacio G.

    2014-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are widespread pathogens. However, the extent of PV infections in bats remains largely unknown. This work represents the first comprehensive study of PVs in Iberian bats. We identified four novel PVs in the mucosa of free-ranging Eptesicus serotinus (EserPV1, EserPV2, and EserPV3) and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (RferPV1) individuals and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships within the viral family. We further assessed their prevalence in different populations of E. serotinus and its close relative E. isabellinus. Although it is frequent to read that PVs co-evolve with their host, that PVs are highly species-specific, and that PVs do not usually recombine, our results suggest otherwise. First, strict virus–host co-evolution is rejected by the existence of five, distantly related bat PV lineages and by the lack of congruence between bats and bat PVs phylogenies. Second, the ability of EserPV2 and EserPV3 to infect two different bat species (E. serotinus and E. isabellinus) argues against strict host specificity. Finally, the description of a second noncoding region in the RferPV1 genome reinforces the view of an increased susceptibility to recombination in the E2-L2 genomic region. These findings prompt the question of whether the prevailing paradigms regarding PVs evolution should be reconsidered. PMID:24391150

  16. Discovery of a New Retrograde Trans-Neptunian Object: Hint of a Common Orbital Plane for Low Semimajor Axis, High-inclination TNOs and Centaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Lin, Hsing Wen; Holman, Matthew J.; Payne, Matthew J.; Fraser, Wesley C.; Lacerda, Pedro; Ip, Wing-Huen; Chen, Wen-Ping; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Tonry, John L.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Waters, Christopher; Kaiser, Nick; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Lehner, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Although the majority of Centaurs are thought to have originated in the scattered disk, with the high-inclination members coming from the Oort cloud, the origin of the high-inclination component of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) remains uncertain. We report the discovery of a retrograde TNO, which we nickname “Niku,” detected by the Pan-STARRS 1 Outer Solar System Survey. Our numerical integrations show that the orbital dynamics of Niku are very similar to that of 2008 KV42 (Drac), with a half-life of ˜500 Myr. Comparing similar high-inclination TNOs and Centaurs (q > 10 au, a < 100 au, and i > 60°), we find that these objects exhibit a surprising clustering of ascending node, and occupy a common orbital plane. This orbital configuration has high statistical significance: 3.8-σ. An unknown mechanism is required to explain the observed clustering. This discovery may provide a pathway to investigating a possible reservoir of high-inclination objects.

  17. XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL study of the SFXT IGR J18483-0311 in quiescence: hint of a cyclotron emission feature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sguera, V.; Ducci, L.; Sidoli, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bassani, L.

    2010-02-01

    We report the results from archival XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL observations of the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient (SFXT) IGR J18483-0311 in quiescence. The 18-60 keV hard X-ray behaviour of the source is presented here for the first time; it is characterized by a spectral shape (Γ ~ 2.5) similar to that during outburst activity, and the lowest measured luminosity level is ~1034 erg s-1. The 0.5-10 keV luminosity state, measured by XMM-Newton during the apastron passage, is about one order of magnitude lower and it is reasonably fitted by an absorbed blackbody model yielding parameters consistent with previous measurements. In addition, we find evidence (~3.5σ significance) of an emission-like feature at ~3.3 keV in the quiescent 0.5-10 keV source spectrum. The absence of any known or found systematic effects, which could artificially introduce the observed feature, gives us confidence about its non-instrumental nature. We show that its physical explanation in terms of atomic emission line appears unlikely, and conversely we attempt to ascribe it to an electron cyclotron emission line which would imply a neutron star magnetic field of the order of ~3 × 1011 G. Importantly, such direct estimation is in very good agreement with that independently inferred by us in the framework of accretion from a spherically symmetric stellar wind. If firmly confirmed by future longer X-ray observations, this would be the first detection ever of a cyclotron feature in the X-ray spectrum of an SFXT, with important implications on theoretical models.

  18. Discovery of A New Retrograde Trans-Neptunian Object: Hint of A Common Orbital Plane for Low Semi-Major Axis, High Inclination TNOs and Centaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Holman, Matthew J.; Payne, Matthew John; Fraser, Wesley Cristopher; Lacerda, Pedro; Ip, Wing-Huen; Pan-STARRS 1 Builders

    2016-10-01

    The origin of high inclination objects beyond Jupiter, including trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs, remains uncertain. We report the discovery of a retrograde TNO, which we nickname "Niku", detected by the Pan-STARRS 1 Outer Solar System Survey. The numerical integrations show that the orbital dynamics of Niku are very similar to those of 2008 KV42 (Drac), with a half-life of ~ 500 Myr and analogous orbital evolution. Comparing similar high inclination members announced by the Minor-Planet Center (q > 10 AU, a < 100 AU and i > 60), we find these objects exhibit a surprising clustering of ascending node, populating a common orbital plane. The statistical significance of 3.8-sigma suggests it is unlikely to be coincidental. An unknown mechanism is required to explain the observed clustering. This discovery may provide a pathway to investigating a possible reservoir of high-inclination objects.

  19. A novel relationship for schizophrenia, bipolar and major depressive disorder Part 7: A hint from chromosome 7 high density association screen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing; Long, Feng; Cai, Bin; Chen, Xiaohong; Chen, Gang

    2015-10-15

    Convergent evidence from genetics, symptology and psychopharmacology imply that there are intrinsic connection between schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Also, any two or even three of these disorders could co-existe in some families. A total of 47,144 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) on chromosome 7 were genotyped by Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6.0 on 119 SCZ, 253 BPD (type-I), 177 MDD, and 1000 controls. Associated SNP loci were comprehensively revealed and outstanding susceptibility genes were identified including CNTNAP2. a neurexin family gene. Unexpectedly, flanking genes for up to 94.74 % of of the associated SNPs were replicated (P≤9.9 E-8) in an enlarged cohort of 986 SCZ patients. Considering other convergent evidence, our results further implicate that BPD and MDD are subtypes of SCZ.

  20. Methodology for the Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer-Related Knowledge - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    The HINTS is designed to produce reliable estimates at the national and regional levels. GIS maps using HINTS data have been used to provide a visual representation of possible geographic relationships in HINTS cancer-related variables.

  1. Sub-proteome S-nitrosylation analysis in Brassica juncea hints at the regulation of Brassicaceae specific as well as other vital metabolic pathway(s) by nitric oxide and suggests post-translational modifications cross-talk.

    PubMed

    Sehrawat, Ankita; Deswal, Renu

    2014-12-01

    Abiotic stress affects the normal physiology of the plants and results in crop loss. Brassica juncea is an oil yielding crop affected by abiotic stress. In future, over 30% yield loss by abiotic stress is predicted in India. Understanding the mechanism of plant response to stress would help in developing stress tolerant crops. Nitric oxide (NO) is now viewed as a remarkably important signaling molecule, involved in regulating stress responses. S-Nitrosylation is a NO based post-translational modification (PTM), linked with the regulation of many physiologically relevant targets. In the last decade, over 700 functionally varied S-nitrosylated proteins were identified, which suggested broad-spectrum regulation. To understand the physiological significance of S-nitrosylation, it was analyzed in cold stress. Functional categorization and validation of some of the B. juncea S-nitrosylated targets, suggested that NO produced during stress regulates cellular detoxification by modulating enzymes of ascorbate glutathione cycle, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase and glyoxalase I by S-nitrosylation in crude, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) depleted and apoplastic fractions. Interestingly, S-nitrosylation of enzymes associated with glucosinolate hydrolysis pathway, suggests a novel regulation of this Brassicaceae specific pathway by NO. Moreover, identification of enzymes of Glycolysis and Calvin cycle in crude and RuBisCO depleted fractions showed the regulation of metabolic as well as photosynthetic pathways by S-nitrosylation. S-Nitrosylation of cell wall modifying and proteolytic enzymes in the apoplast suggested differential and spatial regulation by S-nitrosylation. To have an overview of physiological role(s) of NO, collective information on NO based signaling (mainly by S-nitrosylation) is presented in this review.

  2. Increased expression of the homologue of enhancer-of-split 1 protects neurons from beta amyloid neurotoxicity and hints at an alternative role for transforming growth factor beta1 as a neuroprotector

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain, which produces progressive neuronal loss and dementia. We recently demonstrated that the noxious effects of Aβ on cultured hippocampal neurons are in part provoked by the antagonism of nerve growth factor (NGF) signalling, which impairs the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) by impeding the tyrosine phosphorylation of I-κBα. As a result, the expression of the homologue of Enhancer-of split 1 (Hes1) gene is downregulated and ultimately, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic connectivity is lost. Methods Hes1 activity was promoted in cultured hippocampal neurons by overexpressing a Hes1-encoding plasmid or by upregulating this gene by activating NF-κB through different approaches (overexpressing either the I-κB kinaseβ, or p65/RelA/NF-κB). Alternatively neurons were exposed to TGFβ1. Dendrite patterning, GABAergic connectivity and cell survival were analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Hes1 expression was determined by real-time PCR. NF-κB activation was measured using the dual-luciferase reporter assay. Results The expression of Hes1 abolished the effects of Aβ on dendritic patterning and GABAergic input, and it prevented the death of the cultured neurons. TGFβ1, a known neuroprotector, could counteract the deleterious effects of Aβ by inducing NF-κB activation following the serine phosphorylation of I-κBα. Indeed, the number of GABAergic terminals generated by inducing Hes1 expression was doubled. Conclusion Our data define some of the mechanisms involved in Aβ-mediated cell death and they point to potential means to counteract this noxious activity. PMID:22849569

  3. AN INTERACTIVE WEB-BASED RESEARCH PLAN/QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN IS LINKED WITH HELPFUL QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL HINTS AND USED BY THE RESEARCH SCIENTISTS TO DEVELOP PLANS/QAPP

    EPA Science Inventory

    A web based Research Plan/Quality Assurance Project Plan (RP/QAPP) Document is interactively linked to documentation that asks pertinent questions and gives suggested examples and formats to assist the Research Scientist develop a RP/QAPP that will answer the necessary questions ...

  4. Multilevel karst system evolution in relationship to palaeo-climate and palaeo-geography: hints from a 500 ky speleothem record from the Piani Eterni Karst System, Belluno Dolomites, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauro, Francesco; Lundberg, Joyce; Columbu, Andrea; De Waele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    Piani Eterni is the deepest and longest multilevel karst system of the Dolomites. The geometric distribution and stratigraphic-structural guidance of palaeo-epiphreatic levels have been studied in detail in recent times, but there are still several open questions regarding the palaeo-climatic and palaeo-geographic factors that have controlled its evolution through time. Over the last three years, several stalagmites were sampled from different palaeo-epiphreatic levels in the karst system. The relatively high concentration of uranium in the dolomitized bituminous unit hosting the cave has allowed dating with high precision of stalagmites up to more than 500 ky old using the U-Th radiometric method. All the speleothems have been collected from palaeo-epiphreatic conduits without vadose entrenchments at different altitudes (from 1650 to 860 m a.s.l.). The research has focused on speleothems that have registered different flooding events with intercalated sedimentation of silts and sands. These events could have happened only when the conduits were still very close to the epiphreatic zone and the speleothems formed directly after the formation and draining of the epiphreatic conduits. The temporal record of the speleothems and their vertical distribution in the cave, compared to the presence of fluvial terraces and glacial deposits in the nearby Mis Valley, are shown to be in agreement with the uplift rate of the region. The data obtained from the karst system and speleothem dating elucidated the geomorphic events and temporal constraints on a major fluvial capture of the Mis Valley toward the south, a hypothesis already proposed by previous authors. Stable isotope records (oxygen and carbon) in the speleothems show that the favorable conditions for calcite precipitation were related to cooling and unstable periods following the interglacial apexes of MIS11, MIS 9, MIS7, and MIS5. This is a prime example of studies of speleothems, of their palaeoclimate record and of their growth in relation with the formation of the hosting conduits and epiphreatic oscillations, bringing new insights on the evolution of multilevel karst systems.

  5. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XXII. CoRoT-16b: a hot Jupiter with a hint of eccentricity around a faint solar-like star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollivier, M.; Gillon, M.; Santerne, A.; Wuchterl, G.; Havel, M.; Bruntt, H.; Bordé, P.; Pasternacki, T.; Endl, M.; Gandolfi, D.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J. M.; Alonso, R.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barge, P.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Cavarroc, C.; Cochran, W. D.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Diaz, R. F.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Fridlund, M.; Gazzano, J.-C.; Grziwa, S.; Guenther, E.; Guillot, T.; Guterman, P.; Hatzes, A.; Hébrard, G.; Lammer, H.; Léger, A.; Lovis, C.; MacQueen, P. J.; Mayor, M.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Ofir, A.; Pätzold, M.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Rouan, D.; Samuel, B.; Schneider, J.; Tadeu dos Santos, M.; Tal-Or, L.; Tingley, B.; Weingrill, J.

    2012-05-01

    Aims: We report the discovery of CoRoT-16b, a low density hot jupiter that orbits a faint G5V star (mV = 15.63) in 5.3523 ± 0.0002 days with slight eccentricity. A fit of the data with no a priori assumptions on the orbit leads to an eccentricity of 0.33 ± 0.1. We discuss this value and also derive the mass and radius of the planet. Methods: We analyse the photometric transit curve of CoRoT-16 given by the CoRoT satellite, and radial velocity data from the HARPS and HIRES spectrometers. A combined analysis using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is used to get the system parameters. Results: CoRoT-16b is a 0.535 -0.083/+0.085 MJ, 1.17 -0.14/+0.16 RJ hot Jupiter with a density of 0.44 -0.14/+0.21 g cm-3. Despite its short orbital distance (0.0618 ± 0.0015 AU) and the age of the parent star (6.73 ± 2.8 Gyr), the planet orbit exhibits significantly non-zero eccentricity. This is very uncommon for this type of objects as tidal effects tend to circularise the orbit. This value is discussed taking into account the characteristics of the star and the observation accuracy. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27, 2006, has been developed and is operated by the CNES with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brasil, ESA, Germany, and Spain.Observations made with the HARPS spectrograph at ESO La Silla Observatory (HARPS programs 083.C-0186 and 184.C-0639) and the HIRES spectrograph at the Keck Observatory (NASA-Keck programs N035Hr, N143Hr and N095Hr).

  6. The structure of human cleavage factor I(m) hints at functions beyond UGUA-specific RNA binding: a role in alternative polyadenylation and a potential link to 5' capping and splicing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Gilmartin, Gregory M; Doublié, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    3'-end cleavage and subsequent polyadenylation are critical steps in mRNA maturation. The precise location where cleavage occurs (referred to as poly(A) site) is determined by a tripartite mechanism in which a A(A/U)UAAA hexamer, GU rich downstream element and UGUA upstream element are recognized by the cleavage and polyadenylation factor (CPSF), cleavage stimulation factor (CstF) and cleavage factor I(m) (CFI(m)), respectively. CFI(m) is composed of a smaller 25 kDa subunit (CFI(m)25) and a larger 59, 68 or 72 kDa subunit. CFI(m)68 interacts with CFI(m)25 through its N-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM). We recently solved the crystal structures of CFI(m)25 bound to RNA and of a complex of CFI(m)25, the RRM domain of CFI(m)68 and RNA. Our study illustrated the molecular basis for UGUA recognition by the CFI(m) complex, suggested a possible mechanism for CFI(m) mediated alternative polyadenylation, and revealed potential links between CFI(m) and other mRNA processing factors, such as the 20 kDa subunit of the cap binding protein (CBP20), and the splicing regulator U2AF65.

  7. SPX: The Tenth International Conference on Stochastic Programming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    Dupa ~ovA, Yuri Ermoliev, Peter Kall, Wim Klein Haneveld, Kurt Marti, Andras Prdkopa, Steve Robinson, Terry Rockafellar, Roger Wets, and Bill Ziemba...Methods in SP Chair: Jitka Dupa ~ov6, Charles University ThB 9:45-10:45 Grand Ballroom Plenary Address: Werner Roemisch,Humboldt-University Berlin...Dantzig Kurt Marti Michael A.H. Dempster Andras Pr~kopa Jitka Dupa ~ov6 Stephen M.Robinson Yuri Ermoliev R. Tyrell Rockafellar Peter Kall Roger J-B Wets

  8. The Central Pamir domes as tracer of gravitational disequilibrium and deformation phases forced by deep-seated lithospheric processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutte, Daniel; Fox, Matthew; Ratschbacher, Lothar

    2017-04-01

    Miocene gneiss domes in the Pamir allow unique insight into crustal-scale processes forming the Asian crust of the Pamir-Tibet Plateau. They were exhumed along normal-sense shear zones in an intermittent phase of N-S extension while earlier and later structures document N-S shortening. Recently, Schmidt et al. (2011), Stearns et al., (2013; 2015), Rutte et al. (a & b, accepted), and Hacker et al. (submitted) established a vast structural, petrologic, and geochronologic dataset for the Central Pamir domes. These studies interpreted the domes as a product of gravitational collapse. The dataset includes (micro)structural observations constraining the mechanism of exhumation, thermobarometry of the metamorphic rocks, petrochronologic data constraining timing of pro- and retrogression, a vast multi-method thermochronometric dataset including age-elevation and age-distance data, dates for normal-sense shear zones and barometric data on intrusive rocks. These data constrain the time-temperature, pressure-temperature, and time-pressure history of the dome rocks. We explore the dataset using one-dimensional thermal models. Our code solves the heat transfer equation and gives a transient solution allowing for variation of the geothermal gradient and thermal diffusivity. At this stage, our models suggest that exponential decay of an initially high exhumation rate of 6 km/Myr at 22 Ma to 0.5km/Myr at 13 Ma best explains the dataset. This suggests a one-time input of gravitational potential energy (GPE) that is successively decaying through crustal extension. Both, Asian crustal foundering or Indian slab breakoff may concur with this result. While the Central Pamir domes extend >400 km along strike of the orogen, little variation in timing of most of exhumation during N-S extension is observed. This suggests that the underlying mechanism - be it crustal foundering or slab breakoff - varied little along strike as well. References Hacker, B.R., Ratschbacher, L., Rutte, D

  9. Collaboration and Peer Tutoring in Chemistry Laboratory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Ning; Harskamp, Egbert G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of collaborative learning with hints and peer tutoring with hints, and individual learning with hints in chemistry laboratory education in a secondary school. A total of 96 eleventh graders participated in this study. The study has a randomized pre-test and post-test design with a delayed…

  10. Collaboration and Peer Tutoring in Chemistry Laboratory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Ning; Harskamp, Egbert G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of collaborative learning with hints and peer tutoring with hints, and individual learning with hints in chemistry laboratory education in a secondary school. A total of 96 eleventh graders participated in this study. The study has a randomized pre-test and post-test design with a delayed…

  11. NNS computing facility manual P-17 Neutron and Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeberling, M.; Nelson, R.O.

    1993-11-01

    This document describes basic policies and provides information and examples on using the computing resources provided by P-17, the Neutron and Nuclear Science (NNS) group. Information on user accounts, getting help, network access, electronic mail, disk drives, tape drives, printers, batch processing software, XSYS hints, PC networking hints, and Mac networking hints is given.

  12. A Fundamental Study of Tool Steels Processed from Rapidly Solidified Powders.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Material 10 5. Heat Treatment of the Consolidated Material 11 6. Characterization of the Heat-Treated Material 11 IV . RESULTS 12 1. Atomized Powders...given in Table IV . 4. Characterization of the HIPed Material Each of the eight T15 samples was mounted, polished and etched using Kalling’s Reagent...Table IV . 6. Characterization of the Heat-Treated Material The heat treatment schedule yielded a matrix of forty-eight samples (8 HIPed samples x 2

  13. Studies on MUST (Medical Unit, Self-Contained, Transportable) Field Hospital Wastewater Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    upfiow, solids-contact, clarification, and pressure diatomite filtration as a pretrcatment for a high-recovery, reverse osmosis (RO) system to treat a...upflow, solids-contact clarification, and pressure diatomite filtration is an acceptable pretreat- ment for a high-recovery reverse osmosis unit in...using diatomite filiation. Criteria for evaluation of filter performance were clarity of effluent A. Gouveia. and K.A.ll. Hooton, "Potable Water from

  14. A kallikrein-targeting RNA aptamer inhibits the intrinsic pathway of coagulation and reduces bradykinin release.

    PubMed

    Steen Burrell, K-A; Layzer, J; Sullenger, B A

    2017-09-01

    Essentials Kallikrein amplifies contact activation and is a potential target for preventing thrombosis. We developed and characterized a kallikrein aptamer using convergent evolution and kinetic assays. Kall1-T4 prolongs intrinsic clotting time by inhibiting factor XIIa-mediated prekallikrein activation. Kall1-T4 decreases high-molecular-weight kininogen cleavage and bradykinin release. Background Plasma kallikrein is a serine protease that plays an integral role in many biological processes, including coagulation, inflammation, and fibrinolysis. The main function of kallikrein in coagulation is the amplification of activated factor XII (FXIIa) production, which ultimately leads to thrombin generation and fibrin clot formation. Kallikrein is generated by FXIIa-mediated cleavage of the zymogen prekallikrein, which is usually complexed with the non-enzymatic cofactor high molecular weight kininogen (HK). HK also serves as a substrate for kallikrein to generate the proinflammatory peptide bradykinin (BK). Interestingly, prekallikrein-deficient mice are protected from thrombotic events while retaining normal hemostatic capacity. Therefore, therapeutic targeting of kallikrein may provide a safer alternative to traditional anticoagulants with anti-inflammatory benefits. Objectives To isolate and characterize an RNA aptamer that binds to and inhibits plasma kallikrein, and to elucidate its mechanism of action. Methods and Results Using convergent Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX), we isolated an RNA aptamer that targets kallikrein. This aptamer, Kall1-T4, specifically binds to both prekallikrein and kallikrein with similar subnanomolar binding affinities, and dose-dependently prolongs fibrin clot formation in an activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) coagulation assay. In a purified in vitro system, Kall1-T4 inhibits the reciprocal activation of prekallikrein and FXII primarily by reducing the rate of FXIIa-mediated prekallikrein

  15. Urinary coagulation-fibrinolysis, kallirein-kinin systems and kininase in cases of preclampsia.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, S; Kobayashi, M; Hirata, J; Itoh, N; Maki, M; Komatsu, Y; Yoshida, A; Sasa, H; Kuroda, K; Kikuchi, Y

    1992-01-01

    Urinary kallikrein and kallikrein activity significantly decreased in cases of preeclampsia (u-kall./CRE.index 42.39 +/- 9.66 ng/mg, u-kall. act./CRE.index 0.26 +/- 0.06 ng/min/mg), and urinary kininase II and kininase activity significantly increased (u-kininase/CRE.index 10.91 +/- 1.26 x 10(-3) IU/min/mg, u-kininase act./CRE.index 506.37 +/- 178.45 pg/min/mg) when compared with those of normal gravidas from 28 weeks to 42 weeks of gestation (u-kall./CRE.index 189.31 +/- 14.17 ng/mg, u-kall. act./CRE index 1.08 +/- 0.10 ng/min/mg, u-kininase/CRE.index 6.24 +/- 0.31 x 10(-3) IU/min/mg, u-kininase act./CRE.index 15.64 +/- 0.10 pg/min/mg). Urinary FPA, B beta 5-42, alpha 2-PI, and alpha 2PI-plasmin-complex (PIC) significantly increased in preeclampsia (u-FPA/CRE.index 23.59 +/- 8.47 ng/mg, u-B beta/CRE.index 105.26 +/- 29.30 ng/mg, u-alpha 2PI/CRE.index 121.53 +/- 43.57 ng/mg, u-PIC/CRE index 278.39 +/- 60.50 ng/mg) when compared with those of normal control group (u-FPA/CRE.index 0.92 +/- 0.04 ng/mg, u-B beta/CRE.index 12.15 +/- 0.44 ng/mg, u-alpha 2PI/CRE.index 4.18 +/- 0.33 ng/mg, u-PIC/CRE.index 5.98 +/- 1.15 ng/mg). Urinary urokinase markedly increased and urinary D-dimer was detected in severe cases of preeclampsia (u-UK/CRE.index 58.20 +/- 43.69 ng/mg, u-D-dimer 54.76 +/- 9.89 ng/ml) when compared with those of normal control group. These findings suggest that deficiency in urinary kinin excretion may induce hypertension in addition to the changes of urinary coagulation-fibrinolysis system that represents the occurrence of either the endothelial cell injury in the glomerulus or the renal tulbular damage in mild cases of preeclampsia, eventually resulting in the intra-renal vascular coagulation.

  16. Metallography of maraging 350 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, S.M.; Merten, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for etching maraging 350 steel with Glyceregia is described. Surface activation procedures are integral to this technique. Microstructural features revealed by this technique are compared with those obtained with Kalling's reagent, Fry's reagent, and 5% Nital, three etchants commonly used to reveal microstructures of maraging steels. Features which may be simultaneously revealed using Glyceregia include prior austenite grain boundaries, martensitic structure, precipitates, titanium carbo-nitrides, and reverted austenite. The other etchants examined in this investigation typically reveal only a few of the microstructural features detailed above at any one time. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. How Indirect Supportive Digital Help during and after Solving Physics Problems Can Improve Problem-Solving Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme,…

  18. Development and Standardization of the Harris Infant Neuromotor Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Susan R.; Megens, Antoinette M.; Backman, Catherine L.; Hayes, Virginia

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (HINT) and reviews investigations into its reliability and validity, normative data, and the sensitivity and specificity of parental opinions of their infants' movement and motor development. It concludes that the HINT is a quick, noninvasive screening tool with potential for the early…

  19. How Indirect Supportive Digital Help during and after Solving Physics Problems Can Improve Problem-Solving Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme,…

  20. Examining Tasks that Facilitate the Experience of Incubation While Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Both, Lilly; Needham, Douglas; Wood, Eileen

    2004-01-01

    The three studies presented here contrasted the problem-solving outcomes of university students when a break was provided or not provided during a problem-solving session. In addition, two studies explored the effect of providing hints (priming) and the placement of hints during the problem-solving session. First, the ability to solve a previously…