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Sample records for rutt hints kalle

  1. HINTS Puerto Rico: Final Report

    Cancer.gov

    This final report describes HINTS implementation in Puerto Rico. The report addresses sampling; staffing, training and management of data collection; calling protocol; findings from the CATI Operations, and sample weights.

  2. Active Learning Using Hint Information.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Liang; Ferng, Chun-Sung; Lin, Hsuan-Tien

    2015-08-01

    The abundance of real-world data and limited labeling budget calls for active learning, an important learning paradigm for reducing human labeling efforts. Many recently developed active learning algorithms consider both uncertainty and representativeness when making querying decisions. However, exploiting representativeness with uncertainty concurrently usually requires tackling sophisticated and challenging learning tasks, such as clustering. In this letter, we propose a new active learning framework, called hinted sampling, which takes both uncertainty and representativeness into account in a simpler way. We design a novel active learning algorithm within the hinted sampling framework with an extended support vector machine. Experimental results validate that the novel active learning algorithm can result in a better and more stable performance than that achieved by state-of-the-art algorithms. We also show that the hinted sampling framework allows improving another active learning algorithm designed from the transductive support vector machine. PMID:26079748

  3. STUDY HINTS FOR LANGUAGE STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOULTON, WILLIAM G.

    THIS OUTLINE OF STUDY HINTS SUGGESTS TO STUDENTS TECHNIQUES FOR ACQUIRING BOTH SPEAKING AND READING SKILLS. MASTERY OF A SPOKEN LANGUAGE IS A MATTER OF BUILDING A SET OF AUTOMATIC HABITS--A CUMULATIVE PROCESS BASED ON IMITATION AND CONSTANT PRACTICE. STUDYING OUT LOUD AND DIVIDING THE MATERIAL AND STUDY TIME INTO SMALL UNITS ARE RECOMMENDED…

  4. Cosmological hints of modified gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The recent measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies made by the Planck satellite have provided impressive confirmation of the Λ CDM cosmological model. However interesting hints of slight deviations from Λ CDM have been found, including a 95% C.L. preference for a "modified gravity" (MG) structure formation scenario. In this paper we confirm the preference for a modified gravity scenario from Planck 2015 data, find that modified gravity solves the so-called Alens anomaly in the CMB angular spectrum, and constrains the amplitude of matter density fluctuations to σ8=0.81 5-0.048+0.032 , in better agreement with weak lensing constraints. Moreover, we find a lower value for the reionization optical depth of τ =0.059 ±0.020 (to be compared with the value of τ =0.079 ±0.017 obtained in the standard scenario), more consistent with recent optical and UV data. We check the stability of this result by considering possible degeneracies with other parameters, including the neutrino effective number, the running of the spectral index and the amount of primordial helium. The indication for modified gravity is still present at about 95% C.L., and could become more significant if lower values of τ were to be further confirmed by future cosmological and astrophysical data. When the CMB lensing likelihood is included in the analysis the statistical significance for MG simply vanishes, indicating also the possibility of a systematic effect for this MG signal.

  5. Health Hints: Use Caution with Pain Relievers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for You Health Hints: Use Caution with Pain Relievers. Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Pin it Email Print PDF version (447KB) (NAPS) -- Pain relievers, when used correctly, are safe and effective. Millions ...

  6. Crystal structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tarique, K F; Devi, S; Abdul Rehman, S A; Gourinath, S

    2016-01-01

    Proteins belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily bind nucleotides and use the histidine triad motif to carry out dinucleotidyl hydrolase, nucleotidyltransferase and phosphoramidite hydrolase activities. Five different branches of this superfamily are known to exist. Defects in these proteins in humans are linked to many diseases such as ataxia, diseases of RNA metabolism and cell-cycle regulation, and various types of cancer. The histidine triad nucleotide protein (HINT) is nearly identical to proteins that have been classified as protein kinase C-interacting proteins (PKCIs), which also have the ability to bind and inhibit protein kinase C. The structure of HINT, which exists as a homodimer, is highly conserved from humans to bacteria and shares homology with the product of fragile histidine triad protein (FHit), a tumour suppressor gene of this superfamily. Here, the structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori (HpHINT) in complex with AMP is reported at a resolution of 3 Å. The final model has R and Rfree values of 26 and 28%, respectively, with good electron density. Structural comparison with previously reported homologues and phylogenetic analysis shows H. pylori HINT to be the smallest among them, and suggests that it branched out separately during the course of evolution. Overall, this structure has contributed to a better understanding of this protein across the animal kingdom. PMID:26750483

  7. Study Surfaces Helpful Hints for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational R&D Report, 1979

    1979-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT Far West Laboratory researchers involved in the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study contend that increasing Academic Learning Time promotes basic skills achievement among elementary school children. During the course of the six-year study, researchers identified numerous "helpful hints" for producing…

  8. Helpful hints to painless payload processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terhune, Terry; Carson, Maggie

    1995-01-01

    The helpful hints herein describe, from a system perspective, the functional flow of hardware and software. The flow will begin at the experiment development stage and continue through build-up, test, verification, delivery, launch and deintegration of the experiment. An effort will be made to identify those interfaces and transfer functions of processing that can be improved upon in the new world of 'Faster, Better, and Cheaper.' The documentation necessary to ensure configuration and processing requirements satisfaction will also be discussed. Hints and suggestions for improvements to enhance each phase of the flow will be derived from extensive experience and documented lessons learned. Charts will be utilized to define the functional flow and a list of 'lessons learned' will be addressed to show applicability. In conclusion, specific improvements for several areas of hardware processing, procedure development and quality assurance, that are generic to all Small Payloads, will be identified.

  9. Data-Driven Hint Generation from Peer Debugging Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Zhongxiu

    2015-01-01

    Data-driven methods have been a successful approach to generating hints for programming problems. However, the majority of previous studies are focused on procedural hints that aim at moving students to the next closest state to the solution. In this paper, I propose a data-driven method to generate remedy hints for BOTS, a game that teaches…

  10. User's guide for the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) RUT-S and RUT-T data sets: October 31, 1978 to November 1, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, A. J.; Heath, D. F.; Klenk, K. F.; Oslik, N.; Lee, K. D.; Park, H.; Bhartia, P. K.; Gordon, D.

    1983-01-01

    Raw data from the Solar Backscattered Ultrviolet/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (SBUV/TOMS) Nimbus 7 operation are available on computer tape. These data are contained on two separate sets of RUTs (Raw Units Tapes) for SBUV and TOMS, labelled RUT-S and RUT-T respectively. The RUT-S and RUT-T tapes contain uncalibrated radiance and irradiance data, housekeeping data, wavelength and electronic calibration data, instrument field-of-view location and solar ephemeris information. These tapes also contain colocated cloud, terrain pressure and snow/ice thickness data, each derived from an independent source. The "RUT User's Guide" describes the SBUV and TOMS experiments, the instrument calibration and performance, operating schedules, and data coverage, and provides an assessment of RUT-S and -T data quality. It also provides detailed information on the data available on the computer tapes.

  11. Structured hints : extracting and abstracting domain expertise.

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Stevens, R.; Sterling, T.; Gao, G. R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; California Inst. of Tech.; Louisiana State Univ.; Univ. of Delaware

    2009-03-16

    We propose a new framework for providing information to help optimize domain-specific application codes. Its design addresses problems that derive from the widening gap between the domain problem statement by domain experts and the architectural details of new and future high-end computing systems. The design is particularly well suited to program execution models that incorporate dynamic adaptive methodologies for live tuning of program performance and resource utilization. This new framework, which we call 'structured hints', couples a vocabulary of annotations to a suite of performance metrics. The immediate target is development of a process by which a domain expert describes characteristics of objects and methods in the application code that would not be readily apparent to the compiler; the domain expert provides further information about what quantities might provide the best indications of desirable effect; and the interactive preprocessor identifies potential opportunities for the domain expert to evaluate. Our development of these ideas is progressing in stages from case study, through manual implementation, to automatic or semi-automatic implementation. In this paper we discuss results from our case study, an examination of a large simulation of a neural network modeled after the neocortex.

  12. Flexible synthesis of video frames based on motion hints.

    PubMed

    Naman, Aous Thabit; Taubman, David

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose the use of "motion hints" to produce interframe predictions. A motion hint is a loose and global description of motion that can be communicated using metadata; it describes a continuous and invertible motion model over multiple frames, spatially overlapping other motion hints. A motion hint provides a reasonably accurate description of motion but only a loose description of where it is applicable; it is the task of the client to identify the exact locations where this motion model is applicable. The focus of this paper is a probabilistic multiscale approach to identifying these locations of applicability; the method is robust to noise, quantization, and contrast changes. The proposed approach employs the Laplacian pyramid; it generates motion hint probabilities from observations at each scale of the pyramid. These probabilities are then combined across the scales of the pyramid starting from the coarsest scale. The computational cost of the approach is reasonable, and only the neighborhood of a pixel is employed to determine a motion hint probability, which makes parallel implementation feasible. This paper also elaborates on how motion hint probabilities are exploited in generating interframe predictions. The scheme of this paper is applicable to closed-loop prediction, but it is more useful in open-loop prediction scenarios, such as using prediction in conjunction with remote browsing of surveillance footage, communicated by a JPEG2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP) server. We show that the interframe predictions obtained using the proposed approach are good both visually and in terms of PSNR. PMID:24968173

  13. Study Hints At HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159696.html Study Hints at HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise Fewer vaccinated young women had ... 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine appears to prevent abnormalities that can lead to ...

  14. An analytical model of the HINT performance metric

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Q.O.; Gustafson, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    The HINT benchmark was developed to provide a broad-spectrum metric for computers and to measure performance over the full range of memory sizes and time scales. We have extended our understanding of why HINT performance curves look the way they do and can now predict the curves using an analytical model based on simple hardware specifications as input parameters. Conversely, by fitting the experimental curves with the analytical model, hardware specifications such as memory performance can be inferred to provide insight into the nature of a given computer system.

  15. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: Emergency "Go-Kits"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Tara

    2006-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools (OSDFS) encourages schools to consider emergency management in the context of its four phases: mitigation and prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. The preparedness phase…

  16. Study Hints for Learning a Foreign/Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    A list of basic study practices and strategies, with examples and alternatives that focus on both receptive and productive skills and the value in interaction, is presented. The following hints are included: (1) don't study a language by yourself and in silence, but study aloud and with another person; (2) use the target language as much as…

  17. HINTS for differentiating peripheral from central causes of vertigo.

    PubMed

    Jaynstein, Dayna

    2016-10-01

    Dizziness and vertigo are common and difficult complaints encountered by providers. The differential diagnosis is large and varies from benign to life-threatening disorders. The true challenge becomes differentiating benign peripheral vertigo from central vertigo. The HINTS examination can help differentiate peripheral from central causes of dizziness and vertigo. PMID:27685517

  18. Hints on the use of the PCMDI Visualization and Computation System (VCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.; Drach, R. S.; Mobley, R. L.; Phillips, T. J.

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the Hints interactive displays that assist a user of the PCMDI Visualization and Computation System (VCS). These Hints describe the purpose of the VCS panels and provide basic instructions on their use.

  19. A two-Higgs-doublet model facing experimental hints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Physics beyond the Standard Model has so far eluded our experimental probes. Nevertheless, a number of interesting anomalies have accumulated that can be taken as hints towards new physics: BaBar, Belle, and LHCb have found deviations of approximately 3:8σ in B → Dτν and B → D*τν; the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon differs by about 3σ from the theoretic prediction; the branching ratio for τ → μνν is about 2σ above the Standard Model expectation; and CMS and ATLAS found hints for a non-zero decay rate of h → μτ at 2.6σ. Here we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model with additional non-standard Yukawa couplings and show how (and which of) these excesses can be accommodated.

  20. [Peripheral vertigo versus central vertigo. Application of the HINTS protocol].

    PubMed

    Batuecas-Caletrío, Ángel; Yáñez-González, Raquel; Sánchez-Blanco, Carmen; González-Sánchez, Enrique; Benito, José; Gómez, José Carlos; Santa Cruz-Ruiz, Santiago

    2014-10-16

    Introduccion. Uno de los dilemas mas importantes concernientes al vertigo en urgencias es su diagnostico diferencial. Existen signos de alarma de gran sensibilidad en la exploracion que pueden ponernos en la pista de encontrarnos ante un vertigo central. Objetivo. Determinar la eficacia de la aplicacion del protocolo HINTS en el diagnostico del accidente cerebrovascular que simula un vertigo periferico. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional descriptivo sobre pacientes ingresados con diagnostico de sindrome vestibular agudo en urgencias. Todos los pacientes fueron objeto de un seguimiento diario hasta la mejoria de sus sintomas con informacion del nistagmo, la maniobra de impulso oculocefalico y el test de skew. Se comparan los resultados del estudio de resonancia magnetica con la alteracion en alguno de esos tres signos a lo largo del ingreso del enfermo. Resultados. Se reunio a 91 pacientes, con una edad media de 55,8 años. Se objetivo un accidente cerebrovascular en ocho de ellos. De estos (edad media: 71 años), en siete existia una alteracion en alguno de los signos HINTS y en uno el estudio fue normal (sensibilidad: 0,88; especificidad: 0,96). Todos ellos tenian algun factor de riesgo vascular. Conclusiones. Una exploracion adecuada y dirigida ante un paciente que acude a urgencias con un sindrome vestibular agudo resulta de vital importancia para establecer el diagnostico diferencial entre la patologia periferica y la central, ya que algunos accidentes cerebrovasculares se pueden presentar bajo la apariencia de un vertigo agudo. Aplicar un protocolo como HINTS permite sospechar la patologia central con una gran sensibilidad y especificidad.

  1. Legacy limits and hints of New Physics at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Duperrin, Arnaud; /Marseille, CPPM

    2011-12-01

    This paper reviews results of beyond-the-standard model searches at the Tevatron presented in a plenary talk at the Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics (EPS-HEP) in Grenoble. Here I present a selection of results from the CDF and D0 experiments that were shown at the conference during the parallel sessions. Much more is available and can be found at the experiment's web pages. This proceeding essentially focuses on searches in the dilepton, diboson, and t{bar t} final states. Throughout the paper, hints of new physics observed at the Tevatron are also briefly discussed.

  2. Understanding Attention to Adaptive Hints in Educational Games: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conati, Cristina; Jaques, Natasha; Muir, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a user study that investigates the factors affecting student attention to user-adaptive hints during interaction with an educational computer game. The study focuses on Prime Climb, an educational game designed to provide individualized support for learning number factorization skills in the form of textual hints based on a…

  3. Using Collaborative Web Technology to Construct the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    PubMed Central

    MOSER, RICHARD P.; BECKJORD, ELLEN BURKE; RUTTEN, LILA J. FINNEY; BLAKE, KELLY; HESSE, BRADFORD W.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of web-based technology to work in new collaborative environments, a phenomenon known as Science 2.0. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) created a web-based tool called HINTS-GEM that allows a diverse group of stakeholders to collaborate in a virtual environment by providing input on content for the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). This involved stakeholders providing new suggested content and commenting and rating on existing content. HINTS is a nationally-representative survey of the US non-institutionalized adult population (see Finney Rutten et al. [this journal] for more information about the HINTS program). This paper describes the conceptual development of HINTS-GEM and provides results of its use by stakeholders in creating an improved survey instrument. PMID:23020764

  4. Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Sulfamide and Sulfamate Nucleotidomimetic Inhibitors of hHint1.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rachit; Strom, Alexander; Zhou, Andrew; Maize, Kimberly M; Finzel, Barry C; Wagner, Carston R

    2016-08-11

    Hint1 has recently emerged to be an important target of interest due to its involvement in the regulation of a broad range of CNS functions including opioid signaling, tolerance, neuropathic pain, and nicotine dependence. A series of inhibitors were rationally designed, synthesized, and tested for their inhibitory activity against hHint1 using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The studies resulted in the development of the first small-molecule inhibitors of hHint1 with submicromolar binding affinities. A combination of thermodynamic and high-resolution X-ray crystallographic studies provides an insight into the biomolecular recognition of ligands by hHint1. These novel inhibitors have potential utility as molecular probes to better understand the role and function of hHint1 in the CNS. PMID:27563403

  5. Hints for Enhanced b -> sg From Charm and Kaon Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Rathsman, Johan

    2003-05-09

    Previously, motivation for enhanced b {yields} sg from new flavor physics has centered on discrepancies between theory and experiment. Here two experimental hints are considered: (1) updated measurements of the charm multiplicity and {Beta}({bar B} {yields} X{sub c{bar c}s}) at the {Upsilon}(4S) imply {Beta}(B {yields} X{sub no charm}) {approx} 12.4 {+-} 5.6%, (2) the {bar B} {yields} K{sup -}X and {bar B} {yields} K{sup +}/K{sup -}X branching fractions are in excess of conventional {bar B} {yields} X{sub c} {yields} KX yields by about 16.9 {+-} 5.6% and 18 {+-} 5.3%, respectively. JETSET 7.4 was used to estimate kaon yields from s{bar s} popping in {bar B} {yields} X{sub c{bar u}d} decays. JETSET 7.4 Monte Carlos for {Beta}({bar B} {yields} X{sub sg}) {approx} 15% imply that the additional kaon production would lead to 1{sigma} agreement with observed charged and neutral kaon yields. The K{sub s} momentum spectrum would be consistent with recent CLEO bounds in the end point region. Search strategies for enhanced b {yields} sg are discussed in light of large theoretical uncertainty in the standard model fast kaon background from b {yields} s penguin operators.

  6. Basics of compounding: Tips and hints, part 4: lollipops/lozenges, gummy bears, patches, flavoring/coloring, sweeteners, and packaging.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2014-01-01

    Just a reminder--shortcuts, tips, hints, new techniques, etc. help make every compounder's job easier and enhance patient care. Keep a list of these tips and hints and add to them as new techniques are developed.

  7. Acute behavioral effects of nicotine in male and female HINT1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Jackson, K J; Wang, J B; Barbier, E; Chen, X; Damaj, M I

    2012-11-01

    Human genetic association and brain expression studies, and mouse behavioral and molecular studies implicate a role for the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and anxiety. The high comorbidity between smoking and psychiatric disorders, schizophrenia in particular, is well established. Associations with schizophrenia and HINT1 are also sex specific, with effects more predominant in males; however, it is unknown if sex differences associated with the gene extend to other phenotypes. Thus, in this study, using a battery of behavioral tests, we elucidated the role of HINT1 in acute nicotine-mediated behaviors using male and female HINT1 wild-type (+/+) and knockout (-/-) mice. The results show that male HINT1 -/- mice were less sensitive to acute nicotine-induced antinociception in the tail-flick, but not hot-plate test. At low nicotine doses, male and female HINT1 -/- mice were less sensitive to nicotine-induced hypomotility, although the effect was more pronounced in females. Baseline differences in locomotor activity observed in male HINT1 +/+ and -/- mice were absent in females. Nicotine did not produce an anxiolytic effect in male HINT1 -/- mice, but rather an anxiogenic response. Diazepam also failed to induce an anxiolytic response in these mice, suggesting a general anxiety phenotype not specific to nicotine. Differences in anxiety-like behavior were not observed in female mice. These results further support a role for HINT1 in nicotine-mediated behaviors and suggest that alterations in the gene may have differential effects on phenotype in males and females. PMID:22827509

  8. HINT1 is involved in the behavioral abnormalities induced by social isolation rearing.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yong-hui; Liu, Peng; Ma, Rui; Chu, Zheng; Liu, You-ping; Wang, Jia-bei; Ma, Xian-cang; Gao, Cheng-ge

    2015-10-21

    Social isolation (SI) rearing has been demonstrated to induce behavioral abnormalities like anxiety, impulsivity, aggression, and learning and memory deficits which are relevant to core symptoms in patients with some certain neuropsychiatric disorders. But the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have revealed HINT1 has close relation with diverse neuropsychiatric diseases. In this present study, the SI rearing mice exhibited depression-like and aggressive behavior. Besides, HINT1 protein levels decreased in PFC but increased in HIP. Based on the data obtained, we concluded that HINT1 is involved in the behavioral abnormalities induced by social isolation and exerts distinct roles in different encephalic regions.

  9. HINT1 is involved in the behavioral abnormalities induced by social isolation rearing.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yong-hui; Liu, Peng; Ma, Rui; Chu, Zheng; Liu, You-ping; Wang, Jia-bei; Ma, Xian-cang; Gao, Cheng-ge

    2015-10-21

    Social isolation (SI) rearing has been demonstrated to induce behavioral abnormalities like anxiety, impulsivity, aggression, and learning and memory deficits which are relevant to core symptoms in patients with some certain neuropsychiatric disorders. But the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have revealed HINT1 has close relation with diverse neuropsychiatric diseases. In this present study, the SI rearing mice exhibited depression-like and aggressive behavior. Besides, HINT1 protein levels decreased in PFC but increased in HIP. Based on the data obtained, we concluded that HINT1 is involved in the behavioral abnormalities induced by social isolation and exerts distinct roles in different encephalic regions. PMID:26300541

  10. Lithospheric Decoupling and Rotations: Hints from Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muluneh, A. A.; Cuffaro, M.; Doglioni, C.; Kidane, T.

    2014-12-01

    Plates move relative to the mantle because some torques are acting on them. The shear in the low-velocity zone (LVZ) at the base of the lithosphere is the expression of these torques. The decoupling is allowed by the low viscosity in the LVZ, which is likely few orders of magnitudes lower than previously estimated. The viscosity value in the LVZ controls the degree of coupling/decoupling between the lithosphere and the underlying mantle. Lateral variations in viscosity within the LVZ may explain the velocity gradient among tectonic plates as the one determining the Ethiopian Rift (ER) separating Africa from Somalia. While it remains not fully understood the mechanisms of the torques acting on the lithosphere (thermally driven mantle convection or the combination of mantle convection with astronomical forces such as the Earth's rotation and tidal drag), the stresses are transmitted across the different mechanical layers (e.g., the brittle upper crust, down to the viscous-plastic ductile lower crust and upper mantle). Differential basal shear traction at the base of the lithosphere beneath the two sides of the East African Rift System (EARS) is assumed to drive and sustain rifting. In our analysis, the differential torques acting on the lithospheric/crustal blocks drive kinematics and block rotations. Since, ER involves the whole lithosphere, we do not expect large amount of rotation. Rotation can be the result of the whole plate motion on the sphere moving along the tectonic equator, or the second order sub-rotation of a single plate. Further rotation may occur along oblique plate boundaries (e.g., left lateral transtensional setting at the ER). Small amount of vertical axis rotation of blocks in northern ER could be related to the presence of local, shallower decollement layers. Shallow brittle-ductile transition (BDT) zone and differential tilting of crustal blocks in the northern ER could hint a possibility of detachment surface between the flow in the lower

  11. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra craters, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, Riccardo; Pio Rossi, Angelo; Massironi, Matteo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Pondrelli, Monica; Marinangeli, Lucia; Unnithan, Vikram

    2014-05-01

    during bulge sequences deposition. One or - more likely - multiple layers of sulfates below the shallower levels of Arabia Terra surface need, in our opinion, to be hypothesized in order to explain all these contrasting observations. Indeed impact cratering on such an evaporate bearing layered target might have provided the ideal conditions of faulting, interconnectivity of evaporatic beds and lithostatic load release to allow diapirs ascent, In turn diapirism could have been responsible for central bulging as testified by outward dipping strata on stratified bulges, broad un-stratified bulges and folding (see Jackson and Vendeville, 1994 for typical salt tectonics). The depth of the fluid source calculated with a fractal method (Pozzobon et al., 2013) using the position of the small widespread mounds within Firsoff and Crommelin craters can give a hint of the average depth of the evaportic horizons (~4 km). As further developments we plan to test and quantify our model to take into account geological evidences, possible kinematics, rheology and stratigraphic constrains. References: Andrews-Hanna, J.C., and Lewis, K.W., 2011, Early Mars hydrology: 2. Hydrological evolution in the Noachian and Hesperian epochs: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 116, p. E02007, doi: 10.1029/2010JE003709. Franchi, F., Rossi, A. P., Pondrelli, M., Cavalazzi, B. (2014) Geometry, stratigraphy and evidences for fluid expulsion within Crommelin crater deposits, Arabia Terra, Mars. Planet Space Sci., in press. DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2013.12.013, Jackson M.P.A. & Vendeville B.C. (1994) - Regional extension as a geologic trigger for diapirism, GSA Bulletin, 106: 57-73, Pondrelli, M., Rossi, A. P., Ori, G.G., van Gasselt, S., Praeg, D., and Ceramicola, S., 2011, Mud volcanoes in the geologic record of Mars: The case of Firsoff crater: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 304, p. 511-519, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.02.027., Pozzobon R. et al. (2013), AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract #1797270.

  12. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: Steps for Developing a School Emergency Management Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools strongly encourages schools and school districts to develop emergency management plans within the context of the four phases of emergency management:…

  13. Semantic Elaboration through Integration: Hints Both Facilitate and Inform the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Varga, Nicole L.; King, Jessica E.; Nolen, Ayla M.; White, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic knowledge can be extended in a variety of ways, including self-generation of new facts through integration of separate yet related episodes. We sought to promote integration and self-generation by providing "hints" to help 6-year-olds (Experiment 1) and 4-year-olds (Experiment 2) see the relevance of separate episodes to one…

  14. The Effect of Incidental Hints when Problems Are Suspended before, during, or after an Impasse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jarrod; Kotovsky, Kenneth; Cagan, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examine how the time at which problem solving is suspended relative to an impasse affects the impact of incidental hints. An impasse is a point in problem solving at which a problem solver is not making progress and does not know how to proceed. In both studies, work on remote associates problems was suspended before an impasse was…

  15. Helpful Hints for Advising and Counseling Minority Students in Predominantly White Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, George A.

    Advice about advising and counseling minority students at predominantly white colleges and data about the enrollment and majors of minorities are provided. Included are a list of hints concerning: personal relations and student retention, educational development, financial assistance, and career planning. A list of words and phrases that offend…

  16. Interaction Networks: Generating High Level Hints Based on Network Community Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagle, Michael; Johnson, Matthew; Barnes, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel data structure, the Interaction Network, for representing interaction-data from open problem solving environment tutors. We show how using network community detecting techniques are used to identify sub-goals in problems in a logic tutor. We then use those community structures to generate high level hints between sub-goals.…

  17. Adult Participation in Children's Word Searches: On the Use of Prompting, Hinting, and Supplying a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Although word searching in children is very common, very little is known about how adults support children in the turns following the child's search behaviours, an important topic because of the social, educational, and clinical implications. This study characterizes, in detail, teachers' use of prompting, hinting, and supplying a model. From a…

  18. Enhancement of Student Learning through the Use of a Hinting Computer E-Learning System and Comparison with Human Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Merino, P. J.; Kloos, C. D.; Munoz-Organero, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment in a Computer Architecture Laboratory course classroom session, in which students were divided into two groups for interaction both with a hinting e-learning system and with human teachers generating hints. The results show that there were high learning gains for both groups, demonstrating the…

  19. Stoic Behavior Hypothesis in Hint Seeking and Development of Reversi Learning Environment as Work Bench for Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miwa, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Kazuaki; Terai, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Tutoring systems provide students with various types of on-demand and context-sensitive hints. Students are required to consciously adapt their help-seeking behavior, proactively seek help in some situations, and solve problems independently without supports in other situations. We define the latter behavior as stoic behavior in hint seeking. In…

  20. A Time Series Analysis of Cancer-Related Information Seeking: Hints From the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2003-2014.

    PubMed

    Huerta, Timothy R; Walker, Daniel M; Johnson, Tyler; Ford, Eric W

    2016-09-01

    Recent technological changes, such as the growth of the Internet, have made cancer information widely available. However, it remains unknown whether changes in access have resulted in concomitant changes in information seeking behavior. Previous work explored the cancer information seeking behaviors of the general population using the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). This article aims to reproduce, replicate, and extend that existing analysis using the original dataset and five additional iterations of HINTS (2007, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014). This approach builds on the earlier work by quantifying the magnitude of change in information seeking behaviors. Bivariate comparison of the 2003 and 2014 data revealed very similar results; however, the multivariate model including all years of data indicated differences between the original and extended models: individuals age 65 and older were no longer less likely to seek cancer information than the 18-35 reference population, and Hispanics were also no longer less likely to be cancer information seekers. The results of our analysis indicate an overall shift in cancer information seeking behaviors and also illuminate the impact of increased Internet usage over the past decade, suggesting specific demographic groups that may benefit from cancer information seeking encouragement. PMID:27565190

  1. Model based hint for litho hotspot fixing beyond 20nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Byung-Moo; Ha, Naya; Choi, Hung bok; Kim, Kee sup; Mohamed, Sarah; Madkour, Kareem; ElManhawy, Wael; Lee, Evan; Brunet, Jean-Marie; Kwan, Joe

    2013-03-01

    As technology nodes scale beyond 20nm node, design complexity increases and printability issues become more critical and hard for RET techniques to fix. It is now mandatory for designers to run lithography checks prior to tape out and acceptance by the foundry. As lithography compliance became a sign-off criterion, lithography hotspots are increasingly treated like DRC violations. In the case of lithography hotspot, layout edges that should be moved to fix the hotspot are not necessarily the edges directly touching it. As a result of that, providing the designer with a suggested layout movements to fix the lithography hotspot is becoming a necessity. Software solutions generating hints should be accurate and fast. In this paper we are presenting a methodology for providing hints to the designers to fix Litho-hotspots in the 20nm and beyond.

  2. Gene prediction in eukaryotes with a generalized hidden Markov model that uses hints from external sources

    PubMed Central

    Stanke, Mario; Schöffmann, Oliver; Morgenstern, Burkhard; Waack, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Background In order to improve gene prediction, extrinsic evidence on the gene structure can be collected from various sources of information such as genome-genome comparisons and EST and protein alignments. However, such evidence is often incomplete and usually uncertain. The extrinsic evidence is usually not sufficient to recover the complete gene structure of all genes completely and the available evidence is often unreliable. Therefore extrinsic evidence is most valuable when it is balanced with sequence-intrinsic evidence. Results We present a fairly general method for integration of external information. Our method is based on the evaluation of hints to potentially protein-coding regions by means of a Generalized Hidden Markov Model (GHMM) that takes both intrinsic and extrinsic information into account. We used this method to extend the ab initio gene prediction program AUGUSTUS to a versatile tool that we call AUGUSTUS+. In this study, we focus on hints derived from matches to an EST or protein database, but our approach can be used to include arbitrary user-defined hints. Our method is only moderately effected by the length of a database match. Further, it exploits the information that can be derived from the absence of such matches. As a special case, AUGUSTUS+ can predict genes under user-defined constraints, e.g. if the positions of certain exons are known. With hints from EST and protein databases, our new approach was able to predict 89% of the exons in human chromosome 22 correctly. Conclusion Sensitive probabilistic modeling of extrinsic evidence such as sequence database matches can increase gene prediction accuracy. When a match of a sequence interval to an EST or protein sequence is used it should be treated as compound information rather than as information about individual positions. PMID:16469098

  3. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Truncal Ataxia and HINTS as Cardinal Signs for Acute Vestibular Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Sergio; Martínez, Carlos; Zalazar, Guillermo; Moro, Marcela; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Luis, Leonel; Gordon, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew (HINTS) protocol set a new paradigm to differentiate peripheral vestibular disease from stroke in patients with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The relationship between degree of truncal ataxia and stroke has not been systematically studied in patients with AVS. We studied a group of 114 patients who were admitted to a General Hospital due to AVS, 72 of them with vestibular neuritis (based on positive head impulse, abnormal caloric tests, and negative MRI) and the rest with stroke: 32 in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory (positive HINTS findings, positive MRI) and 10 in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory (variable findings and grade 3 ataxia, positive MRI). Truncal ataxia was measured by independent observers as grade 1, mild to moderate imbalance with walking independently; grade 2, severe imbalance with standing, but cannot walk without support; and grade 3, falling at upright posture. When we applied the HINTS protocol to our sample, we obtained 100% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity, similar to previously published findings. Only those patients with stroke presented with grade 3 ataxia. Of those with grade 2 ataxia (n = 38), 11 had cerebellar stroke and 28 had vestibular neuritis, not related to the patient's age. Grade 2-3 ataxia was 92.9% sensitive and 61.1% specific to detect AICA/PICA stroke in patients with AVS, with 100% sensitivity to detect AICA stroke. In turn, two signs (nystagmus of central origin and grade 2-3 Ataxia) had 100% sensitivity and 61.1% specificity. Ataxia is less sensitive than HINTS but much easier to evaluate.

  4. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Truncal Ataxia and HINTS as Cardinal Signs for Acute Vestibular Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Sergio; Martínez, Carlos; Zalazar, Guillermo; Moro, Marcela; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Luis, Leonel; Gordon, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew (HINTS) protocol set a new paradigm to differentiate peripheral vestibular disease from stroke in patients with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The relationship between degree of truncal ataxia and stroke has not been systematically studied in patients with AVS. We studied a group of 114 patients who were admitted to a General Hospital due to AVS, 72 of them with vestibular neuritis (based on positive head impulse, abnormal caloric tests, and negative MRI) and the rest with stroke: 32 in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory (positive HINTS findings, positive MRI) and 10 in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory (variable findings and grade 3 ataxia, positive MRI). Truncal ataxia was measured by independent observers as grade 1, mild to moderate imbalance with walking independently; grade 2, severe imbalance with standing, but cannot walk without support; and grade 3, falling at upright posture. When we applied the HINTS protocol to our sample, we obtained 100% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity, similar to previously published findings. Only those patients with stroke presented with grade 3 ataxia. Of those with grade 2 ataxia (n = 38), 11 had cerebellar stroke and 28 had vestibular neuritis, not related to the patient’s age. Grade 2–3 ataxia was 92.9% sensitive and 61.1% specific to detect AICA/PICA stroke in patients with AVS, with 100% sensitivity to detect AICA stroke. In turn, two signs (nystagmus of central origin and grade 2–3 Ataxia) had 100% sensitivity and 61.1% specificity. Ataxia is less sensitive than HINTS but much easier to evaluate. PMID:27551274

  5. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Truncal Ataxia and HINTS as Cardinal Signs for Acute Vestibular Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Sergio; Martínez, Carlos; Zalazar, Guillermo; Moro, Marcela; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Luis, Leonel; Gordon, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew (HINTS) protocol set a new paradigm to differentiate peripheral vestibular disease from stroke in patients with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The relationship between degree of truncal ataxia and stroke has not been systematically studied in patients with AVS. We studied a group of 114 patients who were admitted to a General Hospital due to AVS, 72 of them with vestibular neuritis (based on positive head impulse, abnormal caloric tests, and negative MRI) and the rest with stroke: 32 in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory (positive HINTS findings, positive MRI) and 10 in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory (variable findings and grade 3 ataxia, positive MRI). Truncal ataxia was measured by independent observers as grade 1, mild to moderate imbalance with walking independently; grade 2, severe imbalance with standing, but cannot walk without support; and grade 3, falling at upright posture. When we applied the HINTS protocol to our sample, we obtained 100% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity, similar to previously published findings. Only those patients with stroke presented with grade 3 ataxia. Of those with grade 2 ataxia (n = 38), 11 had cerebellar stroke and 28 had vestibular neuritis, not related to the patient's age. Grade 2-3 ataxia was 92.9% sensitive and 61.1% specific to detect AICA/PICA stroke in patients with AVS, with 100% sensitivity to detect AICA stroke. In turn, two signs (nystagmus of central origin and grade 2-3 Ataxia) had 100% sensitivity and 61.1% specificity. Ataxia is less sensitive than HINTS but much easier to evaluate. PMID:27551274

  6. Helpful Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides directives for the assembly of a skin sensitivity tester that can be used to examine the skin's function of feeling. Procedures for this experiment are reviewed and a chart for recording the data is also included. (ML)

  7. Adult participation in children's word searches: on the use of prompting, hinting, and supplying a model.

    PubMed

    Radford, Julie

    2010-02-01

    Although word searching in children is very common, very little is known about how adults support children in the turns following the child's search behaviours, an important topic because of the social, educational, and clinical implications. This study characterizes, in detail, teachers' use of prompting, hinting, and supplying a model. From a classroom dataset of 53 instances, several distinctive patterns emerged. A prompted completion sequence is initiated by a 'word retrieval elicitor' ('fishing::') and is interpreted as a request to complete the phrase. Non-verbal prompting is accomplished through a combination of gaze and gesture and, also, as a series of prompts. Hinting supplies a verbal clue, typically via a wh-question, or by specifying the nature of the repairable. In contrast, the strategies that supply a linguistic model include both embedded and exposed corrections and offers of candidates. A sequential relationship was found between prompting, hinting, and supplying a model which has implications for how clinicians and teachers can foster self-repair.

  8. Crystallographic studies of the complex of human HINT1 protein with a non-hydrolyzable analog of Ap4A.

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafał; Kaczmarek, Renata; Sęda, Aleksandra; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Baraniak, Janina; Nawrot, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch in the histidine triad proteins superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes, and it has been found in many species. Here, we report the first structure (at a 2.34Å resolution) of a complex of human HINT1 with a non-hydrolyzable analog of an Ap4A dinucleotide, containing bis-phosphorothioated glycerol mimicking a polyphosphate chain, obtained from a primitive monoclinic space group P21 crystal. In addition, the apo form of hHINT1 at the space group P21 refined to 1.92Å is reported for comparative studies.

  9. Crystallographic studies of the complex of human HINT1 protein with a non-hydrolyzable analog of Ap4A.

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafał; Kaczmarek, Renata; Sęda, Aleksandra; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Baraniak, Janina; Nawrot, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch in the histidine triad proteins superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes, and it has been found in many species. Here, we report the first structure (at a 2.34Å resolution) of a complex of human HINT1 with a non-hydrolyzable analog of an Ap4A dinucleotide, containing bis-phosphorothioated glycerol mimicking a polyphosphate chain, obtained from a primitive monoclinic space group P21 crystal. In addition, the apo form of hHINT1 at the space group P21 refined to 1.92Å is reported for comparative studies. PMID:26905466

  10. The boy who would be queen: hints and closets on children's television.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Jeffery P

    2009-01-01

    Although American television programs targeted at children and adolescents posit universal heterosexuality and never openly allude to LGBT persons, a content analysis of 102 episodes of 25 contemporary children's programs revealed many examples of resistance to the heteronormative ideology: intimate same-sex friendships; inclusive statements or stage business; scenes that hint at the existence of same-sex desire; gender-transgressive or otherwise gay-stereotyped characters; and jokes and references that require a knowledge of gay culture. The impact of this resistance on viewers is analyzed through fan fiction and artwork, and potential explanations are examined. PMID:19657933

  11. Hints from Run 1 and prospects from Run 2 at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernius, Catrin

    2016-06-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN has allowed the ATLAS experiment to collect a large amount of proton-proton collision data at 7 TeV and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energies throughout Run 1. This dataset was used to discover a Higgs boson with Standard Model-like properties at a mass of about 125 GeV. Furthermore, an impressive number of searches for deviations from the Standard Model expectations have been carried out. To date, no evidence for new physics beyond the SM has been found. However, a few hints in form of 2-3 σ deviations have been observed. After an 18-month shutdown, in which the ATLAS detector has undergone various upgrades, the LHC has again started to deliver collision data at an increased centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, providing a much improved sensitivity for various searches, in particular for high mass particles. Some representative hints at the LHC Run 1 are presented, a brief overview of ATLAS upgrades and prospects for SUSY searches with early Run 2 data are given.

  12. Performance of bilingual speakers on the English and Spanish versions of the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Deborah; Dempsey, James J

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the performance of bilingual participants on the English and Spanish versions of the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). The participants were divided into an early bilingual (EB) group and a late bilingual (LB) group based on age of second-language acquisition. All participants acquired Spanish as their first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Care was taken to ensure that all participants demonstrated at least a "good competence level" for self-rated speaking, understanding, reading, and writing skills in both English and Spanish. Results revealed superior performance on the Spanish HINT versus the English HINT in both quiet and in noise for both groups of participants. Significant differences in performance were noted for the EB versus the LB participants. A number of possible explanations for superior performance in L1 are provided, and implications for educating students in their L2 are discussed. PMID:18637406

  13. Performance of bilingual speakers on the English and Spanish versions of the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Deborah; Dempsey, James J

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the performance of bilingual participants on the English and Spanish versions of the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). The participants were divided into an early bilingual (EB) group and a late bilingual (LB) group based on age of second-language acquisition. All participants acquired Spanish as their first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Care was taken to ensure that all participants demonstrated at least a "good competence level" for self-rated speaking, understanding, reading, and writing skills in both English and Spanish. Results revealed superior performance on the Spanish HINT versus the English HINT in both quiet and in noise for both groups of participants. Significant differences in performance were noted for the EB versus the LB participants. A number of possible explanations for superior performance in L1 are provided, and implications for educating students in their L2 are discussed.

  14. Phase transitions in hydrophobe/phospholipid mixtures: hints at connections between pheromones and anaesthetic activity.

    PubMed

    Borsacchi, Silvia; Geppi, Marco; Macchi, Sara; Ninham, Barry W; Fratini, Emiliano; Ambrosi, Moira; Baglioni, Piero; Lo Nostro, Pierandrea

    2016-06-01

    The phase behavior of a mixture of a typical insect pheromone (olean) and a phospholipid (DOPC)/water dispersion is extensively explored through SAXS, NMR and DSC experiments. The results mimic those obtained with anaesthetics in phospholipid/water systems. They also mimic the behavior and microstructure of ternary mixtures of a membrane mimetic, bilayer-forming double chained surfactants, oils and water. Taken together with recent models for conduction of the nervous impulse, all hint at lipid involvement and the underlying unity in mechanisms of pheromone, anaesthetic and hydrophobic drugs, where a local phase change in the lipid membrane architecture may be at least partly involved in the transmission of the signal. PMID:27210443

  15. A megaxion at 750 GeV as a first hint of low scale string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, Luis E.; Martín-Lozano, Víctor

    2016-07-01

    Low scale string models naturally have axion-like pseudoscalars which couple directly to gluons and photons (but not W 's) at tree level. We show how they typically get tree level masses in the presence of closed string fluxes , consistent with the axion discrete gauge symmetry, in a way akin of the axion monodromy of string inflation and relaxion models. We discuss the possibility that the hints for a resonance at 750 GeV recently reported at ATLAS and CMS could correspond to such a heavy axion state ( megaxion). Adjusting the production rate and branching ratios suggest the string scale to be of order M s ≃ 7-104 TeV, depending on the compactification geometry. If this interpretation was correct, one extra Z' gauge boson could be produced before reaching the string threshold at LHC and future colliders.

  16. Updating and Maintaining School Emergency Management Plans. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management. Volume 2, Issue 3, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. Developing and implementing comprehensive, multi-hazard emergency management plans is an ongoing process that must be consistently reinforced and strengthened. Opportunities for reviewing, strengthening and updating…

  17. What Does the Public Know about Preventing Cancer? Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Nikki A.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Peipins, Lucy A.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides information about the public's familiarity with cancer prevention strategies and examines the association between this familiarity and actual prevention behavior. Data from interviews with 5,589 adults included in the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were analyzed. Most respondents were able to cite one or…

  18. The ON:OFF switch, σ1R-HINT1 protein, controls GPCR-NMDA receptor cross-regulation: Implications in neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Cortés-Montero, Elsa; Pozo-Rodrigálvarez, Andrea; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar; Garzón-Niño, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the brain, the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) and sigma 1 receptors (σ1Rs) coordinate the activity of certain G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) with that of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). To determine the role of HINT1-σ1R in the plasticity of GPCR-NMDAR interactions, substances acting at MOR, cannabinoid CB1 receptor, NMDAR and σ1R were injected into mice, and their effects were evaluated through in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro assays. It was observed that HINT1 protein binds to GPCRs and NMDAR NR1 subunits in a calcium-independent manner, whereas σ1R binding to these proteins increases in the presence of calcium. In this scenario, σ1R agonists keep HINT1 at the GPCR and stimulate GPCR-NMDAR interaction, whereas σ1R antagonists transfer HINT1 to NR1 subunits and disengage both receptors. This regulation is lost in σ1R−/− mice, where HINT1 proteins mostly associate with NMDARs, and GPCRs are physically and functionally disconnected from NMDARs. In HINT1−/− mice, ischemia produces low NMDAR-mediated brain damage, suggesting that several different GPCRs enhance glutamate excitotoxicity via HINT1-σ1R. Thus, several GPCRs associate with NMDARs by a dynamic process under the physiological control of HINT1 proteins and σ1Rs. The NMDAR-HINT1-σ1R complex deserves attention because it offers new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:26461475

  19. Immunological profile of arsenic toxicity: a hint towards arsenic-induced carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Sagar; Chaudhuri, Suhnrita; Chatterjee, Sirshendu; Kumar, Pankaj; Begum, Zarina; Dasgupta, Shyamal; Flora, S J S; Chaudhuri, Swapna

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (a Group I carcinogen in humans) contamination and poisoning of human populations in different parts of Southeast and Eastern Asia, including West Bengal and Bangladesh, has become a major environmental concern. Arsenic intoxication affects diverse human organs including the lungs, liver, skin, bladder and kidney. This metalloid acts as a promoter of carcinogenesis, exerting toxic effects on the immune system. The present study was aimed at investigating arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and effects on the immune system in an animal model. Tumors were induced using ethylnitrosourea (ENU) and arsenic was used as a promoter. To investigate specific effects on the immune system, cytokine (TNF-α, IFNγ, IL4, IL6, IL10, IL12) production of lymphocytes was evaluated by FACS. The damaging consequences of treatment were assessed by evaluating the specific programmed cell death cascade in lymphocytes, assessed by FACS readings. The results revealed that under arsenic influence, and more so with arsenic+ENU, marked neoplastic changes were noted, which were corroborated with histological changes, cytokine modulation and apoptosis hinted at marked neoplastic changes.

  20. HOW PECULIAR WAS THE RECENT EXTENDED MINIMUM: A HINT TOWARD DOUBLE MINIMA

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Kiran; Tripathy, S. C.; Hill, F.

    2011-09-20

    In this paper, we address the controversy regarding the recent extended solar minimum as seen in helioseismic low- and intermediate-degree mode frequencies: studies from different instruments identify different epochs of seismic minima. Here we use mode frequencies from a network of six identical instruments, the Global Oscillation Network Group, continuously collecting data for more than 15 years, to investigate the epoch of minimum in solar oscillation frequencies prior to the beginning of solar cycle 24. We include both low- and intermediate-degree modes in the l range of 0-120 and frequency range of 2.0-3.5 mHz. In this analysis, we demonstrate that there were indeed two minima in oscillation frequencies, depending upon the degree of modes, or more precisely the lower turning point radius of the propagating wave. We also analyze frequencies as a function of latitude to identify the beginning of solar cycle 24. We observe two minima at high latitudes and a single minimum at mid/low latitudes. This scenario is in contrast to cycle 23 where the epoch of seismic minimum did not change with latitude or depth. Our results also hint at a possible role of the relic magnetic field in modifying the oscillation frequencies of modes sampling deeper layers.

  1. 31P NMR and Genetic Analysis Establish hinT as the only E. coli Purine Nucleoside Phosphoramidase and as Essential for Growth under High Salt Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Tsui-Fen; Bieganowski, Pawel; Shilinski, Kara; Cheng, Jilin; Brenner, Charles; Wagner, Carston R.

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells encode AMP-lysine hydrolases related to the rabbit histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (Hint1) sequence. Bacterial and archaeal cells have Hint homologs annotated in a variety of ways but the enzymes have not been characterized, nor have phenotypes been described due to loss of enzymatic activity. We developed a quantitative 31P NMR assay to determine whether Escherichia coli possesses an adenosine phosphoramidase activity. Indeed, soluble lysates prepared from wild-type laboratory Escherichia coli exhibited activity on the model substrate adenosine monophosphoramidate (AMP-NH2). The Escherichia coli Hint homolog, which had been comprehensively designated ycfF and is here named hinT, was cloned, over-expressed, purified and characterized with respect to purine nucleoside phosphoramidate substrates. Bacterial hinT was several times more active than mammalian Hint on three model substrates. In addition, bacterial and mammalian enzymes preferred guanosine versus adenosine phosphoramidates as substrates. Analysis of the lysates from a constructed hinT knockout strain of Escherichia coli demonstrated that all of the cellular purine nucleoside phosphoramidase activity is due to hinT. Physiological analysis of this mutant revealed that the loss of hinT enzymatic activity results in failure to grow in media containing 0.75 KCl, 0.9 M NaCl, 0.5 M NaOAc and 10 mM MnCl2. Thus, bacteria may possess nucleotidylylated phosphoramidate substrates that must be hydrolyzed to support growth under certain high salt conditions. PMID:15703176

  2. ALMA HINTS AT THE PRESENCE OF TWO COMPANIONS IN THE DISK AROUND HD 100546

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Catherine; Juhász, Attila; Pinilla, Paola; Harsono, Daniel; Mathews, Geoffrey S.; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.; Dent, William R. F.; Birnstiel, T.; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Nomura, Hideko; Aikawa, Yuri; Millar, T. J.; Sandell, Göran

    2014-08-10

    HD 100546 is a well-studied Herbig Be star-disk system that likely hosts a close-in companion with compelling observational evidence for an embedded protoplanet at 68 AU. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations of the HD 100546 disk which resolve the gas and dust structure at (sub)millimeter wavelengths. The CO emission (at 345.795 GHz) originates from an extensive molecular disk (390 ± 20 AU in radius) whereas the continuum emission is more compact (230 ± 20 AU in radius), suggesting radial drift of the millimeter-sized grains. The CO emission is similar in extent to scattered light images indicating well-mixed gas and micrometer-sized grains in the disk atmosphere. Assuming azimuthal symmetry, a single-component power-law model cannot reproduce the continuum visibilities. The visibilities and images are better reproduced by a double-component model: a compact ring with a width of 21 AU centered at 26 AU and an outer ring with a width of 75 ± 3 AU centered at 190 ± 3 AU. The influence of a companion and protoplanet on the dust evolution is investigated. The companion at 10 AU facilitates the accumulation of millimeter-sized grains within a compact ring, ≈20-30 AU, by ≈10 Myr. The injection of a protoplanet at 1 Myr hastens the ring formation (≈1.2 Myr) and also triggers the development of an outer ring (≈100-200 AU). These observations provide additional evidence for the presence of a close-in companion and hint at dynamical clearing by a protoplanet in the outer disk.

  3. Discovery at Young Star Hints Magnetism Common to All Cosmic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-11-01

    Astronomers have found the first evidence of a magnetic field in a jet of material ejected from a young star, a discovery that points toward future breakthroughs in understanding the nature of all types of cosmic jets and of the role of magnetic fields in star formation. Throughout the Universe, jets of subatomic particles are ejected by three phenomena: the supermassive black holes at the cores of galaxies, smaller black holes or neutron stars consuming material from companion stars, and young stars still in the process of gathering mass from their surroundings. Previously, magnetic fields were detected in the jets of the first two, but until now, magnetic fields had not been confirmed in the jets from young stars. "Our discovery gives a strong hint that all three types of jets originate through a common process," said Carlos Carrasco-Gonzalez, of the Astrophysical Institute of Andalucia Spanish National Research Council (IAA-CSIC) and the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study a young star some 5,500 light-years from Earth, called IRAS 18162-2048. This star, possibly as massive as 10 Suns, is ejecting a jet 17 light-years long. Observing this object for 12 hours with the VLA, the scientists found that radio waves from the jet have a characteristic indicating they arose when fast-moving electrons interacted with magnetic fields. This characteristic, called polarization, gives a preferential alignment to the electric and magnetic fields of the radio waves. "We see for the first time that a jet from a young star shares this common characteristic with the other types of cosmic jets," said Luis Rodriguez, of UNAM. The discovery, the astronomers say, may allow them to gain an improved understanding of the physics of the jets as well as of the role magnetic fields play in forming new stars. The jets from young stars, unlike the other types, emit radiation

  4. Hint from the interfamily mass hierarchy: Two vectorlike families in the TeV range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. S.; Pati, Jogesh C.; Stremnitzer, Hanns

    1995-03-01

    Two vectorlike familes QL,R=(U, D, N, E)L,R and Q'L,R=(U', D', N', E')L,R with masses of order 1 TeV, one of which is a doublet of SU(2)L and the other a doublet of SU(2)R, have been predicted to exist, together with the three observed chiral families, in the context of a viable and economical SUSY preon model. The model itself possesses many attractive features which include explanations of the origins of (i) diverse mass scales, (ii) family replication, (iii) protection of the masses of the composite quarks and leptons compared to their compositeness scales, and (iv) interfamily mass hierarchy. The existence of the two vectorlike familes, a prediction of the model, turns out to be crucial especially for an explanation of the interfamily mass hierarchy (IFMH). Given the simplicity of the explanation, the observed IFMH in turn appears to us to be a strong hint in favor of the existence of the two vectorlike families. This paper is devoted to a detailed study of the expected masses, mixings and decay modes of the fermions belonging to the two vectorlike families, in the context of the SUSY preon model, with the inclusion of the renormalization effects due to the standard model gauge interactions. Including QCQ renormalization effects, the masses of the vectorlike quarks are expected to lie in the range of 500 GeV to about 2.5 TeV, while those of the vectorlike leptons are expected to be in the range of 200 GeV to 1 TeV. Their mass pattern and decay modes exhibit certain distinguishing features and characteristic signals. For example, when the CERN LHC and, possibly a future version of the SSC are built, pair production of the vectorlike quarks would lead to systems such as (bb¯+4Z+W+W-) and (bb¯+2Z+W+W-), while an e-e+ linear collider (NLC) of suitable energy can produce appreciably a single neutral heavy lepton N together, with ντ, followed by the decay of N into (Z+ντ)-->(e-e+)+ντ. This last signal may conceivably materialize even at CERN LEP 200 if N is

  5. PsHint1, associated with the G-protein α subunit PsGPA1, is required for the chemotaxis and pathogenicity of Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhai, Chunhua; Hua, Chenlei; Qiu, Min; Hao, Yujuan; Nie, Pingping; Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-02-01

    Zoospore chemotaxis to soybean isoflavones is essential in the early stages of infection by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae. Previously, we have identified a G-protein α subunit encoded by PsGPA1 which regulates the chemotaxis and pathogenicity of P. sojae. In the present study, we used affinity purification to identify PsGPA1-interacting proteins, including PsHint1, a histidine triad (HIT) domain-containing protein orthologous to human HIT nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1). PsHint1 interacted with both the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)- and guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound forms of PsGPA1. An analysis of the gene-silenced transformants revealed that PsHint1 was involved in the chemotropic response of zoospores to the isoflavone daidzein. During interaction with a susceptible soybean cultivar, PsHint1-silenced transformants displayed significantly reduced infectious hyphal extension and caused a strong cell death in plants. In addition, the transformants displayed defective cyst germination, forming abnormal germ tubes that were highly branched and exhibited apical swelling. These results suggest that PsHint1 not only regulates chemotaxis by interacting with PsGPA1, but also participates in a Gα-independent pathway involved in the pathogenicity of P. sojae.

  6. The σ1 Receptor Engages the Redox-Regulated HINT1 Protein to Bring Opioid Analgesia Under NMDA Receptor Negative Control

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar; Herrero-Labrador, Raquel; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; Merlos, Manuel; Vela, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The in vivo pharmacology of the sigma 1 receptor (σ1R) is certainly complex; however, σ1R antagonists are of therapeutic interest, because they enhance mu-opioid receptor (MOR)-mediated antinociception and reduce neuropathic pain. Thus, we investigated whether the σ1R is involved in the negative control that glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate acid receptors (NMDARs) exert on opioid antinociception. Results: The MOR C terminus carries the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) coupled to the regulator of G-protein signaling RGSZ2-neural nitric oxide synthase assembly. Activated MORs stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), and the redox zinc switch RGSZ2 converts this signal into free zinc ions that are required to recruit the redox sensor PKCγ to HINT1 proteins. Then, PKCγ impairs HINT1-RGSZ2 association and enables σ1R-NR1 interaction with MOR-HINT1 complexes to restrain opioid signaling. The inhibition of NOS or the absence of σ1Rs prevents HINT1-PKCγ interaction, and MOR-NMDAR cross-regulation fails. The σ1R antagonists transitorily remove the binding of σ1Rs to NR1 subunits, facilitate the entrance of negative regulators of NMDARs, likely Ca2+-CaM, and prevent NR1 interaction with HINT1, thereby impairing the negative feedback of glutamate on opioid analgesia. Innovation: A redox-regulated process situates MOR signaling under NMDAR control, and in this context, the σ1R binds to the cytosolic C terminal region of the NMDAR NR1 subunit. Conclusion: The σ1R antagonists enhance opioid analgesia in naïve mice by releasing MORs from the negative influence of NMDARs, and they also reset antinociception in morphine tolerant animals. Moreover, σ1R antagonists alleviate neuropathic pain, probably by driving the inhibition of up-regulated NMDARs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 799–818. PMID:25557043

  7. What does the public know about preventing cancer? Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Nikki A; Berkowitz, Zahava; Peipins, Lucy A

    2010-08-01

    This study provides information about the public's familiarity with cancer prevention strategies and examines the association between this familiarity and actual prevention behavior. Data from interviews with 5,589 adults included in the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were analyzed. Most respondents were able to cite one or two strategies for reducing the chances of cancer. On average, the fewest number of strategies were cited by Hispanics, respondents aged 65 years or older, and those with the lowest levels of education and income. Avoiding tobacco and eating a healthy diet were most commonly cited. People who cited the following strategies for preventing cancer were more likely to practice them: eating plenty of fruits and vegetables, exercising regularly, not smoking, and participating in cancer screening. Results indicate that efforts are needed to increase public familiarity with recommended strategies, especially among groups that are least familiar with recommendations for cancer prevention.

  8. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: The National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Schools. Frequently Asked Questions and FY 2006 NIMS Compliance Activities for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The National Incident Management System (NIMS) is a comprehensive system that improves tribal and local emergency response operations through the use of the Incident Command System (ICS) and the application of standardized…

  9. Components of Comprehensive School and School District Emergency Management Plans. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management. Volume 2, Issue 2, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. This issue describes and contains a checklist that can assist schools and school districts in developing a new emergency management plan or refreshing their current one. To use the checklist, individuals should consider…

  10. Structural characterization of human histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 2 (hHint2), a member of the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Maize, Kimberly M.; Wagner, Carston R.; Finzel, Barry C.

    2013-01-01

    The histidine triad proteins (HITs) constitute a large and ubiquitous superfamily of nucleotide hydrolases. The human nucleotide binding proteins (hHints) are a distinct class of HITs noted for their acyl-AMP hydrolase and phosphoramidase activity. The first high resolution crystal structures of human Hint2 with and without bound adenosine monophosphate (AMP) are here described. The differences between hHint2 and previously known HIT-family protein structures are discussed. HIT-family enzymes have historically been divided into five classes based on their catalytic specificity: Hint, Fhit, GalT, DcpS, and Aprataxin. However, although several structures exist for enzymes in these classes, the endogenous substrates of many of these enzymes have not been identified or biochemically characterized. In order to better understand the structural relationship of the HIT enzymes, a structure-based phylogeny has been constructed that has resulted in the identification of several new putative HIT clades with potential acyl-AMP hydrolase and phosphoramidase activity. PMID:23659632

  11. The Intracellular Domain of Teneurin-1 Induces the Activity of Microphthalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF) by Binding to Transcriptional Repressor HINT1

    PubMed Central

    Schöler, Jonas; Ferralli, Jacqueline; Thiry, Stéphane; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Teneurins are large type II transmembrane proteins that are necessary for the normal development of the CNS. Although many studies highlight the significance of teneurins, especially during development, there is only limited information known about the molecular mechanisms of function. Previous studies have shown that the N-terminal intracellular domain (ICD) of teneurins can be cleaved at the membrane and subsequently translocates to the nucleus, where it can influence gene transcription. Because teneurin ICDs do not contain any intrinsic DNA binding sequences, interaction partners are required to affect transcription. Here, we identified histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1) as a human teneurin-1 ICD interaction partner in a yeast two-hybrid screen. This interaction was confirmed in human cells, where HINT1 is known to inhibit the transcription of target genes by directly binding to transcription factors at the promoter. In a whole transcriptome analysis of BS149 glioblastoma cells overexpressing the teneurin-1 ICD, several microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) target genes were found to be up-regulated. Directly comparing the transcriptomes of MITF versus TEN1-ICD-overexpressing BS149 cells revealed 42 co-regulated genes, including glycoprotein non-metastatic b (GPNMB). Using real-time quantitative PCR to detect endogenous GPNMB expression upon overexpression of MITF and HINT1 as well as promoter reporter assays using GPNMB promoter constructs, we could demonstrate that the teneurin-1 ICD binds HINT1, thus switching on MITF-dependent transcription of GPNMB. PMID:25648896

  12. Hint, Fhit and GalT: Function, Structure, Evolution and Mechanism of Three Branches of the Histidine Triad Superfamily of Nucleotide Hydrolases and Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Charles

    2008-01-01

    HIT (histidine triad)1 proteins, named for a motif related to the sequence HφHφHφφ, (φ a hydrophobic amino acid) are a superfamily of nucleotide hydrolases and transferases, which act on the α-phosphate of ribonucleotides, and contain a ∼30 kDa domain that is typically either a homodimer of ∼15 kDa polypeptides with two active-sites or an internally, imperfectly repeated polypeptide that retains a single HIT active site. On the basis of sequence, substrate specificity, structure, evolution and mechanism, HIT proteins can be classified into the Hint branch, which consists of adenosine 5′-monophosphoramide hydrolases, the Fhit branch, which consists of diadenosine polyphosphate hydrolases, and the GalT branch, which consists of specific nucleoside monophosphate transferases including galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, diadenosine tetraphosphate phosphorylase, and adenylylsulfate:phosphate adenylytransferase. At least one human representative of each branch is lost in human diseases. Aprataxin, a Hint branch hydrolase, is mutated in ataxia-oculomotor apraxia syndrome. Fhit is lost early in development of many epithelially derived tumors. GalT is deficient in galactosemia. Additionally, ASW is an avian Hint family member that has evolved to have unusual gene expression properties and the complete loss of its nucleotide binding-site. The potential roles of ASW and Hint in avian sexual development are discussed in an accompanying manuscript. Here we review what is known about biological activities of HIT proteins, the structural and biochemical bases for their functions, and propose a new enzyme mechanism for Hint and Fhit that may account for the differences between HIT hydrolases and transferases. PMID:12119013

  13. Smokers who use internet and smokers who don't: data from the Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Jacqueline L; Augustson, Erik M

    2006-12-01

    Web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATI) have proliferated in recent years, but little is known about those such sites are reaching and those who might be reached in the future. A better understanding of factors that differentiate smokers who do and do not use the Internet could help developers of smoking cessation resources optimize the content and dissemination of resources to these two groups. Using the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults, we compared smokers using the Internet (n=728) with smokers not using the Internet (n=516) on demographics, smoking history, healthcare (status, care, access, and use), beliefs about lung cancer risks, and media preferences. Our results showed that compared with smokers not on the Internet, those using the Internet had a higher income and were more likely to be employed, despite having a younger age. Internet-connected smokers also reported less psychological distress, fewer barriers to healthcare, and a greater interest in quitting smoking. Preferences for media also differed by Internet status: Those on the Internet spent less time on television and more time with newspapers and magazines than those not on the Internet. These and other differences may assist the public health community with both the design and dissemination of resources to help smokers quit.

  14. Racial and ethnic differences in direct-to-consumer genetic tests awareness in HINTS 2007: sociodemographic and numeracy correlates.

    PubMed

    Langford, Aisha T; Resnicow, Ken; Roberts, J Scott; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J

    2012-06-01

    To examine the association of 1) race/ethnicity and 2) numeracy with awareness of DTC genetic tests. Secondary analysis of 6,754 Hispanic, black, and white adult respondents to the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Logistic regression was used to examine sociodemographic predictors of DTC genetic tests awareness including race/ethnicity, income, education, and gender. Next, two numeracy variables were added to the model. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, black respondents were significantly less likely to have heard of DTC genetic tests compared to white respondents (OR = 0.79; CI: 0.65-0.97). When numeracy variables were added to the model, the effect of black race was no longer significant (OR = 0.84; CI: 0.69-1.04). Hispanic respondents did not significantly differ from white respondents in awareness of DTC genetic tests. Other significant correlates of DTC genetic tests awareness in the full model included education, income, age, and numeracy variables including degree to which people use medical statistics and numbers to make health decisions, and preference for words or numbers when discussing "the chance of something happening." Although black respondents were generally less aware of DTC genetic tests than white respondents, this relationship appears to be partially mediated by numeracy. PMID:22271378

  15. Earnings in e-learning: knowledge, CME credits or both? Hints from analysis of attendance dynamics and users' behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mazzoleni, M Cristina; Rognoni, Carla; Finozzi, Enrico; Landro, Mauro; Capodaglio, Edda; Imbriani, Marcello; Giorgi, Ines

    2010-01-01

    Many papers report and convey positive opinion about the use of e-learning in the healthcare sector. The issue is how to exploit at best such a powerful instrument. Starting from data regarding the usage of a CME e-learning course, attendance dynamics and users' behaviour have been inspected with the aim of getting some hints about how to improve the development and the delivery of e-learning courses for CME, and to promote knowledge acquisition at best. The different paths followed by 7811 users have been modeled, from enrolment to conclusion/drop-out, then the behaviour in terms of effort, elapsed time, achieved result have been analyzed. The obtained results point out: good acceptance (retention rate 83%) of a not basic educational model and effectiveness (success rate 79%). At the same time the inspection of behaviour has shown that there is a good margin of possible improvement in terms of knowledge acquisition. Conclusions provide a list of issues to keep in mind during system development, in order to provide CME e-learning meeting both credit and knowledge acquisition goals.

  16. Modulation masking release using the Brazilian-Portuguese HINT: Psychometric functions and the effect of speech time compression

    PubMed Central

    Grose, John H.; Griz, Silvana; Pacífico, Fernando A.; Advíncula, Karina P.; Menezes, Denise C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Brazilian-Portuguese Hearing In Noise Test (HINT) was used to investigate the benefit to speech recognition of listening in a fluctuating background. The goal was to determine whether modulation masking release varied as a function of the speech-to-masker ratio at threshold. Speech-to-masker ratio at threshold was manipulated using the novel approach of adjusting the time-compression of the speech. Design Experiment 1 measured performance-intensity functions in both a steady speech-shaped noise masker and a 10-Hz square-wave modulated masker. Experiment 2 measured speech-to-masker ratios at threshold as a function of time-compression of the speech (0, 33, and 50%) in both maskers. Study Sample Participants were normal-hearing adults who were native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese (Experiment 1: N = 10; Experiment 2: N = 30). Results The slope of the performance-intensity function was shallower in the modulated masker than in the steady masker for both words and sentences. Thresholds increased with increasing time-compression in both maskers, but more markedly in the modulated masker, resulting in reduced modulation masking release with increasing time-compression. Conclusions Speech-to-masker ratio at threshold varies with time-compression of speech. The results are relevant to the issue of whether degree of masker modulation benefit depends on speech-to-masker ratio at threshold. PMID:25630394

  17. Evolution of hedgehog and hedgehog-related genes, their origin from Hog proteins in ancestral eukaryotes and discovery of a novel Hint motif

    PubMed Central

    Bürglin, Thomas R

    2008-01-01

    Background The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays important roles in human and animal development as well as in carcinogenesis. Hh molecules have been found in both protostomes and deuterostomes, but curiously the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans lacks a bona-fide Hh. Instead a series of Hh-related proteins are found, which share the Hint/Hog domain with Hh, but have distinct N-termini. Results We performed extensive genome searches such as the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis and several nematodes to gain further insights into Hh evolution. We found six genes in N. vectensis with a relationship to Hh: two Hh genes, one gene with a Hh N-terminal domain fused to a Willebrand factor type A domain (VWA), and three genes containing Hint/Hog domains with distinct novel N-termini. In the nematode Brugia malayi we find the same types of hh-related genes as in C. elegans. In the more distantly related Enoplea nematodes Xiphinema and Trichinella spiralis we find a bona-fide Hh. In addition, T. spiralis also has a quahog gene like C. elegans, and there are several additional hh-related genes, some of which have secreted N-terminal domains of only 15 to 25 residues. Examination of other Hh pathway components revealed that T. spiralis - like C. elegans - lacks some of these components. Extending our search to all eukaryotes, we recovered genes containing a Hog domain similar to Hh from many different groups of protists. In addition, we identified a novel Hint gene family present in many eukaryote groups that encodes a VWA domain fused to a distinct Hint domain we call Vint. Further members of a poorly characterized Hint family were also retrieved from bacteria. Conclusion In Cnidaria and nematodes the evolution of hh genes occurred in parallel to the evolution of other genes that contain a Hog domain but have different N-termini. The fact that Hog genes comprising a secreted N-terminus and a Hog domain are found in many protists indicates that this gene family must have

  18. Perturbed Lepton-Specific Two-Higgs-Doublet Model Facing Experimental Hints for Physics beyond the Standard Model.

    PubMed

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-02-26

    BABAR, Belle, and LHCb Collaborations report evidence for new physics in B→Dτν and B→D^{*}τν of approximately 3.8σ. There is also the long lasting discrepancy of about 3σ in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the branching ratio for τ→μνν is 1.8σ (2.4σ) above the standard model expectation using the HFAG (PDG) values. Furthermore, CMS Collaboration finds hints for a nonzero decay rate of h→μτ. Interestingly, all these observations can be explained by introducing new scalars. In this Letter we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model (i.e., of type X) with additional nonstandard Yukawa couplings. It is found that one can accommodate τ→μνν with modified Higgs-τ couplings. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon can be explained if the additional neutral CP-even Higgs boson H is light (below 100 GeV). Also R(D) and R(D^{*}) can be easily explained by additional t-c-Higgs couplings. Combining these t-c couplings with a light H the decay rate for t→Hc can be in a testable range for the LHC. Effects in h→μτ are also possible, but in this case a simultaneous explanation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is difficult due to the unavoidable τ→μγ decay.

  19. Overcoming students' misconceptions concerning thermal physics with the aid of hints and peer interaction during a lecture course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2013-12-01

    As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures and homework sessions, and it consisted of three phases: individual working, hinting, and peer discussion. To probe students’ conceptual understanding before, during, and after the intervention, use was made of a diagnostic test related to the multiphased process of an ideal gas [D. E. Meltzer, Am. J. Phys. 72, 1432 (2004)AJPIAS0002-950510.1119/1.1789161]. The students’ conceptions were monitored by analyzing the explanations they provided and by recording the peer discussions of five voluntary pairs. The intervention helped students to realize the flaws in their explanations and increased the proportion of their scientific explanations, the increase being statistically significant in five tasks out of seven. When the same themes were addressed in a post-test, it was shown that the level of accurate explanations remained almost constant after the intervention, and hence it could be deduced that the impact had not been short-lived. In comparison with earlier studies conducted with the same material, our intervention produced a better learning outcome, the difference being 15-20 percentage points. In addition, the number of misconceptions on the part of the students was smaller in our study, although with individual exceptions. Hence, we conclude that the intervention was successful and that similar interventions could also be designed and implemented in other areas of physics.

  20. Perturbed Lepton-Specific Two-Higgs-Doublet Model Facing Experimental Hints for Physics beyond the Standard Model.

    PubMed

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-02-26

    BABAR, Belle, and LHCb Collaborations report evidence for new physics in B→Dτν and B→D^{*}τν of approximately 3.8σ. There is also the long lasting discrepancy of about 3σ in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the branching ratio for τ→μνν is 1.8σ (2.4σ) above the standard model expectation using the HFAG (PDG) values. Furthermore, CMS Collaboration finds hints for a nonzero decay rate of h→μτ. Interestingly, all these observations can be explained by introducing new scalars. In this Letter we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model (i.e., of type X) with additional nonstandard Yukawa couplings. It is found that one can accommodate τ→μνν with modified Higgs-τ couplings. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon can be explained if the additional neutral CP-even Higgs boson H is light (below 100 GeV). Also R(D) and R(D^{*}) can be easily explained by additional t-c-Higgs couplings. Combining these t-c couplings with a light H the decay rate for t→Hc can be in a testable range for the LHC. Effects in h→μτ are also possible, but in this case a simultaneous explanation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is difficult due to the unavoidable τ→μγ decay. PMID:26967409

  1. Perturbed Lepton-Specific Two-Higgs-Doublet Model Facing Experimental Hints for Physics beyond the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-02-01

    BABAR, Belle, and LHCb Collaborations report evidence for new physics in B →D τ ν and B →D*τ ν of approximately 3.8 σ . There is also the long lasting discrepancy of about 3 σ in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the branching ratio for τ →μ ν ν is 1.8 σ (2.4 σ ) above the standard model expectation using the HFAG (PDG) values. Furthermore, CMS Collaboration finds hints for a nonzero decay rate of h →μ τ . Interestingly, all these observations can be explained by introducing new scalars. In this Letter we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model (i.e., of type X) with additional nonstandard Yukawa couplings. It is found that one can accommodate τ →μ ν ν with modified Higgs-τ couplings. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon can be explained if the additional neutral C P -even Higgs boson H is light (below 100 GeV). Also R (D ) and R (D*) can be easily explained by additional t -c -Higgs couplings. Combining these t -c couplings with a light H the decay rate for t →H c can be in a testable range for the LHC. Effects in h →μ τ are also possible, but in this case a simultaneous explanation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is difficult due to the unavoidable τ →μ γ decay.

  2. Could structural similarity of specific domains between animal globins and plant antenna proteins provide hints important for the photoprotection mechanism?

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Non photochemical quenching is a fundamental mechanism in photosynthesis, which protects plants against excess excitation energy and is of crucial importance for their survival and fitness. In the last decades hundreds of papers have appeared that describe the role of antenna regulation in protection or the so called qE response. However, the exact quenching site is still obscure. Previously overlooked features of the antenna may provide hints towards the elucidation of its functionality and of the quenching mechanism. Recently it was demonstrated that the catalytic domain of human myoglobin that binds the pigment (i.e. heme) is similar in structure to the domain of the light harvesting complex II of pea that binds Chl a 614 (former known as b3). In addition, it is well accepted that conformational changes of the chlorophyll macrocycle result in reversible changes of fluorescence (the lowest fluorescence corresponds to non planar macrocycle). Here we put forward a hypothesis regarding the molecular mechanism that leads to the formation of a quenching center inside the antenna proteins. Our main suggestion is that a conformational change of helix H5 (known also as helix D) forces conformational changes in the macrocycle of Chl a 614 is implicated in the ΔA535 absorbance change and quenching during photoprotective qE. The specific features (some of them similar to those of heme domain of globins) of the b3 domain account for these traits. The model predicts that antenna proteins having b3 pigments (i.e. LHCII, CP29, CP26) can act as potential quenchers.

  3. Healthy household hints.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P

    1999-01-01

    Ten commonly found items that can help keep your home clean are listed. Baking soda and vinegar are effective in cleaning drains. Certain plants, including English ivy and the spider plant, filter carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide out of the air. In addition, specific brand-name products, such as Bon Ami and "Simple Green", are also good alternative cleansers. Contact information is provided. PMID:11366863

  4. Hints on Sharing Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Mary E., Comp.; Horne, Ulysses G., Comp.

    Based on the realization that each child must be given the opportunity to develop as a unique individual and that exposure to books expands a child's world, stimulating his creative thinking and his desire for new experiences, this booklet presents in outline form a variety of suggestions for encouraging children to share the books they have read.…

  5. A new crystal form of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (hHINT1) in complex with adenosine 5′-monophosphate at 1.38 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Dolot, Rafał; Ozga, Magdalena; Włodarczyk, Artur; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch of the histidine triad protein superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes and has been found in many species. Here, the structure of the human HINT1–adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) complex at 1.38 Å resolution obtained from a new monoclinic crystal form is reported. The final structure has R cryst = 0.1207 (R free = 0.1615) and the model exhibits good stereochemical quality. Detailed analysis of the high-resolution data allowed the details of the protein structure to be updated in comparison to the previously published data. PMID:22869114

  6. Computational chemistry study of 3D-structure-function relationships for enzymes based on Markov models for protein electrostatic, HINT, and van der Waals potentials.

    PubMed

    Concu, Riccardo; Podda, Gianni; Uriarte, Eugenio; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2009-07-15

    In a significant work, Dobson and Doig (J Mol Biol 2003, 330, 771) illustrated protein prediction as enzymatic or not from spatial structure without resorting to alignments. They used 52 protein features and a nonlinear support vector machine model to classify more than 1000 proteins collected from the PDB with a 77% overall accuracy. The most useful features were: the secondary-structure content, the amino acid frequencies, the number of disulphide bonds, and the largest cleft size. Working on the same dataset used by D&D, in this article we reported a good and simple model, based on the Markov chain models (MCM), to classify protein 3D structures as enzymatic or not, taking into consideration the spatial structure without resorting to alignments. Here we define, for the first time, a general MCM to calculate the electrostatic potential, molecular vibrations, van der Waals (vdw) interactions, and hydrophobic interactions (HINT) and use them in comparative studies of potential fields and/or protein function prediction. The dataset is composed of 1371 proteins divided into 689 enzymes and 682 nonenzymes, all proteins were collected from the PDB. The best model we found was a linear model carried out with the linear discriminant analysis; it was able to classify 74.18% of the proteins using only two electrostatic potentials. In the work described here, we define 3D-HINT potentials (mu(k)) and use them for the first time to derive a classifier for protein enzymes. We analyzed ROC curves, domain of applicability, parametric assumptions, desirability maps, and also tested other nonlinear artificial neural network models which did not improve the linear model. In closing, this MCM allows a fast calculation and comparison of different potentials deriving into accurate protein 3D structure-function relationships, notably simpler than the previous.

  7. The first metal phosphate incorporating isonicotinate ligand: synthesis, crystal structure, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy of Zn(HINT)(HPO 4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chih-Min; Chuang, Shiuan-Ting; Chuang, Ya-Lan; Kao, Hsien-Ming; Lii, Kwang-Hwa

    2004-04-01

    The first metal phosphate incorporating isonicotinate ligand, Zn(HINT)(HPO 4), was hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2 1/ c with cell parameters a=20.5643(8) Å, b=8.5169(4) Å, c=10.3928(4) Å, β=97.466(1)°, and Z=8. The structure consists of 2D neutral sheets of zinc hydrogen phosphate with the dipolar isonicotinate ligand being coordinated to zinc as a pendent group. Adjacent sheets are connected by hydrogen bonding. The 1H magic angle spinning NMR spectrum exhibits three resonances at 15.5, 8.1, and 4.8 ppm with an intensity ratio close to 1:4:1, corresponding to two different types of protons in isonicotinate ligand and one type of protons in hydrogen phosphate groups. The peak at 15.5 ppm can be assigned to the proton bonded to the pyridine nitrogen atom, which confirms the presence of +HNC 5H 4COO -.

  8. Adherence to Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines for U.S. Women Aged 25–64: Data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Richard P.; Gaffey, Allison; Waldron, William

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Although it is widely accepted that Papanicolaou (Pap) screening can reduce cervical cancer mortality, many women still do not maintain regular cervical cancer screenings. Objective To describe the prevalence of cervical cancer screening and the demographic, behavioral, psychological, and cancer-related knowledge factors associated with adherence to U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) cervical cancer screening guidelines among women in the United States. Methods Data for women aged 25–64 were obtained from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Women were considered adherent to screening guidelines if they had two consecutive, on-schedule screenings and planned to have another within the next 3 years. The sample comprised 2070 women. Results Ninety-eight percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, 90% reported having had a recent Pap smear (within 3 years), and 84% were adherent to USPSTF screening guidelines. Maintaining regular cervical cancer screening was significantly associated with having health insurance, normal body mass index (BMI), smoking status (nonsmoker), mood (absence of a mood disturbance), and being knowledgeable about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Conclusions Based on the observation that women who were current smokers, obese, or experiencing a substantial degree of psychological distress were significantly less likely to adhere to recommended screening guidelines, we suggest that healthcare providers pay particular attention to the screening needs of these more vulnerable women. PMID:19951209

  9. Familial clustering of Taenia solium cysticercosis in the rural pigs of Mexico: hints of genetic determinants in innate and acquired resistance to infection.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, E; Martínez, J J; Huerta, M; Avila, R; Fragoso, G; Villalobos, N; de Aluja, A; Larralde, C

    2003-10-20

    In two rural villages of the state of Puebla, Mexico, where Taenia solium pig cysticercosis is highly endemic, 120 pairs of young out-bred piglets were used to assay what proved to be an effective synthetic peptide vaccine against naturally acquired cysticercosis. Because the piglets used were all sired by one of three distinct studs in many different out-bred sows, the prevalence and intensity of infection, as well as degree of protection conferred by the vaccine, could be related to each of the three stud families (A-C). The highest prevalence was found in the C family (25%), whilst the prevalence of B and A families were 21.6 and 4.4%, respectively. Familial clustering of cases was even more conspicuous in vaccinated pigs than in not-vaccinated ones: seven of the nine cysticercosis cases that occurred in the vaccinated group belonged to the C family (7/26) and two to the B family (2/23), whilst the vaccine rendered the A family totally resistant (0/71). Parasite numbers were also higher in the C family in both nai;ve and vaccinated pigs. Familial clustering of cases and of large parasite numbers in naive and vaccinated pigs hint to the relevance of their genetic background in their innate and acquired resistance to cysticercosis.

  10. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS IN ORBITAL/SUPERORBITAL PHASE SPACE AND HINTS OF SUPERORBITAL VARIABILITY IN THE HARD X-RAYS OF LS I +61°303

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jian; Torres, Diego F.; Zhang, Shu

    2014-04-10

    We present an INTEGRAL spectral analysis in the orbital/superorbital phase space of LS I +61°303. A hard X-ray spectrum with no cutoff is observed at all orbital/superorbital phases. The hard X-ray index is found to be uncorrelated with the radio index (non-simultaneously) measured at the same orbital and superorbital phases. In particular, the absence of an X-ray spectrum softening during periods of negative radio index does not favor a simple interpretation of the radio index variations in terms of a microquasar's changes of state. We uncover hints of superorbital variability in the hard X-ray flux, in phase with the superorbital modulation in soft X-rays. An orbital phase drift of the radio peak flux and index along the superorbital period is observed in the radio data. We explore its influence on a previously reported double-peak structure of a radio orbital light curve, and present it as a plausible explanation.

  11. Dual activity of certain HIT-proteins: A. thaliana Hint4 and C. elegans DcpS act on adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate as hydrolases (forming AMP) and as phosphorylases (forming ADP).

    PubMed

    Guranowski, Andrzej; Wojdyła, Anna Maria; Zimny, Jarosław; Wypijewska, Anna; Kowalska, Joanna; Jemielity, Jacek; Davis, Richard E; Bieganowski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    Histidine triad (HIT)-family proteins interact with different mono- and dinucleotides and catalyze their hydrolysis. During a study of the substrate specificity of seven HIT-family proteins, we have shown that each can act as a sulfohydrolase, catalyzing the liberation of AMP from adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS or SO(4)-pA). However, in the presence of orthophosphate, Arabidopsis thaliana Hint4 and Caenorhabditis elegans DcpS also behaved as APS phosphorylases, forming ADP. Low pH promoted the phosphorolytic and high pH the hydrolytic activities. These proteins, and in particular Hint4, also catalyzed hydrolysis or phosphorolysis of some other adenylyl-derivatives but at lower rates than those for APS cleavage. A mechanism for these activities is proposed and the possible role of some HIT-proteins in APS metabolism is discussed. PMID:19896942

  12. Learner Differences in Hint Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Ilya M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Aleven, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Although ITSs are supposed to adapt to differences among learners, so far, little attention has been paid to how they might adapt to differences in how students learn from help. When students study with an Intelligent Tutoring System, they may receive multiple types of help, but may not comprehend and make use of this help in the same way. To…

  13. Moral reasoning: hints and allegations.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Joseph M; Greene, Joshua D

    2010-07-01

    Recent research in moral psychology highlights the role of emotion and intuition in moral judgment. In the wake of these findings, the role and significance of moral reasoning remain uncertain. In this article, we distinguish among different kinds of moral reasoning and review evidence suggesting that at least some kinds of moral reasoning play significant roles in moral judgment, including roles in abandoning moral intuitions in the absence of justifying reasons, applying both deontological and utilitarian moral principles, and counteracting automatic tendencies toward bias that would otherwise dominate behavior. We argue that little is known about the psychology of moral reasoning and that it may yet prove to be a potent social force. PMID:25163874

  14. Moral reasoning: hints and allegations.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Joseph M; Greene, Joshua D

    2010-07-01

    Recent research in moral psychology highlights the role of emotion and intuition in moral judgment. In the wake of these findings, the role and significance of moral reasoning remain uncertain. In this article, we distinguish among different kinds of moral reasoning and review evidence suggesting that at least some kinds of moral reasoning play significant roles in moral judgment, including roles in abandoning moral intuitions in the absence of justifying reasons, applying both deontological and utilitarian moral principles, and counteracting automatic tendencies toward bias that would otherwise dominate behavior. We argue that little is known about the psychology of moral reasoning and that it may yet prove to be a potent social force.

  15. Hints of a Shrinking Moon?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Newly discovered cliffs in the lunar crust indicate the moon shrank globally in the geologically recent past and might still be shrinking today, according to a team analyzing new images from NASA's...

  16. Observational hints on the Big Bounce

    SciTech Connect

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Kurek, Aleksandra; Szydłowski, Marek; Kamionka, Michał E-mail: kamionka@astro.uni.wroc.pl E-mail: uoszydlo@cyf-kr.edu.pl

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we study possible observational consequences of the bouncing cosmology. We consider a model where a phase of inflation is preceded by a cosmic bounce. While we consider in this paper only that the bounce is due to loop quantum gravity, most of the results presented here can be applied for different bouncing cosmologies. We concentrate on the scenario where the scalar field, as the result of contraction of the universe, is driven from the bottom of the potential well. The field is amplified, and finally the phase of the standard slow-roll inflation is realized. Such an evolution modifies the standard inflationary spectrum of perturbations by the additional oscillations and damping on the large scales. We extract the parameters of the model from the observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation. In particular, the value of inflaton mass is equal to m = (1.7±0.6)·10{sup 13} GeV. In our considerations we base on the seven years of observations made by the WMAP satellite. We propose the new observational consistency check for the phase of slow-roll inflation. We investigate the conditions which have to be fulfilled to make the observations of the Big Bounce effects possible. We translate them to the requirements on the parameters of the model and then put the observational constraints on the model. Based on assumption usually made in loop quantum cosmology, the Barbero-Immirzi parameter was shown to be constrained by γ < 1100 from the cosmological observations. We have compared the Big Bounce model with the standard Big Bang scenario and showed that the present observational data is not informative enough to distinguish these models.

  17. Word Recognition: Theoretical Issues and Instructional Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward E.; Kleiman, Glenn M.

    Research on adult readers' word recognition skills is used in this paper to develop a general information processing model of reading. Stages of the model include feature extraction, interpretation, lexical access, working memory, and integration. Of those stages, particular attention is given to the units of interpretation, speech recoding and…

  18. Helpful Hints for Successful Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spratt, Candy; Cave, Lance

    1998-01-01

    Presents tips for organizing and conducting effective science-related field trips. Topics include: Develop a Thematic Approach; Engage Expert Leaders; Provide Important Creature Comforts (transportation and facilities); Supply Useful Learning Materials; Provide Delicious Creature Comforts (food); Create a Comfortable Networking Environment;…

  19. Many (and Many More) Helpful Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Contains 10 teaching tips about such topics/ideas as low-impact nature trails, sand, overhead transparency use, the cause of "trash," rainbows, the solar system, controlling variables, time keeping, science discovery centers, and animal characteristics. (TW)

  20. Practical Hints on Greek and Latin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jopes, James

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of some of the difficulties and procedures in translating classical quotations occurring in a modern text. Some of the topics covered are: use of published translations, transliteration from ancient Greek, and non-classical idioms such as medieval and botanical Latin. (AMH)

  1. Hints for Teaching Success in Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Robert E.

    This book offers support for middle school teachers and suggestions on how they can help their students be more successful, both in the classroom and in life. Thirteen chapters cover being a teacher, the classroom, students and the challenges they face, communication, teaching, testing, working with parents, staff relations and job stress, public…

  2. Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others

    The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

  3. A "g" beyond "Homo Sapiens"? Some Hints and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James J.

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes that a complete account of cognitive evolution may have to accommodate a domain-general source of variance in mental abilities accounting for differences among primate taxa. Deaner, van Schaik, and Johnson [Deaner, R.O., van Schaik, C.P. and Johnson, V.E. (2006). Do some taxa have better domain-general cognition than others?…

  4. "To Improve upon Hints of Things": Illustrating Isaac Newton.

    PubMed

    Schilt, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    When Isaac Newton died in 1727 he left a rich legacy in terms of draft manuscripts, encompassing a variety of topics: natural philosophy, mathematics, alchemy, theology, and chronology, as well as papers relating to his career at the Mint. One thing that immediately strikes us is the textuality of Newton's legacy: images are sparse. Regarding his scholarly endeavours we witness the same practice. Newton's extensive drafts on theology and chronology do not contain a single illustration or map. Today we have all of Newton's draft manuscripts as witnesses of his working methods, as well as access to a significant number of books from his own library. Drawing parallels between Newton's reading practices and his natural philosophical and scholarly work, this paper seeks to understand Newton's recondite writing and publishing politics. PMID:27071300

  5. Choosing, Creating and Using Story Problems: Some Helpful Hints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Anne

    2013-01-01

    In this article Anne Roche describes some of the different types of story problems defined in the Cognitively Guided Instruction professional development program. Teachers will find the table reproduced on page 32 to be very helpful in designing word problems. Roche then gives some suggestions for improving the way division stories are used in the…

  6. Household Hints for the Working Woman: With or Without Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Associates, Framingham, MA.

    The purpose of the report is the presentation of ideas and information to help the working woman save time, effort, and money. Chapter one offers suggestions for child care arrangements such as babysitters, transportation needs, and the possibilities for home employment. Chapter two includes shopping and specific management tips for both clothing…

  7. Extended write combining using a write continuation hint flag

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Vranas, Pavlos

    2013-06-04

    A computing apparatus for reducing the amount of processing in a network computing system which includes a network system device of a receiving node for receiving electronic messages comprising data. The electronic messages are transmitted from a sending node. The network system device determines when more data of a specific electronic message is being transmitted. A memory device stores the electronic message data and communicating with the network system device. A memory subsystem communicates with the memory device. The memory subsystem stores a portion of the electronic message when more data of the specific message will be received, and the buffer combines the portion with later received data and moves the data to the memory device for accessible storage.

  8. Prediction horizon effects on stochastic modelling hints for neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Drossu, R.; Obradovic, Z.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between stochastic models and neural network (NN) approaches to time series modelling. Experiments on a complex real life prediction problem (entertainment video traffic) indicate that prior knowledge can be obtained through stochastic analysis both with respect to an appropriate NN architecture as well as to an appropriate sampling rate, in the case of a prediction horizon larger than one. An improvement of the obtained NN predictor is also proposed through a bias removal post-processing, resulting in much better performance than the best stochastic model.

  9. Hints to the diagnosis of uromodulin kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Onoe, Tamehito; Yamada, Kazunori; Mizushima, Ichiro; Ito, Kiyoaki; Kawakami, Takahiro; Daimon, Shoichiro; Muramoto, Hiroaki; Konoshita, Tadashi; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Kawano, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Uromodulin kidney disease (UKD) is an inherited kidney disease caused by a uromodulin (UMOD) gene mutation. The UMOD gene encodes the Tamm–Horsfall protein (THP), which is the most abundant protein in healthy human urine. Because of its rarity, the incidence of UKD has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the frequency of UKD among patients who underwent renal biopsy. Methods Immunostaining for THP was performed for patients <50 years of age with renal insufficiency and hyperuricemia without overt urinalysis abnormality from renal biopsy databases. Serum and urinary THP concentrations were evaluated in available individuals. Results Fifteen patients were selected for immunostaining from a total of 3787 patients. In three independent patients, abnormal THP accumulation in renal tubular cells was observed. A novel missense A247P UMOD mutation was detected in two of the three patients, including one having a typical family history of familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy. Serum and urinary THP concentrations of all available patients with UMOD A247P mutation were significantly lower than those of controls. Conclusions In the present study, UKD was detected in <1 in 1000 subjects who underwent renal biopsies. However, in subjects meeting all of the above criteria, abnormal THP accumulation was detected in 20% (3/15), suggesting that renal biopsy with immunostaining for THP is a good tool for diagnosing UKD. Also, low serum THP concentration detected in the present subjects might be a good diagnostic marker or important in understanding the pathogenesis of UKD. PMID:26798464

  10. Experimental Hints of Gravity in Large Extra Dimensions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdsson, Steinn; Ahluwalia, D. V.

    Recent conjectures suggest the universe may have large extra dimensions, through which gravity propagates. This implies gross departures from Newton's law of gravity at small length scales. Here I consider some implications for particle dynamics on scales comparable to the compactification radius, Rc<~1 mm. During planet formation, coalescence of micron sized dust grains to planetesimals is a rate critical step. Blum et al. (2000) found dust grain aggregates form low fractal dimension structures in microgravity, consistent with high angular momentum coalescence. I consider the effects of non-Newtonian gravity on dust aggregation on scales less than Rc and show they naturally coalesce into low-dimensional structures with high specific angular momentum. We infer Rc~80 microns.

  11. "To Improve upon Hints of Things": Illustrating Isaac Newton.

    PubMed

    Schilt, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    When Isaac Newton died in 1727 he left a rich legacy in terms of draft manuscripts, encompassing a variety of topics: natural philosophy, mathematics, alchemy, theology, and chronology, as well as papers relating to his career at the Mint. One thing that immediately strikes us is the textuality of Newton's legacy: images are sparse. Regarding his scholarly endeavours we witness the same practice. Newton's extensive drafts on theology and chronology do not contain a single illustration or map. Today we have all of Newton's draft manuscripts as witnesses of his working methods, as well as access to a significant number of books from his own library. Drawing parallels between Newton's reading practices and his natural philosophical and scholarly work, this paper seeks to understand Newton's recondite writing and publishing politics.

  12. Monkey Study Hints at Drug-Free Suppression of HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat HIV -- known as combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) -- have changed the face of the HIV/AIDS ... bone density loss. And, Ansari said, people on ART eventually develop ... others. A therapy that could essentially send HIV into remission, and ...

  13. New hints to the cause of the EMC effect

    SciTech Connect

    Higinbotham, Douglas

    2012-04-01

    Deep-inelastic scattering cross section ratios plotted as a function of Bjorken x show that quark structure in nuclei is different than in free nucleons. Recent EMC type data from Jefferson Lab's Hall C show that the slope in the 0.3 < x < 0.7 region scales as the local nuclear density and not the average nuclear density. This result led to the comparison between x > 1 short-range correlation plateaus and the magnitude of the EMC effect slope. A clear linear relation between the two effects has now been shown. In this paper, the EMC effect, the short-range correlation plateaus and a possible reason for a relationship between the two is discussed.

  14. Some Broader Hints on Establishing a Language Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edberg, George J.

    1965-01-01

    A general survey of U.S. schools and universities in 1965 suggests that 50 percent of them do not feature proper language laboratory facilities. Aimed at prospective laboratory buyers and those seeking equipment replacements, the article analyzes the laboratory's mechanical aspects, accessible locations, physical facilities and equipment…

  15. Hints on nuclear effects from ArgoNeuT data

    SciTech Connect

    Palamara, Ornella

    2015-05-15

    Initial results from a topological analysis of CC “0 pion” muon neutrino events in LAr collected by the ArgoNeuT experiment on the NuMI LE beam at Fermilab (in the few GeV energy region) are presented and compared with predictions from MC simulations. A new analysis method, based on the reconstruction of exclusive topologies, fully exploiting the LArTPC technique capabilities, is used to analyze the events and study nuclear effects in neutrino interactions on Argon nuclei. Multiple protons accompanying the leading muon and the presence of vertex activity are clearly visible (and measured) in the events. Ratios among rates of different exclusive topologies provide indications of the size of nuclear effects in neutrino-nucleus interactions in LAr.

  16. Turbulence, flow and transport: hints from reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2006-04-01

    The interplay between sheared E × B flows and turbulence has been experimentally investigated in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Electrostatic fluctuations are found to rule the momentum balance equation representing the main driving term for sheared flows which counterbalances anomalous viscous damping. The driving role of electrostatic fluctuations is proved by the spatial structure of the Reynolds stress and by the time behaviour of the mean energy production term which supports the existence of an energy exchange from the small scales of turbulence to the larger scales of the mean flow.

  17. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra bulged craters (Mars)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, R.; Massironi, M.; Rossi, A. P.; Sauro, F.; Carli, C.; Marinangeli, L.; Cremonese, G.

    2015-10-01

    Impact craters within Arabia Terra region,on Mars,display a large central bulge, sometimes showing a well-preserved stratification (light albedo layered deposits). In craters like Crommelin or an unnamed crater (that is numbered 12000088) located a few hundreds kilometers on the East some unusual landforms and structures among the layered deposits were observed. In particular, on Crommelin's bulge and its surroundings we found fold systems with axis parallel to the bulge perimeter. The fold sets are typical compressional structure often associated to diapiric rise on Earth[1]. In addition on top of 12000088 crater's bulge the evidence of sulfate signatures was detected as well as the presence of small bowl-shaped depressions. Several fluid-carved channels that depart radially from the bulge are cut by a ring of normal faults,thus suggesting a collapse of the bulge summit. Thus, on the basis of the previous observations it is possible to hypothesize that diapiric rise could have been responsible for central bulging both on Crommelin and 12000088 craters and likely on other bulged craters on Arabia Terra.

  18. Ace Your Accounting Classes: 12 Hints to Maximize Your Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, W. David

    2008-01-01

    Many students experience difficulties when they try to get good grades in their accounting classes, and they are searching for answers. There is no single answer. Getting a good grade in an accounting class results from a process. If you know and understand the process--and can apply it--then your chances are much improved for getting a good…

  19. Career Hints for the Doctoral Candidate Interested in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Greg

    Guidelines are given to aid doctoral candidates in the selection of a specific career position within the field of teacher education. Various considerations relative to employment at differing types of universities are examined. University philosophy, monetary considerations, communication channels within the department, faculty relationships,…

  20. On reducing terrorism power: a hint from physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge; Mauger, Alain

    2003-05-01

    The September 11 attack on the US has revealed an unprecedented terrorism worldwide range of destruction. Recently, it has been related to the percolation of worldwide spread passive supporters. This scheme puts the suppression of the percolation effect as the major strategic issue in the fight against terrorism. Accordingly the world density of passive supporters should be reduced below the percolation threshold. In terms of solid policy, it means to neutralize millions of random passive supporters, which is contrary to ethics and out of any sound practical scheme. Given this impossibility we suggest instead a new strategic scheme to act directly on the value of the terrorism percolation threshold itself without harming the passive supporters. Accordingly we identify the space hosting the percolation phenomenon to be a multi-dimensional virtual social space which extends the ground earth surface to include the various independent terrorist-fighting goals. The associated percolating cluster is then found to create long-range ground connections to terrorism activity. We are thus able to modify the percolation threshold pc in the virtual space to reach p

  1. NADPH oxidases in Eukaryotes: red algae provide new hints!

    PubMed

    Hervé, Cécile; Tonon, Thierry; Collén, Jonas; Corre, Erwan; Boyen, Catherine

    2006-03-01

    The red macro-alga Chondrus crispus is known to produce superoxide radicals in response to cell-free extracts of its green algal pathogenic endophyte Acrochaete operculata. So far, no enzymes involved in this metabolism have been isolated from red algae. We report here the isolation of a gene encoding a homologue of the respiratory burst oxidase gp91(phox) in C. crispus, named Ccrboh. This single copy gene encodes a polypeptide of 825 amino acids. Search performed in available genome and EST algal databases identified sequences showing common features of NADPH oxidases in other algae such as the red unicellular Cyanidioschyzon merolae, the economically valuable red macro-alga Porphyra yezoensis and the two diatoms Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana. Domain organization and phylogenetic relationships with plant, animal, fungal and algal NADPH oxidase homologues were analyzed. Transcription analysis of the C. crispus gene revealed that it was over-transcribed during infection of C. crispus gametophyte by the endophyte A. operculata, and after incubation in presence of atrazine, methyl jasmonate and hydroxyperoxides derived from C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These results also illustrate the interest of exploring the red algal lineage for gaining insight into the deep evolution of NADPH oxidases in Eukaryotes.

  2. Hints for Leptonic CP Violation or New Physics?

    PubMed

    Forero, David V; Huber, Patrick

    2016-07-15

    One of the major open questions in the neutrino sector is the issue of leptonic CP violation. Current global oscillation data show a mild preference for a large, potentially maximal value for the Dirac CP phase in the neutrino mixing matrix. In this Letter, we point out that new physics in the form of neutral-current-like nonstandard interactions with real couplings would likely yield a similar conclusion even if CP in the neutrino sector were conserved. Therefore, the claim for a discovery of leptonic CP violation will require a robust ability to test new physics scenarios. PMID:27472108

  3. Smooth sailing through board meetings: practical hints for new chairpersons.

    PubMed

    Harney, M K

    1983-11-01

    The author has some practical and useful suggestions for chairpersons to help keep board meetings running smoothly and efficiently, from the physical arrangement of the room to the formulation of and adherence to agendas.

  4. Teach with Leach: Hints for Teachers of MBI Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Ethel

    Briefly described are approximately 110 activities appropriate for use with minimally brain injured children. Examples of activities are sorting beans, tracing pictures from coloring books, making a 'catch and pitch' mitt out of an empty bleach bottle, and using the Viewmaster to encourage interest in geography. Also included are directions for…

  5. PLANETARY SCIENCE: Newfound Worlds Hint at Hard-Knock Life.

    PubMed

    Sincell, M

    2000-08-18

    Last week at the International Astronomical Union 24th General Assembly, astronomers announced nine newly discovered planets orbiting other stars. The roster of extrasolar planets, now nearing 50, suggests that stars are fecund breeding grounds for worlds but that young planets must battle hordes of rivals for a handful of stable orbits.

  6. PLANETARY SCIENCE: Newfound Worlds Hint at Hard-Knock Life.

    PubMed

    Sincell, M

    2000-08-18

    Last week at the International Astronomical Union 24th General Assembly, astronomers announced nine newly discovered planets orbiting other stars. The roster of extrasolar planets, now nearing 50, suggests that stars are fecund breeding grounds for worlds but that young planets must battle hordes of rivals for a handful of stable orbits. PMID:17833397

  7. Grapevine under deficit irrigation: hints from physiological and molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, M. M.; Zarrouk, O.; Francisco, R.; Costa, J. M.; Santos, T.; Regalado, A. P.; Rodrigues, M. L.; Lopes, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background A large proportion of vineyards are located in regions with seasonal drought (e.g. Mediterranean-type climates) where soil and atmospheric water deficits, together with high temperatures, exert large constraints on yield and quality. The increasing demand for vineyard irrigation requires an improvement in the efficiency of water use. Deficit irrigation has emerged as a potential strategy to allow crops to withstand mild water stress with little or no decreases of yield, and potentially a positive impact on fruit quality. Understanding the physiological and molecular bases of grapevine responses to mild to moderate water deficits is fundamental to optimize deficit irrigation management and identify the most suitable varieties to those conditions. Scope How the whole plant acclimatizes to water scarcity and how short- and long-distance chemical and hydraulic signals intervene are reviewed. Chemical compounds synthesized in drying roots are shown to act as long-distance signals inducing leaf stomatal closure and/or restricting leaf growth. This explains why some plants endure soil drying without significant changes in shoot water status. The control of plant water potential by stomatal aperture via feed-forward mechanisms is associated with ‘isohydric’ behaviour in contrast to ‘anysohydric’ behaviour in which lower plant water potentials are attained. This review discusses differences in this respect between grapevines varieties and experimental conditions. Mild water deficits also exert direct and/or indirect (via the light environment around grape clusters) effects on berry development and composition; a higher content of skin-based constituents (e.g. tannins and anthocyanins) has generally being reported. Regulation under water deficit of genes and proteins of the various metabolic pathways responsible for berry composition and therefore wine quality are reviewed. PMID:20299345

  8. Hints for Leptonic CP Violation or New Physics?

    PubMed

    Forero, David V; Huber, Patrick

    2016-07-15

    One of the major open questions in the neutrino sector is the issue of leptonic CP violation. Current global oscillation data show a mild preference for a large, potentially maximal value for the Dirac CP phase in the neutrino mixing matrix. In this Letter, we point out that new physics in the form of neutral-current-like nonstandard interactions with real couplings would likely yield a similar conclusion even if CP in the neutrino sector were conserved. Therefore, the claim for a discovery of leptonic CP violation will require a robust ability to test new physics scenarios.

  9. Another hint for a changing stratospheric circulation after 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boenisch, H.; Engel, A.; Hoor, P.

    2009-04-01

    Aircraft data were used to study interannual changes of extratropical lower stratospheric tracer-tracer correlations. The focus is on the time periods before and after 2001 between which a remarkable step-like decrease of stratospheric water vapour has occurred (Randel et al., 2006). This feature associated with a cooling of temperatures near the tropical tropopause, and a decrease in tropical ozone at about the same time has been linked by Randel et al. (2006) to an increased stratospheric upwelling circulation in the tropics (the so-called Brewer-Dobson circulation) caused by enhanced wave driving after 2000 (Dhomse et al., 2006). Analysis of the extratropical tracer-tracer correlations shows different slopes before and after 2000. These changes could be explained by an enhanced horizontal tracer transport from the tropical lower stratosphere into the extratropics, taking into account that mean age of air has remained constant over the last 3 decades in the midlatitude stratosphere above 30 hPa (Engel et al., 2009). We will present a comparison of in-situ measured tracer-tracer correlations in the extratropical lower stratosphere before and after 2001 and discuss implications for a changing stratospheric circulation. References: Dhomse, S., Weber, M., and Burrows, J.: The relationship between tropospheric wave forcing and tropical lower stratospheric water vapor, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 471-480, 2008. Engel, A., T. Möbius, H. Bönisch, U. Schmidt, R. Heinz, I. Levin, E. Atlas, S. Aoki, T. Nakazawa, S. Sugawara, F. Moore, D. Hurst, J. Elkins, S. Schauffler, A. Andrews, and K. Boering (2009), Age of stratospheric air unchanged within uncertainties over the past 30 years, Nature Geosci., 2, 28-31. Randel, W. J., F. Wu, H. Vömel, G. E. Nedoluha, and P. Forster (2006), Decreases in stratospheric water vapor after 2001: Links to changes in the tropical tropopause and the Brewer-Dobson circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D12312, doi:10.1029/2005JD006744.

  10. Close PMS Binaries Evolution - Hints for Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez De Castro, Ana; Bisikalo, Dmitry; Sytov, Alexey; Ustamujic, Sabina

    2016-07-01

    In close PMS systems, accretion disks can either take up or release angular momentum and the details of evolution depend on the mass ratio between the two stars and on the orbit eccentricity (Artymowicz & Lubow, 1994; Bate & Bonnell, 1997; Hanawa et al., 2010, de Val Borro et al., 2011, Shi et al., 2012). Highly eccentric orbits favour the formation of spiral waves within the inner disk that do channel the flow as the accreting gas streams onto each star. In this framework, PMS binaries represent a special kind of interacting binaries where the circumbinary disk mediates in the star-star interaction as a continuous supply of angular momentum (and matter) to the system. The most general configuration consists of a circumbinary disk with inner radius about three times the semimajor axis and a variable distribution of matter within the hole. Circumstellar structures similar to disks are occasionally formed around the stars chanelling the accretion flow. The ultraviolet radiation generated by the stars and the accretion shocks can be used to map the distribution of matter in the hole and the CS environment (Gómez de Castro et al. 2016). In this contribution we describe monitoring strategies to map the variable distribution of CS matter in these systems and its extension to the study of exoplanetary systems hosting hot Jupiters.

  11. Learning To Learn: 15 Vocabulary Acquisition Activities. Tips and Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, William R.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a variety of ways learners can help themselves remember new words, choosing the ones that best suit their learning styles. It is asserted that repeated exposure to new lexical items using a variety of means is the most consistent predictor of retention. The use of verbal, visual, tactile, textual, kinesthetic, and sonic…

  12. Performance appraisal: helpful hints for the busy medical practice manager.

    PubMed

    Bolon, Douglas S

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the performance appraisal process in terms of its three fundamental steps. defining job performance, measuring actual job performance, and providing job performance feedback. Given that most practice managers wear many hats and do not have extensive experience or staff support in human resources, the purpose of this article is to provide these busy individuals with useful, practical suggestions that should enhance the effectiveness of the performance appraisal process for nonphysician employees within the medical practice setting. Performance appraisal should be a priority for all practice managers, as the performance of individual employees represents the key to long-term success for any medical practice.

  13. An Impending geomagnetic transition? Hints from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The rapid decrease of the geomagnetic field intensity in the last centuries together with a growth of the South Atlantic Anomaly has led to speculations that an attempt to a reversal or an excursion might be under way. Here we investigate this hypothesis by examining past records of geomagnetic field intensity obtained from sedimentary cores and from the study of cosmogenic nuclides. The selected records describe geomagnetic changes with an unprecedented temporal resolution between 20 and 75 kyr B.P. The precise age model and the accurate calibration of intensities on absolute scale allow to calculate the duration and the rate of change of the field during the well documented excursions of Laschamp and Mono Lake. The rate of decay of the field intensity during these excursions is is virtually similar to that observed over the last few centuries and much higher than that observed for other low intensity periods of the same duration but not associated to any polarity change. Although these records do not provide undisputable information on future evolution of the field, we find that some aspects of the present-day geomagnetic field have some similarities with those documented for the Laschamp excursion 41 kyr ago. Under the assumption that the dynamo processes for an eventual future reversal or excursion would be similar to those of the Laschamp excursion, we tentatively suggest that, whilst irreversible processes that will drive the geodynamo into a polarity change may have already started, a reversal or an excursion should not be expected before 500 to 1000 years.

  14. Hints for families of gamma-ray bursts improving the Hubble diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, Vincenzo F.; Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2013-09-01

    As soon as their extragalactic origins were established, the hope to make gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) standardizeable candles to probe the very high-z universe has opened the search for scaling relations between redshift-independent observable quantities and distance-dependent ones. Although some remarkable success has been achieved, the empirical correlations thus found are still affected by a significant intrinsic scatter which downgrades the precision in the inferred GRB Hubble diagram. We investigate here whether this scatter may come from fitting together objects belonging to intrinsically different classes. To this end, we rely on a cladistics analysis to partition GRBs in homogenous families according to their rest-frame properties. Although the poor statistics prevent us from drawing a definitive answer, we find that both the intrinsic scatter and the coefficients of the Epeak-Eiso and Epeak-L correlations significantly change depending on which sub-sample is fitted. It turns out that the fit to the full sample leads to a scaling relation which approximately follows the diagonal of the region delimited by the fits to each homogenous class. We therefore argue that a preliminary identification of the class a GRB belongs to is necessary in order to select the right scaling relation to be used in order to not bias the distance determination and hence the Hubble diagram.

  15. Perceptual strategies of pigeons to detect a rotational centre--a hint for star compass learning?

    PubMed

    Alert, Bianca; Michalik, Andreas; Helduser, Sascha; Mouritsen, Henrik; Güntürkün, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy.

  16. Human melody singing by bullfinches (Pyrrhula pyrrula) gives hints about a cognitive note sequence processing.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, Jürgen; Gundacker, Christina; Teeselink, Katharina; Güttinger, Hans Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We studied human melody perception and production in a songbird in the light of current concepts from the cognitive neuroscience of music. Bullfinches are the species best known for learning melodies from human teachers. The study is based on the historical data of 15 bullfinches, raised by 3 different human tutors and studied later by Jürgen Nicolai (JN) in the period 1967-1975. These hand-raised bullfinches learned human folk melodies (sequences of 20-50 notes) accurately. The tutoring was interactive and variable, starting before fledging and JN continued it later throughout the birds' lives. All 15 bullfinches learned to sing alternately melody modules with JN (alternate singing). We focus on the aspects of note sequencing and timing studying song variability when singing the learned melody alone and the accuracy of listening-singing interactions during alternatively singing with JN by analyzing song recordings of 5 different males. The following results were obtained as follows: (1) Sequencing: The note sequence variability when singing alone suggests that the bullfinches retrieve the note sequence from the memory as different sets of note groups (=modules), as chunks (sensu Miller in Psychol Rev 63:81-87, 1956). (2) Auditory-motor interactions, the coupling of listening and singing the human melody: Alternate singing provides insights into the bird's brain melody processing from listening to the actually whistled part of the human melody by JN to the bird's own accurately singing the consecutive parts. We document how variable and correctly bullfinches and JN alternated in their singing the note sequences. Alternate singing demonstrates that melody-singing bullfinches did not only follow attentively the just whistled note contribution of the human by auditory feedback, but also could synchronously anticipate singing the consecutive part of the learned melody. These data suggest that both listening and singing may depend on a single learned human melody representation (=coupling between perception and production). PMID:23783267

  17. Geothermal test hints at oil potential in eastern Arizona volcanic field

    SciTech Connect

    Rauzi, S.L. )

    1993-01-03

    A recently drilled geothermal well, funded by the US Department of Energy and the Arizona Department of Commerce, has provided information about the geology of east-central Arizona and west-central New Mexico. Tonto Drilling Services in cooperation with New Mexico State University completed the well, the 1 Alpine-Federal, at a total depth of 4,505 ft. The well is located among volcanic rocks in the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest about 6 miles north of the town of Alpine and 6.2 miles west of the Arizona-New Mexico line. The well was drilled to determine the hot dry rock geothermal potential of Precambrian rocks. The operator expected to penetrate Precambrian at about 4,200 ft, but the hole was still in Permian rocks at that depth and was in a mafic dike that intruded the Permian rocks at the total depth of 4,505 ft. The hole did show that Cretaceous and Permian strata contain potentially important source rocks for oil and gas that are apparently unaffected by nearby volcanism. These potential oil source rocks are the focus of this article.

  18. The bioethics and law paradox: an argument to maintain separateness with a hint of togetherness.

    PubMed

    Werren, Julia

    2007-10-01

    This article analyses how bioethics and law interact and work together. The first half of the article provides definitions of both ethics and bioethics. The article then considers a number of different bioethical standpoints to demonstrate the variance of views in relation to bioethics. In addition, the first half of the article focuses on the different regulatory possibilities in regard to bioethical contexts. This demonstrates that law is of central importance to bioethics. This part also shows that even though law and ethics are often used simultaneously to achieve bioethical goals, law and ethics cannot be used interchangeably. Thus, even though it is somewhat inevitable that law will be used in the pursuit of the goals of bioethics, bioethics and bioethical principle should not be merely a vehicle for law-makers to utilise. The second half of the article focuses on the issues of autonomy and consent to demonstrate how law and ethics have developed in one of the foundation areas of bioethics.

  19. Spatially Resolved Spectroscopic Star Formation Histories of nearby Disks: Hints of Stellar Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoachim, Peter; Roškar, Rok; Debattista, Victor P.

    2012-06-01

    We use the Mitchell Spectrograph (formerly VIRUS-P) to observe 12 nearby disk galaxies. We successfully measure ages in the outer disk in six systems. In three cases (NGC 2684, NGC 6155, and NGC 7437), we find that a downward break in the disk surface brightness profile corresponds with a change in the dominant stellar population with the interior being dominated by active star formation and the exterior having older stellar populations that are best fit with star formation histories that decline with time. The observed increase in average stellar ages beyond a profile break is similar to theoretical models that predict surface brightness breaks are caused by stellar migration, with the outer disk being populated from scattered old interior stars. In three more cases (IC 1132, NGC 4904, and NGC 6691), we find no significant change in the stellar population as one crosses the break radius. In these galaxies, both the inner and outer disks are dominated by active star formation and younger stellar populations. While radial migration can contribute to the stellar populations beyond the break, it appears that more than one mechanism is required to explain all of our observed stellar profile breaks. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  20. RADIO CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS OF 47 TUCANAE AND {omega} CENTAURI: HINTS FOR INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES?

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ting-Ni; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2011-03-10

    We present results of deep radio continuum observations of two galactic globular clusters 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc) and {omega} Centauri ({omega} Cen) with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. No statistically significant evidence for radio emission was found from the central region for the two clusters. However, both clusters show a 2.5{sigma} detection near the center that may be confirmed by future deeper radio observations. The 3{sigma} upper limits of the radio observations are 20 and 40 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} for {omega} Cen and 47 Tuc, respectively. By using the fundamental plane of accreting black holes, which describes the relationship between radio luminosity, X-ray luminosity, and black hole mass, we constrain the mass of a possible intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) in the globualar clusters. We also compare our results with other globular clusters and discuss the existence of IMBHs in globular clusters.

  1. Some Biological Hints on the Control of Heat and Mass Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Yoshimichi

    This review paper explores the possibilities of the control of heat and mass transfer associated with drought tolerance and freeze tolerance. The accumulation of some metabolites, such as proline and trehalose, are effective for drought tolerance. The special microstructures on the surfaces of some plants and insects in deserts are effective for collecting moisture in the air. Methods of preserving crops will be improved by the mimetic of the drought tolerance. Calcium ions and a protein are effective for the retrieval of damaged cell membrane due to ice formation. Ice crystal growth is inhibited by some substances such as antifreeze proteins. The cryopreservation of foods and organs will be improved by the mimetic of the freeze tolerance.

  2. Towards understanding mechanisms governing cytotoxicity of metal oxides nanoparticles: hints from nano-QSAR studies.

    PubMed

    Gajewicz, Agnieszka; Schaeublin, Nicole; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Hussain, Saber; Leszczynska, Danuta; Puzyn, Tomasz; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2015-05-01

    The production of nanomaterials increases every year exponentially and therefore the probability these novel materials that they could cause adverse outcomes for human health and the environment also expands rapidly. We proposed two types of mechanisms of toxic action that are collectively applied in a nano-QSAR model, which provides governance over the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles to the human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). The combined experimental-theoretical studies allowed the development of an interpretative nano-QSAR model describing the toxicity of 18 nano-metal oxides to the HaCaT cell line, which is a common in vitro model for keratinocyte response during toxic dermal exposure. The comparison of the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles to bacteria Escherichia coli (prokaryotic system) and a human keratinocyte cell line (eukaryotic system), resulted in the hypothesis that different modes of toxic action occur between prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems.

  3. Understanding Public Engagement in Water Conservation Behaviors and Knowledge of Water Policy: Promising Hints for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2015-01-01

    Sustaining water resources is a primary issue facing Florida Extension. The study reported here identified how experience with water issues and familiarity with water policies affected individuals' engagement in water conservation behaviors. A public opinion survey was conducted online to capture Florida residents' responses. The findings…

  4. Succeeding in Undergraduate Student Research: A Few Helpful Hints for Advisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Lora

    2013-01-01

    This article offers some insights into successfully engaging students in research. While most schools encourage undergraduate research, there is little guidance specific to mathematics on how to make it a rewarding experience for both the student and the advisor. With a small support group and a goal-oriented time line, students will be able to…

  5. Issue Brief #2: Metrics for Improving Cost Accountability (Hint: Not More Detailed Cost Accounting...)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Project on Postsecondary Education Costs, Productivity and Accountability, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Most fiscal reporting focuses on revenues (whether or not they go to core purposes), tuition and fees, and financial aid. "How" the money is spent is something that remains shrouded in too much mystery. Several national efforts to address this problem have largely come to naught--probably because those common methodologies are simultaneously not…

  6. Hints of Habitable Environments on Mars Challenge Our Studies of Mars-Analog Sites on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desMarais, David J

    2009-01-01

    Life as we know it requires water with a chemical activity (alpha) >or approx.0.6 and sources of nutrients and useful energy. Some biota can survive even if favorable conditions occur only intermittently, but the minimum required frequency of occurrences is poorly understood. Recent discoveries have vindicated the Mars exploration strategy to follow the water. Mars Global Surveyor s Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) found coarse-grained hematite at Meridiani Planum. Opportunity rover confirmed this and also found evidence of ancient sulfate-rich playa lakes and near-surface groundwater. Elsewhere, TES found evidence of evaporitic halides in topographic depressions. But alpha might not have approached 0.6 in these evaporitic sulfate- and halide-bearing waters. Mars Express (MEX) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) found extensive sulfate evaporites in Meridiani and Valles Marineris. MEX found phyllosilicates at several sites, most notably Mawrth Valles and Nili Fossae. MRO's CRISM near-IR mapper extended the known diversity and geographic distribution of phyllosilicates to include numerous Noachian craters. Phyllosilicates typically occur at the base of exposed ancient rock sections or in sediments in early Hesperian craters. It is uncertain whether the phyllosilicates developed in surface or subsurface aqueous environments and how long aqueous conditions persisted. Spirit rover found remarkably pure ferric sulfate, indicating oxidation and transport of Fe and S, perhaps in fumaroles or hot springs. Spirit also found opaline silica, consistent with hydrothermal activity. CRISM mapped extensive silica deposits in the Valles Marineris region, consistent with aqueous weathering and deposition. CRISM also found ultramafic rocks and magnesite at Nili Fossae, consistent with serpentinization, a process that can sustain habitable environments on Earth. The report of atmospheric methane implies subsurface aqueous conditions. A working hypothesis is that aqueous environments persisted in the near-subsurface for hundreds of millions of years and might exist even today. Studies of Mars-analog environments must better understand subsurface nonphotosynthetic ecosystems and their biosignatures in mafic and ultramafic terranes. Studies must determine minimum needs for water activity and energy and also establish survival limits when conditions that support active metabolism and propagation become progressively less frequent over time.

  7. Human melody singing by bullfinches (Pyrrhula pyrrula) gives hints about a cognitive note sequence processing.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, Jürgen; Gundacker, Christina; Teeselink, Katharina; Güttinger, Hans Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We studied human melody perception and production in a songbird in the light of current concepts from the cognitive neuroscience of music. Bullfinches are the species best known for learning melodies from human teachers. The study is based on the historical data of 15 bullfinches, raised by 3 different human tutors and studied later by Jürgen Nicolai (JN) in the period 1967-1975. These hand-raised bullfinches learned human folk melodies (sequences of 20-50 notes) accurately. The tutoring was interactive and variable, starting before fledging and JN continued it later throughout the birds' lives. All 15 bullfinches learned to sing alternately melody modules with JN (alternate singing). We focus on the aspects of note sequencing and timing studying song variability when singing the learned melody alone and the accuracy of listening-singing interactions during alternatively singing with JN by analyzing song recordings of 5 different males. The following results were obtained as follows: (1) Sequencing: The note sequence variability when singing alone suggests that the bullfinches retrieve the note sequence from the memory as different sets of note groups (=modules), as chunks (sensu Miller in Psychol Rev 63:81-87, 1956). (2) Auditory-motor interactions, the coupling of listening and singing the human melody: Alternate singing provides insights into the bird's brain melody processing from listening to the actually whistled part of the human melody by JN to the bird's own accurately singing the consecutive parts. We document how variable and correctly bullfinches and JN alternated in their singing the note sequences. Alternate singing demonstrates that melody-singing bullfinches did not only follow attentively the just whistled note contribution of the human by auditory feedback, but also could synchronously anticipate singing the consecutive part of the learned melody. These data suggest that both listening and singing may depend on a single learned human melody representation (=coupling between perception and production).

  8. Perceptual strategies of pigeons to detect a rotational centre--a hint for star compass learning?

    PubMed

    Alert, Bianca; Michalik, Andreas; Helduser, Sascha; Mouritsen, Henrik; Güntürkün, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy. PMID:25807499

  9. Hints of Thermal Fragmentation in the Primordial Substructure of NGC2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, P. S.; Lada, C. J.; Young, E. T.; Marengo, M.; Muench, A.; Muzerolle, J.; Siegler, N.; Rieke, G.; Hartmann, L.; Megeath, T.; Fazio, G.

    2005-12-01

    We present Spitzer observations of a young star forming region within NGC2264. These observations reveal new 24 micron sources in curious linear alignments, extending radially like spokes on a wheel from a previously known luminous young protostar. These 24 micron sources are found to be mostly ( ˜60%) Class I protostars that are highly embedded within dense filamentary molecular material. The protostars still retain the primordial substructuring of the parental cloud. We find the protostars to be separated by regular intervals that are consistent with the Jeans length for the average density of the associated molecular material, suggesting that thermal fragmentation played an important role during the star forming process in this region. The figure shows a false color image of this young region built from MIPS 24 micron (red), IRAC 8 micron (green), and IRAC 3.6 micron (blue) data. PT acknowledges support from the scholarship SFRH/BD/13984/2003 FCT, Portugal.

  10. The Principal's Companion: Strategies and Hints To Make the Job Easier. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Pam; Alvy, Harvey B.

    Despite the administrative leadership that most principals receive in university courses, their most useful learning occurs once they are on the job. The new knowledge--much of it the result of trial and error--is gained in relative isolation. This second edition provides ideas, approaches, strategies, resources, tools, techniques, and reflective…

  11. How Intelligence and Education Contribute to Substance Use: Hints from the Minnesota Twin Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Wendy; Hicks, Brian M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    In old and even middle age, there are associations between physical health and both intelligence and education. This may occur because intelligence and/or education exert effects on lifestyle choices that, in turn, affect later health. Substance use is one aspect of lifestyle choice in young adulthood that could play such a role. The effects of intelligence and/or education on substance use could be direct and environmental, or indirect due to the presence of confounding genetic and shared family influences. We used the Minnesota Twin Family Study to distinguish these effects in males and females at age 24. In contrast to prevailing expectations, there were moderately negative direct nonshared environmental effects of both IQ and education on both smoking and drinking in both males and females. That is, controlling for positive family background effects in the form of both genetic and shared environmental influences, both higher IQ and greater education were associated with greater alcohol and nicotine use. These effects were accounted for by alcohol and nicotine use at age 17. Our results suggest that genetic and family-culture variables confound the associations between intelligence and education and substance use in young adults, rendering them indirect. Further research is needed to understand the roles of IQ and education in alcohol and nicotine use and their relative impacts on physical health throughout the lifespan. PMID:20161515

  12. Mobile Students' Appraisals of Keys to a Successful Stay Abroad Experience: Hints from the IEREST Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Maele, Jan; Vassilicos, Basil; Borghetti, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide better support for students in higher education throughout a mobility experience, it is important to understand their point of view regarding stay abroad. This paper analyzes the responses of pre-departure, while-abroad, and upon-return students of different academic backgrounds (N = 990) to an open question that asked them to…

  13. Full sky harmonic analysis hints at large ultra-high energy cosmic ray deflections

    SciTech Connect

    Tinyakov, P. G. Urban, F. R.

    2015-03-15

    The full-sky multipole coefficients of the ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) flux have been measured for the first time by the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array collaborations using a joint data set with E > 10 EeV. We calculate these harmonic coefficients in the model where UHECR are protons and sources trace the local matter distribution, and compare our results with observations. We find that the expected power for low multipoles (dipole and quadrupole, in particular) is sytematically higher than in the data: the observed flux is too isotropic. We then investigate to which degree our predictions are influenced by UHECR deflections in the regular Galactic magnetic field. It turns out that the UHECR power spectrum coefficients C{sub l} are quite insensitive to the effects of the Galactic magnetic field, so it is unlikely that the discordance can be reconciled by tuning the Galactic magnetic field model. On the contrary, a sizeable fraction of uniformly distributed flux (representing for instance an admixture of heavy nuclei with considerably larger deflections) can bring simulations and observations to an accord.

  14. Advice and Hints in Training the Mentally Handicapped to Drive Electric Wheelchairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birath, Gunnar

    The booklet is intended to help train people with mild mental retardation to drive electric wheelchairs. The systematic training incorporates features of adequate time, stress upon generalization, and a relaxed and secure environment. Lessons are presented on the following skill areas: preparation, starting and stopping, driving straight ahead,…

  15. Hint-seeking behaviour of western scrub-jays in a metacognition task.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Arii; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    Metacognitive processes during memory retrieval can be tested by examining whether or not animals can assess their knowledge state when they are faced with a memory test. In a typical foraging task, food is hidden in one of the multiple tubes and the subjects are given an opportunity to check the contents of the tubes before choosing the one that they thought contained food. Following the findings from our previous study that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) can make prospective metacognition judgements, this study tested the scrub-jays' concurrent metacognition judgements. In a series of experiments, uncertainty about the food location was induced in three ways: by making the baiting process visibly unavailable, by inserting a delay between the baiting and food retrieval, and by moving the location of the bait. The jays looked into the tubes more often during the conditions that were consistent with high uncertainty. In addition, their looking behaviour was associated not with the sight of food but with information about the location of the food. These findings suggest that the jays can differentiate the states of knowing and not knowing about certain information and take appropriate action to complement their missing knowledge.

  16. Fermionic dark matter through a light pseudoscalar portal: Hints from the DAMA results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kwei-Chou

    2016-08-01

    We study the fermionic dark matter (DM) particle interacting with Standard Model quarks via a light pseudoscalar mediator. We consider separately the scenarios for which the DM-pseudoscalar coupling is C P conserving or C P violating. We show that taking a contact interaction is not suitable, even when the mediator has a mass of the same order of magnitude as the typical momentum transfer at the direct-detection experiments, such that the allowed DAMA region is excluded or considerably modified by the correct relic density requirement. The DAMA result seems to indicate that the C P -violating interaction is dominant at direct searches. We find that, if the proton-to-neutron effective coupling ratio is -60 ˜-40 , the exclusion limits set by SuperCDMS, XENON100, and LUX are highly suppressed, and the DAMA signal can thus be easily reconciled with these null measurements. For this model, the allowed region determined by the DAMA signal and correct relic density can successfully satisfy the conditions required by the thermal equilibrium, big bang nucleosynthesis, and DM self-interactions. The results of future measurements on flavor physics will provide important constraints on the related models. Precise measurements performed by COUPP, PICASSO, SIMPLE, and KIMS should be able to test this model in the near future.

  17. SPINS OF LARGE ASTEROIDS: A HINT OF A PRIMORDIAL DISTRIBUTION IN THEIR SPIN RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, Elad; Sari, Re’em

    2015-04-15

    The Asteroid Belt and the Kuiper Belt are relics from the formation of our solar system. Understanding the size and spin distribution of the two belts is crucial for a deeper understanding of the formation of our solar system and the dynamical processes that govern it. In this paper, we investigate the effect of collisions on the evolution of the spin distribution of asteroids and KBOs. We find that the power law nature of the impactors’ size distribution leads to a Lévy distribution of the spin rates. This results in a power law tail in the spin distribution, in stark contrast to the usually quoted Maxwellian distribution. We show that for bodies larger than 10 km, collisions alone lead to spin rates peaking at 0.15–0.5 revolutions per day. Comparing that to the observed spin rates of large asteroids (R > 50 km), we find that the spins of large asteroids, peaking at ∼1–2 revolutions per day, are dominated by a primordial component that reflects the formation mechanism of the asteroids. Similarly, the Kuiper Belt has undergone virtually no collisional spin evolution, assuming current densities. Collisions contribute a spin rate of ∼0.01 revolutions per day, thus the observed fast spin rates of KBOs are also primordial in nature.

  18. Teaching Pre- and Semi-Literate Laotian and Cambodian Adolescents To Read: Helpful Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Charles R.; And Others

    The handbook details techniques and approaches for teaching adolescent Laotian and Cambodian refugees, aged 10-17, to read. It evolved from a workshop for teachers of English as a Second Language (ESL) in which 17 such students participated. The book begins by looking at reading as a psycholinguistic guessing game, then proceeds to classroom…

  19. Bird Flight: Hints to Be Obtained from It for Use in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnan,

    1923-01-01

    This report is a comprehensive study of birds and how their shapes have been molded by the resistance of the air. 500 species of birds were studied and nearly 30,000 ratios calculated. The author makes a distinction between flapping and soaring flight.

  20. "A hint of it, with initials": adultery, textuality and publicity in Jane Austen's Lady Susan.

    PubMed

    Russell, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    In spite of Jane Austen's professed “eye” for an adulteress, comparatively little attention has been paid to adultery and divorce as themes and contexts of her fiction. Her unpublished epistolary novel Lady Susan has a distinctive status in Austen's oeuvre, recognized as being exemplary of her “style” and yet atypical of her later achievement. A neglected context for the novel is the extensive reporting of adultery trials in contemporary print culture and the moral panic concerning adultery in the 1780s and 1790s, focusing initially on the adulteress as the brazen woman of fashion and later as a figure of sentimentalized abjection. A particularly notorious case, that involving Lady Henrietta Grosvenor and George III's brother, the Duke of Cumberland, is directly alluded to in Lady Susan. The textual strategies of adultery trial literature, particularly its emphasis on indirection through the use of detail or “hint”, had a long-term influence on the development of Austen's fiction and her positioning of herself as a professional writer after the 1790s.

  1. Cutaneous melanoma: hints from occupational risks by anatomic site in Swedish men

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Gomez, B; Pollan, M; Gustavsson, P; Plato, N; Aragones, N; Lopez-Abente, G

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To improve knowledge of the epidemiology of melanoma by comparing occupational risks of cutaneous melanoma (CM) by anatomic site in Swedish workers. Methods: Male workers employed in 1970 and living in the country in 1960 were followed up from 1971 to 1989 using the Swedish Registers of Death and Cancer. A more specifically exposed subcohort included men reporting the same occupation in 1960 and 1970. For each location, occupational risk ratios (RRs) were extracted from Poisson regression models adjusted by age, period, town size, and geographical area. To diminish the influence of socioeconomic factors, intrasector analyses, comparing only jobs belonging to the same occupational sector, were performed. Risk patterns for different locations were compared. Results: High RRs for different sites were found among workers exposed to UV sources (dentists, physiotherapists, and lithographers), and sun exposed workers (harbour masters, and lighthouse/related work). Risk excesses were seen in fur tailors, tanners/fur dressers, patternmakers/cutters, electrical fitters/wiremen, telephone/telegraph installers/repairmen, and some glass/pottery/tile workers. Results for lower and upper limbs were significantly correlated but somewhat independent of those found in thorax, the most frequent location. Correlation between head/neck and thorax was moderate. Specific risk excesses were found for rolling mill workers in head/neck, for chimney sweeps in upper limbs, and for aircraft pilots/navigators/flight engineers in lower limbs. Conclusions: High RRs in the trunk among occupations with UV exposure from artificial sources suggest an effect not restricted to exposed sites. An unusual distribution of cases and RRs in chimney sweeps, rolling-mill, or glass/pottery/tile workers suggests local effects of exposures. The not previously reported risk excess in this job and in fur related processes, and the RR in electrical fitters and telephone/telegraph installers deserve further investigation. Disparities between locations, as RRs in thorax and limbs, may reflect differences in aetiological mechanisms. PMID:14739377

  2. Diphoton channel at the LHC experiments to find a hint for a new heavy gauge boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneta, Kunio; Kang, Subeom; Lee, Hye-Sung

    2016-09-01

    Recently there has been a huge interest in the diphoton excess around 750 GeV reported by both ATLAS and CMS collaborations, although the newest analysis with more statistics does not seem to support the excess. Nevertheless, the diphoton channel at the LHC experiments are a powerful tool to probe a new physics. One of the most natural explanations of a diphoton excess, if it occurs, could be a new scalar boson with exotic colored particles. In this setup, it would be legitimate to ask what is the role of this new scalar in nature. A heavy neutral gauge boson (Z‧) is one of the traditional targets of the discovery at the collider experiments with numerous motivations. While the Landau-Yang theorem dictates the diphoton excess cannot be this spin-1 gauge boson, there is a strong correlation of a new heavy gauge boson and a new scalar boson which provides a mass to the gauge boson being at the same mass scale. In this paper, we point out a simple fact that a new scalar with a property similar to the recently highlighted 750 GeV would suggest an existence of a TeV scale Z‧ gauge boson that might be within the reach of the LHC Run 2 experiments. We take a scenario of the well-motivated and popular gauged B - L symmetry and require the gauge coupling unification to predict the mass and other properties of the Z‧ and illustrate the discovery of the Z‧ would occur during the LHC experiments.

  3. Estimating Dynamical Systems: Derivative Estimation Hints from Sir Ronald A. Fisher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboeck, Pascal R.

    2010-01-01

    The fitting of dynamical systems to psychological data offers the promise of addressing new and innovative questions about how people change over time. One method of fitting dynamical systems is to estimate the derivatives of a time series and then examine the relationships between derivatives using a differential equation model. One common…

  4. 76 FR 22714 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4) (NCI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget... the table below. There are no Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and/or Maintenance Costs to...

  5. How Intelligence and Education Contribute to Substance Use: Hints from the Minnesota Twin Family Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Hicks, Brian M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    In old and even middle age, there are associations between physical health and both intelligence and education. This may occur because intelligence and/or education exert effects on lifestyle choices that, in turn, affect later health. Substance use is one aspect of lifestyle choice in young adulthood that could play such a role. The effects of…

  6. 'Just a little hint': bisexual-specific microaggressions and their connection to epistemic injustices.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Wendy; Hequembourg, Amy

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates disproportionate rates of mental health disorders among bisexual women compared to both heterosexual and lesbian women. Such disparities are often attributed to stressors related to minority status, including experiences of prejudice and discrimination. Prior research has made little distinction between the prejudicial experiences of bisexual groups as compared to lesbian/gay groups. Based on qualitative data gathered in focus groups with 10, predominantly White, bisexual-identified women, which occurred in a large city in the USA, we posit that differences in prejudicial experiences do exist for bisexual groups, and that such differences reside in the realms of the epistemic, yet have very real implications for bisexual women's daily lived experiences. We discuss everyday slights and insults, also known as microaggressions, reported by the participants vis-à-vis their bisexual identity. These bisexual-specific microaggressions include hostility; denial/dismissal; unintelligibility; pressure to change; lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender legitimacy; dating exclusion; and hypersexuality. We consider how such microaggressions may adversely impact mental health and well-being and may assist in explaining the mental health disparities among bisexual women. PMID:24666221

  7. Hipp's Helpful Hints for Hitting the Highway (The Information Highway, That Is).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipp, Fran

    2001-01-01

    Presents a pathfinder to help elementary school teachers connect to the Internet. Includes basics of the Internet; links to other helpful Web sites; lesson plans ready to use in the classroom; sites with resources for teachers to create their own lesson plans; North Carolina resources; and print resources. (LRW)

  8. They can take a hint: Older adults effectively integrate memory cues during recognition.

    PubMed

    Konkel, Alex; Selmeczy, Diana; Dobbins, Ian G

    2015-12-01

    Adaptively biasing recognition judgments in light of environmental cues improves net accuracy. Based on previous work suggesting that strategically shifting biases on a trial-wise basis should be cognitively demanding, the authors predicted that older adults would not achieve the same accuracy benefits from environmental cues as the young. However, despite showing clear declines in cognitive control as indexed by complex span, older adults demonstrated similar accuracy gains and similar alterations of response probabilities with cues of 75% reliability (Experiment 1) and more complex cues spanning 3 levels of reliability (Experiment 2). Despite preserved gains in accuracy, older adults clearly demonstrated disproportionate slowing that was specific to trials in which cues were invalid. This slowing may reflect impairments in behavioral inhibition that could impinge upon accuracy were responding increasingly sped and future work manipulating response speed and measures of inhibition may yield further insights. PMID:26652722

  9. Here's How! Practical Hints for Establishing Library Services in Homeless Shelters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norfolk, Sherry Des Enfants

    This guide contains suggestions for those seeking to establish library services for homeless children, help for computerizing a homeless shelter, and a discussion of the problems and rewards of establishing library services in a shelter. Steps to establishing services include: (1) clarifying the purpose of the effort; (2) doing the homework to…

  10. What triggers the rising of an intraspecific biodiversity hotspot? Hints from the agile frog.

    PubMed

    Canestrelli, Daniele; Bisconti, Roberta; Sacco, Florinda; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Hotspots of genetic diversity are regions of utmost importance for species survival and conservation, and their intimate link with the geographic location of glacial refugia has been well established. Nonetheless, the microevolutionary processes underlying the generation of hotspots in such regions have only recently become a fervent field of research. We investigated the phylogeographic and population genetic structure of the agile frog, Rana dalmatina, within its putative refugium in peninsular Italy. We found this region to harbour far more diversity, phylogeographic structure, and lineages of ancient origin than that by the rest of the species' range in Europe. This pattern appeared to be well explained by climate-driven microevolutionary processes that occurred during both glacial and interglacial epochs. Therefore, the inferred evolutionary history of R. dalmatina in Italy supports a view of glacial refugia as 'factories' rather than as repositories of genetic diversity, with significant implications for conservation strategies for hotspots.

  11. The function of copulatory plugs in Caenorhabditis remanei: hints for female benefits

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mating plugs that males place onto the female genital tract are generally assumed to prevent remating with other males. Mating plugs are usually explained as a consequence of male-male competition in multiply mating species. Here, we investigated whether mating plugs also have collateral effects on female fitness. These effects are negative when plugging reduces female mating rate below an optimum. However, plugging may also be positive when plugging prevents excessive forced mating and keeps mating rate closer to a females' optimum. Here, we studied these consequences in the gonochoristic nematode Caenorhabditis remanei. We employed a new CO2-sedation technique to interrupt matings before or after the production of a plug. We then measured mating rate, attractiveness and offspring number. Results The presence of a mating plug did not affect mating rate or attractiveness to roving males. Instead, females with mating plugs produced more offspring than females without copulatory plugs. Conclusions Our experiment suggests that plugging might have evolved under male-male competition but represents a poor protection against competing males in our experiment. Even if plugging does not reduce mating rate, our results indicate that females may benefit from being plugged in a different sense than remating prevention. PMID:21044286

  12. Breastfeeding: Hints to Help You Get Off to a Good Start

    MedlinePlus

    ... minutes. Change nursing positions. If possible, position any cracked or tender part of your breast at the ... Also, if you smoke, nursing is another good reason to try to quit. Smoking can cause you ...

  13. Hints of a rotating spiral structure in the innermost regions around IRC +10216

    PubMed Central

    Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Cernicharo, J.; Agúndez, M.; Prieto, L. Velilla; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Marcelino, N.; Cabezas, C.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J.L.; Zúñiga, J.; Requena, A.; Bastida, A.; Kalugina, Y.; Lique, F.; Guélin, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is allowing us to study the innermost regions of the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars with un-precedented precision and sensitivity. Key processes in the ejection of matter and dust from these objects occur in their inner zones. In this work, we present sub-arcsecond interferometric maps of transitions of metal-bearing molecules towards the prototypical C-rich evolved star IRC +10216. While Al-bearing molecules seem to be present as a roughly spherical shell, the molecular emission from the salts NaCl and KCl presents an elongation in the inner regions, with a central minimum. In order to accurately analyze the emission from the NaCl rotational lines, we present new calculations of the collisional rates for this molecule based on new spectroscopic constants. The most plausible interpretation for the spatial distribution of the salts is a spiral with a NaCl mass of 0.08M☉. Alternatively, a torus of gas and dust would result in similar structures as those observed. From the torus scenario we derive a mass of ~ 1.1 × 10−4M☉. In both cases, the spiral and the torus, the NaCl structure presents an inner minimum of 27 AU. In the case of the torus, the outer radius is 73 AU. The kinematics of both the spiral and the torus suggests that they are slowly expanding and rotating. Alternative explanations for the presence of the elongation are explored. The presence of these features only in KCl and NaCl might be a result of their comparatively high dipole moment with respect to the Al-bearing species. PMID:26997665

  14. The infrared medium-deep survey. II. How to trigger radio AGNs? Hints from their environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin; Chapman, Scott; Pak, Soojong; Edge, Alastair

    2014-12-10

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ∼25 deg{sup 2} and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (M{sub u} – M{sub r} ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  15. Turbulent energy transfer in electromagnetic turbulence: hints from a Reversed Field Pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Bergsaker, H.

    2005-10-01

    The relationship between electromagnetic turbulence and sheared plasma flow in a Reversed Field Pinch is addressed. ExB sheared flows and turbulence at the edge tends to organize themeselves near marginal stability, suggesting an underlying energy exchange process between turbulence and mean flow. In MHD this process is well described through the quantity P which represents the energy transfer (per mass and time unit) from turbulence to mean fields. In the edge region of RFP configuration, where magnetic field is mainly poloidal and the mean ExB is consequently toroidal, the quantity P results: P =[ -ρμ0 + ]Vφr where Vφ is the mean ExB toroidal flow, ρ the mean mass density and b and v the fluctuations of velocity and magnetic field respectively. Both the radial profiles and the temporal evolution of P have been measured in the edge region of Extrap-T2R Reversed Field Pinch experiment. The results support the existence of oscillating energy exchange process between fluctuations and mean flow.

  16. New hints on Phobos collisional capture origin from Rosetta-OSIRIS observation .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, M.; Lazzarin, M.; Bertini, I.; Turrini, D.; Marzari, F.; Magrin, S.; La Forgia, F.; Ferri, F.; Barbieri, C.

    On 2007 February 24 and 25, the ESA Rosetta mission flew by the planet Mars during its complex interplanetary trajectory towards its main target: comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The geometry of this gravitational assist gave the chance to image Phobos before and after Rosetta-Mars closest approach (CA) from a distance range between 115 000 to 21 000 km. Different surface areas of Phobos were observed belonging to the leading and trailing hemisphere of the anti-Mars hemisphere of the satellite, and also a section of its sub-Mars hemisphere. We compared our spectra, obtained during the pre- and the post-CA, with the reflectance spectra of D-type asteroids, showing that Phobos near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared (263.5-992.0 nm) reflectivity is within the spectral dispersion of the D-type asteroids. We investigated then the possibility of a dynamical collisional capture of Phobos similar to the origin of the irregular satellites of the giants planets. The coupled observational and dynamical ones suggest an early capture of Phobos in the first 10-100 Ma of the lifetime of the Solar System, consistently with the results of previous studies of the orbital evolution of Phobos.

  17. The 1998 earthquake sequence south of Long Valley Caldera, California: Hints of magmatic involvement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Dollar, R.S.; Johnson, P.

    2000-01-01

    A significant episode of seismic and geodetic unrest took place at Long Valley Caldera, California, beginning in the summer of 1997. Activity through late May of 1998 was concentrated in and around the south moat and the south margin of the resurgent dome. The Sierran Nevada block (SNB) region to the south/southeast remained relatively quiet until a M 5.1 event occurred there on 9 June 1998 (UT). A second M 5.1 event followed on 15 July (UT); both events were followed by appreciable aftershock sequences. An additional, distinct burst of activity began on 1 August 1998. The number of events in the August sequence (over the first week or two) was similar to the aftershock sequence of the 15 July 1998 M 5.1 event, but the later sequence was not associated with any events larger than M 4.3. All of the summer 1998 SNB activity was considered tectonic rather than magmatic; in general the SNB is considered an unlikely location for future eruptions. However, the August sequence-an 'aftershock sequence without a mainshock'-is suggestive of a strain event larger than the cumulative seismotectonic strain release. Moreover, a careful examination of waveforms from the August sequence reveals a small handful of events whose spectral signature is strikingly harmonic. We investigate the waveforms of these events using spectral, autocorrelation, and empirical Green's function techniques and conclude that they were most likely associated with a fluid-controlled source. Our observations suggest that there may have been some degree of magma or magma-derived fluid involvement in the 1998 SNB sequence.

  18. Can flavor physics hint at distinctive signals for R-parity violation at the LHC?

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacherjee, Biplob; Raychaudhuri, Sreerup; Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2011-10-01

    Observation of some low-energy processes in the flavor physics regime may require the existence of supersymmetry with two relatively large R-parity-violating couplings of the {lambda}{sup '}-type, together with reasonably light superparticles. At the LHC, such interactions would be expected to give rise to clear signals with convenient leptonic triggers, including some multileptons of the same sign. We undertake a detailed investigation of these signals taking care to correlate with low-energy requirements and taking proper account of the standard model backgrounds as well as the R-parity-conserving sector of the supersymmetric model. We find clear indications that R-parity violation as envisaged in this scenario can be detected at the LHC - even, perhaps, in the early runs.

  19. IceCube events and decaying dark matter: hints and constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, Arman; Kang, Sin Kyu; Serpico, Pasquale Dario E-mail: neutrino.skk@gmail.com

    2014-12-01

    In the light of the new IceCube data on the (yet unidentified) astrophysical neutrino flux in the PeV and sub-PeV range, we present an update on the status of decaying dark matter interpretation of the events. In particular, we develop further the angular distribution analysis and discuss the perspectives for diagnostics. By performing various statistical tests (maximum likelihood, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling tests) we conclude that currently the data show a mild preference (below the two sigma level) for the angular distribution expected from dark matter decay vs. the isotropic distribution foreseen for a conventional astrophysical flux of extragalactic origin. Also, we briefly develop some general considerations on heavy dark matter model building and on the compatibility of the expected energy spectrum of decay products with the IceCube data, as well as with existing bounds from gamma-rays. Alternatively, assuming that the IceCube data originate from conventional astrophysical sources, we derive bounds on both decaying and annihilating dark matter for various final states. The lower limits on heavy dark matter lifetime improve by up to an order of magnitude with respect to existing constraints, definitively making these events—even if astrophysical in origin—an important tool for astroparticle physics studies.

  20. Integrated near surface geophysics across the active Mount Marzano Fault System (southern Italy): seismogenic hints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P. A. C.; Giocoli, A.; Peronace, E.; Piscitelli, S.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe an original geophysical multi-method approach applied to the Mount Marzano Fault System. This is one of the most hazardous seismogenic faults of the Apennines (Irpinia, southern Italy), and it was responsible for the 1980, Mw 6.9, earthquake, along with many others before. We carried out electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements, and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) microtremor analysis along several common transects designed across the potential and/or certain fault traces. The data obtained from these non-invasive, inexpensive, expeditious methods mutually integrate with and complement each other, providing a valuable subsurface image of the near surface fault architecture. ERT depicts the general shallow image of the fault zone and of the fault-controlled sedimentary basin, with the depth of the buried bedrock cross-correlated through ambient-noise HVSR results. GPR delineates the very shallow geometry of the fault and of the associated deformation. Coupled with previous paleoseismological studies, these data allow the evaluation of some fault parameters and the precise locating of the fault trace, to aid future paleoseismological investigations aimed at seismic risk reduction programs.

  1. The Fusarium graminearum Genome Reveals More Secondary Metabolite Gene Clusters and Hints of Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Philip; Münsterkötter, Martin; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Schmeitzl, Clemens; Varga, Elisabeth; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Güldener, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes are of major interest due to the pharmacological properties of their products (like mycotoxins and antibiotics). The genome of the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum codes for a large number of candidate enzymes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. However, the chemical nature of most enzymatic products of proteins encoded by putative secondary metabolism biosynthetic genes is largely unknown. Based on our analysis we present 67 gene clusters with significant enrichment of predicted secondary metabolism related enzymatic functions. 20 gene clusters with unknown metabolites exhibit strong gene expression correlation in planta and presumably play a role in virulence. Furthermore, the identification of conserved and over-represented putative transcription factor binding sites serves as additional evidence for cluster co-regulation. Orthologous cluster search provided insight into the evolution of secondary metabolism clusters. Some clusters are characteristic for the Fusarium phylum while others show evidence of horizontal gene transfer as orthologs can be found in representatives of the Botrytis or Cochliobolus lineage. The presented candidate clusters provide valuable targets for experimental examination. PMID:25333987

  2. SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPIC STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF NEARBY DISKS: HINTS OF STELLAR MIGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Yoachim, Peter; Roskar, Rok; Debattista, Victor P.

    2012-06-20

    We use the Mitchell Spectrograph (formerly VIRUS-P) to observe 12 nearby disk galaxies. We successfully measure ages in the outer disk in six systems. In three cases (NGC 2684, NGC 6155, and NGC 7437), we find that a downward break in the disk surface brightness profile corresponds with a change in the dominant stellar population with the interior being dominated by active star formation and the exterior having older stellar populations that are best fit with star formation histories that decline with time. The observed increase in average stellar ages beyond a profile break is similar to theoretical models that predict surface brightness breaks are caused by stellar migration, with the outer disk being populated from scattered old interior stars. In three more cases (IC 1132, NGC 4904, and NGC 6691), we find no significant change in the stellar population as one crosses the break radius. In these galaxies, both the inner and outer disks are dominated by active star formation and younger stellar populations. While radial migration can contribute to the stellar populations beyond the break, it appears that more than one mechanism is required to explain all of our observed stellar profile breaks.

  3. Origin of the universe: A hint from Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyeong-Chan

    2014-09-01

    We study the `initial state' of an anisotropic universe in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity filled with a scalar field, whose potential has various forms. With this purpose, the evolution of a spatially-flat, homogeneous, anisotropic Kasner universe is studied. We find an exact evolution of the universe for each scalar potential by imposing a maximal pressure condition. The solution is shown to describe the initial state of the universe. The state is regular if the scalar potential does not increase faster than the quadratic power for large-field values. We also show that the anisotropy does not raise any defect in the early universe, contrary to the case of general relativity.

  4. Hints on the nature of dark matter from the properties of Milky Way satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Anderhalden, Donnino; Diemand, Juerg; Schneider, Aurel; Macciò, Andrea V.; Bertone, Gianfranco E-mail: aurel.schneider@sussex.ac.uk E-mail: diemand@physik.uzh.ch

    2013-03-01

    The nature of dark matter is still unknown and one of the most fundamental scientific mysteries. Although successfully describing large scales, the standard cold dark matter model (CDM) exhibits possible shortcomings on galactic and sub-galactic scales. It is exactly at these highly non-linear scales where strong astrophysical constraints can be set on the nature of the dark matter particle. While observations of the Lyman-α forest probe the matter power spectrum in the mildly non-linear regime, satellite galaxies of the Milky Way provide an excellent laboratory as a test of the underlying cosmology on much smaller scales. Here we present results from a set of high resolution simulations of a Milky Way sized dark matter halo in eight distinct cosmologies: CDM, warm dark matter (WDM) with a particle mass of 2 keV and six different cold plus warm dark matter (C+WDM) models, varying the fraction, f{sub wdm}, and the mass, m{sub wdm}, of the warm component. We used three different observational tests based on Milky Way satellite observations: the total satellite abundance, their radial distribution and their mass profile. We show that the requirement of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints sets very strong limits on the nature of dark matter. This shows the power of a multi-dimensional small scale approach in ruling out models which would be still allowed by large scale observations.

  5. Homologues of Arabidopsis Microtubule-Associated AIR9 in Trypanosomatid Parasites: Hints on Evolution and Function.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Henrik; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Lloyd, Clive W

    2007-07-01

    AIR9 is an essential microtubule-associated protein from Arabidopsis. Sequence similarity searches indicate homologues of AIR9 in land plants and in excavate protists, including trypanosomatid parasites and Trichomonas. The AIR9-like protein from Trypanosoma brucei was recently detected in the proteome of the trypanosome flagellum, raising the possibility that trypanosomatid AIR9-like proteins also associate with microtubules. Because microtubule functions are essential to the viability of trypanosomatid parasites AIR9-like proteins may be exploited as drug targets without homology in humans. We further discuss the unexpected phylogeny of AIR9-like proteins from plants and protozoans.

  6. Considering Homeschooling Your Child on the Autism Spectrum? Some Helpful Hints and Suggestions for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlbutt, Karen

    2010-01-01

    With the increase in the numbers of diagnosed children on the autism spectrum, schools are being challenged to provide proper educational services for these children. In Educating Children with Autism, the National Research Council recommended that educational programs for students with autism include three basic components. These are direct…

  7. “Don Juan-Fracture” as a Hint to Aortic Isthmus Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Suksompong, Sirilak; von Bormann, Benno

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of thoracic aortic rupture after blunt trauma in a 23-year-old male patient. The initial investigation found no external injury or bleeding, only a slightly widened mediastinum and a broken left calcaneus. Abdominal lavage was negative, biochemistry was normal, and breathing and oxygenation were not compromised. When changing his position during diagnostics, the patient all of a sudden developed cardiac arrest and typical signs of hypovolemic shock. An immediate sternotomy was done without any further diagnostics on suspicion of aortic isthmus injury. A circular avulsion at the ligamentum arteriosum was found as assumed and repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient left the hospital for rehabilitation after 12 days in adequate health status. Biodynamics of blunt trauma after high-speed frontal impact and the relationship between calcaneus fracture, called “Don-Juan fracture,” and aortic rupture at the site of ligamentum arteriosum are discussed. PMID:25478249

  8. Assessing the Role of Anhydrite in the KT Mass Extinction: Hints from Shock-loading Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skala, R.; Lnagenhorst, F.; Hoerz, F.

    2004-01-01

    Various killing mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the mass extinctions at the KT boundary, including severe, global deterioration of the atmosphere and hydrosphere due to SO(x) released from heavily shocked, sulfate-bearing target rocks. The devolatilization of anhydrite is predominantly inferred from thermodynamic considerations and lacks experimental confirmation. To date, the experimentally determined shock behavior of anhydrite is limited to solid-state effects employing X-ray diffraction methods. The present report employs additional methods to characterize experimentally shocked anhydrite.

  9. Globalization or Hegemony? Childcare on the Brink: Hints from Three Geographically Distant Localities in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, John P.; Thirumurthy, Vidya; Field, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    In a previous publication the authors examined selected aspects of the structure and curriculum of fifteen childcare centers located in three geographically distant locations in North America and determined that contrasts within and between the regions in terms of structure and curriculum guided by the National Association for the Education of…

  10. The Infrared Medium-Deep Survey. II. How to Trigger Radio AGNs? Hints from their Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Chapman, Scott; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Pak, Soojong; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin; Edge, Alastair

    2014-12-01

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ~25 deg2 and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (Mu - Mr ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  11. How Parents Influence School Grades: Hints from a Sample of Adoptive and Biological Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    Using the biological and adoptive families in the Minnesota-based Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, we investigated the associations among genetic and environmental influences on IQ, parenting, parental expectations for offspring educational attainment, engagement in school, and school grades. All variables showed substantial genetic…

  12. Formation and evolution of interstellar filaments. Hints from velocity dispersion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzoumanian, D.; André, Ph.; Peretto, N.; Könyves, V.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the gas velocity dispersions of a sample of filaments recently detected as part of the Herschel Gould Belt Survey in the IC 5146, Aquila, and Polaris interstellar clouds. To measure these velocity dispersions, we use 13CO, C18O, and N2H+ line observations obtained with the IRAM 30 m telescope. Correlating our velocity dispersion measurements with the filament column densities derived from Herschel data, we show that interstellar filaments can be divided into two regimes: thermally subcritical filaments, which have transonic velocity dispersions (cs ≲ σtot < 2 cs) independent of column density and are gravitationally unbound; and thermally supercritical filaments, which have higher velocity dispersions scaling roughly as the square root of column density (σtot ∝ Σ00.5) and which are self-gravitating. The higher velocity dispersions of supercritical filaments may not directly arise from supersonic interstellar turbulence but may be driven by gravitational contraction/accretion. Based on our observational results, we propose an evolutionary scenario whereby supercritical filaments undergo gravitational contraction and increase in mass per unit length through accretion of background material, while remaining in rough virial balance. We further suggest that this accretion process allows supercritical filaments to keep their approximately constant inner widths (~0.1 pc) while contracting. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).Appendix A available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Teaching Database Modeling and Design: Areas of Confusion and Helpful Hints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, George C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies several areas of database modeling and design that have been problematic for students and even are likely to confuse faculty. Major contributing factors are the lack of clarity and inaccuracies that persist in the presentation of some basic database concepts in textbooks. The paper analyzes the problems and discusses ways to…

  14. "Spring break" of Dissolved Organic Matter above the Arctic Circle: New Hints on Source and Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teisserenc, R.; Myers-Pigg, A.; Louchouarn, P.; Gandois, L.; Tananaev, N.; Le Dantec, T.; Gascoin, S.; Probst, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic Ocean, on a volume basis, receives the largest input of terrestrial organic matter of all ocean basins. These inputs come from the most important stock of soil organic carbon (OC) on Earth, estimated around 1700 Pg OC, which is well preserved in permafrost (from patchy to continuous). Arctic watersheds are experiencing unprecedented climate warming, and future warming is projected to be stronger at high latitudes. As a result, we can expect an increase in active layer depth and a decrease of permafrost extent in the near future. These shifts will affect the riverine contributions of terrestrial organic matter to the coastal and oceanic carbon pools. Until recently, few data existed about dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes in Siberian rivers, particularly during the spring freshet. Further, there is still a dearth of information about the source and degradation state of this DOC in Arctic rivers through their hydrographs. To address this issue, we intensively sampled two spring flood periods in a small Canadian river (Great Whale river) and the largest Arctic river (Yenisei) at their outlet in order to get information on the source and state ("freshness") of mobilized DOC during these active flood periods. Combining geographical information data (GIS) and biogeochemical analysis (elemental, isotopic and molecular) we were able to discern dynamic ecosystem linkages. DOC concentration increased 4-9 fold in each river from low flow to peak flow. Molecular characteristics of this DOC are extremely variable during the flood event, ranging from old, altered DOC to fresh, labile DOC. We observed a partition of this quality between DOC and POC, with fresher DOC coming mostly from the leaching of softwoods during peak flow. Snow cover is variable along the period with snow-free area of the watershed imparting the greatest influence on DOC composition within the river. These results confirm that DOC dynamics during the spring flood are complex and much different than during low flow conditions. As export of DOC in this period can reach up to 80% of annual DOC export, measurements acquired during this study will bring crucial information on not only watershed-aquatic system linkages, but also on global carbon cycling.

  15. Hints of hybridizing Majorana fermions in a nanowire coupled to superconducting leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finck, A. D. K.; van Harlingen, D. J.; Mohseni, P. K.; Jung, K.; Li, X.

    2013-03-01

    It has been proposed that a nanowire with strong spin-orbit coupling that is contacted with a conventional superconductor and subjected to a large magnetic field can be driven through a topological phase transition. In this regime, the two ends of the nanowire together host a pair of quasi-particles known as Majorana fermions (MFs). A key feature of MFs is that they are pinned to zero energy when the topological nanowire is long enough such that the wave functions of the two MFs do not overlap significantly, resulting in a zero bias anomaly (ZBA). It has been recently predicted that changes in external parameters can vary the wave function overlap and cause the MFs to hybridize in an oscillatory fashion. This would lead to a non-monotonic splitting or broadening of the ZBA and help distinguish MF transport signatures from a Kondo effect. Here, we present transport studies of an InAs nanowire contacted with niobium nitride leads in high magnetic fields. We observe a number of robust ZBAs that can persist for a wide range of back gate bias and magnetic field strength. Under certain conditions, we find that the height and width of the ZBA can oscillate with back gate bias or magnetic field. This work was supported by Microsoft Project Q.

  16. Melatonin, Noncoding RNAs, Messenger RNA Stability and Epigenetics—Evidence, Hints, Gaps and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hardeland, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is a highly pleiotropic regulator molecule, which influences numerous functions in almost every organ and, thus, up- or down-regulates many genes, frequently in a circadian manner. Our understanding of the mechanisms controlling gene expression is actually now expanding to a previously unforeseen extent. In addition to classic actions of transcription factors, gene expression is induced, suppressed or modulated by a number of RNAs and proteins, such as miRNAs, lncRNAs, piRNAs, antisense transcripts, deadenylases, DNA methyltransferases, histone methylation complexes, histone demethylases, histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases. Direct or indirect evidence for involvement of melatonin in this network of players has originated in different fields, including studies on central and peripheral circadian oscillators, shift work, cancer, inflammation, oxidative stress, aging, energy expenditure/obesity, diabetes type 2, neuropsychiatric disorders, and neurogenesis. Some of the novel modulators have also been shown to participate in the control of melatonin biosynthesis and melatonin receptor expression. Future work will need to augment the body of evidence on direct epigenetic actions of melatonin and to systematically investigate its role within the network of oscillating epigenetic factors. Moreover, it will be necessary to discriminate between effects observed under conditions of well-operating and deregulated circadian clocks, and to explore the possibilities of correcting epigenetic malprogramming by melatonin. PMID:25310649

  17. Impact of simulated microgravity on human bone stem cells: New hints for space medicine.

    PubMed

    Cazzaniga, Alessandra; Maier, Jeanette A M; Castiglioni, Sara

    2016-04-22

    Bone loss is a well known early event in astronauts and represents one of the major obstacle to space exploration. While an imbalance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity has been described, less is known about the behavior of bone mesenchymal stem cells in microgravity. We simulated microgravity using the Random Positioning Machine and found that mesenchymal stem cells respond to gravitational unloading by upregulating HSP60, HSP70, cyclooxygenase 2 and superoxyde dismutase 2. Such an adaptive response might be involved in inducing the overexpression of some osteogenic transcripts, even though the threshold to induce the formation of bone crystal is not achieved. Indeed, only the addition of an osteogenic cocktail activates the full differentiation process both in simulated microgravity and under static 1G-conditions. We conclude that simulated microgravity alone reprograms bone mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteogenic phenotype which results in complete differentiation only after exposure to a specific stimulus. PMID:27005819

  18. Magic, Nostalgia and a Hint of Greatness in the Workaday World of the Building Types Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles W.; Oliver, Richard B.

    1977-01-01

    The Architectural Record's Building Types Studies, now forty years old, exist as a compendium of raw material for an esthetic, stylistic, sociopolitical, and technological evaluation of contemporary U.S. architecture as it actually was built. (Author/MLF)

  19. Are You a Gut Responder? Hints on Coping with an Irritable Bowel

    MedlinePlus

    ... contend with. These can interfere with work or school and social functions both in obvious and subtle ... by: Barry Blackwell, MD, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Milwaukee, WI. Manage Your Health The Digestive System ...

  20. Building Models to Predict Hint-or-Attempt Actions of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Francisco Enrique Vicente; Adjei, Seth; Colombo, Tyler; Heffernan, Neil

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of research in educational data mining is geared towards predicting student performance. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing, Performance Factors Analysis, and the different variations of these have been introduced and have had some success at predicting student knowledge. It is worth noting, however, that very little has been done to…

  1. Hints of correlation between broad-line and radio variations for 3C 120

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H. T.; Bai, J. M.; Li, S. K.; Wang, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the correlation between broad-line and radio variations for the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 120. By the z-transformed discrete correlation function method and the model-independent flux randomization/random subset selection (FR/RSS) Monte Carlo method, we find that broad Hβ line variations lead the 15 GHz variations. The FR/RSS method shows that the Hβ line variations lead the radio variations by a factor of τ{sub ob} = 0.34 ± 0.01 yr. This time lag can be used to locate the position of the emitting region of radio outbursts in the jet, on the order of ∼5 lt-yr from the central engine. This distance is much larger than the size of the broad-line region. The large separation of the radio outburst emitting region from the broad-line region will observably influence the gamma-ray emission in 3C 120.

  2. GRB spectra in the MeV range: hints from INTEGRAL

    SciTech Connect

    Bulik, Tomasz; Denis, Miroslaw; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Goldoni, Paolo; Laurent, Philip; Osuch, Lukasz

    2007-07-12

    INTEGRAL detects a large number of gamma-ray bursts outside of its field of view with the SPI ACS. Several of these bursts are also detected by IBIS. We present the results of the spectral analysis using the ISRGI, PICSIT and Compton mode data of several bursts. These bursts show very hard spectra with the high energy index reaching -2 above 1 MeV We show that there is a group of bursts with the peak energy Epeak in the MeV range. We discuss the implications of these findings for GLAST.

  3. Maximum number of habitable planets at the time of Earth's origin: new hints for panspermia?

    PubMed

    von Bloh, Werner; Franck, Siegfried; Bounama, Christine; Schellnhuber, Hans-Joachim

    2003-04-01

    New discoveries have fuelled the ongoing discussion of panspermia, i.e. the transport of life from one planet to another within the solar system (interplanetary panspermia) or even between different planetary systems (interstellar panspermia). The main factor for the probability of interstellar panspermia is the average density of stellar systems containing habitable planets. The combination of recent results for the formation rate of Earth-like planets with our estimations of extrasolar habitable zones allows us to determine the number of habitable planets in the Milky Way over cosmological time scales. We find that there was a maximum number of habitable planets around the time of Earth's origin. If at all, interstellar panspermia was most probable at that time and may have kick-started life on our planet.

  4. Perceptual Strategies of Pigeons to Detect a Rotational Centre—A Hint for Star Compass Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Helduser, Sascha; Mouritsen, Henrik; Güntürkün, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy. PMID:25807499

  5. Airborne multisensor pod system (AMPS) data: Multispectral data integration and processing hints

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, T.J.; Lamb, A.

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Non-Proliferation (NN-20) has developed a suite of airborne remote sensing systems that simultaneously collect coincident data from a US Navy P-3 aircraft. The primary objective of the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) Program is {open_quotes}to collect multisensor data that can be used for data research, both to reduce interpretation problems associated with data overload and to develop information products more complete than can be obtained from any single sensor.{close_quotes} The sensors are housed in wing-mounted pods and include: a Ku-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar; a CASI Hyperspectral Imager; a Daedalus 3600 Airborne Multispectral Scanner; a Wild Heerbrugg RC-30 motion compensated large format camera; various high resolution, light intensified and thermal video cameras; and several experimental sensors (e.g. the Portable Hyperspectral Imager of Low-Light Spectroscopy (PHILLS)). Over the past year or so, the Coastal Marine Resource Assessment (CAMRA) group at the Florida Department of Environmental Protection`s Marine Research Institute (FMRI) has been working with the Department of Energy through the Naval Research Laboratory to develop applications and products from existing data. Considerable effort has been spent identifying image formats integration parameters. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Impact of simulated microgravity on human bone stem cells: New hints for space medicine.

    PubMed

    Cazzaniga, Alessandra; Maier, Jeanette A M; Castiglioni, Sara

    2016-04-22

    Bone loss is a well known early event in astronauts and represents one of the major obstacle to space exploration. While an imbalance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity has been described, less is known about the behavior of bone mesenchymal stem cells in microgravity. We simulated microgravity using the Random Positioning Machine and found that mesenchymal stem cells respond to gravitational unloading by upregulating HSP60, HSP70, cyclooxygenase 2 and superoxyde dismutase 2. Such an adaptive response might be involved in inducing the overexpression of some osteogenic transcripts, even though the threshold to induce the formation of bone crystal is not achieved. Indeed, only the addition of an osteogenic cocktail activates the full differentiation process both in simulated microgravity and under static 1G-conditions. We conclude that simulated microgravity alone reprograms bone mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteogenic phenotype which results in complete differentiation only after exposure to a specific stimulus.

  7. Implementation of a Surgical Safety Checklist: Interventions to Optimize the Process and Hints to Increase Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Sendlhofer, Gerald; Mosbacher, Nina; Karina, Leitgeb; Kober, Brigitte; Jantscher, Lydia; Berghold, Andrea; Pregartner, Gudrun; Brunner, Gernot; Kamolz, Lars Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background A surgical safety checklist (SSC) was implemented and routinely evaluated within our hospital. The purpose of this study was to analyze compliance, knowledge of and satisfaction with the SSC to determine further improvements. Methods The implementation of the SSC was observed in a pilot unit. After roll-out into each operating theater, compliance with the SSC was routinely measured. To assess subjective and objective knowledge, as well as satisfaction with the SSC implementation, an online survey (N = 891) was performed. Results During two test runs in a piloting unit, 305 operations were observed, 175 in test run 1 and 130 in test run 2. The SSC was used in 77.1% of all operations in test run 1 and in 99.2% in test run 2. Within used SSCs, completion rates were 36.3% in test run 1 and 1.6% in test run 2. After roll-out, three unannounced audits took place and showed that the SSC was used in 95.3%, 91.9% and 89.9%. Within used SSCs, completion rates decreased from 81.7% to 60.6% and 53.2%. In 2014, 164 (18.4%) operating team members responded to the online survey, 160 of which were included in the analysis. 146 (91.3%) consultants and nursing staff reported to use the SSC regularly in daily routine. Conclusion These data show that the implementation of new tools such as the adapted WHO SSC needs constant supervision and instruction until it becomes self-evident and accepted. Further efforts, consisting mainly of hands-on leadership and training are necessary. PMID:25658317

  8. Allometric Scaling of Patrolling Rate and Nest Volume in Constrictotermes cyphergaster Termites: Hints on the Settlement of Inquilines

    PubMed Central

    DeSouza, Og; Araújo, Ana Paula Albano; Florencio, Daniela Faria; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Marins, Alessandra; Costa, Diogo Andrade; Rodrigues, Vinicius Barros; Cristaldo, Paulo Fellipe

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional traits of organisms are known to be related to the size of individuals and to the size of their colonies when they belong to one. Among such traits, propensity to inquilinism in termites is known to relate positively to colony size. Larger termitaria hold larger diversity of facultative inquilines than smaller nests, whereas obligate inquilines seem unable to settle in nests smaller than a threshold volume. Respective underlying mechanisms, however, remain hypothetical. Here we test one of such hypotheses, namely, that nest defence correlates negatively to nest volume in Constrictotermes cyphergaster termites (Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae). As a surrogate to defence, we used ‘patrolling rate’, i.e., the number of termite individuals attending per unit time an experimentally damaged spot on the outer wall of their termitaria. We found that patrolling rate decayed allometrically with increasing nest size. Conspicuously higher patrolling rates occurred in smaller nests, while conspicuously lower rates occurred in larger nests presenting volumes in the vicinity of the threshold value for the establishment of inquilinism. This could be proven adaptive for the host and guest. At younger nest age, host colonies are smaller and presumably more vulnerable and unstable. Enhanced defence rates may, hence, prevent eventual risks to hosts from inquilinism at the same time that it prevents inquilines to settle in a still unstable nest. Conversely, when colonies grow and maturate enough to stand threats, they would invest in priorities other than active defence, opening an opportunity for inquilines to settle in nests which are more suitable or less risky. Under this two-fold process, cohabitation between host and inquiline could readily stabilize. PMID:26808197

  9. Information-seeking in cancer survivors: application of the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking to HINTS 2007 data.

    PubMed

    Hartoonian, Narineh; Ormseth, Sarah R; Hanson, Eric R; Bantum, Erin O; Owen, Jason E

    2014-01-01

    Despite health care providers' best efforts, many cancer survivors have unmet informational and support needs. As a result, cancer survivors often have to meet these needs themselves, and how they approach this process is poorly understood. The authors aimed to validate and extend the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking to examine information-seeking behaviors across a variety of channels of information delivery and to explore the impact of health-related factors on levels of information seeking. The data of 459 cancer survivors were drawn from the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the associations among health-related factors, information-carrier factors, and information-seeking behavior. Results confirmed direct effects of direct experience, salience, and information-carrier characteristics on information-carrier utility. However, the direct impact of demographics and beliefs on information-carrier utility was not confirmed, nor were the effects of information-carrier factors on information-seeking behavior. Contrary to expectations, salience had direct effect on information-seeking behavior and on information-carrier characteristics. These results show that understanding antecedents of information seeking will inform the development and implementation of systems of care that will help providers better meet cancer survivors' needs. PMID:24742287

  10. Tracing the radiation of Maniola (Nymphalidae) butterflies: new insights from phylogeography hint at one single incompletely differentiated species complex

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzinger, Angelina J; Fiedler, Konrad; Letsch, Harald; Grill, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The use of DNA sequence data often leads to the recognition of cryptic species within putatively well-known taxa. The opposite case, detecting less diversity than originally described, has, however, far more rarely been documented. Maniola jurtina, the Meadow Brown butterfly, occurs all over Europe, whereas all other six species in the genus Maniola are restricted to the Mediterranean area. Among them, three are island endemics on Sardinia, Cyprus, and Chios, respectively. Maniola species are almost indistinguishable morphologically, and hybridization seems to occur occasionally. To clarify species boundaries and diversification history of the genus, we reconstructed the phylogeography and phylogeny of all seven species within Maniola analyzing 138 individuals from across its range using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers. Examination of variation in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA surprisingly revealed a case of taxonomic “oversplitting”. The topology of the recovered phylogenetic tree is not consistent with accepted taxonomy, but rather reveals haplotype clades that are incongruent with nominal species boundaries: instead of seven species, we recognized only two major, yet incompletely segregated, lineages. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that Maniola originated in Africa. We suggest that one lineage dispersed over the Strait of Gibraltar and the Iberian Peninsula to the west of Europe, while the other lineage spreads eastward through Asia Minor and over the Bosporus to Eastern Europe. PMID:25628863

  11. A Novel Topology of Proline-rich Transmembrane Protein 2 (PRRT2): HINTS FOR AN INTRACELLULAR FUNCTION AT THE SYNAPSE.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Pia; Sterlini, Bruno; Castroflorio, Enrico; Marte, Antonella; Onofri, Franco; Valtorta, Flavia; Maragliano, Luca; Corradi, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-03-18

    Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) has been identified as the single causative gene for a group of paroxysmal syndromes of infancy, including epilepsy, paroxysmal movement disorders, and migraine. On the basis of topology predictions, PRRT2 has been assigned to the recently characterized family of Dispanins, whose members share the two-transmembrane domain topology with a large N terminus and short C terminus oriented toward the outside of the cell. Because PRRT2 plays a role at the synapse, it is important to confirm the exact orientation of its N and C termini with respect to the plasma membrane to get clues regarding its possible function. Using a combination of different experimental approaches, including live immunolabeling, immunogold electron microscopy, surface biotinylation and computational modeling, we demonstrate a novel topology for this protein. PRRT2 is a type II transmembrane protein in which only the second hydrophobic segment spans the plasma membrane, whereas the first one is associated with the internal surface of the membrane and forms a helix-loop-helix structure without crossing it. Most importantly, the large proline-rich N-terminal domain is not exposed to the extracellular space but is localized intracellularly, and only the short C terminus is extracellular (N cyt/C exo topology). Accordingly, we show that PRRT2 interacts with the Src homology 3 domain-bearing protein Intersectin 1, an intracellular protein involved in synaptic vesicle cycling. These findings will contribute to the clarification of the role of PRRT2 at the synapse and the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms on the basis of PRRT2-related neurological disorders. PMID:26797119

  12. Allometric Scaling of Patrolling Rate and Nest Volume in Constrictotermes cyphergaster Termites: Hints on the Settlement of Inquilines.

    PubMed

    DeSouza, Og; Araújo, Ana Paula Albano; Florencio, Daniela Faria; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Marins, Alessandra; Costa, Diogo Andrade; Rodrigues, Vinicius Barros; Cristaldo, Paulo Fellipe

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional traits of organisms are known to be related to the size of individuals and to the size of their colonies when they belong to one. Among such traits, propensity to inquilinism in termites is known to relate positively to colony size. Larger termitaria hold larger diversity of facultative inquilines than smaller nests, whereas obligate inquilines seem unable to settle in nests smaller than a threshold volume. Respective underlying mechanisms, however, remain hypothetical. Here we test one of such hypotheses, namely, that nest defence correlates negatively to nest volume in Constrictotermes cyphergaster termites (Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae). As a surrogate to defence, we used 'patrolling rate', i.e., the number of termite individuals attending per unit time an experimentally damaged spot on the outer wall of their termitaria. We found that patrolling rate decayed allometrically with increasing nest size. Conspicuously higher patrolling rates occurred in smaller nests, while conspicuously lower rates occurred in larger nests presenting volumes in the vicinity of the threshold value for the establishment of inquilinism. This could be proven adaptive for the host and guest. At younger nest age, host colonies are smaller and presumably more vulnerable and unstable. Enhanced defence rates may, hence, prevent eventual risks to hosts from inquilinism at the same time that it prevents inquilines to settle in a still unstable nest. Conversely, when colonies grow and maturate enough to stand threats, they would invest in priorities other than active defence, opening an opportunity for inquilines to settle in nests which are more suitable or less risky. Under this two-fold process, cohabitation between host and inquiline could readily stabilize.

  13. 76 FR 37356 - Submission for OMB review; comment request Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... in the Federal Register on April 22, 2011 (76 FR 22714) and allowed 60-days for public comment. One...). Type of Information Collection Request: Reinstatement with Change. Need and Use of Information..., early detection, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. The content of the survey will focus...

  14. Hint for association of single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype in SPINK5 gene with atopic dermatitis in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Namkung, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Eun; Kim, Eugene; Byun, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Sook; Shin, Eun-Soon; Cho, Eun-Young; Yang, Jun-Mo

    2010-12-01

    Clinical studies, including twin studies, support the concept that the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) may be mediated through skin-specific genes, rather than simply through systemic immune or atopy risk genes. The SPINK5 gene is expressed on epithelial surfaces and may provide protection against other allergenic serine proteases. Mutations in the SPINK5 gene result in Netherton syndrome, a disorder characterised by AD, ichthyosis, and elevated serum IgE levels. We genotyped 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the SPINK5 gene for 1090 case-control samples (631 patients with AD and 459 normal controls) and analysed the SNPs and haplotypes in this gene and also searched for gene-gene interactions between SPINK5 and the DEFB1 gene that we previously reported. Six SNPs [rs17718511 (P = 0.026), rs17860502 (P = 0.024), KN0001820 (P = 0.045), rs60978485 (P = 0.007), rs17718737 (P = 0.02), and rs1422985 (P = 0.038)] and the haplotype TAA (rs60978485, rs6892205, rs2303064; P = 0.023) in the SPINK5 gene showed significant different allelic or genotypic distributions between the AD group and the control group. We also found that four SNPs [rs17718511 (P = 0.033), rs17860502 (P = 0.031), rs60978485 (P = 0.005), rs17718737 (P = 0.023)] and the haplotype TAA (P = 0.02) in the SPINK5 gene showed associations with the susceptibility of the allergic type of AD (ADe). In addition to this finding, we speculate that the SNPs from DEFB1 and SPINK5 affect the individual susceptibility to development of ADe in an additive manner. This study provides evidence for a significant interaction between allergens and the SPINK5 gene that may contribute to ADe susceptibility. PMID:21087323

  15. A Hint of Whiteness: History Textbooks and Social Construction of Race in the Wake of the Sixties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    As historians and publishers scrambled to revise American history textbooks in the wake of the 1960s, textbooks increasingly strove to include the experiences of African Americans and avoid dangerous racial stereotypes. After the Civil Rights movement and decades before scathing criticism of textbooks for their inability to address racism in…

  16. Hints for metal-preference protein sequence determinants: different metal binding features of the five tetrahymena thermophila metallothioneins.

    PubMed

    Espart, Anna; Marín, Maribel; Gil-Moreno, Selene; Palacios, Òscar; Amaro, Francisco; Martín-González, Ana; Gutiérrez, Juan C; Capdevila, Mercè; Atrian, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    The metal binding preference of metallothioneins (MTs) groups them in two extreme subsets, the Zn/Cd- and the Cu-thioneins. Ciliates harbor the largest MT gene/protein family reported so far, including 5 paralogs that exhibit relatively low sequence similarity, excepting MTT2 and MTT4. In Tetrahymena thermophila, three MTs (MTT1, MTT3 and MTT5) were considered Cd-thioneins and two (MTT2 and MTT4) Cu-thioneins, according to gene expression inducibility and phylogenetic analysis. In this study, the metal-binding abilities of the five MTT proteins were characterized, to obtain information about the folding and stability of their cognate- and non-cognate metal complexes, and to characterize the T. thermophila MT system at protein level. Hence, the five MTTs were recombinantly synthesized as Zn(2+)-, Cd(2+)- or Cu(+)-complexes, which were analyzed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), circular dichroism (CD), and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Among the Cd-thioneins, MTT1 and MTT5 were optimal for Cd(2+) coordination, yielding unique Cd17- and Cd8- complexes, respectively. When binding Zn(2+), they rendered a mixture of Zn-species. Only MTT5 was capable to coordinate Cu(+), although yielding heteronuclear Zn-, Cu-species or highly unstable Cu-homometallic species. MTT3 exhibited poor binding abilities both for Cd(2+) and for Cu(+), and although not optimally, it yielded the best result when coordinating Zn(2+). The two Cu-thioneins, MTT2 and MTT4 isoforms formed homometallic Cu-complexes (major Cu20-MTT) upon synthesis in Cu-supplemented hosts. Contrarily, they were unable to fold into stable Cd-complexes, while Zn-MTT species were only recovered for MTT4 (major Zn10-MTT4). Thus, the metal binding preferences of the five T. thermophila MTs correlate well with their previous classification as Cd- and Cu-thioneins, and globally, they can be classified from Zn/Cd- to Cu-thioneins according to the gradation: MTT1>MTT5>MTT3>MTT4>MTT2. The main mechanisms underlying the evolution and specialization of the MTT metal binding preferences may have been internal tandem duplications, presence of doublet and triplet Cys patterns in Zn/Cd-thioneins, and optimization of site specific amino acid determinants (Lys for Zn/Cd- and Asn for Cu-coordination).

  17. Destabilization of Hydrophobic Core of Chicken Villin Headpiece in Guanidinium Chloride Induced Denaturation: Hint of π-Cation Interaction.

    PubMed

    Parui, Sridip; Manna, Rabindra Nath; Jana, Biman

    2016-09-15

    Despite their routine use as protein denaturants, the comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which urea and guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) disrupts proteins' structure is still lacking. Here, we use steered molecular dynamics simulations along with the umbrella sampling technique to elucidate the mechanism of unfolding of chicken villin headpiece (HP-36) in these two denaturants. We find that while urea denatures protein predominantly by forming hydrogen bonds with the protein backbone, GdmCl commences unfolding by weakening of the hydrophobic interactions present in the core. The potential of mean force calculation indicates the reduction of hydrophobic interactions between two benzene moieties in 6 M GdmCl as compared to 6 M urea. We observe a near parallel orientation between the guanidinium cation and aromatic side chains of the HP-36 suggesting π-cation type stacking interactions which play a crucial role in weakening of the hydrophobic interaction. We use QM/MM optimization calculations to estimate the energetics of this π-cation interaction. Additionally, the consistency of the unfolding paths between high temperature (400 K) unfolding simulations and steered molecular dynamics simulations strengthens the proposed molecular mechanism of unfolding further. PMID:27548328

  18. Do not hesitate to use Tversky-and other hints for successful active analogue searches with feature count descriptors.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Dragos; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexandre

    2013-07-22

    This study is an exhaustive analysis of the neighborhood behavior over a large coherent data set (ChEMBL target/ligand pairs of known Ki, for 165 targets with >50 associated ligands each). It focuses on similarity-based virtual screening (SVS) success defined by the ascertained optimality index. This is a weighted compromise between purity and retrieval rate of active hits in the neighborhood of an active query. One key issue addressed here is the impact of Tversky asymmetric weighing of query vs candidate features (represented as integer-value ISIDA colored fragment/pharmacophore triplet count descriptor vectors). The nearly a 3/4 million independent SVS runs showed that Tversky scores with a strong bias in favor of query-specific features are, by far, the most successful and the least failure-prone out of a set of nine other dissimilarity scores. These include classical Tanimoto, which failed to defend its privileged status in practical SVS applications. Tversky performance is not significantly conditioned by tuning of its bias parameter α. Both initial "guesses" of α = 0.9 and 0.7 were more successful than Tanimoto (at its turn, better than Euclid). Tversky was eventually tested in exhaustive similarity searching within the library of 1.6 M commercial + bioactive molecules at http://infochim.u-strasbg.fr/webserv/VSEngine.html , comparing favorably to Tanimoto in terms of "scaffold hopping" propensity. Therefore, it should be used at least as often as, perhaps in parallel to Tanimoto in SVS. Analysis with respect to query subclasses highlighted relationships of query complexity (simply expressed in terms of pharmacophore pattern counts) and/or target nature vs SVS success likelihood. SVS using more complex queries are more robust with respect to the choice of their operational premises (descriptors, metric). Yet, they are best handled by "pro-query" Tversky scores at α > 0.5. Among simpler queries, one may distinguish between "growable" (allowing for active analogs with additional features), and a few "conservative" queries not allowing any growth. These (typically bioactive amine transporter ligands) form the specific application domain of "pro-candidate" biased Tversky scores at α < 0.5.

  19. A case of congenital diaphragmatic hernia with a hernia sac attached to the liver: hints for an early embryological insult.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shilpa; Jain, Rani; Singh, M K; Gupta, Devendra K

    2007-10-01

    We describe here the unusual operative findings in a case of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). A neonate antenatally diagnosed as having CDH was operated via a left subcostal incision. The operative findings included a large central diaphragmatic defect of 5 x 5 cm, lined by a thick sac. The contents of the hernia included the stomach, spleen, and loops of the small and large intestine. The left side of the liver was thinned out and forming a part of the dome of the sac of the CDH. Vessels of the hepatic tissue were in continuity with the sac. There were scattered liver tissues forming cords in the sac lining. These findings were confirmed by histopathologic examinations. These findings have not been reported earlier in humans and might help to elucidate the embryology of the development of the diaphragm. Our findings suggest that this kind of defect occurs early in development, and we hypothesize that it is associated with a poorer prognosis.

  20. Total n cross section from 50 to 400 MeV/c and hint for a narrow n state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iazzi, F.

    1999-08-01

    The measurement of the n total cross section in the momentum range 50-400 MeV/c has been performed in the OBELIX experiment at the LEAR machine at CERN. The results are reported for the first time together with a preliminary analysis in terms of scattering length and scattering volume approximation: from this analysis the contributions of the S and P wave to the n interaction in the full range have been evaluated as well as the isospin dependence of the total cross section in the range 200-400 MeV/c. The most striking result is the strong indication in the data of a narrow n state near the p threshold.

  1. Overcoming Students' Misconceptions Concerning Thermal Physics with the Aid of Hints and Peer Interaction during a Lecture Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2013-01-01

    As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures…

  2. Practical Parenting Tips: Over 1,500 Helpful Hints for the First Five Years. Revised and Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansky, Vicki

    Noting that other parents can be an excellent source of practical parenting advice, this book compiles over a thousand practical tips--those not generally found in baby care books or pediatrician's offices--with over 400 new tips compiled since the book's 1982 version. Major topics include: (1) new baby care, including cesarean deliveries,…

  3. Planning and Conducting a Functional Exercise. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management. Volume 2, Issue 4, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    A key component of comprehensive school and school district emergency management plans is an exercise program that includes the five types of exercises: (1) orientation seminars; (2) drills; (3) tabletop exercises; and (4) functional exercises. Functional exercises are excellent tools for testing the extent to which an existing emergency…

  4. Steps for Developing a School Emergency Management Plan. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management. Volume 2, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools strongly encourages schools and school districts to develop emergency management plans within the context of the four phases of emergency management: prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. In addition, schools should collaborate closely with police, fire…

  5. MULTI-FREQUENCY, MULTI-EPOCH STUDY OF Mrk 501: HINTS FOR A TWO-COMPONENT NATURE OF THE EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, A.; Chitnis, V. R.; Singh, B. B.; Acharya, B. S.; Anupama, G. C.; Prabhu, T. P.; Vishwanath, P. R.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Britto, R. J.; Saha, L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the detection of very high energy (VHE) γ-rays from Mrk 501, its broadband emission of radiation was mostly and quite effectively modeled using the one zone emission scenario. However, broadband spectral and flux variability studies enabled by the multi-wavelength campaigns carried out during the recent years have revealed the rather complex behavior of Mrk 501. The observed emission from Mrk 501 could be due to a complex superposition of multiple emission zones. Moreover, new evidence of detection of very hard intrinsic γ-ray spectra obtained from Fermi-LAT observations has challenged the theories about the origin of VHE γ-rays. Our studies based on Fermi-LAT data indicate the existence of two separate components in the spectrum, one for low-energy γ-rays and the other for high-energy γ-rays. Using multi-waveband data from several ground- and space-based instruments, in addition to HAGAR data, the spectral energy distribution of Mrk 501 is obtained for various flux states observed during 2011. In the present work, this observed broadband spectral energy distribution is reproduced with a leptonic, multi-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model.

  6. The 2011 outburst of recurrent nova T PYX: Radio observations reveal the ejecta mass and hint at complex mass loss

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Thomas; Chomiuk, Laura; Roy, Nirupam; Krauss, Miriam I.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Rupen, Michael P.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Weston, Jennifer; Mukai, Koji

    2014-04-10

    Despite being the prototype of its class, T Pyx is arguably the most unusual and poorly understood recurrent nova. Here, we use radio observations from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to trace the evolution of the ejecta over the course of the 2011 outburst of T Pyx. The radio emission is broadly consistent with thermal emission from the nova ejecta. However, the radio flux began rising surprisingly late in the outburst, indicating that the bulk of the radio-emitting material was either very cold, or expanding very slowly, for the first ∼50 days of the outburst. Considering a plausible range of volume filling factors and geometries for the ejecta, we find that the high peak flux densities of the radio emission require a massive ejection of (1-30) × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉}. This ejecta mass is much higher than the values normally associated with recurrent novae, and is more consistent with a nova on a white dwarf well below the Chandrasekhar limit.

  7. Reflexivity, Self-Identity and Resilience in Career Development: Hints from a Qualitative Research Study in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    One of the most typical features characterising modern ways of living and working is represented by the dynamism required by individuals in navigating their career paths. This article explores some case studies of career development collected through biographical interviews carried out within the Italian strand of the Cedefop project. These relate…

  8. Seismicity patterns of earthquake swarms in the West-Bohemia/Vogtland as a hint to their triggering mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Hainzl, S.; Horalek, J.; Michalek, J.

    2009-04-01

    The distribution of West-Bohemia/Vogtland seismicity is clustered both in time and space. The time occurrence is manifested in a variety of forms including both swarms with fast and with slow energy release that last from hours to months and also solitary events. The lateral distribution of seismicity is limited to a small number of focal zones, which have been periodically reactivated during the past 18 years of instrumental observations. We don't observe an apparent migration of seismic activity. Instead, the activity has been switching between the focal zones with its largest part residing in the area of Nový Kostel, which dominates with 85% of energy release. Analysis of the activity in the period 1991-2007 has revealed that the interevent times of the seismic activity measured between events in separated focal zones show increased occurrence for time intervals below 8 hours. This fast switching of activity among focal zones with mutual distances above 10 km shows that the seismicity is correlated in a broader area and points to a common triggering force acting in the whole region of West-Bohemia/Vogtland. This force could be stress changes due to earth tides, barometric pressure disturbances, or an abrupt change of the crustal fluid pore pressure. It would trigger the activity in the focal zones which are close to failure. Depending on the local stress and mechanical conditions in each zone, the activity could either cease or an earthquake swarm could be initiated. To disclose the forces governing the already running swarm activity we investigated the space-time relations between consecutive earthquakes of the 2000 swarm. The swarm lasted four months and consisted of more that 8000 M=3.3 strike-slip microearthquakes, which were located along a fault plane at depths 6.5-10.5 km and showed a common rake angle of 30°. We found that the relative positions of consecutive event pairs showed maximum occurrence in the slip-parallel directions. Comparison with the complete Coulomb stress change upon the fault plane due to a typical rupture showed that the observed elongation of the space-time distribution of the relative positions can be explained by a common effect of both static and dynamic stress changes, which act on different distance and timescale. The relatively small magnitudes of the Coulomb stress changes upon the fault plane in the order of 10 kPa, which are supposed to trigger the swarm events, support the idea that high pressurized crustal fluids increase the pore pressure and bring the fault close to its critical state. This is in accordance with the results of our model of the 2000 swarm which took into account both the fluid diffusion and stress triggering. The model consisted of a planar brittle patch placed in a 3-D elastic half-space divided into the number of cells with variable strength. The individual cells rupture when the Coulomb failure criterion including both shear stress and pore pressure is fulfilled. The initial tectonic loading of the patch is presumed subcritical until the pore pressure of diffused fluids brings it into a critical state. Then the earthquake activity is governed by the stress changes due to the co-seismic and post-seismic slip, so that mutual triggering between ruptured cells occurs. It turns out that once the pressurized crustal fluids bring a fault from a subcritical steady-state into a critical state, the self-organization prevails in governing the swarm activity. This is in accordance with the possible effect of a regionally scaled force bringing one or multiple focal zones to the critical state and trigger seismicity. The recent M=3.7 swarm from October 2008 occurred at the identical fault plane as the 2000 swarm and showed a similar areal extent of the ruptured area. The overall migration of activity with first events at the bottom of the activated fault patch and the last events in the northward tail at its top indicates similar triggering scenario. However, the step-wise monotonous event migration in the first swarm period differs significantly from the complex migrat

  9. Estimation of Directed Effective Connectivity from fMRI Functional Connectivity Hints at Asymmetries of Cortical Connectome

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Matthieu; Moreno-Bote, Ruben; Ponce-Alvarez, Adrián; Ritter, Petra; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The brain exhibits complex spatio-temporal patterns of activity. This phenomenon is governed by an interplay between the internal neural dynamics of cortical areas and their connectivity. Uncovering this complex relationship has raised much interest, both for theory and the interpretation of experimental data (e.g., fMRI recordings) using dynamical models. Here we focus on the so-called inverse problem: the inference of network parameters in a cortical model to reproduce empirically observed activity. Although it has received a lot of interest, recovering directed connectivity for large networks has been rather unsuccessful so far. The present study specifically addresses this point for a noise-diffusion network model. We develop a Lyapunov optimization that iteratively tunes the network connectivity in order to reproduce second-order moments of the node activity, or functional connectivity. We show theoretically and numerically that the use of covariances with both zero and non-zero time shifts is the key to infer directed connectivity. The first main theoretical finding is that an accurate estimation of the underlying network connectivity requires that the time shift for covariances is matched with the time constant of the dynamical system. In addition to the network connectivity, we also adjust the intrinsic noise received by each network node. The framework is applied to experimental fMRI data recorded for subjects at rest. Diffusion-weighted MRI data provide an estimate of anatomical connections, which is incorporated to constrain the cortical model. The empirical covariance structure is reproduced faithfully, especially its temporal component (i.e., time-shifted covariances) in addition to the spatial component that is usually the focus of studies. We find that the cortical interactions, referred to as effective connectivity, in the tuned model are not reciprocal. In particular, hubs are either receptors or feeders: they do not exhibit both strong incoming and outgoing connections. Our results sets a quantitative ground to explore the propagation of activity in the cortex. PMID:26982185

  10. When can Empirical Green Functions be computed from Noise Cross-Correlations? Hints from different Geographical and Tectonic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Catarina; Silveira, Graça; Custódio, Susana; Domingues, Ana; Dias, Nuno; Fonseca, João F. B.; Matias, Luís; Krueger, Frank; Carrilho, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Noise cross-correlations are now widely used to extract Green functions between station pairs. But, do all the cross-correlations routinely computed produce successful Green Functions? What is the relationship between noise recorded in a couple of stations and the cross-correlation between them? During the last decade, we have been involved in the deployment of several temporary dense broadband (BB) networks within the scope of both national projects and international collaborations. From 2000 to 2002, a pool of 8 BB stations continuously operated in the Azores in the scope of the Memorandum of Understanding COSEA (COordinated Seismic Experiment in the Azores). Thanks to the Project WILAS (West Iberia Lithosphere and Astenosphere Structure, PTDC/CTE-GIX/097946/2008) we temporarily increased the number of BB deployed in mainland Portugal to more than 50 (permanent + temporary) during the period 2010 - 2012. In 2011/12 a temporary pool of 12 seismometers continuously recorded BB data in the Madeira archipelago, as part of the DOCTAR (Deep Ocean Test Array Experiment) project. Project CV-PLUME (Investigation on the geometry and deep signature of the Cape Verde mantle plume, PTDC/CTE-GIN/64330/2006) covered the archipelago of Cape Verde, North Atlantic, with 40 temporary BB stations in 2007/08. Project MOZART (Mozambique African Rift Tomography, PTDC/CTE-GIX/103249/2008), covered Mozambique, East Africa, with 30 temporary BB stations in the period 2011 - 2013. These networks, located in very distinct geographical and tectonic environments, offer an interesting opportunity to study seasonal and spatial variations of noise sources and their impact on Empirical Green functions computed from noise cross-correlation. Seismic noise recorded at different seismic stations is evaluated by computation of the probability density functions of power spectral density (PSD) of continuous data. To assess seasonal variations of ambient noise sources in frequency content, time-series of PSD at different frequency bands have been computed. The influence of the spatial and seasonal variation is evaluated by analysis of the one-day length cross-correlations, stacked with a 30-day moving window and with an overlap of 30 days. To inspect the effects of frequency content variations, 30-day cross-correlograms have also been computed at different frequency bands. This work is supported by project QuakeLoc-PT (PTDC/GEO-FIQ/3522/2012) and a contribution to project AQUAREL (PTDC/CTE-GIX/116819/2010).

  11. Regional climate pattern during two millennia estimated from annual tree rings of Yaku cedar trees: a hint for solar variability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraki, Yasushi; Mitsutani, Takumi; Shibata, Shoichi; Kuramata, Syuichi; Masuda, Kimiaki; Nagaya, Kentaro

    2015-02-01

    We analyzed trees that have survived on Yaku island (Yakushima) for 2,000 years. Quite surprisingly, the Fourier and wavelet analyses of the annual growth rate identified 2 cycles of periodicities of 11 and (24 ± 4) years during the Oort, Wolf, Spörer, Maunder, and Dalton minima. The 11-year periodicity originated from solar activity, while the (24 ± 4)-year periodicity may be related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). In particular, we have discovered an 11-year periodicity in the meteorological daylight-hour data from Yakushima in the month of June during 1938 to 2013 and a 24-year periodicity in July. The growth rate of the tree rings may be affected by the variation of the daylight hour.

  12. Searching for signatures of cold adaptations in modern and archaic humans: hints from the brown adipose tissue genes.

    PubMed

    Sazzini, M; Schiavo, G; De Fanti, S; Martelli, P L; Casadio, R; Luiselli, D

    2014-09-01

    Adaptation to low temperatures has been reasonably developed in the human species during the colonization of the Eurasian landmass subsequent to Out of Africa migrations of anatomically modern humans. In addition to morphological and cultural changes, also metabolic ones are supposed to have favored human isolation from cold and body heat production and this can be hypothesized also for most Neandertal and at least for some Denisovan populations, which lived in geographical areas that strongly experienced the last glacial period. Modulation of non-shivering thermogenesis, for which adipocytes belonging to the brown adipose tissue are the most specialized cells, might have driven these metabolic adaptations. To perform an exploratory analysis aimed at looking into this hypothesis, variation at 28 genes involved in such functional pathway was investigated in modern populations from different climate zones, as well as in Neandertal and Denisovan genomes. Patterns of variation at the LEPR gene, strongly related to increased heat dissipation by mitochondria, appeared to have been shaped by positive selection in modern East Asians, but not in Europeans. Moreover, a single potentially cold-adapted LEPR allele, different from the supposed adaptive one identified in Homo sapiens, was found also in Neandertal and Denisovan genomes. These findings suggest that independent mechanisms for cold adaptations might have been developed in different non-African human groups, as well as that the evolution of possible enhanced thermal efficiency in Neandertals and in some Denisovan populations has plausibly entailed significant changes also in other functional pathways than in the examined one.

  13. The Puzzling Early Detection of Low Velocity 56Ni Decay Lines in SN 2014J: Hints of a Compact Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyed, Rachid; Leahy, Denis; Koning, Nico; Staff, Jan

    2015-03-01

    We show that the low-velocity 56Ni decay lines detected earlier than expected in the type Ia SN 2014J find an explanation in the quark-nova Ia model, which involves the thermonuclear explosion of a tidally disrupted sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarf (WD) in a tight neutron-star-WD binary system. The explosion is triggered by impact from the quark-nova (QN) ejecta on the WD material; the QN is the explosive transition of the neutron star to a quark star (QS) triggered by accretion from a CO torus (the circularized WD material). The presence of a compact remnant (the QS) provides: (1) an additional energy source (spin-down power) which allows us to fit the observed light-curve including the steep early rise; (2) a central gravitational potential which slows down some of the 56Ni produced to velocities of a few 103 km s-1. In our model, the 56Ni decay lines become optically visible at ~20 days from explosion time in agreement with observations. We list predictions that can provide important tests for our model.

  14. Allometric Scaling of Patrolling Rate and Nest Volume in Constrictotermes cyphergaster Termites: Hints on the Settlement of Inquilines.

    PubMed

    DeSouza, Og; Araújo, Ana Paula Albano; Florencio, Daniela Faria; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Marins, Alessandra; Costa, Diogo Andrade; Rodrigues, Vinicius Barros; Cristaldo, Paulo Fellipe

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional traits of organisms are known to be related to the size of individuals and to the size of their colonies when they belong to one. Among such traits, propensity to inquilinism in termites is known to relate positively to colony size. Larger termitaria hold larger diversity of facultative inquilines than smaller nests, whereas obligate inquilines seem unable to settle in nests smaller than a threshold volume. Respective underlying mechanisms, however, remain hypothetical. Here we test one of such hypotheses, namely, that nest defence correlates negatively to nest volume in Constrictotermes cyphergaster termites (Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae). As a surrogate to defence, we used 'patrolling rate', i.e., the number of termite individuals attending per unit time an experimentally damaged spot on the outer wall of their termitaria. We found that patrolling rate decayed allometrically with increasing nest size. Conspicuously higher patrolling rates occurred in smaller nests, while conspicuously lower rates occurred in larger nests presenting volumes in the vicinity of the threshold value for the establishment of inquilinism. This could be proven adaptive for the host and guest. At younger nest age, host colonies are smaller and presumably more vulnerable and unstable. Enhanced defence rates may, hence, prevent eventual risks to hosts from inquilinism at the same time that it prevents inquilines to settle in a still unstable nest. Conversely, when colonies grow and maturate enough to stand threats, they would invest in priorities other than active defence, opening an opportunity for inquilines to settle in nests which are more suitable or less risky. Under this two-fold process, cohabitation between host and inquiline could readily stabilize. PMID:26808197

  15. Simple heuristics in over-the-counter drug choices: a new hint for medical education and practice

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Silvia; Monti, Marco; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are widely available and often purchased by consumers without advice from a health care provider. Many people rely on self-management of medications to treat common medical conditions. Although OTC medications are regulated by the National and the International Health and Drug Administration, many people are unaware of proper dosing, side effects, adverse drug reactions, and possible medication interactions. Purpose This study examined how subjects make their decisions to select an OTC drug, evaluating the role of cognitive heuristics which are simple and adaptive rules that help the decision-making process of people in everyday contexts. Subjects and methods By analyzing 70 subjects’ information-search and decision-making behavior when selecting OTC drugs, we examined the heuristics they applied in order to assess whether simple decision-making processes were also accurate and relevant. Subjects were tested with a sequence of two experimental tests based on a computerized Java system devised to analyze participants’ choices in a virtual environment. Results We found that subjects’ information-search behavior reflected the use of fast and frugal heuristics. In addition, although the heuristics which correctly predicted subjects’ decisions implied significantly fewer cues on average than the subjects did in the information-search task, they were accurate in describing order of information search. A simple combination of a fast and frugal tree and a tallying rule predicted more than 78% of subjects’ decisions. Conclusion The current emphasis in health care is to shift some responsibility onto the consumer through expansion of self medication. To know which cognitive mechanisms are behind the choice of OTC drugs is becoming a relevant purpose of current medical education. These findings have implications both for the validity of simple heuristics describing information searches in the field of OTC drug choices and for current medical education, which has to prepare competent health specialists to orientate and support the choices of their patients. PMID:23745077

  16. A Novel Topology of Proline-rich Transmembrane Protein 2 (PRRT2): HINTS FOR AN INTRACELLULAR FUNCTION AT THE SYNAPSE.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Pia; Sterlini, Bruno; Castroflorio, Enrico; Marte, Antonella; Onofri, Franco; Valtorta, Flavia; Maragliano, Luca; Corradi, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-03-18

    Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) has been identified as the single causative gene for a group of paroxysmal syndromes of infancy, including epilepsy, paroxysmal movement disorders, and migraine. On the basis of topology predictions, PRRT2 has been assigned to the recently characterized family of Dispanins, whose members share the two-transmembrane domain topology with a large N terminus and short C terminus oriented toward the outside of the cell. Because PRRT2 plays a role at the synapse, it is important to confirm the exact orientation of its N and C termini with respect to the plasma membrane to get clues regarding its possible function. Using a combination of different experimental approaches, including live immunolabeling, immunogold electron microscopy, surface biotinylation and computational modeling, we demonstrate a novel topology for this protein. PRRT2 is a type II transmembrane protein in which only the second hydrophobic segment spans the plasma membrane, whereas the first one is associated with the internal surface of the membrane and forms a helix-loop-helix structure without crossing it. Most importantly, the large proline-rich N-terminal domain is not exposed to the extracellular space but is localized intracellularly, and only the short C terminus is extracellular (N cyt/C exo topology). Accordingly, we show that PRRT2 interacts with the Src homology 3 domain-bearing protein Intersectin 1, an intracellular protein involved in synaptic vesicle cycling. These findings will contribute to the clarification of the role of PRRT2 at the synapse and the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms on the basis of PRRT2-related neurological disorders.

  17. The Xe-Q in lodranites and a hint for Xe-L. FRO90011 another lodranite?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eugster, O.; Weigel, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Lodran achondrite contains about one-quarter metallic Fe/Ni, two-thirds olivine and pyroxene, some troilite, plus minor phases. In a previous study we demonstrated that Lodran and three other lodranites - LEW88280, Yamato-791491, and MAC88177 - yield the same cosmic-ray exposure age of a few million years, suggesting that they originate from the same parent body. In the present work we show that the mineral phases of Lodran contain large concentrations of planetary-type but no solar-type trapped noble gases. Surprisingly, the highest concentrations were observed in the Fe/Ni-phase (e.g. 1520 x 10(exp -12) cc STP per g (132)Xe). A large fraction of the trapped gas is released between 1200 C and 1400 C. The Xe isotopic pattern is similar to that of Xe-Q. The 1400 C fraction of the Fe/Ni-phase shows excesses of (124)Xe, (126)Xe, and (128)Xe similar to Xe-L (pre-solar Xe enriched in the light isotopes) that has, until now, only been observed in combination with Xe-H (pre-solar Xe enriched in the heavy isotopes).

  18. Computed inundation heights of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami compared to measured run-up data: hints for tsunami source inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, G.; Tinti, S.; Armigliato, A.

    2012-04-01

    The 11 March 2011 earthquake that took place off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, North Honshu, with Mw = 9.0, is the largest earthquake ever occurred in Japan, and generated a big tsunami that spread across the Pacific Ocean, causing devastating effects in the prefectures of Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima. It caused more than 15,000 casualties, swept away the low-land quarters of several villages and moreover was the primary cause of the severe nuclear accident in the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. There is a very large set of observations covering both the earthquake and the tsunami, and almost certainly this is the case with the most abundant dataset of high-quality data in the history of seismology and of tsunami science. Local and global seismic networks, continuous GPS networks, coastal tide gauges in Japan ports and across the Pacific, local buoys cabled deep ocean-bottom pressure gauges (OBPG) and deep-ocean buoys (such as DART) mainly along the foot of the margins of the pacific continents, all contributed essential data to constrain the source of the earthquake and of the tsunami. In this paper we will use also the observed run-up data to put further constraints on the source and to better determine the distribution of the slip on the offshore fault. This will be done through trial-and-error forward modeling, that is by comparing inundation data calculated by means of numerical tsunami simulations in the near field to tsunami run-up heights measured during field surveys conducted by several teams and made available on the net. Major attention will be devoted to reproduce observations in the prefectures that were more affected and where run-up heights are very large (namely Iwate and Miyagi). The simulations are performed by means of the finite-difference code UBO-TSUFD, developed and maintained by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, Italy, that can solve both the linear and non-linear versions of the shallow-water equations on nested grids and with dynamically moving shorelines.

  19. Hints of an axion-like particle mixing in the GeV gamma-ray blazar data?

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, Olga; Razzaque, Soebur E-mail: srazzaque@uj.ac.za

    2013-11-01

    Axion-Like Particles (ALPs), if exist in nature, are expected to mix with photons in the presence of an external magnetic field. The energy range of photons which undergo strong mixing with ALPs depends on the ALP mass, on its coupling with photons as well as on the external magnetic field and particle density configurations. Recent observations of blazars by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope in the 0.1–300 GeV energy range show a break in their spectra in the 1–10 GeV range. We have modeled this spectral feature for the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C454.3 during its November 2010 outburst, assuming that a significant fraction of the gamma rays convert to ALPs in the large scale jet of this blazar. Using theoretically motivated models for the magnetic field and particle density configurations in the kiloparsec scale jet, outside the broad-line region, we find an ALP mass m{sub a} ∼ (1−3)⋅10{sup −7} eV and coupling g{sub aγ} ∼ (1−3)⋅10{sup −10} GeV{sup −1} after performing an illustrative statistical analysis of spectral data in four different epochs of emission. The precise values of m{sub a} and g{sub aγ} depend weakly on the assumed particle density configuration and are consistent with the current experimental bounds on these quantities. We apply this method and ALP parameters found from fitting 3C454.3 data to another flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS1222+216 (4C+21.35) data up to 400 GeV, as a consistency check, and found good fit. We find that the ALP-photon mixing effect on the GeV spectra may not be washed out for any reasonable estimate of the magnetic field in the intergalactic media.

  20. Long-term eclipse timing of white dwarf binaries: an observational hint of a magnetic mechanism at work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bours, M. C. P.; Marsh, T. R.; Parsons, S. G.; Dhillon, V. S.; Ashley, R. P.; Bento, J. P.; Breedt, E.; Butterley, T.; Caceres, C.; Chote, P.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Hardy, L. K.; Hermes, J. J.; Irawati, P.; Kerry, P.; Kilkenny, D.; Littlefair, S. P.; McAllister, M. J.; Rattanasoon, S.; Sahman, D. I.; Vučković, M.; Wilson, R. W.

    2016-08-01

    We present a long-term programme for timing the eclipses of white dwarfs in close binaries to measure apparent and/or real variations in their orbital periods. Our programme includes 67 close binaries, both detached and semi-detached and with M-dwarfs, K-dwarfs, brown dwarfs or white dwarfs secondaries. In total, we have observed more than 650 white dwarf eclipses. We use this sample to search for orbital period variations and aim to identify the underlying cause of these variations. We find that the probability of observing orbital period variations increases significantly with the observational baseline. In particular, all binaries with baselines exceeding 10 yr, with secondaries of spectral type K2 - M5.5, show variations in the eclipse arrival times that in most cases amount to several minutes. In addition, among those with baselines shorter than 10 yr, binaries with late spectral type (>M6), brown dwarf or white dwarf secondaries appear to show no orbital period variations. This is in agreement with the so-called Applegate mechanism, which proposes that magnetic cycles in the secondary stars can drive variability in the binary orbits. We also present new eclipse times of NN Ser, which are still compatible with the previously published circumbinary planetary system model, although only with the addition of a quadratic term to the ephemeris. Finally, we conclude that we are limited by the relatively short observational baseline for many of the binaries in the eclipse timing programme, and therefore cannot yet draw robust conclusions about the cause of orbital period variations in evolved, white dwarf binaries.

  1. Hints of the Existence of Axion-Like-Particles From the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Cosmological Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Conde, M.A.; Paneque, D.; Bloom, E.; Prada, F.; Dominguez, A.; /IAA, Granada /Seville U.

    2009-06-23

    Axion Like Particles (ALPs) are predicted to couple with photons in the presence of magnetic fields. This effect may lead to a significant change in the observed spectra of gamma-ray sources such as AGNs. Here we carry out a detailed study that for the first time simultaneously considers in the same framework both the photon/axion mixing that takes place in the gamma-ray source and that one expected to occur in the intergalactic magnetic fields. An efficient photon/axion mixing in the source always means an attenuation in the photon flux, whereas the mixing in the intergalactic medium may result in a decrement and/or enhancement of the photon flux, depending on the distance of the source and the energy considered. Interestingly, we find that decreasing the value of the intergalactic magnetic field strength, which decreases the probability for photon/axion mixing, could result in an increase of the expected photon flux at Earth if the source is far enough. We also find a 30% attenuation in the intensity spectrum of distant sources, which occurs at an energy that only depends on the properties of the ALPs and the intensity of the intergalactic magnetic field, and thus independent of the AGN source being observed. Moreover, we show that this mechanism can easily explain recent puzzles in the spectra of distant gamma-ray sources, like the possible detection of TeV photons from 3C 66A (a source located at z=0.444) by MAGIC and VERITAS, which should not happen according to conventional models of photon propagation over cosmological distances. Another puzzle is the recent published lower limit to the EBL intensity at 3.6 {micro}m (which is almost twice larger as the previous one), which implies very hard spectra for some detected TeV gamma-ray sources located at z=0.1-0.2. The consequences that come from this work are testable with the current generation of gamma-ray instruments, namely Fermi (formerly known as GLAST) and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes like CANGAROO, HESS, MAGIC and VERITAS.

  2. Spiral-shells and nascent bipolar outflow in CIT 6: hints for an eccentric-orbit binary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyosun; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Hirano, Naomi; Zhao-Geisler, Ronny; Trejo, Alfonso; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Taam, Ronald E.; Kemper, Francisca; Kim, Jongsoo; Byun, Do-Young; Liu, Tie

    2016-07-01

    We present the essential results pointed out in a recently published paper, Kim et al. 2015, Astrophys. J., 814, 61. The carbon star CIT 6 reveals evidences for a binary in a high-resolution CO line emission map of its circumstellar envelope taken with the Submillimeter Array. The morphology of the outflow described by the spiral-shell pattern, bipolar (or possibly multipolar) outflow, one-sided interarm gaps, and double spiral feature point to a plausible scenario that CIT 6 is a binary system in an eccentric orbit with the mass losing star evolving from the AGB.

  3. Seismic Q estimates in Umbria Marche (Central Italy): hints for the retrieval of a new attenuation law for seismic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisconti, Angelo; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca; de Lorenzo, Salvatore

    2015-06-01

    In the Umbria-Marche (Central Italy) region an important earthquake sequence occurred in 1997, characterized by nine earthquakes with magnitudes in the range between 5 and 6, that caused important damages and causalities. In the present paper, we separately estimate intrinsic and scattering Q-1 parameters, using the classical multiple lapse time window analysis (MLTWA) approach in the assumption of a half-space model. The results clearly show that the attenuation parameters Qi-1 and Qs-1 are frequency dependent. This estimate is compared with other attenuation studies carried out in the same area, and with all the other MLTWA estimates obtained till now in other tectonic environments in the Earth. The bias introduced by the half-space assumption is investigated through numerical solutions of the energy transport equation in the more realistic assumption of a heterogeneous crust overlying a transparent mantle, with a Moho located at a depth ranging between 35 and 45 km below the surface. The bias introduced by the half-space assumption is significant only at high frequency. We finally show how the attenuation estimates, calculated with different techniques, lead to different peak ground acceleration decay with distance relationships, using the well-known and well proven Boore's method. This last result indicates that care must be used in selecting the correct estimate of the attenuation parameters for seismic risk purposes. We also discuss the reason why MLTWA may be chosen among all the other available techniques, due to its intrinsic stability, to obtain the right attenuation parameters.

  4. Morphological Differences between Larvae of the Ciona intestinalis Species Complex: Hints for a Valid Taxonomic Definition of Distinct Species.

    PubMed

    Pennati, Roberta; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Brunetti, Riccardo; Caicci, Federico; Gasparini, Fabio; Griggio, Francesca; Sato, Atsuko; Stach, Thomas; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Gissi, Carmela; Manni, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan ascidian Ciona intestinalis is the most common model species of Tunicata, the sister-group of Vertebrata, and widely used in developmental biology, genomics and evolutionary studies. Recently, molecular studies suggested the presence of cryptic species hidden within the C. intestinalis species, namely C. intestinalis type A and type B. So far, no substantial morphological differences have been identified between individuals belonging to the two types. Here we present morphometric, immunohistochemical, and histological analyses, as well as 3-D reconstructions, of late larvae obtained by cross-fertilization experiments of molecularly determined type A and type B adults, sampled in different seasons and in four different localities. Our data point to quantitative and qualitative differences in the trunk shape of larvae belonging to the two types. In particular, type B larvae exhibit a longer pre-oral lobe, longer and relatively narrower total body length, and a shorter ocellus-tail distance than type A larvae. All these differences were found to be statistically significant in a Discriminant Analysis. Depending on the number of analyzed parameters, the obtained discriminant function was able to correctly classify > 93% of the larvae, with the remaining misclassified larvae attributable to the existence of intra-type seasonal variability. No larval differences were observed at the level of histology and immunohistochemical localization of peripheral sensory neurons. We conclude that type A and type B are two distinct species that can be distinguished on the basis of larval morphology and molecular data. Since the identified larval differences appear to be valid diagnostic characters, we suggest to raise both types to the rank of species and to assign them distinct names.

  5. Synchrotron FT-IR analyses of microstructured biomineral domains: Hints to the biomineralization processes in freshwater cultured pearls.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Gasharova, B.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    Recent investigations in freshwater cultured pearls (bio-carbonate) by micro-Raman spectroscopy (Wehrmeister et al., 2008; Soldati et al., 2008), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging (Jacob et al., 2008) show that the pearl biomineralisation starts with a self assembling process in which an existing gel matrix of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and organic substances reorganizes and conglomerates in small domains; these conglomerates then form prisms and mature nacreous tablets of aragonite or vaterite. Raman spectroscopy shows that the calcium carbonate polymorphs have decreasing luminescence in the order ACC>Vaterite>Aragonite, coinciding with decreasing quantities of S and P (related to the organic matrix) measured by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) and Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA). Although little is known about the process of transformation of the ACC gel into vaterite and aragonite, it is speculated that this probably involves dehydration and change of the accompanying organic matrix. This is also supported by our laboratory FT-IR analysis. However, due to the small size of the areas of ACC (about 10 ?m) and the biogenic crystals an in-situ high spatially resolved IR-method is needed to record how the water content and organic matrix change in the biomineralisation sequence, to understand which processes take place in the self-organization. The beamline IR-1 at the ANKA synchrotron source (Karlsruhe, Germany) was used for this experiment. Freshwater cultured pearls from China cultured in Hyriopsis cumingii mussels by tissue nucleation methods (so-called beadless pearls) as well as by bead implantation methods (aragonite nucleus) were studied. The pearls were cut in half with a diamond-plated saw and polished with diamond paste on a copper plate. Micro-Raman spectroscopy maps (Department of Geosciences, at the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz) were generated to identify and pre-select those pearls containing ACC. Infrared absorption spectra were measured using a Ge ATR objective on 100-200 ?m thin sections and polished pearl sections. Attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy gives the opportunity to measure the infrared absorption in a reflectance mode directly without necessity to apply Kramers-Kronig transformation. The spectral range available is 650-5000 cm-1when using a Ge ATR crystal with the MCT detector at the ANKA-IR microscope and allowed the detection of the ?4 in-plane bending band (around 750 cm-1 in vaterite and 710 cm-1 in aragonite), the ?1 symmetric stretching bands (1070-7085 cm-1 for vaterite4 and 1082-1084 cm-1 in aragonite5), the ?2 out-of-plane bending vibration of the CO3 groups (855 cm-1 for vaterite and 857-877 cm-1 in aragonite) and the ?3 asymmetric stretching (1420-1490 cm-1 in vaterite and 1480 cm-1 in aragonite) respectively (Sato and Masuda, 1969; Yamoto et al., 1974).Water was detected by the presence of the O-H stretching at around 3500 cm-1. Proteins and sugars included in the biogenic carbonates were recognized through the N-H and C-H bands, for example 1717-1575 cm-1 for aspartic acid, 1712-1558 cm-1 for glutamic acid, 1500 to 2000 cm-1 amide I and II (Dauphin et al., 2006). References WEHRMEISTER U., JACOB D.E., SOLDATI A.L., HÄGER T. & HOFMEISTER W. 2007. Vaterite in freshwater cultured pearls from China and Japan. The Journal of Gemmology; 31: 269-276. SOLDATI A.L., JACOB D.E., WEHRMEISTER U.& HOFMEISTER W. 2008. Structural characterization and chemical composition of aragonite and vaterite in freshwater cultured pearls. Mineralogical Magazine 72: 577-590. JACOB, D.E., SOLDATI, A.L., WIRTH, R., HUTH, J., WEHRMEISTER, U. & HOFMEISTER, W. 2008. Nanostructure, composition and mechanisms of bivalve shell growth. Geochimica et Coscmochimica Acta 72: 5401-5415. SATO M. & MATSUDA S. 1969. Structure of vaterite and infrared spectra. Z. Kistalography 129: 405-410. YAMAMOTO A, SHIRO Y & MURATA H. 1974 Optically-active vibrations and elastic constants of calcite and aragonite. Bulletin Chemical Society Japan, 47:265-273. DAUPHIN Y. 2006. Structure and composition of steptal nacreous layer of Nautilus macromphalus L. (Mollusca, Cephalopoda). Zoology 109: 95-95.

  6. Shell quenching in {sup 78}Ni: A hint from the structure of neutron-rich copper isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Sieja, K.; Nowacki, F.

    2010-06-15

    Recent progress in experimental techniques allows us to study very exotic systems like neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of {sup 78}Ni. The spectroscopy of this region can nowadays be studied theoretically in the large scale shell model calculations. In this work, we perform a shell model study of odd copper nuclei with N=40-50, in a large valence space with the {sup 48}Ca core, using a realistic interaction derived from the CD-Bonn potential. We present the crucial importance of the proton core excitations for the description of spectra and magnetic moments, which are for the first time correctly reproduced in theoretical calculations. Shell evolution from {sup 68}Ni to {sup 78}Ni is discussed in detail. A weakening of the Z=28 gap when approaching the N=50 shell closure, suggested by the experimental evidence, is confirmed in the calculations.

  7. Public Schools Should Learn to Ski...And Other Helpful Hints for Educating in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Stephen E.

    Due to the different rates of learning expressed by greatly differing students, a recent educational trend has developed that responds to different learner needs through the introduction of programed or individualized instruction. The consequence of the use of instructional packets is that the learners must frequently teach themselves while…

  8. Synchrotron FT-IR analyses of microstructured biomineral domains: Hints to the biomineralization processes in freshwater cultured pearls.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Gasharova, B.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    Recent investigations in freshwater cultured pearls (bio-carbonate) by micro-Raman spectroscopy (Wehrmeister et al., 2008; Soldati et al., 2008), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging (Jacob et al., 2008) show that the pearl biomineralisation starts with a self assembling process in which an existing gel matrix of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and organic substances reorganizes and conglomerates in small domains; these conglomerates then form prisms and mature nacreous tablets of aragonite or vaterite. Raman spectroscopy shows that the calcium carbonate polymorphs have decreasing luminescence in the order ACC>Vaterite>Aragonite, coinciding with decreasing quantities of S and P (related to the organic matrix) measured by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) and Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA). Although little is known about the process of transformation of the ACC gel into vaterite and aragonite, it is speculated that this probably involves dehydration and change of the accompanying organic matrix. This is also supported by our laboratory FT-IR analysis. However, due to the small size of the areas of ACC (about 10 ?m) and the biogenic crystals an in-situ high spatially resolved IR-method is needed to record how the water content and organic matrix change in the biomineralisation sequence, to understand which processes take place in the self-organization. The beamline IR-1 at the ANKA synchrotron source (Karlsruhe, Germany) was used for this experiment. Freshwater cultured pearls from China cultured in Hyriopsis cumingii mussels by tissue nucleation methods (so-called beadless pearls) as well as by bead implantation methods (aragonite nucleus) were studied. The pearls were cut in half with a diamond-plated saw and polished with diamond paste on a copper plate. Micro-Raman spectroscopy maps (Department of Geosciences, at the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz) were generated to identify and pre-select those pearls containing ACC. Infrared absorption spectra were measured using a Ge ATR objective on 100-200 ?m thin sections and polished pearl sections. Attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy gives the opportunity to measure the infrared absorption in a reflectance mode directly without necessity to apply Kramers-Kronig transformation. The spectral range available is 650-5000 cm-1when using a Ge ATR crystal with the MCT detector at the ANKA-IR microscope and allowed the detection of the ?4 in-plane bending band (around 750 cm-1 in vaterite and 710 cm-1 in aragonite), the ?1 symmetric stretching bands (1070-7085 cm-1 for vaterite4 and 1082-1084 cm-1 in aragonite5), the ?2 out-of-plane bending vibration of the CO3 groups (855 cm-1 for vaterite and 857-877 cm-1 in aragonite) and the ?3 asymmetric stretching (1420-1490 cm-1 in vaterite and 1480 cm-1 in aragonite) respectively (Sato and Masuda, 1969; Yamoto et al., 1974).Water was detected by the presence of the O-H stretching at around 3500 cm-1. Proteins and sugars included in the biogenic carbonates were recognized through the N-H and C-H bands, for example 1717-1575 cm-1 for aspartic acid, 1712-1558 cm-1 for glutamic acid, 1500 to 2000 cm-1 amide I and II (Dauphin et al., 2006). References WEHRMEISTER U., JACOB D.E., SOLDATI A.L., HÄGER T. & HOFMEISTER W. 2007. Vaterite in freshwater cultured pearls from China and Japan. The Journal of Gemmology; 31: 269-276. SOLDATI A.L., JACOB D.E., WEHRMEISTER U.& HOFMEISTER W. 2008. Structural characterization and chemical composition of aragonite and vaterite in freshwater cultured pearls. Mineralogical Magazine 72: 577-590. JACOB, D.E., SOLDATI, A.L., WIRTH, R., HUTH, J., WEHRMEISTER, U. & HOFMEISTER, W. 2008. Nanostructure, composition and mechanisms of bivalve shell growth. Geochimica et Coscmochimica Acta 72: 5401-5415. SATO M. & MATSUDA S. 1969. Structure of vaterite and infrared spectra. Z. Kistalography 129: 405-410. YAMAMOTO A, SHIRO Y & MURATA H. 1974 Optically-active vibrations and elastic constants of cal

  9. Tracing the radiation of Maniola (Nymphalidae) butterflies: new insights from phylogeography hint at one single incompletely differentiated species complex.

    PubMed

    Kreuzinger, Angelina J; Fiedler, Konrad; Letsch, Harald; Grill, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The use of DNA sequence data often leads to the recognition of cryptic species within putatively well-known taxa. The opposite case, detecting less diversity than originally described, has, however, far more rarely been documented. Maniola jurtina, the Meadow Brown butterfly, occurs all over Europe, whereas all other six species in the genus Maniola are restricted to the Mediterranean area. Among them, three are island endemics on Sardinia, Cyprus, and Chios, respectively. Maniola species are almost indistinguishable morphologically, and hybridization seems to occur occasionally. To clarify species boundaries and diversification history of the genus, we reconstructed the phylogeography and phylogeny of all seven species within Maniola analyzing 138 individuals from across its range using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers. Examination of variation in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA surprisingly revealed a case of taxonomic "oversplitting". The topology of the recovered phylogenetic tree is not consistent with accepted taxonomy, but rather reveals haplotype clades that are incongruent with nominal species boundaries: instead of seven species, we recognized only two major, yet incompletely segregated, lineages. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that Maniola originated in Africa. We suggest that one lineage dispersed over the Strait of Gibraltar and the Iberian Peninsula to the west of Europe, while the other lineage spreads eastward through Asia Minor and over the Bosporus to Eastern Europe.

  10. Generation, Propagation and Impact of Giant Tsunamis of Tectonic Origin in the Mediterranean Sea: Some Hints From Preliminary Scenario Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, S.; Armigliato, A.; Pagnoni, G.; Tonini, R.; Zaniboni, F.

    2006-12-01

    The recent catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami occurred on December 26, 2004 raised a number of urgent issues regarding tsunamis worldwide. The event pointed out that we have very little knowledge on mega- tsunamis and on their potential impact on human habitat. The international community is starting to define a common strategy of how to deal with these mega-events, and several projects focussed on tsunamis, with emphasis on hazard and risk assessment, have recently started or are going to start soon worldwide both at national and international levels. Properly dealing with tsunami hazard and risk is of great importance also for the Mediterranean countries, that are known to have been attacked by numerous tsunamis in the past, several of which had catastrophic size and impact. Scenarios represent a very useful technique for the definition and evaluation of tsunami hazard and risk for any given region, and a basic step in the frame of tsunami mitigation and preparedness and of sustainable coastal zone development. We present some simple scenarios of earthquake-generated tsunamis in the Mediterranean. Based on earthquake and tsunami catalogues as well as on basic seismotectonics, we identify four different seismogenic areas in the western, central and eastern sectors of the Mediterranean Sea. In each case, we choose a fault system capable of generating an earthquake with magnitude equal or larger than the highest magnitude registered in that region in historical times. We simulate the propagation of each scenario tsunami by means of a shallow-water finite-element numerical code, discuss the basic features of the wave propagation and roughly identify the Mediterranean coastal sectors expected to suffer the heaviest tsunami effects. One important outcome is that all the studied scenario tsunamis are able to produce relevant effects both locally and at trans-Mediterranean distances. Furthermore, the tsunami waves attack the nearest coasts within at most 15 minutes, which poses serious constraints for designing appropriate TEWS for the Mediterranean.

  11. Searching for signatures of cold adaptations in modern and archaic humans: hints from the brown adipose tissue genes

    PubMed Central

    Sazzini, M; Schiavo, G; De Fanti, S; Martelli, P L; Casadio, R; Luiselli, D

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation to low temperatures has been reasonably developed in the human species during the colonization of the Eurasian landmass subsequent to Out of Africa migrations of anatomically modern humans. In addition to morphological and cultural changes, also metabolic ones are supposed to have favored human isolation from cold and body heat production and this can be hypothesized also for most Neandertal and at least for some Denisovan populations, which lived in geographical areas that strongly experienced the last glacial period. Modulation of non-shivering thermogenesis, for which adipocytes belonging to the brown adipose tissue are the most specialized cells, might have driven these metabolic adaptations. To perform an exploratory analysis aimed at looking into this hypothesis, variation at 28 genes involved in such functional pathway was investigated in modern populations from different climate zones, as well as in Neandertal and Denisovan genomes. Patterns of variation at the LEPR gene, strongly related to increased heat dissipation by mitochondria, appeared to have been shaped by positive selection in modern East Asians, but not in Europeans. Moreover, a single potentially cold-adapted LEPR allele, different from the supposed adaptive one identified in Homo sapiens, was found also in Neandertal and Denisovan genomes. These findings suggest that independent mechanisms for cold adaptations might have been developed in different non-African human groups, as well as that the evolution of possible enhanced thermal efficiency in Neandertals and in some Denisovan populations has plausibly entailed significant changes also in other functional pathways than in the examined one. PMID:24667833

  12. The Effect of Hints and Model Answers in a Student-Controlled Problem-Solving Program for Secondary Physics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Many students experience difficulties in solving applied physics problems. Most programs that want students to improve problem-solving skills are concerned with the development of content knowledge. Physhint is an example of a student-controlled computer program that supports students in developing their strategic knowledge in combination with…

  13. Making It Happen: Examples of Good Practice in Special Needs Education & Community-Based Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Special Education.

    This monograph presents 12 reports of successful programs serving children with special needs in various nations. The program locations and the program report titles and authors are as follows: (1) Austria: "Integration Models for Elementary and Secondary Schools in Austria" (Volker Rutte); (2) China: "Integrated Education Project, Anhui Province"…

  14. News Note: SA-Dutch SKA data science partnership seeks to address big data conundrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-12-01

    The visit to South Africa by Netherlands Prime Minister Mark Rutte included a pivotal South African-Dutch data science partnership between key institutions from both countries bringing us closer to understanding the volume of data generated by the Square Kilometre Array (SKA).

  15. Utilization of potatoes for life support in space. V. Evaluation of cultivars in response to continuous light and high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Bennett, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars from different regions of the world were evaluated in terms of their responses to continuous light (24 h photoperiod) and to high temperature (30 C) in two separate experiments under controlled environments. In each experiment, a first evaluation of the cultivars was made at day 35 after transplanting, at which time 12 cultivars exhibiting best growth and tuber initiation were selected. A final evaluation of the 12 cultivars was made after an additional 21 days of growth, at which time plant height, total dry weight, tuber dry weight, and tuber number were determined. In the continuous light evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alaska 114, Atlantic, Bintje, Denali, Desiree, Haig, New York 81, Ottar, Rutt, Snogg, Snowchip, and Troll. In the high temperature evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alpha, Atlantic, Bake King, Denali, Desiree, Haig, Kennebec, Norland, Russet Burbank, Rutt, Superior, and Troll. Among the cultivars selected under continuous irradiation, Desiree, Ottar, Haig, Rutt, Denali and Alaska showed the best potential for high productivity whereas New York 81 and Bintje showed the least production capability. Among the cultivars selected under high temperature, Rutt, Haig, Troll and Bake King had best performance whereas Atlantic, Alpha, Kennebec and Russet Burbank exhibited the least production potential. Thus, Haig and Rutt were the two cultivars that performed well under continuous irradiation and high temperature conditions, and could have maximum potential for adaptation to varying stress environments. These two cultivars may have the best potential for use in future space farming in which continuous light and/or high temperature conditions may exist. However, cultivar responses under combined conditions of continuous light and high temperature remains for further validation.

  16. New potential eukaryotic substrates of the mycobacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase PtpA: hints of a bacterial modulation of macrophage bioenergetics state.

    PubMed

    Margenat, Mariana; Labandera, Anne-Marie; Gil, Magdalena; Carrion, Federico; Purificação, Marcela; Razzera, Guilherme; Portela, María Magdalena; Obal, Gonzalo; Terenzi, Hernán; Pritsch, Otto; Durán, Rosario; Ferreira, Ana María; Villarino, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase PtpA is a key virulence factor released by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the cytosol of infected macrophages. So far only two unrelated macrophage components (VPS33B, GSK3α) have been identified as PtpA substrates. As tyrosine phosphatases are capable of using multiple substrates, we developed an improved methodology to pull down novel PtpA substrates from an enriched P-Y macrophage extract using the mutant PtpA D126A. This methodology reduced non-specific protein interactions allowing the identification of four novel putative PtpA substrates by MALDI-TOF-MS and nano LC-MS: three mitochondrial proteins - the trifunctional enzyme (TFP), the ATP synthase, and the sulfide quinone oxidoreductase - and the cytosolic 6-phosphofructokinase. All these proteins play a relevant role in cell energy metabolism. Using surface plasmon resonance, PtpA was found to bind immunopurified human TFP through its catalytic site since TFP-PtpA association was inhibited by a specific phosphatase inhibitor. Moreover, PtpA wt was capable of dephosphorylating immunopurified human TFP in vitro supporting that TFP may be a bona fide PtpA susbtrate. Overall, these results suggest a novel scenario where PtpA-mediated dephosphorylation may affect pathways involved in cell energy metabolism, particularly the beta oxidation of fatty acids through modulation of TFP activity and/or cell distribution. PMID:25743628

  17. RAPID EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE DURING THE IMPULSIVE PHASE OF A MICROFLARE OBSERVED WITH THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER ABOARD HINODE: HINTS OF CHROMOSPHERIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.

    2013-11-10

    We obtained rapid cadence (11.2 s) EUV stare spectra of a solar microflare with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode. The intensities of lines formed at temperatures too cool to be found in the corona brightened by factors around 16 early during this event, indicating that we observed a site of energy deposition in the chromosphere. We derive the density evolution of the flare plasma at temperature around 2 MK from the intensity ratio of Fe XIV lines at 264.789 Å and 274.204 Å. From both lines we removed the bright pre-flare quiescent emission, and from 274.204 we removed the blended emission of Si VII λ274.180 based on the Si VII λ274.180/275.361 intensity ratio, which varies only slightly with density. In this way the flare electron density is derived with emission from only the flare plasma. The density increased by an order of magnitude from its pre-flare quiescent average of (3.43 ± 0.19) × 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3} to its maximum impulsive phase value of (3.04 ± 0.57) × 10{sup 10} cm{sup –3} in 2 minutes. The fact that this rapid increase in density is not accompanied by systematic, large upward velocities indicates that the density increase is not due to the filling of loops with evaporated chromospheric material, but rather due to material being directly heated in the chromosphere, likely by magnetic reconnection. The density increase may be due to a progression of reconnection sites to greater depths in the chromosphere, where it has access to larger densities, or it may be due to compression of 2 MK plasma by the 10 MK plasma as it attempts to expand against the high-density chromospheric plasma.

  18. Preliminary Results from the AIDP-2 and AIDP-3 Drill Cores Hint at Systematic Mo Enrichments in the ~2.65 Ga Roy Hill Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M.; Ostrander, C. M.; Lyons, T. W.; Olson, S. L.; Buick, R.; Anbar, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    In order to better understand the timing of the earliest oxygenation of Earth's surface environment, we are pursuing a multi-proxy investigation of paleoredox conditions in diamond drill cores through sedimentary rocks of the Archean Fortescue & Hamersley Groups. These cores were recovered in 2012 by the Agouron Institute from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The AIDP-2 core samples a stratigraphic succession of carbonate and sulfidic, organic-rich shale in the Carawine Dolomite and Jeerinah Formation representing a shallow near-shore depositional setting. Core AIDP-3 samples a transition from BIF in the Marra Mamba Formation to organic-rich shales in the underlying Jeerinah Formation representing a deeper offshore depositional setting. We have analyzed 322 black shale samples from the Roy Hill Member of the Jeerinah Formation deposited just before the transition from the Fortescue to Hamersley Group. Roy Hill black shale units are mostly pyritic in AIDP-3, but are less so in AIDP-2. The Roy Hill Member of AIDP-3 extends from 2.629 Ga to2.676 Ga and contains the 2.632Ga Jeerinah impact layer, whereas the Roy Hill member of AIDP-2 is slightly older, lying beneath the Jeerinah impact layer, and has been dated to 2.636 Ga to >2.643 Ga [1]. Our initial findings reveal that Mo concentrations range between 0.7 and 7 ppm in the Roy Hill black shale member of AIDP-2 and AIDP-3. Corresponding Mo/Al ratios range between 1-9×10-5 ppm/ppm, indicating slight Mo enrichment relative to average continental crust. These results are consistent with a previous study by Scott et al. [2], which suggested little or no Mo enrichment. However, the higher resolution sampling in this study allows us to clearly resolve the Mo/Al depth profiles in these late Archean cores. These data suggest that the variations we see are not due to analytical scatter or sample variability, but instead represent real variations in Mo scavenged into these sediments. Ongoing work is focused on obtaining additional complementary datasets including Fe-speciation, TOC, and traditional and non-traditional isotopes. These data will provide the additional constraints needed to understand the origin and significance of Mo enrichments in these Archean sediments. [1] Rasmussen & Fletcher (2010) Geology, 38: 299-302 [2] Scott et al. (2011) Geology, 39:119-122.

  19. An insilico approach to structural elucidation of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana: hints for herbicide design.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sushmita; Kumar, Pravindra

    2012-01-01

    3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS), the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, is responsible for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in microorganisms and plants. The pathway has been of increasing interest in the recent past as the enzymes are being targeted for antimicrobial drug and herbicide design. In the present work the three dimensional structure of the type II DAHPS present in Arabidopsis thaliana (At-DAHPS) is described and compared with type I DAHPS. The structure shows that the enzyme belongs to the (β/α)(8) TIM barrel family and that most of the active site residues are conserved in the type I DAHPS enzymes. Although the overall structures of the type I and type II enzymes are similar, there are differences in the extra barrel elements which may explain the different modes of enzyme regulation. At the N-terminus of At-DAHPS, there are three non-core helices, α0a (Ala72-Lys83), α0b (Ala94-Ala106) and α0c (Ala113-Val128), but no β(0), in contrast to the microbial type II DAHPS. Also, the (I/L)GAR motif in the type I DAHPS is substituted with xGxR in the case of type II DAHPS. Also, a motif NK(/I)PGR(/K) is present in the sequences of type II DAHPS including At-DAHPS. The elucidation of the active site architecture of At-DAHPS may provide a structural framework useful for the design of specific inhibitors towards herbicide development. PMID:22000723

  20. Binding Characteristics of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate to ApoM hints to Assisted Release Mechanism via the ApoM Calyx-Opening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hansi; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Jiang, Zhenyan; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysophospholipid mediator carried by the HDL-associated apoM protein in blood, regulating many physiological processes by activating the G protein-coupled S1P receptor in mammals. Despite the solved crystal structure of the apoM-S1P complex, the mechanism of S1P release from apoM as a part of the S1P pathway is unknown. Here, the dynamics of the wild type apoM-S1P complex as well as of mutants were investigated by means of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The potential of mean force for S1P unbinding from apoM reflected a large binding strength of more than 60 kJ/mol. This high unbinding free energy for S1P underlines the observed specificity of the physiological effects of S1P as it suggests that the spontaneous release of S1P from apoM is unlikely. Instead, S1P release and thus the control of this bioactive lipid probably requires the tight interaction with other molecules, e.g. with the S1P receptor. Mutations of specific S1P anchoring residues of apoM decreased the energetic barrier by up to 20 kJ/mol. Moreover, the ligand-free apoM protein is shown to adopt a more open upper hydrophilic binding pocket and to result in complete closure of the lower hydrophobic cavity, suggesting a mechanism for adjusting the gate for ligand access. PMID:27476912

  1. A sodium channel inhibitor ISTX-I with a novel structure provides a new hint at the evolutionary link between two toxin folds

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Mingqiang; Liu, Jiangxin; Zhang, Meilin; Wang, Gan; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Yaping; Hu, Kaifeng; Lai, Ren

    2016-01-01

    Members of arachnida, such as spiders and scorpions, commonly produce venom with specialized venom glands, paralyzing their prey with neurotoxins that specifically target ion channels. Two well-studied motifs, the disulfide-directed hairpin (DDH) and the inhibitor cystine knot motif (ICK), are both found in scorpion and spider toxins. As arachnids, ticks inject a neurotoxin-containing cocktail from their salivary glands into the host to acquire a blood meal, but peptide toxins acting on ion channels have not been observed in ticks. Here, a new neurotoxin (ISTX-I) that acts on sodium channels was identified from the hard tick Ixodes scapularis and characterized. ISTX-I exhibits a potent inhibitory function with an IC50 of 1.6 μM for sodium channel Nav1.7 but not other sodium channel subtypes. ISTX-I adopts a novel structural fold and is distinct from the canonical ICK motif. Analysis of the ISTX-I, DDH and ICK motifs reveals that the new ISTX-I motif might be an intermediate scaffold between DDH and ICK, and ISTX-I is a clue to the evolutionary link between the DDH and ICK motifs. These results provide a glimpse into the convergent evolution of neurotoxins from predatory and blood-sucking arthropods. PMID:27407029

  2. HINTW, a W-chromosome HINT gene in chick, is expressed ubiquitously and is a robust female cell marker applicable in intraspecific chimera studies.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Hiroki; Sezaki, Maiko; Bertocchini, Federica; Fukuda, Kimiko; Sheng, Guojun

    2014-05-01

    Grafting and transplantation experiments in embryology require proper distinction between host and donor tissues. For the avian model this has traditionally been achieved by using two closely related species (e.g., chick and quail) followed by species-specific antibody staining. Here, we show that an in situ hybridization probe against the HINTW gene is a robust and reliable marker for female-derived chicken cells. At all pre-circulation stages tested, all cells in female embryos, independently confirmed by PCR analysis, were strongly positive for HINTW, whereas all male embryos were negative. This probe is broadly applicable in intra-specific chick/chick chimera studies, and as a proof of principle, we utilized this probe to detect female cells in three experimental settings: (1) to mark female donor cells in a node transplantation assay; (2) to distinguish female cells in male/female twins generated by the Cornish pasty culture; and (3) to detect female half of the embryo in artificially generated bilateral gynandromorphs. A rapid, PCR based pre-screening step increases the efficiency of obtaining desired donor/host sex combination from 25% to 100%. For most avian chimera studies, this female-specific in situ probe is a low cost alternative to the commonly used QCPN antibody and to ubiquitous-GFP chicken strains which are not widely available to the research community.

  3. Influence of T-2 and HT-2 toxin on the blood-brain barrier in vitro: new experimental hints for neurotoxic effects.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Maria; Hüwel, Sabine; Ebert, Franziska; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin T-2 toxin is a common contaminant of food and feed and is also present in processed cereal derived products. Cytotoxic effects of T-2 toxin and its main metabolite HT-2 toxin are already well described with apoptosis being a major mechanism of action. However, effects on the central nervous system were until now only reported rarely. In this study we investigated the effects of T-2 and HT-2 toxin on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro. Besides strong cytotoxic effects on the BBB as determined by the CCK-8 assay, impairment of the barrier function starting at low nanomolar concentrations were observed for T-2 toxin. HT-2 toxin, however, caused barrier disruption at higher concentrations compared to T-2 toxin. Further, the influence on the tight junction protein occludin was studied and permeability of both toxins across the BBB was detected when applied from the apical (blood) or the basolateral (brain) side respectively. These results clearly indicate the ability of both toxins to enter the brain via the BBB. PMID:23544145

  4. The complex metabolic network gearing the G1/S transition in leukemic stem cells: Hints to a rational use of antineoplastic agents

    PubMed Central

    D'Amico, Massimo; Mannini, Antonella; Mini, Enrico; Rovida, Elisabetta; Dello Sbarba, Persio; Olivotto, Massimo; Marzi, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    We defined the stem cell profile of K562 line, demonstrating the expression of the Embryonic Transcription Factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and Nanog. This profile was associated with a high vulnerability to the physiological oxidizable substrate pyruvate. remarkably, this substrate was shown to be innocuous, even at the highest doses, to normal differentiated cells. This vulnerability is based on a complex metabolic trim centered on the cellular redox state expressed by the NADP/NADPH ratio geared by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Flow cytometry revealed that the inhibition of this chain by antimycin A produced cell accumulation in the S phase of cell cycle and apoptosis. This block negatively interferes with the aerobic synthesis of purines, without affecting the anaerobic synthesis of pyrimidines. This imbalance was reproduced by using two antifolate agents, LY309887 and raltitrexed (TDX), inhibitors of purine or pyrimidine synthesis, respectively. All this revealed the apparent paradox that low doses of TDX stimulated, instead of inhibiting, leukemia cell growth. This paradox might have significant impact on therapy with regard to the effects of TDX during the intervals of administration, when the drug concentrations become so low as to promote maintenance of dormant cancer cells in hypoxic tissue niches. PMID:26396171

  5. Making "Hi-Tech" My Tech. Helpful Hints for Educational Practitioners on Planning & Conducting Educational Research with the Help of Technical Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereshiwsky, Mary I.

    Educational practitioners tend to resist or avoid doing educational research primarily for two reasons: their prior experience with statistics, computers, and research design has produced insecurity and anxiety; and, they have acquired a basic misunderstanding of the nature and purpose of research. Good research should be both technically sound…

  6. The first toxicological study of the antiozonant and research tool ethylene diurea (EDU) using a Lemna minor L. bioassay: Hints to its mode of action.

    PubMed

    Agathokleous, Eugenios; Mouzaki-Paxinou, Akrivi-Chara; Saitanis, Costas J; Paoletti, Elena; Manning, William J

    2016-06-01

    The antiozonant and research tool ethylene diurea (EDU) is widely studied as a phytoprotectant against the widespread pollutant ground-surface ozone. Although it has been extensively used, its potential toxicity in the absence of ozone is unknown and its mode of action is unclear. The purpose of this research was to toxicologically assess EDU and to further investigate its mode of action using Lemna minor L. as a model organism. Application of EDU concentrations greater than 593 mg L(-1) (practically 600 mg L(-1)) resulted in adverse inhibition of colony growth. As no-observed-toxic-effects concentration (NOEL) we recommend a concentration of 296 mg L(-1) (practically 300 mg L(-1)). A hormetic response was detected, i.e. stimulatory effects of low EDU concentrations, which may indicate overcompensation in response to disruption in homeostasis. Growth inhibition and suppressed biomass were associated with impacted chlorophyll a fluorescence (ΦPSII, qP and ETR). Furthermore, EDU increased mesophyll thickness, as indicated by frond succulence index. Applications of concentrations ≥593 mg L(-1) to uncontrolled environments should be avoided due to potential toxicity to sensitive organisms and the environment.

  7. Changes in optical characteristics of surface microlayers hint to photochemically and microbially mediated DOM turnover in the upwelling region off the coast of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgani, Luisa; Engel, Anja

    2016-04-01

    The coastal upwelling system off the coast of Peru is characterized by high biological activity and a pronounced subsurface oxygen minimum zone, as well as associated emissions of atmospheric trace gases such as N2O, CH4 and CO2. From 3 to 23 December 2012, R/V Meteor (M91) cruise took place in the Peruvian upwelling system between 4.59 and 15.4° S, and 82.0 to 77.5° W. During M91 we investigated the composition of the sea-surface microlayer (SML), the oceanic uppermost boundary directly subject to high solar radiation, often enriched in specific organic compounds of biological origin like chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and marine gels. In the SML, the continuous photochemical and microbial recycling of organic matter may strongly influence gas exchange between marine systems and the atmosphere. We analyzed SML and underlying water (ULW) samples at 38 stations focusing on CDOM spectral characteristics as indicator of photochemical and microbial alteration processes. CDOM composition was characterized by spectral slope (S) values and excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEMs), which allow us to track changes in molecular weight (MW) of DOM, and to determine potential DOM sources and sinks. Spectral slope S varied between 0.012 to 0.043 nm-1 and was quite similar between SML and ULW, with no significant differences between the two compartments. Higher S values were observed in the ULW of the southern stations below 15° S. By EEMs, we identified five fluorescent components (F1-5) of the CDOM pool, of which two had excitation/emission characteristics of amino-acid-like fluorophores (F1, F4) and were highly enriched in the SML, with a median ratio SML : ULW of 1.5 for both fluorophores. In the study region, values for CDOM absorption ranged from 0.07 to 1.47 m-1. CDOM was generally highly concentrated in the SML, with a median enrichment with respect to the ULW of 1.2. CDOM composition and changes in spectral slope properties suggested a local microbial release of DOM directly in the SML as a response to light exposure in this extreme environment. In a conceptual model of the sources and modifications of optically active DOM in the SML and underlying seawater (ULW), we describe processes we think may take place (Fig. 1); the production of CDOM of higher MW by microbial release through growth, exudation and lysis in the euphotic zone, includes the identified fluorophores (F1, F2, F3, F4, F5). Specific amino-acid-like fluorophores (F1, F4) accumulate in the SML with respect to the ULW, as photochemistry may enhance microbial CDOM release by (a) photoprotection mechanisms and (b) cell-lysis processes. Microbial and photochemical degradation are potential sinks of the amino-acid-like fluorophores (F1, F4), and potential sources of reworked and more refractory humic-like components (F2, F3, F5). In the highly productive upwelling region along the Peruvian coast, the interplay of microbial and photochemical processes controls the enrichment of amino-acid-like CDOM in the SML. We discuss potential implications for air-sea gas exchange in this area.

  8. A sodium channel inhibitor ISTX-I with a novel structure provides a new hint at the evolutionary link between two toxin folds.

    PubMed

    Rong, Mingqiang; Liu, Jiangxin; Zhang, Meilin; Wang, Gan; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Yaping; Hu, Kaifeng; Lai, Ren

    2016-01-01

    Members of arachnida, such as spiders and scorpions, commonly produce venom with specialized venom glands, paralyzing their prey with neurotoxins that specifically target ion channels. Two well-studied motifs, the disulfide-directed hairpin (DDH) and the inhibitor cystine knot motif (ICK), are both found in scorpion and spider toxins. As arachnids, ticks inject a neurotoxin-containing cocktail from their salivary glands into the host to acquire a blood meal, but peptide toxins acting on ion channels have not been observed in ticks. Here, a new neurotoxin (ISTX-I) that acts on sodium channels was identified from the hard tick Ixodes scapularis and characterized. ISTX-I exhibits a potent inhibitory function with an IC50 of 1.6 μM for sodium channel Nav1.7 but not other sodium channel subtypes. ISTX-I adopts a novel structural fold and is distinct from the canonical ICK motif. Analysis of the ISTX-I, DDH and ICK motifs reveals that the new ISTX-I motif might be an intermediate scaffold between DDH and ICK, and ISTX-I is a clue to the evolutionary link between the DDH and ICK motifs. These results provide a glimpse into the convergent evolution of neurotoxins from predatory and blood-sucking arthropods. PMID:27407029

  9. A case of gallbladder carcinoma associated with pancreatobiliary reflux in the absence of a pancreaticobiliary maljunction: A hint for early diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sai, Jin-Kan; Suyama, Masafumi; Kubokawa, Yoshihiro

    2006-07-28

    A 62-year-old man with progressive thickening of the gallbladder wall visited our outpatient clinic. The biliary amylase level in the common bile duct was 19,900 IU/L and that of the gallbladder was 127,000 IU/L, although endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed no pancreaticobiliary maljunction. Histology demonstrated a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder. Pancreatobiliary reflux and associated gallbladder carcinoma were confirmed in the present case, in the absence of a pancreaticobiliary maljunction. Earlier detection of the pancreatobiliary reflux and progressive thickening of the gallbladder wall might have led to an earlier resection of the gallbladder and improved this patient's poor prognosis.

  10. Sink or swim: Updated knowledge on marine fungi associated with wood substrates in the Mediterranean Sea and hints about their potential to remediate hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzoli, Laura; Gnavi, Giorgio; Tamma, Federica; Tosi, Solveig; Varese, Giovanna C.; Picco, Anna M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper provides the first update in more than twenty years on the available knowledge about lignicolous marine fungi in the Mediterranean Sea. Fungi found on collected wood samples were analyzed using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. Almost 90% of the samples were colonized by fungi. The total number of recorded taxa, which amounted to 57 in the late 1990s, has now risen to 93. Wood-inhabiting marine fungi are good producers of ligninolytic enzymes, which can degrade several aromatic and recalcitrant environmental pollutants. In light of bioremediation technologies, this study also evaluated the potential of the isolated strains to remediate complex hydrocarbon substrates. Seventeen isolates were shown to be able to grow on hydrocarbon media as a sole carbon source; enhanced performances were achieved in the presence of NaCl, suggesting that these fungi adapt well to marine conditions and confirming that salt can trigger specific metabolic pathways in marine fungi.

  11. Changes in optical characteristics of surface microlayers hint to photochemically and microbially-mediated DOM turnover in the upwelling region off Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgani, L.; Engel, A.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal upwelling system off Peru is characterized by high biological activity and a pronounced subsurface oxygen minimum zone, as well as associated emissions of atmospheric trace gases such as N2O, CH4 and CO2. During the Meteor (M91) cruise to the Peruvian upwelling system in 2012, we investigated the composition of the sea-surface microlayer (SML), the oceanic uppermost boundary directly subject to high solar radiation, often enriched in specific organic compounds of biological origin like Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and marine gels. In the SML, the continuous photochemical and microbial recycling of organic matter may strongly influence gas exchange between marine systems and the atmosphere. In order to understand organic matter cycling in surface films, we analyzed SML and underlying water samples at 38 stations determining DOC concentration, amino acid composition, marine gels, CDOM and bacterial and phytoplankton abundance as indicators of photochemical and microbial alteration processes. CDOM composition was characterized by spectral slope (S) values and Excitation-Emission Matrix fluorescence (EEMs), which allow to track changes in molecular weight (MW) of DOM, and to determine potential DOM sources and sinks. We identified five fluorescent components of the CDOM pool, of which two had excitation/emission characteristics of protein-like fluorophores and were highly enriched in the SML. CDOM composition and changes in spectral slope properties suggested a local microbial release of HMW DOM directly in the SML as a response to light exposure in this extreme environment. Our results suggest that microbial and photochemical processes play an important role for the production, alteration and loss of optically active substances in the SML.

  12. Near-infrared laboratory spectra of H2O trapped in N2, CH4, and CO: hints for trans-Neptunian objects' observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulvio, D.; Guglielmino, S.; Favone, T.; Palumbo, M. E.

    2010-02-01

    Context. Recent mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of Pluto and Triton suggest a wide distribution of H2O ice into surface regions containing more volatile species such as N2, CH4, and CO. This disagrees with the common idea that because of their typical surface temperature, water should not be involved in volatile transport processes, standing easily segregated from the more volatile species. Aims: We analyse infrared H2O band profiles when water is diluted in solid matrices dominated by methane, carbon monoxide, and/or molecular nitrogen. We also show the results of temperature-related diffusion processes of solid N2 into H2O ice deposited at different temperatures. Finally, we analyse ion irradiation effects for some of the mixtures considered. Methods: Solid samples were analysed by infrared (1.0-16.0 μm) transmission and reflectance spectroscopy at different temperatures (15-150 K), before and after ion irradiation with 200 keV protons. Results: When water is highly diluted in solid matrices, the profile of its near-infrared bands is strongly modified. Two narrow bands appear around 1.89 μm and 1.39 μm instead of the well known pure water ice bands at 2 μm and 1.5 μm, respectively. Furthermore, the peak position and width of the 1.89 and 1.39 μm bands depend on the initial mixture water is embedded in. The intensity of these bands decreases after ion irradiation. Conclusions: Since the mixtures considered closely resemble the surface composition of trans-Neptunian objects, experiments here discussed show that the bands around 1.89 μm and 1.39 μm are appropriate to investigating the presence of diluted water regions on their surface. In fact, the irradiation dose required for a significant decrease in their intensity would be accumulated on a timescale larger than the timescale for resurfacing processes on the surfaces of trans-Neptunian objects. Results shown here will contribute in a strong way to the interpretation of New Horizons near-infrared observations.

  13. Exploring the predictive value of the evoked potentials score in MS within an appropriate patient population: a hint for an early identification of benign MS?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prognostic value of evoked potentials (EPs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been fully established. The correlations between the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) at First Neurological Evaluation (FNE) and the duration of the disease, as well as between EDSS and EPs, have influenced the outcome of most previous studies. To overcome this confounding relations, we propose to test the prognostic value of EPs within an appropriate patient population which should be based on patients with low EDSS at FNE and short disease duration. Methods We retrospectively selected a sample of 143 early relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients with an EDSS < 3.5 from a larger database spanning 20 years. By means of bivariate logistic regressions, the best predictors of worsening were selected among several demographic and clinical variables. The best multivariate logistic model was statistically validated and prospectively applied to 50 patients examined during 2009–2011. Results The Evoked Potentials score (EP score) and the Time to EDSS 2.0 (TT2) were the best predictors of worsening in our sample (Odds Ratio 1.10 and 0.82 respectively, p=0.001). Low EP score (below 15–20 points), short TT2 (lower than 3–5 years) and their interaction resulted to be the most useful for the identification of worsening patterns. Moreover, in patients with an EP score at FNE below 6 points and a TT2 greater than 3 years the probability of worsening was 10% after 4–5 years and rapidly decreased thereafter. Conclusions In an appropriate population of early RRMS patients, the EP score at FNE is a good predictor of disability at low values as well as in combination with a rapid buildup of disability. Interestingly, an EP score at FNE under the median together with a clinical stability lasting more than 3 years turned out to be a protective pattern. This finding may contribute to an early identification of benign patients, well before the term required to diagnose Benign MS (BMS). PMID:22913733

  14. A HOT COCOON IN THE ULTRALONG GRB 130925A: HINTS OF A POPIII-LIKE PROGENITOR IN A LOW-DENSITY WIND ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Luigi; Troja, Eleonora; Kidd, Lauren A.; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Ricci, Roberto; Bannister, Keith; Fiore, Fabrizio; Piranomonte, Silvia; Wieringa, Mark H.

    2014-08-01

    GRB 130925A is a peculiar event characterized by an extremely long gamma-ray duration (≈7 ks), as well as dramatic flaring in the X-rays for ≈20 ks. After this period, its X-ray afterglow shows an atypical soft spectrum with photon index Γ ∼ 4, as observed by Swift and Chandra, until ≈10{sup 7} s, when XMM-Newton observations uncover a harder spectral shape with Γ ∼ 2.5, commonly observed in gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. We find that two distinct emission components are needed to explain the X-ray observations: a thermal component, which dominates the X-ray emission for several weeks, and a non-thermal component, consistent with a typical afterglow. A forward shock model well describes the broadband (from radio to X-rays) afterglow spectrum at various epochs. It requires an ambient medium with a very low-density wind profile, consistent with that expected from a low-metallicity blue supergiant (BSG). The thermal component has a remarkably constant size and a total energy consistent with those expected by a hot cocoon surrounding the relativistic jet. We argue that the features observed in this GRB (its ultralong duration, the thermal cocoon, and the low-density wind environment) are associated with a low metallicity BSG progenitor and, thus, should characterize the class of ultralong GRBs.

  15. Shear wave splitting hints at dynamical features of mantle convection: a global study of homogeneously processed source and receiver side upper mantle anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walpole, J.; Wookey, J. M.; Masters, G.; Kendall, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The asthenosphere is embroiled in the process of mantle convection. Its viscous properties allow it to flow around sinking slabs and deep cratonic roots as it is displaced by intruding material and dragged around by the moving layer above. As the asthenosphere flows it develops a crystalline fabric with anisotropic crystals preferentially aligned in the direction of flow. Meanwhile, the lithosphere above deforms as it is squeezed and stretched by underlying tectonic processes, enabling anisotropic fabrics to develop and become fossilised in the rigid rock and to persist over vast spans of geological time. As a shear wave passes through an anisotropic medium it splits into two orthogonally polarised quasi shear waves that propagate at different velocities (this phenomenon is known as shear wave splitting). By analysing the polarisation and the delay time of many split waves that have passed through a region it is possible to constrain the anisotropy of the medium in that region. This anisotropy is the key to revealing the deformation history of the deep Earth. In this study we present measurements of shear wave splitting recorded on S, SKS, and SKKS waves from earthquakes recorded at stations from the IRIS DMC catalogue (1976-2010). We have used a cluster analysis phase picking technique [1] to pick hundreds of thousands of high signal to noise waveforms on long period data. These picks are used to feed the broadband data into an automated processing workflow that recovers shear wave splitting parameters [2,3]. The workflow includes a new method for making source and receiver corrections, whereby the stacked error surfaces are used as input to correction rather than a single set of parameters, this propagates uncertainty information into the final measurement. Using SKS, SKKS, and source corrected S, we recover good measurements of anisotropy beneath 1,569 stations. Using receiver corrected S we recover good measurements of anisotropy beneath 470 events. We compare our results to a large compilation of previous regional studies and find good agreement. Our results are compared with upper mantle anisotropy recovered from surface waves, and other seismic observables such as wave speed tomography. The comparison with tomography beneath the USA is particularly interesting; here we observe the vivid toroidal swirl beneath Nevada branching off along the Snake River Plateau in excellent agreement with tomographic images at 150 km depth. We compare our results to absolute plate motion vectors to see how well drag from the plate can explain the development of anisotropic fabric; and to a more sophisticated asthenospheric flow model which takes into account the effect of mantle density heterogeneities [4]. Finally, we investigate patterns in the source side anisotropy, globally we detect a fabric with a fast shear wave polarisation parallel to the strike of subducting slabs, however, in several regions interesting deviations are found. [1] Houser et al. (2008) Geophys. J. Int. (2008) 174, 195-212. [2] Teanby et al. (2004). Bulletin Of The Seismological Society Of America, 94(2), 453-463. [3] Wuestefeld et al. (2010). Geophysical Prospecting, 58(5), 753-771. [4] Conrad & Behn (2010). Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 11.

  16. Discovery of a New Retrograde Trans-Neptunian Object: Hint of a Common Orbital Plane for Low Semimajor Axis, High-inclination TNOs and Centaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Lin, Hsing Wen; Holman, Matthew J.; Payne, Matthew J.; Fraser, Wesley C.; Lacerda, Pedro; Ip, Wing-Huen; Chen, Wen-Ping; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Tonry, John L.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Waters, Christopher; Kaiser, Nick; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Lehner, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Although the majority of Centaurs are thought to have originated in the scattered disk, with the high-inclination members coming from the Oort cloud, the origin of the high-inclination component of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) remains uncertain. We report the discovery of a retrograde TNO, which we nickname “Niku,” detected by the Pan-STARRS 1 Outer Solar System Survey. Our numerical integrations show that the orbital dynamics of Niku are very similar to that of 2008 KV42 (Drac), with a half-life of ˜500 Myr. Comparing similar high-inclination TNOs and Centaurs (q > 10 au, a < 100 au, and i > 60°), we find that these objects exhibit a surprising clustering of ascending node, and occupy a common orbital plane. This orbital configuration has high statistical significance: 3.8-σ. An unknown mechanism is required to explain the observed clustering. This discovery may provide a pathway to investigating a possible reservoir of high-inclination objects.

  17. Human mtDNA hypervariable regions, HVR I and II, hint at deep common maternal founder and subsequent maternal gene flow in Indian population groups.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Swarkar; Saha, Anjana; Rai, Ekta; Bhat, Audesh; Bamezai, Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    We have analysed the hypervariable regions (HVR I and II) of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in individuals from Uttar Pradesh (UP), Bihar (BI) and Punjab (PUNJ), belonging to the Indo-European linguistic group, and from South India (SI), that have their linguistic roots in Dravidian language. Our analysis revealed the presence of known and novel mutations in both hypervariable regions in the studied population groups. Median joining network analyses based on mtDNA showed extensive overlap in mtDNA lineages despite the extensive cultural and linguistic diversity. MDS plot analysis based on Fst distances suggested increased maternal genetic proximity for the studied population groups compared with other world populations. Mismatch distribution curves, respective neighbour joining trees and other statistical analyses showed that there were significant expansions. The study revealed an ancient common ancestry for the studied population groups, most probably through common founder female lineage(s), and also indicated that human migrations occurred (maybe across and within the Indian subcontinent) even after the initial phase of female migration to India.

  18. The moon-Earth system...As a vacuum gravity energy machine? A Hint about the Nature of Universal Gravity that May Have Been Overlooked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Roy

    2011-10-01

    We revisit the theories describing the moon raising the tides by virtue of pull gravity combined with the moon's centripetal angular momentum. We show that if gravity is considered as the attractive interaction between individual bodies, then a laboring moon doing work would have fallen to earth eons ago. Isaac Newton's laws of motion cannot work with pull gravity, but they do with Einstein's gravity as a property of the universe, which produces a continuous infusion of energy. In other words, the moon-Earth system becomes the first observable vacuum gravity energy machine. In other words the dynamics of what appears to be a closed system has been producing energy that continues raising the tides into perpetuity along with the force needed for the moon to escape the Earth's gravitational pull 4cm per year. All this is in defiance of Newton's first law which says ``If no force is added to a body it cannot accelerate.'' In this theory, a flowing space-time curves with three dimensions of force. A (flowing) spatial fabric bends around mass and displaces the inverse square field vanishing point property of matter with the appearance of a push-force square of the distance. In other words, the immeasurable universal gravity field appears as measurable local gravitation, concentrating universal gravitational pressure with the square of the distance from the very point was supposed to have disappeared. Needless to say such ``gravity'' necessitates a different beginning.

  19. It Is More about Telling Interesting Stories: Use Explicit Hints in Storytelling to Help College Students Solve Ill-defined Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hseih, Wen-Lan; Smith, Brian K.; Stephanou, Spiro E.

    2004-01-01

    A team consisting of three faculty members from Agricultural Economics, Agribusiness management, and Food Science with two research assistants at Penn State University has been working for three years on creating a food product case library for a problem-based learning and case-based instruction course. With the assistance of experts from the food…

  20. 2D-DIGE screening of high-productive CHO cells under glucose limitation--basic changes in the proteome equipment and hints for epigenetic effects.

    PubMed

    Wingens, Marc; Gätgens, Jochem; Schmidt, Anica; Albaum, Stefan P; Büntemeyer, Heino; Noll, Thomas; Hoffrogge, Raimund

    2015-05-10

    CHO derivates (Chinese hamster ovary) belong to the most important mammalian cells for industrial recombinant protein production. Many efforts have been made to improve productivity and stability of CHO cells in bioreactor processes. Here, we followed up one barely understood phenomenon observed with process optimizations: a significantly increased cell-specific productivity in late phases of glucose-limited perfusion cultivations, when glucose (and lactate) reserves are exhausted. Our aim was to elucidate the cellular activities connected to the metabolic shift from glucose surplus to glucose limitation phase. With 2D-DIGE, we compared three stages in a perfusion culture of CHO cells: the initial growth with high glucose concentration and low lactate production, the second phase with glucose going to limitation and high lactate level, and finally the state of glucose limitation and also low lactate concentration but increased cell-specific productivity. With our proteomic approach we were able to demonstrate consequences of glucose limitation for the protein expression machinery which also could play a role for a higher recombinant protein production. Most interestingly, we detected epigenetic effects on the level of proteins involved in histone modification (HDAC1/-2, SET, RBBP7, DDX5). Together with shifts in the protein inventory of energy metabolism, cytoskeleton and protein expression, a picture emerges of basic changes in the cellular equipment under long-term glucose limitation of CHO cells.

  1. A UNIFORM CORRELATION BETWEEN SYNCHROTRON LUMINOSITY AND DOPPLER FACTOR IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND BLAZARS: A HINT OF SIMILAR INTRINSIC LUMINOSITIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Qingwen; Zou Yuanchuan; Wang Dingxiong; Cao Xinwu; Chen Liang E-mail: zouyc@hust.edu.cn E-mail: cxw@shao.ac.cn

    2011-10-10

    We compile 23 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and 21 blazars with estimated Doppler factors, and the Doppler factors of GRBs are estimated from their Lorentz factors by assuming their jet viewing angles {theta} {yields} 0{sup 0}. Using the conventional assumption that the prompt emission of GRBs is dominated by the synchrotron radiation, we calculate the synchrotron luminosity of GRBs from their total isotropic energy and burst duration. Intriguingly, we discover a uniform correlation between the synchrotron luminosity and Doppler factor, L{sub syn}{proportional_to}D{sup 3.1}, for GRBs and blazars, which suggests that they may share some similar jet physics. One possible reason is that GRBs and blazars have, more or less, similar intrinsic synchrotron luminosities and both of them are strongly enhanced by the beaming effect. After Doppler and redshift correction, we find that the intrinsic peak energy of the GRBs ranges from 0.1 to 3 keV with a typical value of 1 keV. We further correct the beaming effect for the observed luminosity of GRBs and find that a positive correlation exists between the intrinsic synchrotron luminosity and peak energy for GRBs, which is similar to that of blazars. Our results suggest that both the intrinsic positive correlation and the beaming effect may be responsible for the observed tight correlation between the isotropic energy and the peak energy in GRBs (the so-called Amati relation).

  2. Hints of the early Jehol Biota: important dinosaur footprint assemblages from the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary Tuchengzi Formation in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lida; Zhang, Jianping; Lockley, Martin G; McCrea, Richard T; Klein, Hendrik; Alcalá, Luis; Buckley, Lisa G; Burns, Michael E; Kümmell, Susanna B; He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    New reports of dinosaur tracksites in the Tuchengzi Formation in the newly established Yanqing Global Geopark, Beijing, China, support previous inferences that the track assemblages from this formation are saurischian-dominated. More specifically, the assemblages appear theropod-dominated, with the majority of well-preserved tracks conforming to the Grallator type (sensus lato), thus representing relatively small trackmakers. Such ichnofaunas supplement the skeletal record from this unit that lacks theropods thus far, proving a larger diversity of dinosaur faunas in that region. Sauropods are represented by medium to large sized and narrow and wide-gauge groups, respectively. The latter correspond with earlier discoveries of titanosauriform skeletons in the same unit. Previous records of ornithischian tracks cannot be positively confirmed. Purported occurrences are re-evaluated here, the trackways and imprints, except of a single possible specimen, re-assigned to theropods. Palecologically the Tuchengzi ichnofauna is characteristic of semi-arid fluvio-lacustrine inland basins with Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous deposits in northern China that all show assemblages with abundant theropod and sauropod tracks and minor components of ornithopod, pterosaur and bird tracks.

  3. Binding Characteristics of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate to ApoM hints to Assisted Release Mechanism via the ApoM Calyx-Opening

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hansi; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Jiang, Zhenyan; Böckmann, Rainer A.

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysophospholipid mediator carried by the HDL-associated apoM protein in blood, regulating many physiological processes by activating the G protein-coupled S1P receptor in mammals. Despite the solved crystal structure of the apoM-S1P complex, the mechanism of S1P release from apoM as a part of the S1P pathway is unknown. Here, the dynamics of the wild type apoM-S1P complex as well as of mutants were investigated by means of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The potential of mean force for S1P unbinding from apoM reflected a large binding strength of more than 60 kJ/mol. This high unbinding free energy for S1P underlines the observed specificity of the physiological effects of S1P as it suggests that the spontaneous release of S1P from apoM is unlikely. Instead, S1P release and thus the control of this bioactive lipid probably requires the tight interaction with other molecules, e.g. with the S1P receptor. Mutations of specific S1P anchoring residues of apoM decreased the energetic barrier by up to 20 kJ/mol. Moreover, the ligand-free apoM protein is shown to adopt a more open upper hydrophilic binding pocket and to result in complete closure of the lower hydrophobic cavity, suggesting a mechanism for adjusting the gate for ligand access. PMID:27476912

  4. Career Transitions. Taking Advantage of Your U.S. Air Force Military Experience To Become the Employer's Choice. Helpful Hints That Result in Employment Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drier, Harry N.

    This booklet outlines some points about a veteran's unique marketability, advantages acquired by working for the military, benefits earned, and some ideas for packaging a veteran's credentials. It lists worker characteristics with which employers are most impressed. Career planning steps are outlined, complete career examination is recommended,…

  5. Gamma-ray and neutrino backgrounds as probes of the high-energy universe: hints of cascades, general constraints, and implications for TeV searches

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, Kohta; Beacom, John F.; Takami, Hajime E-mail: beacom.7@osu.edu

    2012-08-01

    Recent observations of isotropic diffuse backgrounds by Fermi and IceCube allow us to get more insight into distant very-high-energy (VHE) and ultra-high-energy (UHE) gamma-ray/neutrino emitters, including cosmic-ray accelerators/sources. First, we investigate the contribution of intergalactic cascades induced by gamma-rays and/or cosmic rays (CRs) to the diffuse gamma-ray background (DGB) in view of the latest Fermi data. We identify a possible 'VHE Excess' from the fact that the Fermi data are well above expectations for an attenuated power law, and show that cascades induced by VHE gamma rays (above ∼ 10 TeV) and/or VHECRs (below ∼ 10{sup 19} eV) may significantly contribute to the DGB above ∼ 100 GeV. The relevance of the cascades is also motivated by the intergalactic cascade interpretations of extreme TeV blazars such as 1ES 0229+200, which suggest very hard intrinsic spectra. This strengthens the importance of future detailed VHE DGB measurements. Then, more conservatively, we derive general constraints on the cosmic energy budget of high-energy gamma rays and neutrinos based on recent Fermi and IceCube observations of extragalactic background radiation. We demonstrate that these multi-messenger constraints are useful and the neutrino limit is very powerful for VHE/UHE hadronic sources. Furthermore, we show the importance of constraints from individual source surveys by future imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as Cherenkov Telescope Array, and demonstrate that the cascade hypothesis for the VHE DGB can be tested by searching for distant emitters of cascaded gamma rays.

  6. An Evaluation of the BKB-SIN, HINT, QuickSIN, and WIN Materials on Listeners with Normal Hearing and Listeners with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Richard H.; McArdle, Rachel A.; Smith, Sherri L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine in listeners with normal hearing and listeners with sensorineural hearing loss the within- and between-group differences obtained with 4 commonly available speech-in-noise protocols. Method: Recognition performances by 24 listeners with normal hearing and 72 listeners with sensorineural hearing…

  7. Discovery of A New Retrograde Trans-Neptunian Object: Hint of A Common Orbital Plane for Low Semi-Major Axis, High Inclination TNOs and Centaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Holman, Matthew J.; Payne, Matthew John; Fraser, Wesley Cristopher; Lacerda, Pedro; Ip, Wing-Huen; Pan-STARRS 1 Builders

    2016-10-01

    The origin of high inclination objects beyond Jupiter, including trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs, remains uncertain. We report the discovery of a retrograde TNO, which we nickname "Niku", detected by the Pan-STARRS 1 Outer Solar System Survey. The numerical integrations show that the orbital dynamics of Niku are very similar to those of 2008 KV42 (Drac), with a half-life of ~ 500 Myr and analogous orbital evolution. Comparing similar high inclination members announced by the Minor-Planet Center (q > 10 AU, a < 100 AU and i > 60), we find these objects exhibit a surprising clustering of ascending node, populating a common orbital plane. The statistical significance of 3.8-sigma suggests it is unlikely to be coincidental. An unknown mechanism is required to explain the observed clustering. This discovery may provide a pathway to investigating a possible reservoir of high-inclination objects.

  8. THE PUZZLING EARLY DETECTION OF LOW VELOCITY {sup 56}Ni DECAY LINES IN SN 2014J: HINTS OF A COMPACT REMNANT

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyed, Rachid; Leahy, Denis; Koning, Nico; Staff, Jan

    2015-03-01

    We show that the low-velocity {sup 56}Ni decay lines detected earlier than expected in the type Ia SN 2014J find an explanation in the quark-nova Ia model, which involves the thermonuclear explosion of a tidally disrupted sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarf (WD) in a tight neutron-star-WD binary system. The explosion is triggered by impact from the quark-nova (QN) ejecta on the WD material; the QN is the explosive transition of the neutron star to a quark star (QS) triggered by accretion from a CO torus (the circularized WD material). The presence of a compact remnant (the QS) provides: (1) an additional energy source (spin-down power) which allows us to fit the observed light-curve including the steep early rise; (2) a central gravitational potential which slows down some of the {sup 56}Ni produced to velocities of a few 10{sup 3} km s{sup –1}. In our model, the {sup 56}Ni decay lines become optically visible at ∼20 days from explosion time in agreement with observations. We list predictions that can provide important tests for our model.

  9. Modelling the UV spectrum of SDSS-III/BOSS galaxies: hints towards the detection of the UV upturn at high-z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Cras, Claire; Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel; York, Donald G.

    2016-09-01

    We exploit stellar population models of absorption line indices in the ultraviolet (from 2000 to 3200 Å) to study the spectra of massive galaxies. Our central aim is to investigate the occurrence at high redshift of the UV upturn, i.e. the increased UV emission due to old stars observed in massive galaxies and spiral bulges in the local Universe. We use a large (˜275 000) sample of z ˜ 0.6 massive (M*/M⊙ > 11.5) galaxies using both individual spectra and stacks and employ a suite of models including a UV contribution from old populations, spanning various effective temperatures, fuel consumptions and metallicities. We find that a subset of our indices; Mg I, Fe I, and BL3096, are able to differentiate between old and young UV ages. We find evidence for old stars contributing to the UV in massive galaxies, rather than star formation. The data favour models with low/medium upturn temperatures (10 000-25 000 K) consistent with local galaxies, depending on the assumed metallicity, and with a larger fuel (f ˜ 6.5× 10^{-2} {M}_{⊙}). Models with one typical temperature are favoured over models with a temperature range, which would be typical of an extended horizontal branch. Old UV-bright populations are found in the whole galaxy sample (92 per cent), with a mass fraction peaking around 20-30 per cent. Upturn galaxies are massive and have redder colours, in agreement with findings in the local Universe. We find that the upturn phenomenon appears at z ˜ 1 and its frequency increases towards lower redshift, as expected by stellar evolution of low-mass stars. Our findings will help constrain stellar evolution in the exotic UV upturn phase.

  10. The first toxicological study of the antiozonant and research tool ethylene diurea (EDU) using a Lemna minor L. bioassay: Hints to its mode of action.

    PubMed

    Agathokleous, Eugenios; Mouzaki-Paxinou, Akrivi-Chara; Saitanis, Costas J; Paoletti, Elena; Manning, William J

    2016-06-01

    The antiozonant and research tool ethylene diurea (EDU) is widely studied as a phytoprotectant against the widespread pollutant ground-surface ozone. Although it has been extensively used, its potential toxicity in the absence of ozone is unknown and its mode of action is unclear. The purpose of this research was to toxicologically assess EDU and to further investigate its mode of action using Lemna minor L. as a model organism. Application of EDU concentrations greater than 593 mg L(-1) (practically 600 mg L(-1)) resulted in adverse inhibition of colony growth. As no-observed-toxic-effects concentration (NOEL) we recommend a concentration of 296 mg L(-1) (practically 300 mg L(-1)). A hormetic response was detected, i.e. stimulatory effects of low EDU concentrations, which may indicate overcompensation in response to disruption in homeostasis. Growth inhibition and suppressed biomass were associated with impacted chlorophyll a fluorescence (ΦPSII, qP and ETR). Furthermore, EDU increased mesophyll thickness, as indicated by frond succulence index. Applications of concentrations ≥593 mg L(-1) to uncontrolled environments should be avoided due to potential toxicity to sensitive organisms and the environment. PMID:26809480

  11. Long-term sonographic and serological follow-up of inactive echinococcal cysts of the liver: hints for a "watch-and-wait" approach.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Luca; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Cattaneo, Federico; Mariconti, Mara; Filice, Carlo; Bruno, Antonella; Brunetti, Enrico

    2014-08-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis is a chronic, complex and neglected infection. Its clinical management has evolved over decades without adequate evaluation of efficacy. Recent expert opinion recommends that uncomplicated inactive cysts of the liver should be left untreated and solely monitored over time ("watch-and-wait" approach). However, clinical data supporting this approach are still scant and published mostly as conference proceedings. In this study, we report our experience with long-term sonographic and serological follow-up of inactive cysts of the liver. From March 1994 to October 2013, 38 patients with 47 liver cysts, diagnosed as inactive without any previous treatment history, were followed with ultrasound and serology at 6-12 months intervals for a period of at least 24 months (median follow-up 51.95 months) in our outpatient clinic. In 97.4% of patients, the cysts remained inactive over time and in only one case was reactivation of the cyst detected. No complications occurred during the time of monitoring. During follow-up, serology tests for CE were negative at diagnosis or became negative in 74.1% and were positive or became positive in 25.9% of cases. Patients with inactive cysts on ultrasound but positive serological tests were also investigated by CT scan (chest and abdomen) to rule out extra-hepatic cyst localization. This study confirms the importance of a stage-specific approach to the management of cystic echinococcosis and supports the use of a monitoring-only approach to inactive, uncomplicated cysts of the liver. It also confirms that serology plays only an ancillary role in the clinical management of these patients, compared to ultrasound and other imaging techniques. The implications of these findings for clinical management and natural history of cystic echinococcosis are discussed.

  12. Adaptation of Bacillus subtilis cells to Archean-like UV climate: relevant hints of microbial evolution to remarkably increased radiation resistance.

    PubMed

    Wassmann, Marko; Moeller, Ralf; Reitz, Günther; Rettberg, Petra

    2010-01-01

    In a precursory study for the space experiment ADAPT ("Molecular adaptation strategies of microorganisms to different space and planetary UV climate conditions"), cells of Bacillus subtilis 168 were continuously cultured for 700 generations under periodic polychromatic UV irradiation (200-400 nm) to model the suggested UV radiation environment on early Earth at the origin of the first microbial ecosystem during the Archean eon when Earth lacked a significant ozone layer. Populations that evolved under UV stress were about 3-fold more resistant than the ancestral and non-UV-evolved populations. UV-evolved cells were 7-fold more resistant to ionizing radiation than their non-UV-exposed evolved relatives and ancestor. In addition to the acquired increased UV resistance, further changes in microbial stress response to hydrogen peroxide, increased salinity, and desiccation were observed in UV-evolved cells. This indicates that UV-sensitive ancestral cells are capable of adapting to periodically applied UV stress via the evolution of cells with an increased UV resistance level and further enhanced responses to other environmental stressors, which thereby allows them to survive and reproduce under extreme UV radiation as a selection pressure.

  13. Novel Papillomaviruses in Free-Ranging Iberian Bats: No Virus–Host Co-evolution, No Strict Host Specificity, and Hints for Recombination

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Raquel; Ibáñez, Carlos; Godínez, Jose M.; Aréchiga, Nidia; Garin, Inazio; Pérez-Suárez, Gonzalo; de Paz, Oscar; Juste, Javier; Echevarría, Juan E.; Bravo, Ignacio G.

    2014-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are widespread pathogens. However, the extent of PV infections in bats remains largely unknown. This work represents the first comprehensive study of PVs in Iberian bats. We identified four novel PVs in the mucosa of free-ranging Eptesicus serotinus (EserPV1, EserPV2, and EserPV3) and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (RferPV1) individuals and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships within the viral family. We further assessed their prevalence in different populations of E. serotinus and its close relative E. isabellinus. Although it is frequent to read that PVs co-evolve with their host, that PVs are highly species-specific, and that PVs do not usually recombine, our results suggest otherwise. First, strict virus–host co-evolution is rejected by the existence of five, distantly related bat PV lineages and by the lack of congruence between bats and bat PVs phylogenies. Second, the ability of EserPV2 and EserPV3 to infect two different bat species (E. serotinus and E. isabellinus) argues against strict host specificity. Finally, the description of a second noncoding region in the RferPV1 genome reinforces the view of an increased susceptibility to recombination in the E2-L2 genomic region. These findings prompt the question of whether the prevailing paradigms regarding PVs evolution should be reconsidered. PMID:24391150

  14. HIV Testing in Non-Traditional Settings – The HINTS Study: A Multi-Centre Observational Study of Feasibility and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Rayment, Michael; Thornton, Alicia; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Elam, Gillian; Atkins, Mark; Jones, Rachael; Nardone, Anthony; Roberts, Patrick; Tenant-Flowers, Melinda; Anderson, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Background UK guidelines recommend routine HIV testing in healthcare settings if the local diagnosed HIV prevalence >2/1000 persons. This prospective study assessed the feasibility and acceptability, to patients and staff, of routinely offering HIV tests in four settings: Emergency Department, Acute Care Unit, Dermatology Outpatients and Primary Care. Modelling suggested the estimated prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection in attendees would exceed 1/1000 persons. The prevalence identified prospectively was not a primary outcome. Methods Permanent staff completed questionnaires assessing attitudes towards routine HIV testing in their workplace before testing began. Subsequently, over a three-month period, patients aged 16–65 were offered an HIV test by study staff. Demographics, uptake, results, and departmental activity were collected. Subsets of patients completed questionnaires. Analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with test uptake. Findings Questionnaires were received from 144 staff. 96% supported the expansion of HIV testing, but only 54% stated that they would feel comfortable delivering testing themselves, with 72% identifying a need for training. Of 6194 patients offered a test, 4105 (66·8%) accepted (61·8–75·4% across sites). Eight individuals were diagnosed with HIV (0–10/1000 across sites) and all transferred to care. Younger people, and males, were more likely to accept an HIV test. No significant associations were found between uptake and ethnicity, or clinical site. Questionnaires were returned from 1003 patients. The offer of an HIV test was acceptable to 92%. Of respondents, individuals who had never tested for HIV before were more likely to accept a test, but no association was found between test uptake and sexual orientation. Conclusions HIV testing in these settings is acceptable, and operationally feasible. The strategy successfully identified, and transferred to care, HIV-positive individuals. However, if HIV testing is to be included as a routine part of patients’ care, additional staff training and infrastructural resources will be required. PMID:22745777

  15. OPTICAL-TO-NEAR-INFRARED SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS FOR THE HOT URANUS GJ3470b: A HINT OF A CLOUD-FREE ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Akihiko; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Narita, Norio; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Kawauchi, Kiyoe; Nagayama, Shogo; Kurosaki, Kenji; Ikoma, Masahiro; Ohnuki, Hiroshi; Onitsuka, Masahiro; Suenaga, Takuya; Hirano, Teruyuki; Ohta, Kouji; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2013-06-20

    We present optical (g', R{sub c}, and I{sub c}) to near-infrared (J) simultaneous photometric observations for a primary transit of GJ3470b, a Uranus-mass transiting planet around a nearby M dwarf, by using the 50 cm MITSuME telescope and the 188 cm telescope, both at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. From these data, we derive the planetary mass, radius, and density as 14.1 {+-} 1.3 M{sub Circled-Plus }, 4.32{sup +0.21}{sub -0.10} R{sub Circled-Plus }, and 0.94 {+-} 0.12 g cm{sup -3}, respectively, thus confirming the low density that was reported by Demory et al. based on the Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 {mu}m photometry (0.72{sup +0.13}{sub -0.12} g cm{sup -3}). Although the planetary radius is about 10% smaller than that reported by Demory et al., this difference does not alter their conclusion that the planet possesses a hydrogen-rich envelope whose mass is approximately 10% of the planetary total mass. On the other hand, we find that the planet-to-star radius ratio (R{sub p} /R{sub s} ) in the J band (0.07577{sup +0.00072}{sub -0.00075}) is smaller than that in the I{sub c} (0.0802 {+-} 0.0013) and 4.5 {mu}m (0.07806{sup +0.00052}{sub -0.00054}) bands by 5.8% {+-} 2.0% and 2.9% {+-} 1.1%, respectively. A plausible explanation for the differences is that the planetary atmospheric opacity varies with wavelength due to absorption and/or scattering by atmospheric molecules. Although the significance of the observed R{sub p} /R{sub s} variations is low, if confirmed, this fact would suggest that GJ3470b does not have a thick cloud layer in the atmosphere. This property would offer a wealth of opportunity for future transmission-spectroscopic observations of this planet to search for certain molecular features, such as H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO, without being prevented by clouds.

  16. Binding interface between the Salmonella σS/RpoS subunit of RNA polymerase and Crl: hints from bacterial species lacking crl

    PubMed Central

    Cavaliere, Paola; Sizun, Christina; Levi-Acobas, Fabienne; Nowakowski, Mireille; Monteil, Véronique; Bontems, François; Bellalou, Jacques; Mayer, Claudine; Norel, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    In many Gram-negative bacteria, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), the sigma factor RpoS/σS accumulates during stationary phase of growth, and associates with the core RNA polymerase enzyme (E) to promote transcription initiation of genes involved in general stress resistance and starvation survival. Whereas σ factors are usually inactivated upon interaction with anti-σ proteins, σS binding to the Crl protein increases σS activity by favouring its association to E. Taking advantage of evolution of the σS sequence in bacterial species that do not contain a crl gene, like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we identified and assigned a critical arginine residue in σS to the S. Typhimurium σS-Crl binding interface. We solved the solution structure of S. Typhimurium Crl by NMR and used it for NMR binding assays with σS and to generate in silico models of the σS-Crl complex constrained by mutational analysis. The σS-Crl models suggest that the identified arginine in σS interacts with an aspartate of Crl that is required for σS binding and is located inside a cavity enclosed by flexible loops, which also contribute to the interface. This study provides the basis for further structural investigation of the σS-Crl complex. PMID:26338235

  17. Searching for Dark Matter in Unification Models: A Hint from Indirect Sensitivities towards Future Signals in Direct Detection and B-decays

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.

    2006-11-28

    A comparison is made between accelerator and direct detection constraints in constrained versions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Models considered are based on mSUGRA, where scalar and gaugino masses are unified at the GUT scale. In addition, the mSUGRA relation between the (unified) A and B parameters is assumed, as is the relation between m0 and gravitino mass. Also considered are models where the latter two conditions are dropped (the CMSSM), and a less constrained version where the Higgs soft masses are not unified at the GUT scale (the NUHM)

  18. Hints of the Early Jehol Biota: Important Dinosaur Footprint Assemblages from the Jurassic-Cretaceous Boundary Tuchengzi Formation in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lida; Zhang, Jianping; Lockley, Martin G.; McCrea, Richard T.; Klein, Hendrik; Alcalá, Luis; Buckley, Lisa G.; Burns, Michael E.; Kümmell, Susanna B.; He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    New reports of dinosaur tracksites in the Tuchengzi Formation in the newly established Yanqing Global Geopark, Beijing, China, support previous inferences that the track assemblages from this formation are saurischian-dominated. More specifically, the assemblages appear theropod-dominated, with the majority of well-preserved tracks conforming to the Grallator type (sensus lato), thus representing relatively small trackmakers. Such ichnofaunas supplement the skeletal record from this unit that lacks theropods thus far, proving a larger diversity of dinosaur faunas in that region. Sauropods are represented by medium to large sized and narrow and wide-gauge groups, respectively. The latter correspond with earlier discoveries of titanosauriform skeletons in the same unit. Previous records of ornithischian tracks cannot be positively confirmed. Purported occurrences are re-evaluated here, the trackways and imprints, except of a single possible specimen, re-assigned to theropods. Palecologically the Tuchengzi ichnofauna is characteristic of semi-arid fluvio-lacustrine inland basins with Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous deposits in northern China that all show assemblages with abundant theropod and sauropod tracks and minor components of ornithopod, pterosaur and bird tracks. PMID:25901363

  19. Novel papillomaviruses in free-ranging Iberian bats: no virus-host co-evolution, no strict host specificity, and hints for recombination.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Raquel; Ibáñez, Carlos; Godínez, Jose M; Aréchiga, Nidia; Garin, Inazio; Pérez-Suárez, Gonzalo; de Paz, Oscar; Juste, Javier; Echevarría, Juan E; Bravo, Ignacio G

    2014-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are widespread pathogens. However, the extent of PV infections in bats remains largely unknown. This work represents the first comprehensive study of PVs in Iberian bats. We identified four novel PVs in the mucosa of free-ranging Eptesicus serotinus (EserPV1, EserPV2, and EserPV3) and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (RferPV1) individuals and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships within the viral family. We further assessed their prevalence in different populations of E. serotinus and its close relative E. isabellinus. Although it is frequent to read that PVs co-evolve with their host, that PVs are highly species-specific, and that PVs do not usually recombine, our results suggest otherwise. First, strict virus-host co-evolution is rejected by the existence of five, distantly related bat PV lineages and by the lack of congruence between bats and bat PVs phylogenies. Second, the ability of EserPV2 and EserPV3 to infect two different bat species (E. serotinus and E. isabellinus) argues against strict host specificity. Finally, the description of a second noncoding region in the RferPV1 genome reinforces the view of an increased susceptibility to recombination in the E2-L2 genomic region. These findings prompt the question of whether the prevailing paradigms regarding PVs evolution should be reconsidered.

  20. Hellenic subduction earthquake locations including OBS, ocean bottom seismometers and hints at shallow slab structure from teleseismic conversions: A pilot experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachpazi, M.; Laigle, M.; Charalampakis, M.; Diaz, J.; Gesret, A.; Sokos, E.; Petrou, P.; Flueh, E.; Nicolich, R.; Hirn, A.

    2010-05-01

    In the frame of the European Union "THALES WAS RIGHT" project on seismogenic zones in European subductions and of the European Union "SALVADOR" programme of IfM-GEOMAR for the access to OBS, ocean bottom seismometers, we have deployed in early June 2006 and for 5 months an onshore-offshore array in the SW part of the Hellenic subduction, the area between the south west tip of Peloponissos and Crete. The array consisted of 5, three component OBS and of up to 15 land seismometers. This provided for the first time a constraint on the hypocentral locations of local earthquakes offshore, that up to then were poorly located because of an insufficient azimuthal coverage, since all the permanent stations are on land on one side. Comparison of the routinely located hypocenters by the permanent array with those located by the special local onshore/offshore local array shows that some background seismicity may be mislocated by several tens of kilometers with for instance small earthquakes of the upper part of the plate boundary SW of Crete-Peloponissos having been located as deep earthquakes in the SW Aegean because of lack of constraint to the SW. This survey was organized early in the THALES WAS RIGHT project, in order to provide a reference observation period for the project. This proved a valuable effort since it provided this basis just a year before the major earthquake for decades in the region. This allows to reveal temporal patterns of seismicity, thus constrained by the addition of offshore observations. Indeed a very strong earthquake for the region occurred on February 14, 2008, SW offshore Methoni. Differential location of its hypocenter can be made by land stations, with respect to hypocenters of the pre-seismic period phase that had been accurately located with OBS nearby. This allows to constrain in retrospect the future hypocenter of the M=6.9 earthquake as a geographical gap in smaller earthquake occurrence in the months before. Preliminary results from the distribution of hypocenters and teleseismic Receiver Function at stations deployed at the SW land extremities of Peloponissos, can be used to discuss along arc variations of the subduction geometry. Since this pilot study, both the land and offshore coverages have been enriched by much larger OBS-land station surveys in the frame of the project, that will last few months more.

  1. ON THE e{sup +}e{sup -} EXCESSES AND THE KNEE OF THE COSMIC RAY SPECTRA-HINTS OF COSMIC RAY ACCELERATION IN YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Hongbo; Yuan Qiang; Wang Bo; Fan Chao; Zhang Jianli; Bi Xiaojun

    2009-08-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) have long been regarded as sources of the Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) up to petaelectronvolts, but convincing evidence is still lacking. In this work we explore the common origin of the subtle features of the CR spectra, such as the knee of CR spectra and the excesses of electron/positron fluxes recently observed by ATIC, H.E.S.S., Fermi-LAT, and PAMELA. Numerical calculation shows that those features of CR spectra can be well reproduced in a scenario with e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production by interactions between high-energy CRs and background photons in an environment similar to the young SNR. The success of such a coherent explanation serves in turn as evidence that at least a portion of CRs might be accelerated in young SNRs.

  2. Increased expression of the homologue of enhancer-of-split 1 protects neurons from beta amyloid neurotoxicity and hints at an alternative role for transforming growth factor beta1 as a neuroprotector

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain, which produces progressive neuronal loss and dementia. We recently demonstrated that the noxious effects of Aβ on cultured hippocampal neurons are in part provoked by the antagonism of nerve growth factor (NGF) signalling, which impairs the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) by impeding the tyrosine phosphorylation of I-κBα. As a result, the expression of the homologue of Enhancer-of split 1 (Hes1) gene is downregulated and ultimately, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic connectivity is lost. Methods Hes1 activity was promoted in cultured hippocampal neurons by overexpressing a Hes1-encoding plasmid or by upregulating this gene by activating NF-κB through different approaches (overexpressing either the I-κB kinaseβ, or p65/RelA/NF-κB). Alternatively neurons were exposed to TGFβ1. Dendrite patterning, GABAergic connectivity and cell survival were analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Hes1 expression was determined by real-time PCR. NF-κB activation was measured using the dual-luciferase reporter assay. Results The expression of Hes1 abolished the effects of Aβ on dendritic patterning and GABAergic input, and it prevented the death of the cultured neurons. TGFβ1, a known neuroprotector, could counteract the deleterious effects of Aβ by inducing NF-κB activation following the serine phosphorylation of I-κBα. Indeed, the number of GABAergic terminals generated by inducing Hes1 expression was doubled. Conclusion Our data define some of the mechanisms involved in Aβ-mediated cell death and they point to potential means to counteract this noxious activity. PMID:22849569

  3. Sub-proteome S-nitrosylation analysis in Brassica juncea hints at the regulation of Brassicaceae specific as well as other vital metabolic pathway(s) by nitric oxide and suggests post-translational modifications cross-talk.

    PubMed

    Sehrawat, Ankita; Deswal, Renu

    2014-12-01

    Abiotic stress affects the normal physiology of the plants and results in crop loss. Brassica juncea is an oil yielding crop affected by abiotic stress. In future, over 30% yield loss by abiotic stress is predicted in India. Understanding the mechanism of plant response to stress would help in developing stress tolerant crops. Nitric oxide (NO) is now viewed as a remarkably important signaling molecule, involved in regulating stress responses. S-Nitrosylation is a NO based post-translational modification (PTM), linked with the regulation of many physiologically relevant targets. In the last decade, over 700 functionally varied S-nitrosylated proteins were identified, which suggested broad-spectrum regulation. To understand the physiological significance of S-nitrosylation, it was analyzed in cold stress. Functional categorization and validation of some of the B. juncea S-nitrosylated targets, suggested that NO produced during stress regulates cellular detoxification by modulating enzymes of ascorbate glutathione cycle, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase and glyoxalase I by S-nitrosylation in crude, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) depleted and apoplastic fractions. Interestingly, S-nitrosylation of enzymes associated with glucosinolate hydrolysis pathway, suggests a novel regulation of this Brassicaceae specific pathway by NO. Moreover, identification of enzymes of Glycolysis and Calvin cycle in crude and RuBisCO depleted fractions showed the regulation of metabolic as well as photosynthetic pathways by S-nitrosylation. S-Nitrosylation of cell wall modifying and proteolytic enzymes in the apoplast suggested differential and spatial regulation by S-nitrosylation. To have an overview of physiological role(s) of NO, collective information on NO based signaling (mainly by S-nitrosylation) is presented in this review.

  4. AN INTERACTIVE WEB-BASED RESEARCH PLAN/QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN IS LINKED WITH HELPFUL QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL HINTS AND USED BY THE RESEARCH SCIENTISTS TO DEVELOP PLANS/QAPP

    EPA Science Inventory

    A web based Research Plan/Quality Assurance Project Plan (RP/QAPP) Document is interactively linked to documentation that asks pertinent questions and gives suggested examples and formats to assist the Research Scientist develop a RP/QAPP that will answer the necessary questions ...

  5. Preparation and precise structural determination of a second Ga84 cluster compound. A first hint for cluster doping and its fundamental consequences in the field of chemistry and physics of nanoscaled metalloid cluster material.

    PubMed

    Schnepf, Andreas; Jee, Bettina; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Weckert, Edgar; Meents, Alke; Lübbert, Daniel; Herrling, Erik; Pilawa, Bernd

    2003-12-01

    The Ga(84)R(20)(4-) [R = N(SiMe(3))(2)] species, which represents the largest metalloid cluster entity structurally characterized so far, has been electronically and topologically modified: Via changing the redox potential of the reaction solution, crystals different from those containing the Ga(84)R(20)(4-) anion can be isolated, featuring similar Ga(84)R(20)(3-) entities. An accurate crystal structure analysis via synchrotron radiation is presented, which might be the first step toward an understanding of the metallic conductivity and superconductivity of the Ga(84)R(20)(4-) cluster compound, physical properties which are singular in the field of metalloid clusters so far.

  6. Multilevel karst system evolution in relationship to palaeo-climate and palaeo-geography: hints from a 500 ky speleothem record from the Piani Eterni Karst System, Belluno Dolomites, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauro, Francesco; Lundberg, Joyce; Columbu, Andrea; De Waele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    Piani Eterni is the deepest and longest multilevel karst system of the Dolomites. The geometric distribution and stratigraphic-structural guidance of palaeo-epiphreatic levels have been studied in detail in recent times, but there are still several open questions regarding the palaeo-climatic and palaeo-geographic factors that have controlled its evolution through time. Over the last three years, several stalagmites were sampled from different palaeo-epiphreatic levels in the karst system. The relatively high concentration of uranium in the dolomitized bituminous unit hosting the cave has allowed dating with high precision of stalagmites up to more than 500 ky old using the U-Th radiometric method. All the speleothems have been collected from palaeo-epiphreatic conduits without vadose entrenchments at different altitudes (from 1650 to 860 m a.s.l.). The research has focused on speleothems that have registered different flooding events with intercalated sedimentation of silts and sands. These events could have happened only when the conduits were still very close to the epiphreatic zone and the speleothems formed directly after the formation and draining of the epiphreatic conduits. The temporal record of the speleothems and their vertical distribution in the cave, compared to the presence of fluvial terraces and glacial deposits in the nearby Mis Valley, are shown to be in agreement with the uplift rate of the region. The data obtained from the karst system and speleothem dating elucidated the geomorphic events and temporal constraints on a major fluvial capture of the Mis Valley toward the south, a hypothesis already proposed by previous authors. Stable isotope records (oxygen and carbon) in the speleothems show that the favorable conditions for calcite precipitation were related to cooling and unstable periods following the interglacial apexes of MIS11, MIS 9, MIS7, and MIS5. This is a prime example of studies of speleothems, of their palaeoclimate record and of their growth in relation with the formation of the hosting conduits and epiphreatic oscillations, bringing new insights on the evolution of multilevel karst systems.

  7. Methodology for the Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer-Related Knowledge - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    The HINTS is designed to produce reliable estimates at the national and regional levels. GIS maps using HINTS data have been used to provide a visual representation of possible geographic relationships in HINTS cancer-related variables.

  8. NNS computing facility manual P-17 Neutron and Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeberling, M.; Nelson, R.O.

    1993-11-01

    This document describes basic policies and provides information and examples on using the computing resources provided by P-17, the Neutron and Nuclear Science (NNS) group. Information on user accounts, getting help, network access, electronic mail, disk drives, tape drives, printers, batch processing software, XSYS hints, PC networking hints, and Mac networking hints is given.

  9. Metallography of maraging 350 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, S.M.; Merten, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for etching maraging 350 steel with Glyceregia is described. Surface activation procedures are integral to this technique. Microstructural features revealed by this technique are compared with those obtained with Kalling's reagent, Fry's reagent, and 5% Nital, three etchants commonly used to reveal microstructures of maraging steels. Features which may be simultaneously revealed using Glyceregia include prior austenite grain boundaries, martensitic structure, precipitates, titanium carbo-nitrides, and reverted austenite. The other etchants examined in this investigation typically reveal only a few of the microstructural features detailed above at any one time. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Scalable Computer Performance and Analysis (Hierarchical INTegration)

    1999-09-02

    HINT is a program to measure a wide variety of scalable computer systems. It is capable of demonstrating the benefits of using more memory or processing power, and of improving communications within the system. HINT can be used for measurement of an existing system, while the associated program ANALYTIC HINT can be used to explain the measurements or as a design tool for proposed systems.

  11. Effects of Ageing and Hearing Thresholds on Speech Perception in Quiet and in Noise Perceived in Different Locations

    PubMed Central

    Wahat, Nor Haniza Abdul; Mazlan, Rafidah

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives This study investigated the effect of ageing on speech perception in quiet and in noise, with noise directed from front, right and left. Subjects and Methods Sixty Malay native adults with normal or near normal hearing comprising of 20 young adults (21 to 39 years old), 20 middle aged (40 to 59 years old) and 20 older adults (60 to 74 years old) participated in this study. Their speech perception ability was measured using the Malay Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) in four test conditions; 1) in quiet (HINT Q), 2) with noise from front (HINT NF), 3) with noise from right (HINT NR), and 4) with noise from left (HINT NL). Reception thresholds for sentences (RTSs) were measured in each of the aforementioned conditions using an adaptive method. Results The results showed that, 1) genuine age-related decline was found in speech perception performance in HINT (NF), 2) hearing threshold was a major determinant differentiating speech perception performance for HINT (Q) and HINT (NL) conditions, and 3) speech perception performance for HINT (NR) was determined by both age and hearing threshold. Conclusions This study suggests that, in older adults, while hearing thresholds affect speech perception in quiet, other factors such as central auditory processing and cognitive functions might be more important determinant factors for speech perception performance in noise. PMID:25558404

  12. Pointers for Parents, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This booklet was written for parents of children in the Follow Through Program. It provides useful tips on money management, home-school relationship, and health and nutrition. The section on money management discusses food stamps, social security, insurance, buying on credit and installment, budgeting hints, and shopping hints. The section on…

  13. Unsupervised MDP Value Selection for Automating ITS Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamper, John; Barnes, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    We seek to simplify the creation of intelligent tutors by using student data acquired from standard computer aided instruction (CAI) in conjunction with educational data mining methods to automatically generate adaptive hints. In our previous work, we have automatically generated hints for logic tutoring by constructing a Markov Decision Process…

  14. Web-Based Quiz-Game-Like Formative Assessment: Development and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tzu-Hua

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to develop a multiple-choice Web-based quiz-game-like formative assessment system, named GAM-WATA. The unique design of "Ask-Hint Strategy" turns the Web-based formative assessment into an online quiz game. "Ask-Hint Strategy" is composed of "Prune Strategy" and "Call-in Strategy". "Prune Strategy" removes one incorrect option…

  15. How Indirect Supportive Digital Help during and after Solving Physics Problems Can Improve Problem-Solving Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme,…

  16. Art Experiences for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pile, Naomi F.

    This book points out methods and materials that can be used by teachers helping preschoolers express their ideas and emotions through art. Hints on how to create atmosphere conducive to artwork and how to increase children's awareness of the visual world are given, along with hints on buying, using, and storing materials. Specific instructions are…

  17. Shared Challenges in Object Perception for Robots and Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Paul; Needham, Amy; Natale, Lorenzo; Metta, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Robots and humans receive partial, fragmentary hints about the world's state through their respective sensors. These hints--tiny patches of light intensity, frequency components of sound, etc.--are far removed from the world of objects which we feel and perceive so effortlessly around us. The study of infant development and the construction of…

  18. Utilization of white potatoes in CELSS.

    PubMed

    Tibbitts, T W; Bennett, S M; Morrow, R C; Bula, R J

    1989-01-01

    Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) have a strong potential as a useful crop species in a functioning CELSS. The cultivar Denali has produced 37.5 g m-2 d-1 when grown for 132 days with the first 40 days under a 12-h photoperiod and a light:dark temperature cycle of 20 degrees C:16 degrees C, and then 92 days under continuous irradiance and a temperature of 16 degrees C. Irradiance was at 725 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF and carbon dioxide at 1000 micromoles mol-1. The dried tubers had 82% carbohydrates, 9% protein and 0.6% fat. Other studies have shown that carbon dioxide supplementation (1000 micromoles mol-1) is of significant benefit under 12-h irradiance but less benefit under 24 h irradiance. Irradiance cycles of 60 minutes light and 30 minutes dark caused a reduction of more than 50% in tuber weight compared to cycles of 16 h light and 8 h dark. A diurnal temperature change of 22 degrees C for the 12-h light period to 14 degrees C during the 12-h dark period gave increased yields of 30% and 10% for two separate cultivars, compared with plants grown under a constant 18 degrees C temperature. Cultivar screening under continuous irradiance and elevated temperatures (28 degrees C) for 8 weeks of growth indicated that the cvs Haig, Denali, Atlantic, Desiree and Rutt had the best potential for tolerance to these conditions. Harvesting of tubers from plants at weekly intervals, beginning at 8 weeks after planting, did not increase yield over a single final harvest. Spacing of plants on 0.055 centers produced greater yield per m2 than spacing at 0.11 or 0.22 m2. Plants maintained 0.33 meters apart (0.111 m2 per plant) in beds produced the same yields when separated by dividers in the root matrix as when no separation was made.

  19. The effect of gravity level on the average primary dendritic spacing of a directionally solidified superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccay, M. H.; Lee, J. E.; Curreri, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of alternating low (0.01 g) and high (1.8 g) gravity force on the primary spacings in the dendrite structure in a directionally solidified Ni-based superalloy (PWA 1480, containing 5 pct Co, 10 pct Cr, 4 pct W, 12 pct Ta, 5 pct Al, 1.5 pct Ti, and the balance Ni) was investigated using samples solidified in a directional solidification furnace aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft that made a series of low-g parabolas. The cross-section slices for each growth rate were polished and etched with Kallings II, and the primary dendritic arm spacings were measured using the method of Jacobi and Schwerdtfeger (1976). The arm spacings were found to fluctuate with gravity force, increasing as the gravity level decreased, and growing finer as gravity increased.

  20. Back to School Backpack. Everything You Need for that First Week Back.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Over 30 activities for elementary school classes during the first week of school are described. Ideas are included for a first day checklist, correct pronunciation of names, getting acquainted games, and classroom organization hints. (CJ)

  1. Notes: Laser Light Gets Everyone's Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Ellen

    1989-01-01

    Discusses laser demonstration for invoking interest in science, especially physics. Describes some examples, such as diffraction, scattering, expansion by diverging lens, internal reflection in a light pipe, and illumination through optical cable. Provides some practical hints for the demonstration. (YP)

  2. Early earth: Arsenic and primordial life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, Thomas R.

    2014-11-01

    Some modern microorganisms derive energy from the oxidation and reduction of arsenic. The association of arsenic with organic cellular remains in 2.7-billion-year-old stromatolites hints at arsenic-based metabolisms at the dawn of life.

  3. Extending the use of rubber dam isolation: alternative procedures. Part III.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, W H

    1993-04-01

    This paper, the third of series, describes additional modified rubber dam utilizations that are generally not attempted with restrictive orthodox application methods. Part III offers practical hints and other means of retention with the emphasis on pedodontic applications.

  4. Turning a negative into a positive.

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    A lack of significant difference between populations is often misinterpreted as demonstrating equivalence between the populations. I discuss how this confusion comes about and hint at a future discussion of analyses designed to show equivalence.

  5. Planning stage most critical

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.

    1985-05-01

    Suggestions are made for planning the conversion of brick firing to coal fuel and on operating the system. The decision whether to convert depends on cost and on fuel availability. Practical hints are given on how to avoid operating pitfalls.

  6. Molecular motors: Dynein's gearbox.

    PubMed

    Cross, R A

    2004-05-01

    A new optical trapping study shows that the stepsize of cytoplasmic dynein varies according to the applied force, suggesting that this motor can change gear. Complementary biochemical kinetic work on yeast dynein mutants hints at the allosteric mechanisms involved.

  7. Put a Short-Wave Radio in Your Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oksenholt, Svein

    1977-01-01

    Advantages of the short-wave radio as a supplement to foreign language instruction as well as practical hints on wavelength, antenna, and techniques for use are provided. Selective annotated bibliography. (STS)

  8. Plant Operation: How To Squeeze the Most from Trash Compactors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Trash compactor functions and types are discussed and some hints for compactor selection for schools are provided. Discussed are the horizontal ram, vertical ram, and the horizontal extruder compactor. (DN)

  9. Exotic searches at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Brooijmans, Gustaaf H.; /Columbia U.

    2007-07-01

    Recent results on searches for new physics at Run II of the Tevatron are reported. The searches cover many different final states and previous hints of signals, but all analyses have at this point led to negative results.

  10. Optimized data communications in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Faraj, Daniel A.

    2014-08-19

    A parallel computer includes nodes that include a network adapter that couples the node in a point-to-point network and supports communications in opposite directions of each dimension. Optimized communications include: receiving, by a network adapter of a receiving compute node, a packet--from a source direction--that specifies a destination node and deposit hints. Each hint is associated with a direction within which the packet is to be deposited. If a hint indicates the packet to be deposited in the opposite direction: the adapter delivers the packet to an application on the receiving node; forwards the packet to a next node in the opposite direction if the receiving node is not the destination; and forwards the packet to a node in a direction of a subsequent dimension if the hints indicate that the packet is to be deposited in the direction of the subsequent dimension.

  11. The Latest, Long-Awaited Sequel: "How Porcupines Make Love II" (Resources and Reviews).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelms, Ben F.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews "How Porcupines Make Love II," the sequel on teaching a response-centered literature curriculum. Finds it to be a lively, engaging, provocative text, one that includes workable hints for classroom practice. (MG)

  12. Let's Celebrate the Environment!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adie, N. Susan

    1987-01-01

    Describes annual Environmental Awareness Week at Seneca Falls' (New York) Frank Knight Elementary School. Discusses how the event is planned: initial communication, outside resources, contacts, publicity, schedules, professional communications, helpful hints, and follow-up activities. Includes six photographs. (NEC)

  13. Tests of quark mass textures

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-21

    The classic hints on the structure of the quark mass matrices are shortly reviewed and the possibility of obtaining further information through precise texture analysis is discussed with the aid of a specific example.

  14. Start-Up of a Mandatory Library Orientation Program in Developmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Sandy L.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes die development of a mandatory library instruction program for developmental education students in the community and technical college setting. Some considerations for orientation development and helpful hints for success are discussed.

  15. INL Researchers Advance Detection of Brucellosis

    ScienceCinema

    Roberto, Frank; Newby, Deborah

    2016-07-12

    What do cattle ranchers in the greater Yellowstone region have in common with British soldiers garrisoned on the island of Malta in the late 1800s? Hint: it's a pathogen that starts with the letter B. It's Brucella Abortus.

  16. On Submitting a Proposal to a Publisher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard

    1973-01-01

    Over-the-transom'' proposals for college textbooks continue to flood editors' desks, but very few are properly prepared. This article suggests both guidelines for a good proposal, as well as some additional hints for textbook publication. (Author/JA)

  17. Palaeoclimate: Aerosols and rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, Jud

    2015-03-01

    Instrumental records have hinted that aerosol emissions may be shifting rainfall over Central America southwards. A 450-year-long precipitation reconstruction indicates that this shift began shortly after the Industrial Revolution.

  18. INL Researchers Advance Detection of Brucellosis

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto, Frank; Newby, Deborah

    2008-08-06

    What do cattle ranchers in the greater Yellowstone region have in common with British soldiers garrisoned on the island of Malta in the late 1800s? Hint: it's a pathogen that starts with the letter B. It's Brucella Abortus.

  19. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  20. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Provides science activities and teaching hints appropriate for the middle school sciences including making a domino "gunpowder fuse" that detonates a mousetrap "bomb," using fishing rods and bicycles as teaching aids, constructing lead holders, and teaching chromatography. (DC)

  1. NASA's 3-D GPM Flyby of Tropical Storm Fred

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission core satellite passed over Fred when it was developing in the Eastern Atlantic early August 30 and saw "hot towers" in the storm, which hinted th...

  2. Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.

  3. Developmental biology: cell fate in the mammary gland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most breast cancers have their origin in the luminal epithelial cells of the mammary gland. Defining how a master regulator controls the development of this cell lineage could provide important hints about why this should be. ...

  4. Can Biochemistry Usefully Guide the Search for Better Polymer Electrolytes?

    PubMed Central

    Halley, J. Woods

    2013-01-01

    I review some considerations that suggest that the biochemical products of evolution may provide hints concerning the way forward for the development of better electrolytes for lithium polymer batteries. PMID:24956948

  5. Middle School Science Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Outlined are 10 experiments, demonstrations, and helpful hints for elementary science classes utilizing common, inexpensive materials. Topics include mixing colored lights, detergents, weightlessness, solar energy, and hydrogen gas. (SL)

  6. Printmaking with Plasticine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    The author describes the basic materials and processes needed for a student project in planographic and incised relief printing with plasticine, and gives some hints for adapting this project to different elementary grade levels. (SJL)

  7. Optimized data communications in a parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Faraj, Daniel A

    2014-10-21

    A parallel computer includes nodes that include a network adapter that couples the node in a point-to-point network and supports communications in opposite directions of each dimension. Optimized communications include: receiving, by a network adapter of a receiving compute node, a packet--from a source direction--that specifies a destination node and deposit hints. Each hint is associated with a direction within which the packet is to be deposited. If a hint indicates the packet to be deposited in the opposite direction: the adapter delivers the packet to an application on the receiving node; forwards the packet to a next node in the opposite direction if the receiving node is not the destination; and forwards the packet to a node in a direction of a subsequent dimension if the hints indicate that the packet is to be deposited in the direction of the subsequent dimension.

  8. LESSONS FROM HADRON PHENOMENOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    M. BRISUDOVA; L. BUAKOVSKY; T. GOLDMAN

    2000-08-01

    Meson spectra can be well approximated by a specific form of a nonlinear Regge trajectory which is consistent with a finite number of bound states. This may have important consequences for experiment, and may be a hint for the theory.

  9. Users guide for the ANL IBM SP1

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.; Pieper, S.C.

    1994-10-01

    This guide presents the features of the IBM SP1 installed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The guide describes the available hardware and software, access policies, and hints for using the system productively.

  10. Study Suggests Type 2 Diabetes-Cancer Link

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159814.html Study Suggests Type 2 Diabetes-Cancer Link It hints ... screening tests following a diagnosis of diabetes," said study author Dr. Iliana Lega, of the University of ...

  11. Analysis of Alcohols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brother Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to identification of unknown alcohols using experimental measurements of boiling point and viscosity which are easily obtained without expensive equipment of instrumentation. Provides instructions for preparing capillary viscometer, listing special hints for obtaining good results. (JM)

  12. Commentary on "integrative genomic analyses reveal an androgen-driven somatic alteration landscape in early-onset prostate cancer." Weischenfeldt J, Simon R, Feuerbach L, Schlangen K, Weichenhan D, Minner S, Wuttig D, Warnatz HJ, Stehr H, Rausch T, Jäger N, Gu L, Bogatyrova O, Stütz AM, Claus R, Eils J, Eils R, Gerhäuser C, Huang PH, Hutter B, Kabbe R, Lawerenz C, Radomski S, Bartholomae CC, Fälth M, Gade S, Schmidt M, Amschler N, Haß T, Galal R, Gjoni J, Kuner R, Baer C, Masser S, von Kalle C, Zichner T, Benes V, Raeder B, Mader M, Amstislavskiy V, Avci M, Lehrach H, Parkhomchuk D, Sultan M, Burkhardt L, Graefen M, Huland H, Kluth M, Krohn A, Sirma H, Stumm L, Steurer S, Grupp K, Sültmann H, Sauter G, Plass C, Brors B, Yaspo ML, Korbel JO, Schlomm T, Genome Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg, Germany.: Cancer Cell 2013;23(2):159-70.

    PubMed

    Olumi, Aria F

    2014-02-01

    Early-onset prostate cancer (EO-PCA) represents the earliest clinical manifestation of prostate cancer. To compare the genomic alteration landscapes of EO-PCA with "classical" (elderly-onset) PCA, we performed deep sequencing-based genomics analyses in 11 tumors diagnosed at young age, and pursued comparative assessments with seven elderly-onset PCA genomes. Remarkable age-related differences in structural rearrangement (SR) formation became evident, suggesting distinct disease pathomechanisms. Whereas EO-PCAs harbored a prevalence of balanced SRs, with a specific abundance of androgen-regulated ETS gene fusions including TMPRSS2:ERG, elderly-onset PCAs displayed primarily non-androgen-associated SRs. Data from a validation cohort of>10,000 patients showed age-dependent androgen receptor levels and a prevalence of SRs affecting androgen-regulated genes, further substantiating the activity of a characteristic "androgen-type" pathomechanism in EO-PCA.

  13. Probing the Impact of the EchinT C-Terminal Domain on Structure and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    S Bardaweel; J Pace; T Chou; V Cody; C Wagner

    2011-12-31

    Histidine triad nucleotide binding protein (Hint) is considered as the ancestor of the histidine triad protein superfamily and is highly conserved from bacteria to humans. Prokaryote genomes, including a wide array of both Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, typically encode one Hint gene. The cellular function of Hint and the rationale for its evolutionary conservation in bacteria have remained a mystery. Despite its ubiquity and high sequence similarity to eukaryote Hint1 [Escherichia coli Hint (echinT) is 48% identical with human Hint1], prokaryote Hint has been reported in only a few studies. Here we report the first conformational information on the full-length N-terminal and C-terminal residues of Hint from the E. coli complex with GMP. Structural analysis of the echinT-GMP complex reveals that it crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with four homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Analysis of electron density for both the N-terminal residues and the C-terminal residues of the echinT-GMP complex indicates that the loops in some monomers can adopt more than one conformation. The observation of conformational flexibility in terminal loop regions could explain the presence of multiple homodimers in the asymmetric unit of this structure. To explore the impact of the echinT C-terminus on protein structure and catalysis, we conducted a series of catalytic radiolabeling and kinetic experiments on the C-terminal deletion mutants of echinT. In this study, we show that sequential deletion of the C-terminus likely has no effect on homodimerization and a modest effect on the secondary structure of echinT. However, we observed a significant impact on the folding structure, as reflected by a significant lowering of the T{sub m} value. Kinetic analysis reveals that the C-terminal deletion mutants are within an order of magnitude less efficient in catalysis compared to wild type, while the overall kinetic mechanism that proceeds through a fast step

  14. Meeting the healthy people 2020 goals: using the Health Information National Trends Survey to monitor progress on health communication objectives.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Bradford W; Gaysynsky, Anna; Ottenbacher, Allison; Moser, Richard P; Blake, Kelly D; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Vieux, Sana; Beckjord, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    The Healthy People initiative outlines a comprehensive set of goals aimed at improving the nation's health and reducing health disparities. Health communication has been included as an explicit goal since the launch of Healthy People 2010. The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was established as a means of exploring how the changing information environment was affecting the public's health, and is therefore an ideal tool for monitoring key health communication objectives included in the Healthy People agenda. In this article, the authors apply an integrative data analysis strategy to more than 10 years of HINTS data to demonstrate how public health surveillance can be used to evaluate broad national health goals, like those set forth under the Healthy People initiative. The authors analyzed just one item from the HINTS survey regarding Internet access in order to illustrate what public health surveillance tools, like HINTS, can reveal about important indicators that are of interest to all those who work to improve the health of the public. Results show that reported Internet penetration has exceeded the Healthy People 2020 target of 75.4%. HINTS data also allowed modeling of the effects of various sociodemographic factors, which revealed persistent differences on the basis of age and education, with the oldest age groups and those with less than a college education falling short of the Healthy People 2020 target as of 2013. Furthermore, although differences by race/ethnicity were observed, the analyses suggest that race in itself accounts for very little of the variance in Internet access.

  15. Utilization of white potatoes in CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Bennett, Susan M.; Morrow, Robert C.; Bula, Raymond J.

    Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) have a strong potential as a useful crop species in a functioning CELSS. The cultivar Denali has produced 37.5 g m-2 d-1 when grown for 132 days with the first 40 days under a 12-h photoperiod and a light:dark temperature cycle of 20°C: 16°C, and then 92 days under continuous irradiance and a temperature of 16°C. Irradiance was at 725 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF and carbon dioxide at 1000 μmol mol-1. The dried tubers had 82% carbohydrates, 9% protein and 0.6% fat. Other studies have shown that carbon dioxide supplementation (1000 μmol mol-1) is of significant benefit under 12-h irradiance but less benefit under 24 h irradiance. Irradiance cycles of 60 minutes light and 30 minutes dark caused a reduction of more than 50% in tuber weight compared to cycles of 16 h light and 8 h dark. A diurnal temperature change of 22°C for the 12-h light period to 14°C during the 12-h dark period gave increased yields of 30% and 10% for two separate cultivars, compared with plants grown under a constant 18°C temperature. Cultivar screening under continuous irradiance and elevated temperatures (28°C) for 8 weeks of grown indicated that the cvs Haig, Denali, Atlantic, Desiree and Rutt had the best potential for tolerance to these conditions. Harvesting of tubers from plants at weekly intervals, beginning at 8 weeks after planting, did not increase yield over a single final harvest. Spacing of plants on 0.055 centers produced greater yield per m2 than spacing at 0.11 or 0.22 m2. Plants maintained 0.33 meters apart (0.111 m2 per plant) in beds produced the same yields when separated by dividers in the root matrix as when no separation was made.

  16. Saturn's stratospheric temperature and composition from Cassini/CIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerlet, S.; Fouchet, T.; Bézard, B.; Spiga, A.; Sylvestre, M.; Moses, J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2013-11-01

    We present a short review of our current knowledge on Saturn's stratospheric thermal structure and composition (hydrocarbons) based on recent Cassini/CIRS observations. Anomalies in the temperature field and in the meridional distribution of hydrocarbons hint at atmospheric dynamical phenomena at play. The two most notable features are an obseved asymmetry in the hydrocarbons distribution at high altitudes, hinting at inter-hemispheric transport, and the discovery of an equatorial oscillation in temperature and zonal wind, hinting at interactions between vertically-propagating waves and the mean zonal flow. The physical processes behind these observed anomalies need to be better understood, and these results advocate for the development of climate models of Saturn's stratosphere.

  17. Atmospheric neutrinos: Status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubey, Sandhya

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of the current status of neutrino oscillation studies at atmospheric neutrino experiments. While the current data gives some tantalising hints regarding the neutrino mass hierarchy, octant of θ23 and δCP, the hints are not statistically significant. We summarise the sensitivity to these sub-dominant three-generation effects from the next-generation proposed atmospheric neutrino experiments. We next present the prospects of new physics searches such as non-standard interactions, sterile neutrinos and CPT violation studies at these experiments.

  18. Are the B decay anomalies related to neutrino oscillations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucenna, Sofiane M.; Valle, José W. F.; Vicente, Avelino

    2015-11-01

    Neutrino oscillations are solidly established, with a hint of CP violation just emerging. Similarly, there are hints of lepton universality violation in b → s transitions at the level of 2.6σ. By assuming that the unitary transformation between weak and mass charged leptons equals the leptonic mixing matrix measured in neutrino oscillation experiments, we predict several lepton flavor violating (LFV) B meson decays. We are led to the tantalizing possibility that some LFV branching ratios for B decays correlate with the leptonic CP phase δ characterizing neutrino oscillations. Moreover, we also consider implications for ℓi →ℓjℓkℓk decays.

  19. Hoechst and Wacker plan joint venture in PVC

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.

    1992-12-02

    Restructuring of Europe's petrochemical industry has taken a further step with the announcement that Hoechst (Frankfurt) and Wacker Chemie (Munich) are planning a joint venture in polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The venture would include production, R D, sales and marketing, plus both companies' PVC recycling activities. However, their vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) plants, and Hoechst's Kalle PVC film business, have been left out. Erich Schnitzler, head of Hoechst's PVC business unit, does not anticipate problems with the European Community's competition directorate. We are both among the middle-sized European PVC producers, and together we would have a 9%-10% market share. Our joint venture would not limit competition. Both partners are hoping for approval from Brussels in first-quarter 1993. Hoechst has 255,000 m.t./year of PVC capacity at Gendorfand Knapsack, while Wacker has 365,000 m.t./year at Burghausen and Cologne. All the units, except Wacker's Cologne plant, are back integrated to VCM. The joint venture would buy VCM from the two parent companies and on the merchant market.

  20. What Was His Name? A Historical Quiz

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Michael

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, the reader is given a number of clues as to the identity of a country doctor who made unique contributions to medicine and science which still affect our daily practice and living. The paper also hints at our current responsibility to provide some foundation to the presently termed specialty of family practice. PMID:21293707

  1. Searching for Variables and Models to Investigate Mediators of Learning from Multiple Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rau, Martina A.; Scheines, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Although learning from multiple representations has been shown to be effective in a variety of domains, little is known about the mechanisms by which it occurs. We analyzed log data on error-rate, hint-use, and time-spent obtained from two experiments with a Cognitive Tutor for fractions. The goal of the experiments was to compare learning from…

  2. Subjective Variables Affecting Funding Decisions by Federal Research & Development Agencies: The Grantsmanship Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapek, Raymond A.

    1984-01-01

    There are many misconceptions about how funding decisions are made within federal agencies. Observations of how bias creeps into an otherwise objective evaluation process are presented, and hints are offered on improving the probability of receiving federal support. (Author/MLW)

  3. Seed Experiments for Students. Tips & Demonstrations for Teachers & Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tant, Carl

    This book provides a short course in the mysteries of seed structure, function, and development. Chapter 1, "Backgrounds, Hints, And Tips For Teachers And Parents," provides a basis for working with the mid-years student. Chapater 2, "Where Do I Start? What Do I Do?" provides procedural tips for science research. Chapter 3, "Peek Inside A…

  4. Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Amy A.

    This selection of class activities involves a sequence of 10 class sessions. The goal of the collection is to aid students in learning the concepts of energy conservation and to put this knowledge into practice. Attention is also given to the development of alternate energy sources. Each lesson includes an activity title, motivational hints,…

  5. A Pilot Study of a Self-Voicing Computer Program for Prealgebra Math Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Carole R.; Rosenblum, L. Penny; Smith, Derrick W.

    2011-01-01

    Fourteen students with visual impairments in Grades 5-12 participated in the field-testing of AnimalWatch-VI-Beta. This computer program delivered 12 prealgebra math problems and hints through a self-voicing audio feature. The students provided feedback about how the computer program can be improved and expanded to make it accessible to all users.…

  6. A Short Account of RRKM Theory of Unimolecular Reactions and of Marcus Theory of Electron Transfer in a Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Giacomo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The RRKM Theory of Unimolecular Reactions and Marcus Theory of Electron Transfer are here briefly discussed in a historical perspective. In the final section, after a general discussion on the educational usefulness of teaching chemistry in a historical framework, hints are given on how some characteristics of Marcus' work could be introduced in…

  7. The Use of Scaffolding Approach to Enhance Students' Engagement in Learning Structural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardjito, Djwantoro

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a reflection on the use of Scaffolding Approach to engage Civil Engineering students in learning Structural Analysis subjects. In this approach, after listening to the lecture on background theory, students are provided with a series of practice problems, each one comes with the steps, formulas, hints, and tables needed to…

  8. Cornish Tin Mining and Smelting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how Cornwall was once the world's leading producer of tin. Cornwall's industrial past is now a World Heritage Site alongside the Grand Canyon or the Great Wall of China. A hint is in the Cornish flag, a simple white cross against a black background, also known as Saint Piran's flag. At Geevor Tin Mine, one of…

  9. Rules of the Game for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canty, Becky

    2005-01-01

    In "Play Like a Man, Win Like a Woman," Gail Evans' matter-of-fact directness contributes so many helpful hints about success that women need to learn. Playing to their strengths and characteristics as women is important to enhance their professional success. In the author's working life as a superintendent (which included three years as a theatre…

  10. Prioritizing Safety with Seat Belts: The Unanswered Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elaine

    1987-01-01

    Reviews conflicting federal and state developments (including liability lawsuits) involving seat belt installation on school buses. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the National Transportation Safety Board differ on this issue, and several states are considering seat belt legislation or crashworthiness studies. Hints are…

  11. New Beginnings. A Manual for Facilitating Growth for Displaced Homemakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnside, Nancy; And Others

    This resource manual shares ideas and exercises with those persons interested in and working with the specific concerns of displaced homemakers. Sections correspond to steps in an adjustment process leading to job search. An introduction overviews the manual and provides helpful hints for use by peer counselors, professional therapists, and group…

  12. Ninth Annual Salary Survey: Administrator Roles Shift with the Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    It's getting to be that one needs a scorecard to identify district administrators by their titles. To keep up with changing needs, many districts are creating new management positions or adding new responsibilities to old ones and then coming up with titles that sometimes only hint at what they are about. In addition to 2008-2009 salary survey…

  13. A Modular Communicative Syllabus (2): The Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estaire, Sheila

    1982-01-01

    Describes two core syllabi, a communicative one and a grammatical one, and a modular syllabus for elementary ESL courses, with hints for introducing out-of-sequence items. Explains how the syllabi have been designed, what they offer to teachers, and how they have affected first-year teaching as a whole. (Author/MES)

  14. A Manual of Art for the Educable and Trainable Mentally Retarded Child. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    The document is designed for the Alabama special education teacher who desires to provide an art program for the educable and trainable mentally retarded student. The manual offers information to local school systems on initiating, organizing, and expanding services in this area. Hints are presented about organizing the classroom, art supplies,…

  15. Implications of a class of neutrino mass matrices with texture zeros for nonzero {theta}{sub 13}

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sanjeev

    2011-10-01

    A class of neutrino mass matrices with texture zeros realizable using the group Z{sub 3} within the framework of type (I+II) seesaw mechanism naturally admits a nonzero {theta}{sub 13}, and allows for deviations from maximal mixing. The phenomenology of this model is reexamined in the light of recent hints for nonzero {theta}{sub 13}.

  16. Selected Articles on Feeding Children Who Have a Neuromuscular Disorder. TIES: Therapy in Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sandra; And Others

    The manual contains articles about evaluating and addressing the feeding needs of children who have oral-motor dysfunctions. "Helpful Hints for Feeding Children with Oral-Motor Dysfunction" (Janet Wilson) offers 20 suggestions relating to such areas as positioning the child, monitoring food preferences, and attending to oral hygiene. "Procedures…

  17. Ideas for Organizing, Storing, and Using Equipment/Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Cerebral Palsy Associations, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This document lists 55 ideas for organizing and lending computer equipment, switches, adapters, and software. The first section lists general organizational hints, including labeling of equipment, maintaining regular inventories, and establishing a crisis phone number and contact person to help people figure things out. The second section lists…

  18. Moving the Borders: Multiculturalism and Global Citizenship in the German Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter

    2011-01-01

    Background: In many countries, working towards a truly inclusive national citizenship means deconstructing hegemonic structures that are deeply entrenched. Moving outside of the borders toward a global citizenship hints at giving up on what has been a long road toward multicultural citizenship. A balance between including and empowering diverse…

  19. The BOLD Response during Stroop Task-Like Inhibition Paradigms: Effects of Task Difficulty and Task-Relevant Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rachel L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of the Stroop task propose two key mediators: the prefrontal and cingulate cortices but hints exist of functional specialization within these regions. This study aimed to examine the effect of task modality upon the prefrontal and cingulate response by examining the response to colour, number, and shape Stroop tasks whilst BOLD…

  20. Fermentation: From Sensory Experience to Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eugene B.

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise that utilizes the natural yeast carbonation method of making homemade root beer to study fermentation and the effect of variables upon the fermentation process. There are photographs, a sample data sheet, and procedural hints included. (Author/MA)

  1. Selling to Industry for Sheltered Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Intended for staffs of sheltered workshops for handicapped individuals, the guide presents a plan for selling the workshop idea to industry, hints on meeting obstacles, and ideas for expanding and upgrading workshop contract promotion. Brief sections cover the following topics (example subtopics are in parentheses): finding work contract prospects…

  2. The Freedom to Set Research Agendas--Illusion and Reality of the Research Units in the Dutch Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Enders, Jurgen; De Boer, Harry

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch higher education and research system has incrementally changed during the last decade. Several reforms, initiated by the government, have hinted towards influencing the basic processes within universities, such as research programming. However, it is largely unknown how these reforms have been implemented at the university shop floor…

  3. Marxism and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Patrick J.; Soloski, John

    Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels had little to say specifically about communication and language, but their works hint at the direction their critique of communication might have taken. Language and consciousness are conditioned by specific means of production and sociopolitical circumstances and are therefore ideological. The domain of ideology…

  4. Zur Frage der Textauswahl in einem Lesekurs fuer die Sozialwissenschaften (On the Question of the Choice of Textbooks in a Course in the Social Sciences)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apelt, Hans-Peter

    1974-01-01

    Passages from three selected samples of textbooks are used to show what requirements are made of textbooks in the social sciences. Some hints are given to the teacher for converting reading suggestions into instructional material. Short texts from Karl Marx are also suggested. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  5. "Black Swan events" in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nugent, William A

    2012-09-01

    When a research area "goes viral", the event typically occurs in conjunction with a major change in "conventional wisdom". In retrospect, the literature often contains earlier hints that the original judgment was not correct. These antecedents are referred to as "Black Swan" events. The picture shows research on homogeneous gold catalysis "going viral".

  6. Absence of three-loop four-point ultraviolet divergences in N=4 supergravity.

    PubMed

    Bern, Zvi; Davies, Scott; Dennen, Tristan; Huang, Yu-tin

    2012-05-18

    We compute the coefficient of the potential three-loop four-point ultraviolet divergence in pure N=4 supergravity and show that it vanishes, contrary to expectations from symmetry arguments. The recently uncovered duality between color and kinematics is used to greatly streamline the calculation. We comment on all-loop cancellations hinting at further surprises awaiting discovery at higher loops.

  7. User Interface Design for Dynamic Geometry Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortenkamp, Ulrich; Dohrmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe long-standing user interface issues with Dynamic Geometry Software and common approaches to address them. We describe first prototypes of multi-touch-capable DGS. We also give some hints on the educational benefits of proper user interface design.

  8. Training for Development and Use of Generic Software Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joan H.; Rettig, Julianne D.

    Five part-time adult basic education instructors were trained to develop tutorials for their students by using the SuperPILOT authoring language to insert their own questions, answers, and hints in already existing generic programs. The project involved 18 hours of training and ongoing supervision and review of products. A total of 66 tutorial…

  9. "Core Knowledges": A Dissociation between Spatiotemporal Knowledge and Contact-Mechanics in a Non-Human Primate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Laurie R.

    2004-01-01

    Human toddlers demonstrate striking failures when searching for hidden objects that interact with other objects, yet successfully locate hidden objects that do not undergo mechanical interactions. This pattern hints at a developmental dissociation between contact-mechanical and spatiotemporal knowledge. Recent studies suggest that adult non-human…

  10. Counting your chickens before they're hatched: power analysis.

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    How does an investigator know that he has enough subjects in his study design to have the predicted outcomes appear statistically significant? In this Investigators' Corner I discuss why such planning is necessary, give an intuitive introduction to the calculations needed to determine required sample sizes, and hint at some of the more technical difficulties inherent in this aspect of study planning.

  11. Clue Insensitivity in Remote Associates Test Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Steven M.; Sifonis, Cynthia M.; Angello, Genna

    2012-01-01

    Does spreading activation from incidentally encountered hints cause incubation effects? We used Remote Associates Test (RAT) problems to examine effects of incidental clues on impasse resolution. When solution words were seen incidentally 3-sec before initially unsolved problems were retested, more problems were resolved (Experiment 1). When…

  12. Our Documents: A National Initiative on American History, Civics, and Service. Teacher Sourcebook, Volume II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzenga, Maria, Ed.; McCullough, Julie, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    What do Matthew Brady, Carrie Chapman Catt, Ansel Adams, Orson Welles, and J. Howard Miller have to do with the 100 milestone documents? A few hints: Matthew Brady created the first photographic documentation of a war. Carrie Chapman Catt was the president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association in 1920. Orson Welles produced plays for…

  13. The Rules of the Game: A Short Guide for PhD Students and New Academics on Publishing in Academic Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In recent times "publish or perish" has become the motto of academia. This paper provides some basic insights into the process of publishing, the view from the perspective of the editor of the journal and gives helpful hints to improve the odds of getting published in the right journal and communicating with the right audience. The need…

  14. Troubleshooting Micro's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, B. R.

    This guide provides instructions for preventive maintenance and for making minor technical adjustments on microcomputers. General hints are provided for all microcomputers concerning static electricity reduction; use of dust covers; heat, magnetic fields, and floppy disks; and the use of halogen fire extinguishers. These are followed by…

  15. Glider Pilot Written Test Guide: Private and Commercial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The intent of this guide is to define the scope and narrow the field of study as far as possible to the aeronautical knowledge required for qualifying for the private or commercial pilot (glider) certificate. Briefly summarized are type of test items used, hints for taking the test, and certificate requirements. The study outline is the basic…

  16. Camcorder Talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    1996-01-01

    Describes and compares features of six camcorder formats. Identifies VHS and eight-millimeter camcorder formats as the most popular formats used in schools and reports advantages and disadvantages of these two formats as described by school library media specialists. Presents camcorder tips and offers hints for videotape cassette care. (JMV)

  17. Occupational Activities of Nonacademic and Academic Pedagogues Working in the Field of Childhood Education--An Investigation of Differences and Predictor Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smidt, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Nonacademic and academic pedagogues working in childhood education are involved in multiple occupational activities. Theoretical frameworks focussing on career development and processes of professionalisation may provide hints about differences in the occupational activities of nonacademic and academic pedagogues as well as with regard to how…

  18. Triglyceride-increasing alleles associated with protection against type-2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are an established risk factor for type-2 diabetes (T2D). However, recent studies have hinted at the possibility that genetic risk for TG may paradoxically protect against T2D. In this study, we examined the association of genetic risk for TG with incident T2...

  19. Interpretation of the 1961 Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Barbara D.

    The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) is treated in terms of the ability measured, hints for administration and scoring, and questions often asked for each of the nine subtests. Typical profiles are described and analyzed for mentally retarded, kindergarteners, slow learners, culturally disadvantaged, Negroes, good and poor…

  20. NASTRAN user's guide (Level 17.5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, E. I.; Herting, D. N.; Morgan, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The user's guide is a handbook for engineers and analysts who use the NASTRAN finite element computer program supplements the NASTRAN Theoretical Manual (NASA SP-221), the NASTRAN User's Manual (NASA SP-222), the NASTRAN Programmer's Manual (NASA SP-223), and the NASTRAN Demonstration Program Manual (NASA SP-224). It provides modeling hints, attributes of the program, and references to the four manuals listed.

  1. Distinguishing Complex Ideas about Climate Change: Knowledge Integration vs. Specific Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitale, Jonathan M.; McBride, Elizabeth; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    We compared two forms of automated guidance to support students' understanding of climate change in an online inquiry science unit. For "specific" guidance, we directly communicated ideas that were missing or misrepresented in student responses. For "knowledge integration" guidance, we provided hints or suggestions to motivate…

  2. Application of fiberglass sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, S.G. )

    1991-05-01

    Fiberglass sucker rods are assuming a place in artificial-lift technology. This paper briefly describes the manufacturing process and gives some design and operational hints for practical applications. It also describes some mathematical modeling modifications needed for fiberglass wave-equation design programs.

  3. Passport: Technology To Help the Middle Grades Second Languages Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This guide, resulting from a four-site middle school study of the use of computers and related technology in second language instruction, is presented for the use by middle school language teachers. The guide includes lessons, coded to the state teacher handbook for second language instruction, and management hints, sample lesson plans, and other…

  4. [Value of blink reflex studies in neurosurgical problems].

    PubMed

    Jamjoom, Z; Nahser, H C; Nau, H E

    1983-09-01

    Blinking reflex studies were done in neurosurgical patients with processes in the posterior fossa and idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Alterations were found in space occupying, ischemic, and traumatic lesions of the trigemino-facial system. The analysis of the components of the blinking reflex can give hints to the site of the lesion and also to the prognosis of the underlying process.

  5. Moving Business and Marketing Education into the 21st Century. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Atlantic Coast Business and Marketing Education Conference (17th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 18-19, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, David, Ed.

    This document contains 21 presentations from a conference on business and marketing education. The following papers are included: "Microsoft Excel 2000" (Jeff Fuller); "Clueless in the Classroom? Hints To Help!" (Mary W. Evans); "A Strategy To Improve Narrative-Number Linkage in Business Writing" (Ellis A. Hayes); "Corporate View: Bringing Realism…

  6. Growing on the Job: Professional Development for the School Librarian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Edna M.

    This guide presents a series of articles which give pointers, hints, and examples of day-to-day development activities school librarians can use to hone their professionalism. The first of five sections describes ways in which librarians can provide professional service and lists some markers of professionalism. The second section presents one…

  7. Ergodicity: a historical perspective. Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallavotti, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    A view on the physical meaning of the so called ergodic hypothesis: its role on the foundations of equilibrium statistical mechanics in mid '1800, its interpretations and hints at its relevance for modern nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Followed by appendices with detailed comments on the original papers.

  8. [Phaedra's disease].

    PubMed

    Bonuzzi, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The author hints at Phaedra's passion, described by Euripides, highlighting in particular the incest taboo. As well known, Phaedra in fact is love-sick for her own step-son Hippolytus, a human figure with a not well defined sexual identity.

  9. Newsday in Education Science Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Marie E.

    The newspaper has been a ready source of current information, not only on technology and research, but also on science-related social issues. This program has been prepared to help the teacher use newspapers effectively and with minimum preparation time. A glossary and hints for implementation are included. Part 1 provides 10 activities from…

  10. Expanding the Parameters of Parental Alienation Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Glenn F.

    1993-01-01

    Because parental alienation syndrome is newly recognized, it must be redefined as new cases are observed. Evidence suggests that alienation may be provoked by other than custodial matters, cases of alleged sexual abuse may be hinted, slow judgments by courts exacerbate problem, prolonged alienation of child may trigger mental illness, and little…

  11. Adaptive Intelligent Support to Improve Peer Tutoring in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Erin; Rummel, Nikol; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive collaborative learning support (ACLS) involves collaborative learning environments that adapt their characteristics, and sometimes provide intelligent hints and feedback, to improve individual students' collaborative interactions. ACLS often involves a system that can automatically assess student dialogue, model effective and…

  12. Wacky Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

  13. ACC Study Guide Series, II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Katherine; And Others

    This series of one-page study guides offers helpful hints and tips to students on the art of successful studying. The guides in this collection include: (1) Improving Your Test-Taking Skills, which covers preparing for tests, reducing test anxiety, and things to do upon receiving a test and before turning in a test; (2) Strategies for Test…

  14. Enhancing Probabilistic Reasoning: The Role of Causal Graphs, Statistical Format and Numerical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubau, Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    Research on the counterintuitive Monty Hall dilemma (MHD) and analogous problems has shown that correct reasoning is rarely observed, even with the help of certain hints. Making the causal structure explicit or presenting probabilities by means of natural frequencies seem to enhance performance, but only to a moderate degree. The present…

  15. Idea Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talesnick, Irwin, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Provides innovative ideas in biology, chemistry, and physics on the following topics: enzyme decomposition; chemical waste; time measurement; acid-base color magic; ball bouncing properties; heat; cell theory; and specimen boxes. Materials and procedures are listed when appropriate along with hints for expanding these ideas and investigations. (JM)

  16. Gifted Students: Flyer File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Sandra L., Ed.

    This collection of 20 digests on gifted students is intended to provide practical information for students themselves, their families, professional educators, community groups, and others. Resources, hints and tips, and suggestions for additional reading are included in most digests. Digests have the following titles and authors/primary…

  17. X-Ray Astronomy--A New View of the Sky From Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gursky, Herbert

    1973-01-01

    Objects and energy sources are detected whose existence was only hinted at a few years ago. The X-Ray sky has a large number of sources along the Milky Way, most of which lie within 30 degrees of the galactic center, plus a number of faint sources associated with external galaxies. (DF)

  18. Activating silent argonautes.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Mary Anne; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2013-07-01

    Multiple Argonaute proteins are implicated in gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi), but only one is known to be an endonuclease that can cleave target mRNAs. Chimeric Argonaute proteins now reveal an unexpected mechanism by which mutations distal to the catalytic center can unmask intrinsic catalytic activity, results hinting at structurally mediated regulation. PMID:23984440

  19. Didaktiker des Fremdsprachenunterrichts auf neuen Wegen. (Burgschmidt, E.; Goetz, D.; Hoffmann, H. G.; Hohmann, H.-O.; Schrand, H.: "Englisch als Zielsprache. Handbuch des Englischunterrichts unter besonderer Beruechsichtigung der Weiterbildung." Muenchen, Hueber, 1975) (Trainers of Foreign Language Teachers on New Paths)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartig, Paul

    1975-01-01

    This article reviews the handbook's five chapters on: 1) psycholinguistics and psychology of learning, 2) questions of content, 3) hints on methodology, with examples, 4) teaching aids, 5) chicking on achievement. All chapters stress continuing education (adult level), and offer valuable, practical suggestions. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  20. Teaching Swimming Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrabee, Jean G.

    A step-by-step sequential plan is offered for developing a successful competitive swimming season, including how to teach swimming strokes and organize practices. Various strokes are analyzed, and coaching check points are offered along with practice drills, helpful hints on proper body positioning, arm strokes, kicking patterns, breathing…

  1. An Expert System-based Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Approach for Conducting Science Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Po-Han; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Wen-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Context-aware ubiquitous learning has been recognized as being a promising approach that enables students to interact with real-world learning targets with supports from the digital world. Several researchers have indicated the importance of providing learning guidance or hints to individual students during the context-aware ubiquitous learning…

  2. Part-Set Cuing Facilitation for Spatial Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sydni M.; Reysen, Matthew B.; Kelley, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Part-set cuing "inhibition" refers to the counterintuitive finding that hints--specifically, part of the set of to-be-remembered information--often impair memory performance in free recall tasks. Although inhibition is the most commonly reported result, part-set cuing "facilitation" has been shown with serial order tasks. The…

  3. The Infant as Reflection of Soul: The Time before There Was a Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, William M.

    2004-01-01

    The author argues that infants frequently give us hints that they are capable of fundamentally spiritual experiences. Three such experiences are presence, joy, and awareness of others' awareness. When babies begin to sense disapproval or anger in their caregivers, they begin a search for love that includes the development of a False Self and a…

  4. The R. J. Reynolds'"Smokeless Cigarette": Pancea or New Public Health Menace?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slade, John

    The R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company is planning to introduce a so-called "smokeless cigarette". This product called Premier is an aluminum cylinder filled with porous alumina beads, corked with charcoal. The company has strongly hinted that the cigarette will provide the user with a dose of nicotine adequate to sustain nicotine dependence while…

  5. How to Deal with Low-Resolution Target Structures: Using SAR, Ensemble Docking, Hydropathic Analysis, and 3D-QSAR to Definitively Map the αβ-Tubulin Colchicine Site

    PubMed Central

    Da, Chenxiao; Mooberry, Susan L.; Gupton, John T.; Kellogg, Glen E.

    2013-01-01

    αβ-tubulin colchicine site inhibitors (CSIs) from four scaffolds that we previously tested for antiproliferative activity were modeled to better understand their effect on microtubules. Docking models, constructed by exploiting the SAR of a pyrrole subset and HINT scoring, guided ensemble docking of all 59 compounds. This conformation set and two variants having progressively less structure knowledge were subjected to CoMFA, CoMFA+HINT, and CoMSIA 3D-QSAR analyses. The CoMFA+HINT model (docked alignment) showed the best statistics: leave-one-out q2 of 0.616, r2 of 0.949 and r2pred (internal test set) of 0.755. An external (tested in other laboratories) collection of 24 CSIs from eight scaffolds were evaluated with the 3D-QSAR models, which correctly ranked their activity trends in 7/8 scaffolds for CoMFA+HINT (8/8 for CoMFA). The combination of SAR, ensemble docking, hydropathic analysis and 3D-QSAR provides an atomic-scale colchicine site model more consistent with a target structure resolution much higher than the ~3.6 Å available for αβ-tubulin. PMID:23961916

  6. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  7. In Vitro Spermatogenesis of Gypsy Moth Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judy; Loeb, Marcia J.

    1994-01-01

    Students establish simple cell developmental cultures to observe the process of spermatogenesis, mitosis, and meiosis in living cells. Using the background information, hints for further exploration, and experimental procedures provided, teachers can easily modify this experiment to suit their students needs. (ZWH)

  8. Food for Living Things, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    This teachers guide to "Food for Living Things," one of the units of the Junior Secondary Science Project prepared for use in Victorian (Australia) secondary schools, includes copies of all of the appropriate student materials in addition to information designed to assist the teacher develop the unit. This information includes hints on appropriate…

  9. Making the Most of Micro-Computers. Technology in Language Learning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendall, Heather

    A guide to various instructional technology (IT) approaches is aimed at modern language teachers who are just beginning to integrate IT into their methodology. Hints and suggestions are given about what questions to ask when acquiring a computer and buying software and how to avoid some problems. Chapters include the following: (1) Why should I?;…

  10. Coprinus Cinereus: An Ideal Organism for Studies of Genetics and Developmental Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David; Pukkila, Patricia J.

    1985-01-01

    Ink-cap mushrooms can be easily grown in culture and provide students with ideal material for studying a wide range of biological problems. The life cycle is discussed extensively with hints for inoculating plates, staining, and isolating basidiospores. Exercises are easy, safe, and provide opportunity to demonstrate several microbiological…

  11. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 3--Mathematics Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaljo, Roger, Comp.

    Each of the 14 environment-related mathematics activities included in this publication by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center includes objectives, materials needed, preparation, and activity description. Occasionally, variations and helpful hints are added. Because the student can gain experience to help him with the practical application of…

  12. Career Information in the Classroom. Workshop Guide for Infusing the Occupational Outlook Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Karen Kimmel; Whelden, Ernest

    This competency-based training package instructs teachers of grades K-12 on how to infuse the "Occupational Outlook Handbook" (OOH) and concepts contained within it into their existing curricula. The package includes information on how to plan a workshop, helpful hints and techniques for leading groups, six learning modules, and pre- and…

  13. Overall view of the Orbiter Servicing Structure within the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of the Orbiter Servicing Structure within the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. Can you see any hint of the Orbiter Discovery? It is in there. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  14. Science Fair Projects: Teaching Science or Something Else?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Elizabeth A.

    1981-01-01

    Frequently, science fair projects have little relevance to the goals of science. Criteria for judging projects are not evident to students, parents, judges, and other participants. Listed are seven steps to a better fair project which emphasize methodology and presentation. Also included are hints for involving parents. (DC)

  15. From Sustainable Community to Big Society: 10 Years Learning with the Imagine Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Community is a key word in the current UK political vocabulary. As part of Big Society or as a sustainable means to develop social coherence, community has been an area of focus that has attained UK political party interest since 2003. In 1999, the Imagine method was first hinted at in the Earthscan book: "Sustainability Indicators: measuring the…

  16. The Art of the Lecture Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Lecturing hints, periodic table, mechanistic approach to predicting inorganic reaction products for substitution reactions, reaction rates, spectroscopy, and entropy role change in establishing position of equilibrium for vaporization of water and synthesis of ammonia were topics of lectures presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical…

  17. You're On The Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Sam

    A veteran of 30 years in broadcasting presents hints and prescriptions for persons desiring employment as a radio or television performer. Emphasis is placed throughout on techniques to enable a prospective performer to short-cut the usually tedious procedures of attempting to break into broadcasting professions. Sections deal with personal…

  18. Ferromagnetic spin-glass behaviour in single-crystalline U2 IrSi3.

    PubMed

    Szlawska, M; Majewicz, M; Kaczorowski, D

    2014-03-26

    A single crystal of the U-based ternary silicide U(2)IrSi(3) was investigated by means of magnetic, resistivity and heat-capacity measurements performed in wide ranges of temperature and external magnetic fields. The results hint at the formation of a non-trivial magnetic ground state in which ferromagnetic ordering coexists with spin-glass freezing. PMID:24594881

  19. Insights into Spared Memory Capacity in Amnestic MCI and Alzheimer's Disease via Minimal Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Michaela; Pesallaccia, Martina; Cowan, Nelson; Provinciali, Leandro; Della Sala, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Impairment on standard tests of delayed recall is often already maximal in the aMCI stage of Alzheimer's Disease. Neuropathological work shows that the neural substrates of memory function continue to deteriorate throughout the progression of the disease, hinting that further changes in memory performance could be tracked by a more sensitive test…

  20. EVALUATING DISCONTINUITIES IN COMPLEX SYSTEMS: TOWARD QUANTITATIVE MEASURE OF RESILIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The textural discontinuity hypothesis (TDH) is based on the observation that animal body mass distributions exhibit discontinuities that may reflect the texture of the landscape available for exploitation. This idea has been extended to other complex systems, hinting that the ide...

  1. Pulsars above 10 GeV: Fermi LAT Observations and Questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, Dave

    2012-01-01

    The success of the Fermi Large Area Telescope in studying gamma-ray pulsars offers hints about future work above 10 GeV. The infrastructure for discovering pulsars will be similar between LAT and any future telescope. Some of the Fermi LAT results suggest intriguing questions about the future of high-energy pulsar studies.

  2. Hand Movement Deviations in a Visual Search Task with Cross Modal Cuing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Asli; Aslan, Hurol

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the cross-modal effects of an auditory organization on a visual search task and to investigate the influence of the level of detail in instructions describing or hinting at the associations between auditory stimuli and the possible locations of a visual target. In addition to measuring the participants'…

  3. Fwd: Opportunities Lost--How New York City Got Derailed on the Way to School Reform. Volume: I, Number: 3. Arresting Insights in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Sol

    2004-01-01

    Mayor Michael Bloomberg gave his first hint about his plans for reforming the New York City school system on Martin Luther King Day in January 2003. Mayor Bloomberg did not offer a single excuse for the disastrous state of the city's schools. Nor did he attribute that failure to poverty or racism. Breaking with 50 years of liberal political…

  4. NOvA: Exploring Neutrino Mysteries

    ScienceCinema

    Vahle, Tricia; Messier, Mark

    2016-07-12

    Neutrinos are a mystery to physicists. They exist in three different flavors and mass states and may be able to give hints about the origins of the matter-dominated universe. A new long-baseline experiment led by Fermilab called NOvA may provide some answers.

  5. Future short baseline neutrino searches with nuclear decays

    SciTech Connect

    Caccianiga, Barbara

    2015-07-15

    Several anomalies coming from neutrino experiments may be pointing towards new physics: these hints suggest the existence of one (or more) sterile neutrinos. We discuss some of the experiments proposed to verify (or disproof) this hypothesis by using an intense radioactive source in proximity of large neutrino detectors.

  6. Experimental investigation of the thriving mystery of sterile neutrinos

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fava, A.

    2016-04-07

    Here, several “anomalies” have been reported from a variety of experiments studying neutrino oscillations over short baselines (less than 1 km) since 1998. Even though not fully compatible with each other, these results could possibly hint at the existence of at least one additional “sterile” neutrino state beyond the Standard Model picture of Particle Physics.

  7. Digitizing a Cultural Heritage--The Key Issue for Preservation and Electronic Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogen, Manfred; Bonkowski, Christian; Borowski, Marion; Loffler, Jobst

    This paper describes a realization approach to evaluate the best fitting service provider in the context of "The Digital Beethoven House" pilot project, involving the digitizing of a composer-referred collection of colored manuscripts and other sources at the Beethoven House Association (Germany). Practical hints for museums are provided on how to…

  8. Nickel-59 in Surface Layers of Lunar Basalt 74275: Implications for the Solar Alpha Particle Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnabel, C.; Xue, S.; Ma, P.; Herzog, G. F.; Fifield, K.; Cresswell, R. G.; diTada, M. L.; Hausladen, Paul; Reedy, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    By using AMS we have profiled 59 Ni/Ni ratios in lunar basalt 74275. Activities (dpm 59 Ni/[kg Fe]) range from 120 to 10 at depths (mg/cm 2) from about 30 to 650. Modeling results hint at higher solar alpha fluxes during the last about 0.5 My than during the last approximately 1 My.

  9. What To Do When the Micro Fails.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, John K.; Sandiford, Janice R.

    This brief description of the microcomputer service and maintenance system at Miami Dade Community College/North includes a series of hints, tips, and lists of information sources, suppliers, and regulatory codes that could prove helpful to school districts that wish to conduct on-site repair of computers. These include: (1) cleaning materials…

  10. NOvA: Exploring Neutrino Mysteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vahle, Tricia; Messier, Mark

    2012-09-06

    Neutrinos are a mystery to physicists. They exist in three different flavors and mass states and may be able to give hints about the origins of the matter-dominated universe. A new long-baseline experiment led by Fermilab called NOvA may provide some answers.

  11. The "Theft" of the Neptune Papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlins, Dennis

    1994-10-01

    Correspondence 1966-1993 attempting to flush out the long-secreted Royal Greenwich Observatory file on Neptune's discovery, hinting that it was in the possession of a former Chief Ass't to the Astronomer Royal. The file was ultimately found among his effects, four years after this article, when he unexpectedly died in Chile.

  12. Reciprocal Effects between Adolescent Externalizing Problems and Measures of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Schütte, Kerstin; Taskinen, Päivi; Köller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Student misbehavior is a pervasive problem and may seriously affect academic achievement. Previous research hints at different effects depending on whether achievement tests or achievement judgments are used as academic outcomes. Previous research also indicates that low achievement can conversely contribute to problem behavior and that low…

  13. Materialien und Modelle fuer den Franzoesischunterricht in der Sekundarstufe Zwei (Materials and Models for Teaching French in Grades 11-13)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frei, Alfons

    1978-01-01

    Texts available for French courses in the highest grades are listed according to topics, which include: position of women, today's youth, the language of advertising, French colonialism, holidays and tourism, modern city living, criminality, French politics. Hints for the teacher are included. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  14. In the Studio with Degas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Judith

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity for fourth-grade students where they learn about the French artist Edgar Degas through visualization and role-playing in which the students "visit" Degas' studio in 19th century Paris (France). Includes the objectives and goals of the lesson, materials needed, and helpful hints. (CMK)

  15. The Right Time to Start Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casa, Tutita M.

    2015-01-01

    Communication has long been emphasized in standards-based instruction (NCTM 1991; 2000), yet little distinction has been made between oral and written forms. Nonetheless, both the mathematics and the English language arts Common Core State Standards (CCSS) documents continue to hint at the importance of writing mathematically (CCSSI 2010). The…

  16. Nine Steps to a Quality Research Paper. A Special Report. Professional Growth Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuurmans, Harry

    This guide begins by offering advice to students who have been assigned to write a research paper and hints to teachers for ways in which they can facilitate the process for their students. It then presents detailed guidelines for students in nine steps: (1) Selecting a Topic; (2) Narrowing the Topic; (3) Formulating a Preliminary Question Outline…

  17. The Facts of Life--A Guide for Teens and Their Families. Family Communication Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    This book is a guide for teens and their families. The following topics are discussed: (1) All of Us Are Sexual; (2) Our Sexual Bodies; (3) As Boys Become Men; (4) As Girls Become Women; (5) How Pregnancy Happens; (6) Expressing Ourselves Sexually; (7) Protecting Ourselves Sexually; (8) Notes for Parents; and (9) Helpful Hints for Parents.

  18. Meta-What?: Metadata and Information Management For School Library Media Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Allison G.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, is to familiarize the reader with some advances in cataloging that may not be so esoteric in the near future for school librarians. Second, is to provide hints for easy cataloging of traditionally uncataloged electronic information and thus enhance information access through the school library OPAC.

  19. Teamwork: The Name of the Game in Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Linda L.

    This manual offers hints, guidelines, and suggestions for reaching prospective students for vocational training. Its main premise centers around alerting, encouraging, and assisting the student. A team effort is promoted; each staff member must be a part of the whole recruitment team. A section on advance planning focuses on analysis of the school…

  20. Whale Watching in the Gulf of Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carkin, Clayton A.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a variety of teaching strategies to prepare a class for a whale watching field trip. Guidelines for recording a sighting, pictures and statistics for commonly and/or occasionally seen whales, and hints for avoiding sea sickness are included. (DH)

  1. Beyond the Investment Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The current policy interest in early childhood education and care is driven by an investment narrative, a story of quality and high returns emerging from a dominant neoliberal political economy. This short note expresses deep reservations about this narrative, and hints at another narrative that foregrounds democracy, experimentation and…

  2. Electronic Homework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fong-lok; Heyworth, Rex M.

    The Electronic Homework assistant system is composed of two components: the Computer Tutor and the Homework Administrator. The Computer Tutor is an intelligent tutoring system that can provide personal assistance like supplying hints, checking errors, providing remediation and prioritizing problems. The Homework Administrator is a teacher's…

  3. No-boundary thinking in bioinformatics research.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiuzhen; Bruce, Barry; Buchan, Alison; Congdon, Clare Bates; Cramer, Carole L; Jennings, Steven F; Jiang, Hongmei; Li, Zenglu; McClure, Gail; McMullen, Rick; Moore, Jason H; Nanduri, Bindu; Peckham, Joan; Perkins, Andy; Polson, Shawn W; Rekepalli, Bhanu; Salem, Saeed; Specker, Jennifer; Wunsch, Donald; Xiong, Donghai; Zhang, Shuzhong; Zhao, Zhongming

    2013-11-06

    Currently there are definitions from many agencies and research societies defining "bioinformatics" as deriving knowledge from computational analysis of large volumes of biological and biomedical data. Should this be the bioinformatics research focus? We will discuss this issue in this review article. We would like to promote the idea of supporting human-infrastructure (HI) with no-boundary thinking (NT) in bioinformatics (HINT).

  4. Fast and Easy Website Tuneups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisniewski, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This article presents fast, easy and helpful hints for making web sites that people will want to use over and over again. These tips include: (1) Making sure that the website's copyright statement is up-to-date; (2) Adding "last updated" code to each webpage at the site; (3) Adding photos to the site's contact information; (4) Turning boring old…

  5. ART MODERN/DIALOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Katharine K.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews ART MODERN, an on-line data base which provides comprehensive coverage of current worldwide literature on modern art and design since 1800. Areas described include scope, coverage, arrangement of printed and on-line indexes, characteristics of basic index and code searching; also search hints, search negotiation, searchguide, and data base…

  6. Facultative Lagoons. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This instructor's guide contains materials needed to teach a two-lesson unit on the structure and components of facultative lagoons, the biological theory of their operation, and factors affecting their operation. Control testing recommendations, maintenance guidelines, and troubleshooting hints are also provided. These materials include: (1) an…

  7. Pedagogy and Japanese Culture in a Distance Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bodi O.

    2012-01-01

    Current theoretical models of distance learning are driven by two impetuses: a technical CMC element, and a pedagogical foundation rooted strongly in the Western world, and driven by social constructivism. By and large these models have been exported throughout the world as-is. However, previous research has hinted at potential problems with these…

  8. My Sister Looks Like a Pear: Awakening the Poetry in Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Douglas

    This book, written out of the author's experiences while working with the Poets in the Schools programs in elementary schools in 10 states, contains a large assortment of student poems. It also contains specific tools which teachers may use to help their students learn to write and enjoy poetry. Forty-six chapters contain hints and observations on…

  9. "I Was Really, Really, Really Mad!" Children's Use of Evaluative Devices in Narratives about Emotional Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole; Biggs, Marleen

    2001-01-01

    Young children told personal experience narratives about a time when they had been happy, surprised, and mad. Researchers assessed their explicit emotion labels and use of linguistic forms of evaluation to convey emotion. Children used various methods to convey emotions. Gender differences were rare. The only evaluative device that hinted at…

  10. True or False? Tests Stink!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romain, Trevor; Verdick, Elizabeth

    This book is designed to help students become better test takers. It helps them feel more confident and less stressed before, during, and after the test. Section 1, "Tests? Blech!" discusses why it is necessary to test students. Section 2, "Test SOS," presents test-taking hints; top secret information about tests and student behavior during tests;…

  11. Decision Making: An Imperative for Language Learning; Highlights of the Annual Language Arts Conference of Memphis State University (7th, Memphis, June 12-14, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakes, Thomas A., Ed.; Brotherton, Sophia, Ed.

    This document presents nine papers which were originally prepared for the 1974 Annual Language Arts Conference at Memphis State University. Included are: "Proxemics" by Dale F. Baltus; "Reading and Study Skill Hints for Intermediate and Secondary Teachers" by Stuart W. Bray; "A Reading Game License" by Flora C. Fowler; "Teach Kids to Think" by…

  12. Early identification of motor delay

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (HINT), an infant neuromotor test using Canadian norms published in 2010 that could be used to screen for motor delay during the first year of life. Quality of evidence Extensive research has been published on the intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability and the content, concurrent, predictive, and known-groups validity of the HINT, as well as on the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of parental concerns, as assessed by the HINT. Most evidence is level II. Main message Diagnosing motor delays during the first year of life is important because these often indicate more generalized developmental delays or specific disabilities, such as cerebral palsy. Parental concerns about their children’s motor development are strongly predictive of subsequent diagnoses involving motor delay. Conclusion Only through early identification of developmental motor delays, initially with screening tools such as the HINT, is it possible to provide referrals for early intervention that could benefit both the infant and the family. PMID:27521388

  13. Coping Styles with Student Misbehavior as Mediators of Teachers' Classroom Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Van Dat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to identify how teachers' use of various coping styles with student misbehavior, and the extent to which these relate to their classroom management techniques -- punishment, recognition and reward, hinting, discussion, and aggression. It examines data from 397 junior high school teachers in Vietnam. The results…

  14. Giving the Left Somewhere to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about a new film entitled "An Unreasonable Man" that features the political activist Ralph Nader. The film rightly claims to be a documentary, but as the title hints, it's also a suspense movie. The film's first sequence briefly recounts Nader's much-maligned independent campaign for president in 2004. Although it shows him…

  15. A Resource Guide to Assist Lawyers and Law Students for Participation in Kindergarten through Eighth Grade Law-Related Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    This guide provides lesson plans for lawyers and law students who serve as resource persons for law-related subjects in grades K-8. The first part of the guide provides an introduction, an explanation of lesson plan format, suggestions to help lawyers and law students work effectively with teachers, and helpful hints for working with students in…

  16. Those Who Do Not Learn History...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabb, Theodore K.

    2007-01-01

    Last month the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the federally financed "Nation's Report Card," released the results of its 2006 tests of historical knowledge among schoolchildren. Although there were hints of small improvements since the last NAEP test in 2001 (47 percent rather than 43 percent of 12th graders had at least a…

  17. Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Resource for School and Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This resource guide designed for families and educators provides information on how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is identified and treated. The resource includes sections on legal requirements, treatment options, educational and medical evaluations, how ADHD affects school performance, and evidence-based hints on how to improve…

  18. Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Resource for School and Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This resource guide designed for families and educators provides information on how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is identified and treated. The resource includes sections on legal requirements, treatment options educational and medical evaluations, how ADHD affects school performance, and helpful evidence-based hints on how to…

  19. Looking at a Pizza with a Mathematical Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Marion

    2003-01-01

    There are many ways to generate mathematical problems from a starting point. This author shares some thoughts that led to production of a number of them. The problems contained here range in level from Kindergarten to college. Walter starts by providing the problems so that the reader will have the opportunity to solve them without any hints.…

  20. [Recommendations for Chilean travelers to the FIFA World Cup 2014 in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Perret, Cecilia; Weitzel, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This article provides a checklist of precautions and vaccines for Chilean travelers attending the FIFA World Cup 2014 in Brazil. It aims to help physicians to prepare visitors of this mass gathering and summarizes useful hints to avoid infectious diseases considering the circumstances and availabilities in Chile.

  1. SHARING EDUCATIONAL SERVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Area Project in Small School Design, Oneonta, NY.

    SHARED SERVICES, A COOPERATIVE SCHOOL RESOURCE PROGRAM, IS DEFINED IN DETAIL. INCLUDED IS A DISCUSSION OF THEIR NEED, ADVANTAGES, GROWTH, DESIGN, AND OPERATION. SPECIFIC PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING STATE AID IN SHARED SERVICES, EFFECTS OF SHARED SERVICES ON THE SCHOOL, AND HINTS CONCERNING SHARED SERVICES ARE DESCRIBED. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SMALL…

  2. [Phaedra's disease].

    PubMed

    Bonuzzi, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The author hints at Phaedra's passion, described by Euripides, highlighting in particular the incest taboo. As well known, Phaedra in fact is love-sick for her own step-son Hippolytus, a human figure with a not well defined sexual identity. PMID:25807732

  3. Nepotism: A Policy of Convenience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruder, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Nepotism is one of those words that makes people cringe. The hint of such behavior within an organization immediately raises suspicions of unethical behavior despite well-written, comprehensive policies and procedures. School districts are not immune to the damage that can be done to even the most highly regarded and well-respected organizations.…

  4. Making Contact: Teaching, Bodies, and the Ethics of Multiculturalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Monika I.

    2006-01-01

    In her well known keynote address at the Responsibilities for Literacies Conference, Mary Louise Pratt defined "contact zones" as "social spaces where cultures meet, clash, and grapple with each other, often in contexts of highly asymmetrical relations of power." Pratt's view of a contact zone hints at the fact, but does not make explicit, that…

  5. American Schools Respond to a National Crisis: Nine-Eleven and Its Aftermath

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Janet; Davis, O. L., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This brief glimpse into how schools responded to a national tragedy only hints at the magnitude of responses. No school board policy or university program had prepared American educators to respond to events like those of September 11 attack. Teachers and principals simply found themselves confronting a tragic event. Still, they quickly determined…

  6. Ergodicity: a historical perspective. Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallavotti, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    A view on the physical meaning of the so called ergodic hypothesis: its role on the foundations of equilibrium statistical mechanics in mid '1800, its interpretations and hints at its relevance for modern nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Followed by appendices with detailed comments on the original papers.

  7. Interviewing a Silent (Radioactive) Witness through Nuclear Forensic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Klaus; Wallenius, Maria; Varga, Zsolt

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear forensics is a relatively young discipline in science which aims at providing information on nuclear material of unknown origin. The determination of characteristic parameters through tailored analytical techniques enables establishing linkages to the material's processing history and hence provides hints on its place and date of production and on the intended use. PMID:26376028

  8. Analogical Reasoning in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: Effects of External Memories and Time Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denaes, Caroline; Berger, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning involves the comparison of pictures as well as the memorisation of relations. Young children (4-7 years old) and students with moderate intellectual disability have a short memory span, which hampers them in succeeding traditional analogical tests. In the present study, we investigated if, by providing external memory hints,…

  9. Support for Learning from Multimedia Explanations. A Comparison of Prompting, Signaling, and Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Rodicio, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    In one experiment 97 undergraduate students learned about plate tectonics from a multimedia presentation involving narrated animations and support in one of four forms. Support in the prompting condition included hints inducing participants to self-explain critical information. The signaling condition included overviews recapping critical…

  10. The Metric System--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Larry; Hovey, Kathi

    1983-01-01

    Sections look at: (1) Historical Perspective; (2) Naming the New System; (3) The Metric Units; (4) Measuring Larger and Smaller Amounts; (5) Advantage of Using the Metric System; (6) Metric Symbols; (7) Conversion from Metric to Customary System; (8) General Hints for Helping Children Understand; and (9) Current Status of Metric Conversion. (MP)

  11. O'Neill's Kurzdrama "Fog" im Englischunterricht (O'Neill's Short Drama "Fog" in English Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Juergen

    1977-01-01

    O'Neill's "Fog" is recommended as a discussion-stimulating work for English (as a second language) classes in grades 11-13. The content is discussed from an instructional point of view. Teaching goals are considered. Experiences with the play in grade 11 are described, and methodological hints are given. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  12. Black Poetry Writing: A Capsule Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gwendolyn; And Others

    In this handbook, four authors write on the same topics but with varying emphases. Gwendolyn Brooks sketches the background of Afro-American poetry and offers practical hints and exercises for writing. Keorapatse Kgositsile discusses the role and situation of the black writer. Haki R. Madhubuti (Don L. Lee) explains an author's commitment and…

  13. Moving and Being Moved: Implications for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretchmar, R. Scott

    2000-01-01

    Uses philosophical writings, a novel about baseball, and a nonfiction work on rowing to analyze levels of meaning in physical activity, showing why three popular methods for enhancing meaning have not succeeded and may have moved some students away from deeper levels of meaning. The paper suggests that using hints taken from the three books could…

  14. A Note on Noncentrality Parameters for Contrast Tests in a One-Way Analysis of Variance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaofeng Steven

    2010-01-01

    The noncentrality parameter for a contrast test in a one-way analysis of variance is based on the dot product of 2 vectors whose geometric meaning in a Euclidian space offers mnemonic hints about its constituents. Additionally, the noncentrality parameters for a set of orthogonal contrasts sum up to the noncentrality parameter for the omnibus "F"…

  15. Family Medicine Curriculum Guide to Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liepman, Michael R., Ed.; And Others

    This curriculum guide on substance abuse is intended for teachers of family medicine. Comments, learning objectives, teaching hints, and evaluations of knowledge are provided for each area in all chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on the pharmacology of commonly abused drugs including depressants, opioids, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and…

  16. Photos Can Work Magic for Your Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Myrtle; Graham, Adele

    1987-01-01

    Class-made scrapbooks with mounted photographs (taken by the teacher) of hearing-impaired preschool students in previous learning activities were used to encourage students' language development and improve their communication skills. Suggestions for teachers regarding supplies and equipment and hints for taking good pictures are offered. (CB)

  17. Unit: Pushes and Pulls, Inspection Set, National Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This trial version of an Australian Science Education Project unit concerns the nature and measurement of force. The teachers' guide, an overprinted copy of the student manual, lists objectives for each section of the unit, discusses the role of the teacher, provides hints in the use of the materials, suggests suitable references, and lists…

  18. Signposts of the Revolution? What We Talk about when We Talk about Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Phillip D.; Holeton, Richard

    2009-01-01

    In a recent vote, members of the EDUCAUSE community selected the "Top Teaching and Learning Challenges" for 2009. The overlap among these challenges testifies to an emerging consensus in the thinking about learning environments in higher education. On the other hand, the fact that they remain "challenges" hints at a larger failure to transcend the…

  19. Project Laboratory in a High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2010-01-01

    We describe our experience in guiding a physics laboratory in the eleventh grade of a high school, in which regular laboratory classes are replaced by an experimental project carried out throughout the year. Some didactic suggestions and hints are given for those wishing to adopt such an undertaking. Outlines are given for a few of the recent…

  20. An Interview with Dr. Anne LaBastille.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Elizabeth

    1982-01-01

    Anne LaBastille, a role model for women interested in exploring the wilderness, gives hints on lessening the effects of acid rain, tells outdoor educators to encourage women to explore the wilderness and to take children outdoors to experience nature, and predicts a future economic slump for outdoor education. (LC)