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Sample records for ryanodine receptor isoform

  1. Mutational analysis of putative calcium binding motifs within the skeletal ryanodine receptor isoform, RyR1.

    PubMed

    Fessenden, James D; Feng, Wei; Pessah, Isaac N; Allen, P D

    2004-12-17

    The functional relevance of putative Ca(2+) binding motifs previously identified with Ca(2+) overlay binding analysis within the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor isoform (RyR1) was examined using mutational analysis. EF hands between amino acid positions 4081 and 4092 (EF1) and 4116 and 4127 (EF2) were scrambled singly or in combination within the full-length rabbit RyR1 cDNA. These cDNAs were expressed in 1B5 RyR-deficient myotubes and channel function assessed using Ca(2+)-imaging techniques, [(3)H]ryanodine binding measurements, and single channel experiments. In intact myotubes, these mutations did not affect functional responses to either depolarization or RyR agonists (caffeine, 4-chloro-m-cresol) compared with wtRyR1. However, in [(3)H]ryanodine binding measurements, both Ca(2+) activation and inhibition of the EF1 mutant was significantly altered compared with wtRyR1. No high affinity [(3)H]ryanodine binding was observed in membranes expressing the EF2 mutation, although in single channel measurements, the EF2-disrupted channel could be activated by micromolar Ca(2+) concentrations. In addition, micromolar levels of ryanodine placed these channels into the classical half-conductance state, thus indicating that occupancy of high affinity ryanodine binding sites is not required for ryanodine-induced subconductance states in RyR1. Disruption of three additional putative RyR1 calcium binding motifs located between amino acid positions 4254 and 4265 (EF3), 4407 and 4418 (EF4), or 4490 and 4502 (EF5) either singly or in combination (EF3-5) did not affect functional responses in 1B5 myotubes except that the EC(50) for caffeine activation for the EF3 construct was significantly increased compared with wtRyR1. However, in [(3)H]ryanodine binding experiments, the Ca(2+)-dependent activation and inactivation of mutated RyRs containing EF3, EF4, or EF5 was unaffected when compared with wtRyR1.

  2. Three-dimensional structure of ryanodine receptor isoform three in two conformational states as visualized by cryo-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M R; Jeyakumar, L H; Fleischer, S; Wagenknecht, T

    2000-03-31

    Using cryo-electron microscopy and single particle image processing techniques, we present the first three-dimensional reconstructions of isoform 3 of the ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel (RyR3). Reconstructions were carried out on images obtained from a purified, detergent-solubilized receptor for two different buffer conditions, which were expected to favor open and closed functional states of the channel. As for the heart (RyR2) and skeletal muscle (RyR1) receptor isoforms, RyR3 is a homotetrameric complex comprising two main components, a multidomain cytoplasmic assembly and a smaller ( approximately 20% of the total mass) transmembrane region. Although the isoforms show structural similarities, consistent with the approximately 70% overall sequence identity of the isoforms, detailed comparisons of RyR3 with RyR1 showed one region of highly significant difference between them. This difference indicated additional mass present in RyR1, and it likely corresponds to a region of the RyR1 sequence (residues 1303-1406, known as diversity region 2) that is absent from RyR3. The reconstructions of RyR3 determined under "open" and "closed" conditions were similar to each other in overall architecture. A difference map computed between the two reconstructions reveals subtle changes in conformation at several widely dispersed locations in the receptor, the most prominent of which is a approximately 4 degrees rotation of the transmembrane region with respect to the cytoplasmic assembly.

  3. Detection of calcium release via ryanodine receptors.

    PubMed

    Eu, Jerry P; Meissner, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    The ryanodine receptor ion channels (RyRs) release Ca(2+) from the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum in a variety of nonvertebrate and vertebrate species including flies, crustaceans, birds, fish, and amphibians. They are most abundant in skeletal and cardiac muscle, where in response to an action potential, the release of Ca(2+) ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through the RyRs into the cytoplasm leads to muscle contraction (i.e., excitation-contraction coupling). Here, we describe how to determine their cellular location using isoform-specific antibodies, their protein levels using an in vitro ((3)H)ryanodine-binding assay, and their cellular release of Ca(2+) using RyR-specific channel agonists and inhibitors.

  4. Ryanodine receptors in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Hernández, Agustín; Gómez-Viquez, Leticia; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Rueda, Angélica

    2002-07-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of smooth muscle is endowed with two different types of Ca2+ release channels, i.e. inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In general, both release channels mobilize Ca2+ from the same internal store in smooth muscle. While the importance of IP3Rs in agonist-induced contraction is well established, the role of RyRs in excitation-contraction coupling of smooth muscle is not clear. The participation of smooth muscle RyRs in the amplification of Ca2+ transients induced by either opening of Ca2+-permeable channels or IP3-triggered Ca2+ release has been studied. The efficacy of both processes to activate RyRs by calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is highly variable and not widely present in smooth muscle. Although RyRs in smooth muscle generate Ca2+ sparks that are similar to those observed in striated muscles, the contribution of these local Ca2+ events to depolarization-induced global rise in [Ca2+]i is rather limited. Recent data suggest that RyRs are involved in regulating the luminal [Ca2+] of SR and also in smooth muscle relaxation. This review summarizes studies that were carried out mainly in muscle strips or in freshly isolated myocytes, and that were aimed to determine the physiological role of RyRs in smooth muscle.

  5. Ryanodine receptors as leak channels.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Hernández, Agustín; Ávila, Guillermo; Rueda, Angélica

    2014-09-15

    Ryanodine receptors are Ca(2+) release channels of internal stores. This review focuses on those situations and conditions that transform RyRs from a finely regulated ion channel to an unregulated Ca(2+) leak channel and the pathological consequences of this alteration. In skeletal muscle, mutations in either CaV1.1 channel or RyR1 results in a leaky behavior of the latter. In heart cells, RyR2 functions normally as a Ca(2+) leak channel during diastole within certain limits, the enhancement of this activity leads to arrhythmogenic situations that are tackled with different pharmacological strategies. In smooth muscle, RyRs are involved more in reducing excitability than in stimulating contraction so the leak activity of RyRs in the form of Ca(2+) sparks, locally activates Ca(2+)-dependent potassium channels to reduce excitability. In neurons the enhanced activity of RyRs is associated with the development of different neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Huntington diseases. It appears then that the activity of RyRs as leak channels can have both physiological and pathological consequences depending on the cell type and the metabolic condition.

  6. Cyclic ADP-ribose, the ryanodine receptor and Ca2+ release.

    PubMed

    Sitsapesan, R; McGarry, S J; Williams, A J

    1995-11-01

    In a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues the ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ channel is the pathway for Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. The mechanism for activation of the ryanodine receptor-channel complex appears to depend both on the ryanodine receptor isoform and the cell type. In addition, a complex combination of endogenous intracellular compounds regulates channel gating. In this article, Rebecca Sitsapesan, Stephen McGarry and Alan Williams review the mechanisms involved in cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR)-induced Ca2+ release and discuss the likelihood that cADPR-activated Ca2+ release is mediated by one of the recognized isoforms of the ryanodine receptor-Ca2+ channel complex.

  7. [Ryanodine receptor, calcium leak and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Rueda, Angélica; de Alba-Aguayo, David R; Valdivia, Héctor H

    2014-01-01

    The participation of the ionic Ca(2+) release channel/ryanodine receptor in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling is well known since the late '80s, when various seminal papers communicated its purification for the first time and its identity with the "foot" structures located at the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In addition to its main role as the Ca(2+) channel responsible for the transient Ca(2+) increase that activates the contractile machinery of the cardiomyocytes, the ryanodine receptor releases Ca(2+) during the relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle, giving rise to a diastolic Ca(2+) leak. In normal physiological conditions, diastolic Ca(2+) leak regulates the proper level of luminal Ca(2+), but in pathological conditions it participates in the generation of both, acquired and hereditary arrhythmias. Very recently, several groups have focused their efforts into the development of pharmacological tools to control the altered diastolic Ca(2+) leak via ryanodine receptors. In this review, we focus our interest on describing the participation of cardiac ryanodine receptor in the diastolic Ca(2+) leak under physiological or pathological conditions and also on the therapeutic approaches to control its undesired exacerbated activity during diastole.

  8. Different Involvement of Type 1, 2, and 3 Ryanodine Receptors in Memory Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeotti, Nicoletta; Quattrone, Alessandro; Vivoli, Elisa; Norcini, Monica; Bartolini, Alessandro; Ghelardini, Carla

    2008-01-01

    The administration of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) agonist 4-Cmc (0.003-9 nmol per mouse intracerebroventricularly [i.c.v.]) ameliorated memory functions, whereas the RyR antagonist ryanodine (0.0001-1 nmol per mouse i.c.v.) induced amnesia in the mouse passive avoidance test. The role of the type 1, 2, and 3 RyR isoforms in memory processes was…

  9. Evidence for ryanodine receptors in Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Silva, C L; Cunha, V M; Mendonça-Silva, D L; Noël, F

    1998-10-15

    The present study investigated the presence of ryanodine receptors in the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. [3H]Ryanodine specific binding sites were found in the four subcellular fractions of S. mansoni; however, more binding sites were recovered in the heterogeneous fraction P1 and the microsomal fraction P4, as was thapsigargin-sensitive (Ca2+-Mg2+)ATPase activity, marking the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) pumps. This binding had an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) in the nanomolar range, an apparent maximal number of receptors (Bmax) of about 80 fmol/mg of protein, and was modulated by ions (Ca2+, Mg2+) and some pharmacological tools such as caffeine. Ryanodine was able to accelerate the rate of 45Ca2+ release from actively loaded vesicles, and also to induce a transient contraction of the whole worm. We conclude that ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channels are present in S. mansoni, with properties very similar to the ones present in higher animals.

  10. Mapping domains and mutations on the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor channel.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jean H; Zorzato, Francesco; Clarke, Nigel F; Treves, Susan

    2012-11-01

    The skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor isoform 1 (RyR1) is a calcium release channel involved in excitation-contraction coupling, the process whereby an action potential is translated to a cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signal that activates muscle contraction. Dominant and recessive mutations in RYR1 cause a range of muscle disorders, including malignant hyperthermia and several forms of congenital myopathies. Many aspects of disease pathogenesis in ryanodinopathies remain uncertain, particularly for those myopathies due to recessive mutations. A thorough understanding of the ryanodine receptor macromolecular complex and its interactions with proteins and small molecular modulators is an essential starting point from which to investigate disease mechanisms.

  11. Catecholamime Interactions with the Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipp, Robert Carl

    The cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is a Ca2+ ion channel found in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), an intracellular membranous Ca2+ storage system. It is well known that a destabilization of RyR2 can lead to a Ca2+ flux out of the SR, which results in an overload of intracellular Ca2+; this can also lead to arrhythmias and heart failure. The catecholamines play a large role in the regulation of RyR2; stimulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor on the cell membrane can lead to a hyperphosphorylation of RyR2, making it more leaky to Ca2+. We have previously shown that strong electron donors will inhibit RyR2. It is hypothesized that the catecholamines, sharing a similar structure with other proven inhibitors of RyR2, will also inhibit RyR2. Here we confirm this hypothesis and show for the first time that the catecholamines, isoproterenol and epinephrine, act as strong electron donors and inhibit RyR2 activity at the single channel level. This data suggests that the catecholamines can influence RyR2 activity at two levels. This offers promising insight into the potential development of a new class of drugs to treat heart failure and arrhythmia; ones that can both prevent the hyperphosphorylation of RyR2 by blocking the beta-adrenergic receptor, but can also directly inhibit the release of Ca2+ from RyR2.

  12. Structure of a mammalian ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Zalk, Ran; Clarke, Oliver B; des Georges, Amédée; Grassucci, Robert A; Reiken, Steven; Mancia, Filippo; Hendrickson, Wayne A; Frank, Joachim; Marks, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) mediate the rapid release of calcium (Ca(2+)) from intracellular stores into the cytosol, which is essential for numerous cellular functions including excitation-contraction coupling in muscle. Lack of sufficient structural detail has impeded understanding of RyR gating and regulation. Here we report the closed-state structure of the 2.3-megadalton complex of the rabbit skeletal muscle type 1 RyR (RyR1), solved by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy at an overall resolution of 4.8 Å. We fitted a polyalanine-level model to all 3,757 ordered residues in each protomer, defining the transmembrane pore in unprecedented detail and placing all cytosolic domains as tertiary folds. The cytosolic assembly is built on an extended α-solenoid scaffold connecting key regulatory domains to the pore. The RyR1 pore architecture places it in the six-transmembrane ion channel superfamily. A unique domain inserted between the second and third transmembrane helices interacts intimately with paired EF-hands originating from the α-solenoid scaffold, suggesting a mechanism for channel gating by Ca(2+).

  13. CCDI: a new ligand that modulates mammalian type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chengju; Shao, Chun Hong; Padanilam, Christina; Ezell, Edward; Singh, Jaipaul; Kutty, Shelby; Bidasee, Keshore R

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are Ca2+-release channels on the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum that modulate a wide array of physiological functions. Three RyR isoforms are present in cells: RyR1, RyR2 and RyR3. To date, there are no reports on ligands that modulate RyR in an isoform-selective manner. Such ligands are not only valuable research tools, but could serve as intermediates for development of therapeutics. Experimental approach Pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid and 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide were allowed to react in carbon tetrachloride for 24 h at low temperatures and pressures. The chemical structures of the two products isolated were elucidated using NMR spectrometry, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. [3H]-ryanodine binding, lipid bilayer and time-lapsed confocal imaging were used to determine their effects on RyR isoforms. Key results The major product, 2-cyclohexyl-3-cyclohexylimino-2, 3, dihydro–pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-1-one (CCDI) dose-dependently potentiated Ca2+-dependent binding of [3H]-ryanodine to RyR1, with no significant effects on [3H]-ryanodine binding to RyR2 or RyR3. CCDI also reversibly increased the open probability (Po) of RyR1 with minimal effects on RyR2 and RyR3. CCDI induced Ca2+ transients in C2C12 skeletal myotubes, but not in rat ventricular myocytes. This effect was blocked by pretreating cells with ryanodine. The minor product 2-cyclohexyl-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazole-1,3-dione had no effect on either [3H]-ryanodine binding or Po of RyR1, RyR2 and RyR3. Conclusions and implications A new ligand that preferentially modulates RyR1 was identified. In addition to being an important research tool, the pharmacophore of this small molecule could serve as a template for the synthesis of other isoform-selective modulators of RyRs. PMID:24819467

  14. Insights into the gating mechanism of the ryanodine-modified human cardiac Ca2+-release channel (ryanodine receptor 2).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Thomas, N Lowri; Williams, Alan J

    2014-09-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular membrane channels playing key roles in many Ca(2+) signaling pathways and, as such, are emerging novel therapeutic and insecticidal targets. RyRs are so named because they bind the plant alkaloid ryanodine with high affinity and although it is established that ryanodine produces profound changes in all aspects of function, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying altered gating is minimal. We address this issue using detailed single-channel gating analysis, mathematical modeling, and energetic evaluation of state transitions establishing that, with ryanodine bound, the RyR pore adopts an extremely stable open conformation. We demonstrate that stability of this state is influenced by interaction of divalent cations with both activating and inhibitory cytosolic sites and, in the absence of activating Ca(2+), trans-membrane voltage. Comparison of the conformational stability of ryanodine- and Imperatoxin A-modified channels identifies significant differences in the mechanisms of action of these qualitatively similar ligands.

  15. The ryanodine receptor is expressed in human pancreatic acinar cells and contributes to acinar cell injury.

    PubMed

    Lewarchik, Christopher M; Orabi, Abrahim I; Jin, Shunqian; Wang, Dong; Muili, Kamaldeen A; Shah, Ahsan U; Eisses, John F; Malik, Adeel; Bottino, Rita; Jayaraman, Thottala; Husain, Sohail Z

    2014-09-01

    Physiological calcium (Ca(2+)) signals within the pancreatic acinar cell regulate enzyme secretion, whereas aberrant Ca(2+) signals are associated with acinar cell injury. We have previously identified the ryanodine receptor (RyR), a Ca(2+) release channel on the endoplasmic reticulum, as a modulator of these pathological signals. In the present study, we establish that the RyR is expressed in human acinar cells and mediates acinar cell injury. We obtained pancreatic tissue from cadaveric donors and identified isoforms of RyR1 and RyR2 by qPCR. Immunofluorescence staining of the pancreas showed that the RyR is localized to the basal region of the acinar cell. Furthermore, the presence of RyR was confirmed from isolated human acinar cells by tritiated ryanodine binding. To determine whether the RyR is functionally active, mouse or human acinar cells were loaded with the high-affinity Ca(2+) dye (Fluo-4 AM) and stimulated with taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLCS) (500 μM) or carbachol (1 mM). Ryanodine (100 μM) pretreatment reduced the magnitude of the Ca(2+) signal and the area under the curve. To determine the effect of RyR blockade on injury, human acinar cells were stimulated with pathological stimuli, the bile acid TLCS (500 μM) or the muscarinic agonist carbachol (1 mM) in the presence or absence of the RyR inhibitor ryanodine. Ryanodine (100 μM) caused an 81% and 47% reduction in acinar cell injury, respectively, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase leakage (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data establish that the RyR is expressed in human acinar cells and that it modulates acinar Ca(2+) signals and cell injury.

  16. Redox regulation of the ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel.

    PubMed

    Zissimopoulos, S; Lai, F A

    2006-11-01

    The RyR (ryanodine receptor)/calcium release channel contains a number of highly reactive thiol groups that endow it with redox sensitivity. In general, oxidizing conditions favour channel opening, while reducing conditions have the opposite effect. Thiol modification affects the channel sensitivity to its principal effectors, Ca2+, Mg2+ and ATP, and alters RyR protein interactions. Here, we give a brief account of the major findings and prevailing views in the field.

  17. Histamine H3-receptor isoforms.

    PubMed

    Bakker, R A

    2004-10-01

    Increasing evidence supports a role for HA as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in various brain functions, including emotion, cognition, and feeding. The recent cloning of the histamine H3 receptor allowed for the subsequent cloning of a variety of H3 receptor isoforms from different species as well as the H4 receptor. As a result a wide variety of H3-receptor isoforms are now known that display differential brain expression patterns and signalling properties. These recent discoveries are discussed in view of the growing interest of the H3 receptor as a target for the development of potential therapeutics.

  18. Inhibitory ryanodine prevents ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca²⁺ release without affecting endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ content in primary hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Adasme, Tatiana; Paula-Lima, Andrea; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2015-02-27

    Ryanodine is a cell permeant plant alkaloid that binds selectively and with high affinity to ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) release channels. Sub-micromolar ryanodine concentrations activate RyR channels while micromolar concentrations are inhibitory. Several reports indicate that neuronal synaptic plasticity, learning and memory require RyR-mediated Ca(2+)-release, which is essential for muscle contraction. The use of micromolar (inhibitory) ryanodine represents a common strategy to suppress RyR activity in neuronal cells: however, micromolar ryanodine promotes RyR-mediated Ca(2+) release and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) depletion in muscle cells. Information is lacking in this regard in neuronal cells; hence, we examined here if addition of inhibitory ryanodine elicited Ca(2+) release in primary hippocampal neurons, and if prolonged incubation of primary hippocampal cultures with inhibitory ryanodine affected neuronal ER calcium content. Our results indicate that inhibitory ryanodine does not cause Ca(2+) release from the ER in primary hippocampal neurons, even though ryanodine diffusion should produce initially low intracellular concentrations, within the RyR activation range. Moreover, neurons treated for 1 h with inhibitory ryanodine had comparable Ca(2+) levels as control neurons. These combined findings imply that prolonged incubation with inhibitory ryanodine, which effectively abolishes RyR-mediated Ca(2+) release, preserves ER Ca(2+) levels and thus constitutes a sound strategy to suppress neuronal RyR function.

  19. Modulation of ryanodine receptor Ca2+ channels (Review).

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Terutaka

    2010-01-01

    Ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channels (ryanodine receptors, RyRs) play a crucial role in the mobilization of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) during the excitation-contraction coupling of muscle cells. In skeletal muscle, depolarization of transverse tubules activates the RyR, whereas in cardiac muscle, a Ca2+ influx through an L-type Ca2+ channel activates the RyR. The RyR is also activated by caffeine, a low concentration (<10 µM) of ryanodine or cyclic ADP-ribose. RyR activity is inhibited by Mg2+, ruthenium red, or higher concentrations (≥100 µM) of ryanodine. The activity of RyR channels is modulated by phosphorylation and by associated proteins, including calmodulin (CaM), calsequestrin (CSQ) and FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs). In muscle cells, apoCaM (Ca2+-free CaM) activates the RyR channel, and Ca2+ CaM (Ca2+-bound CaM) inhibits the channel. CSQ can bind approximately 40 moles of Ca2+/mole of CSQ in the SR lumen of muscle cells, and interacts functionally with RyR protein. When the RyR is stimulated, Ca2+ released from the lumen is dissociated from the CSQ- Ca2+ complex. A 12-kDa or 12.6-kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP12 or FKBP12.6, respectively) is associated with RyR protein. When FKBP12 or FKBP12.6 is dissociated from the FKBP-RyR complex, the RyR is modulated (activated). Phosphorylation of the RyR by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II modulates the channel. PKA phosphorylation of the RyR on the skeletal and cardiac muscle SR dissociates FKBP12 or FKBP12.6 from the RyR complex. This review deals with the modulation mechanisms of RyR proteins by associated proteins and phosphorylation.

  20. Ryanodine Receptor Allosteric Coupling and the Dynamics of Calcium Sparks

    PubMed Central

    Groff, Jeffrey R.; Smith, Gregory D.

    2008-01-01

    Puffs and sparks are localized intracellular Ca2+ elevations that arise from the cooperative activity of Ca2+-regulated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors and ryanodine receptors clustered at Ca2+ release sites on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum or the sarcoplasmic reticulum. While the synchronous gating of Ca2+-regulated Ca2+ channels can be mediated entirely though the buffered diffusion of intracellular Ca2+, interprotein allosteric interactions also contribute to the dynamics of ryanodine receptor (RyR) gating and Ca2+ sparks. In this article, Markov chain models of Ca2+ release sites are used to investigate how the statistics of Ca2+ spark generation and termination are related to the coupling of RyRs via local [Ca2+] changes and allosteric interactions. Allosteric interactions are included in a manner that promotes the synchronous gating of channels by stabilizing neighboring closed-closed and/or open-open channel pairs. When the strength of Ca2+-mediated channel coupling is systematically varied (e.g., by changing the Ca2+ buffer concentration), simulations that include synchronizing allosteric interactions often exhibit more robust Ca2+ sparks; however, for some Ca2+ coupling strengths the sparks are less robust. We find no evidence that the distribution of spark durations can be used to distinguish between allosteric interactions that stabilize closed channel pairs, open channel pairs, or both in a balanced fashion. On the other hand, the changes in spark duration, interspark interval, and frequency observed when allosteric interactions that stabilize closed channel pairs are gradually removed from simulations are qualitatively different than the changes observed when open or both closed and open channel pairs are stabilized. Thus, our simulations clarify how changes in spark statistics due to pharmacological washout of the accessory proteins mediating allosteric coupling may indicate the type of synchronizing allosteric interactions exhibited

  1. Calsequestrin interacts directly with the cardiac ryanodine receptor luminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Handhle, Ahmed; Ormonde, Chloe E.; Thomas, N. Lowri; Bralesford, Catherine; Williams, Alan J.; Lai, F. Anthony

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cardiac muscle contraction requires sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release mediated by the quaternary complex comprising the ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2), calsequestrin 2 (CSQ2), junctin (encoded by ASPH) and triadin. Here, we demonstrate that a direct interaction exists between RyR2 and CSQ2. Topologically, CSQ2 binding occurs at the first luminal loop of RyR2. Co-expression of RyR2 and CSQ2 in a human cell line devoid of the other quaternary complex proteins results in altered Ca2+-release dynamics compared to cells expressing RyR2 only. These findings provide a new perspective for understanding the SR luminal Ca2+ sensor and its involvement in cardiac physiology and disease. PMID:27609834

  2. Functional switching of GABAergic synapses by ryanodine receptor activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Miao-Kun; Nelson, Thomas J.; Alkon, Daniel L.

    2000-10-01

    The role of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) in modifiability of synapses made by the basket interneurons onto the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells was examined in rats. Associating single-cell RyR activation with postsynaptic depolarization increased intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations and reversed the basket interneuron-CA1 inhibitory postsynaptic potential into an excitatory postsynaptic potential. This synaptic transformation was accompanied by a shift of the reversal potential from that of chloride toward that of bicarbonate. This inhibitory postsynaptic potential-excitatory postsynaptic potential transformation was prevented by blocking RyR or carbonic anhydrase. Associated postsynaptic depolarization and RyR activation, therefore, changes GABAergic synapses from excitation filters to amplifier and, thereby, shapes information flow through the hippocampal network.

  3. Selective expression of the type 3 isoform of ryanodine receptor Ca{sup 2+} release channel (RyR3) in a subset of slow fibers in diaphragm and cephalic muscles of adult rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Conti, Antonio; Reggiani, Carlo; Sorrentino, Vincenzo . E-mail: v.sorrentino@unisi.it

    2005-11-11

    The expression pattern of the RyR3 isoform of Ca{sup 2+} release channels was analysed by Western blot in neonatal and adult rabbit skeletal muscles. The results obtained show that the expression of the RyR3 isoform is developmentally regulated. In fact, RyR3 expression was detected in all muscles analysed at 2 and 15 days after birth while, in adult animals, it was restricted to a subset of muscles that includes diaphragm, masseter, pterygoideus, digastricus, and tongue. Interestingly, all of these muscles share a common embryonic origin being derived from the somitomeres or from the cephalic region of the embryo. Immunofluorescence analysis of rabbit skeletal muscle cross-sections showed that RyR3 staining was detected in all fibers of neonatal muscles. In contrast, in those adult muscles expressing RyR3 only a fraction of fibers was labelled. Staining of these muscles with antibodies against fast and slow myosins revealed a close correlation between expression of RyR3 and fibers expressing slow myosin isoform.

  4. Sphingosylphosphocholine modulates the ryanodine receptor/calcium-release channel of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Betto, R; Teresi, A; Turcato, F; Salviati, G; Sabbadini, R A; Krown, K; Glembotski, C C; Kindman, L A; Dettbarn, C; Pereon, Y; Yasui, K; Palade, P T

    1997-01-01

    Sphingosylphosphocholine (SPC) modulates Ca2+ release from isolated cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes; 50 microM SPC induces the release of 70 80% of the accumulated calcium. SPC release calcium from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum through the ryanodine receptor, since the release is inhibited by the ryanodine receptor channel antagonists ryanodine. Ruthenium Red and sphingosine. In intact cardiac myocytes, even in the absence of extracellular calcium. SPC causes a rise in diastolic Ca2+, which is greatly reduced when the sarcoplasmic reticulum is depleted of Ca2+ by prior thapsigargin treatment. SPC action on the ryanodine receptor is Ca(2+)-dependent. SPC shifts to the left the Ca(2+)-dependence of [3H]ryanodine binding, but only at high pCa values, suggesting that SPC might increase the sensitivity to calcium of the Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)-release mechanism. At high calcium concentrations (pCa 4.0 or lower), where [3H]ryanodine binding is maximally stimulated, no effect of SPC is observed. We conclude that SPC releases calcium from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes by activating the ryanodine receptor and possibly another intracellular Ca(2+)-release channel, the sphingolipid Ca(2+)-release-mediating protein of endoplasmic reticulum (SCaMPER) [Mao, Kim, Almenoff, Rudner, Kearney and Kindman (1996) Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci. U.S.A 93, 1993-1996], which we have identified for the first time in cardiac tissue. PMID:9078280

  5. A variably spliced region in the type 1 ryanodine receptor may participate in an inter-domain interaction.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Takashi; Pace, Suzy M; Wei, Lan; Beard, Nicole A; Dirksen, Robert T; Dulhunty, Angela F

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine residues that are variably spliced in the juvenile and adult isoforms of the skeletal-muscle RyR1 (type 1 ryanodine receptor). The juvenile ASI(-) splice variant is less active than the adult ASI(+) variant and is overexpressed in patients with DM (myotonic dystrophy) [Kimura, Nakamori, Lueck, Pouliquin, Aoike, Fujimura, Dirksen, Takahashi, Dulhunty and Sakoda (2005) Hum. Mol. Genet. 14, 2189-2200]. In the present study, we explore the ASI region using synthetic peptides corresponding to rabbit RyR1 residues Thr3471-Gly3500 either containing [PASI(+)] or lacking [PASI(-)] the ASI residues. Both peptides increased [3H]ryanodine binding to rabbit RyR1s, increased Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reti-culum vesicles and increased single RyR1 channel activity. The peptide PASI(-) was more active in each case than PASI(+). [3H]Ryanodine binding to recombinant ASI(+)RyR1 or ASI(-)-RyR1 was enhanced more by PASI(-) than PASI(+), with the greatest increase seen when PASI(-) was added to ASI(-)RyR1. The activation of the RyR channels is consistent with the hypo-thesis that the peptides interrupt an inhibitory inter-domain inter-action and that PASI(-) is more effective at interrupting this interaction than PASI(+). We therefore suggest that the ASI(-) sequence interacts more tightly than the ASI(+) sequence with its binding partner, so that the ASI(-)RyR1 is more strongly inhibited (less active) than the ASI(+)RyR1. Thus the affinity of the binding partners in this inter-domain interaction may deter-mine the activities of the mature and juvenile isoforms of RyR1 and the stronger inhibition in the juvenile isoform may contribute to the myopathy in DM.

  6. Intracellular Zinc Modulates Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor-mediated Calcium Release*

    PubMed Central

    Woodier, Jason; Rainbow, Richard D.; Stewart, Alan J.; Pitt, Samantha J.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant Zn2+ homeostasis is a hallmark of certain cardiomyopathies associated with altered contractile force. In this study, we addressed whether Zn2+ modulates cardiac ryanodine receptor gating and Ca2+ dynamics in isolated cardiomyocytes. We reveal that Zn2+ is a high affinity regulator of RyR2 displaying three modes of operation. Picomolar free Zn2+ concentrations potentiate RyR2 responses, but channel activation is still dependent on the presence of cytosolic Ca2+. At concentrations of free Zn2+ >1 nm, Zn2+ is the main activating ligand, and the dependence on Ca2+ is removed. Zn2+ is therefore a higher affinity activator of RyR2 than Ca2+. Millimolar levels of free Zn2+ were found to inhibit channel openings. In cardiomyocytes, consistent with our single channel results, we show that Zn2+ modulates both the frequency and amplitude of Ca2+ waves in a concentration-dependent manner and that physiological levels of Zn2+ elicit Ca2+ release in the absence of activating levels of cytosolic Ca2+. This highlights a new role for intracellular Zn2+ in shaping Ca2+ dynamics in cardiomyocytes through modulation of RyR2 gating. PMID:26041778

  7. Leaky ryanodine receptors contribute to diaphragmatic weakness during mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Matecki, Stefan; Dridi, Haikel; Jung, Boris; Saint, Nathalie; Reiken, Steven R.; Scheuermann, Valérie; Mrozek, Ségolène; Umanskaya, Alisa; Petrof, Basil J.; Jaber, Samir; Marks, Andrew R.; Lacampagne, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction (VIDD) refers to the diaphragm muscle weakness that occurs following prolonged controlled mechanical ventilation (MV). The presence of VIDD impedes recovery from respiratory failure. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms accounting for VIDD are still not fully understood. Here, we show in human subjects and a mouse model of VIDD that MV is associated with rapid remodeling of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR1) in the diaphragm. The RyR1 macromolecular complex was oxidized, S-nitrosylated, Ser-2844 phosphorylated, and depleted of the stabilizing subunit calstabin1, following MV. These posttranslational modifications of RyR1 were mediated by both oxidative stress mediated by MV and stimulation of adrenergic signaling resulting from the anesthesia. We demonstrate in the murine model that such abnormal resting SR Ca2+ leak resulted in reduced contractile function and muscle fiber atrophy for longer duration of MV. Treatment with β-adrenergic antagonists or with S107, a small molecule drug that stabilizes the RyR1–calstabin1 interaction, prevented VIDD. Diaphragmatic dysfunction is common in MV patients and is a major cause of failure to wean patients from ventilator support. This study provides the first evidence to our knowledge of RyR1 alterations as a proximal mechanism underlying VIDD (i.e., loss of function, muscle atrophy) and identifies RyR1 as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27457930

  8. Drosophila Ryanodine Receptors Mediate General Anesthesia by Halothane

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shuying; Sandstrom, David J.; Smith, Harold E.; High, Brigit; Marsh, Jon W.; Nash, Howard A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although in vitro studies have identified numerous possible targets, the molecules that mediate the in vivo effects of volatile anesthetics remain largely unknown. The mammalian ryanodine receptor (Ryr) is a known halothane target, and we hypothesized that it has a central role in anesthesia. Methods Gene function of the Drosophila Ryr (dRyr) was manipulated in the whole body or in specific tissues using a collection of mutants and transgenes, and responses to halothane were measured with a reactive climbing assay. Cellular responses to halothane were studied using Ca2+ imaging and patch clamp electrophysiology. Results Halothane potency strongly correlates with dRyr gene copy number, and missense mutations in regions known to be functionally important in mammalian Ryrs gene cause dominant hypersensitivity. Tissue-specific manipulation of dRyr shows that expression in neurons and glia, but not muscle, mediates halothane sensitivity. In cultured cells, halothane-induced Ca2+ efflux is strictly dRyr-dependent, suggesting a close interaction between halothane and dRyr. Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiology of Drosophila central neurons reveal halothane-induced Ca2+ flux that is altered in dRyr mutants and correlates with strong hyperpolarization. Conclusions In Drosophila, neurally-expressed dRyr mediates a substantial proportion of halothane's anesthetic effects in vivo, is potently activated by halothane in vitro, and activates an inhibitory conductance. Our results provide support for Ryr as an important mediator of immobilization by volatile anesthetics. PMID:23254148

  9. Intracellular Zinc Modulates Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor-mediated Calcium Release.

    PubMed

    Woodier, Jason; Rainbow, Richard D; Stewart, Alan J; Pitt, Samantha J

    2015-07-10

    Aberrant Zn(2+) homeostasis is a hallmark of certain cardiomyopathies associated with altered contractile force. In this study, we addressed whether Zn(2+) modulates cardiac ryanodine receptor gating and Ca(2+) dynamics in isolated cardiomyocytes. We reveal that Zn(2+) is a high affinity regulator of RyR2 displaying three modes of operation. Picomolar free Zn(2+) concentrations potentiate RyR2 responses, but channel activation is still dependent on the presence of cytosolic Ca(2+). At concentrations of free Zn(2+) >1 nm, Zn(2+) is the main activating ligand, and the dependence on Ca(2+) is removed. Zn(2+) is therefore a higher affinity activator of RyR2 than Ca(2+). Millimolar levels of free Zn(2+) were found to inhibit channel openings. In cardiomyocytes, consistent with our single channel results, we show that Zn(2+) modulates both the frequency and amplitude of Ca(2+) waves in a concentration-dependent manner and that physiological levels of Zn(2+) elicit Ca(2+) release in the absence of activating levels of cytosolic Ca(2+). This highlights a new role for intracellular Zn(2+) in shaping Ca(2+) dynamics in cardiomyocytes through modulation of RyR2 gating.

  10. Architecture and conformational switch mechanism of the ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Efremov, Rouslan G; Leitner, Alexander; Aebersold, Ruedi; Raunser, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contraction is initiated by the release of calcium (Ca(2+)) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm of myocytes through ryanodine receptors (RyRs). RyRs are homotetrameric channels with a molecular mass of more than 2.2 megadaltons that are regulated by several factors, including ions, small molecules and proteins. Numerous mutations in RyRs have been associated with human diseases. The molecular mechanism underlying the complex regulation of RyRs is poorly understood. Using electron cryomicroscopy, here we determine the architecture of rabbit RyR1 at a resolution of 6.1 Å. We show that the cytoplasmic moiety of RyR1 contains two large α-solenoid domains and several smaller domains, with folds suggestive of participation in protein-protein interactions. The transmembrane domain represents a chimaera of voltage-gated sodium and pH-activated ion channels. We identify the calcium-binding EF-hand domain and show that it functions as a conformational switch allosterically gating the channel.

  11. Ryanodine receptor-mediated arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Blayney, Lynda M.; Lai, F. Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The cardiac ryanodine receptor-Ca2+ release channel (RyR2) is an essential sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) transmembrane protein that plays a central role in excitation–contraction coupling (ECC) in cardiomyocytes. Aberrant spontaneous, diastolic Ca2+ leak from the SR due to dysfunctional RyR2 contributes to the formation of delayed after-depolarisations, which are thought to underlie the fatal arrhythmia that occurs in both heart failure (HF) and in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). CPVT is an inherited disorder associated with mutations in either the RyR2 or a SR luminal protein, calsequestrin. RyR2 shows normal function at rest in CPVT but the RyR2 dysfunction is unmasked by physical exercise or emotional stress, suggesting abnormal RyR2 activation as an underlying mechanism. Several potential mechanisms have been advanced to explain the dysfunctional RyR2 observed in HF and CPVT, including enhanced RyR2 phosphorylation status, altered RyR2 regulation at luminal/cytoplasmic sites and perturbed RyR2 intra/inter-molecular interactions. This review considers RyR2 dysfunction in the context of the structural and functional modulation of the channel, and potential therapeutic strategies to stabilise RyR2 function in cardiac pathology. PMID:19345240

  12. Ryanodine receptor-2 upregulation and nicotine-mediated plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ziviani, Elena; Lippi, Giordano; Bano, Daniele; Munarriz, Eliana; Guiducci, Stefania; Zoli, Michele; Young, Kenneth W; Nicotera, Pierluigi

    2011-01-05

    Nicotine, the major psychoactive component of cigarette smoke, modulates neuronal activity to produce Ca2+-dependent changes in gene transcription. However, the downstream targets that underlie the long-term effects of nicotine on neuronal function, and hence behaviour, remain to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that nicotine administration to mice upregulates levels of the type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2), a Ca2+-release channel present on the endoplasmic reticulum, in a number of brain areas associated with cognition and addiction, notably the cortex and ventral midbrain. Nicotine-mediated RyR2 upregulation was driven by CREB, and caused a long-lasting reinforcement of Ca2+ signalling via the process of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release. RyR2 upregulation was itself required for long-term phosphorylation of CREB in a positive-feedback signalling loop. We further demonstrate that inhibition of RyR-activation in vivo abolishes sensitization to nicotine-induced habituated locomotion, a well-characterised model for onset of drug dependence. Our findings, therefore, indicate that gene-dependent reprogramming of Ca2+ signalling is involved in nicotine-induced behavioural changes.

  13. Calmodulin regulation and identification of calmodulin binding region of type-3 ryanodine receptor calcium release channel.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Naohiro; Xu, Le; Pasek, Daniel A; Evans, Kelly E; Chen, S R Wayne; Meissner, Gerhard

    2005-11-15

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a family of intracellular Ca(2+) channels that are regulated by calmodulin (CaM). At low Ca(2+) concentrations (<1 microM), CaM activates RyR1 and RyR3 and inhibits RyR2. At elevated Ca(2+) concentrations (>1 microM), CaM inhibits all three RyR isoforms. Here we report that the regulation of recombinant RyR3 by CaM is sensitive to redox regulation. RyR3 in the presence of reduced glutathione binds CaM with 10-15-fold higher affinity, at low and high Ca(2+) concentrations, compared to in the presence of oxidized glutathione. However, compared to RyR1 assayed at low Ca(2+) concentrations under both reducing and oxidizing conditions, CaM binds RyR3 with reduced affinity but activates RyR3 to a greater extent. Under reducing conditions, RyR1 and RyR3 activities are inhibited with a similar affinity at [Ca(2+)] > 1 microM. Mutagenesis studies demonstrate that RyR3 contains a single conserved CaM binding site. Corresponding amino acid substitutions in the CaM binding site differentially affect CaM binding and CaM regulation of RyR3 and those of the two other isoforms. The results support the suggestion that other isoform dependent regions have a major role in the regulation of RyRs by CaM [Yamaguchi et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 36433-36439].

  14. Functional Coupling of Ca2+ Channels and Ryanodine Receptors in Cardiac Myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sham, James S. K.; Cleemann, Lars; Morad, Martin

    1995-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, dihydropyridine receptors are functionally coupled to ryanodine receptors of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in triadic or diadic junctional complexes. In cardiac muscle direct physical or functional couplings have not been demonstrated. We have tested the hypothesis of functional coupling of L-type Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors in rat cardiac myocytes by comparing the efficacies of Ca2+ in triggering Ca2+ release when the ion enters the cell via the Ca2+ channels or the Na^+/Ca2+ exchanger. Ca2+ transported through the Ca2+ channels was 20-160 times more effective than Ca2+ influx via the Na^+/Ca2+ exchanger in gating Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, suggesting privileged communication between Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors. In support of this hypothesis we found that Ca2+ channels were inactivated by Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, even though the myoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations were buffered with 10 mM EGTA. The data thus suggest privileged cross signaling between the dihydropyridine and ryanodine receptors such that Ca2+ flux through either the Ca2+ channel or the ryanodine receptor alters the gating kinetics of the other channel.

  15. Cardiomyocyte ryanodine receptor degradation by chaperone-mediated autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Pedrozo, Zully; Torrealba, Natalia; Fernández, Carolina; Gatica, Damian; Toro, Barbra; Quiroga, Clara; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Sanchez, Gina; Gillette, Thomas G.; Hill, Joseph A.; Donoso, Paulina; Lavandero, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Time for primary review: 15 days Aims Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a selective mechanism for the degradation of soluble cytosolic proteins bearing the sequence KFERQ. These proteins are targeted by chaperones and delivered to lysosomes where they are translocated into the lysosomal lumen and degraded via the lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP-2A). Mutations in LAMP2 that inhibit autophagy result in Danon disease characterized by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) plays a key role in cardiomyocyte excitation–contraction and its dysfunction can lead to cardiac failure. Whether RyR2 is degraded by CMA is unknown. Methods and results To induce CMA, cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were treated with geldanamycin (GA) to promote protein degradation through this pathway. GA increased LAMP-2A levels together with its redistribution and colocalization with Hsc70 in the perinuclear region, changes indicative of CMA activation. The inhibition of lysosomes but not proteasomes prevented the loss of RyR2. The recovery of RyR2 content after incubation with GA by siRNA targeting LAMP-2A suggests that RyR2 is degraded via CMA. In silico analysis also revealed that the RyR2 sequence harbours six KFERQ motifs which are required for the recognition Hsc70 and its degradation via CMA. Our data suggest that presenilins are involved in RyR2 degradation by CMA. Conclusion These findings are consistent with a model in which oxidative damage of the RyR2 targets it for turnover by presenilins and CMA, which could lead to removal of damaged or leaky RyR2 channels. PMID:23404999

  16. Multiple Modes of Ryanodine Receptor 2 Inhibition by Flecainide

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, D.; Imtiaz, M. S.; van Helden, D. F.; Knollmann, B. C.

    2014-01-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) causes sudden cardiac death due to mutations in cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2), calsequestrin, or calmodulin. Flecainide, a class I antiarrhythmic drug, inhibits Na+ and RyR2 channels and prevents CPVT. The purpose of this study is to identify inhibitory mechanisms of flecainide on RyR2. RyR2 were isolated from sheep heart, incorporated into lipid bilayers, and investigated by single-channel recording under various activating conditions, including the presence of cytoplasmic ATP (2 mM) and a range of cytoplasmic [Ca2+], [Mg2+], pH, and [caffeine]. Flecainide applied to either the cytoplasmic or luminal sides of the membrane inhibited RyR2 by two distinct modes: 1) a fast block consisting of brief substate and closed events with a mean duration of ∼1 ms, and 2) a slow block consisting of closed events with a mean duration of ∼1 second. Both inhibition modes were alleviated by increasing cytoplasmic pH from 7.4 to 9.5 but were unaffected by luminal pH. The slow block was potentiated in RyR2 channels that had relatively low open probability, whereas the fast block was unaffected by RyR2 activation. These results show that these two modes are independent mechanisms for RyR2 inhibition, both having a cytoplasmic site of action. The slow mode is a closed-channel block, whereas the fast mode blocks RyR2 in the open state. At diastolic cytoplasmic [Ca2+] (100 nM), flecainide possesses an additional inhibitory mechanism that reduces RyR2 burst duration. Hence, multiple modes of action underlie RyR2 inhibition by flecainide. PMID:25274603

  17. Structural determinants of skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor gating.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Srinivas; Chakraborty, Asima; Xu, Le; Mei, Yingwu; Samsó, Montserrat; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Meissner, Gerhard

    2013-03-01

    Ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) releases Ca(2+) from intracellular stores upon nerve impulse to trigger skeletal muscle contraction. Effector binding at the cytoplasmic domain tightly controls gating of the pore domain of RyR1 to release Ca(2+). However, the molecular mechanism that links effector binding to channel gating is unknown due to lack of structural data. Here, we used a combination of computational and electrophysiological methods and cryo-EM densities to generate structural models of the open and closed states of RyR1. Using our structural models, we identified an interface between the pore-lining helix (Tyr-4912-Glu-4948) and a linker helix (Val-4830-Val-4841) that lies parallel to the cytoplasmic membrane leaflet. To test the hypothesis that this interface controls RyR1 gating, we designed mutations in the linker helix to stabilize either the open (V4830W and T4840W) or closed (H4832W and G4834W) state and validated them using single channel experiments. To further confirm this interface, we designed mutations in the pore-lining helix to stabilize the closed state (Q4947N, Q4947T, and Q4947S), which we also validated using single channel experiments. The channel conductance and selectivity of the mutations that we designed in the linker and pore-lining helices were indistinguishable from those of WT RyR1, demonstrating our ability to modulate RyR1 gating without affecting ion permeation. Our integrated computational and experimental approach significantly advances the understanding of the structure and function of an unusually large ion channel.

  18. Evidence for novel caffeine and Ca2+ binding sites on the lobster skeletal ryanodine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin Jun; Williams, Alan J; Sitsapesan, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    The effects of Ca2+, ATP and caffeine on the gating of lobster skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors (RyR) was investigated after reconstitution of the channels into planar phospholipid bilayers and by using [3H]-ryanodine binding studies. The single channel studies reveal that the EC50 (60 μM) for activation of the lobster skeletal RyR by Ca2+ as the sole ligand is higher than for any other isoform of RyR studied. Inactivation of the channel by Ca2+ (EC50=1 mM) occurs at concentrations slightly higher than those required to inactivate mammalian skeletal RyR (RyR1) but lower than those required to inactivate mammalian cardiac RyR (RyR2). Lifetime analysis demonstrates that cytosolic Ca2+, as the sole activating ligand, cannot fully open the lobster skeletal RyR (maximum Po approximately 0.2). The mechanism for the increase in open probability (Po) is an increase in both the frequency and the duration of the open events. ATP is a very effective activator of the lobster RyR and can almost fully open the channel in the presence of activating cytosolic [Ca2+]. In the presence of 700 μM Ca2+, 1 mM ATP increased Po to approximately 0.8. Caffeine, often used as a tool to identify the presence of RyR channels, is relatively ineffective and cannot increase Po above the level that can be attained with Ca2+ alone. The results reveal that caffeine increases Po by a different mechanism to that of cytosolic Ca2+ demonstrating that the mechanism for channel activation by caffeine is not ‘sensitization' to cytosolic Ca2+. By studying the mechanisms involved in the activation of the lobster RyR we have demonstrated that the channel responds in a unique manner to Ca2+ and to caffeine. The results strongly indicate that these ligand binding sites on the channel are different to those on mammalian isoforms of RyR. PMID:10193789

  19. Disease Mutations in the Ryanodine Receptor Central Region: Crystal Structures of a Phosphorylation Hot Spot Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Yuchi, Zhiguang; Lau, Kelvin; Van Petegem, Filip

    2015-02-09

    Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs) are huge Ca{sup 2+} release channels in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and form targets for phosphorylation and disease mutations. We present crystal structures of a domain in three RyR isoforms, containing the Ser2843 (RyR1) and Ser2808/Ser2814 (RyR2) phosphorylation sites. The RyR1 domain is the target for 11 disease mutations. Several of these are clustered near the phosphorylation sites, suggesting that phosphorylation and disease mutations may affect the same interface. The L2867G mutation causes a drastic thermal destabilization and aggregation at room temperature. Crystal structures for other disease mutants show that they affect surface properties and intradomain salt bridges. In vitro phosphorylation experiments show that up to five residues in one long loop of RyR2 can be phosphorylated by PKA or CaMKII. Docking into cryo-electron microscopy maps suggests a putative location in the clamp region, implying that mutations and phosphorylation may affect the allosteric motions within this area.

  20. Expression and localization of ryanodine receptors in the frog semicircular canal.

    PubMed

    Perin, Paola; Botta, Laura; Tritto, Simona; Laforenza, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    Several experiments suggest an important role for store-released Ca²⁺ in hair cell organs: drugs targeting IP₃ and ryanodine (RyRs) receptors affect release from hair cells, and stores are thought to be involved in vesicle recycling at ribbon synapses. In this work we investigated the semicircular canal distribution of RyRs by immunofluorescence, using slice preparations of the sensory epithelium (to distinguish cell types) and flat mounts of the simpler nonsensory regions. RyRs were present in hair cells, mostly in supranuclear spots, but not in supporting cells; as regards nonsensory regions, they were also localized in dark cells and cells from the ductus. No labeling was found in nerve terminals, although nerve branches could be observed in proximity to hair cell RyR spots. The differential expression of RyR isoforms was studied by RT-PCR and immunoblotting, showing the presence of RyRα in both ampulla and canal arm and RyRβ in the ampulla only.

  1. Reversible block of the calcium release channel/ryanodine receptor by protamine, a heparin antidote.

    PubMed

    Koulen, P; Ehrlich, B E

    2000-07-01

    Channel activity of the calcium release channel from skeletal muscle, ryanodine receptor type 1, was measured in the presence and absence of protamine sulfate on the cytoplasmic side of the channel. Single-channel activity was measured after incorporating channels into planar lipid bilayers. Optimally and suboptimally calcium-activated calcium release channels were inactivated by the application of protamine to the cytoplasmic side of the channel. Recovery of channel activity was not observed while protamine was present. The addition of protamine bound to agarose beads did not change channel activity, implying that the mechanism of action involves an interaction with the ryanodine receptor rather than changes in the bulk calcium concentration of the medium. The block of channel activity by protamine could be reversed either by removal by perfusion with buffer or by the addition of heparin to the cytoplasmic side of the channel. Microinjection of protamine into differentiated C(2)C(12) mouse muscle cells prevented caffeine-induced intracellular calcium release. The results suggest that protamine acts on the ryanodine receptor in a similar but opposite manner from heparin and that protamine can be used as a potent, reversible inhibitor of ryanodine receptor activity.

  2. Two regions of the ryanodine receptor calcium channel are involved in Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Angela C; Yamaguchi, Naohiro

    2014-03-04

    Skeletal (RyR1) and cardiac muscle (RyR2) isoforms of ryanodine receptor calcium channels are inhibited by millimollar Ca(2+), but the affinity of RyR2 for inhibitory Ca(2+) is ~10 times lower than that of RyR1. Previous studies demonstrated that the C-terminal quarter of RyR has critical domain(s) for Ca(2+) inactivation. To obtain further insights into the molecular basis of regulation of RyRs by Ca(2+), we constructed and expressed 18 RyR1-RyR2 chimeras in HEK293 cells and determined the Ca(2+) activation and inactivation affinities of these channels using the [(3)H]ryanodine binding assay. Replacing two distinct regions of RyR1 with corresponding RyR2 sequences reduced the affinity for Ca(2+) inactivation. The first region (RyR2 amino acids 4020-4250) contains two EF-hand Ca(2+) binding motifs (EF1, amino acids 4036-4047; EF2, amino acids 4071-4082), and the second region includes the putative second transmembrane segment (S2). A RyR1-backbone chimera containing only EF2 from RyR2 had a modest (not significant) change in Ca(2+) inactivation, whereas another chimera channel carrying only EF1 from RyR2 had a significantly reduced level of Ca(2+) inactivation. The results suggest that EF1 is a more critical determinant for RyR inactivation by Ca(2+). In addition, activities of the chimera carrying RyR2 EF-hands were suppressed at 10-100 μM Ca(2+), and the suppression was relieved by 1 mM Mg(2+). The same effects have been observed with wild-type RyR2. A mutant RyR1 carrying both regions replaced with RyR2 sequences (amino acids 4020-4250 and 4560-4618) showed a Ca(2+) inactivation affinity comparable to that of RyR2, indicating that these regions are sufficient to confer RyR2-type Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation on RyR1.

  3. Phosphorylation of the purified cardiac ryanodine receptor by exogenous and endogenous protein kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Hohenegger, M; Suko, J

    1993-01-01

    The ryanodine receptor is the main Ca(2+)-release structure in skeletal and cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum. In both tissues, phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor has been proposed to be involved in the regulation of Ca2+ release. In the present study, we have examined the ability of the purified cardiac ryanodine receptor to serve as a substrate for phosphorylation by exogenously added catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PK-A), cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PK-G), or calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (PK-CaM). A large amount of phosphate incorporation was observed for PK-CaM (938 +/- 48 pmol of Pi/mg of purified channel protein), whereas the level of phosphorylation was considerably lower with PK-A or PK-G (345 +/- 139 and 96 +/- 6 pmol/mg respectively). In addition, endogenous PK-CaM activity co-migrates with the ryanodine receptor through several steps of purification, suggesting a strong association of the two proteins. This endogenous PK-CaM activity is abolished by a PK-CaM-specific synthetic peptide inhibitor. Endogenous cAMP- and cGMP-dependent phosphorylation was not observed in the purified ryanodine-receptor preparation. Taken together, these observations imply that PK-CaM is the physiologically relevant protein kinase, capable of phosphorylating the channel protein to a minimum stoichiometry of 2 mol of Pi per mol of tetramer. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8257417

  4. Nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate activates the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Hohenegger, Martin; Suko, Josef; Gscheidlinger, Regina; Drobny, Helmut; Zidar, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Calcium is a universal second messenger. The temporal and spatial information that is encoded in Ca(2+)-transients drives processes as diverse as neurotransmitter secretion, axonal outgrowth, immune responses and muscle contraction. Ca(2+)-release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores can be triggered by diffusible second messengers like Ins P (3), cyclic ADP-ribose or nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). A target has not yet been identified for the latter messenger. In the present study we show that nanomolar concentrations of NAADP trigger Ca(2+)-release from skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. This was due to a direct action on the Ca(2+)-release channel/ryanodine receptor type-1, since in single channel recordings, NAADP increased the open probability of the purified channel protein. The effects of NAADP on Ca(2+)-release and open probability of the ryanodine receptor occurred over a similar concentration range (EC(50) approximately 30 nM) and were specific because (i) they were blocked by Ruthenium Red and ryanodine, (ii) the precursor of NAADP, NADP, was ineffective at equimolar concentrations, (iii) NAADP did not affect the conductance and reversal potential of the ryanodine receptor. Finally, we also detected an ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity in the sarcoplasmic reticulum fraction of skeletal muscle. This enzyme was not only capable of synthesizing cyclic GDP-ribose but also NAADP, with an activity of 0.25 nmol/mg/min. Thus, we conclude that NAADP is generated in the vicinity of type 1 ryanodine receptor and leads to activation of this ion channel. PMID:12102654

  5. Amino acid residues 4425-4621 localized on the three-dimensional structure of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Benacquista, B L; Sharma, M R; Samsó, M; Zorzato, F; Treves, S; Wagenknecht, T

    2000-01-01

    We have localized a region contained within the sequence of amino acid residues 4425-4621 on the three-dimensional structure of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR). Mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against a peptide comprising these residues have been complexed with ryanodine receptors and imaged in the frozen-hydrated state by cryoelectron microscopy. These images, along with images of antibody-free ryanodine receptor, were used to compute two-dimensional averaged images and three-dimensional reconstructions. Two-dimensional averages of immunocomplexes in which the ryanodine receptor was in the fourfold symmetrical orientation disclosed four symmetrical regions of density located on the edges of the receptor's cytoplasmic assembly that were absent from control averages of receptor without added antibody. Three-dimensional reconstructions revealed the antibody-binding sites to be on the so-called handle domains of the ryanodine receptor's cytoplasmic assembly, near their junction with the transmembrane assembly. This study is the first to demonstrate epitope mapping on the three-dimensional structure of the ryanodine receptor. PMID:10692321

  6. Ryanodine receptors are involved in nuclear calcium oscillation in primary pancreatic {beta}-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Ji; Chen, Zheng; Yin, Wenxuan; Miao, Lin; Zhou, Zhansong; Ji, Guangju

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that RyRs are expressed on the nuclear envelope in single primary pancreatic {beta}-cells and isolated nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed that the pattern of glucose-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillation in the nucleus and cytosol was similar. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results demonstrate that ryanodine-sensitive Ca{sup 2+} stores exist and have function in the pancreatic {beta}-cell nucleus. -- Abstract: Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are mainly located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and play an important role in regulating glucose-induced cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} oscillation in pancreatic {beta}-cells. However, subcellular locations and functions of RyRs on other cell organelles such as nuclear envelope are not well understood. In order to investigate the role of RyRs in nuclear Ca{sup 2+} oscillation we designed and conducted experiments in intact primary pancreatic {beta}-cells. Immunocytochemistry was used to examine the expression of RYRs on the nuclear envelope. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate the function of RYRs on the nuclear envelope. We found that RyRs are expressed on the nuclear envelope in single primary pancreatic {beta}-cells and isolated nuclei. Laser scanning confocal microscopy studies indicated that application of glucose to the cells co-incubated with Ca{sup 2+} indicator Fluo-4 AM and cell-permeable nuclear indicator Hoechst 33342 resulted in nuclear Ca{sup 2+} oscillation. The pattern of glucose-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillation in the nucleus and cytosol was similar. The reduction of Ca{sup 2+} oscillation amplitude by ryanodine was much greater in the nucleus though both the cytosol and the nucleus Ca{sup 2+} amplitude decreased by ryanodine. Our results suggest that functional ryanodine receptors not only exist in endoplasmic reticulum but are also expressed in nuclear envelope of pancreatic {beta}-cells.

  7. Function and expression of ryanodine receptors and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors in smooth muscle cells of murine feed arteries and arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Westcott, Erika B; Goodwin, Erica L; Segal, Steven S; Jackson, William F

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that vasomotor control is differentially regulated between feed arteries and downstream arterioles from the cremaster muscle of C57BL/6 mice. In isolated pressurized arteries, confocal Ca2+ imaging of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) revealed Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ waves. Ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonists (ryanodine and tetracaine) inhibited both sparks and waves but increased global Ca2+ and myogenic tone. In arterioles, SMCs exhibited only Ca2+ waves that were insensitive to ryanodine or tetracaine. Pharmacological interventions indicated that RyRs are functionally coupled to large-conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BKCa) in SMCs of arteries, whereas BKCa appear functionally coupled to voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in SMCs of arterioles. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) antagonists (xestospongin D or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate) or a phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122) attenuated Ca2+ waves, global Ca2+ and myogenic tone in arteries and arterioles but had no effect on arterial sparks. Real-time PCR of isolated SMCs revealed RyR2 as the most abundant isoform transcript; arteries expressed twice the RyR2 but only 65% the RyR3 of arterioles and neither vessel expressed RyR1. Immunofluorescent localisation of RyR protein indicated bright, clustered staining of arterial SMCs in contrast to diffuse staining in arteriolar SMCs. Expression of IP3R transcripts and protein immunofluorescence were similar in SMCs of both vessels with IP3R1>>IP3R2>IP3R3. Despite similar expression of IP3Rs and dependence of Ca2+ waves on IP3Rs, these data illustrate pronounced regional heterogeneity in function and expression of RyRs between SMCs of the same vascular resistance network. We conclude that vasomotor control is differentially regulated in feed arteries vs. downstream arterioles. PMID:22331418

  8. Selenoprotein N is required for ryanodine receptor calcium release channel activity in human and zebrafish muscle.

    PubMed

    Jurynec, Michael J; Xia, Ruohong; Mackrill, John J; Gunther, Derrick; Crawford, Thomas; Flanigan, Kevin M; Abramson, Jonathan J; Howard, Michael T; Grunwald, David Jonah

    2008-08-26

    Mutations affecting the seemingly unrelated gene products, SepN1, a selenoprotein of unknown function, and RyR1, the major component of the ryanodine receptor intracellular calcium release channel, result in an overlapping spectrum of congenital myopathies. To identify the immediate developmental and molecular roles of SepN and RyR in vivo, loss-of-function effects were analyzed in the zebrafish embryo. These studies demonstrate the two proteins are required for the same cellular differentiation events and are needed for normal calcium fluxes in the embryo. SepN is physically associated with RyRs and functions as a modifier of the RyR channel. In the absence of SepN, ryanodine receptors from zebrafish embryos or human diseased muscle have altered biochemical properties and have lost their normal sensitivity to redox conditions, which likely accounts for why mutations affecting either factor lead to similar diseases.

  9. Sexual Dimorphism in a Reciprocal Interaction of Ryanodine and IP3 Receptors in the Induction of Hyperalgesic Priming.

    PubMed

    Khomula, Eugen V; Ferrari, Luiz F; Araldi, Dionéia; Levine, Jon D

    2017-02-22

    Hyperalgesic priming, a model of pain chronification in the rat, is mediated by ryanodine receptor-dependent calcium release. Although ryanodine induces priming in both sexes, females are 5 orders of magnitude more sensitive, by an estrogen receptor α (EsRα)-dependent mechanism. An inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptor inhibitor prevented the induction of priming by ryanodine. For IP3 induced priming, females were also more sensitive. IP3-induced priming was prevented by pretreatment with inhibitors of the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase and ryanodine receptor. Antisense to EsRα prevented the induction of priming by low-dose IP3 in females. The induction of priming by an EsRα agonist was ryanodine receptor-dependent and prevented by the IP3 antagonist. Thus, an EsRα-dependent bidirectional interaction between endoplasmic reticulum IP3 and ryanodine receptor-mediated calcium signaling is present in the induction of hyperalgesic priming, in females. In cultured male DRG neurons, IP3 (100 μm) potentiated depolarization-induced transients produced by extracellular application of high-potassium solution (20 mm, K20), in nociceptors incubated with β-estradiol. This potentiation of depolarization-induced calcium transients was blocked by the IP3 antagonist, and not observed in the absence of IP3 IP3 potentiation was also blocked by ryanodine receptor antagonist. The application of ryanodine (2 nm), instead of IP3, also potentiated K20-induced calcium transients in the presence of β-estradiol, in an IP3 receptor-dependent manner. Our results point to an EsRα-dependent, reciprocal interaction between IP3 and ryanodine receptors that contributes to sex differences in hyperalgesic priming.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The present study demonstrates a mechanism that plays a role in the marked sexual dimorphism observed in a model of the transition to chronic pain, hyperalgesic priming. This mechanism involves a reciprocal interaction between the endoplasmic

  10. Functional characterisation of the R2452W ryanodine receptor variant associated with malignant hyperthermia susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Roesl, Cornelia; Sato, Keisaku; Schiemann, Anja; Pollock, Neil; Stowell, Kathryn M

    2014-09-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder that manifests in susceptible individuals exposed to volatile anaesthetics. Over 400 variants in the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) have been reported but relatively few have been definitively associated with susceptibility to MH. This is largely due to the technical challenges of demonstrating abnormal Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This study focuses on the R2452W variant and its functional characterisation with the aim of classifying this variant as MH causative. HEK293 cells were transiently transfected with full-length human wildtype or R2452W mutant RYR1 cDNA. In addition, B-lymphoblastoid cells from blood and myoblasts propagated from in vitro contracture tests were extracted from patients positive for the R2452W variant. All cell lines generated were loaded with the ratiometric dye Fura-2 AM, stimulated with the RYR1-specific agonist 4-chloro-m-cresol and Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum was monitored by fluorescence emission. All cells expressing the RYR1 R2452W variant show a significantly higher Ca(2+) release in response to the agonist, 4-chloro-m-cresol, compared to cells expressing RYR1 WT. These results indicate that the R2452W variant results in a hypersensitive ryanodine receptor 1 and suggest that the R2452W variant in the ryanodine receptor 1 is likely to be causative of MH.

  11. Glucose-Dependent Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cell Islets from Male Rats Requires Ca2+ Release via ROS-Stimulated Ryanodine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Paola; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Barrientos, Genaro; Valencia, Marco; Mears, David; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells requires an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]). Glucose uptake into β-cells promotes Ca2+ influx and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In other cell types, Ca2+ and ROS jointly induce Ca2+ release mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels. Therefore, we explored here if RyR-mediated Ca2+ release contributes to GSIS in β-cell islets isolated from male rats. Stimulatory glucose increased islet insulin secretion, and promoted ROS generation in islets and dissociated β-cells. Conventional PCR assays and immunostaining confirmed that β-cells express RyR2, the cardiac RyR isoform. Extended incubation of β-cell islets with inhibitory ryanodine suppressed GSIS; so did the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), which also decreased insulin secretion induced by glucose plus caffeine. Inhibitory ryanodine or NAC did not affect insulin secretion induced by glucose plus carbachol, which engages inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Incubation of islets with H2O2 in basal glucose increased insulin secretion 2-fold. Inhibitory ryanodine significantly decreased H2O2-stimulated insulin secretion and prevented the 4.5-fold increase of cytoplasmic [Ca2+] produced by incubation of dissociated β-cells with H2O2. Addition of stimulatory glucose or H2O2 (in basal glucose) to β-cells disaggregated from islets increased RyR2 S-glutathionylation to similar levels, measured by a proximity ligation assay; in contrast, NAC significantly reduced the RyR2 S-glutathionylation increase produced by stimulatory glucose. We propose that RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release, induced by the concomitant increases in [Ca2+] and ROS produced by stimulatory glucose, is an essential step in GSIS. PMID:26046640

  12. Expression of ryanodine receptor RyR3 produces Ca2+ sparks in dyspedic myotubes

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Christopher W; Schneider, Martin F; Castillo, Daniel; Protasi, Feliciano; Wang, Yaming; Wayne Chen, S R; Allen, Paul D

    2000-01-01

    Discrete, localized elevations of myoplasmic [Ca2+], Ca2+‘sparks’, were readily detected using the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 and laser scanning confocal microscopy in ‘dyspedic’ 1B5 myotubes, i.e. myotubes which do not express ryanodine receptors (RyRs), transduced with virions containing cDNA for RyR type 3 that were saponin permeabilized to allow dye entry. Ca2+ sparks were never observed in non-transduced RyR null myotubes.The spatial locations of sparks observed in permeabilized myotubes roughly corresponded to regions of RyR protein expression in the same myotube as detected after subsequent fixation and antibody staining.Permeabilized RyR3-transduced myotubes exhibited similar punctate peripheral RyR3 protein immunohistochemical patterns as myotubes fixed before permeabilization indicating that permeabilization did not affect the structural organization of the triad.Ca2+ sparks, recorded in line scan mode, in permeabilized myotubes expressing RyR3 exhibited mean amplitudes (change in fluorescence/mean fluorescence, ΔF/F: 1.20 ± 0.04) and temporal rise times (10-90 %; 6.31 ± 0.12 ms) similar to those of sparks recorded in permeabilized frog skeletal muscle fibres (0.98 ± 0.01; 6.11 ± 0.07, respectively) using the same confocal system. Spatial extent and temporal duration of the Ca2+ sparks were ≈40 % larger in the RyR3-expressing myotube cultures than in frog fibres.Ca2+ sparks recorded in line scan mode often occurred repetitively at the same spatial location in RyR3-expressing myotubes. Such repetitive events were highly reproducible in amplitude and spatio-temporal properties, as previously observed for repetitive mode sparks in frog skeletal muscle.Ca2+ sparks recorded in xy mode were frequently compressed in the y (slower scan) direction compared to the x direction. This asymmetry was reproduced assuming spatially symmetric events having the time course of Ca2+ sparks recorded in line scan (xt) mode.These expression studies

  13. Structure-activity relationship for noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners toward the ryanodine receptor-Ca2+ channel complex type 1 (RyR1).

    PubMed

    Pessah, Isaac N; Hansen, Larry G; Albertson, Timothy E; Garner, C Edwin; Ta, Tram Anh; Do, Zung; Kim, Kyung Ho; Wong, Patty W

    2006-01-01

    Ryanodine receptor isoforms are expressed in both excitable and nonexcitable tissues where they form microsomal Ca2+ release channels broadly involved in shaping cellular signaling. In this report, we provide a detailed structure-activity relationship (SAR) for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and metabolites necessary for enhancing ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) activity using [3H]ryanodine ([3H]Ry) binding analysis. The 2,3,6-Cl PCB configuration is most important for optimal recognition by the RyR1 complex and/or critical for sensitizing its activation. Para substitution(s) diminishes the activity with para-chloro having a higher potency than the corresponding para-hydroxy derivative. The addition of a more bulky para-methyl-sulfonyl group eliminates the activity toward RyR1, supporting the importance of the para positions in binding RyR1. The requirement for an intact major T cell immunophilin FKBP12-RyR1 complex was observed with each of 12 active PCB congeners indicating a common mechanism requiring an immunophilin-regulated Ca2+ release channel. An excellent correlation between the relative potencies for doubling [3H]Ry binding and the corresponding initial rates of PCB-induced Ca2+ efflux indicates that [3H]Ry binding analysis provides a measure of dysregulation of microsomal Ca2+ transport. The SAR for activating RyR1 is consistent with those previously reported in several in vivo and in vitro studies, suggesting that a common mechanism may contribute to the toxicity of noncoplanar PCBs. A practical application of the receptor-based screen developed here with RyR1 is that it provides a quantitative SAR that may be useful in predicting biological activity and risk of mixtures containing noncoplanar PCB congeners that have low or a lack of aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity.

  14. Carbonylation induces heterogeneity in cardiac ryanodine receptor function in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chun Hong; Tian, Chengju; Ouyang, Shouqiang; Moore, Caronda J; Alomar, Fadhel; Nemet, Ina; D'Souza, Alicia; Nagai, Ryoji; Kutty, Shelby; Rozanski, George J; Ramanadham, Sasanka; Singh, Jaipaul; Bidasee, Keshore R

    2012-09-01

    Heart failure and arrhythmias occur at 3 to 5 times higher rates among individuals with diabetes mellitus, compared with age-matched, healthy individuals. Studies attribute these defects in part to alterations in the function of cardiac type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2s), the principal Ca(2+)-release channels on the internal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). To date, mechanisms underlying RyR2 dysregulation in diabetes remain poorly defined. A rat model of type 1 diabetes, in combination with echocardiography, in vivo and ex vivo hemodynamic studies, confocal microscopy, Western blotting, mass spectrometry, site-directed mutagenesis, and [(3)H]ryanodine binding, lipid bilayer, and transfection assays, was used to determine whether post-translational modification by reactive carbonyl species (RCS) represented a contributing cause. After 8 weeks of diabetes, spontaneous Ca(2+) release in ventricular myocytes increased ~5-fold. Evoked Ca(2+) release from the SR was nonuniform (dyssynchronous). Total RyR2 protein levels remained unchanged, but the ability to bind the Ca(2+)-dependent ligand [(3)H]ryanodine was significantly reduced. Western blotting and mass spectrometry revealed RCS adducts on select basic residues. Mutation of residues to delineate the physiochemical impact of carbonylation yielded channels with enhanced or reduced cytoplasmic Ca(2+) responsiveness. The prototype RCS methylglyoxal increased and then decreased the RyR2 open probability. Methylglyoxal also increased spontaneous Ca(2+) release and induced Ca(2+) waves in healthy myocytes. Treatment of diabetic rats with RCS scavengers normalized spontaneous and evoked Ca(2+) release from the SR, reduced carbonylation of RyR2s, and increased binding of [(3)H]ryanodine to RyR2s. From these data, we conclude that post-translational modification by RCS contributes to the heterogeneity in RyR2 activity that is seen in experimental diabetes.

  15. Stressed out: the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor as a target of stress

    PubMed Central

    Bellinger, Andrew M.; Mongillo, Marco; Marks, Andrew R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past century, understanding the mechanisms underlying muscle fatigue and weakness has been the focus of much investigation. However, the dominant theory in the field, that lactic acidosis causes muscle fatigue, is unlikely to tell the whole story. Recently, dysregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release has been associated with impaired muscle function induced by a wide range of stressors, from dystrophy to heart failure to muscle fatigue. Here, we address current understandings of the altered regulation of SR Ca2+ release during chronic stress, focusing on the role of the SR Ca2+ release channel known as the type 1 ryanodine receptor. PMID:18246195

  16. Effect of gadolinium on the ryanodine receptor/sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sárközi, Sándor; Szegedi, Csaba; Lukács, Balázs; Ronjat, Michel; Jóna, István

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gadolinium ions on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium release channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR1) was studied using heavy SR (HSR) vesicles and RyR1 isolated from rabbit fast twitch muscle. In the [(3)H]ryanodine binding assay, 5 microM Gd(3+) increased the K(d) of the [(3)H]ryanodine binding of the vesicles from 33.8 nM to 45.6 nM while B(max), referring to the binding capacity, was not affected significantly. In the presence of 18 nM[(3)H]ryanodine and 100 microM free Ca(2+), Gd(3+) inhibited the binding of the radiolabeled ryanodine with an apparent K(d) value of 14.7 microM and a Hill coefficient of 3.17. In (45)Ca(2+) experiments the time constant of (45)Ca(2+) efflux from HSR vesicles increased from 90.9 (+/- 11.1) ms to 187.7 (+/- 24.9) ms in the presence of 20 microM gadolinium. In single channel experiments gadolinium inhibited the channel activity from both the cytoplasmic (cis) (IC(50) = 5.65 +/- 0.33 microM, n(Hill) = 4.71) and the luminal (trans) side (IC(50) = 5.47 +/- 0.24 microM, n(Hill) = 4.31). The degree of inhibition on the cis side didn't show calcium dependency in the 100 microM to 1 mM Ca(2+) concentration range which indicates no competition with calcium on its regulatory binding sites. When Gd(3+) was applied at the trans side, EGTA was present at the cis side to prevent the binding of Gd(+3) to the cytoplasmic calcium binding regulatory sites of the RyR1 if Gd(3+) accidentally passed through the channel. The inhibition of the channel did not show any voltage dependence, which would be the case if Gd(3+) exerted its effect after getting to the cis side. Our results suggest the presence of inhibitory binding sites for Gd(3+) on both sides of the RyR1 with similar Hill coefficients and IC(50) values.

  17. Disease mutations in the ryanodine receptor N-terminal region couple to a mobile intersubunit interface.

    PubMed

    Kimlicka, Lynn; Lau, Kelvin; Tung, Ching-Chieh; Van Petegem, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors are large channels that release Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Hundreds of RyR mutations can cause cardiac and skeletal muscle disorders, yet detailed mechanisms explaining their effects have been lacking. Here we compare pseudo-atomic models and propose that channel opening coincides with widening of a cytoplasmic vestibule formed by the N-terminal region, thus altering an interface targeted by 20 disease mutations. We solve crystal structures of several disease mutants that affect intrasubunit domain-domain interfaces. Mutations affecting intrasubunit ionic pairs alter relative domain orientations, and thus couple to surrounding interfaces. Buried disease mutations cause structural changes that also connect to the intersubunit contact area. These results suggest that the intersubunit contact region between N-terminal domains is a prime target for disease mutations, direct or indirect, and we present a model whereby ryanodine receptors and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are activated by altering domain arrangements in the N-terminal region.

  18. Heterogeneous function of ryanodine receptors, but not IP3 receptors, in hamster cremaster muscle feed arteries and arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Westcott, Erika B.

    2011-01-01

    The roles played by ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) in vascular smooth muscle in the microcirculation remain unclear. Therefore, the function of both RyRs and IP3Rs in Ca2+ signals and myogenic tone in hamster cremaster muscle feed arteries and downstream arterioles were assessed using confocal imaging and pressure myography. Feed artery vascular smooth muscle displayed Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ waves, which were inhibited by the RyR antagonists ryanodine (10 μM) or tetracaine (100 μM). Despite the inhibition of sparks and waves, ryanodine or tetracaine increased global intracellular Ca2+ and constricted the arteries. The blockade of IP3Rs with xestospongin D (5 μM) or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (100 μM) or the inhibition of phospholipase C using U-73122 (10 μM) also attenuated Ca2+ waves without affecting Ca2+ sparks. Importantly, the IP3Rs and phospholipase C antagonists decreased global intracellular Ca2+ and dilated the arteries. In contrast, cremaster arterioles displayed only Ca2+ waves: Ca2+ sparks were not observed, and neither ryanodine (10–50 μM) nor tetracaine (100 μM) affected either Ca2+ signals or arteriolar tone despite the presence of functional RyRs as assessed by responses to the RyR agonist caffeine (10 mM). As in feed arteries, arteriolar Ca2+ waves were attenuated by xestospongin D (5 μM), 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (100 μM), and U-73122 (10 μM), accompanied by decreased global intracellular Ca2+ and vasodilation. These findings highlight the contrasting roles played by RyRs and IP3Rs in Ca2+ signals and myogenic tone in feed arteries and demonstrate important differences in the function of RyRs between feed arteries and downstream arterioles. PMID:21357503

  19. Methanethiosulfonate ethylammonium block of amine currents through the ryanodine receptor reveals single pore architecture.

    PubMed

    Anyatonwu, Georgia I; Buck, Edmond D; Ehrlich, Barbara E

    2003-11-14

    The homotetrameric structure of the ryanodine-sensitive intracellular calcium (Ca2+) release channel (ryanodine receptor (RyR)) suggests that the four RyR subunits either combine to form a single pore or that each RyR subunit is an independently conducting pathway. Previously we showed that methanethiosulfonate ethylammonium (MTSEA+) covalently modifies the RyR to reduce current amplitudes in a time-dependent and stepwise manner. To ascertain the number of functionally conducting pores in the RyR, two approaches were combined: modification of the receptor by MTSEA+ and the use of different sized current carriers. Previous reports (Tinker, A., and Williams, A. J. (1993) J. Gen. Physiol. 102, 1107-1129) have shown that the organic cations methylamine, dimethylamine, ethylamine, and trimethylamine are permeant through the RyR but with reduced current amplitude depending upon the diameter of the respective amine. Experiments using the thiol reagent MTSEA+ to modify the channel protein showed that the current amplitudes decrease in steps leading to complete block of the channel when cesium (Cs+) is the current carrier. MTSEA+ modification decreased the number of channel substates as the diameter of the current carrier increased. Comparison of the degree of inhibition of MTSEA+-modified currents allows for differentiation between the two models for channel architecture. These results demonstrate that the conduction pathway for the RyR is comprised of a single central pore.

  20. Ryanodine receptors, calcium signaling and regulation of vascular tone in the cerebral parenchymal microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Dabertrand, Fabrice; Nelson, Mark T.; Brayden, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    The cerebral blood supply is delivered by a surface network of pial arteries and arterioles from which arise (parenchymal) arterioles that penetrate into the cortex and terminate in a rich capillary bed. The critical regulation of cerebral blood flow, locally and globally, requires precise vasomotor regulation of the intracerebral microvasculature. This vascular region is anatomically unique as illustrated by the presence of astrocytic processes that envelope almost the entire basolateral surface of parenchymal arterioles. There are, moreover, notable functional differences between pial arteries and parenchymal arterioles. For example, in pial vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), local calcium release events (“calcium sparks”) through ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels in sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane activate large conductance, calcium-sensitive potassium (BK) channels to modulate vascular diameter. In contrast, VSMCs in parenchymal arterioles express functional RyR and BK channels, but under physiological conditions these channels do not oppose pressure-induced vasoconstriction. Here we summarize the roles of ryanodine receptors in the parenchymal microvasculature under physiologic and pathologic conditions, and discuss their importance in the control of cerebral blood flow. PMID:23216877

  1. Channel Gating Dependence on Pore Lining Helix Glycine Residues in Skeletal Muscle Ryanodine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yingwu; Xu, Le; Mowrey, David D; Mendez Giraldez, Raul; Wang, Ying; Pasek, Daniel A; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Meissner, Gerhard

    2015-07-10

    Type 1 ryanodine receptors (RyR1s) release Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to initiate skeletal muscle contraction. The role of RyR1-G4934 and -G4941 in the pore-lining helix in channel gating and ion permeation was probed by replacing them with amino acid residues of increasing side chain volume. RyR1-G4934A, -G4941A, and -G4941V mutant channels exhibited a caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release response in HEK293 cells and bound the RyR-specific ligand [(3)H]ryanodine. In single channel recordings, significant differences in the number of channel events and mean open and close times were observed between WT and RyR1-G4934A and -G4941A. RyR1-G4934A had reduced K(+) conductance and ion selectivity compared with WT. Mutations further increasing the side chain volume at these positions (G4934V and G4941I) resulted in reduced caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release in HEK293 cells, low [(3)H]ryanodine binding levels, and channels that were not regulated by Ca(2+) and did not conduct Ca(2+) in single channel measurements. Computational predictions of the thermodynamic impact of mutations on protein stability indicated that although the G4934A mutation was tolerated, the G4934V mutation decreased protein stability by introducing clashes with neighboring amino acid residues. In similar fashion, the G4941A mutation did not introduce clashes, whereas the G4941I mutation resulted in intersubunit clashes among the mutated isoleucines. Co-expression of RyR1-WT with RyR1-G4934V or -G4941I partially restored the WT phenotype, which suggested lessening of amino acid clashes in heterotetrameric channel complexes. The results indicate that both glycines are important for RyR1 channel function by providing flexibility and minimizing amino acid clashes.

  2. Structure–function relationships of peptides forming the calcin family of ryanodine receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Liang; Gurrola, Georgina B.; Zhang, Jing; Valdivia, Carmen R.; SanMartin, Mario; Zamudio, Fernando Z.; Zhang, Liming; Possani, Lourival D.

    2016-01-01

    Calcins are a novel family of scorpion peptides that bind with high affinity to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and increase their activity by inducing subconductance states. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the structure–function relationships of the eight calcins known to date, based on their primary sequence, three-dimensional modeling, and functional effects on skeletal RyRs (RyR1). Primary sequence alignment and evolutionary analysis show high similarity among all calcins (≥78.8% identity). Other common characteristics include an inhibitor cysteine knot (ICK) motif stabilized by three pairs of disulfide bridges and a dipole moment (DM) formed by positively charged residues clustering on one side of the molecule and neutral and negatively charged residues segregating on the opposite side. [3H]Ryanodine binding assays, used as an index of the open probability of RyRs, reveal that all eight calcins activate RyR1 dose-dependently with Kd values spanning approximately three orders of magnitude and in the following rank order: opicalcin1 > opicalcin2 > vejocalcin > hemicalcin > imperacalcin > hadrucalcin > maurocalcin >> urocalcin. All calcins significantly augment the bell-shaped [Ca2+]-[3H]ryanodine binding curve with variable effects on the affinity constants for Ca2+ activation and inactivation. In single channel recordings, calcins induce the appearance of a subconductance state in RyR1 that has a unique fractional value (∼20% to ∼60% of the full conductance state) but bears no relationship to binding affinity, DM, or capacity to stimulate Ca2+ release. Except for urocalcin, all calcins at 100 nM concentration stimulate Ca2+ release and deplete Ca2+ load from skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum. The natural variation within the calcin family of peptides offers a diversified set of high-affinity ligands with the capacity to modulate RyRs with high dynamic range and potency. PMID:27114612

  3. Structure-function relationships of peptides forming the calcin family of ryanodine receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Liang; Gurrola, Georgina B; Zhang, Jing; Valdivia, Carmen R; SanMartin, Mario; Zamudio, Fernando Z; Zhang, Liming; Possani, Lourival D; Valdivia, Héctor H

    2016-05-01

    Calcins are a novel family of scorpion peptides that bind with high affinity to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and increase their activity by inducing subconductance states. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the structure-function relationships of the eight calcins known to date, based on their primary sequence, three-dimensional modeling, and functional effects on skeletal RyRs (RyR1). Primary sequence alignment and evolutionary analysis show high similarity among all calcins (≥78.8% identity). Other common characteristics include an inhibitor cysteine knot (ICK) motif stabilized by three pairs of disulfide bridges and a dipole moment (DM) formed by positively charged residues clustering on one side of the molecule and neutral and negatively charged residues segregating on the opposite side. [(3)H]Ryanodine binding assays, used as an index of the open probability of RyRs, reveal that all eight calcins activate RyR1 dose-dependently with Kd values spanning approximately three orders of magnitude and in the following rank order: opicalcin1 > opicalcin2 > vejocalcin > hemicalcin > imperacalcin > hadrucalcin > maurocalcin > urocalcin. All calcins significantly augment the bell-shaped [Ca(2+)]-[(3)H]ryanodine binding curve with variable effects on the affinity constants for Ca(2+) activation and inactivation. In single channel recordings, calcins induce the appearance of a subconductance state in RyR1 that has a unique fractional value (∼20% to ∼60% of the full conductance state) but bears no relationship to binding affinity, DM, or capacity to stimulate Ca(2+) release. Except for urocalcin, all calcins at 100 nM concentration stimulate Ca(2+) release and deplete Ca(2+) load from skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum. The natural variation within the calcin family of peptides offers a diversified set of high-affinity ligands with the capacity to modulate RyRs with high dynamic range and potency.

  4. Characterization of ryanodine receptor type 1 single channel activity using "on-nucleus" patch clamp.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Larry E; Groom, Linda A; Dirksen, Robert T; Yule, David I

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we provide the first description of the biophysical and pharmacological properties of ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) expressed in a native membrane using the on-nucleus configuration of the patch clamp technique. A stable cell line expressing rabbit RyR1 was established (HEK-RyR1) using the FLP-in 293 cell system. In contrast to untransfected cells, RyR1 expression was readily demonstrated by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry in HEK-RyR1 cells. In addition, the RyR1 agonists 4-CMC and caffeine activated Ca(2+) release that was inhibited by high concentrations of ryanodine. On nucleus patch clamp was performed in nuclei prepared from HEK-RyR1 cells. Raising the [Ca(2+)] in the patch pipette resulted in the appearance of a large conductance cation channel with well resolved kinetics and the absence of prominent subconductance states. Current versus voltage relationships were ohmic and revealed a chord conductance of ∼750pS or 450pS in symmetrical 250mM KCl or CsCl, respectively. The channel activity was markedly enhanced by caffeine and exposure to ryanodine resulted in the appearance of a subconductance state with a conductance ∼40% of the full channel opening with a Po near unity. In total, these properties are entirely consistent with RyR1 channel activity. Exposure of RyR1 channels to cyclic ADP ribose (cADPr), nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) or dantrolene did not alter the single channel activity stimulated by Ca(2+), and thus, it is unlikely these molecules directly modulate RyR1 channel activity. In summary, we describe an experimental platform to monitor the single channel properties of RyR channels. We envision that this system will be influential in characterizing disease-associated RyR mutations and the molecular determinants of RyR channel modulation.

  5. Structural and functional characterization of ryanodine receptor-natrin toxin interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiang; Wang, Qiong-Ling; Meng, Xing; Shu, Yuyan; Jiang, Tao; Wagenknecht, Terence; Yin, Chang-Cheng; Sui, Sen-Fang; Liu, Zheng

    2008-11-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) are widely distributed, and notably occur in the mammalian reproductive tract and in the salivary glands of venomous reptiles. Most CRISPs can inhibit ion channels, such as the cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel, potassium channel, and calcium channel. Natrin is a CRISP that has been purified from snake venom. Its targets include the calcium-activated potassium channel, the voltage-gated potassium channel, and the calcium release channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR). Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that natrin binds specifically to type 1 RyR (RyR1) from skeletal muscle. Natrin was found to inhibit both the binding of ryanodine to RyR1, and the calcium-channel activity of RyR1. Cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle image reconstruction analysis revealed that natrin binds to the clamp domains of RyR1. Docking of the crystal structure of natrin into our cryo-electron microscopy density map of the RyR1 + natrin complex suggests that natrin inhibits RyR1 by stabilizing a domain-domain interaction, and that the cysteine-rich domain of natrin is crucial for binding. These findings help reveal how natrin toxin inhibits the RyR calcium release channel, and they allow us to posit a generalized mechanism that governs the interaction between CRISPs and ion channels.

  6. Direct association of the reticulon protein RTN1A with the ryanodine receptor 2 in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Levent; Meissner, Barbara; Riedl, Maria Christine; Muik, Martin; Schwarzer, Christoph; Ferraguti, Francesco; Sarg, Bettina; Lindner, Herbert; Schweigreiter, Rüdiger; Knaus, Hans-Günther; Romanin, Christoph; Bandtlow, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    RTN1A is a reticulon protein with predominant localization in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It was previously shown that RTN1A is expressed in neurons of the mammalian central nervous system but functional information remains sparse. To elucidate the neuronal function of RTN1A, we chose to focus our investigation on identifying possible novel binding partners specifically interacting with the unique N-terminus of RTN1A. Using a nonbiased approach involving GST pull-downs and MS analysis, we identified the intracellular calcium release channel ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) as a direct binding partner of RTN1A. The RyR2 binding site was localized to a highly conserved 150-amino acid residue region. RTN1A displays high preference for RyR2 binding in vitro and in vivo and both proteins colocalize in hippocampal neurons and Purkinje cells. Moreover, we demonstrate the precise subcellular localization of RTN1A in Purkinje cells and show that RTN1A inhibits RyR channels in [3H]ryanodine binding studies on brain synaptosomes. In a functional assay, RTN1A significantly reduced RyR2-mediated Ca2 + oscillations. Thus, RTN1A and RyR2 might act as functional partners in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2 + dynamics the in neurons. PMID:23454728

  7. Dendritic differentiation of cerebellar Purkinje cells is promoted by ryanodine receptors expressed by Purkinje and granule cells.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Ryo; Sakata, Shin-ichi; Naito, Asami; Hirashima, Naohide; Tanaka, Masahiko

    2014-04-01

    Cerebellar Purkinje cells have the most elaborate dendritic trees among neurons in the brain. We examined the roles of ryanodine receptor (RyR), an intracellular Ca(2+) release channel, in the dendrite formation of Purkinje cells using cerebellar cell cultures. In the cerebellum, Purkinje cells express RyR1 and RyR2, whereas granule cells express RyR2. When ryanodine (10 µM), a blocker of RyR, was added to the culture medium, the elongation and branching of Purkinje cell dendrites were markedly inhibited. When we transferred small interfering RNA (siRNA) against RyR1 into Purkinje cells using single-cell electroporation, dendritic branching but not elongation of the electroporated Purkinje cells was inhibited. On the other hand, transfection of RyR2 siRNA into granule cells also inhibited dendritic branching of Purkinje cells. Furthermore, ryanodine reduced the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the culture medium. The ryanodine-induced inhibition of dendritic differentiation was partially rescued when BDNF was exogenously added to the culture medium in addition to ryanodine. Overall, these results suggest that RyRs expressed by both Purkinje and granule cells play important roles in promoting the dendritic differentiation of Purkinje cells and that RyR2 expressed by granule cells is involved in the secretion of BDNF from granule cells.

  8. Is ryanodine receptor phosphorylation key to the fight or flight response and heart failure?

    PubMed

    Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    In situations of stress the heart beats faster and stronger. According to Marks and colleagues, this response is, to a large extent, the consequence of facilitated Ca²+ release from intracellular Ca²+ stores via ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2), thought to be due to catecholamine-induced increases in RyR2 phosphorylation at serine 2808 (S2808). If catecholamine stimulation is sustained (for example, as occurs in heart failure), RyR2 becomes hyperphosphorylated and "leaky," leading to arrhythmias and other pathology. This "leaky RyR2 hypothesis" is highly controversial. In this issue of the JCI, Marks and colleagues report on two new mouse lines with mutations in S2808 that provide strong evidence supporting their theory. Moreover, the experiments revealed an influence of redox modifications of RyR2 that may account for some discrepancies in the field.

  9. Novel targets for treating heart and muscle disease: stabilizing ryanodine receptors and preventing intracellular calcium leak.

    PubMed

    Lehnart, Stephan E

    2007-04-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) function as intracellular Ca(2+) release channels on the endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes. In striated muscles, Ca(2+) release through RyRs controls muscle excitation-contraction coupling. RyR channel function is regulated by a cytoplasmic scaffold domain that forms a macromolecular signaling complex including calstabin (formerly known as FK506-binding protein), calmodulin, phosphodiesterase, kinase and phosphatase proteins. An increasing number of genetic and acquired diseases has been associated with intracellular Ca(2+) leak. In heart failure, for instance, the RyR complex becomes altered, resulting in chronic channel dysfunction and chronic sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak. Recently, the efficacy of novel Ca(2+) release channel-stabilizing drugs has been demonstrated in cardiac and skeletal muscle disease models.

  10. Nitric oxide-induced calcium release via ryanodine receptors regulates neuronal function.

    PubMed

    Kakizawa, Sho; Yamazawa, Toshiko; Chen, Yili; Ito, Akihiro; Murayama, Takashi; Oyamada, Hideto; Kurebayashi, Nagomi; Sato, Osamu; Watanabe, Masahiko; Mori, Nozomu; Oguchi, Katsuji; Sakurai, Takashi; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Saito, Nobuhito; Iino, Masamitsu

    2012-01-18

    Mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) stores regulates a multitude of cellular functions, but the role of intracellular Ca(2+) release via the ryanodine receptor (RyR) in the brain remains incompletely understood. We found that nitric oxide (NO) directly activates RyRs, which induce Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores of central neurons, and thereby promote prolonged Ca(2+) signalling in the brain. Reversible S-nitrosylation of type 1 RyR (RyR1) triggers this Ca(2+) release. NO-induced Ca(2+) release (NICR) is evoked by type 1 NO synthase-dependent NO production during neural firing, and is essential for cerebellar synaptic plasticity. NO production has also been implicated in pathological conditions including ischaemic brain injury, and our results suggest that NICR is involved in NO-induced neuronal cell death. These findings suggest that NICR via RyR1 plays a regulatory role in the physiological and pathophysiological functions of the brain.

  11. Calcineurin upregulates local Ca(2+) signaling through ryanodine receptor-1 in airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Carlo P; Liu, Qing-Hua; Zheng, Yun-Min; Yadav, Vishal; Zhang, Zhen; Wu, Ling-Gang; Wang, Yong-Xiao

    2014-11-15

    Local Ca(2+) signals (Ca(2+) sparks) play an important role in multiple cellular functions in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Protein kinase Cϵ is known to downregulate ASMC Ca(2+) sparks and contraction; however, no complementary phosphatase has been shown to produce opposite effects. Here, we for the first time report that treatment with a specific calcineurin (CaN) autoinhibitory peptide (CAIP) to block CaN activity decreases, whereas application of nickel to activate CaN increases, Ca(2+) sparks in both the presence and absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Treatment with xestospogin-C to eliminate functional inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors does not prevent CAIP from inhibiting local Ca(2+) signaling. However, high ryanodine treatment almost completely blocks spark formation and prevents the nickel-mediated increase in sparks. Unlike CAIP, the protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor endothall has no effect. Local Ca(2+) signaling is lower in CaN catalytic subunit Aα gene knockout (CaN-Aα(-/-)) mouse ASMCs. The effects of CAIP and nickel are completely lost in CaN-Aα(-/-) ASMCs. Neither CAIP nor nickel produces an effect on Ca(2+) sparks in type 1 ryanodine receptor heterozygous knockout (RyR1(-/+)) mouse ASMCs. However, their effects are not altered in RyR2(-/+) or RyR3(-/-) mouse ASMCs. CaN inhibition decreases methacholine-induced contraction in isolated RyR1(+/+) but not RyR1(-/+) mouse tracheal rings. Supportively, muscarinic contractile responses are also reduced in CaN-Aα(-/+) mouse tracheal rings. Taken together, these results provide novel evidence that CaN regulates ASMC Ca(2+) sparks specifically through RyR1, which plays an important role in the control of Ca(2+) signaling and contraction in ASMCs.

  12. Functional calcium release channel formed by the carboxyl-terminal portion of ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, M B; Zhao, J; Takeshima, H; Ma, J

    1997-01-01

    The ryanodine receptor (RyR) is one of the key proteins involved in excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling in skeletal muscle, where it functions as a Ca2+ release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane. RyR consists of a single polypeptide of approximately 560 kDa normally arranged in a homotetrameric structure, which contains a carboxyl (C)-terminal transmembrane domain and a large amino (N)-terminal cytoplasmic domain. To test whether the carboxyl-terminal portion of RyR is sufficient to form a Ca2+ release channel, we expressed the full-length (RyR-wt) and C-terminal (RyR-C, approximately 130 kDa) RyR proteins in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, and measured their Ca2+ release channel functions in planar lipid bilayer membranes. The single-channel properties of RyR-wt were found to be similar to those of RyR from skeletal muscle SR. The RyR-C protein forms a cation-selective channel that shares some of the channel properties with RyR-wt, including activation by cytoplasmic Ca2+ and regulation by ryanodine. Unlike RyR-wt, which exhibits a linear current-voltage relationship and inactivates at millimolar Ca2+, the channels formed by RyR-C display significant inward rectification and fail to close at high cytoplasmic Ca2+. Our results show that the C-terminal portion of RyR contains structures sufficient to form a functional Ca2+ release channel, but the N-terminal portion of RyR also affects the ion-conduction and calcium-dependent regulation of the Ca2+ release channel. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:9284301

  13. Dynamic regulation of ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) channel activity by Homer 1.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Tu, Jiancheng; Pouliquin, Pierre; Cabrales, Elaine; Shen, Xiaohua; Dulhunty, Angela; Worley, Paul F; Allen, Paul D; Pessah, Isaac N

    2008-03-01

    Homer, a family of scaffolding proteins originally identified in neurons, is also expressed in skeletal muscle. Previous studies showed that splice variants of Homer 1 (H1) amplify the gain of the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) channel complex. Using [3H]ryanodine ([3H]Ry) to probe the conformational state of RyR1, the actions of long- and short-forms of H1 are examined singly and in combination. At < or =200 nM, H1 long-forms (H1b or H1c possessing coiled-coil (CC) domains) and short-forms (H1a or H1EVH1 lacking CC domains) enhance specific [3H]Ry binding to RyR1. However, at a concentration > 200 nM, either H1 form completely inhibited [3H]Ry binding. Importantly, the combinations of H1c+H1EVH1, or H1b+H1a acted in an additive manner to enhance or inhibit [3H]Ry-binding activity. H1a and H1c individually or in combination produced the same dynamic pattern in regulating purified RyR1 channels reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers. In combination, their net action on RyR1 channels depends on total concentrations of H1. These data provide a mechanism by which constitutively and transiently expressed H1 forms can tightly regulate RyR1 channel activity in response to changing levels of expression and degradation of H1 proteins.

  14. Antibody probe study of Ca2+ channel regulation by interdomain interaction within the ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Parness, Jerome; Ikemoto, Noriaki

    2004-01-01

    N-terminal and central domains of ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1), where many reported malignant hyperthermia (MH) mutations are localized, represent putative channel regulatory domains. Recent domain peptide (DP) probe studies led us to the hypothesis that these domains interact to stabilize the closed state of channel (zipping), while weakening of domain-domain interactions (unzipping) by mutation de-stabilizes the channel, making it leaky to Ca2+ or sensitive to the agonists of RyR1. As shown previously, DP1 (N-terminal domain peptide) and DP4 (central domain peptide) produced MH-like channel activation/sensitization effects, presumably by peptide binding to sites critical to stabilizing domain-domain interactions and resultant loss of conformational constraints. Here we report that polyclonal anti-DP1 and anti-DP4 antibodies also produce MH-like channel activation and sensitization effects as evidenced by about 4-fold enhancement of high affinity [3H]ryanodine binding to RyR1 and by a significant left-shift of the concentration-dependence of activation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release by polylysine. Fluorescence quenching experiments demonstrate that the accessibility of a DP4-directed, conformationally sensitive fluorescence probe linked to the RyR1 N-terminal domain is increased in the presence of domain-specific antibodies, consistent with the view that these antibodies produce unzipping of interacting domains that are of hindered accessibility to the surrounding aqueous environment. Our results suggest that domain-specific antibody binding induces a conformational change resulting in channel activation, and are consistent with the hypothesis that interacting N-terminal and central domains are intimately involved in the regulation of RyR1 channel function. PMID:15027895

  15. Characterization of hadrucalcin, a peptide from Hadrurus gertschi scorpion venom with pharmacological activity on ryanodine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Elisabeth F; Capes, E Michelle; Diego-García, Elia; Zamudio, Fernando Z; Fuentes, Oscar; Possani, Lourival D; Valdivia, Héctor H

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Members of the calcin family, presently including imperatoxin A, maurocalcin, opicalcins and hemicalcin, are basic, 33-mer peptide activators of ryanodine receptors (RyRs), the calcium channels of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) that provide the majority of calcium for muscle contraction. Here we describe hadrucalcin, a novel member of this family. Experimental approach: Hadrucalcin was isolated from the venom of Hadrurus gertschi. Amino acid sequence and mass were determined by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry respectively. A cDNA library was constructed to generate clones for DNA sequence determination. Biological activity of native toxin was confirmed with [3H]ryanodine binding, by using SR vesicles from cardiac and skeletal muscle, and with single skeletal (RyR1) and cardiac (RyR2) channels reconstituted in lipid bilayers. Hadrucalcin was applied to intact ventricular myocytes to investigate effects on calcium transients. The secondary structure of hadrucalcin was computer-modelled by using atomic coordinates from maurocalcin, a structurally similar peptide. Key results: Hadrucalcin is distinguished from previously described congeners by two additional amino acids in its primary sequence and the lack of prominent amphipathicity. Hadrucalcin activated RyRs with high affinity (EC50= 37 nmol·L−1), induced a long-lasting subconductance state on RyR1 and RyR2, and rapidly (lag time ∼2 s) penetrated ventricular cardiomyocytes, eliciting discharge of internal calcium stores and spontaneous contractions. Conclusions and implications: Hadrucalcin is a cell-permeant, powerful activator of RyRs, which has translational potential for targeted delivery of drugs to RyR as novel therapeutic intervention in arrhythmogenic disease. PMID:19389159

  16. Phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor mediates the cardiac fight or flight response in mice.

    PubMed

    Shan, Jian; Kushnir, Alexander; Betzenhauser, Matthew J; Reiken, Steven; Li, Jingdong; Lehnart, Stephan E; Lindegger, Nicolas; Mongillo, Marco; Mohler, Peter J; Marks, Andrew R

    2010-12-01

    During the classic "fight-or-flight" stress response, sympathetic nervous system activation leads to catecholamine release, which increases heart rate and contractility, resulting in enhanced cardiac output. Catecholamines bind to β-adrenergic receptors, causing cAMP generation and activation of PKA, which phosphorylates multiple targets in cardiac muscle, including the cardiac ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel (RyR2) required for muscle contraction. PKA phosphorylation of RyR2 enhances channel activity by sensitizing the channel to cytosolic calcium (Ca²+). Here, we found that mice harboring RyR2 channels that cannot be PKA phosphorylated (referred to herein as RyR2-S2808A+/+ mice) exhibited blunted heart rate and cardiac contractile responses to catecholamines (isoproterenol). The isoproterenol-induced enhancement of ventricular myocyte Ca²+ transients and fractional shortening (contraction) and the spontaneous beating rate of sinoatrial nodal cells were all blunted in RyR2-S2808A+/+ mice. The blunted cardiac response to catecholamines in RyR2-S2808A+/+ mice resulted in impaired exercise capacity. RyR2-S2808A+/+ mice were protected against chronic catecholaminergic-induced cardiac dysfunction. These studies identify what we believe to be new roles for PKA phosphorylation of RyR2 in both the heart rate and contractile responses to acute catecholaminergic stimulation.

  17. Minding the Calcium Store: Ryanodine Receptor Activation as a Convergent Mechanism of PCB Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Pessah, Isaac N.; Cherednichenko, Gennady; Lein, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic low level polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) exposures remain a significant public health concern since results from epidemiological studies indicate PCB burden is associated with immune system dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and impairment of the developing nervous system. Of these various adverse health effects, developmental neurotoxicity has emerged as a particularly vulnerable endpoint in PCB toxicity. Arguably the most pervasive biological effects of PCBs could be mediated by their ability to alter the spatial and temporal fidelity of Ca2+ signals through one or more receptor mediated processes. This review will focus on our current knowledge of the structure and function of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in muscle and nerve cells and how PCBs and related non-coplanar structures alter these functions. The molecular and cellular mechanisms by which non-coplanar PCBs and related structures alter local and global Ca2+ signaling properties and the possible short and long-term consequences of these perturbations on neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration are reviewed. PMID:19931307

  18. Effect of ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist in experimental diabetes induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated dementia in rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Swati; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is considered as a main risk factor for vascular dementia. In the past, we have reported the induction of vascular dementia by experimental diabetes. This study investigates the efficacy of a ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and pioglitazone in the pharmacological interdiction of pancreatectomy diabetes (PaD) induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia in rats. Attentional set shifting and Morris water-maze test were used for assessment of learning and memory. Vascular endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, serum glucose, serum nitrite/nitrate, oxidative stress (viz. aortic superoxide anion, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species and brain glutathione), brain calcium and inflammation (myeloperoxidase) were also estimated. PaD rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, learning and memory along with an increase in brain inflammation, oxidative stress and calcium. Administration of ruthenium red and pioglitazone has significantly attenuated PaD induced impairment of learning, memory, blood brain barrier permeability, endothelial function and biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist may be considered as potent pharmacological agent for the management of PaD induced endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia. Ryanodine receptor may be explored further for their possible benefits in vascular dementia.

  19. FKBP12 modulation of the binding of the skeletal ryanodine receptor onto the II-III loop of the dihydropyridine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Fiona M; Robert, Mylène; Jona, Istvan; Szegedi, Csaba; Albrieux, Mireille; Geib, Sandrine; De Waard, Michel; Villaz, Michel; Ronjat, Michel

    2002-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, excitation-contraction coupling involves a functional interaction between the ryanodine receptor (RyR) and the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR). The domain corresponding to Thr(671)-Leu(690) of the II-III loop of the skeletal DHPR alpha(1)-subunit is able to regulate RyR properties and calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum, whereas the domain corresponding to Glu(724)-Pro(760) antagonizes this effect. Two peptides, covering these sequences (peptide A(Sk) and C(Sk), respectively) were immobilized on polystyrene beads. We demonstrate that peptide A(Sk) binds to the skeletal isoform of RyR (RyR1) whereas peptide C(Sk) does not. Using surface plasmon resonance detection, we show that 1) domain Thr(671)-Leu(690) is the only sequence of the II-III loop binding with RyR1 and 2) the interaction of peptide A(Sk) with RyR1 is not modulated by Ca(2+) (pCa 9-2) nor by Mg(2+) (up to 10 mM). In contrast, this interaction is strongly potentiated by the immunophilin FKBP12 (EC(50) = 10 nM) and inhibited by both rapamycin (IC(50) = 5 nM) and FK506. Peptide A(Sk) induces a 300% increase of the opening probability of the RyR1 incorporated in lipid bilayer. Removal of FKBP12 from RyR1 completely abolishes this effect of domain A(Sk) on RyR1 channel behavior. These results demonstrate a direct interaction of the RyR1 with the discrete domain of skeletal DHPR alpha(1)-subunit corresponding to Thr(671)-Leu(690) and show that the association of FKBP12 with RyR1 specifically modulates this interaction. PMID:11751303

  20. Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor (Ryr2)-mediated Calcium Signals Specifically Promote Glucose Oxidation via Pyruvate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Bround, Michael J; Wambolt, Rich; Cen, Haoning; Asghari, Parisa; Albu, Razvan F; Han, Jun; McAfee, Donald; Pourrier, Marc; Scott, Nichollas E; Bohunek, Lubos; Kulpa, Jerzy E; Chen, S R Wayne; Fedida, David; Brownsey, Roger W; Borchers, Christoph H; Foster, Leonard J; Mayor, Thibault; Moore, Edwin D W; Allard, Michael F; Johnson, James D

    2016-11-04

    Cardiac ryanodine receptor (Ryr2) Ca(2+) release channels and cellular metabolism are both disrupted in heart disease. Recently, we demonstrated that total loss of Ryr2 leads to cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction, arrhythmia, and reduced heart rate. Acute total Ryr2 ablation also impaired metabolism, but it was not clear whether this was a cause or consequence of heart failure. Previous in vitro studies revealed that Ca(2+) flux into the mitochondria helps pace oxidative metabolism, but there is limited in vivo evidence supporting this concept. Here, we studied heart-specific, inducible Ryr2 haploinsufficient (cRyr2Δ50) mice with a stable 50% reduction in Ryr2 protein. This manipulation decreased the amplitude and frequency of cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) signals in isolated cardiomyocytes, without changes in cardiomyocyte contraction. Remarkably, in the context of well preserved contractile function in perfused hearts, we observed decreased glucose oxidation, but not fat oxidation, with increased glycolysis. cRyr2Δ50 hearts exhibited hyperphosphorylation and inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase, the key Ca(2+)-sensitive gatekeeper to glucose oxidation. Metabolomic, proteomic, and transcriptomic analyses revealed additional functional networks associated with altered metabolism in this model. These results demonstrate that Ryr2 controls mitochondrial Ca(2+) dynamics and plays a specific, critical role in promoting glucose oxidation in cardiomyocytes. Our findings indicate that partial RYR2 loss is sufficient to cause metabolic abnormalities seen in heart disease.

  1. The deletion of exon 3 in the cardiac ryanodine receptor is rescued by β strand switching.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Paolo A; Kimlicka, Lynn; Tung, Ching-Chieh; Van Petegem, Filip

    2011-06-08

    Mutations in the cardiac Ryanodine Receptor (RYR2) are linked to triggered arrhythmias. Removal of exon 3 results in a severe form of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). This exon encodes secondary structure elements that are crucial for folding of the N-terminal domain (NTD), raising the question of why the deletion is neither lethal nor confers a loss of function. We determined the 2.3 Å crystal structure of the NTD lacking exon 3. The removal causes a structural rescue whereby a flexible loop inserts itself into the β trefoil domain and increases thermal stability. The exon 3 deletion is not tolerated in the corresponding RYR1 domain. The rescue shows a novel mechanism by which RYR2 channels can adjust their Ca²⁺ release properties through altering the structure of the NTD. Despite the rescue, the deletion affects interfaces with other RYR2 domains. We propose that relative movement of the NTD is allosterically coupled to the pore region.

  2. Single-Particle Cryo-EM of the Ryanodine Receptor Channel in an Aqueous Environment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mariah R.; Fan, Guizhen

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca2+ release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca2+ release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants. PMID:26913144

  3. Single-particle cryo-EM of the ryanodine receptor channel in an aqueous environment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mariah R.; Fan, Guizhen; Serysheva, Irina I.

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca2+ release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca2+ release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants. PMID:25844145

  4. A cosmid and yeast artificial chromosome contig containing the complete ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Rouquier, S.; Giorgi, D.; Trask, B.; Bergmann, A.; De Jong, P. ); Phillips, M.S.; MacLennan, D.H. )

    1993-08-01

    The ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene is responsible for some forms of malignant hyperthermia and has been localized to 19q13.1. Central core disease is a genetic myopathy that is genetically linked to RYR1. The authors have identified an overlapping set of cosmid and YAC clones that spans more than 800 kb and includes the RYR1 gene ([approximately]205 kb). Cosmids from this region were identified by screening three chromosome 19 cosmid libraries (11-fold coverage) with six subclones representing the entire RYR1 cDNA. Genomic sequences from positive cosmids were then used as probes to identify additional cosmids. A minimally overlapping set of 23 cosmids was assembled into two contigs on the basis of restriction fragment analysis and hybridization data. Three YAC clones were isolated by screening a human YAC library with selected cosmid inserts. Overlaps among these YACs and the cosmid contigs were determined by hybridizing YAC Alu-PCR products to cosmid DNAs. The YACs bridged the gap between the cosmid contigs and extended the contig on both sides. Fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments positioned the RYR1 contig between GPI, MAG, and D19S191 on the proximal side and D19S190, CYP2A, CYP2F, SNRPA, BCKDHA, and other markers on the distal side. The 800-kb contig of cloned reagents will facilitate the detailed characterization of the RYR1 gene and other loci that may be closely related to central core disease. 62 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Single Ryanodine Receptor Channel Basis of Caffeine's Action on Ca2+ Sparks

    PubMed Central

    Porta, Maura; Zima, Aleksey V.; Nani, Alma; Diaz-Sylvester, Paula L.; Copello, Julio A.; Ramos-Franco, Josefina; Blatter, Lothar A.; Fill, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) is a widely used pharmacological agonist of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) Ca2+ release channel. It is also a well-known stimulant that can produce adverse side effects, including arrhythmias. Here, the action of caffeine on single RyR2 channels in bilayers and Ca2+ sparks in permeabilized ventricular cardiomyocytes is defined. Single RyR2 caffeine activation depended on the free Ca2+ level on both sides of the channel. Cytosolic Ca2+ enhanced RyR2 caffeine affinity, whereas luminal Ca2+ essentially scaled maximal caffeine activation. Caffeine activated single RyR2 channels in diastolic quasi-cell-like solutions (cytosolic MgATP, pCa 7) with an EC50 of 9.0 ± 0.4 mM. Low-dose caffeine (0.15 mM) increased Ca2+ spark frequency ∼75% and single RyR2 opening frequency ∼150%. This implies that not all spontaneous RyR2 openings during diastole are associated with Ca2+ sparks. Assuming that only the longest openings evoke sparks, our data suggest that a spark may result only when a spontaneous single RyR2 opening lasts >6 ms. PMID:21320437

  6. Structure of the rabbit ryanodine receptor RyR1 at near-atomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhen; Bai, Xiao-chen; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Li, Zhangqiang; Xie, Tian; Peng, Wei; Yin, Chang-cheng; Li, Xueming; Scheres, Sjors H W; Shi, Yigong; Yan, Nieng

    2015-01-01

    The ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are high-conductance intracellular Ca(2+) channels that play a pivotal role in the excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal and cardiac muscles. RyRs are the largest known ion channels, with a homotetrameric organization and approximately 5,000 residues in each protomer. Here we report the structure of the rabbit RyR1 in complex with its modulator FKBP12 at an overall resolution of 3.8 Å, determined by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy. Three previously uncharacterized domains, named central, handle and helical domains, display the armadillo repeat fold. These domains, together with the amino-terminal domain, constitute a network of superhelical scaffold for binding and propagation of conformational changes. The channel domain exhibits the voltage-gated ion channel superfamily fold with distinct features. A negative-charge-enriched hairpin loop connecting S5 and the pore helix is positioned above the entrance to the selectivity-filter vestibule. The four elongated S6 segments form a right-handed helical bundle that closes the pore at the cytoplasmic border of the membrane. Allosteric regulation of the pore by the cytoplasmic domains is mediated through extensive interactions between the central domains and the channel domain. These structural features explain high ion conductance by RyRs and the long-range allosteric regulation of channel activities.

  7. Ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel PKA phosphorylation: a critical mediator of heart failure progression.

    PubMed

    Wehrens, Xander H T; Lehnart, Stephan E; Reiken, Steven; Vest, John A; Wronska, Anetta; Marks, Andrew R

    2006-01-17

    Defective regulation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2)/calcium release channel, required for excitation-contraction coupling in the heart, has been linked to cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure. For example, diastolic calcium "leak" via RyR2 channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum has been identified as an important factor contributing to impaired contractility in heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias that cause sudden cardiac death. In patients with heart failure, chronic activation of the "fight or flight" stress response leads to protein kinase A (PKA) hyperphosphorylation of RyR2 at Ser-2808. PKA phosphorylation of RyR2 Ser-2808 reduces the binding affinity of the channel-stabilizing subunit calstabin2, resulting in leaky RyR2 channels. We developed RyR2-S2808A mice to determine whether Ser-2808 is the functional PKA phosphorylation site on RyR2. Furthermore, mice in which the RyR2 channel cannot be PKA phosphorylated were relatively protected against the development of heart failure after myocardial infarction. Taken together, these data show that PKA phosphorylation of Ser-2808 on the RyR2 channel appears to be a critical mediator of progressive cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction.

  8. Gene profiling of embryonic skeletal muscle lacking type I ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release channel.

    PubMed

    Filipova, Dilyana; Walter, Anna M; Gaspar, John A; Brunn, Anna; Linde, Nina F; Ardestani, Mostafa A; Deckert, Martina; Hescheler, Jürgen; Pfitzer, Gabriele; Sachinidis, Agapios; Papadopoulos, Symeon

    2016-02-01

    In mature skeletal muscle, the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration rises dramatically upon membrane depolarization, constituting the link between excitation and contraction. This process requires Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum via the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RYR1). However, RYR1's potential roles in muscle development remain obscure. We used an established RyR1- null mouse model, dyspedic, to investigate the effects of the absence of a functional RYR1 and, consequently, the lack of RyR1-mediated Ca(2+) signaling, during embryogenesis. Homozygous dyspedic mice die after birth and display small limbs and abnormal skeletal muscle organization. Skeletal muscles from front and hind limbs of dyspedic fetuses (day E18.5) were subjected to microarray analyses, revealing 318 differentially expressed genes. We observed altered expression of multiple transcription factors and members of key signaling pathways. Differential regulation was also observed for genes encoding contractile as well as muscle-specific structural proteins. Additional qRT-PCR analysis revealed altered mRNA levels of the canonical muscle regulatory factors Six1, Six4, Pax7, MyoD, MyoG and MRF4 in mutant muscle, which is in line with the severe developmental retardation seen in dyspedic muscle histology analyses. Taken together, these findings suggest an important non-contractile role of RyR1 or RYR1-mediated Ca(2+) signaling during muscle organ development.

  9. Green tea catechins are potent sensitizers of ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1).

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Cherednichenko, Gennady; Ward, Chris W; Padilla, Isela T; Cabrales, Elaine; Lopez, José R; Eltit, José M; Allen, Paul D; Pessah, Isaac N

    2010-08-15

    Catechins, polyphenols extracted from green tea leaves, have a broad range of biological activities although the specific molecular mechanisms responsible are not known. At the high experimental concentrations typically used polyphenols bind to membrane phospholipid and also are easily auto-oxidized to generate superoxide anion and semiquinones, and can adduct to protein thiols. We report that the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) is a molecular target that responds to nanomolar (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG). Single channel analyses demonstrate EGCG (5-10nM) increases channel open probability (Po) twofold, by lengthening open dwell time. The degree of channel activation is concentration-dependent and is rapidly and fully reversible. Four related catechins, EGCG, ECG, EGC ((-)-epigallocatechin) and EC ((-)-epicatechin) showed a rank order of activity toward RyR1 (EGCG>ECG>EGC>EC). EGCG and ECG enhance the sensitivity of RyR1 to activation by < or =100microM cytoplasmic Ca(2+) without altering inhibitory potency by >100microM Ca(2+). EGCG as high as 10microM in the extracellular medium potentiated Ca(2+) transient amplitudes evoked by electrical stimuli applied to intact myotubes and adult FDB fibers, without eliciting spontaneous Ca(2+) release or slowing Ca(2+) transient recovery. The results identify RyR1 as a sensitive target for the major tea catechins EGCG and ECG, and this interaction is likely to contribute to their observed biological activities.

  10. Nitric oxide-induced calcium release: activation of type 1 ryanodine receptor by endogenous nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Kakizawa, Sho; Yamazawa, Toshiko; Iino, Masamitsu

    2013-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs), located in the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) membrane, are required for intracellular Ca2+ release that is involved in a wide range of cellular functions. In addition to Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in cardiac cells and voltage-induced Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle cells, we recently identified another mode of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization mediated by RyR, i.e., nitric oxide-induced Ca2+ release (NICR), in cerebellar Purkinje cells. NICR is evoked by neuronal activity, is dependent on S-nitrosylation of type 1 RyR (RyR1) and is involved in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) of cerebellar synapses. In this addendum, we examined whether peroxynitrite, which is produced by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide, may also have an effect on the Ca2+ release via RyR1 and the cerebellar LTP. We found that scavengers of peroxynitrite have no significant effect either on the Ca2+ release via RyR1 or on the cerebellar LTP. We also found that an application of a high concentration of peroxynitrite does not reproduce neuronal activity-dependent Ca2+ release in Purkinje cells. These results support that NICR is induced by endogenous nitric oxide produced by neuronal activity through S-nitrosylation of RyR1.

  11. Hypernitrosylated ryanodine receptor calcium release channels are leaky in dystrophic muscle.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, Andrew M; Reiken, Steven; Carlson, Christian; Mongillo, Marco; Liu, Xiaoping; Rothman, Lisa; Matecki, Stefan; Lacampagne, Alain; Marks, Andrew R

    2009-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is characterized by progressive muscle weakness and early death resulting from dystrophin deficiency. Loss of dystrophin results in disruption of a large dystrophin glycoprotein complex, leading to pathological calcium (Ca2+)-dependent signals that damage muscle cells. We have identified a structural and functional defect in the ryanodine receptor (RyR1), a sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel, in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy that contributes to altered Ca2+ homeostasis in dystrophic muscles. RyR1 isolated from mdx skeletal muscle showed an age-dependent increase in S-nitrosylation coincident with dystrophic changes in the muscle. RyR1 S-nitrosylation depleted the channel complex of FKBP12 (also known as calstabin-1, for calcium channel stabilizing binding protein), resulting in 'leaky' channels. Preventing calstabin-1 depletion from RyR1 with S107, a compound that binds the RyR1 channel and enhances the binding affinity of calstabin-1 to the nitrosylated channel, inhibited sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak, reduced biochemical and histological evidence of muscle damage, improved muscle function and increased exercise performance in mdx mice. On the basis of these findings, we propose that sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak via RyR1 due to S-nitrosylation of the channel and calstabin-1 depletion contributes to muscle weakness in muscular dystrophy, and that preventing the RyR1-mediated sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak may provide a new therapeutic approach.

  12. DIDS modifies the conductance, gating, and inactivation mechanisms of the cardiac ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Adam Parker; Sitsapesan, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the covalent modifier of amino groups, 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) on the single-channel properties of purified sheep cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR) incorporated into planar phospholipid bilayers were investigated. DIDS increased single-channel conductance and open probability (P(o)) and induced unique modifications to the voltage-dependence of gating. The effects of DIDS on conduction and gating were irreversible within the time scale of the experiments, and both effects were dependent on the permeant ion. DIDS induced a greater increase in conductance with Ca(2+) (20%) compared with K(+) (8%) as the permeant ion. After modification by DIDS, all channels could be rapidly inactivated in a voltage-dependent manner. The open probability of the DIDS-modified channel decreased with increasing positive or negative transmembrane potentials; however, inactivation was only observed at negative potentials. Our results demonstrate that inactivation of RyR channels is dependent on the ligand activating the channel, and this will have consequences for the control and termination of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release in cardiac cells. PMID:12023226

  13. Structure of the rabbit ryanodine receptor RyR1 at near-atomic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianping; Li, Zhangqiang; Xie, Tian; Peng, Wei; Yin, Changcheng; Li, Xueming; Scheres, Sjors H.W.; Shi, Yigong; Yan, Nieng

    2014-01-01

    The ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are high-conductance intracellular Ca2+ channels that play a pivotal role in the excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal and cardiac muscles. RyRs are the largest known ion channels, with a homotetrameric organization and approximately 5000 residues in each protomer. Here we report the structure of the rabbit RyR1 in complex with its modulator FKBP12 at an overall resolution of 3.8 Å, determined by single-particle electron cryo-microscopy. Three previously uncharacterized domains, named Central, Handle, and Helical domains, display the armadillo repeat fold. These domains, together with the amino-terminal domain, constitute a network of superhelical scaffold for binding and propagation of conformational changes. The channel domain exhibits the voltage-gated ion channel superfamily fold with distinct features. A negative charge-enriched hairpin loop connecting S5 and the pore helix is positioned above the entrance to the selectivity filter vestibule. The four elongated S6 segments form a right-handed helical bundle that closes the pore at the cytoplasmic border of the membrane. Allosteric regulation of the pore by the cytoplasmic domains is mediated through extensive interactions between the Central domains and the channel domain. These structural features explain high ion conductance by RyRs and the long-range allosteric regulation of channel activities. PMID:25517095

  14. Role of malignant hyperthermia domain in the regulation of Ca2+ release channel (ryanodine receptor) of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Zorzato, F; Menegazzi, P; Treves, S; Ronjat, M

    1996-09-13

    A fusion protein encompassing Gly341 of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor was used to raise monoclonal antibodies; epitope mapping demonstrates that monoclonal antibody 419 (mAb419) reacts with a sequence a few residues upstream from Gly341. The mAb419 was then used to probe ryanodine receptor (RYR) functions. Our results show that upon incubation of triads vesicles with mAb419 the Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release rate at pCa 8 was increased. Equilibrium evaluation of [3H]ryanodine binding at different [Ca2+] indicates that mAb419 shifted the half-maximal [Ca2+] for stimulation of ryanodine binding to lower value (0.1 versus 1.2 microM). Such functional effects may be due to a direct action of the Ab on the Ca2+ binding domain of the RYR or to the perturbation by the Ab of the intramolecular interaction between the immunopositive region and regulatory domain of the RYR. The latter hypothesis was tested directly using the optical biosensor BIAcore (Pharmacia Biotech Inc.): we show that the immunopositive RYR polypeptide is able to interact with the native RYR complex. Ligand overlays with immunopositive digoxigenin-RYR fusion protein indicate that such an interaction might occur with a calmodulin binding domain (defined by residues 3010-3225) and with a polypeptide defined by residues 799-1172. In conclusion our results suggest that the stimulation by the mAb419 of the RYR channel activity is due to the perturbation of an intramolecular interaction between the immunopositive polypeptide and a Ca2+ regulatory site probably corresponding to a calmodulin binding domain.

  15. Site-specific modification of calmodulin Ca²(+) affinity tunes the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor activation profile.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Zhou, Yubin; Zou, Jin; Chen, Yanyi; Patel, Priya; Yang, Jenny J; Balog, Edward M

    2010-11-15

    The skeletal muscle isoform of the ryanodine receptor Ca²(+)-release channel (RyR1) is regulated by Ca²(+) and CaM (calmodulin). CaM shifts the biphasic Ca²(+)-dependence of RyR1 activation leftward, effectively increasing channel opening at low Ca²(+) and decreasing channel opening at high Ca²(+). The conversion of CaM from a RyR1 activator into an inhibitor is due to the binding of Ca²(+) to CaM; however, which of CaM's four Ca²(+)-binding sites serves as the switch for this conversion is unclear. We engineered a series of mutant CaMs designed to individually increase the Ca²(+) affinity of each of CaM's EF-hands by increasing the number of acidic residues in Ca²(+)-chelating positions. Domain-specific Ca²(+) affinities of each CaM variant were determined by equilibrium fluorescence titration. Mutations in sites I (T26D) or II (N60D) in CaM's N-terminal domain had little effect on CaM Ca²(+) affinity and regulation of RyR1. However, the site III mutation N97D increased the Ca²(+)-binding affinity of CaM's C-terminal domain and caused CaM to inhibit RyR1 at a lower Ca²(+) concentration than wild-type CaM. Conversely, the site IV mutation Q135D decreased the Ca²(+)-binding affinity of CaM's C-terminal domain and caused CaM to inhibit RyR1 at higher Ca²(+) concentrations. These results support the hypothesis that Ca²(+) binding to CaM's C-terminal acts as the switch converting CaM from a RyR1 activator into a channel inhibitor. These results indicate further that targeting CaM's Ca²(+) affinity may be a valid strategy to tune the activation profile of CaM-regulated ion channels.

  16. Structural and functional conservation of key domains in InsP[subscript 3] and ryanodine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Min-Duk; Velamakanni, Saroj; Ishiyama, Noboru; Stathopulos, Peter B.; Rossi, Ana M.; Khan, Samir A.; Dale, Philippa; Li, Congmin; Ames, James B.; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Taylor, Colin W.

    2012-07-11

    Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP{sub 3}Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric intracellular Ca{sup 2+} channels. In each of these receptor families, the pore, which is formed by carboxy-terminal transmembrane domains, is regulated by signals that are detected by large cytosolic structures. InsP{sub 3}R gating is initiated by InsP{sub 3} binding to the InsP{sub 3}-binding core (IBC, residues 224-604 of InsP{sub 3}R1) and it requires the suppressor domain (SD, residues 1-223 of InsP{sub 3}R1). Here we present structures of the amino-terminal region (NT, residues 1-604) of rat InsP{sub 3}R1 with (3.6 {angstrom}) and without (3.0 {angstrom}) InsP{sub 3} bound. The arrangement of the three NT domains, SD, IBC-{beta} and IBC-{alpha}, identifies two discrete interfaces ({alpha} and {beta}) between the IBC and SD. Similar interfaces occur between equivalent domains (A, B and C) in RyR1 (ref. 9). The orientations of the three domains when docked into a tetrameric structure of InsP{sub 3}R and of the ABC domains docked into RyR are remarkably similar. The importance of the {alpha}-interface for activation of InsP{sub 3}R and RyR is confirmed by mutagenesis and, for RyR, by disease-causing mutations. Binding of InsP{sub 3} causes partial closure of the clam-like IBC, disrupting the {beta}-interface and pulling the SD towards the IBC. This reorients an exposed SD loop ('hotspot' (HS) loop) that is essential for InsP{sub 3}R activation. The loop is conserved in RyR and includes mutations that are associated with malignant hyperthermia and central core disease. The HS loop interacts with an adjacent NT, suggesting that activation re-arranges inter-subunit interactions. The A domain of RyR functionally replaced the SD in full-length InsP{sub 3}R, and an InsP{sub 3}R in which its C-terminal transmembrane region was replaced by that from RyR1 was gated by InsP{sub 3} and blocked by ryanodine. Activation mechanisms are conserved between InsP{sub 3}R and Ry

  17. Subconductance states in single-channel activity of skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors after removal of FKBP12.

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, G P; Junankar, P R; Dulhunty, A F

    1997-01-01

    FKBP12 was removed from ryanodine receptors (RyRs) by incubation of rabbit skeletal muscle terminal cisternae membranes with rapamycin. The extent of FKBP12 removal was estimated by immunostaining Western blots of terminal cisternae proteins. Single FKBP12-depleted RyR channels, incorporated into planar lipid bilayers, were modulated by Ca2+, ATP, ryanodine, and ruthenium red in the cis chamber and opened frequently to the normal maximum conductance of approximately 230 pS and to substate levels of approximately 0.25, approximately 0.5, and approximately 0.75 of the maximum conductance. Substate activity was rarely seen in native RyRs. Ryanodine did not after the number of conductance levels in FKBP12-depleted channels, but, at a membrane potential of +40 mV, reduced both the maximum and the substate conductances by approximately 50%. FKBP12-stripped channels were activated by a 10-fold-lower [Ca2+] and inhibited by a 10-fold-higher [Ca2+], than RyRs from control-incubated and native terminal cisternae vesicles. The open probability (Po) of these FKBP12-deficient channels was greater than that of control channels at 0.1 microM and 1 mM cis Ca2+ but no different at 10 microM cis Ca2+, where channels showed maximal Ca2+ activation. The approximately 0.25 substate was less sensitive than the maximum conductance to inhibition by Ca2+ and was the dominant level in channels inhibited by 1 mM cis Ca2+. The results show that FKBP12 coordinates the gating of channel activity in control and ryanodine-modified RyRs. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8994600

  18. The role of ryanodine receptor type 3 in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Supnet, Charlene; Sun, Suya; Zhang, Hua; Good, Levi; Popugaeva, Elena; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling is reported to play an important role in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. The role of ER Ca(2+) release channels, the ryanodine receptors (RyanRs), has been extensivelys tudied in AD models and RyanR expression and activity are upregulated in the brains of various familial AD (FAD) models.The objective of this study was to utilize a genetic approach to evaluate the importance of RyanR type 3 (RyanR3) in the context of AD pathology.The expression of RyanR3 was also elevated in hippocampus of APPPS1 mice (Thy1-APPKM670/671NL, Thy1-PS1L166P).In young (≤ 3 mo) APPPS1 mice, the deletion of RyanR3 increased hippocampal neuronal network excitability and accelerated AD pathology, leading to mushroom spine loss and increased amyloid accumulation. In contrast, deletion of RyanR3 in older APPPS1 mice (≥ 6 mo) rescued network excitability and mushroom spine loss, reduced amyloid plaque load and reduced spontaneous seizure occurrence.Our data suggests a dual role for RyanR3 in AD pathology. In young AD neurons, RyanR3 protects AD neurons from synaptic and network dysfunction. In older AD neurons, increased RyanR3 activity contributes to pathology. These results imply that blockade of RyanR3 may be beneficial for those in the later stages of the disease, but RyanR activators may be beneficial when used prior to disease onset or in its initial stages. Caffeine is an activator of RyanRs and our results may help to explain a complex epidemiological connection between coffee consumption in mid-life and risk of AD development in old age.

  19. RNAi mediated knockdown of the ryanodine receptor gene decreases chlorantraniliprole susceptibility in Sogatella furcifera.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yao; Wan, Pin-Jun; Hu, Xing-Xing; Li, Guo-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The diamide insecticides activate ryanodine receptors (RyRs) to release and deplete intracellular calcium stores from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscles and the endoplasmic reticulum of many types of cells. They rapidly interrupt feeding of the target pest and eventually kill the pest due to starvation. However, information about the structure and function of insect RyRs is still limited. In this study, we isolated a 15,985bp full-length cDNA (named SfRyR) from Sogatella furcifera, a serious rice planthopper pest throughout Asia. SfRyR encodes a 5140-amino acid protein, which shares 78-97% sequence identities with other insect homologues, and less than 50% identities with Homo sapiens RyR1-3. All hallmarks of the RyR proteins are conserved in SfRyR. In the N-terminus, SfRyR has a MIR domain, two RIH domains, three SPRY domains, four copies of RyR repeated domain and a RIH-associated domain. In the C-terminus, SfRyR possesses two consensus calcium ion-binding EF-hand motifs, and six transmembrane helices. Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that SfRyR was widely found in all development stages including egg, first through fifth instar nymphs, macropterous adult females and males. On day 2 fifth-instar nymphs, SfRyR was ubiquitously expressed in the head, thorax and abdomen. Dietary ingestion of dsSfRyR1 and dsSfRyR2 significantly reduced the mRNA level of SfRyR in the treated nymphs by 77.9% and 81.8% respectively, and greatly decreased chlorantraniliprole-induced mortality. Thus, our results suggested that SfRyR gene encoded a functional RyR that mediates chlorantraniliprole toxicity to S. furcifera.

  20. A new cytoplasmic interaction between junctin and ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linwei; Mirza, Shamaruh; Richardson, Spencer J.; Gallant, Esther M.; Thekkedam, Chris; Pace, Suzy M.; Zorzato, Francesco; Liu, Dan; Beard, Nicole A.; Dulhunty, Angela F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Junctin, a non-catalytic splice variant encoded by the aspartate-β-hydroxylase (Asph) gene, is inserted into the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ store where it modifies Ca2+ signalling in the heart and skeletal muscle through its regulation of ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ release channels. Junctin is required for normal muscle function as its knockout leads to abnormal Ca2+ signalling, muscle dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmia. However, the nature of the molecular interaction between junctin and RyRs is largely unknown and was assumed to occur only in the SR lumen. We find that there is substantial binding of RyRs to full junctin, and the junctin luminal and, unexpectedly, cytoplasmic domains. Binding of these different junctin domains had distinct effects on RyR1 and RyR2 activity: full junctin in the luminal solution increased RyR channel activity by ∼threefold, the C-terminal luminal interaction inhibited RyR channel activity by ∼50%, and the N-terminal cytoplasmic binding produced an ∼fivefold increase in RyR activity. The cytoplasmic interaction between junctin and RyR is required for luminal binding to replicate the influence of full junctin on RyR1 and RyR2 activity. The C-terminal domain of junctin binds to residues including the S1–S2 linker of RyR1 and N-terminal domain of junctin binds between RyR1 residues 1078 and 2156. PMID:25609705

  1. Cardiac calcium signalling pathologies associated with defective calmodulin regulation of type 2 ryanodine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Arnáiz-Cot, Juan José; Damon, Brooke James; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Cleemann, Lars; Yamaguchi, Naohiro; Meissner, Gerhard; Morad, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is a homotetramer of 560 kDa polypeptides regulated by calmodulin (CaM), which decreases its open probability at diastolic and systolic Ca2+ concentrations. Point mutations in the CaM-binding domain of RyR2 (W3587A/L3591D/F3603A, RyR2ADA) in mice result in severe cardiac hypertrophy, poor left ventricle contraction and death by postnatal day 16, suggesting that CaM inhibition of RyR2 is required for normal cardiac function. Here, we report on Ca2+ signalling properties of enzymatically isolated, Fluo-4 dialysed whole cell clamped cardiac myocytes from 10–15-day-old wild-type (WT) and homozygous Ryr2ADA/ADA mice. Spontaneously occurring Ca2+ spark frequency, measured at −80 mV, was 14-fold lower in mutant compared to WT myocytes. ICa, though significantly smaller in mutant myocytes, triggered Ca2+ transients that were of comparable size to those of WT myocytes, but with slower activation and decay kinetics. Caffeine-triggered Ca2+ transients were about three times larger in mutant myocytes, generating three- to four-fold bigger Na+-Ca2+ exchanger NCX currents (INCX). Mutant myocytes often exhibited Ca2+ transients of variable size and duration that were accompanied by similarly alternating and slowly activating INCX. The data suggest that RyR2ADA mutation produces significant reduction in ICa density and ICa-triggered Ca2+ release gain, longer but infrequently occurring Ca2+ sparks, larger sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ loads, and spontaneous Ca2+ releases accompanied by activation of large and potentially arrhythmogenic inward INCX. PMID:23836685

  2. Redox modification of ryanodine receptors contributes to sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Terentyev, Dmitry; Györke, Inna; Belevych, Andriy E; Terentyeva, Radmila; Sridhar, Arun; Nishijima, Yoshinori; de Blanco, Esperanza Carcache; Khanna, Savita; Sen, Chandan K; Cardounel, Arturo J; Carnes, Cynthia A; Györke, Sandor

    2008-12-05

    Abnormal cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) function is recognized as an important factor in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF). However, the specific molecular causes underlying RyR2 defects in HF remain poorly understood. In the present study, we used a canine model of chronic HF to test the hypothesis that the HF-related alterations in RyR2 function are caused by posttranslational modification by reactive oxygen species generated in the failing heart. Experimental approaches included imaging of cytosolic ([Ca(2+)](c)) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) luminal Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]SR) in isolated intact and permeabilized ventricular myocytes and single RyR2 channel recording using the planar lipid bilayer technique. The ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione, as well as the level of free thiols on RyR2 decreased markedly in failing versus control hearts consistent with increased oxidative stress in HF. RyR2-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak was significantly enhanced in permeabilized myocytes, resulting in reduced [Ca(2+)](SR) in HF compared to control cells. Both SR Ca(2+) leak and [Ca(2+)](SR) were partially normalized by treating HF myocytes with reducing agents. Conversely, oxidizing agents accelerated SR Ca(2+) leak and decreased [Ca(2+)](SR) in cells from normal hearts. Moreover, exposure to antioxidants significantly improved intracellular Ca(2+)-handling parameters in intact HF myocytes. Single RyR2 channel activity was significantly higher in HF versus control because of increased sensitivity to activation by luminal Ca(2+) and was partially normalized by reducing agents through restoring luminal Ca(2+) sensitivity oxidation of control RyR2s enhanced their luminal Ca(2+) sensitivity, thus reproducing the HF phenotype. These findings suggest that redox modification contributes to abnormal function of RyR2s in HF, presenting a potential therapeutic target for treating HF.

  3. Ryanodine receptor 2 contributes to hemorrhagic shock-induced bi-phasic vascular reactivity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rong; Ding, Xiao-li; Liu, Liang-ming

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) is a critical component of intracellular Ca2+ signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RyR2 in abnormal vascular reactivity after hemorrhagic shock in rats. Methods: SD rats were hemorrhaged and maintained mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 40 mmHg for 30 min or 2 h, and then superior mesenteric arteries (SMA) rings were prepared to measure the vascular reactivity. In other experiments, SMA rings of normal rats and rat VSMCs were exposed to a hypoxic medium for 10 min or 3 h. SMA rings of normal rats and VSMCs were transfected with siRNA against RyR2. Intracellular Ca2+ release in VSMCs was assessed using Fura-2/AM. Results: The vascular reactivity of the SMA rings from hemorrhagic rats was significantly increased in the early stage (30 min), but decreased in the late stage (2 h) of hemorrhagic shock. Similar results were observed in the SMA rings exposed to hypoxia for 10 min or 3 h. The enhanced vascular reactivity of the SMA rings exposed to hypoxia for 10 min was partly attenuated by transfection with RyR2 siRNA, whereas the blunted vascular reactivity of the SMA rings exposed to hypoxia for 3 h was partly restored by transfection with RyR2 siRNA. Treatment with the RyR agonist caffeine (1 mmol/L) significantly increased Ca2+ release in VSMCs exposed to hypoxia for 10 min or 3 h, which was partially antagonized by transfection with RyR2 siRNA. Conclusion: RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release contributes to the development of bi-phasic vascular reactivity induced by hemorrhagic shock or hypoxia. PMID:25263335

  4. Ryanodine receptor gating controls generation of diastolic calcium waves in cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Petrovič, Pavol; Valent, Ivan; Cocherová, Elena; Pavelková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The role of cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR) gating in the initiation and propagation of calcium waves was investigated using a mathematical model comprising a stochastic description of RyR gating and a deterministic description of calcium diffusion and sequestration. We used a one-dimensional array of equidistantly spaced RyR clusters, representing the confocal scanning line, to simulate the formation of calcium sparks. Our model provided an excellent description of the calcium dependence of the frequency of diastolic calcium sparks and of the increased tendency for the production of calcium waves after a decrease in cytosolic calcium buffering. We developed a hypothesis relating changes in the propensity to form calcium waves to changes of RyR gating and tested it by simulation. With a realistic RyR gating model, increased ability of RyR to be activated by Ca2+ strongly increased the propensity for generation of calcium waves at low (0.05–0.1-µM) calcium concentrations but only slightly at high (0.2–0.4-µM) calcium concentrations. Changes in RyR gating altered calcium wave formation by changing the calcium sensitivity of spontaneous calcium spark activation and/or the average number of open RyRs in spontaneous calcium sparks. Gating changes that did not affect RyR activation by Ca2+ had only a weak effect on the propensity to form calcium waves, even if they strongly increased calcium spark frequency. Calcium waves induced by modulating the properties of the RyR activation site could be suppressed by inhibiting the spontaneous opening of the RyR. These data can explain the increased tendency for production of calcium waves under conditions when RyR gating is altered in cardiac diseases. PMID:26009544

  5. A new cytoplasmic interaction between junctin and ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channels.

    PubMed

    Li, Linwei; Mirza, Shamaruh; Richardson, Spencer J; Gallant, Esther M; Thekkedam, Chris; Pace, Suzy M; Zorzato, Francesco; Liu, Dan; Beard, Nicole A; Dulhunty, Angela F

    2015-03-01

    Junctin, a non-catalytic splice variant encoded by the aspartate-β-hydroxylase (Asph) gene, is inserted into the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) store where it modifies Ca(2+) signalling in the heart and skeletal muscle through its regulation of ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) release channels. Junctin is required for normal muscle function as its knockout leads to abnormal Ca(2+) signalling, muscle dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmia. However, the nature of the molecular interaction between junctin and RyRs is largely unknown and was assumed to occur only in the SR lumen. We find that there is substantial binding of RyRs to full junctin, and the junctin luminal and, unexpectedly, cytoplasmic domains. Binding of these different junctin domains had distinct effects on RyR1 and RyR2 activity: full junctin in the luminal solution increased RyR channel activity by ∼threefold, the C-terminal luminal interaction inhibited RyR channel activity by ∼50%, and the N-terminal cytoplasmic binding produced an ∼fivefold increase in RyR activity. The cytoplasmic interaction between junctin and RyR is required for luminal binding to replicate the influence of full junctin on RyR1 and RyR2 activity. The C-terminal domain of junctin binds to residues including the S1-S2 linker of RyR1 and N-terminal domain of junctin binds between RyR1 residues 1078 and 2156.

  6. Investigations of the contribution of a putative glycine hinge to ryanodine receptor channel gating.

    PubMed

    Euden, Joanne; Mason, Sammy A; Viero, Cedric; Thomas, N Lowri; Williams, Alan J

    2013-06-07

    Ryanodine receptor channels (RyR) are key components of striated muscle excitation-contraction coupling, and alterations in their function underlie both inherited and acquired disease. A full understanding of the disease process will require a detailed knowledge of the mechanisms and structures involved in RyR function. Unfortunately, high-resolution structural data, such as exist for K(+)-selective channels, are not available for RyR. In the absence of these data, we have used modeling to identify similarities in the structural elements of K(+) channel pore-forming regions and postulated equivalent regions of RyR. This has identified a sequence of residues in the cytosolic cavity-lining transmembrane helix of RyR (G(4864)LIIDA(4869) in RyR2) analogous to the glycine hinge motif present in many K(+) channels. Gating in these K(+) channels can be disrupted by substitution of residues for the hinge glycine. We investigated the involvement of glycine 4864 in RyR2 gating by monitoring properties of recombinant human RyR2 channels in which this glycine is replaced by residues that alter gating in K(+) channels. Our data demonstrate that introducing alanine at position 4864 produces no significant change in RyR2 function. In contrast, function is altered when glycine 4864 is replaced by either valine or proline, the former preventing channel opening and the latter modifying both ion translocation and gating. Our studies reveal novel information on the structural basis of RyR gating, identifying both similarities with, and differences from, K(+) channels. Glycine 4864 is not absolutely required for channel gating, but some flexibility at this point in the cavity-lining transmembrane helix is necessary for normal RyR function.

  7. Ryanodine receptor cluster fragmentation and redistribution in persistent atrial fibrillation enhance calcium release

    PubMed Central

    Macquaide, Niall; Tuan, Hoang-Trong Minh; Hotta, Jun-ichi; Sempels, Wouter; Lenaerts, Ilse; Holemans, Patricia; Hofkens, Johan; Jafri, M. Saleet; Willems, Rik; Sipido, Karin R.

    2015-01-01

    Aims In atrial fibrillation (AF), abnormalities in Ca2+ release contribute to arrhythmia generation and contractile dysfunction. We explore whether ryanodine receptor (RyR) cluster ultrastructure is altered and is associated with functional abnormalities in AF. Methods and results Using high-resolution confocal microscopy (STED), we examined RyR cluster morphology in fixed atrial myocytes from sheep with persistent AF (N = 6) and control (Ctrl; N = 6) animals. RyR clusters on average contained 15 contiguous RyRs; this did not differ between AF and Ctrl. However, the distance between clusters was significantly reduced in AF (288 ± 12 vs. 376 ± 17 nm). When RyR clusters were grouped into Ca2+ release units (CRUs), i.e. clusters separated by <150 nm, CRUs in AF had more clusters (3.43 ± 0.10 vs. 2.95 ± 0.02 in Ctrl), which were more dispersed. Furthermore, in AF cells, more RyR clusters were found between Z lines. In parallel experiments, Ca2+ sparks were monitored in live permeabilized myocytes. In AF, myocytes had >50% higher spark frequency with increased spark time to peak (TTP) and duration, and a higher incidence of macrosparks. A computational model of the CRU was used to simulate the morphological alterations observed in AF cells. Increasing cluster fragmentation to the level observed in AF cells caused the observed changes, i.e. higher spark frequency, increased TTP and duration; RyR clusters dispersed between Z-lines increased the occurrence of macrosparks. Conclusion In persistent AF, ultrastructural reorganization of RyR clusters within CRUs is associated with overactive Ca2+ release, increasing the likelihood of propagating Ca2+ release. PMID:26490742

  8. Ryanodine Receptor Activation Induces Long-Term Plasticity of Spine Calcium Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pannasch, Ulrike; Rückl, Martin; Rüdiger, Sten; Schmitz, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    A key feature of signalling in dendritic spines is the synapse-specific transduction of short electrical signals into biochemical responses. Ca2+ is a major upstream effector in this transduction cascade, serving both as a depolarising electrical charge carrier at the membrane and an intracellular second messenger. Upon action potential firing, the majority of spines are subject to global back-propagating action potential (bAP) Ca2+ transients. These transients translate neuronal suprathreshold activation into intracellular biochemical events. Using a combination of electrophysiology, two-photon Ca2+ imaging, and modelling, we demonstrate that bAPs are electrochemically coupled to Ca2+ release from intracellular stores via ryanodine receptors (RyRs). We describe a new function mediated by spine RyRs: the activity-dependent long-term enhancement of the bAP-Ca2+ transient. Spines regulate bAP Ca2+ influx independent of each other, as bAP-Ca2+ transient enhancement is compartmentalized and independent of the dendritic Ca2+ transient. Furthermore, this functional state change depends exclusively on bAPs travelling antidromically into dendrites and spines. Induction, but not expression, of bAP-Ca2+ transient enhancement is a spine-specific function of the RyR. We demonstrate that RyRs can form specific Ca2+ signalling nanodomains within single spines. Functionally, RyR mediated Ca2+ release in these nanodomains induces a new form of Ca2+ transient plasticity that constitutes a spine specific storage mechanism of neuronal suprathreshold activity patterns. PMID:26098891

  9. In vitro Modeling of Ryanodine Receptor 2 Dysfunction Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Azra; Xu, Guoxing; Shao, Kaifeng; Papadopoulos, Symeon; Lehmann, Martin; Arnáiz-Cot, Juan J.; Rosa, Angelo O.; Nguemo, Filomain; Matzkies, Matthias; Dittmann, Sven; Stone, Susannah L.; Linke, Matthias; Zechner, Ulrich; Beyer, Vera; Hennies, Hans Christian; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Klauke, Baerbel; Parwani, Abdul S.; Haverkamp, Wilhelm; Pfitzer, Gabriele; Farr, Martin; Cleemann, Lars; Morad, Martin; Milting, Hendrik; Hescheler, Juergen; Šaric, Tomo

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells generated from accessible adult cells of patients with genetic diseases open unprecedented opportunities for exploring the pathophysiology of human diseases in vitro. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia type 1 (CPVT1) is an inherited cardiac disorder that is caused by mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor type 2 gene (RYR2) and is characterized by stress-induced ventricular arrhythmia that can lead to sudden cardiac death in young individuals. The aim of this study was to generate iPS cells from a patient with CPVT1 and determine whether iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes carrying patient specific RYR2 mutation recapitulate the disease phenotype in vitro. Methods: iPS cells were derived from dermal fibroblasts of healthy donors and a patient with CPVT1 carrying the novel heterozygous autosomal dominant mutation p.F2483I in the RYR2. Functional properties of iPS cell derived-cardiomyocytes were analyzed by using whole-cell current and voltage clamp and calcium imaging techniques. Results: Patch-clamp recordings revealed arrhythmias and delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) after catecholaminergic stimulation of CPVT1-iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Calcium imaging studies showed that, compared to healthy cardiomyocytes, CPVT1-cardiomyocytes exhibit higher amplitudes and longer durations of spontaneous Ca2+ release events at basal state. In addition, in CPVT1-cardiomyocytes the Ca2+-induced Ca2+-release events continued after repolarization and were abolished by increasing the cytosolic cAMP levels with forskolin. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the suitability of iPS cells in modeling RYR2-related cardiac disorders in vitro and opens new opportunities for investigating the disease mechanism in vitro, developing new drugs, predicting their toxicity, and optimizing current treatment strategies. PMID:22178870

  10. Peptide fragments of the dihydropyridine receptor can modulate cardiac ryanodine receptor channel activity and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release.

    PubMed Central

    Dulhunty, Angela F; Curtis, Suzanne M; Cengia, Louise; Sakowska, Magdalena; Casarotto, Marco G

    2004-01-01

    We show that peptide fragments of the dihydropyridine receptor II-III loop alter cardiac RyR (ryanodine receptor) channel activity in a cytoplasmic Ca2+-dependent manner. The peptides were AC (Thr-793-Ala-812 of the cardiac dihydropyridine receptor), AS (Thr-671-Leu-690 of the skeletal dihydropyridine receptor), and a modified AS peptide [AS(D-R18)], with an extended helical structure. The peptides added to the cytoplasmic side of channels in lipid bilayers at > or = 10 nM activated channels when the cytoplasmic [Ca2+] was 100 nM, but either inhibited or did not affect channel activity when the cytoplasmic [Ca2+] was 10 or 100 microM. Both activation and inhibition were independent of bilayer potential. Activation by AS, but not by AC or AS(D-R18), was reduced at peptide concentrations >1 mM in a voltage-dependent manner (at +40 mV). In control experiments, channels were not activated by the scrambled AS sequence (ASS) or skeletal II-III loop peptide (NB). Resting Ca2+ release from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum was not altered by peptide AC, but Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release was depressed. Resting and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release were enhanced by both the native and modified AS peptides. NMR revealed (i) that the structure of peptide AS(D-R18) is not influenced by [Ca2+] and (ii) that peptide AC adopts a helical structure, particularly in the region containing positively charged residues. This is the first report of specific functional interactions between dihydropyridine receptor A region peptides and cardiac RyR ion channels in lipid bilayers. PMID:14678014

  11. Characterization of RyR1-slow, a ryanodine receptor specific to slow-twitch skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Morrissette, J; Xu, L; Nelson, A; Meissner, G; Block, B A

    2000-11-01

    Two distinct skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors (RyR1s) are expressed in a fiber type-specific manner in fish skeletal muscle (11). In this study, we compare [(3)H]ryanodine binding and single channel activity of RyR1-slow from fish slow-twitch skeletal muscle with RyR1-fast and RyR3 isolated from fast-twitch skeletal muscle. Scatchard plots indicate that RyR1-slow has a lower affinity for [(3)H]ryanodine when compared with RyR1-fast. In single channel recordings, RyR1-slow and RyR1-fast had similar slope conductances. However, the maximum open probability (P(o)) of RyR1-slow was threefold less than the maximum P(o) of RyR1-fast. Single channel studies also revealed the presence of two populations of RyRs in tuna fast-twitch muscle (RyR1-fast and RyR3). RyR3 had the highest P(o) of all the RyR channels and displayed less inhibition at millimolar Ca(2+). The addition of 5 mM Mg-ATP or 2.5 mM beta, gamma-methyleneadenosine 5'-triphosphate (AMP-PCP) to the channels increased the P(o) and [(3)H]ryanodine binding of both RyR1s but also caused a shift in the Ca(2+) dependency curve of RyR1-slow such that Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation was attenuated. [(3)H]ryanodine binding data also showed that Mg(2+)-dependent inhibition of RyR1-slow was reduced in the presence of AMP-PCP. These results indicate differences in the physiological properties of RyRs in fish slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscle, which may contribute to differences in the way intracellular Ca(2+) is regulated in these muscle types.

  12. Comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of ryanodine receptor type 3 (RyR3) knockout mice: decreased social contact duration in two social interaction tests.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Naoki; Tanda, Koichi; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Nobuyuki; Toyama, Keiko; Takao, Keizo; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration is crucial for various neuronal functions such as synaptic transmission and plasticity, and gene expression. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a family of intracellular calcium release channels that mediate calcium-induced calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Among the three RyR isoforms, RyR3 is preferentially expressed in the brain especially in the hippocampus and striatum. To investigate the behavioral effects of RyR3 deficiency, we subjected RyR3 knockout (RyR3-/-) mice to a battery of behavioral tests. RyR3-/- mice exhibited significantly decreased social contact duration in two different social interaction tests, where two mice can freely move and make contacts with each other. They also exhibited hyperactivity and mildly impaired prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition while they did not show significant abnormalities in motor function and working and reference memory tests. These results indicate that RyR3 has an important role in locomotor activity and social behavior.

  13. Arachidonic acid activates release of calcium ions from reticulum via ryanodine receptor channels in C2C12 skeletal myotubes.

    PubMed

    Muslikhov, E R; Sukhanova, I F; Avdonin, P V

    2014-05-01

    Arachidonic acid causes an increase in free cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in differentiated skeletal multinucleated myotubes C2C12 and does not induce calcium response in C2C12 myoblasts. The same reaction of myotubes to arachidonic acid is observed in Ca2+-free medium. This indicates that arachidonic acid induces release of calcium ions from intracellular stores. The blocker of ryanodine receptor channels of sarcoplasmic reticulum dantrolene (20 µM) inhibits this effect by 68.7 ± 6.3% (p < 0.001). The inhibitor of two-pore calcium channels of endolysosomal vesicles trans-NED19 (10 µM) decreases the response to arachidonic acid by 35.8 ± 5.4% (p < 0.05). The phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 (10 µM) has no effect. These data indicate the involvement of ryanodine receptor calcium channels of sarcoplasmic reticulum in [Ca2+]i elevation in skeletal myotubes caused by arachidonic acid and possible participation of two-pore calcium channels from endolysosomal vesicles in this process.

  14. Ryanodine receptor point mutations confer diamide insecticide resistance in tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Roditakis, Emmanouil; Steinbach, Denise; Moritz, Gerald; Vasakis, Emmanouil; Stavrakaki, Marianna; Ilias, Aris; García-Vidal, Lidia; Martínez-Aguirre, María Del Rosario; Bielza, Pablo; Morou, Evangelia; Silva, Jefferson E; Silva, Wellington M; Siqueira, Ηerbert A A; Iqbal, Sofia; Troczka, Bartlomiej J; Williamson, Martin S; Bass, Chris; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Vontas, John; Nauen, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Insect ryanodine receptors (RyR) are the molecular target-site for the recently introduced diamide insecticides. Diamides are particularly active on Lepidoptera pests, including tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). High levels of diamide resistance were recently described in some European populations of T. absoluta, however, the mechanisms of resistance remained unknown. In this study the molecular basis of diamide resistance was investigated in a diamide resistant strain from Italy (IT-GELA-SD4), and additional resistant field populations collected in Greece, Spain and Brazil. The genetics of resistance was investigated by reciprocally crossing strain IT-GELA-SD4 with a susceptible strain and revealed an autosomal incompletely recessive mode of inheritance. To investigate the possible role of target-site mutations as known from diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), we sequenced respective domains of the RyR gene of T. absoluta. Genotyping of individuals of IT-GELA-SD4 and field-collected strains showing different levels of diamide resistance revealed the presence of G4903E and I4746M RyR target-site mutations. These amino acid substitutions correspond to those recently described for diamide resistant diamondback moth, i.e. G4946E and I4790M. We also detected two novel mutations, G4903V and I4746T, in some of the resistant T. absoluta strains. Radioligand binding studies with thoracic membrane preparations of the IT-GELA-SD4 strain provided functional evidence that these mutations alter the affinity of the RyR to diamides. In combination with previous work on P. xylostella our study highlights the importance of position G4903 (G4946 in P. xylostella) of the insect RyR in defining sensitivity to diamides. The discovery of diamide resistance mutations in T. absoluta populations of diverse geographic origin has serious implications for the efficacy of diamides under applied conditions. The implementation of appropriate resistance

  15. Aldolase potentiates DIDS activation of the ryanodine receptor in rabbit skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Seo, In-Ra; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Eun Hui; Meissner, Gerhard; Kim, Do Han

    2006-01-01

    DIDS (4,4′-di-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate), an anion channel blocker, triggers Ca2+ release from skeletal muscle SR (sarcoplasmic reticulum). The present study characterized the effects of DIDS on rabbit skeletal single Ca2+-release channel/RyR1 (ryanodine receptor type 1) incorporated into a planar lipid bilayer. When junctional SR vesicles were used for channel incorporation (native RyR1), DIDS increased the mean Po (open probability) of RyR1 without affecting unitary conductance when Cs+ was used as the charge carrier. Lifetime analysis of single RyR1 activities showed that 10 μM DIDS induced reversible long-lived open events (Po=0.451±0.038) in the presence of 10 μM Ca2+, due mainly to a new third component for both open and closed time constants. However, when purified RyR1 was examined in the same condition, 10 μM DIDS became considerably less potent (Po=0.206±0.025), although the caffeine response was similar between native and purified RyR1. Hence we postulated that a DIDS-binding protein, essential for the DIDS sensitivity of RyR1, was lost during RyR1 purification. DIDS-affinity column chromatography of solubilized junctional SR, and MALDI–TOF (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization–time-of-flight) MS analysis of the affinity-column-associated proteins, identified four major DIDS-binding proteins in the SR fraction. Among them, aldolase was the only protein that greatly potentiated DIDS sensitivity. The association between RyR1 and aldolase was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and aldolase-affinity batch-column chromatography. Taken together, we conclude that aldolase is physically associated with RyR1 and could confer a considerable potentiation of the DIDS effect on RyR1. PMID:16817780

  16. Unbalanced upregulation of ryanodine receptor 2 plays a particular role in early development of daunorubicin cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kucerova, Dana; Doka, Gabriel; Kruzliak, Peter; Turcekova, Katarina; Kmecova, Jana; Brnoliakova, Zuzana; Kyselovic, Jan; Kirchhefer, Uwe; Müller, Frank U; Krenek, Peter; Boknik, Peter; Klimas, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium release channel on the sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiomyocytes (ryanodine receptor type 2, RyR2) plays a critical role in the regulation of calcium and was identified as a crucial factor for development of chronic anthracycline cardiomyopathy. Its early stages are less well described although these determine the later development. Hence, we tested the effect of repeated, short-term anthracycline (daunorubicin) administration on cardiac performance, cardiomyocyte function and accompanied changes in calcium regulating proteins expression. Ten-twelve weeks old male Wistar rats were administered with 6 doses of daunorubicin (DAU, 3 mg/kg, i.p., every 48 h), controls (CON) received vehicle. Left ventricular function (left ventricular pressure, LVP; rate of pressure development, +dP/dt and decline, -dP/dt) was measured using left ventricular catheterization under tribromethanol anaesthesia (15 ml/kg b.w.). Cell shortening was measured in enzymatically isolated cardiomyocytes. The expressions of RyR2 and associated intracellular calcium regulating proteins, cytoskeletal proteins (alpha-actinin, alpha-tubul in) as well as oxidative stress regulating enzymes (gp91phox, MnSOD) were detected in ventricular tissue samples using immunoblotting. mRNA expressions of cardiac damage markers (Nppa and Nppb, atrial and brain natriuretic peptides; Myh6, Myh7 and Myh7b, myosin heavy chain alpha and beta) were detected using RT-PCR. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration was measured to estimate oxidative stress. DAU rats exhibited significantly depressed left ventricular features (LVP by 14%, +dP/dt by 36% and -dP/dt by 30%; for all P<0.05), in line with concomitant increase in Nppa and Nppb gene expressions (3.23- and 2.18-fold, for both P<0.05), and a 4.34-fold increase in Myh7 (P<0.05). Controversially, we observed increased cell shortening of isolated cardiac cells by 31% (p<0.05). DAU administration was associated with a twofold upregulation of RyR2 (P<0

  17. Hierarchical clustering of ryanodine receptors enables emergence of a calcium clock in sinoatrial node cells.

    PubMed

    Stern, Michael D; Maltseva, Larissa A; Juhaszova, Magdalena; Sollott, Steven J; Lakatta, Edward G; Maltsev, Victor A

    2014-05-01

    The sinoatrial node, whose cells (sinoatrial node cells [SANCs]) generate rhythmic action potentials, is the primary pacemaker of the heart. During diastole, calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via ryanodine receptors (RyRs) interacts with membrane currents to control the rate of the heartbeat. This "calcium clock" takes the form of stochastic, partially periodic, localized calcium release (LCR) events that propagate, wave-like, for limited distances. The detailed mechanisms controlling the calcium clock are not understood. We constructed a computational model of SANCs, including three-dimensional diffusion and buffering of calcium in the cytosol and SR; explicit, stochastic gating of individual RyRs and L-type calcium channels; and a full complement of voltage- and calcium-dependent membrane currents. We did not include an anatomical submembrane space or inactivation of RyRs, the two heuristic components that have been used in prior models but are not observed experimentally. When RyRs were distributed in discrete clusters separated by >1 µm, only isolated sparks were produced in this model and LCR events did not form. However, immunofluorescent staining of SANCs for RyR revealed the presence of bridging RyR groups between large clusters, forming an irregular network. Incorporation of this architecture into the model led to the generation of propagating LCR events. Partial periodicity emerged from the interaction of LCR events, as observed experimentally. This calcium clock becomes entrained with membrane currents to accelerate the beating rate, which therefore was controlled by the activity of the SERCA pump, RyR sensitivity, and L-type current amplitude, all of which are targets of β-adrenergic-mediated phosphorylation. Unexpectedly, simulations revealed the existence of a pathological mode at high RyR sensitivity to calcium, in which the calcium clock loses synchronization with the membrane, resulting in a paradoxical decrease in beating

  18. Coupled gating of skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors is modulated by Ca2+, Mg2+, and ATP

    PubMed Central

    Porta, Maura; Diaz-Sylvester, Paula L.; Neumann, Jake T.; Escobar, Ariel L.; Fleischer, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    Coupled gating (synchronous openings and closures) of groups of skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors (RyR1), which mimics RyR1-mediated Ca2+ release underlying Ca2+ sparks, was first described by Marx et al. (Marx SO, Ondrias K, Marks AR. Science 281: 818–821, 1998). The nature of the RyR1-RyR1 interactions for coupled gating still needs to be characterized. Consequently, we defined planar lipid bilayer conditions where ∼25% of multichannel reconstitutions contain mixtures of coupled and independently gating RyR1. In ∼10% of the cases, all RyRs (2–10 channels; most frequently 3–4) gated in coupled fashion, allowing for quantification. Our results indicated that coupling required cytosolic solutions containing ATP/Mg2+ and high (50 mM) luminal Ca2+ (Calum) or Sr2+ solutions. Bursts of coupled activity (events) started and ended abruptly, with all channels activating/deactivating within ∼300 μs. Coupled RyR1 were heterogeneous, where highly active RyR1 (“drivers”) seemed open during the entire coupled event (Po = 1), while other RyR1s (“followers”) displayed abundant flickering and smaller amplitude. Drivers mean open time increased with cytosolic Ca2+ (Cacyt) or caffeine, whereas followers flicker frequency was Cacyt independent and more sensitive to inhibition by cytosolic Mg2+. Coupled events were insensitive to varying lumen-to-cytosol Ca2+ fluxes from ∼1 to 8 pA, which does not corroborate coupling of neighboring RyR1 by local Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release. However, coupling requires specific Calum sites, as it was lost when Calum was replaced by luminal Ba2+ or Mg2+. In summary, coupled events reveal complex interactions among heterogeneous RyR1, differentially modulated by cytosolic ATP/Mg2+, Cacyt, and Calum, which under cell-like ionic conditions may parallel synchronous RyR1 gating during Ca2+ sparks. PMID:22785120

  19. Hierarchical clustering of ryanodine receptors enables emergence of a calcium clock in sinoatrial node cells

    PubMed Central

    Maltseva, Larissa A.; Juhaszova, Magdalena; Sollott, Steven J.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Maltsev, Victor A.

    2014-01-01

    The sinoatrial node, whose cells (sinoatrial node cells [SANCs]) generate rhythmic action potentials, is the primary pacemaker of the heart. During diastole, calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via ryanodine receptors (RyRs) interacts with membrane currents to control the rate of the heartbeat. This “calcium clock” takes the form of stochastic, partially periodic, localized calcium release (LCR) events that propagate, wave-like, for limited distances. The detailed mechanisms controlling the calcium clock are not understood. We constructed a computational model of SANCs, including three-dimensional diffusion and buffering of calcium in the cytosol and SR; explicit, stochastic gating of individual RyRs and L-type calcium channels; and a full complement of voltage- and calcium-dependent membrane currents. We did not include an anatomical submembrane space or inactivation of RyRs, the two heuristic components that have been used in prior models but are not observed experimentally. When RyRs were distributed in discrete clusters separated by >1 µm, only isolated sparks were produced in this model and LCR events did not form. However, immunofluorescent staining of SANCs for RyR revealed the presence of bridging RyR groups between large clusters, forming an irregular network. Incorporation of this architecture into the model led to the generation of propagating LCR events. Partial periodicity emerged from the interaction of LCR events, as observed experimentally. This calcium clock becomes entrained with membrane currents to accelerate the beating rate, which therefore was controlled by the activity of the SERCA pump, RyR sensitivity, and L-type current amplitude, all of which are targets of β-adrenergic–mediated phosphorylation. Unexpectedly, simulations revealed the existence of a pathological mode at high RyR sensitivity to calcium, in which the calcium clock loses synchronization with the membrane, resulting in a paradoxical decrease in

  20. Ryanodine produces a low frequency stimulation-induced NMDA receptor-independent long-term potentiation in the rat dentate gyrus in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Wu, J; Rowan, M J; Anwyl, R

    1996-01-01

    1. The induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) was investigated in the rat dentate gyrus in the presence of ryanodine, an agent which is known to selectively bind to the ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ channels which regulate Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores. 2. In control media, high frequency stimulation (HFS) induced LTP, and prolonged low frequency stimulation (LFS) induced long-term depression (LTD), of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and patch clamped excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). 3. In the presence of ryanodine, at a threshold concentration of about 1 microM, HFS-induced LTP was inhibited, whereas LFS (5 Hz, 900 pulses) now induced LTP. 4. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist D-2-amino-phosphonopentanoate (D-AP5), at both 50 and 200 microM, did not prevent the induction of LTP by 5 Hz LFS in the presence of ryanodine. This demonstrates the NMDAR independence of LTP induction in the presence of ryanodine. Furthermore, D AP5 reversed the block of HFS-induced LTP by ryanodine. 5. The induction of LTP by 5 Hz LFS in the presence of ryanodine was blocked by lowering extracellular Ca2+, or by rapidly buffering intracellular Ca2+ to very low levels with BAPTA. 6. The induction of LTP by 5 Hz LFS was inhibited by the L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine, and also by Ni2+ a commonly used T type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel blocker. 7. The 5 Hz LFS-induced LTP in the presence of ryanodine was inhibited by the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist (+)-alpha-methyl 4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG). 8. The 5 Hz LFS-induced LTP in the presence of ryanodine was blocked by Ruthenium Red, an agent known to block RyR channel opening, and also by thapsigargin, an agent known to block-ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake into endoplasmic reticulum. 9. The results of the present studies emphasize the importance of intracellular Ca2+ stores in the induction of LTP. PMID:8887781

  1. Chloroform extract of hog barn dust modulates skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor calcium-release channel (RyR1).

    PubMed

    Tian, Chengju; Shao, Chun Hong; Fenster, Danielle S; Mixan, Mark; Romberger, Debra J; Toews, Myron L; Bidasee, Keshore R

    2010-09-01

    Skeletal muscle weakness is a reported ailment in individuals working in commercial hog confinement facilities. To date, specific mechanisms responsible for this symptom remain undefined. The purpose of this study was to assess whether hog barn dust (HBD) contains components that are capable of binding to and modulating the activity of type 1 ryanodine receptor Ca2+-release channel (RyR1), a key regulator of skeletal muscle function. HBD collected from confinement facilities in Nebraska were extracted with chloroform, filtered, and rotary evaporated to dryness. Residues were resuspended in hexane-chloroform (20:1) and precipitates, referred to as HBDorg, were air-dried and studied further. In competition assays, HBDorg dose-dependently displaced [3H]ryanodine from binding sites on RyR1 with an IC50 of 1.5±0.1 microg/ml (Ki=0.4±0.0 microg/ml). In single-channel assays using RyR1 reconstituted into a lipid bilayer, HBDorg exhibited three distinct dose-dependent effects: first it increased the open probability of RyR1 by increasing its gating frequency and dwell time in the open state, then it induced a state of reduced conductance (55% of maximum) that was more likely to occur and persist at positive holding potentials, and finally it irreversibly closed RyR1. In differentiated C2C12 myotubes, addition of HBD triggered a rise in intracellular Ca2+ that was blocked by pretreatment with ryanodine. Since persistent activation and/or closure of RyR1 results in skeletal muscle weakness, these new data suggest that HBD is responsible, at least in part, for the muscle ailment reported by hog confinement workers.

  2. Chloroform extract of hog barn dust modulates skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor calcium-release channel (RyR1)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chengju; Shao, Chun Hong; Fenster, Danielle S.; Mixan, Mark; Romberger, Debra J.; Toews, Myron L.

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle weakness is a reported ailment in individuals working in commercial hog confinement facilities. To date, specific mechanisms responsible for this symptom remain undefined. The purpose of this study was to assess whether hog barn dust (HBD) contains components that are capable of binding to and modulating the activity of type 1 ryanodine receptor Ca2+-release channel (RyR1), a key regulator of skeletal muscle function. HBD collected from confinement facilities in Nebraska were extracted with chloroform, filtered, and rotary evaporated to dryness. Residues were resuspended in hexane-chloroform (20:1) and precipitates, referred to as HBDorg, were air-dried and studied further. In competition assays, HBDorg dose-dependently displaced [3H]ryanodine from binding sites on RyR1 with an IC50 of 1.5 ± 0.1 μg/ml (Ki = 0.4 ± 0.0 μg/ml). In single-channel assays using RyR1 reconstituted into a lipid bilayer, HBDorg exhibited three distinct dose-dependent effects: first it increased the open probability of RyR1 by increasing its gating frequency and dwell time in the open state, then it induced a state of reduced conductance (55% of maximum) that was more likely to occur and persist at positive holding potentials, and finally it irreversibly closed RyR1. In differentiated C2C12 myotubes, addition of HBD triggered a rise in intracellular Ca2+ that was blocked by pretreatment with ryanodine. Since persistent activation and/or closure of RyR1 results in skeletal muscle weakness, these new data suggest that HBD is responsible, at least in part, for the muscle ailment reported by hog confinement workers. PMID:20576841

  3. Insulin Receptor Isoform Variations in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Perks, Claire M.; Zielinska, H. A.; Wang, Jing; Jarrett, Caroline; Frankow, A.; Ladomery, Michael R.; Bahl, Amit; Rhodes, Anthony; Oxley, Jon; Holly, Jeff M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Men who develop prostate cancer (PCa) increasingly have one of the co-morbidities associated with a Western lifestyle that are characterized by hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and increased expression of insulin-like growth factors-I (IGF-I) and IGF-II. Each have been associated with poor prognosis and more aggressive cancers that exhibit increased metabolism and increased glucose uptake. The insulin receptor (IR) has two splice isoforms IR-A and IR-B: IR-A has a higher affinity for IGF-II comparable to that for insulin, whereas the IR-B isoform predominantly just binds to insulin. In this study, we assessed alterations in the IR-A and IR-B isoform ratio and associated changes in cell proliferation and migration of PCa cell lines following exposure to altered concentrations of glucose and treatment with IGF-II and insulin. We observed that where IR-B predominated insulin had a greater effect on migration than IGF-II and IGF-II was more effective when IR-A was the main isoform. With regard to proliferation IGF-II was more effective than insulin regardless of which isoform was dominant. We assessed the abundance of the IR isoforms both in vivo and in vitro and observed that the majority of the tissue samples and cell lines expressed more IR-A than IR-B. Alterations in the isoforms in response to changes in their hormonal milieu could have a profound impact on how malignant cells behave and play a role in promoting carcinogenesis. A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying changes in alternative splicing of the IR may provide additional targets for future cancer therapies. PMID:27733843

  4. The ryanodine receptor/calcium channel genes are widely and differentially expressed in murine brain and peripheral tissues

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular calcium release channels that participate in controlling cytosolic calcium levels. At variance with the probably ubiquitous inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-operated calcium channels (1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors), RyRs have been mainly regarded as the calcium release channels controlling skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction. Increasing evidence has recently suggested that RyRs may be more widely expressed, but this has never been extensively examined. Therefore, we cloned three cDNAs corresponding to murine RyR homologues to carry a comprehensive analysis of their expression in murine tissues. Here, we report that the three genes are expressed in almost all tissues analyzed, where tissue-specific patterns of expression were observed. In the uterus and vas deferens, expression of RyR3 was localized to the smooth muscle component of these organs. In the testis, expression of RyR1 and RyR3 was detected in germ cells. RyR mRNAs were also detected in in vitro-cultured cell lines. RyR1, RyR2, and RyR3 mRNA were detected in the cerebrum and in the cerebellum. In situ analysis revealed a cell type-specific pattern of expression in the different regions of the central nervous system. The differential expression of the three ryanodine receptor genes in the central nervous system was also confirmed using specific antibodies against the respective proteins. This widespread pattern of expression suggests that RyRs may participate in the regulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis in a range of cells wider than previously recognized. PMID:7876312

  5. Clinical Significance of Ryanodine Receptor 1 Gene (RYR1) Variants: Proceedings of the 2013 MHAUS Scientific Conference

    PubMed Central

    Riazi, Sheila; Kraeva, Natalia; Muldoon, Sheila M.; Dowling, James; Ho, Clara; Petre, Maria-Alexandra; Parness, Jerome; Dirksen, Robert T.; Rosenberg, Henry

    2014-01-01

    The Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States (MHAUS) and the Department of Anesthesia at the University of Toronto sponsored a Scientific Conference on November 1–2, 2013 in Toronto, Canada. The multidisciplinary group of experts, including clinicians, geneticists and physiologists involved in research related to malignant hyperthermia (MH), shared new insights into the pathophysiology of type-1 ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1)-linked diseases, as well as the relationship between MH and “awake MH” conditions, such as exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) and exertional heat illness (EHI). In addition, the molecular genetics of MH, and clinical issues related to the diagnosis and management of RYR1-linked disorders, were presented. The conference also honored Dr. David H. MacLennan for his contributions to our understanding of the genetics, pathogenesis and treatment of MH and other RYR1-related myopathies. This report represents a summary of the proceedings of this conference. PMID:25189431

  6. Overexpression of ryanodine receptor type 1 enhances mitochondrial fragmentation and Ca2+-induced ATP production in cardiac H9c2 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    O-Uchi, Jin; Jhun, Bong Sook; Hurst, Stephen; Bisetto, Sara; Gross, Polina; Chen, Ming; Kettlewell, Sarah; Park, Jongsun; Oyamada, Hideto; Smith, Godfrey L; Murayama, Takashi; Sheu, Shey-Shing

    2013-12-01

    Ca(+) influx to mitochondria is an important trigger for both mitochondrial dynamics and ATP generation in various cell types, including cardiac cells. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx is mainly mediated by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU). Growing evidence also indicates that mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx mechanisms are regulated not solely by MCU but also by multiple channels/transporters. We have previously reported that skeletal muscle-type ryanodine receptor (RyR) type 1 (RyR1), which expressed at the mitochondrial inner membrane, serves as an additional Ca(2+) uptake pathway in cardiomyocytes. However, it is still unclear which mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx mechanism is the dominant regulator of mitochondrial morphology/dynamics and energetics in cardiomyocytes. To investigate the role of mitochondrial RyR1 in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology/function in cardiac cells, RyR1 was transiently or stably overexpressed in cardiac H9c2 myoblasts. We found that overexpressed RyR1 was partially localized in mitochondria as observed using both immunoblots of mitochondrial fractionation and confocal microscopy, whereas RyR2, the main RyR isoform in the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum, did not show any expression at mitochondria. Interestingly, overexpression of RyR1 but not MCU or RyR2 resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation. These fragmented mitochondria showed bigger and sustained mitochondrial Ca(2+) transients compared with basal tubular mitochondria. In addition, RyR1-overexpressing cells had a higher mitochondrial ATP concentration under basal conditions and showed more ATP production in response to cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation compared with nontransfected cells as observed by a matrix-targeted ATP biosensor. These results indicate that RyR1 possesses a mitochondrial targeting/retention signal and modulates mitochondrial morphology and Ca(2+)-induced ATP production in cardiac H9c2 myoblasts.

  7. Roles of the NH2-terminal domains of cardiac ryanodine receptor in Ca2+ release activation and termination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjie; Sun, Bo; Xiao, Zhichao; Wang, Ruiwu; Guo, Wenting; Zhang, Joe Z; Mi, Tao; Wang, Yundi; Jones, Peter P; Van Petegem, Filip; Chen, S R Wayne

    2015-03-20

    The NH2-terminal region (residues 1-543) of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) harbors a large number of mutations associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies. Functional studies have revealed that the NH2-terminal region is involved in the activation and termination of Ca(2+) release. The three-dimensional structure of the NH2-terminal region has recently been solved. It is composed of three domains (A, B, and C). However, the roles of these individual domains in Ca(2+) release activation and termination are largely unknown. To understand the functional significance of each of these NH2-terminal domains, we systematically deleted these domains and assessed their impact on caffeine- or Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release and store overload-induced Ca(2+) release (SOICR) in HEK293 cells. We found that all deletion mutants were capable of forming caffeine- and ryanodine-sensitive functional channels, indicating that the NH2-terminal region is not essential for channel gating. Ca(2+) release measurements revealed that deleting domain A markedly reduced the threshold for SOICR termination but had no effect on caffeine or Ca(2+) activation or the threshold for SOICR activation, whereas deleting domain B substantially enhanced caffeine and Ca(2+) activation and lowered the threshold for SOICR activation and termination. Conversely, deleting domain C suppressed caffeine activation, abolished Ca(2+) activation and SOICR, and diminished protein expression. These results suggest that domain A is involved in channel termination, domain B is involved in channel suppression, and domain C is critical for channel activation and expression. Our data shed new insights into the structure-function relationship of the NH2-terminal domains of RyR2 and the action of NH2-terminal disease mutations.

  8. Nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms and their functions in the female reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Rekawiecki, R; Kowalik, M K; Kotwica, J

    2011-01-01

    Progesterone (P4), which is produced by the corpus luteum (CL), creates proper conditions for the embryo implantation, its development, and ensures proper conditions for the duration of pregnancy. Besides the non-genomic activity of P4 on target cells, its main physiological effect is caused through genomic action by the progesterone nuclear receptor (PGR). This nuclear progesterone receptor occurs in two specific isoforms, PGRA and PGRB. PGRA isoform acts as an inhibitor of transcriptional action of PGRB. The inactive receptor is connected with chaperone proteins and attachment of P4 causes disconnection of chaperones and unveiling of DNA binding domain (DBD). After receptor dimerization in the cells' nucleus and interaction with hormone response element (HRE), the receptor coactivators are connected and transcription is initiated. The ratio of these isoforms changes during the estrous cycle and reflects the different levels of P4 effect on the reproductive system. Both isoforms, PGRA and PGRB, also show a different response to the P4 receptor antagonist activity. Connection of the antagonist to PGRA can block PGRB, but acting through the PGRB isoform, P4 receptor antagonist may undergo conversion to a strongly receptor agonist. A third isoform, PGRC, has also been revealed. This isoform is the shortest and does not have transcriptional activity. Alternative splicing and insertion of additional exons may lead to the formation of different PGR isoforms. This paper summarizes the available data on the progesterone receptor isoforms and its regulatory action within the female reproductive system.

  9. Pre-Slaughter Stress Affects Ryanodine Receptor Protein Gene Expression and the Water-Holding Capacity in Fillets of the Nile Tilapia

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Jorge A. F.; Gasparino, Eliane; Del Vesco, Ana P.; Goes, Marcio D.; Alexandre Filho, Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Current study evaluated the effect of pre-slaughter stress on serum cortisol levels, pH, colorimetry, water-holding capacity (WHC) and gene expression of ryanodine receptors (RyR1 and RyR3) in the Nile tilapia. A 3x4 factorial scheme experiment was conducted comprising three densities (100, 200, 400 kg/m³) with four transportation times (60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes).Transportation times alone reduced cortisol levels up to 180 minutes, followed by increased WHC and mRNA expression, RyR1 and RyR3 (200 kg/m³ density). No effect of density x transportation time interacted on the evaluated parameters. Results provided the first evidence that pre-slaughter stress affected ryanodine gene expression receptors and, consequently, the water-holding capacity in tilapia fillets. PMID:26053858

  10. Mediation of Autophagic Cell Death by Type 3 Ryanodine Receptor (RyR3) in Adult Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kyung Min; Jeong, Eun-Ji; Park, Hyunhee; An, Hyun-Kyu; Yu, Seong-Woon

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic Ca2+ actively engages in diverse intracellular processes from protein synthesis, folding and trafficking to cell survival and death. Dysregulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels is observed in various neuropathological states including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), the main Ca2+ release channels located in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, are known to direct various cellular events such as autophagy and apoptosis. Here we investigated the intracellular Ca2+-mediated regulation of survival and death of adult hippocampal neural stem (HCN) cells utilizing an insulin withdrawal model of autophagic cell death (ACD). Despite comparable expression levels of RyR and IP3R transcripts in HCN cells at normal state, the expression levels of RyRs—especially RyR3—were markedly upregulated upon insulin withdrawal. While treatment with the RyR agonist caffeine significantly promoted the autophagic death of insulin-deficient HCN cells, treatment with its inhibitor dantrolene prevented the induction of autophagy following insulin withdrawal. Furthermore, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of the RyR3 gene abolished ACD of HCN cells. This study delineates a distinct, RyR3-mediated ER Ca2+ regulation of autophagy and programmed cell death in neural stem cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the critical, yet understudied mechanisms underlying the regulatory function of ER Ca2+ in neural stem cell biology. PMID:27199668

  11. The foot structure from the type 1 ryanodine receptor is required for functional coupling to store-operated channels.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Alicia; Diaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Antaramian, Anaid; Vaca, Luis

    2005-07-01

    In the present study we have explored structural determinants of the functional interaction between skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) and transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1) channels expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. We have illustrated a functional interaction between TRPC1 channels and RyR1 for the regulation of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) initiated after releasing calcium from a caffeine-sensitive intracellular calcium pool. RNA interference experiments directed to reduce the amount of TRPC1 protein indicate that RyR1 associates to at least two different types of store-operated channels (SOCs), one dependent and one independent of TRPC1. In contrast, bradykinin-induced SOCE is completely dependent on the presence of TRPC1 protein, as we have previously illustrated. Removing the foot structure from RyR1 results in normal caffeine-induced release of calcium from internal stores but abolishes the activation of SOCE, indicating that this structure is require for functional coupling to SOCs. The footless RyR1 protein shows a different cellular localization when compared with wild type RyR1. The later protein shows a higher percentage of colocalization with FM-464, a marker of plasma membrane. The implications of the foot structure for the functional and physical coupling to TRPC and SOCs is discussed.

  12. Stable expression and functional characterisation of the diamondback moth ryanodine receptor G4946E variant conferring resistance to diamide insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Troczka, Bartlomiej J.; Williams, Alan J.; Williamson, Martin S.; Field, Linda M.; Lüemmen, Peter; Davies, T.G. Emyr

    2015-01-01

    Diamides, such as flubendiamide and chlorantraniliprole, belong to a new chemical class of insecticides that act as conformation-sensitive activators of insect ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Both compounds are registered for use against lepidopteran species such as the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, a notorious global pest of cruciferous crops. Recently acquired resistance to diamide insecticides in this species is thought to be due to a target-site mutation conferring an amino acid substitution (G4946E), located within the trans-membrane domain of the RyR, though the exact role of this mutation has not yet been fully determined. To address this we have cloned a full-length cDNA encoding the P. xylostella RyR and established clonal Sf9 cell lines stably expressing either the wildtype RyR or the G4946E variant, in order to test the sensitivity to flubendiamide and chlorantraniliprole on the recombinant receptor. We report that the efficacy of both diamides was dramatically reduced in clonal Sf9 cells stably expressing the G4946E modified RyR, providing clear functional evidence that the G4946E RyR mutation impairs diamide insecticide binding. PMID:26424584

  13. Targeted Proteomics Enables Simultaneous Quantification of Folate Receptor Isoforms and Potential Isoform-based Diagnosis in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Xu, Feifei; Fang, Danjun; Chen, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The distinct roles of protein isoforms in cancer are becoming increasingly evident. FRα and FRβ, two major isoforms of the folate receptor family, generally have different cellular distribution and tissue specificity. However, the presence of FRβ in breast tumors, where FRα is normally expressed, complicates this situation. Prior to applying any FR isoform-based diagnosis and therapeutics, it is essential to monitor the expression profile of FR isoforms in a more accurate manner. An LC-MS/MS-based targeted proteomics assay was developed and validated in this study because of the lack of suitable methodology for the simultaneous and specific measurement of highly homologous isoforms occurring at low concentrations. FRα and FRβ monitoring was achieved by measuring their surrogate isoform-specific peptides. Five human breast cell lines, isolated macrophages and 60 matched pairs of breast tissue samples were subjected to the analysis. The results indicated that FRβ was overexpressed in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) but not epithelial cells, in addition to an enhanced level of FRα in breast cancer cells and tissue samples. Moreover, the levels of the FR isoforms were evaluated according to the histology, histopathological features and molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Several positive associations with PR/ER and HER2 status and metastasis were revealed. PMID:26573433

  14. Activation of single cardiac and skeletal ryanodine receptor channels by flash photolysis of caged Ca2+.

    PubMed Central

    Györke, S; Vélez, P; Suárez-Isla, B; Fill, M

    1994-01-01

    Single ryanodine-sensitive sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channels isolated from rabbit skeletal and canine cardiac muscle were reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers. Single channel activity was measured in simple solutions (no ATP or Mg2+) with 250 mM symmetrical Cs+ as charge carrier. A laser flash was used to photolyze caged-Ca2+ (DM-nitrophen) in a small volume directly in front of the bilayer. The free [Ca2+] in this small volume and in the bulk solution was monitored with Ca2+ electrodes. This setup allowed fast, calibrated free [Ca2+] stimuli to be applied repetitively to single SR Ca2+ release channels. A standard photolytically induced free [Ca2+] step (pCa 7-->6) was applied to both the cardiac and skeletal release channels. The rate of channel activation was determined by fitting a single exponential to ensemble currents generated from at least 50 single channel sweeps. The time constants of activation were 1.43 +/- 0.65 ms (mean +/- SD; n = 5) and 1.28 +/- 0.61 ms (n = 5) for cardiac and skeletal channels, respectively. This study presents a method for defining the fast Ca2+ regulation kinetics of single SR Ca2+ release channels and shows that the activation rate of skeletal SR Ca2+ release channels is consistent with a role for CICR in skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling. PMID:8075325

  15. Electron-conformational transformations govern the temperature dependence of the cardiac ryanodine receptor gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskvin, A. S.; Iaparov, B. I.; Ryvkin, A. M.; Solovyova, O. E.; Markhasin, V. S.

    2015-07-01

    Temperature influences many aspects of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, in particular, hypothermia increases the open probability ( P open) of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-release channels (ryanodine-sensitive RyR channels) rising the SR Ca2+ load in mammalian myocytes. However, to the best of our knowledge, no theoretical models are available for that effect. Traditional Markov chain models do not provide a reasonable molecular mechanistic insight on the origin of the temperature effects. Here in the paper we address a simple physically clear electron-conformational model to describe the RyR gating and argue that a synergetic effect of external thermal fluctuation forces (Gaussian-Markovian noise) and internal friction via the temperature stimulation/suppression of the open-close RyR tunneling probability can be considered as a main contributor to temperature effects on the RyR gating. Results of the computer modeling allowed us to successfully reproduce all the temperature effects observed for an isolated RyR gating in vitro under reducing the temperature: increase in P open and mean open time without any significant effect on mean closed

  16. Functional and biochemical properties of ryanodine receptor type 1 channels from heterozygous R163C malignant hyperthermia-susceptible mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Barrientos, Genaro C; Cherednichenko, Gennady; Yang, Tianzhong; Padilla, Isela T; Truong, Kim; Allen, Paul D; Lopez, José R; Pessah, Isaac N

    2011-03-01

    Mutations in ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) confer malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. How inherent impairments in Ca(2+) channel regulation affect skeletal muscle function in myotubes and adult fibers under basal (nontriggering) conditions are not understood. Myotubes, adult flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) fibers, and sarcoplasmic reticulum skeletal membranes were isolated from heterozygous knockin R163C and wild-type (WT) mice. Compared with WT myotubules, R163C myotubes have reduced Ca(2+) transient amplitudes in response to electrical field pulses; however, R163C FDB fibers do not differ in their responses to electrical stimuli, despite heightened cellular cytoplasmic resting Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](rest)) and sensitivity to halothane. Immunoblotting of membranes from each genotype shows similar expression of RyR1, FK506 binding protein 12 kDa, and Ca(2+)-ATPase, but RyR1 (2844)Ser phosphorylation in R163C muscle is 31% higher than that of WT muscle (p < 0.001). RyR1 channels reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers reveal ∼65% of R163C channels exhibit ≥2-fold greater open probability (P(o)) than WT, with prolonged mean open dwell times and shortened closed dwell times. [(3)H]Ryanodine (Ry) binding and single-channel analyses show that R163C-RyR1 has altered regulation compared with WT: 1) 3-fold higher sensitivity to Ca(2+) activation; 2) 2-fold greater [(3)H]Ry receptor occupancy; 3) comparatively higher channel activity, even in reducing glutathione buffer; 4) enhanced RyR1 activity both at 25 and 37°C; and 5) elevated cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)](rest). R163C channels are inherently more active than WT channels, a functional impairment that cannot be reversed by dephosphorylation with protein phosphatase. Dysregulated R163C channels produce a more overt phenotype in myotubes than in adult fibers in the absence of triggering agents, suggesting tighter negative regulation of R163C-RyR1 within the Ca(2+) release unit of adult fibers.

  17. Up-regulation of ryanodine receptor expression increases the calcium-induced calcium release and spontaneous calcium signals in cerebral arteries from hindlimb unloaded rats.

    PubMed

    Morel, Jean-Luc; Dabertrand, Fabrice; Porte, Yves; Prevot, Anne; Macrez, Nathalie

    2014-08-01

    Microgravity induces a redistribution of blood volume. Consequently, astronauts' body pressure is modified so that the upright blood pressure gradient is abolished, thereby inducing a modification in cerebral blood pressure. This effect is mimicked in the hindlimb unloaded rat model. After a duration of 8 days of unloading, Ca2+ signals activated by depolarization and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate intracellular release were increased in cerebral arteries. In the presence of ryanodine and thapsigargin, the depolarization-induced Ca2+ signals remained increased in hindlimb suspended animals, indicating that Ca2+ influx and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release mechanism were both increased. Spontaneous Ca2+ waves and localized Ca2+ events were also investigated. Increases in both amplitude and frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ waves were measured in hindlimb suspension conditions. After pharmacological segregation of Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ sparklets, their kinetic parameters were characterized. Hindlimb suspension induced an increase in the frequencies of both Ca2+ localized events, suggesting an increase of excitability. Labeling with bodipy compounds suggested that voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptor expressions were increased. Finally, the expression of the ryanodine receptor subtype 1 (RyR1) was increased in hindlimb unloading conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that RyR1 expression and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels activity are the focal points of the regulation of Ca2+ signals activated by vasoconstriction in rat cerebral arteries with an increase of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx.

  18. Novel mutations and mutation combinations of ryanodine receptor in a chlorantraniliprole resistant population of Plutella xylostella (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lei; Liang, Pei; Zhou, Xuguo; Gao, Xiwu

    2014-01-01

    A previous study documented a glycine to glutamic acid mutation (G4946E) in ryanodine receptor (RyR) was highly correlated to diamide insecticide resistance in field populations of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). In this study, a field population collected in Yunnan province, China, exhibited a 2128-fold resistance to chlorantraniliprole. Sequence comparison between resistant and susceptible P. xylostella revealed three novel mutations including a glutamic acid to valine substitution (E1338D), a glutamine to leucine substitution (Q4594L) and an isoleucine to methionine substitution (I4790M) in highly conserved regions of RyR. Frequency analysis of all four mutations in this field population showed that the three new mutations showed a high frequency of 100%, while the G4946E had a frequency of 20%. Furthermore, the florescent ligand binding assay revealed that the RyR containing multiple mutations displayed a significantly lower affinity to the chlorantraniliprole. The combined results suggested that the co-existence of different combinations of the four mutations was involved in the chlorantraniliprole resistance. An allele-specific PCR based method was developed for the diagnosis of the four mutations in the field populations of P. xylostella. PMID:25377064

  19. Ryanodine receptor genes of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis: Molecular cloning, alternative splicing and expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Peng, Y C; Sheng, C W; Casida, John E; Zhao, C Q; Han, Z J

    2017-01-01

    The ryanodine receptor (RyR) of the calcium release channel is the main target of anthranilic and phthalic diamide insecticides which have high selective insecticidal activity relative to mammalian toxicity. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Chilo suppressalis RyR (CsRyR) was isolated and characterized. The CsRyR mRNA has an open reading frame (ORF) of 15,387bp nucleotides, which encodes 5128 amino acids with GenBank ID: KR088972. Comparison of protein sequences showed that CsRyR shared high identities with other insects of 77-96% and lower identity to mammals and nematodes with only 42-45%. One alternative splicing site (KENLG) unique to Lepidoptera was found and two exclusive exons of CsRyR (I /II) were revealed. Spatial and temporal expression of CsRyR mRNA was at the highest relative level in 3rd instar larvae and head (including brain and muscle), and at the lowest expression level in egg and fat body. The expression levels of whole body CsRyR mRNA were increased remarkably after injection of 4th instar larvae with chlorantraniliprole at 0.004 to 0.4μg/g. This structural and functional information on CsRyR provides the basis for further understanding the selective action of chlorantraniliprole and possibly other diamide insecticides.

  20. Cardiac ryanodine receptor: Selectivity for alkaline earth metal cations points to the EF-hand nature of luminal binding sites.

    PubMed

    Gaburjakova, Jana; Gaburjakova, Marta

    2016-06-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the regulation of cardiac ryanodine receptor (RYR2) by luminal Ca(2+) is mediated by luminal binding sites located on the RYR2 channel itself and/or its auxiliary protein, calsequestrin. The localization and structure of RYR2-resident binding sites are not known because of the lack of a high-resolution structure of RYR2 luminal regions. To obtain the first structural insight, we probed the RYR2 luminal face stripped of calsequestrin by alkaline earth metal divalents (M(2+): Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+) or Ba(2+)). We show that the RYR2 response to caffeine at the single-channel level is significantly modified by the nature of luminal M(2+). Moreover, we performed competition experiments by varying the concentration of luminal M(2+) (Mg(2+), Sr(2+) or Ba(2+)) from 8 mM to 53 mM and investigated its ability to compete with 1mM luminal Ca(2+). We demonstrate that all tested M(2+) bind to exactly the same RYR2 luminal binding sites. Their affinities decrease in the order: Ca(2+)>Sr(2+)>Mg(2+)~Ba(2+), showing a strong correlation with the M(2+) affinity of the EF-hand motif. This indicates that the RYR2 luminal binding regions and the EF-hand motif likely share some structural similarities because the structure ties directly to the function.

  1. Caffeine-induced Release of Intracellular Ca2+ from Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Expressing Skeletal Muscle Ryanodine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Manjunatha B.; Zhao, Jiying; Zang, Weijin; Balke, C. William; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Wier, W. Gil; Ma, Jianjie

    1997-01-01

    The ryanodine receptor (RyR)/Ca2+ release channel is an essential component of excitation–contraction coupling in striated muscle cells. To study the function and regulation of the Ca2+ release channel, we tested the effect of caffeine on the full-length and carboxyl-terminal portion of skeletal muscle RyR expressed in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. Caffeine induced openings of the full length RyR channels in a concentration-dependent manner, but it had no effect on the carboxyl-terminal RyR channels. CHO cells expressing the carboxyl-terminal RyR proteins displayed spontaneous changes of intracellular [Ca2+]. Unlike the native RyR channels in muscle cells, which display localized Ca2+ release events (i.e., “Ca2+ sparks” in cardiac muscle and “local release events” in skeletal muscle), CHO cells expressing the full length RyR proteins did not exhibit detectable spontaneous or caffeine-induced local Ca2+ release events. Our data suggest that the binding site for caffeine is likely to reside within the amino-terminal portion of RyR, and the localized Ca2+ release events observed in muscle cells may involve gating of a group of Ca2+ release channels and/or interaction of RyR with muscle-specific proteins. PMID:9382901

  2. Modal gating transitions in cardiac ryanodine receptors during increases of Ca2+ concentration produced by photolysis of caged Ca2+.

    PubMed

    Zahradníková, A; Dura, M; Györke, S

    1999-08-01

    Channel adaptation is a basic property of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-release channels/ryanodine receptors (RyRs). It allows channel activity to decay during sustained increases in the concentration of activating Ca2+. Despite the potential physiological importance of this self-confining process, its molecular mechanism is not well understood. To define the mechanism of adaptation we studied the dynamics of cardiac Ca2+-release channel (RyR) gating using the planar lipid bilayer technique in combination with photolysis of caged Ca2+ (DM-nitrophen). Channels activated by rapid and sustained increases in Ca2+ concentration (from 0.1 to 0.5 micromol/l) displayed three distinct gating modes, manifested as current records with frequent and long openings (H-mode), with rare and short openings (L-mode), and with no openings (I-mode). H-mode channel activity occurred primarily at early times while L- and I-modes predominated at late times after the rapid Ca2+ concentration increase. The decrease in probability of H-mode, mirrored by an increase in the probability of the I-mode, proceeded with a time constant similar to that observed for spontaneous decay in channel activity (i.e., adaptation) in ensemble average records. These results indicate that RyR adaptation transpires by a shift of channel gating from a high open probability mode to low open probability and inactivated modes of the channel.

  3. Fluorescence probe study of Ca2+-dependent interactions of calmodulin with calmodulin-binding peptides of the ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Jaya Pal; Grabarek, Zenon; Ikemoto, Noriaki

    2004-10-22

    We have used a highly environment-sensitive fluorescent probe 6-bromoacetyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (badan) to study the interaction between calmodulin (CaM) and a CaM-binding peptide of the ryanodine receptor (CaMBP) and its sub-fragments F1 and F4. Badan was attached to the Thr34Cys mutant of CaM (CaM-badan). Ca(2+) increase in a physiological range of Ca(2+) (0.1-2 microM) produced about 40 times increase in the badan fluorescence. Upon binding to CaMBP, the badan fluorescence of apo-CaM showed a small increase at a slow rate; whereas that of Ca-CaM showed a large decrease at a very fast rate. Upon binding of CaM to the badan-labeled CaMBP, the badan fluorescence showed a small and slow increase at low Ca(2+), and a large and fast increase at high Ca(2+). Thus, the badan probe attached to CaM Cys(34) can be used to monitor conformational changes occurring not only in CaM, but also those in the CaM-CaMBP interface. Based on our results we propose that both the interaction interface and the global conformation of the CaM-CaMBP complex are altered by calcium.

  4. Oxygen-coupled redox regulation of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor-Ca2+ release channel by NADPH oxidase 4.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi-An; Hess, Douglas T; Nogueira, Leonardo; Yong, Sandro; Bowles, Dawn E; Eu, Jerry; Laurita, Kenneth R; Meissner, Gerhard; Stamler, Jonathan S

    2011-09-20

    Physiological sensing of O(2) tension (partial O(2) pressure, pO(2)) plays an important role in some mammalian cellular systems, but striated muscle generally is not considered to be among them. Here we describe a molecular mechanism in skeletal muscle that acutely couples changes in pO(2) to altered calcium release through the ryanodine receptor-Ca(2+)-release channel (RyR1). Reactive oxygen species are generated in proportion to pO(2) by NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and the consequent oxidation of a small set of RyR1 cysteine thiols results in increased RyR1 activity and Ca(2+) release in isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum and in cultured myofibers and enhanced contractility of intact muscle. Thus, Nox4 is an O(2) sensor in skeletal muscle, and O(2)-coupled hydrogen peroxide production by Nox4 governs the redox state of regulatory RyR1 thiols and thereby governs muscle performance. These findings reveal a molecular mechanism for O(2)-based signaling by an NADPH oxidase and demonstrate a physiological role for oxidative modification of RyR1.

  5. Antiarrhythmic potential of drugs targeting the cardiac ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channel: case study of dantrolene.

    PubMed

    Acsai, Karoly; Nagy, Norbert; Marton, Zoltan; Oravecz, Kinga; Varro, Andras

    2015-01-01

    Driven by the limitations of the traditional antiarrhythmic pharmacology, current antiarrhythmic research is trying to identify new avenues for the development of specific and safe antiarrhythmic drugs. One of the most promising approaches in this field is the amelioration of the abnormal events in cellular Ca(2+) handling originating from the dysfunction of ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release complex (RyR), which is an inevitable key factor in the pathology of myocardial dysfunction, remodeling and arrhythmogenesis. Accordingly, both in experimental and clinical situations, inhibition of abnormal activity of RyR, regardless of being the primary cause or a consequence during the pathogenesis appears to exert beneficial effect on disease outcome, including a marked antiarrhythmic defense. Considerable amount of our knowledge in this field originates from studies using dantrolene, a human drug with RyR stabilizing effect. Our review summarizes the cardiovascular pharmacology of dantrolene and the results of its use in experimental models of cardiac diseases, which emphasize a promising perspective for the possible antiarrhythmic application of RyR inhibition in the future.

  6. King-Denborough syndrome with and without mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene.

    PubMed

    Dowling, James J; Lillis, Suzanne; Amburgey, Kimberley; Zhou, Haiyan; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Buk, Stefan J A; Wraige, Elizabeth; Chow, Gabby; Abbs, Stephen; Leber, Steven; Lachlan, Katherine; Baralle, Diana; Taylor, Alexandra; Sewry, Caroline; Muntoni, Francesco; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2011-06-01

    King-Denborough syndrome (KDS), first described in 1973, is a rare condition characterised by the triad of dysmorphic features, myopathy, and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS). Autosomal dominant inheritance with variable expressivity has been reported in several cases. Mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene have been implicated in a wide range of myopathies such as central core disease (CCD), the malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptibility trait and one isolated patient with KDS. Here we report clinical, pathologic and genetic features of four unrelated patients with KDS. Patients had a relatively uniform clinical presentation but muscle biopsy findings were highly variable. Heterozygous missense mutations in RYR1 were uncovered in three out of four families, of which one mutation was novel and two have previously been reported in MH. Further RyR1 protein expression studies performed in two families showed marked reduction of the RyR1 protein, indicating the presence of allelic RYR1 mutations not detectable on routine sequencing and potentially explaining marked intrafamilial variability. Our findings support the hypothesis that RYR1 mutations are associated with King-Denborough syndrome but that further genetic heterogeneity is likely.

  7. Is ryanodine receptor a calcium or magnesium channel? Roles of K+ and Mg2+ during Ca2+ release.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Dirk; Chen, Haiyan; Fill, Michael

    2012-06-01

    The ryanodine receptor (RyR) is a poorly selective channel that mediates Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores. How RyR's selectivity between the physiological cations K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) affects single-channel Ca(2+) current amplitude is examined using a recent model of RyR permeation. It is found that K(+) provides the vast majority of the countercurrent (through RyR itself) that is needed to prevent the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane potential from changing and stopping Ca(2+) release. Moreover, intra-pore competition between Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) defines single RyR Ca(2+) current amplitude. Since both [Mg(2+)] and [Ca(2+)](SR) can change during pathophysiological conditions, the RyR unitary Ca(2+) current amplitude during Ca(2+) release may change significantly due to this Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) competition. Compared to the classic action of Mg(2+) on RyR open probability, these Ca(2+) current amplitude changes have as large or larger effects on overall RyR Ca(2+) mobilization. A new aspect of RyR divalent versus monovalent selectivity is also identified where this kind of selectivity decreases as divalent concentration increases.

  8. Neuronal regeneration in C. elegans requires subcellular calcium release by ryanodine receptor channels and can be enhanced by optogenetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Shay, James; McLoed, Melissa; Roodhouse, Kevin; Chung, Samuel H; Clark, Christopher M; Pirri, Jennifer K; Alkema, Mark J; Gabel, Christopher V

    2014-11-26

    Regulated calcium signals play conserved instructive roles in neuronal repair, but how localized calcium stores are differentially mobilized, or might be directly manipulated, to stimulate regeneration within native contexts is poorly understood. We find here that localized calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum via ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels is critical in stimulating initial regeneration following traumatic cellular damage in vivo. Using laser axotomy of single neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans, we find that mutation of unc-68/RyR greatly impedes both outgrowth and guidance of the regenerating neuron. Performing extended in vivo calcium imaging, we measure subcellular calcium signals within the immediate vicinity of the regenerating axon end that are sustained for hours following axotomy and completely eliminated within unc-68/RyR mutants. Finally, using a novel optogenetic approach to periodically photo-stimulate the axotomized neuron, we can enhance its regeneration. The enhanced outgrowth depends on both amplitude and temporal pattern of excitation and can be blocked by disruption of UNC-68/RyR. This demonstrates the exciting potential of emerging optogenetic technology to beneficially manipulate cell physiology in the context of neuronal regeneration and indicates a link to the underlying cellular calcium signal. Taken as a whole, our findings define a specific localized calcium signal mediated by RyR channel activity that stimulates regenerative outgrowth, which may be dynamically manipulated for beneficial neurotherapeutic effects.

  9. A novel late-onset axial myopathy associated with mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene.

    PubMed

    Løseth, Sissel; Voermans, Nicol C; Torbergsen, Torberg; Lillis, Sue; Jonsrud, Christoffer; Lindal, Sigurd; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Lammens, Martin; Broman, Marcus; Dekomien, Gabriele; Maddison, Paul; Muntoni, Francesco; Sewry, Caroline; Radunovic, Aleksandar; de Visser, Marianne; Straub, Volker; van Engelen, Baziel; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2013-06-01

    Mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene are a common cause of inherited neuromuscular disorders and have been associated with a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from various congenital myopathies to the malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) trait without any associated weakness. RYR1-related myopathies are usually of early-childhood onset. Here we present 11 patients from 8 families with a late-onset axial myopathy associated with RYR1 variants. Patients presented between the third and seventh decade of life to neuromuscular centres in Norway, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom with predominant axial muscle involvement, comprising variable degrees of lumbar hyperlordosis, scapular winging and/or camptocormia. Marked myalgia was commonly associated. Serum creatine kinase levels were normal or moderately elevated. Muscle imaging showed consistent involvement of the lower paravertebral muscles and the posterior thigh. Muscle biopsy findings were often discrete, featuring variability in fibre size, increased internal nuclei and unevenness of oxidative enzyme staining, but only rarely overt cores. RYR1 sequencing revealed heterozygous missense variants, either previously associated with the MHS trait or localizing to known MHS mutational hotspots. These findings indicate that MHS-related RYR1 mutations may present later in life with prominent axial weakness but not always typical histopathological features. We propose a combined effect of RyR1 dysfunction, aging and particular vulnerability of axial muscle groups as a possible pathogenic mechanism. RYR1 is a candidate for cases with "idiopathic" camptocormia or bent spine syndrome (BSS).

  10. HIV-1 Tat Activates Neuronal Ryanodine Receptors with Rapid Induction of the Unfolded Protein Response and Mitochondrial Hyperpolarization

    PubMed Central

    Norman, John P.; Perry, Seth W.; Reynolds, Holly M.; Kiebala, Michelle; De Mesy Bentley, Karen L.; Trejo, Margarita; Volsky, David J.; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.; Dewhurst, Stephen; Masliah, Eliezer; Gelbard, Harris A.

    2008-01-01

    Neurologic disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is ultimately refractory to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) because of failure of complete virus eradication in the central nervous system (CNS), and disruption of normal neural signaling events by virally induced chronic neuroinflammation. We have previously reported that HIV-1 Tat can induce mitochondrial hyperpolarization in cortical neurons, thus compromising the ability of the neuron to buffer calcium and sustain energy production for normal synaptic communication. In this report, we demonstrate that Tat induces rapid loss of ER calcium mediated by the ryanodine receptor (RyR), followed by the unfolded protein response (UPR) and pathologic dilatation of the ER in cortical neurons in vitro. RyR antagonism attenuated both Tat-mediated mitochondrial hyperpolarization and UPR induction. Delivery of Tat to murine CNS in vivo also leads to long-lasting pathologic ER dilatation and mitochondrial morphologic abnormalities. Finally, we performed ultrastructural studies that demonstrated mitochondria with abnormal morphology and dilated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in brain tissue of patients with HIV-1 inflammation and neurodegeneration. Collectively, these data suggest that abnormal RyR signaling mediates the neuronal UPR with failure of mitochondrial energy metabolism, and is a critical locus for the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 in the CNS. PMID:19009018

  11. Genetic and Biochemical Approaches for In Vivo and In Vitro Assessment of Protein Oligomerization: The Ryanodine Receptor Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Stanczyk, Paulina J.; Lai, F. Anthony; Zissimopoulos, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    Oligomerization is often a structural requirement for proteins to accomplish their specific cellular function. For instance, tetramerization of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) is necessary for the formation of a functional Ca2+ release channel pore. Here, we describe detailed protocols for the assessment of protein self-association, including yeast two-hybrid (Y2H), co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and chemical cross-linking assays. In the Y2H system, protein self-interaction is detected by β-galactosidase assay in yeast co-expressing GAL4 bait and target fusions of the test protein. Protein self-interaction is further assessed by co-IP using HA- and cMyc-tagged fusions of the test protein co-expressed in mammalian HEK293 cells. The precise stoichiometry of the protein homo-oligomer is examined by cross-linking and SDS-PAGE analysis following expression in HEK293 cells. Using these different but complementary techniques, we have consistently observed the self-association of the RyR N-terminal domain and demonstrated its intrinsic ability to form tetramers. These methods can be applied to protein-protein interaction and homo-oligomerization studies of other mammalian integral membrane proteins. PMID:27500320

  12. Crystal structures of ryanodine receptor SPRY1 and tandem-repeat domains reveal a critical FKBP12 binding determinant

    PubMed Central

    Yuchi, Zhiguang; Yuen, Siobhan M. Wong King; Lau, Kelvin; Underhill, Ainsley Q.; Cornea, Razvan L.; Fessenden, James D.; Van Petegem, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) form calcium release channels located in the membranes of the sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum. RyRs play a major role in excitation-contraction coupling and other Ca2+-dependent signalling events, and consist of several globular domains that together form a large assembly. Here we describe the crystal structures of the SPRY1 and tandem-repeat domains at 1.2–1.5 Å resolution, which reveal several structural elements not detected in recent cryo-EM reconstructions of RyRs. The cryo-EM studies disagree on the position of SPRY domains, which had been proposed based on homology modelling. Computational docking of the crystal structures, combined with FRET studies, show that the SPRY1 domain is located next to FK506-binding protein (FKBP). Molecular dynamics flexible fitting and mutagenesis experiments suggest a hydrophobic cluster within SPRY1 that is crucial for FKBP binding. A RyR1 disease mutation, N760D, appears to directly impact FKBP binding through interfering with SPRY1 folding. PMID:26245150

  13. Ryanodine receptors blockade reduces Amyloid-beta load and memory impairments in Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Oulès, Bénédicte; Del Prete, Dolores; Greco, Barbara; Zhang, Xuexin; Lauritzen, Inger; Sevalle, Jean; Moreno, Sebastien; Paterlini-Bréchot, Patrizia; Trebak, Mohamed; Checler, Frédéric; Benfenati, Fabio; Chami, Mounia

    2012-01-01

    In Alzheimer disease (AD), the perturbation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been linked to presenilins (PS), the catalytic core in γ-secretase complexes cleaving the amyloid precursor protein (APP) thereby generating amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Here we investigate whether APP contributes to ER Ca2+ homeostasis and whether ER Ca2+ could in turn influence Aβ production. We show that overexpression of wild-type human APP (APP695), or APP harboring the Swedish double mutation (APPswe) triggers increased Ryanodine receptors (RyR) expression and enhances RyR-mediated ER Ca2+ release in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and in APPswe-expressing (Tg2576) mice. Interestingly, dantrolene-induced lowering of RyR-mediated Ca2+ release leads to the reduction of both intracellular and extracellular Aβ load in neuroblastoma cells as well as in primary cultured neurons derived from Tg2576 mice. This Aβ reduction can be accounted for by decreased Thr-668-dependent APP phosphorylation and β- and γ-secretases activities. Importantly, dantrolene diminishes Aβ load, reduces Aβ-related histological lesions and slows down learning and memory deficits in Tg2576 mice. Overall, our data document a key role of RyR in Aβ production and learning and memory performances, and delineate RyR-mediated control of Ca2+ homeostasis as a physiological paradigm that could be targeted for innovative therapeutic approaches. PMID:22915123

  14. The H29D Mutation Does Not Enhance Cytosolic Ca2+ Activation of the Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhichao; Guo, Wenting; Yuen, Siobhan M Wong King; Wang, Ruiwu; Zhang, Lin; Van Petegem, Filip; Chen, S R Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The N-terminal domain of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) harbors a large number of naturally occurring mutations that are associated with stress-induced ventricular tachyarrhythmia and sudden death. Nearly all these disease-associated N-terminal mutations are located at domain interfaces or buried within domains. Mutations at these locations would alter domain-domain interactions or the stability/folding of domains. Recently, a novel RyR2 mutation H29D associated with ventricular arrhythmia at rest was found to enhance the activation of single RyR2 channels by diastolic levels of cytosolic Ca2+. Unlike other N-terminal disease-associated mutations, the H29D mutation is located on the surface of the N-terminal domain. It is unclear how this surface-exposed H29D mutation that does not appear to interact with other parts of the RyR2 structure could alter the intrinsic properties of the channel. Here we carried out detailed functional characterization of the RyR2-H29D mutant at the molecular and cellular levels. We found that the H29D mutation has no effect on the basal level or the Ca2+ dependent activation of [3H]ryanodine binding to RyR2, the cytosolic Ca2+ activation of single RyR2 channels, or the cytosolic Ca2+- or caffeine-induced Ca2+ release in HEK293 cells. In addition, the H29D mutation does not alter the propensity for spontaneous Ca2+ release or the thresholds for Ca2+ release activation or termination. Furthermore, the H29D mutation does not have significant impact on the thermal stability of the N-terminal region (residues 1-547) of RyR2. Collectively, our data show that the H29D mutation exerts little or no effect on the function of RyR2 or on the folding stability of the N-terminal region. Thus, our results provide no evidence that the H29D mutation enhances the cytosolic Ca2+ activation of RyR2.

  15. The H29D Mutation Does Not Enhance Cytosolic Ca2+ Activation of the Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhichao; Guo, Wenting; Yuen, Siobhan M. Wong King; Wang, Ruiwu; Zhang, Lin; Van Petegem, Filip; Chen, S. R. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The N-terminal domain of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) harbors a large number of naturally occurring mutations that are associated with stress-induced ventricular tachyarrhythmia and sudden death. Nearly all these disease-associated N-terminal mutations are located at domain interfaces or buried within domains. Mutations at these locations would alter domain-domain interactions or the stability/folding of domains. Recently, a novel RyR2 mutation H29D associated with ventricular arrhythmia at rest was found to enhance the activation of single RyR2 channels by diastolic levels of cytosolic Ca2+. Unlike other N-terminal disease-associated mutations, the H29D mutation is located on the surface of the N-terminal domain. It is unclear how this surface-exposed H29D mutation that does not appear to interact with other parts of the RyR2 structure could alter the intrinsic properties of the channel. Here we carried out detailed functional characterization of the RyR2-H29D mutant at the molecular and cellular levels. We found that the H29D mutation has no effect on the basal level or the Ca2+ dependent activation of [3H]ryanodine binding to RyR2, the cytosolic Ca2+ activation of single RyR2 channels, or the cytosolic Ca2+- or caffeine-induced Ca2+ release in HEK293 cells. In addition, the H29D mutation does not alter the propensity for spontaneous Ca2+ release or the thresholds for Ca2+ release activation or termination. Furthermore, the H29D mutation does not have significant impact on the thermal stability of the N-terminal region (residues 1–547) of RyR2. Collectively, our data show that the H29D mutation exerts little or no effect on the function of RyR2 or on the folding stability of the N-terminal region. Thus, our results provide no evidence that the H29D mutation enhances the cytosolic Ca2+ activation of RyR2. PMID:26405799

  16. Role of Progesterone Receptor Isoforms in Regulation of Cell Adhesion and Apoptosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-01-1-0507 TITLE: Role of Progesterone Receptor Isoforms in Regulation of Cell Adhesion and Apoptosis PRINCIPAL...1 Jun 01 - 31 May 02) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Progesterone Receptor Isoforms in Regulation of Cell Adhesion and Apoptosis 6. AUTHOR(S...information) Progesterone receptors (PR) and estrogen receptors (ER) are important prognostic indicators in breast cancer. We believe that PR, in addition to

  17. Splice isoform estrogen receptors as integral transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Toomre, Derek; Bender, Jeffrey R

    2011-11-01

    In addition to enhancing or repressing transcription, steroid hormone receptors rapidly transduce kinase activation signals. On ligand engagement, an N-terminus-truncated splice isoform of estrogen receptor (ER) α, ER46, triggers membrane-initiated signals, resulting in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and endothelial NO production. The orientation of ER46 at the plasma membrane is incompletely defined. With the use of ecliptic pHluorin-fused ER46, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in live human endothelial cells illustrates that ER46 can topologically conform to a type I transmembrane protein structure. Mutation of isoleucine-386 at the center of ER46's transmembrane hydrophobic core prevents membrane spanning, obscures the N-terminal ectodomain, and effects a marked reduction in membrane-impermeant estrogen binding with diminished rapid eNOS activation and NO production, despite maintained genomic induction of an estrogen response element-luciferase reporter. Thus there exist pools of transmembrane steroid hormone receptors that are efficient signaling molecules and potential novel therapeutic targets.

  18. Role of nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms in uterine pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bansari; Elguero, Sonia; Thakore, Suruchi; Dahoud, Wissam; Bedaiwy, Mohamed; Mesiano, Sam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Progesterone is a key hormonal regulator of the female reproductive system. It plays a major role to prepare the uterus for implantation and in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Actions of progesterone on the uterine tissues (endometrium, myometrium and cervix) are mediated by the combined effects of two progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms, designated PR-A and PR-B. Both receptors function primarily as ligand-activated transcription factors. Progesterone action on the uterine tissues is qualitatively and quantitatively determined by the relative levels and transcriptional activities of PR-A and PR-B. The transcriptional activity of the PR isoforms is affected by specific transcriptional coregulators and by PR post-translational modifications that affect gene promoter targeting. In this context, appropriate temporal and cell-specific expression and function of PR-A and PR-B are critical for normal uterine function. METHODS Relevant studies describing the role of PRs in uterine physiology and pathology (endometriosis, uterine leiomyoma, endometrial cancer, cervical cancer and recurrent pregnancy loss) were comprehensively searched using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and critically reviewed. RESULTS Progesterone, acting through PR-A and PR-B, regulates the development and function of the endometrium and induces changes in cells essential for implantation and the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. During pregnancy, progesterone via the PRs promotes myometrial relaxation and cervical closure. Withdrawal of PR-mediated progesterone signaling triggers menstruation and parturition. PR-mediated progesterone signaling is anti-mitogenic in endometrial epithelial cells, and as such, mitigates the tropic effects of estrogen on eutopic normal endometrium, and on ectopic implants in endometriosis. Similarly, ligand-activated PRs function as tumor suppressors in endometrial cancer cells through inhibition of key

  19. Interdomain Interactions within Ryanodine Receptors Regulate Ca2+ Spark Frequency in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Shtifman, Alexander; Ward, Christopher W.; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Wang, Jianli; Olbinski, Beth; Valdivia, Hector H.; Ikemoto, Noriaki; Schneider, Martin F.

    2002-01-01

    DP4 is a 36-residue synthetic peptide that corresponds to the Leu2442-Pro2477 region of RyR1 that contains the reported malignant hyperthermia (MH) mutation site. It has been proposed that DP4 disrupts the normal interdomain interactions that stabilize the closed state of the Ca2+ release channel (Yamamoto, T., R. El-Hayek, and N. Ikemoto. 2000. J. Biol. Chem. 275:11618–11625). We have investigated the effects of DP4 on local SR Ca2+ release events (Ca2+ sparks) in saponin-permeabilized frog skeletal muscle fibers using laser scanning confocal microscopy (line-scan mode, 2 ms/line), as well as the effects of DP4 on frog SR vesicles and frog single RyR Ca2+ release channels reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers. DP4 caused a significant increase in Ca2+ spark frequency in muscle fibers. However, the mean values of the amplitude, rise time, spatial half width, and temporal half duration of the Ca2+ sparks, as well as the distribution of these parameters, remained essentially unchanged in the presence of DP4. Thus, DP4 increased the opening rate, but not the open time of the RyR Ca2+ release channel(s) generating the sparks. DP4 also increased [3H]ryanodine binding to SR vesicles isolated from frog and mammalian skeletal muscle, and increased the open probability of frog RyR Ca2+ release channels reconstituted in bilayers, without changing the amplitude of the current through those channels. However, unlike in Ca2+ spark experiments, DP4 produced a pronounced increase in the open time of channels in bilayers. The same peptide with an Arg17 to Cys17 replacement (DP4mut), which corresponds to the Arg2458-to-Cys2458 mutation in MH, did not produce a significant effect on RyR activation in muscle fibers, bilayers, or SR vesicles. Mg2+ dependence experiments conducted with permeabilized muscle fibers indicate that DP4 preferentially binds to partially Mg2+-free RyR(s), thus promoting channel opening and production of Ca2+ sparks. PMID:11773235

  20. Frontrunners of T cell activation: Initial, localized Ca2+ signals mediated by NAADP and the type 1 ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Insa M A; Diercks, Björn-Philipp; Gattkowski, Ellen; Czarniak, Frederik; Kempski, Jan; Werner, René; Schetelig, Daniel; Mittrücker, Hans-Willi; Schumacher, Valéa; von Osten, Manuel; Lodygin, Dimitri; Flügel, Alexander; Fliegert, Ralf; Guse, Andreas H

    2015-10-13

    The activation of T cells is the fundamental on switch for the adaptive immune system. Ca(2+) signaling is essential for T cell activation and starts as initial, short-lived, localized Ca(2+) signals. The second messenger nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) forms rapidly upon T cell activation and stimulates early Ca(2+) signaling. We developed a high-resolution imaging technique using multiple fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator dyes to characterize these early signaling events and investigate the channels involved in NAADP-dependent Ca(2+) signals. In the first seconds of activation of either primary murine T cells or human Jurkat cells with beads coated with an antibody against CD3, we detected Ca(2+) signals with diameters close to the limit of detection and that were close to the activation site at the plasma membrane. In Jurkat cells in which the ryanodine receptor (RyR) was knocked down or in primary T cells from RyR1(-/-) mice, either these early Ca(2+) signals were not detected or the number of signals was markedly reduced. Local Ca(2+) signals observed within 20 ms upon microinjection of Jurkat cells with NAADP were also sensitive to RyR knockdown. In contrast, TRPM2 (transient receptor potential channel, subtype melastatin 2), a potential NAADP target channel, was not required for the formation of initial Ca(2+) signals in primary T cells. Thus, through our high-resolution imaging method, we characterized early Ca(2+) release events in T cells and obtained evidence for the involvement of RyR and NAADP in such signals.

  1. Levetiracetam Inhibits Both Ryanodine and IP3 Receptor Activated Calcium Induced Calcium Release in Hippocampal Neurons in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Nagarkatti, Nisha; Deshpande, Laxmikant S.; DeLorenzo, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy affects approximately 1% of the population worldwide, and there is a pressing need to develop new anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and understand their mechanisms of action. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a novel AED and despite its increasingly widespread clinical use, its mechanism of action is as yet undetermined. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) regulation by both inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP3R) and ryanodine receptors (RyR) has been implicated in epileptogenesis and the maintenance of epilepsy. To this end, we investigated the effect of LEV on RyR and IP3R activated calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) in hippocampal neuronal cultures. RyR-mediated CICR was stimulated using the well-characterized RyR activator, caffeine. Caffeine (10mM) caused a significant increase in [Ca2+]i in hippocampal neurons. Treatment with LEV (33μM) prior to stimulation of RyR-mediated CICR by caffeine led to a 61% decrease in the caffeine induced peak height of [Ca2+]i when compared to the control. Bradykinin stimulates IP3R-activated CICR—to test the effect of LEV on IP3R-mediated CICR, bradykinin (1μM) was used to stimulate cells pre-treated with LEV (100μM). The data showed that LEV caused a 74% decrease in IP3R-mediated CICR compared to the control. In previous studies we have shown that altered Ca2+ homeostatic mechanisms play a role in seizure activity and the development of spontaneous recurrent epileptiform discharges (SREDs). Elevations in [Ca2+]i mediated by CICR systems have been associated with neurotoxicity, changes in neuronal plasticity, and the development of AE. Thus, the ability of LEV to modulate the two major CICR systems demonstrates an important molecular effect of this agent on a major second messenger system in neurons. PMID:18406528

  2. Characterization of the Molecular Architecture of Human Caveolin-3 and Interaction with the Skeletal Muscle Ryanodine Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, Gareth; Collins, Richard F.; Kitmitto, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    Caveolin-3 (cav-3), an integral membrane protein, is a building block of caveolae as well as a regulator of a number of physiological processes by facilitating the formation of multiprotein signaling complexes. We report that the expression of cav-3 in insect (Sf9) cells induces caveola formation, comparable in size with those observed in native tissue. We have also purified the recombinant cav-3 determining that it forms an oligomer of ∼220 kDa. We present the first three-dimensional structure for cav-3 (using transmission electron microscopy and single particle analysis methods) and show that nine cav-3 monomers assemble to form a complex that is toroidal in shape, ∼16.5 nm in diameter and ∼ 5.5 nm in height. Labeling experiments and reconstitution of the purified cav-3 into liposomes have allowed a proposal for the orientation of the protein with respect to the membrane. We have identified multiple caveolin-binding motifs within the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) sequence employing a bioinformatic analysis. We have then shown experimentally that there is a direct interaction between recombinant cav-3 nonamers and purified RyR1 homotetramers that would imply that at least one of the predicted cav-3-binding sites is exposed within the fully assembled RyR1 structure. The cav-3 three-dimensional model provides new insights as to how a cav-3 oligomer can bind multiple partners in close proximity to form signaling complexes. Furthermore, a direct interaction with RyR1 suggests a possible role for cav-3 as a modifier of muscle excitation-contraction coupling and/or for localization of the receptor to regions of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. PMID:23071107

  3. Ca2+ release in muscle fibers expressing R4892W and G4896V type 1 ryanodine receptor disease mutants.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Romain; Legrand, Claude; Groom, Linda; Dirksen, Robert T; Jacquemond, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The large and rapidly increasing number of potentially pathological mutants in the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) prompts the need to characterize their effects on voltage-activated sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release in skeletal muscle. Here we evaluated the function of the R4892W and G4896V RyR1 mutants, both associated with central core disease (CCD) in humans, in myotubes and in adult muscle fibers. For both mutants expressed in RyR1-null (dyspedic) myotubes, voltage-gated Ca(2+) release was absent following homotypic expression and only partially restored following heterotypic expression with wild-type (WT) RyR1. In muscle fibers from adult WT mice, both mutants were expressed in restricted regions of the fibers with a pattern consistent with triadic localization. Voltage-clamp-activated confocal Ca(2+) signals showed that fiber regions endowed with G4896V-RyR1s exhibited an ∼30% reduction in the peak rate of SR Ca(2+) release, with no significant change in SR Ca(2+) content. Immunostaining revealed no associated change in the expression of either α1S subunit (Cav1.1) of the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) or type 1 sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA1), indicating that the reduced Ca(2+) release resulted from defective RyR1 function. Interestingly, in spite of robust localized junctional expression, the R4892W mutant did not affect SR Ca(2+) release in adult muscle fibers, consistent with a low functional penetrance of this particular CCD-associated mutant.

  4. Molecular Characteristics, mRNA Expression, and Alternative Splicing of a Ryanodine Receptor Gene in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Guo-Rui; Shi, Wen-Zhi; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a distinct class of ligand-gated channels controlling the release of calcium from intracellular stores. The emergence of diamide insecticides, which selectively target insect RyRs, has promoted the study of insect RyRs. In the present study, the full-length RyR cDNA (BdRyR) was cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious pest of fruits and vegetables throughout East Asia and the Pacific Rim. The cDNA of BdRyR contains a 15,420-bp open reading frame encoding 5,140 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 582.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.38. BdRyR shows a high level of amino acid sequence identity (78 to 97%) to other insect RyR isoforms. All common structural features of the RyRs are present in the BdRyR, including a well-conserved C-terminal domain containing consensus calcium-binding EF-hands and six transmembrane domains, and a large N-terminal domain. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that BdRyR was expressed at the lowest and highest levels in egg and adult, respectively, and that the BdRyR expression levels in the third instar larva, pupa and adult were 166.99-, 157.56- and 808.56-fold higher, respectively, than that in the egg. Among different adult body parts, the highest expression level was observed in the thorax compared with the head and abdomen. In addition, four alternative splice sites were identified in the BdRyR gene, with the first, ASI, being located in the central part of the predicted second spore lysis A/RyR domain. Diagnostic PCR analyses revealed that alternative splice variants were generated not only in a tissue-specific manner but also in a developmentally regulated manner. These results lay the foundation for further understanding the structural and functional properties of BdRyR, and the molecular mechanisms for target site resistance in B. dorsalis. PMID:24740254

  5. Distribution of estrogen and progesterone receptors isoforms in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background 70–80% of sporadic endometrial carcinomas are defined as endometrioid carcinoma (EC). Early-stage, well differentiated endometrial carcinomas usually retain expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR, respectively), as advanced stage, poorly differentiated tumors often lack one or both of these receptors. Well-described EC prognosis includes tumor characteristics, such as depth of myometrial invasion. Therefore, in the current study, we evaluated the expression profile of ER and PR isoforms, including ER-α, PR-A and PR–B, in correlation to EC tumor histological depth. Methods Using immunohistochemistry and image analysis software, the expression of ER-α, PR-A, PR–B and Ki67 was assessed in endometrial stroma and epithelial glands of superficial, deep and extra-tumoral sections of 15 paraffin embedded EC specimens, and compared to 5 biopsies of non-malignant endometrium. Results Expression of PR-A and ER-α was found to be lower in EC compared to nonmalignant tissue, as the stromal expression was dramatically reduced compared to epithelial cells. Expression ratios of both receptors were significantly high in superficial and deep portions of EC; in non-tumoral portion of EC were close to the ratios of nonmalignant endometrium. PR-B expression was low in epithelial glands of EC superficial and deep portions, and high in the extra-tumoral region. Elevated PR-B expression was found in stroma of EC, as well. Conclusions The ratio of ER-α and PR-A expression in the epithelial glands and the stroma of EC biopsies may serve as an additional parameter in the histological evaluation of EC tumor. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1155060506119016 PMID:24684970

  6. Cell Type Specific Spatial and Functional Coupling Between Mammalian Brain Kv2.1 K+ Channels and Ryanodine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mandikian, Danielle; Bocksteins, Elke; Parajuli, Laxmi Kumar; Bishop, Hannah I.; Cerda, Oscar; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Trimmer, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The Kv2.1 voltage-gated K+ channel is widely expressed throughout mammalian brain where it contributes to dynamic activity-dependent regulation of intrinsic neuronal excitability. Here we show that somatic plasma membrane Kv2.1 clusters are juxtaposed to clusters of intracellular ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+-release channels in mouse brain neurons, most prominently in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum. Electron microscopy-immunogold labeling shows that in MSNs, plasma membrane Kv2.1 clusters are adjacent to subsurface cisternae, placing Kv2.1 in close proximity to sites of RyR-mediated Ca2+ release. Immunofluorescence labeling in transgenic mice expressing GFP in specific MSN populations reveals the most prominent juxtaposed Kv2.1-RyR clusters in indirect pathway MSNs. Kv2.1 in both direct and indirect pathway MSNs exhibits markedly lower levels of labeling with phosphospecific antibodies directed against the S453, S563, and S603 phosphorylation site compared to levels observed in neocortical neurons, although labeling for Kv2.1 phosphorylation at S563 was significantly lower in indirect pathway MSNs compared to those in the direct pathway. Finally, acute stimulation of RyRs in heterologous cells causes a rapid hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage-dependence of activation of Kv2.1, typical of Ca2+/calcineurin-dependent Kv2.1 dephosphorylation. Together, these studies reveal that striatal MSNs are distinct in their expression of clustered Kv2.1 at plasma membrane sites juxtaposed to intracellular RyRs, as well as in Kv2.1 phosphorylation state. Differences in Kv2.1 expression and phosphorylation between MSNs in direct and indirect pathways provide a cell- and circuit-specific mechanism for coupling intracellular Ca2+ release to phosphorylation-dependent regulation of Kv2.1 to dynamically impact intrinsic excitability. PMID:24962901

  7. Identification of novel ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) protein interaction with calcium homeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (CHERP).

    PubMed

    Ryan, Timothy; Sharma, Parveen; Ignatchenko, Alex; MacLennan, David H; Kislinger, Thomas; Gramolini, Anthony O

    2011-05-13

    The ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) is a homotetrameric Ca(2+) release channel located in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle where it plays a role in the initiation of skeletal muscle contraction. A soluble, 6×-histidine affinity-tagged cytosolic fragment of RyR1 (amino acids 1-4243) was expressed in HEK-293 cells, and metal affinity chromatography under native conditions was used to purify the peptide together with interacting proteins. When analyzed by gel-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), 703 proteins were identified under all conditions. This group of proteins was filtered to identify putative RyR interacting proteins by removing those proteins found in only 1 RyR purification and proteins for which average spectral counts were enriched by less than 4-fold over control values. This resulted in 49 potential RyR1 interacting proteins, and 4 were selected for additional interaction studies: calcium homeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (CHERP), endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment 53-kDa protein (LMAN1), T-complex protein, and phosphorylase kinase. Western blotting showed that only CHERP co-purified with affinity-tagged RyR1 and was eluted with imidazole. Immunofluorescence showed that endogenous CHERP co-localizes with endogenous RyR1 in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat soleus muscle. A combination of overexpression of RyR1 in HEK-293 cells with siRNA-mediated suppression of CHERP showed that CHERP affects Ca(2+) release from the ER via RyR1. Thus, we propose that CHERP is an RyR1 interacting protein that may be involved in the regulation of excitation-contraction coupling.

  8. N-terminal and central segments of the type 1 ryanodine receptor mediate its interaction with FK506-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Girgenrath, Tanya; Mahalingam, Mohana; Svensson, Bengt; Nitu, Florentin R; Cornea, Razvan L; Fessenden, James D

    2013-05-31

    We used site-directed labeling of the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements to map RyR1 sequence elements forming the binding site of the 12-kDa binding protein for the immunosuppressant drug, FK506. This protein, FKBP12, promotes the RyR1 closed state, thereby inhibiting Ca(2+) leakage in resting muscle. Although FKBP12 function is well established, its binding determinants within the RyR1 protein sequence remain unresolved. To identify these sequence determinants using FRET, we created five single-Cys FKBP variants labeled with Alexa Fluor 488 (denoted D-FKBP) and then targeted these D-FKBPs to full-length RyR1 constructs containing decahistidine (His10) "tags" placed within N-terminal (amino acid residues 76-619) or central (residues 2157-2777) regions of RyR1. The FRET acceptor Cy3NTA bound specifically and saturably to these His tags, allowing distance analysis of FRET measured from each D-FKBP variant to Cy3NTA bound to each His tag. Results indicate that D-FKBP binds proximal to both N-terminal and central domains of RyR1, thus suggesting that the FKBP binding site is composed of determinants from both regions. These findings further imply that the RyR1 N-terminal and central domains are proximal to one another, a core premise of the domain-switch hypothesis of RyR function. We observed FRET from GFP fused at position 620 within the N-terminal domain to central domain His-tagged sites, thus further supporting this hypothesis. Taken together, these results support the conclusion that N-terminal and central domain elements are closely apposed near the FKBP binding site within the RyR1 three-dimensional structure.

  9. Regulation of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor/Ca2+-release channel RyR1 by S-palmitoylation.

    PubMed

    Chaube, Ruchi; Hess, Douglas T; Wang, Ya-Juan; Plummer, Bradley; Sun, Qi-An; Laurita, Kennneth; Stamler, Jonathan S

    2014-03-21

    The ryanodine receptor/Ca(2+)-release channels (RyRs) of skeletal and cardiac muscle are essential for Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum that mediates excitation-contraction coupling. It has been shown that RyR activity is regulated by dynamic post-translational modifications of Cys residues, in particular S-nitrosylation and S-oxidation. Here we show that the predominant form of RyR in skeletal muscle, RyR1, is subject to Cys-directed modification by S-palmitoylation. S-Palmitoylation targets 18 Cys within the N-terminal, cytoplasmic region of RyR1, which are clustered in multiple functional domains including those implicated in the activity-governing protein-protein interactions of RyR1 with the L-type Ca(2+) channel CaV1.1, calmodulin, and the FK506-binding protein FKBP12, as well as in "hot spot" regions containing sites of mutations implicated in malignant hyperthermia and central core disease. Eight of these Cys have been identified previously as subject to physiological S-nitrosylation or S-oxidation. Diminishing S-palmitoylation directly suppresses RyR1 activity as well as stimulus-coupled Ca(2+) release through RyR1. These findings demonstrate functional regulation of RyR1 by a previously unreported post-translational modification and indicate the potential for extensive Cys-based signaling cross-talk. In addition, we identify the sarco/endoplasmic reticular Ca(2+)-ATPase 1A and the α1S subunit of the L-type Ca(2+) channel CaV1.1 as S-palmitoylated proteins, indicating that S-palmitoylation may regulate all principal governors of Ca(2+) flux in skeletal muscle that mediates excitation-contraction coupling.

  10. Simulation of the effect of rogue ryanodine receptors on a calcium wave in ventricular myocytes with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Luyao; Xia, Ling; Ye, Xuesong; Cheng, Heping

    2010-05-26

    Calcium homeostasis is considered to be one of the most important factors for the contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle. However, under some pathological conditions, such as heart failure (HF), calcium homeostasis is disordered, and spontaneous waves may occur. In this study, we developed a mathematical model of formation and propagation of a calcium wave based upon a governing system of diffusion-reaction equations presented by Izu et al (2001 Biophys. J. 80 103-20) and integrated non-clustered or 'rogue' ryanodine receptors (rogue RyRs) into a two-dimensional (2D) model of ventricular myocytes isolated from failing hearts in which sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) pools are partially unloaded. The model was then used to simulate the effect of rogue RyRs on initiation and propagation of the calcium wave in ventricular myocytes with HF. Our simulation results show that rogue RyRs can amplify the diastolic SR Ca(2+) leak in the form of Ca(2+) quarks, increase the probability of occurrence of spontaneous Ca(2+) waves even with smaller SR Ca(2+) stores, accelerate Ca(2+) wave propagation, and hence lead to delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) and cardiac arrhythmia in the diseased heart. This investigation suggests that incorporating rogue RyRs in the Ca(2+) wave model under HF conditions provides a new view of Ca(2+) dynamics that could not be mimicked by adjusting traditional parameters involved in Ca(2+) release units and other ion channels, and contributes to understanding the underlying mechanism of HF.

  11. Ryanodine receptor fragmentation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak after one session of high-intensity interval exercise.

    PubMed

    Place, Nicolas; Ivarsson, Niklas; Venckunas, Tomas; Neyroud, Daria; Brazaitis, Marius; Cheng, Arthur J; Ochala, Julien; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Girard, Sebastien; Volungevičius, Gintautas; Paužas, Henrikas; Mekideche, Abdelhafid; Kayser, Bengt; Martinez-Redondo, Vicente; Ruas, Jorge L; Bruton, Joseph; Truffert, Andre; Lanner, Johanna T; Skurvydas, Albertas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2015-12-15

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient way of improving physical performance in healthy subjects and in patients with common chronic diseases, but less so in elite endurance athletes. The mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of HIIT are uncertain. Here, recreationally active human subjects performed highly demanding HIIT consisting of 30-s bouts of all-out cycling with 4-min rest in between bouts (≤3 min total exercise time). Skeletal muscle biopsies taken 24 h after the HIIT exercise showed an extensive fragmentation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release channel, the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). The HIIT exercise also caused a prolonged force depression and triggered major changes in the expression of genes related to endurance exercise. Subsequent experiments on elite endurance athletes performing the same HIIT exercise showed no RyR1 fragmentation or prolonged changes in the expression of endurance-related genes. Finally, mechanistic experiments performed on isolated mouse muscles exposed to HIIT-mimicking stimulation showed reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS)-dependent RyR1 fragmentation, calpain activation, increased SR Ca(2+) leak at rest, and depressed force production due to impaired SR Ca(2+) release upon stimulation. In conclusion, HIIT exercise induces a ROS-dependent RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of recreationally active subjects, and the resulting changes in muscle fiber Ca(2+)-handling trigger muscular adaptations. However, the same HIIT exercise does not cause RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of elite endurance athletes, which may explain why HIIT is less effective in this group.

  12. Ryanodine receptor fragmentation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak after one session of high-intensity interval exercise

    PubMed Central

    Place, Nicolas; Ivarsson, Niklas; Venckunas, Tomas; Neyroud, Daria; Brazaitis, Marius; Cheng, Arthur J.; Ochala, Julien; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Girard, Sebastien; Volungevičius, Gintautas; Paužas, Henrikas; Mekideche, Abdelhafid; Kayser, Bengt; Martinez-Redondo, Vicente; Bruton, Joseph; Truffert, Andre; Lanner, Johanna T.; Skurvydas, Albertas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient way of improving physical performance in healthy subjects and in patients with common chronic diseases, but less so in elite endurance athletes. The mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of HIIT are uncertain. Here, recreationally active human subjects performed highly demanding HIIT consisting of 30-s bouts of all-out cycling with 4-min rest in between bouts (≤3 min total exercise time). Skeletal muscle biopsies taken 24 h after the HIIT exercise showed an extensive fragmentation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channel, the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). The HIIT exercise also caused a prolonged force depression and triggered major changes in the expression of genes related to endurance exercise. Subsequent experiments on elite endurance athletes performing the same HIIT exercise showed no RyR1 fragmentation or prolonged changes in the expression of endurance-related genes. Finally, mechanistic experiments performed on isolated mouse muscles exposed to HIIT-mimicking stimulation showed reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS)-dependent RyR1 fragmentation, calpain activation, increased SR Ca2+ leak at rest, and depressed force production due to impaired SR Ca2+ release upon stimulation. In conclusion, HIIT exercise induces a ROS-dependent RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of recreationally active subjects, and the resulting changes in muscle fiber Ca2+-handling trigger muscular adaptations. However, the same HIIT exercise does not cause RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of elite endurance athletes, which may explain why HIIT is less effective in this group. PMID:26575622

  13. Simulation of the effect of rogue ryanodine receptors on a calcium wave in ventricular myocytes with heart failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Luyao; Xia, Ling; Ye, Xuesong; Cheng, Heping

    2010-06-01

    Calcium homeostasis is considered to be one of the most important factors for the contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle. However, under some pathological conditions, such as heart failure (HF), calcium homeostasis is disordered, and spontaneous waves may occur. In this study, we developed a mathematical model of formation and propagation of a calcium wave based upon a governing system of diffusion-reaction equations presented by Izu et al (2001 Biophys. J. 80 103-20) and integrated non-clustered or 'rogue' ryanodine receptors (rogue RyRs) into a two-dimensional (2D) model of ventricular myocytes isolated from failing hearts in which sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ pools are partially unloaded. The model was then used to simulate the effect of rogue RyRs on initiation and propagation of the calcium wave in ventricular myocytes with HF. Our simulation results show that rogue RyRs can amplify the diastolic SR Ca2+ leak in the form of Ca2+ quarks, increase the probability of occurrence of spontaneous Ca2+ waves even with smaller SR Ca2+ stores, accelerate Ca2+ wave propagation, and hence lead to delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) and cardiac arrhythmia in the diseased heart. This investigation suggests that incorporating rogue RyRs in the Ca2+ wave model under HF conditions provides a new view of Ca2+ dynamics that could not be mimicked by adjusting traditional parameters involved in Ca2+ release units and other ion channels, and contributes to understanding the underlying mechanism of HF.

  14. Ryanodine receptor blockade reduces amyloid-β load and memory impairments in Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Oulès, Bénédicte; Del Prete, Dolores; Greco, Barbara; Zhang, Xuexin; Lauritzen, Inger; Sevalle, Jean; Moreno, Sebastien; Paterlini-Bréchot, Patrizia; Trebak, Mohamed; Checler, Frédéric; Benfenati, Fabio; Chami, Mounia

    2012-08-22

    In Alzheimer disease (AD), the perturbation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca²⁺) homeostasis has been linked to presenilins, the catalytic core in γ-secretase complexes cleaving the amyloid precursor protein (APP), thereby generating amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Here we investigate whether APP contributes to ER Ca²⁺ homeostasis and whether ER Ca²⁺ could in turn influence Aβ production. We show that overexpression of wild-type human APP (APP(695)), or APP harboring the Swedish double mutation (APP(swe)) triggers increased ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression and enhances RyR-mediated ER Ca²⁺ release in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and in APP(swe)-expressing (Tg2576) mice. Interestingly, dantrolene-induced lowering of RyR-mediated Ca²⁺ release leads to the reduction of both intracellular and extracellular Aβ load in neuroblastoma cells as well as in primary cultured neurons derived from Tg2576 mice. This Aβ reduction can be accounted for by decreased Thr-668-dependent APP phosphorylation and β- and γ-secretases activities. Importantly, dantrolene diminishes Aβ load, reduces Aβ-related histological lesions, and slows down learning and memory deficits in Tg2576 mice. Overall, our data document a key role of RyR in Aβ production and learning and memory performances, and delineate RyR-mediated control of Ca²⁺ homeostasis as a physiological paradigm that could be targeted for innovative therapeutic approaches.

  15. Restraint effects on stress-related hormones and blood natural killer cell cytotoxicity in pigs with a mutated ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Ciepielewski, Z M; Stojek, W; Glac, W; Wrona, D

    2013-05-01

    A mutation in the ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1) of the calcium release channel is responsible for increased stress susceptibility in pigs. In the present study, the relation of a mutation in RYR1 with the neuroendocrine (stress-related hormone) response and the immune defense represented by natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) during a 4-h restraint and recovery phase in 60 male pigs was investigated. Blood samples were collected from pigs previously divided into RYR1 genotypes (nn, Nn, NN), based on PCR amplification and restriction analyses. The blood samples collected during the restraint and recovery phases of the experiment were used to determine NKCC ((51)Cr-release assay), large granular lymphocyte number (hematologic method), and plasma concentrations of prolactin (PRL), GH, ACTH, and cortisol (COR) (by specific RIA). The greatest degree of NKCC response (P < 0.05) to restraint stress relative to controls was observed for the stress-susceptible homozygote group (nn). Measures of stress-related hormones were positively correlated with NKCC during the entire experimental period (P < 0.001 for all investigated hormones) in the nn group. Immunostimulatory effects in the early (0-60 min) phase of restraint were associated with increased hormone responses, especially PRL and GH. In the late (180-240 min) phase of stress and the recovery phase (480 min), a decrease in immune response was accompanied by an elevated COR response in all RYR1 genotypes. Moreover, divergent responses of both PRL (greatest in nn, P < 0.001) and GH (greatest in NN, P < 0.001) to the 4-h restraint were observed. Our results suggest that stress-susceptible RYR1-mutated homozygotes develop a greater level of immune defense, including cytotoxic activity of NK cells, and accompanied by more pronounced stress-induced changes in neuroendocrine response than stress-resistant heterozygous (Nn) and homozygous (NN) pigs.

  16. Estrogen and progesterone receptor isoforms expression in the stomach of Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Saqui-Salces, Milena; Neri-Gómez, Teresa; Gamboa-Dominguez, Armando; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    AIM: We studied the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms expression in gastric antrum and corpus of female gerbils and their regulation by estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). METHODS: Ovariectomized adult female gerbils were subcutaneously treated with E2, and E2 + P4. Uteri and stomachs were removed, the latter were cut along the greater curvature, and antrum and corpus were excised. Proteins were immunoblotted using antibodies that recognize ER-alpha, ER-beta, and PR-A and PR-B receptor isoforms. Tissues from rats treated in the same way were used as controls. RESULTS: Specific bands were detected for ER-alpha (68 KDa), and PR isoforms (85 and 120 KDa for PR-A and PR-B isoforms, respectively) in uteri, gastric antrum and corpus. We could not detect ER-beta isoform. PR isoforms were not regulated by E2 or P4 in uterus and gastric tissues of gerbils. ER-alpha isoform content was significantly down-regulated by E2 in the corpus, but not affected by hormones in uterus and gastric antrum. CONCLUSION: The presence of ER-alpha and PR isoforms in gerbils stomach suggests that E2 and P4 actions in this organ are in part mediated by their nuclear receptors. PMID:18837087

  17. The EF-hand Ca2+ Binding Domain Is Not Required for Cytosolic Ca2+ Activation of the Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenting; Sun, Bo; Xiao, Zhichao; Liu, Yingjie; Wang, Yundi; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Ruiwu; Chen, S R Wayne

    2016-01-29

    Activation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) by elevating cytosolic Ca(2+) is a central step in the process of Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release, but the molecular basis of RyR2 activation by cytosolic Ca(2+) is poorly defined. It has been proposed recently that the putative Ca(2+) binding domain encompassing a pair of EF-hand motifs (EF1 and EF2) in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) functions as a Ca(2+) sensor that regulates the gating of RyR1. Although the role of the EF-hand domain in RyR1 function has been studied extensively, little is known about the functional significance of the corresponding EF-hand domain in RyR2. Here we investigate the effect of mutations in the EF-hand motifs on the Ca(2+) activation of RyR2. We found that mutations in the EF-hand motifs or deletion of the entire EF-hand domain did not affect the Ca(2+)-dependent activation of [(3)H]ryanodine binding or the cytosolic Ca(2+) activation of RyR2. On the other hand, deletion of the EF-hand domain markedly suppressed the luminal Ca(2+) activation of RyR2 and spontaneous Ca(2+) release in HEK293 cells during store Ca(2+) overload or store overload-induced Ca(2+) release (SOICR). Furthermore, mutations in the EF2 motif, but not EF1 motif, of RyR2 raised the threshold for SOICR termination, whereas deletion of the EF-hand domain of RyR2 increased both the activation and termination thresholds for SOICR. These results indicate that, although the EF-hand domain is not required for RyR2 activation by cytosolic Ca(2+), it plays an important role in luminal Ca(2+) activation and SOICR.

  18. Involvement of plasma membrane Ca2+ channels, IP3 receptors, and ryanodine receptors in the generation of spontaneous rhythmic contractions of the cricket lateral oviduct.

    PubMed

    Tamashiro, Hirotake; Yoshino, Masami

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the isolated cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) lateral oviduct exhibited spontaneous rhythmic contractions (SRCs) with a frequency of 0.29±0.009 Hz (n=43) and an amplitude of 14.6±1.25 mg (n=29). SRCs completely disappeared following removal of extracellular Ca2+ using a solution containing 5mM EGTA. Application of the non-specific Ca2+ channel blockers Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ also decreased both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs in dose-dependent manners, suggesting that Ca2+ entry through plasma membrane Ca2+ channels is essential for the generation of SRCs. Application of ryanodine (30 μM), which depletes intracellular Ca2+ by locking ryanodine receptor (RyR)-Ca2+ channels in an open state, gradually reduced the frequency and amplitude of SRCs. A RyR antagonist, tetracaine, reduced both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs, whereas a RyR activator, caffeine, increased the frequency of SRCs with a subsequent increase in basal tonus, indicating that RyRs are essential for generating SRCs. To further investigate the involvement of phospholipase C (PLC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) in SRCs, we examined the effect of a PLC inhibitor, U73122, and an IP3R antagonist, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), on SRCs. Separately, U73122 (10 μM) and 2-APB (30-50 μM) both significantly reduced the amplitude of SRCs with little effect on their frequency, further indicating that the PLC/IP3R signaling pathway is fundamental to the modulation of the amplitude of SRCs. A hypotonic-induced increase in the frequency and amplitude of SRCs and a hypertonic-induced decrease in the frequency and amplitude of SRCs indicated that mechanical stretch of the lateral oviduct is involved in the generation of SRCs. The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-pump ATPase inhibitors thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid impaired or suppressed the relaxation phase of SRCs. Taken together, the present results indicate that Ca2+ influx through plasma membrane Ca2

  19. Cloning and expression of the mouse histamine H3 receptor: evidence for multiple isoforms.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Agnès; Héron, Anne; Cochois, Véronique; Pillot, Catherine; Schwartz, Jean-Charles; Arrang, Jean-Michel

    2004-09-01

    The existence of mouse H3-receptor isoforms was investigated by PCR analysis and cDNA cloning. Splicing mechanisms previously reported in various species are conserved in the mouse. The retention/deletion of a fragment in the third intracellular loop of the mouse receptor leads to the existence of three isoforms designated mH(3(445)), mH(3(413)) and mH(3(397)) according to the length of their deduced amino acid sequence. PCR analysis showed that mouse H3-receptor isoforms display different expression patterns in the brain. Following expression in Cos-1 cells, [125I]iodoproxyfan binding indicated similar pharmacological profiles of the mH(3(445)), mH(3(413)) and mH(3(397)) isoforms. The pharmacological profile of the mouse H3 receptor is more similar to the rat receptor than to the human receptor, although some differences were also observed between the mouse and rat receptors. For example, the potency of thioperamide and ciproxifan is slightly higher at the mouse receptor than at the rat receptor but 40-100-fold higher than at the human receptor. In situ hybridization histochemistry showed that the distribution of H3-receptor mRNAs in the mouse brain is rather similar to that previously reported in the rat brain. However, the autoradiographic and cellular expression patterns observed in several brain areas such as the thalamus or hippocampus reveal important differences between the two species.

  20. The Role of Parvalbumin, Sarcoplasmatic Reticulum Calcium Pump Rate, Rates of Cross-Bridge Dynamics, and Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Current on Peripheral Muscle Fatigue: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Verena

    2016-01-01

    A biophysical model of the excitation-contraction pathway, which has previously been validated for slow-twitch and fast-twitch skeletal muscles, is employed to investigate key biophysical processes leading to peripheral muscle fatigue. Special emphasis hereby is on investigating how the model's original parameter sets can be interpolated such that realistic behaviour with respect to contraction time and fatigue progression can be obtained for a continuous distribution of the model's parameters across the muscle units, as found for the functional properties of muscles. The parameters are divided into 5 groups describing (i) the sarcoplasmatic reticulum calcium pump rate, (ii) the cross-bridge dynamics rates, (iii) the ryanodine receptor calcium current, (iv) the rates of binding of magnesium and calcium ions to parvalbumin and corresponding dissociations, and (v) the remaining processes. The simulations reveal that the first two parameter groups are sensitive to contraction time but not fatigue, the third parameter group affects both considered properties, and the fourth parameter group is only sensitive to fatigue progression. Hence, within the scope of the underlying model, further experimental studies should investigate parvalbumin dynamics and the ryanodine receptor calcium current to enhance the understanding of peripheral muscle fatigue. PMID:27980606

  1. The Role of Parvalbumin, Sarcoplasmatic Reticulum Calcium Pump Rate, Rates of Cross-Bridge Dynamics, and Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Current on Peripheral Muscle Fatigue: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Röhrle, Oliver; Neumann, Verena; Heidlauf, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A biophysical model of the excitation-contraction pathway, which has previously been validated for slow-twitch and fast-twitch skeletal muscles, is employed to investigate key biophysical processes leading to peripheral muscle fatigue. Special emphasis hereby is on investigating how the model's original parameter sets can be interpolated such that realistic behaviour with respect to contraction time and fatigue progression can be obtained for a continuous distribution of the model's parameters across the muscle units, as found for the functional properties of muscles. The parameters are divided into 5 groups describing (i) the sarcoplasmatic reticulum calcium pump rate, (ii) the cross-bridge dynamics rates, (iii) the ryanodine receptor calcium current, (iv) the rates of binding of magnesium and calcium ions to parvalbumin and corresponding dissociations, and (v) the remaining processes. The simulations reveal that the first two parameter groups are sensitive to contraction time but not fatigue, the third parameter group affects both considered properties, and the fourth parameter group is only sensitive to fatigue progression. Hence, within the scope of the underlying model, further experimental studies should investigate parvalbumin dynamics and the ryanodine receptor calcium current to enhance the understanding of peripheral muscle fatigue.

  2. Direct detection of calmodulin tuning by ryanodine receptor channel targets using a Ca2+-sensitive acrylodan-labeled calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Fruen, Bradley R; Balog, Edward M; Schafer, Janet; Nitu, Florentin R; Thomas, David D; Cornea, Razvan L

    2005-01-11

    Calmodulin (CaM) activates the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) at nanomolar Ca(2+) concentrations but inhibits it at micromolar Ca(2+) concentrations, indicating that binding of Ca(2+) to CaM may provide a molecular switch for modulating RyR1 channel activity. To directly examine the Ca(2+) sensitivity of RyR1-complexed CaM, we used an environment-sensitive acrylodan adduct of CaM. The resulting (ACR)CaM probe displayed high-affinity binding to, and Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of, RyR1 similar to that of unlabeled wild-type (WT) CaM. Upon addition of Ca(2+), (ACR)CaM exhibited a substantial (>50%) decrease in fluorescence (K(Ca) = 2.7 +/- 0.8 microM). A peptide derived from the RyR1 CaM binding domain (RyR1(3614)(-)(43)) caused an even more pronounced Ca(2+)-dependent fluorescence decrease, and a >or=10-fold leftward shift in its K(Ca) (0.2 +/- 0.1 microM). In the presence of intact RyR1 channels in SR vesicles, (ACR)CaM fluorescence spectra were distinct from those in the presence of RyR1(3614)(-)(43), although a Ca(2+)-dependent decrease in fluorescence was still observed. The K(Ca) for (ACR)CaM fluorescence in the presence of SR (0.8 +/- 0.4 microM) was greater than in the presence of RyR1(3614)(-)(43) but was consistent with functional determinations showing the conversion of (ACR)CaM from channel activator (apoCaM) to inhibitor (Ca(2+)CaM) at Ca(2+) concentrations between 0.3 and 1 microM. These results indicate that binding to RyR1 targets evokes significant changes in the CaM structure and Ca(2+) sensitivity (i.e., CaM tuning). However, changes resulting from binding of CaM to the full-length, tetrameric channels are clearly distinct from changes caused by the RyR1-derived peptide. We suggest that the Ca(2+) sensitivity of CaM when in complex with full-length channels may be tuned to respond to physiologically relevant changes in Ca(2+).

  3. Ryanodine receptor sensitivity governs the stability and synchrony of local calcium release during cardiac excitation-contraction coupling.

    PubMed

    Wescott, Andrew P; Jafri, M Saleet; Lederer, W J; Williams, George S B

    2016-03-01

    Calcium-induced calcium release is the principal mechanism that triggers the cell-wide [Ca(2+)]i transient that activates muscle contraction during cardiac excitation-contraction coupling (ECC). Here, we characterize this process in mouse cardiac myocytes with a novel mathematical action potential (AP) model that incorporates realistic stochastic gating of voltage-dependent L-type calcium (Ca(2+)) channels (LCCs) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release channels (the ryanodine receptors, RyR2s). Depolarization of the sarcolemma during an AP stochastically activates the LCCs elevating subspace [Ca(2+)] within each of the cell's 20,000 independent calcium release units (CRUs) to trigger local RyR2 opening and initiate Ca(2+) sparks, the fundamental unit of triggered Ca(2+) release. Synchronization of Ca(2+) sparks during systole depends on the nearly uniform cellular activation of LCCs and the likelihood of local LCC openings triggering local Ca(2+) sparks (ECC fidelity). The detailed design and true SR Ca(2+) pump/leak balance displayed by our model permits investigation of ECC fidelity and Ca(2+) spark fidelity, the balance between visible (Ca(2+) spark) and invisible (Ca(2+) quark/sub-spark) SR Ca(2+) release events. Excess SR Ca(2+) leak is examined as a disease mechanism in the context of "catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT)", a Ca(2+)-dependent arrhythmia. We find that that RyR2s (and therefore Ca(2+) sparks) are relatively insensitive to LCC openings across a wide range of membrane potentials; and that key differences exist between Ca(2+) sparks evoked during quiescence, diastole, and systole. The enhanced RyR2 [Ca(2+)]i sensitivity during CPVT leads to increased Ca(2+) spark fidelity resulting in asynchronous systolic Ca(2+) spark activity. It also produces increased diastolic SR Ca(2+) leak with some prolonged Ca(2+) sparks that at times become "metastable" and fail to efficiently terminate. There is a huge margin of safety for

  4. Designing calcium release channel inhibitors with enhanced electron donor properties: stabilizing the closed state of ryanodine receptor type 1.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yanping; Yaeger, Daniel; Owen, Laura J; Escobedo, Jorge O; Wang, Jialu; Singer, Jeffrey D; Strongin, Robert M; Abramson, Jonathan J

    2012-01-01

    New drugs with enhanced electron donor properties that target the ryanodine receptor from skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (RyR1) are shown to be potent inhibitors of single-channel activity. In this article, we synthesize derivatives of the channel activator 4-chloro-3-methyl phenol (4-CmC) and the 1,4-benzothiazepine channel inhibitor 4-[-3{1-(4-benzyl) piperidinyl}propionyl]-7-methoxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,4-benzothiazepine (K201, JTV519) with enhanced electron donor properties. Instead of activating channel activity (~100 μM), the 4-methoxy analog of 4-CmC [4-methoxy-3-methyl phenol (4-MmC)] inhibits channel activity at submicromolar concentrations (IC(50) = 0.34 ± 0.08 μM). Increasing the electron donor characteristics of K201 by synthesizing its dioxole congener results in an approximately 16 times more potent RyR1 inhibitor (IC(50) = 0.24 ± 0.05 μM) compared with K201 (IC(50) = 3.98 ± 0.79 μM). Inhibition is not caused by an increased closed time of the channel but seems to be caused by an open state block of RyR1. These alterations to chemical structure do not influence the ability of these drugs to affect Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase type 1. Moreover, the FKBP12 protein, which stabilizes RyR1 in a closed configuration, is shown to be a strong electron donor. It seems as if FKBP12, K201, its dioxole derivative, and 4-MmC inhibit RyR1 channel activity by virtue of their electron donor characteristics. These results embody strong evidence that designing new drugs to target RyR1 with enhanced electron donor characteristics results in more potent channel inhibitors. This is a novel approach to the design of new, more potent drugs with the aim of functionally modifying RyR1 single-channel activity.

  5. Role of Cys³⁶⁰² in the function and regulation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Mi, Tao; Xiao, Zhichao; Guo, Wenting; Tang, Yijun; Hiess, Florian; Xiao, Jianmin; Wang, Yundi; Zhang, Joe Z; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Ruiwu; Jones, Peter P; Chen, S R Wayne

    2015-04-01

    The cardiac Ca²⁺ release channel [ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2)] is modulated by thiol reactive agents, but the molecular basis of RyR2 modulation by thiol reagents is poorly understood. Cys³⁶³⁵ in the skeletal muscle RyR1 is one of the most hyper-reactive thiols and is important for the redox and calmodulin (CaM) regulation of the RyR1 channel. However, little is known about the role of the corresponding cysteine residue in RyR2 (Cys³⁶⁰²) in the function and regulation of the RyR2 channel. In the present study, we assessed the impact of mutating Cys³⁶⁰² (C³⁶⁰²A) on store overload-induced Ca²⁺ release (SOICR) and the regulation of RyR2 by thiol reagents and CaM. We found that the C³⁶⁰²A mutation suppressed SOICR by raising the activation threshold and delayed the termination of Ca²⁺ release by reducing the termination threshold. As a result, C³⁶⁰²A markedly increased the fractional Ca²⁺ release. Furthermore, the C³⁶⁰²A mutation diminished the inhibitory effect of N-ethylmaleimide on Ca²⁺ release, but it had no effect on the stimulatory action of 4,4'-dithiodipyridine (DTDP) on Ca²⁺ release. In addition, Cys³⁶⁰² mutations (C³⁶⁰²A or C³⁶⁰²R) did not abolish the effect of CaM on Ca²⁺-release termination. Therefore, RyR2-Cys³⁶⁰² is a major site mediating the action of thiol alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide, but not the action of the oxidant DTDP. Our data also indicate that residue Cys³⁶⁰² plays an important role in the activation and termination of Ca²⁺ release, but it is not essential for CaM regulation of RyR2.

  6. Camkii-Dependent Phosphorylation of Cardiac Ryanodine Receptors Regulates Cell Death In Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Di Carlo, Mariano N.; Said, Matilde; Ling, Haiyun; Valverde, Carlos A.; De Giusti, Verónica; Sommese, Leandro; Palomeque, Julieta; Aiello, Alejandro E.; Skapura, Darlene G.; Rinaldi, Gustavo; Respress, Jonathan L.; Brown, Joan Heller; Wehrens, Xander H.T.; Salas, Margarita A.; Mattiazzi, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+-Calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) activation is deleterious in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Moreover, inhibition of CaMKII-dependent phosphorylations at the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) prevents CaMKII-induced I/R damage. However, the downstream targets of CaMKII at the SR level, responsible for this detrimental effect, remain unclear. In the present study we aimed to dissect the role of the two main substrates of CaMKII at the SR level, phospholamban (PLN) and ryanodine receptors (RyR2), in CaMKII-dependent I/R injury. In mouse hearts subjected to global I/R (45/120 min), phosphorylation of the primary CaMKII sites, S2814 on cardiac RyR2 and of T17 on PLN, significantly increased at the onset of reperfusion whereas PKA-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2 and PLN did not change. Similar results were obtained in vivo, in mice subjected to regional myocardial I/R (1/24 hrs). Knock-in mice with an inactivated serine 2814 phosphorylation site on RyR2 (S2814A), significantly improved post-ischemic mechanical recovery, reduced infarct size and decreased apoptosis. Conversely, knock-in mice, in which CaMKII site of RyR2 is constitutively activated (S2814D), significantly increased infarct size and exacerbated apoptosis. In S2814A and S2814D mice subjected to regional myocardial ischemia, infarct size was also decreased and increased respectively. Transgenic mice with double-mutant non-phosphorylatable PLN (S16A/T17A) in the PLN knockout background (PLNDM) also showed significantly increased post-ischemic cardiac damage. This effect cannot be attributed to PKA-dependent PLN phosphorylation and was not due to the enhanced L-type Ca2+ current, present in these mice. Our results reveal a major role for the phosphorylation of S2814 site on RyR2 in CaMKII-dependent I/R cardiac damage. In contrast, they showed that CaMKII-dependent increase in PLN phosphorylation during reperfusion opposes rather than contributes to I/R damage. PMID:24949568

  7. The random-coil 'C' fragment of the dihydropyridine receptor II-III loop can activate or inhibit native skeletal ryanodine receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Haarmann, Claudia S; Green, Daniel; Casarotto, Marco G; Laver, Derek R; Dulhunty, Angela F

    2003-01-01

    The actions of peptide C, corresponding to (724)Glu-Pro(760) of the II-III loop of the skeletal dihydropyridine receptor, on ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels incorporated into lipid bilayers with the native sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane show that the peptide is a high-affinity activator of native skeletal RyRs at cytoplasmic concentrations of 100 nM-10 microM. In addition, we found that peptide C inhibits RyRs in a voltage-independent manner when added for longer times or at higher concentrations (up to 150 microM). Peptide C had a random-coil structure indicating that it briefly assumes a variety of structures, some of which might activate and others which might inhibit RyRs. The results suggest that RyR activation and inhibition by peptide C arise from independent stochastic processes. A rate constant of 7.5 x 10(5) s(-1).M(-1) was obtained for activation and a lower estimate for the rate constant for inhibition of 5.9 x 10(3) s(-1).M(-1). The combined actions of peptide C and peptide A (II-III loop sequence (671)Thr-Leu(690)) showed that peptide C prevented activation but not blockage of RyRs by peptide A. We suggest that the effects of peptide C indicate functional interactions between a part of the dihydropyridine receptor and the RyR. These interactions could reflect either dynamic changes that occur during excitation-contraction coupling or interactions between the proteins at rest. PMID:12620094

  8. Membrane depolarization increases ryanodine sensitivity to Ca2+ release to the cytosol in L6 skeletal muscle cells: Implications for excitation–contraction coupling

    PubMed Central

    Pitake, Saumitra

    2015-01-01

    The dihydropyridine receptor in the plasma membrane and the ryanodine receptor in the sarcoplasmic reticulum are known to physically interact in the process of excitation–contraction coupling. However, the mechanism for subsequent Ca2+ release through the ryanodine receptor is unknown. Our lab has previously presented evidence that the dihydropyridine receptor and ryanodine receptor combine as a channel for the entry of Ca2+ under resting conditions, known as store operated calcium entry. Here, we provide evidence that depolarization during excitation–contraction coupling causes the dihydropyridine receptor to disengage from the ryanodine receptor. The newly freed ryanodine receptor can then transport Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol. Experimentally, this should more greatly expose the ryanodine receptor to exogenous ryanodine. To examine this hypothesis, we titrated L6 skeletal muscle cells with ryanodine in resting and excited (depolarized) states. When L6 muscle cells were depolarized with high potassium or exposed to the dihydropyridine receptor agonist BAYK-8644, known to induce dihydropyridine receptor movement within the membrane, ryanodine sensitivity was enhanced. However, ryanodine sensitivity was unaffected when Ca2+ was elevated without depolarization by the ryanodine receptor agonist chloromethylcresol, or by increasing Ca2+ concentration in the media. Ca2+ entry currents (from the extracellular space) during excitation were strongly inhibited by ryanodine, but Ca2+ entry currents in the resting state were not. We conclude that excitation releases the ryanodine receptor from occlusion by the dihydropyridine receptor, enabling Ca2+ release from the ryanodine receptor to the cytosol. PMID:26643865

  9. Membrane depolarization increases ryanodine sensitivity to Ca2+ release to the cytosol in L6 skeletal muscle cells: Implications for excitation-contraction coupling.

    PubMed

    Pitake, Saumitra; Ochs, Raymond S

    2016-04-01

    The dihydropyridine receptor in the plasma membrane and the ryanodine receptor in the sarcoplasmic reticulum are known to physically interact in the process of excitation-contraction coupling. However, the mechanism for subsequent Ca(2+) release through the ryanodine receptor is unknown. Our lab has previously presented evidence that the dihydropyridine receptor and ryanodine receptor combine as a channel for the entry of Ca(2+) under resting conditions, known as store operated calcium entry. Here, we provide evidence that depolarization during excitation-contraction coupling causes the dihydropyridine receptor to disengage from the ryanodine receptor. The newly freed ryanodine receptor can then transport Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol. Experimentally, this should more greatly expose the ryanodine receptor to exogenous ryanodine. To examine this hypothesis, we titrated L6 skeletal muscle cells with ryanodine in resting and excited (depolarized) states. When L6 muscle cells were depolarized with high potassium or exposed to the dihydropyridine receptor agonist BAYK-8644, known to induce dihydropyridine receptor movement within the membrane, ryanodine sensitivity was enhanced. However, ryanodine sensitivity was unaffected when Ca(2+) was elevated without depolarization by the ryanodine receptor agonist chloromethylcresol, or by increasing Ca(2+) concentration in the media. Ca(2+) entry currents (from the extracellular space) during excitation were strongly inhibited by ryanodine, but Ca(2+) entry currents in the resting state were not. We conclude that excitation releases the ryanodine receptor from occlusion by the dihydropyridine receptor, enabling Ca(2+) release from the ryanodine receptor to the cytosol.

  10. Mast cells express novel functional IL-15 receptor alpha isoforms.

    PubMed

    Bulanova, Elena; Budagian, Vadim; Orinska, Zane; Krause, Hans; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2003-05-15

    Mast cells previously have been reported to be regulated by IL-15 and to express a distinct IL-15R, termed IL-15RX. To further examine IL-15 binding and signaling in mast cells, we have studied the nature of the IL-15R and some of its biological activities in these cells. In this study, we report the existence of three novel isoforms of the IL-15R alpha chain in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells as a result of an alternative exon-splicing mechanism within the IL-15R alpha gene. These correspond to new mRNA transcripts lacking exon 4; exons 3 and 4; or exons 3, 4, and 5 (IL-15R alpha Delta 4, IL-15R alpha Delta 3,4, IL-15R alpha Delta 3,4,5). After transient transfection in COS-7 cells, all IL-15R alpha isoforms associate with the Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmic reticulum, the perinuclear space, and the cell membrane. Analysis of glycosylation pattern demonstrates the usage of a single N-glycosylation site, while no O-glycosylation is observed. Importantly, IL-15 binds with high affinity to, and promotes the survival of, murine BA/F3 cells stably transfected with the IL-15R alpha isoforms. Furthermore, we report that signaling mediated by IL-15 binding to the newly identified IL-15R alpha isoforms involves the phosphorylation of STAT3, STAT5, STAT6, Janus kinase 2, and Syk kinase. Taken together, our data indicate that murine mast cells express novel, fully functional IL-15R alpha isoforms, which can explain the selective regulatory effects of IL-15 on these cells.

  11. Crystal structure of type I ryanodine receptor amino-terminal [beta]-trefoil domain reveals a disease-associated mutation 'hot spot' loop

    SciTech Connect

    Amador, Fernando J.; Liu, Shuang; Ishiyama, Noboru; Plevin, Michael J.; Wilson, Aaron; MacLennan, David H.; Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    2009-12-01

    Muscle contraction and relaxation is regulated by transient elevations of myoplasmic Ca{sup 2+}. Ca{sup 2+} is released from stores in the lumen of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum (SER) to initiate formation of the Ca{sup 2+} transient by activation of a class of Ca{sup 2+} release channels referred to as ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and is pumped back into the SER lumen by Ca{sup 2+}-ATPases (SERCAs) to terminate the Ca{sup 2+} transient. Mutations in the type 1 ryanodine receptor gene, RYR1, are associated with 2 skeletal muscle disorders, malignant hyperthermia (MH), and central core disease (CCD). The evaluation of proposed mechanisms by which RyR1 mutations cause MH and CCD is hindered by the lack of high-resolution structural information. Here, we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal 210 residues of RyR1 (RyR{sub NTD}) at 2.5 {angstrom}. The RyR{sub NTD} structure is similar to that of the suppressor domain of type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3Rsup), but lacks most of the long helix-turn-helix segment of the 'arm' domain in IP3Rsup. The N-terminal {beta}-trefoil fold, found in both RyR and IP{sub 3}R, is likely to play a critical role in regulatory mechanisms in this channel family. A disease-associated mutation 'hot spot' loop was identified between strands 8 and 9 in a highly basic region of RyR1. Biophysical studies showed that 3 MH-associated mutations (C36R, R164C, and R178C) do not adversely affect the global stability or fold of RyRNTD, supporting previously described mechanisms whereby mutations perturb protein-protein interactions.

  12. Calcium Occupancy of N-terminal Sites within Calmodulin Induces Inhibition of the Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Boschek, Curt B; Jones, Terry E; Squier, Thomas C; Bigelow, Diana J

    2007-08-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) regulates calcium release from intracellular stores in skeletal muscle through its association with the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) calcium release channel, where CaM association enhances channel opening at resting calcium levels and its closing at micromolar calcium levels associated with muscle contraction. A high-affinity CaM-binding sequence (RyRp) has been identified in RyR1, which corresponds to a 30-residue sequence (i.e., K3614 – N3643) located within the central portion of the primary sequence. However, it is currently unclear whether the identified CaM-binding sequence a) senses calcium over the physiological range of calcium-concentrations associated with RyR1 regulation or b) plays a structural role unrelated to the calcium-dependent modulation of RyR1 function. Therefore, we have measured the calcium-dependent activation of the individual domains of CaM in association with RyRp and their relationship to the CaM-dependent regulation of RyR1. These measurements utilize an engineered CaM, permitting the site-specific incorporation of N-(1-pyrene) maleimide at either T34C (PyN-CaM) or T110C (PyC-CaM) in the N- and C-domains, respectively. Consistent with prior measurements, we observe a high-affinity association between both apo- and calcium-activated CaM and RyRp. Upon association with RyRp, fluorescence changes in PyN-CaM or PyC-CaM permit the measurement of the calcium-activation of these individual domains. Fluorescence changes upon calcium-activation of PyC-CaM in association with RyRp are indicative of high-affinity calcium-dependent activation of the C-terminal domain of CaM bound to RyRp at resting calcium levels and the activation of the N-terminal domain at levels of calcium associated cellular activation. In comparison, occupancy of calcium-binding sites in the N-domain of CaM mirrors the calcium-dependence of RyR1 inhibition observed at activating calcium levels, where [Ca]1/2 = 4.3 0.4 μM, suggesting a direct regulation of Ry

  13. Calcium occupancy of N-terminal sites within calmodulin induces inhibition of the ryanodine receptor calcium release channel.

    PubMed

    Boschek, Curt B; Jones, Terry E; Squier, Thomas C; Bigelow, Diana J

    2007-09-18

    Calmodulin (CaM) regulates calcium release from intracellular stores in skeletal muscle through its association with the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) calcium release channel, where CaM association enhances channel opening at resting calcium levels and its closing at micromolar calcium levels associated with muscle contraction. A high-affinity CaM-binding sequence (RyRp) has been identified in RyR1, which corresponds to a 30-residue sequence (i.e., K3614-N3643) located within the central portion of the primary sequence. However, it is presently unclear whether the identified CaM-binding sequence in association with CaM (a) senses calcium over the physiological range of calcium concentrations associated with RyR1 regulation or alternatively, (b) plays a structural role unrelated to the calcium-dependent modulation of RyR1 function. Therefore, we have measured the calcium-dependent activation of the individual domains of CaM in association with RyRp and their relationship to the CaM-dependent regulation of RyR1. These measurements utilize an engineered CaM, permitting the site-specific incorporation of N-(1-pyrene)maleimide at either T34C (PyN-CaM) or T110C (PyC-CaM) in the N- and C-domains, respectively. Consistent with prior measurements, we observe a high-affinity association of both apo-CaM and calcium-activated CaM with RyRp. Upon association with RyRp, fluorescence changes in PyN-CaM or PyC-CaM permit the measurement of the calcium-dependent activation of these individual domains. Fluorescence changes upon calcium activation of PyC-CaM in association with RyRp are indicative of high-affinity calcium-dependent activation of the C-terminal domain of CaM at resting calcium levels; at calcium levels associated with muscle contraction, activation of the N-terminal domain occurs with concomitant increases in the fluorescence intensity of PyC-CaM that is associated with structural changes within the CaM-binding sequence of RyR1. Occupancy of calcium-binding sites in the N

  14. Malignant hyperthermia and the clinical significance of type-1 ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1) variants: proceedings of the 2013 MHAUS Scientific Conference.

    PubMed

    Riazi, Sheila; Kraeva, Natalia; Muldoon, Sheila M; Dowling, James; Ho, Clara; Petre, Maria-Alexandra; Parness, Jerome; Dirksen, Robert T; Rosenberg, Henry

    2014-11-01

    The Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States and the Department of Anesthesia at the University of Toronto sponsored a Scientific Conference on November 1-2, 2013 in Toronto, ON, Canada. The multidisciplinary group of experts, including clinicians, geneticists, and physiologists involved in research related to malignant hyperthermia (MH), shared new insights into the pathophysiology of diseases linked to the type-1 ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1) as well as the relationship between MH and "awake MH" conditions, such as exertional rhabdomyolysis and exertional heat illness. In addition, the molecular genetics of MH and clinical issues related to the diagnosis and management of disorders linked to RYR1 were presented. The conference also honoured Dr. David H. MacLennan for his contributions to our understanding of the genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment of MH and other RYR1-related myopathies. This report represents a summary of the proceedings of this conference.

  15. Differential regulation of SK and BK channels by Ca2+ signals from Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors in guinea-pig urinary bladder myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Gerald M; Nelson, Mark T

    2002-01-01

    Small-conductance (SK) and large-conductance (BK) Ca2+-activated K+ channels are key regulators of excitability in urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM) of guinea-pig. The overall goal of this study was to define how SK and BK channels respond to Ca2+ signals from voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) in the surface membrane and from ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channels or ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane. To characterize the role of SK channels in UBSM, the effects of the SK channel blocker apamin on phasic contractions were examined. Apamin caused a dose-dependent increase in the amplitude of phasic contractions over a broad concentration range (10−10 to 10−6m). To determine the effects of Ca2+ signals from VDCCs and RyRs to SK and BK channels, whole cell membrane current was measured in isolated myocytes bathed in physiological solutions. Depolarization (-70 to +10 mV for 100 ms) of isolated myocytes caused an inward Ca2+ current (ICa), followed by an outward current. The outward current was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by apamin (10−10 to 10−6m), and designated ISK. ISK had a mean amplitude of 53.8 ± 6.1 pA or ∼1.4 pA pF−1 at +10 mV. The amplitude of ISK correlated with the peak ICa. Blocking ICa abolished ISK. In contrast, ISK was insensitive to the RyR blocker ryanodine (10 μM). These data indicate that Ca2+ signals from VDCCs, but not from RyRs, activate SK channels. BK channel currents (IBK) were isolated from other currents by using the BK channel blockers tetraethylammonium ions (TEA+; 1 mm) or iberiotoxin (200 nm). Voltage steps evoked transient and steady-state IBK components. Transient BK currents have previously been shown to result from BK channel activation by local Ca2+ release through RyRs (‘Ca2+ sparks’). Transient BK currents were inhibited by ryanodine (10 μM), as expected, and had a mean amplitude of 152.6 pA at +10 mV. The mean number of transient BK currents during a

  16. Molecular Characterization, mRNA Expression and Alternative Splicing of Ryanodine Receptor Gene in the Brown Citrus Aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke-Yi; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Shang, Feng; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) play a critical role in regulating the release of intracellular calcium, which enables them to be effectively targeted by the two novel classes of insecticides, phthalic acid diamides and anthranilic diamides. However, less information is available about this target site in insects, although the sequence and structure information of target molecules are essential for designing new control agents of high selectivity and efficiency, as well as low non-target toxicity. Here, we provided sufficient information about the coding sequence and molecular structures of RyR in T. citricida (TciRyR), an economically important pest. The full-length TciRyR cDNA was characterized with an open reading frame of 15,306 nucleotides, encoding 5101 amino acid residues. TciRyR was predicted to embrace all the hallmarks of ryanodine receptor, typically as the conserved C-terminal domain with consensus calcium-biding EF-hands (calcium-binding motif) and six transmembrane domains, as well as a large N-terminal domain. qPCR analysis revealed that the highest mRNA expression levels of TciRyR were observed in the adults, especially in the heads. Alternative splicing in TciRyR was evidenced by an alternatively spliced exon, resulting from intron retention, which was different from the case of RyR in Myzus persicae characterized with no alternative splicing events. Diagnostic PCR analysis indicated that the splicing of this exon was not only regulated in a body-specific manner but also in a stage-dependent manner. Taken together, these results provide useful information for new insecticide design and further insights into the molecular basis of insecticide action. PMID:26154764

  17. Role of amino-terminal half of the S4-S5 linker in type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) channel gating.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Takashi; Kurebayashi, Nagomi; Oba, Toshiharu; Oyamada, Hideto; Oguchi, Katsuji; Sakurai, Takashi; Ogawa, Yasuo

    2011-10-14

    The type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) is a Ca(2+) release channel found in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle and plays a pivotal role in excitation-contraction coupling. The RyR1 channel is activated by a conformational change of the dihydropyridine receptor upon depolarization of the transverse tubule, or by Ca(2+) itself, i.e. Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR). The molecular events transmitting such signals to the ion gate of the channel are unknown. The S4-S5 linker, a cytosolic loop connecting the S4 and S5 transmembrane segments in six-transmembrane type channels, forms an α-helical structure and mediates signal transmission in a wide variety of channels. To address the role of the S4-S5 linker in RyR1 channel gating, we performed alanine substitution scan of N-terminal half of the putative S4-S5 linker (Thr(4825)-Ser(4829)) that exhibits high helix probability. The mutant RyR1 was expressed in HEK cells, and CICR activity was investigated by caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release, single-channel current recordings, and [(3)H]ryanodine binding. Four mutants (T4825A, I4826A, S4828A, and S4829A) had reduced CICR activity without changing Ca(2+) sensitivity, whereas the L4827A mutant formed a constitutive active channel. T4825I, a disease-associated mutation for malignant hyperthermia, exhibited enhanced CICR activity. An α-helical wheel representation of the N-terminal S4-S5 linker provides a rational explanation to the observed activities of the mutants. These results suggest that N-terminal half of the S4-S5 linker may form an α-helical structure and play an important role in RyR1 channel gating.

  18. Muscle weakness in Ryr1I4895T/WT knock-in mice as a result of reduced ryanodine receptor Ca2+ ion permeation and release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Loy, Ryan E.; Orynbayev, Murat; Xu, Le; Andronache, Zoita; Apostol, Simona; Zvaritch, Elena; MacLennan, David H.; Meissner, Gerhard; Melzer, Werner

    2011-01-01

    The type 1 isoform of the ryanodine receptor (RYR1) is the Ca2+ release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) that is activated during skeletal muscle excitation–contraction (EC) coupling. Mutations in the RYR1 gene cause several rare inherited skeletal muscle disorders, including malignant hyperthermia and central core disease (CCD). The human RYR1I4898T mutation is one of the most common CCD mutations. To elucidate the mechanism by which RYR1 function is altered by this mutation, we characterized in vivo muscle strength, EC coupling, SR Ca2+ content, and RYR1 Ca2+ release channel function using adult heterozygous Ryr1I4895T/+ knock-in mice (IT/+). Compared with age-matched wild-type (WT) mice, IT/+ mice exhibited significantly reduced upper body and grip strength. In spite of normal total SR Ca2+ content, both electrically evoked and 4-chloro-m-cresol–induced Ca2+ release were significantly reduced and slowed in single intact flexor digitorum brevis fibers isolated from 4–6-mo-old IT/+ mice. The sensitivity of the SR Ca2+ release mechanism to activation was not enhanced in fibers of IT/+ mice. Single-channel measurements of purified recombinant channels incorporated in planar lipid bilayers revealed that Ca2+ permeation was abolished for homotetrameric IT channels and significantly reduced for heterotetrameric WT:IT channels. Collectively, these findings indicate that in vivo muscle weakness observed in IT/+ knock-in mice arises from a reduction in the magnitude and rate of RYR1 Ca2+ release during EC coupling that results from the mutation producing a dominant-negative suppression of RYR1 channel Ca2+ ion permeation. PMID:21149547

  19. Muscle weakness in Ryr1I4895T/WT knock-in mice as a result of reduced ryanodine receptor Ca2+ ion permeation and release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Loy, Ryan E; Orynbayev, Murat; Xu, Le; Andronache, Zoita; Apostol, Simona; Zvaritch, Elena; MacLennan, David H; Meissner, Gerhard; Melzer, Werner; Dirksen, Robert T

    2011-01-01

    The type 1 isoform of the ryanodine receptor (RYR1) is the Ca(2+) release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) that is activated during skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. Mutations in the RYR1 gene cause several rare inherited skeletal muscle disorders, including malignant hyperthermia and central core disease (CCD). The human RYR1(I4898T) mutation is one of the most common CCD mutations. To elucidate the mechanism by which RYR1 function is altered by this mutation, we characterized in vivo muscle strength, EC coupling, SR Ca(2+) content, and RYR1 Ca(2+) release channel function using adult heterozygous Ryr1(I4895T/+) knock-in mice (IT/+). Compared with age-matched wild-type (WT) mice, IT/+ mice exhibited significantly reduced upper body and grip strength. In spite of normal total SR Ca(2+) content, both electrically evoked and 4-chloro-m-cresol-induced Ca(2+) release were significantly reduced and slowed in single intact flexor digitorum brevis fibers isolated from 4-6-mo-old IT/+ mice. The sensitivity of the SR Ca(2+) release mechanism to activation was not enhanced in fibers of IT/+ mice. Single-channel measurements of purified recombinant channels incorporated in planar lipid bilayers revealed that Ca(2+) permeation was abolished for homotetrameric IT channels and significantly reduced for heterotetrameric WT:IT channels. Collectively, these findings indicate that in vivo muscle weakness observed in IT/+ knock-in mice arises from a reduction in the magnitude and rate of RYR1 Ca(2+) release during EC coupling that results from the mutation producing a dominant-negative suppression of RYR1 channel Ca(2+) ion permeation.

  20. Modulation of estrogen receptor-beta isoforms by phytoestrogens in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Vera; Miodini, Patrizia; Di Fronzo, Giovanni; Daidone, Maria Grazia

    2006-05-01

    High consumption of phytoestrogen-rich food correlates with reduced incidence of breast cancer. However, the effect of phytoestrogens on growth of pre-existing breast tumors presents concerns when planning the use of phytoestrogens as chemoprevention st rategy. Genistein, the active phytoestrogen in soy, displays weak estrogenic activity mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) with a preferential binding for the ER-beta species. However, no information is at present available on the interaction between phytoestrogens and the various isoforms generated by alternative splicing. In two human breast cancer cell lines, T47D and BT20, which express variable levels of ER-beta, the effect of genistein and quercetin was evaluated singly and in comparison with 17beta-estradiol, on mRNA expression of estrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta) isoforms evaluated by a triple primer RT-PCR assay. In T47D cells estradiol caused a 6-fold up-regulation of total ER-beta, and modified the relative expression pattern of the various isoforms, up-regulating the beta2 and down-regulating the beta5 isoform. Genistein up-regulated ER-beta2 and ER-beta1 in T47D cells, and after treatment the ER-beta2 isoform became prevalent, while in BT20 cells it almost doubled the percent contribution of ER-beta1 and ER-beta2 to total ER-beta. Quercetin did not alter the total levels nor the percent distribution of ER-beta isoforms in either cell line. Genistein, through the modulation of ER-beta isoform RNA expression inhibited estrogen-promoted cell growth, without interfering on estrogen-regulated transcription. ER-beta and its ER-beta mRNA isoforms may be involved in a self-limiting mechanism of estrogenic stimulation promoted either by the natural hormone or by weaker estrogen agonists like genistein.

  1. Divergent Activity Profiles of Type 1 Ryanodine Receptor Channels Carrying Malignant Hyperthermia and Central Core Disease Mutations in the Amino-Terminal Region.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Takashi; Kurebayashi, Nagomi; Yamazawa, Toshiko; Oyamada, Hideto; Suzuki, Junji; Kanemaru, Kazunori; Oguchi, Katsuji; Iino, Masamitsu; Sakurai, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) is a Ca2+ release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle and is mutated in several diseases, including malignant hyperthermia (MH) and central core disease (CCD). Most MH and CCD mutations cause accelerated Ca2+ release, resulting in abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis in skeletal muscle. However, how specific mutations affect the channel to produce different phenotypes is not well understood. In this study, we have investigated 11 mutations at 7 different positions in the amino (N)-terminal region of RyR1 (9 MH and 2 MH/CCD mutations) using a heterologous expression system in HEK293 cells. In live-cell Ca2+ imaging at room temperature (~25 °C), cells expressing mutant channels exhibited alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis, i.e., an enhanced sensitivity to caffeine, a depletion of Ca2+ in the ER and an increase in resting cytoplasmic Ca2+. RyR1 channel activity was quantitatively evaluated by [3H]ryanodine binding and three parameters (sensitivity to activating Ca2+, sensitivity to inactivating Ca2+ and attainable maximum activity, i.e., gain) were obtained by fitting analysis. The mutations increased the gain and the sensitivity to activating Ca2+ in a site-specific manner. The gain was consistently higher in both MH and MH/CCD mutations. Sensitivity to activating Ca2+ was markedly enhanced in MH/CCD mutations. The channel activity estimated from the three parameters provides a reasonable explanation to the pathological phenotype assessed by Ca2+ homeostasis. These properties were also observed at higher temperatures (~37 °C). Our data suggest that divergent activity profiles may cause varied disease phenotypes by specific mutations. This approach should be useful for diagnosis and treatment of diseases with mutations in RyR1.

  2. Role of Mg(2+) in Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release through ryanodine receptors of frog skeletal muscle: modulations by adenine nucleotides and caffeine.

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, T; Kurebayashi, N; Ogawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Mg(2+) serves as a competitive antagonist against Ca(2+) in the high-affinity Ca(2+) activation site (A-site) and as an agonist of Ca(2+) in the low-affinity Ca(2+) inactivation site (I-site) of the ryanodine receptor (RyR), which mediates Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR). This paper presents the quantitative determination of the affinities for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) of A- and I-sites of RyR in frog skeletal muscles by measuring [(3)H]ryanodine binding to purified alpha- and beta-RyRs and CICR activity in skinned fibers. There was only a minor difference in affinity at most between alpha- and beta-RyRs. The A-site favored Ca(2+) 20- to 30-fold over Mg(2+), whereas the I-site was nonselective between the two cations. The RyR in situ showed fivefold higher affinities for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) of both sites than the purified alpha- and beta-RyRs with unchanged cation selectivity. Adenine nucleotides, whose stimulating effect was found to be indistinguishable between free and complexed forms, did not alter the affinities for cations in either site, except for the increased maximum activity of RyR. Caffeine increased not only the affinity of the A-site for Ca(2+) alone, but also the maximum activity of RyR with otherwise minor changes. The results presented here suggest that the rate of CICR in frog skeletal muscles appears to be too low to explain the physiological Ca(2+) release, even though Mg(2+) inhibition disappears. PMID:10733962

  3. Sound Waves Induce Neural Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells via Ryanodine Receptor-Induced Calcium Release and Pyk2 Activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yura; Park, Jeong-Eun; Jeong, Jong Seob; Park, Jung-Keug; Kim, Jongpil; Jeon, Songhee

    2016-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown considerable promise as an adaptable cell source for use in tissue engineering and other therapeutic applications. The aims of this study were to develop methods to test the hypothesis that human MSCs could be differentiated using sound wave stimulation alone and to find the underlying mechanism. Human bone marrow (hBM)-MSCs were stimulated with sound waves (1 kHz, 81 dB) for 7 days and the expression of neural markers were analyzed. Sound waves induced neural differentiation of hBM-MSC at 1 kHz and 81 dB but not at 1 kHz and 100 dB. To determine the signaling pathways involved in the neural differentiation of hBM-MSCs by sound wave stimulation, we examined the Pyk2 and CREB phosphorylation. Sound wave induced an increase in the phosphorylation of Pyk2 and CREB at 45 min and 90 min, respectively, in hBM-MSCs. To find out the upstream activator of Pyk2, we examined the intracellular calcium source that was released by sound wave stimulation. When we used ryanodine as a ryanodine receptor antagonist, sound wave-induced calcium release was suppressed. Moreover, pre-treatment with a Pyk2 inhibitor, PF431396, prevented the phosphorylation of Pyk2 and suppressed sound wave-induced neural differentiation in hBM-MSCs. These results suggest that specific sound wave stimulation could be used as a neural differentiation inducer of hBM-MSCs.

  4. Divergent roles for thyroid hormone receptor β isoforms in the endocrine axis and auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Abel, E. Dale; Boers, Mary-Ellen; Pazos-Moura, Carmen; Moura, Egberto; Kaulbach, Helen; Zakaria, Marjorie; Lowell, Bradford; Radovick, Sally; Liberman, M. Charles; Wondisford, Fredric

    1999-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) modulate various physiological functions in many organ systems. The TRα and TRβ isoforms are products of 2 distinct genes, and the β1 and β2 isoforms are splice variants of the same gene. Whereas TRα1 and TRβ1 are widely expressed, expression of the TRβ2 isoform is mainly limited to the pituitary, triiodothyronine-responsive TRH neurons, the developing inner ear, and the retina. Mice with targeted disruption of the entire TRβ locus (TRβ-null) exhibit elevated thyroid hormone levels as a result of abnormal central regulation of thyrotropin, and also develop profound hearing loss. To clarify the contribution of the TRβ2 isoform to the function of the endocrine and auditory systems in vivo, we have generated mice with targeted disruption of the TRβ2 isoform. TRβ2-null mice have preserved expression of the TRα and TRβ1 isoforms. They develop a similar degree of central resistance to thyroid hormone as TRβ-null mice, indicating the important role of TRβ2 in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Growth hormone gene expression is marginally reduced. In contrast, TRβ2-null mice exhibit no evidence of hearing impairment, indicating that TRβ1 and TRβ2 subserve divergent roles in the regulation of auditory function. PMID:10430610

  5. Drosophila tissues with different metamorphic responses to ecdysone express different ecdysone receptor isoforms.

    PubMed

    Talbot, W S; Swyryd, E A; Hogness, D S

    1993-07-02

    In D. melanogaster a pulse of the steroid hormone ecdysone triggers the larval-to-adult metamorphosis, a complex process in which this hormone induces imaginal tissues to generate adult structures and larval tissues to degenerate. We show that the EcR gene encodes three ecdysone receptor isoforms (EcR-A, EcR-B1, and EcR-B2) that have common DNA- and hormone-binding domains but different N-terminal regions. We have used isoform-specific monoclonal antibodies to show that at the onset of metamorphosis different ecdysone target tissues express different isoform combinations in a manner consistent with the proposition that the different metamorphic responses of these tissues require different combinations of the EcR isoforms. We have also determined temporal developmental profiles of the EcR isoforms and their mRNAs in whole animals, showing that different isoforms predominate at different developmental stages that are marked by a pulse of ecdysone.

  6. Progesterone receptor isoform functions in normal breast development and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kariagina, Anastasia; Aupperlee, Mark D; Haslam, Sandra Z

    2008-01-01

    Progesterone acting through two isoforms of the progesterone receptor (PR), PRA and PRB, regulates proliferation and differentiation in the normal mammary gland in mouse, rat, and human. Progesterone and PR have also been implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of human breast cancer. The focus of this review is recent advances in understanding the role of the PR isoform-specific functions in the normal breast and in breast cancer. Also discussed is information obtained from rodent studies and their relevance to our understanding of the role of progestins in breast cancer etiology.

  7. Insulin receptor isoform A ameliorates long-term glucose intolerance in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Castroverde, Sabela; Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Fernández, Silvia; García-Gómez, Gema; Di Scala, Marianna; González-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Fernández-Millán, Elisa; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; García-Bravo, María; Chambon, Pierre; Álvarez, Carmen; Perdomo, Liliana; Beneit, Nuria; Benito, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease and its pathogenesis involves abnormalities in both peripheral insulin action and insulin secretion. Previous in vitro data showed that insulin receptor isoform A, but not B, favours basal glucose uptake through its specific association with endogenous GLUT1/2 in murine hepatocytes and beta cells. With this background, we hypothesized that hepatic expression of insulin receptor isoform A in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes could potentially increase the glucose uptake of these cells, decreasing the hyperglycaemia and therefore ameliorating the diabetic phenotype. To assure this hypothesis, we have developed recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors expressing insulin receptor isoform A (IRA) or isoform B (IRB) under the control of a hepatocyte­-specific promoter. Our results demonstrate that in the long term, hepatic expression of IRA in diabetic mice is more efficient than IRB in ameliorating glucose intolerance. Consequently, it impairs the induction of compensatory mechanisms through beta cell hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy that finally lead to beta cell failure, reverting the diabetic phenotype in about 8 weeks. Our data suggest that long-term hepatic expression of IRA could be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27562101

  8. Insulin receptor isoform A ameliorates long-term glucose intolerance in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Castroverde, Sabela; Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Fernández, Silvia; García-Gómez, Gema; Di Scala, Marianna; González-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Fernández-Millán, Elisa; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; García-Bravo, María; Chambon, Pierre; Álvarez, Carmen; Perdomo, Liliana; Beneit, Nuria; Escribano, Oscar; Benito, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease and its pathogenesis involves abnormalities in both peripheral insulin action and insulin secretion. Previous in vitro data showed that insulin receptor isoform A, but not B, favours basal glucose uptake through its specific association with endogenous GLUT1/2 in murine hepatocytes and beta cells. With this background, we hypothesized that hepatic expression of insulin receptor isoform A in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes could potentially increase the glucose uptake of these cells, decreasing the hyperglycaemia and therefore ameliorating the diabetic phenotype. To assure this hypothesis, we have developed recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors expressing insulin receptor isoform A (IRA) or isoform B (IRB) under the control of a hepatocyte--specific promoter. Our results demonstrate that in the long term, hepatic expression of IRA in diabetic mice is more efficient than IRB in ameliorating glucose intolerance. Consequently, it impairs the induction of compensatory mechanisms through beta cell hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy that finally lead to beta cell failure, reverting the diabetic phenotype in about 8 weeks. Our data suggest that long-term hepatic expression of IRA could be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  9. A naturally occurring insertion of a single amino acid rewires transcriptional regulation by glucocorticoid receptor isoforms.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Watson, Lisa C; Cooper, Samantha B; Pufall, Miles A; Liu, Jennifer S; Borzym, Katja; Vingron, Martin; Yamamoto, Keith R; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H

    2013-10-29

    In addition to guiding proteins to defined genomic loci, DNA can act as an allosteric ligand that influences protein structure and activity. Here we compared genome-wide binding, transcriptional regulation, and, using NMR, the conformation of two glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoforms that differ by a single amino acid insertion in the lever arm, a domain that adopts DNA sequence-specific conformations. We show that these isoforms differentially regulate gene expression levels through two mechanisms: differential DNA binding and altered communication between GR domains. Our studies suggest a versatile role for DNA in both modulating GR activity and also in directing the use of GR isoforms. We propose that the lever arm is a "fulcrum" for bidirectional allosteric signaling, conferring conformational changes in the DNA reading head that influence DNA sequence selectivity, as well as conferring changes in the dimerization domain that connect functionally with remote regulatory surfaces, thereby influencing which genes are regulated and the magnitude of their regulation.

  10. Isoform-Specific Biased Agonism of Histamine H3 Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Riddy, Darren M; Cook, Anna E; Diepenhorst, Natalie A; Bosnyak, Sanja; Brady, Ryan; Mannoury la Cour, Clotilde; Mocaer, Elisabeth; Summers, Roger J; Charman, William N; Sexton, Patrick M; Christopoulos, Arthur; Langmead, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    The human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R) is subject to extensive gene splicing that gives rise to a large number of functional and nonfunctional isoforms. Despite the general acceptance that G protein-coupled receptors can adopt different ligand-induced conformations that give rise to biased signaling, this has not been studied for the H3R; further, it is unknown whether splice variants of the same receptor engender the same or differential biased signaling. Herein, we profiled the pharmacology of histamine receptor agonists at the two most abundant hH3R splice variants (hH3R445 and hH3R365) across seven signaling endpoints. Both isoforms engender biased signaling, notably for 4-[3-(benzyloxy)propyl]-1H-imidazole (proxyfan) [e.g., strong bias toward phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) via the full-length receptor] and its congener 3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl-(4-iodophenyl)-methyl ether (iodoproxyfan), which are strongly consistent with the former's designation as a "protean" agonist. The 80 amino acid IL3 deleted isoform hH3R365 is more permissive in its signaling than hH3R445: 2-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)ethyl imidothiocarbamate (imetit), proxyfan, and iodoproxyfan were all markedly biased away from calcium signaling, and principal component analysis of the full data set revealed divergent profiles for all five agonists. However, most interesting was the identification of differential biased signaling between the two isoforms. Strikingly, hH3R365 was completely unable to stimulate GSK3β phosphorylation, an endpoint robustly activated by the full-length receptor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative example of differential biased signaling via isoforms of the same G protein-coupled receptor that are simultaneously expressed in vivo and gives rise to the possibility of selective pharmacological targeting of individual receptor splice variants.

  11. Distribution of transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP) isoforms in the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Larsson, M; Agalave, N; Watanabe, M; Svensson, C I

    2013-09-17

    The transmembrane α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) are a family of auxiliary AMPA receptor subunits that differentially modulate trafficking and many functional properties of the receptor. To investigate which TARP isoforms may be involved in AMPA receptor-mediated spinal synaptic transmission, we have mapped the localization of five of the known TARP isoforms, namely γ-2 (also known as stargazin), γ-3, γ-4, γ-7 and γ-8, in the rat spinal cord. Immunoblotting showed expression of all isoforms in the spinal cord to varying degrees. At the light microscopic level, immunoperoxidase labeling of γ-4, γ-7 and γ-8 was found throughout spinal gray matter. In white matter, γ-4 and γ-7 immunolabeling was observed in astrocytic processes and in mature oligodendrocytes. In pepsin-treated spinal cord, γ-7 often colocalized with GluA2 immunopositive puncta in the deep dorsal horn as well as in the ventral horn, but not in the superficial dorsal horn. Postembedding immunogold labeling was further used to assess the synaptic localization of γ-2, γ-7 and γ-8 in the dorsal horn. Synaptic immunogold labeling of γ-2 was sparse throughout the dorsal horn, with some primary afferent synapses weakly labeled, whereas relatively strong γ-7 immunogold labeling was found at deep dorsal horn synapses, including at synapses formed by low-threshold mechanosensitive primary afferent terminals. Prominent immunogold labeling of γ-8 was frequently detected at synapses established by primary afferent fibers. The spinal localization patterns of TARP isoforms reported here suggest that AMPA receptors at spinal synaptic populations and in glial cells may exhibit different functional characteristics owing to differences in auxiliary subunit composition.

  12. Analysis of the entire ryanodine receptor type 1 and alpha 1 subunit of the dihydropyridine receptor (CACNA1S) coding regions for variants associated with malignant hyperthermia in Australian families.

    PubMed

    Gillies, R L; Bjorksten, A R; Du Sart, D; Hockey, B M

    2015-03-01

    Defects in the genes coding for the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) and alpha 1 subunit of the dihydropyridine receptor (CACNA1S) have been identified as causative for malignant hyperthermia (MH). Sixty-two MH susceptible individuals presenting to the same diagnostic centre had copy deoxyribonucleic acid, derived from muscle ribonucleic acid, sequenced to identify variants with the potential to be responsible for the MH phenotype in both RYR1 and CACNA1S. These genetic findings were combined with clinical episode details and in vitro contracture test results to improve our understanding of the Australian MH cohort. Twelve novel variants were identified in RYR1 and six in CACNA1S. Known RYR1 causative mutations were identified in six persons and novel variants in RYR1 and CACNA1S in a further 17 persons. Trends indicated higher mutation identification in those with more definitive clinical episodes and stronger in vitro contracture test responses.

  13. Multiple actions of φ-LITX-Lw1a on ryanodine receptors reveal a functional link between scorpion DDH and ICK toxins

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jennifer J.; Vetter, Irina; Lewis, Richard J.; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Lam, Alexander; Gallant, Esther M.; Beard, Nicole A.; Alewood, Paul F.; Dulhunty, Angela F.

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported the isolation of a scorpion toxin named U1-liotoxin-Lw1a (U1-LITX-Lw1a) that adopts an unusual 3D fold termed the disulfide-directed hairpin (DDH) motif, which is the proposed evolutionary structural precursor of the three-disulfide-containing inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) motif found widely in animals and plants. Here we reveal that U1-LITX-Lw1a targets and activates the mammalian ryanodine receptor intracellular calcium release channel (RyR) with high (fM) potency and provides a functional link between DDH and ICK scorpion toxins. Moreover, U1-LITX-Lw1a, now described as φ-liotoxin-Lw1a (φ-LITX-Lw1a), has a similar mode of action on RyRs as scorpion calcines, although with significantly greater potency, inducing full channel openings at lower (fM) toxin concentrations whereas at higher pM concentrations increasing the frequency and duration of channel openings to a submaximal state. In addition, we show that the C-terminal residue of φ-LITX-Lw1a is crucial for the increase in full receptor openings but not for the increase in receptor subconductance opening, thereby supporting the two-binding-site hypothesis of scorpion toxins on RyRs. φ-LITX-Lw1a has potential both as a pharmacological tool and as a lead molecule for the treatment of human diseases that involve RyRs, such as malignant hyperthermia and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. PMID:23671114

  14. Detection of a novel mutation in the ryanodine receptor gene in an Irish malignant hyperthermia pedigree: correlation of the IVCT response with the affected and unaffected haplotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Keating, K E; Giblin, L; Lynch, P J; Quane, K A; Lehane, M; Heffron, J J; McCarthy, T V

    1997-01-01

    Defects in the ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene are associated with malignant hyperthermia (MH), an autosomal dominant disorder of skeletal muscle and one of the main causes of death resulting from anaesthesia. Susceptibility to MH (MHS) is determined by the level of tension generated in an in vitro muscle contracture test (IVCT) in response to caffeine and halothane. To date, mutation screening of the RYR1 gene in MH families has led to the identification of eight mutations. We describe here the identification of a novel mutation, Arg552Trp, in the RYR1 gene, which is clearly linked to the MHS phenotype in a large, well characterised Irish pedigree. Considering that the RYR1 protein functions as a tetramer, correlation of the IVCT with the affected and unaffected haplotypes was performed on the pedigree to investigate if the normal RYR1 allele in affected subjects contributes to the variation in the IVCT. The results show that the normal RYR1 allele is unlikely to play a role in IVCT variation. Images PMID:9138151

  15. Resistance to diamide insecticides in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is associated with a mutation in the membrane-spanning domain of the ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Troczka, Bartek; Zimmer, Christoph T; Elias, Jan; Schorn, Corinna; Bass, Chris; Davies, T G Emyr; Field, Linda M; Williamson, Martin S; Slater, Russell; Nauen, Ralf

    2012-11-01

    Diamide insecticides such as chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide are a new class of insecticide that selectively target insect ryanodine receptors (RyR), a distinct class of homo-tetrameric calcium release channels which play a pivotal role in calcium homeostasis in numerous cell types. Resistance to these insecticides has recently been reported in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), a global lepidopteran pest of cruciferous crops. In the present study a region of the gene encoding the proposed diamide binding site of the RyR from P. xylostella collected from the Philippines and Thailand and found to be over 200-fold resistant to both chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide compared to susceptible strains, were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. Comparison of the sequence with those from several susceptible reference strains revealed non-synonymous mutations in each of the resistant strains that in both cases lead to a glycine to glutamic acid substitution (G4946E) in the protein. The independent evolution of the same amino acid substitution within a highly conserved region of the proposed diamide binding site in two geographically separated resistant strains of P. xylostella strongly suggests a causal association with diamide resistance. Furthermore we designed a pyrosequencing-based diagnostic assay for resistance monitoring purposes that can be used to detect the G4946E mutation in field-collected samples of diamondback moth. The implications of the reported findings for resistance management strategies are discussed.

  16. Imperatoxin A, a Cell-Penetrating Peptide from Scorpion Venom, as a Probe of Ca2+-Release Channels/Ryanodine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gurrola, Georgina B.; Capes, E. Michelle; Zamudio, Fernando Z.; Possani, Lourival D.; Valdivia, Héctor H.

    2010-01-01

    Scorpion venoms are rich in ion channel-modifying peptides, which have proven to be invaluable probes of ion channel structure-function relationship. We previously isolated imperatoxin A (IpTxa), a 3.7 kDa peptide activator of Ca2+-release channels/ryanodine receptors (RyRs) [1,2,3] and founding member of the calcin family of scorpion peptides. IpTxa folds into a compact, mostly hydrophobic molecule with a cluster of positively-charged, basic residues polarized on one side of the molecule that possibly interacts with the phospholipids of cell membranes. To investigate whether IpTxa permeates external cellular membranes and targets RyRs in vivo, we perfused IpTxa on intact cardiomyocytes while recording field-stimulated intracellular Ca2+ transients. To further investigate the cell-penetrating capabilities of the toxin, we prepared thiolated, fluorescent derivatives of IpTxa. Biological activity and spectroscopic properties indicate that these derivatives retain high affinity for RyRs and are only 5- to 10-fold less active than native IpTxa. Our results demonstrate that IpTxa is capable of crossing cell membranes to alter the release of Ca2+ in vivo, and has the capacity to carry a large, membrane-impermeable cargo across the plasma membrane, a finding with exciting implications for novel drug delivery. PMID:20668646

  17. Localization of a novel ryanodine receptor gene (RYR3) to human chromosome 15q14-q15 by in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrentino, V. Istituto Scientifico H. San Raffaele, Milan ); Giannini, G. ); Malzac, P.; Mattei, M.G. )

    1993-10-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular Ca[sup 2+] release channels responsible for the release of Ca[sup 2+] from intracellular stores following transduction of many different extracellular stimuli. The genes of the two RyRs, originally described in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal (RYR1) or cardiac (RYR2) muscles, have been cloned and mapped on chromosome 19q13.1 and chromosome 1, respectively, in humans. The RYR1 gene has been shown to be tightly linked to the locus for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS). A single-point mutation in RYR1 has been identified as the possible cause of MHS in swine and of at least some forms of MHS in human. Another MHS locus has been mapped on human chromosome 17q11-q24. We have recently cloned a third RyR (RYR3) from mink, which appears to be widely expressed. A RyR with 94% homology to mink cDNA has also been isolated from rabbit brain.

  18. Multi-minicore disease and atypical periodic paralysis associated with novel mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haiyan; Lillis, Suzanne; Loy, Ryan E; Ghassemi, Farshid; Rose, Michael R; Norwood, Fiona; Mills, Kerry; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Lane, Russell J M; Feng, Lucy; Matthews, Emma; Sewry, Caroline A; Abbs, Stephen; Buk, Stefan; Hanna, Michael; Treves, Susan; Dirksen, Robert T; Meissner, Gerhard; Muntoni, Francesco; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2010-03-01

    The skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor plays a crucial role in excitation-contraction (EC) coupling and is implicated in various congenital myopathies. The periodic paralyses are a heterogeneous, dominantly inherited group of conditions mainly associated with mutations in the SCN4A and the CACNA1S genes. The interaction between RyR1 and DHPR proteins underlies depolarization-induced Ca(2+) release during EC coupling in skeletal muscle. We report a 35-year-old woman presenting with signs and symptoms of a congenital myopathy at birth and repeated episodes of generalized, atypical normokalaemic paralysis in her late teens. Genetic studies of this patient revealed three heterozygous RYR1 substitutions (p.Arg2241X, p.Asp708Asn and p.Arg2939Lys) associated with marked reduction of the RyR1 protein and abnormal DHPR distribution. We conclude that RYR1 mutations may give rise to both myopathies and atypical periodic paralysis, and RYR1 mutations may underlie other unresolved cases of periodic paralysis with unusual features.

  19. Nitric Oxide-induced Activation of the Type 1 Ryanodine Receptor Is Critical for Epileptic Seizure-induced Neuronal Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Yoshinori; Kanemaru, Kazunori; Okubo, Yohei; Nakaune, Takuya; Suzuki, Junji; Shibata, Kazuki; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Koyama, Ryuta; Murayama, Takashi; Ito, Akihiro; Yamazawa, Toshiko; Ikegaya, Yuji; Sakurai, Takashi; Saito, Nobuhito; Kakizawa, Sho; Iino, Masamitsu

    2016-09-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening emergency that can cause neurodegeneration with debilitating neurological disorders. However, the mechanism by which convulsive SE results in neurodegeneration is not fully understood. It has been shown that epileptic seizures produce markedly increased levels of nitric oxide (NO) in the brain, and that NO induces Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum via the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), which occurs through S-nitrosylation of the intracellular Ca(2+) release channel. Here, we show that through genetic silencing of NO-induced activation of the RyR1 intracellular Ca(2+) release channel, neurons were rescued from seizure-dependent cell death. Furthermore, dantrolene, an inhibitor of RyR1, was protective against neurodegeneration caused by SE. These results demonstrate that NO-induced Ca(2+) release via RyR is involved in SE-induced neurodegeneration, and provide a rationale for the use of RyR1 inhibitors for the prevention of brain damage following SE.

  20. Geographic spread, genetics and functional characteristics of ryanodine receptor based target-site resistance to diamide insecticides in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Denise; Gutbrod, Oliver; Lümmen, Peter; Matthiesen, Svend; Schorn, Corinna; Nauen, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Anthranilic diamides and flubendiamide belong to a new chemical class of insecticides acting as conformation sensitive activators of the insect ryanodine receptor (RyR). These compounds control a diverse range of different herbivorous insects including diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), a notorious global pest on cruciferous crops, which recently developed resistance due to target-site mutations located in the trans-membrane domain of the Plutella RyR. In the present study we further investigated the genetics and functional implications of a RyR G4946E target-site mutation we recently identified in a Philippine diamondback moth strain (Sudlon). Strain Sudlon is homozygous for the G4946E mutation and has been maintained under laboratory conditions without selection pressure for almost four years, and still exhibit stable resistance ratios of >2000-fold to all commercial diamides. Its F1 progeny resulting from reciprocal crosses with a susceptible strain (BCS-S) revealed no maternal effects and a diamide susceptible phenotype, suggesting an autosomally almost recessive mode of inheritance. Subsequent back-crosses indicate a near monogenic nature of the diamide resistance in strain Sudlon. Radioligand binding studies with Plutella thoracic microsomal membrane preparations provided direct evidence for the dramatic functional implications of the RyR G4946E mutation on both diamide specific binding and its concentration dependent modulation of [(3)H]ryanodine binding. Computational modelling based on a cryo-EM structure of rabbit RyR1 suggests that Plutella G4946E is located in trans-membrane helix S4 close to S4-S5 linker domain supposed to be involved in the modulation of the voltage sensor, and another recently described mutation, I4790M in helix S2 approx. 13 Å opposite of G4946E. Genotyping by pyrosequencing revealed the presence of the RyR G4946E mutation in larvae collected in 2013/14 in regions of ten different countries where

  1. Expression and function of ryanodine receptor related pathways in PCB tolerant Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from New Bedford Harbor, MA, USA.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Erika B; Stegeman, John J; Goldstone, Jared V; Nacci, Diane E; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro; Connon, Richard E; Pessah, Isaac N

    2015-02-01

    Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) thrive in New Bedford Harbor (NBH), MA, highly contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Resident killifish have evolved tolerance to dioxin-like (DL) PCBs, whose toxic effects through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are well studied. In NBH, non-dioxin like PCBs (NDL PCBs), which lack activity toward the AhR, vastly exceed levels of DL congeners yet how killifish counter NDL toxic effects has not been explored. In mammals and fish, NDL PCBs are potent activators of ryanodine receptors (RyR), Ca(2+) release channels necessary for a vast array of physiological processes. In the current study we compared the expression and function of RyR related pathways in NBH killifish with killifish from the reference site at Scorton Creek (SC, MA). Relative to the SC fish, adults from NBH displayed increased levels of skeletal muscle RyR1 protein, and increased levels of FK506-binding protein 12 kDa (FKBP12) an accessory protein essential for NDL PCB-triggered changes in RyR channel function. In accordance with increased RyR1 levels, NBH killifish displayed increased maximal ligand binding, increased maximal response to Ca(2+) activation and increased maximal response to activation by the NDL PCB congener PCB 95. Compared to SC, NBH embryos and larvae had increased levels of mtor and ryr2 transcripts at multiple stages of development, and generations, while levels of serca2 were decreased at 9 days post-fertilization in the F1 and F2 generations. These findings suggest that there are compensatory and heritable changes in RyR mediated Ca(2+) signaling proteins or potential signaling partners in NBH killifish.

  2. Juxtaglomerular cell CaSR stimulation decreases renin release via activation of the PLC/IP(3) pathway and the ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Capisano, M Cecilia; Reddy, Mahendranath; Mendez, Mariela; Garvin, Jeffrey L; Beierwaltes, William H

    2013-02-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G-coupled protein expressed in renal juxtaglomerular (JG) cells. Its activation stimulates calcium-mediated decreases in cAMP content and inhibits renin release. The postreceptor pathway for the CaSR in JG cells is unknown. In parathyroids, CaSR acts through G(q) and/or G(i). Activation of G(q) stimulates phospholipase C (PLC), and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)), releasing calcium from intracellular stores. G(i) stimulation inhibits cAMP formation. In afferent arterioles, the ryanodine receptor (RyR) enhances release of stored calcium. We hypothesized JG cell CaSR activation inhibits renin via the PLC/IP(3) and also RyR activation, increasing intracellular calcium, suppressing cAMP formation, and inhibiting renin release. Renin release from primary cultures of isolated mouse JG cells (n = 10) was measured. The CaSR agonist cinacalcet decreased renin release 56 ± 7% of control (P < 0.001), while the PLC inhibitor U73122 reversed cinacalcet inhibition of renin (104 ± 11% of control). The IP(3) inhibitor 2-APB also reversed inhibition of renin from 56 ± 6 to 104 ± 11% of control (P < 0.001). JG cells were positively labeled for RyR, and blocking RyR reversed CaSR-mediated inhibition of renin from 61 ± 8 to 118 ± 22% of control (P < 0.01). Combining inhibition of IP(3) and RyR was not additive. G(i) inhibition with pertussis toxin plus cinacalcet did not reverse renin inhibition (65 ± 12 to 41 ± 8% of control, P < 0.001). We conclude stimulating JG cell CaSR activates G(q), initiating the PLC/IP(3) pathway, activating RyR, increasing intracellular calcium, and resulting in calcium-mediated renin inhibition.

  3. Expression and function of ryanodine receptor related pathways in PCB tolerant Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from New Bedford Harbor, MA, USA

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Erika B.; Stegeman, John J.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro; Connon, Richard E.; Pessah, Isaac N.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) thrive in New Bedford Harbor (NBH), MA, highly contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Resident killifish have evolved tolerance to dioxin-like (DL) PCBs, whose toxic effects through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are well studied. In NBH, non-dioxin like PCBs (NDL PCBs), which lack activity toward the AhR, vastly exceed levels of DL congeners yet how killifish counter NDL toxic effects has not been explored. In mammals and fish, NDL PCBs are potent activators of ryanodine receptors (RyR), Ca2+ release channels necessary for a vast array of physiological processes. In the current study we compared the expression and function of RyR related pathways in NBH killifish with killifish from the reference site at Scorton Creek (SC, MA). Relative to the SC fish, adults from NBH displayed increased levels of skeletal muscle RyR1 protein, and increased levels of FK506-binding protein 12 kDa (FKBP12), an accessory protein essential for NDL PCB-triggered changes in RyR channel function. In accordance with increased RyR1 levels, NBH killifish displayed increased maximal ligand binding, increased maximal response to Ca2+ activation and increased maximal response to activation by the NDL PCB congener PCB 95. Compared to SC, NBH embryos and larvae had increased levels of mtor and ryr2 transcripts at multiple stages of development, and generations, while levels of serca2 were decreased at 9 days post-fertilization in the F1 and F2 generations. These findings suggest that there are compensatory and heritable changes in RyR mediated Ca2+ signaling proteins or potential signaling partners in NBH killifish. PMID:25546006

  4. The Splice Isoforms of the Drosophila Ecdysis Triggering Hormone Receptor Have Developmentally Distinct Roles

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Feici; Mena, Wilson; Shi, Jonathan; Park, Dongkook; Diao, Fengqiu; Taghert, Paul; Ewer, John; White, Benjamin H.

    2016-01-01

    To grow, insects must periodically shed their exoskeletons. This process, called ecdysis, is initiated by the endocrine release of Ecdysis Trigger Hormone (ETH) and has been extensively studied as a model for understanding the hormonal control of behavior. Understanding how ETH regulates ecdysis behavior, however, has been impeded by limited knowledge of the hormone’s neuronal targets. An alternatively spliced gene encoding a G-protein-coupled receptor (ETHR) that is activated by ETH has been identified, and several lines of evidence support a role in ecdysis for its A-isoform. The function of a second ETHR isoform (ETHRB) remains unknown. Here we use the recently introduced “Trojan exon” technique to simultaneously mutate the ETHR gene and gain genetic access to the neurons that express its two isoforms. We show that ETHRA and ETHRB are expressed in largely distinct subsets of neurons and that ETHRA- but not ETHRB-expressing neurons are required for ecdysis at all developmental stages. However, both genetic and neuronal manipulations indicate an essential role for ETHRB at pupal and adult, but not larval, ecdysis. We also identify several functionally important subsets of ETHR-expressing neurons including one that coexpresses the peptide Leucokinin and regulates fluid balance to facilitate ecdysis at the pupal stage. The general strategy presented here of using a receptor gene as an entry point for genetic and neuronal manipulations should be useful in establishing patterns of functional connectivity in other hormonally regulated networks. PMID:26534952

  5. Agonist-Specific Recruitment of Arrestin Isoforms Differentially Modify Delta Opioid Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Perroy, Julie; Walwyn, Wendy M.; Smith, Monique L.; Vicente-Sanchez, Ana; Segura, Laura; Bana, Alia; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Ligand-specific recruitment of arrestins facilitates functional selectivity of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. Here, we describe agonist-selective recruitment of different arrestin isoforms to the delta opioid receptor in mice. A high-internalizing delta opioid receptor agonist (SNC80) preferentially recruited arrestin 2 and, in arrestin 2 knock-outs (KOs), we observed a significant increase in the potency of SNC80 to inhibit mechanical hyperalgesia and decreased acute tolerance. In contrast, the low-internalizing delta agonists (ARM390, JNJ20788560) preferentially recruited arrestin 3 with unaltered behavioral effects in arrestin 2 KOs. Surprisingly, arrestin 3 KO revealed an acute tolerance to these low-internalizing agonists, an effect never observed in wild-type animals. Furthermore, we examined delta opioid receptor–Ca2+ channel coupling in dorsal root ganglia desensitized by ARM390 and the rate of resensitization was correspondingly decreased in arrestin 3 KOs. Live-cell imaging in HEK293 cells revealed that delta opioid receptors are in pre-engaged complexes with arrestin 3 at the cell membrane and that ARM390 strengthens this membrane interaction. The disruption of these complexes in arrestin 3 KOs likely accounts for the altered responses to low-internalizing agonists. Together, our results show agonist-selective recruitment of arrestin isoforms and reveal a novel endogenous role of arrestin 3 as a facilitator of resensitization and an inhibitor of tolerance mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Agonists that bind to the same receptor can produce highly distinct signaling events and arrestins are a major mediator of this ligand bias. Here, we demonstrate that delta opioid receptor agonists differentially recruit arrestin isoforms. We found that the high-internalizing agonist SNC80 preferentially recruits arrestin 2 and knock-out (KO) of this protein results in increased efficacy of SNC80. In contrast, low-internalizing agonists (ARM390 and JNJ20788560

  6. Recombinant Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Prevents Aberrant Ca2+ Leakage through the Ryanodine Receptor by Suppressing Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production Induced by Isoproterenol in Failing Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Susa, Takehisa; Nanno, Takuma; Ishiguchi, Hironori; Myoren, Takeki; Nishimura, Shigehiko; Kato, Takayoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Oda, Tetsuro; Okuda, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Yano, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Catecholamines induce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus enhancing diastolic Ca2+ leakage through the ryanodine receptor during heart failure (HF). However, little is known regarding the effect of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on ROS generation and Ca2+ handling in failing cardiomyocytes. The aim of the present study was to clarify the mechanism by which an exogenous ANP exerts cardioprotective effects during HF. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from the left ventricles of a canine tachycardia-induced HF model and sham-operated vehicle controls. The degree of mitochondrial oxidized DNA was evaluated by double immunohistochemical (IHC) staining using an anti-VDAC antibody for the mitochondria and an anti-8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine antibody for oxidized DNA. The effect of ANP on ROS was investigated using 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate, diastolic Ca2+ sparks assessed by confocal microscopy using Fluo 4-AM, and the survival rate of myocytes after 48 h. The double IHC study revealed that isoproterenol (ISO) markedly increased oxidized DNA in the mitochondria in HF and that the ISO-induced DNA damage was markedly inhibited by the co-presence of ANP. ROS production and Ca2+ spark frequency (CaSF) were increased in HF compared to normal controls, and were further increased in the presence of ISO. Notably, ANP significantly suppressed both ISO-induced ROS and CaSF without changing sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content in HF (p<0.01, respectively). The survival rate after 48 h in HF was significantly decreased in the presence of ISO compared with baseline (p<0.01), whereas it was significantly improved by the co-presence of ANP (p<0.01). Together, our results suggest that ANP strongly suppresses ISO-induced mitochondrial ROS generation, which might correct aberrant diastolic Ca2+ sparks, eventually contributing to the improvement of cardiomyocyte survival in HF. PMID:27657534

  7. Ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca2+ release underlies iron-induced mitochondrial fission and stimulates mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in primary hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    SanMartín, Carol D.; Paula-Lima, Andrea C.; García, Alejandra; Barattini, Pablo; Hartel, Steffen; Núñez, Marco T.; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that iron accumulation impairs brain function. We have reported previously that addition of sub-lethal concentrations of iron to primary hippocampal neurons produces Ca2+ signals and promotes cytoplasmic generation of reactive oxygen species. These Ca2+ signals, which emerge within seconds after iron addition, arise mostly from Ca2+ release through the redox-sensitive ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels present in the endoplasmic reticulum. We have reported also that addition of synaptotoxic amyloid-β oligomers to primary hippocampal neurons stimulates RyR-mediated Ca2+ release, generating long-lasting Ca2+ signals that activate Ca2+-sensitive cellular effectors and promote the disruption of the mitochondrial network. Here, we describe that 24 h incubation of primary hippocampal neurons with iron enhanced agonist-induced RyR-mediated Ca2+ release and promoted mitochondrial network fragmentation in 43% of neurons, a response significantly prevented by RyR inhibition and by the antioxidant agent N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Stimulation of RyR-mediated Ca2+ release by a RyR agonist promoted mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in control neurons and in iron-treated neurons that displayed non-fragmented mitochondria, but not in neurons with fragmented mitochondria. Yet, the global cytoplasmic Ca2+ increase induced by the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin prompted significant mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in neurons with fragmented mitochondria, indicating that fragmentation did not prevent mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake but presumably decreased the functional coupling between RyR-mediated Ca2+ release and the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter. Taken together, our results indicate that stimulation of redox-sensitive RyR-mediated Ca2+ release by iron causes significant neuronal mitochondrial fragmentation, which presumably contributes to the impairment of neuronal function produced by iron accumulation. PMID:24653672

  8. Conformation-dependent stability of junctophilin 1 (JP1) and ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) channel complex is mediated by their hyper-reactive thiols.

    PubMed

    Phimister, Andrew J; Lango, Jozsef; Lee, Eun Hui; Ernst-Russell, Michael A; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Ma, Jianjie; Allen, Paul D; Pessah, Isaac N

    2007-03-23

    Junctophilin 1 (JP1), a 72-kDa protein localized at the skeletal muscle triad, is essential for stabilizing the close apposition of T-tubule and sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes to form junctions. In this study we report that rapid and selective labeling of hyper-reactive thiols found in both JP1 and ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) with 7-diethylamino-3-(4'-maleimidylphenyl)-4-methylcoumarin, a fluorescent thiol-reactive probe, proceeded 12-fold faster under conditions that minimize RyR1 gating (e.g. 10 mM Mg2+) compared with conditions that promote high channel activity (e.g. 100 microM Ca2+, 10 mM caffeine, 5 mM ATP). The reactivity of these thiol groups was very sensitive to oxidation by naphthoquinone, H2O2, NO, or O2, all known modulators of the RyR1 channel complex. Using preparative SDS-PAGE, in-gel tryptic digestion, high pressure liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry-based peptide sequencing, we identified 7-diethylamino-3-(4'-maleimidylphenyl)-4-methylcoumarin-thioether adducts on three cysteine residues of JP1 (101, 402, and 627); the remaining five cysteines of JP1 were unlabeled. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated a physical interaction between JP1 and RyR1 that, like thiol reactivity, was sensitive to RyR1 conformation and chemical status of the hyper-reactive cysteines of JP1 and RyR1. These findings support a model in which JP1 interacts with the RyR1 channel complex in a conformationally sensitive manner and may contribute integral redox-sensing properties through reactive sulfhydryl chemistry.

  9. Reduced aerobic capacity causes leaky ryanodine receptors that trigger arrhythmia in a rat strain artificially selected and bred for low aerobic running capacity

    PubMed Central

    Høydal, MA; Stølen, TO; Johnsen, AB; Alvez, M; Catalucci, D; Condorelli, G; Koch, LG; Britton, SL; Smith, GL; Wisløff, U

    2014-01-01

    Aim Rats selectively bred for inborn Low Capacity of Running (LCR) display a series of poor health indices where as rats selected for High Capacity of Running (HCR) display a healthy profile. We hypothesized that selection of low aerobic capacity over generations leads to a phenotype with increased diastolic Ca2+ leak that trigger arrhythmia. Methods We used rats selected for HCR (N=10) or LCR (N=10) to determine the effect of inborn aerobic capacity on Ca2+ leak and susceptibility of ventricular arrhythmia. We studied isolated FURA2/AM loaded cardiomyocytes to detect Ca2+-handling and function on an inverted epi-fluorescence microscope. To determine arrhythmogenicity we did a final experiment with electrical burst pacing in Langendorff perfused hearts. Results Ca2+-handling was impaired by reduced Ca2+ amplitude, prolonged time to 50% Ca2+ decay, and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-content. Impaired Ca2+ removal was influenced by reduced SR Ca2+ ATP-ase 2a (SERCA2a) function and increased sodium/Ca2+-exchanger (NCX) in LCR rats. Diastolic Ca2 leak was 87% higher in LCR rats. The leak was reduced by CaMKII inhibition. Expression levels of phosphorylated theorine-286 CaMKII levels and increased RyR2 phosphorylation at the Serine-2814 site mechanistically support our findings of increased leak in LCR. LCR rats had significantly higher incidence of ventricular fibrillation. Conclusion Selection of inborn low aerobic capacity over generations leads to a phenotype with increased risk of ventricular fibrillation. Increased phosphorylation of CaMKII at serine-2814 at the cardiac ryanodine receptor appears as an important mechanism of impaired Ca2+ handling and diastolic Ca2+ leak that results in increased susceptibility to ventricular fibrillation. PMID:24444142

  10. PCB 136 Atropselectively Alters Morphometric and Functional Parameters of Neuronal Connectivity in Cultured Rat Hippocampal Neurons via Ryanodine Receptor-Dependent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongren; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Ghogha, Atefeh; Chen, Hao; Stamou, Marianna; Bose, Diptiman D.; Pessah, Isaac N.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Lein, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with multiple ortho chlorine substitutions sensitize ryanodine receptors (RyRs), and this activity promotes Ca2+-dependent dendritic growth in cultured neurons. Many ortho-substituted congeners display axial chirality, and we previously reported that the chiral congener PCB 136 (2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl) atropselectively sensitizes RyRs. Here, we test the hypothesis that PCB 136 atropisomers differentially alter dendritic growth and other parameters of neuronal connectivity influenced by RyR activity. (−)-PCB 136, which potently sensitizes RyRs, enhances dendritic growth in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, whereas (+)-PCB 136, which lacks RyR activity, has no effect on dendritic growth. The dendrite-promoting activity of (−)-PCB 136 is observed at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100nM and is blocked by pharmacologic RyR antagonism. Neither atropisomer alters axonal growth or cell viability. Quantification of PCB 136 atropisomers in hippocampal cultures indicates that atropselective effects on dendritic growth are not due to differential partitioning of atropisomers into cultured cells. Imaging of hippocampal neurons loaded with Ca2+-sensitive dye demonstrates that (−)-PCB 136 but not (+)-PCB 136 increases the frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations. Similarly, (−)-PCB 136 but not (+)-PCB 136 increases the activity of hippocampal neurons plated on microelectrode arrays. These data support the hypothesis that atropselective effects on RyR activity translate into atropselective effects of PCB 136 atropisomers on neuronal connectivity, and suggest that the variable atropisomeric enrichment of chiral PCBs observed in the human population may be a significant determinant of individual susceptibility for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes following PCB exposure. PMID:24385416

  11. PCB 136 atropselectively alters morphometric and functional parameters of neuronal connectivity in cultured rat hippocampal neurons via ryanodine receptor-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongren; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Ghogha, Atefeh; Chen, Hao; Stamou, Marianna; Bose, Diptiman D; Pessah, Isaac N; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Lein, Pamela J

    2014-04-01

    We recently demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with multiple ortho chlorine substitutions sensitize ryanodine receptors (RyRs), and this activity promotes Ca²⁺-dependent dendritic growth in cultured neurons. Many ortho-substituted congeners display axial chirality, and we previously reported that the chiral congener PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl) atropselectively sensitizes RyRs. Here, we test the hypothesis that PCB 136 atropisomers differentially alter dendritic growth and other parameters of neuronal connectivity influenced by RyR activity. (-)-PCB 136, which potently sensitizes RyRs, enhances dendritic growth in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, whereas (+)-PCB 136, which lacks RyR activity, has no effect on dendritic growth. The dendrite-promoting activity of (-)-PCB 136 is observed at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 nM and is blocked by pharmacologic RyR antagonism. Neither atropisomer alters axonal growth or cell viability. Quantification of PCB 136 atropisomers in hippocampal cultures indicates that atropselective effects on dendritic growth are not due to differential partitioning of atropisomers into cultured cells. Imaging of hippocampal neurons loaded with Ca²⁺-sensitive dye demonstrates that (-)-PCB 136 but not (+)-PCB 136 increases the frequency of spontaneous Ca²⁺ oscillations. Similarly, (-)-PCB 136 but not (+)-PCB 136 increases the activity of hippocampal neurons plated on microelectrode arrays. These data support the hypothesis that atropselective effects on RyR activity translate into atropselective effects of PCB 136 atropisomers on neuronal connectivity, and suggest that the variable atropisomeric enrichment of chiral PCBs observed in the human population may be a significant determinant of individual susceptibility for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes following PCB exposure.

  12. Spinal Cord Injury Leads to Hyperoxidation and Nitrosylation of Skeletal Muscle Ryanodine Receptor-1 Associated with Upregulation of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase 4.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Harlow, Lauren; Graham, Zachary A; Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher

    2017-02-27

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in marked atrophy and dysfunction of skeletal muscle. There are currently no effective treatments for SCI-induced muscle atrophy or the dysfunction of the remaining muscle tissue. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-4 (Nox4) produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and has been identified as an important O2 sensor in skeletal muscle. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are calcium (Ca(2+)) channels that are responsible for Ca(2+) release from SR. In skeletal muscle, type1 RyR (RyR1) is predominantly functional. RyR1 is regulated by multiple proteins, including calstabin1, which assures that they close appropriately once contraction has ceased. RyR1 function is also regulated by oxidation and redox-dependent cysteine nitrosylation. Excessive oxidation/nitrosylation of RyR1 is associated with dissociation of calstabin1 and reduced muscle force generation. However, whether Nox4 levels in skeletal muscle are elevated or whether RyR1 is oxidized or nitrosylated after SCI has not been determined. In this study, we examined Nox4 expression, oxidation/nitrolysation status, and association of calstabin1 with RyR1 in skeletal muscle derived from rats that were subjected to T4 complete transection (SCI), and observed elevated expression of Nox4 messenger RNA and protein in muscle after SCI associated with enhanced binding of Nox4 to RyR1, increased oxidation and nitrosylation of RyR1, and dissociation of calstabin1 from RyR1 in SCI rat muscle. Our data suggest that RyR1 dysfunction resulting from excessive oxidation/nitrosylation may contribute to reduced specific force after SCI and suggest that Nox4 may be the source of ROS responsible for increased oxidation and nitrosylation of RyR1.

  13. The I4895T Mutation in the Type 1 Ryanodine Receptor Induces Fiber-Type Specific Alterations in Skeletal Muscle that Mimic Premature Aging

    PubMed Central

    Boncompagni, Simona; Loy, Ryan E.; Dirksen, Robert T.; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The I4898T (IT) mutation in type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the Ca2+ release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is linked to a form of central core disease (CCD) in humans and results in a non leaky channel and excitation-contraction uncoupling. We characterized age- and fiber type-dependent alterations in muscle ultrastructure, as well as the magnitude and spatiotemporal properties of evoked Ca2+ release in heterozygous Ryr1I4895T/WT (IT/+) knock-in mice on a mixed genetic background. The results indicate a classical but mild CCD phenotype that includes muscle weakness and the presence of mitochondrial-deficient areas in type I fibers. Electrically-evoked Ca2+ release is significantly reduced in single FDB fibers from young and old IT/+ mice. Structural changes are strongly fiber type-specific, affecting type I and IIB/IIX fibers in very distinct ways, and sparing type IIA fibers. Ultrastructural alterations in our IT/+ mice are also present in wild type, but at a lower frequency and older ages, suggesting that the disease mutation on the mixed background promotes an acceleration of normal age-dependent changes. The observed functional and structural alterations and their similarity to age-associated changes are entirely consistent with the known properties of the mutated channel, which result in reduced calcium release as is also observed in normal aging muscle. In strong contrast to these observations, a subset of patients with the analogous human heterozygous mutation and IT/+ mice on an inbred 129S2/SvPasCrl background exhibit a more severe disease phenotype, which is not directly consistent with the mutated channel properties. PMID:20961389

  14. AB283. SPR-10 Down-regulation of ryanodine receptor gene expression in murine urinary bladder smooth muscle following partial bladder outlet obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Boopathi, Ettickan; Javed, Elham; Addya, Shankar; Fortina, Paolo; Zderic, Stephen; Wein, Alan; Chacko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM) displays spontaneous action potentials and this potential is related to the phasic nature of spontaneous contractions in this tissue. The amplitude of a phasic contraction depends on the increase in Ca2+ entry caused by membrane depolarization. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in UBSM decreases the force production by decreasing the frequency of phasic contractions through interactions with large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) and small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels. Microarray and network analysis were employed to determine the changes in mRNA in 14-day obstructed murine bladders. We found that obstruction significantly down-regulated the RyRs in bladder smooth muscle (BSM). Methods Male C57Bl/6 mice were surgically obstructed and kept for 14 days. Sham-operated mice served as a control. Bladders were excised; urothelium scraped off with a scalpel, and the serosa was removed. BSM obtained from PBOO and sham control animals were used for microarray and western blotting Results Pathway-based analysis of these gene signatures showed significant number of under-expressed genes in obstructed bladder and they were mapped to proteins involved in calcium signaling. We focused our work on RyR protein expression in BSM. There was a four-fold reduction of RyR3 in BSM in 14-day obstructed groups as shown by microarray and immunoblotting compared to that of sham-operated animals. Conclusions These results confirm that the RyR gene expression is down-regulated in obstructed murine bladder smooth muscle. Funding Source(s) None

  15. Ca(2+)-activated ion currents triggered by ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release control firing of inhibitory neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yasuhiko; Yanagawa, Yuchio

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous miniature outward currents (SMOCs) are known to exist in smooth muscles and peripheral neurons, and evidence for the presence of SMOCs in central neurons has been accumulating. SMOCs in central neurons are induced through Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (K(Ca)) channels, which are activated through Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum via ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Previously, we found that some neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN) showed spontaneous outward currents (SOCs). In the present study, we used whole cell recordings in slice preparations of the rat brain stem to investigate the following: 1) the ionic mechanisms of SOCs, 2) the types of neurons exhibiting frequent SOCs, and 3) the effect of Ca(2+)-activated conductance on neuronal firing. Pharmacological analyses revealed that SOCs were induced via the activation of small-conductance-type K(Ca) (SK) channels and RyRs, indicating that SOCs correspond to SMOCs. An analysis of the voltage responses to current pulses of the fluorescence-expressing inhibitory neurons of transgenic rats revealed that inhibitory neurons frequently exhibited SOCs. Abolition of SOCs via blockade of SK channels enhanced the frequency of spontaneous firing of inhibitory PHN neurons. However, abolition of SOCs via blockade of RyRs reduced the firing frequency and hyperpolarized the membrane potential. Similar reductions in firing frequency and hyperpolarization were also observed when Ca(2+)-activated nonselective cation (CAN) channels were blocked. These results suggest that, in inhibitory neurons in the PHN, Ca(2+) release via RyRs activates SK and CAN channels, and these channels regulate spontaneous firing in a complementary manner.

  16. Stabilization of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor ion channel-FKBP12 complex by the 1,4-benzothiazepine derivative S107.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yingwu; Xu, Le; Kramer, Henning F; Tomberlin, Ginger H; Townsend, Claire; Meissner, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) complex results in the rapid release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and muscle contraction. Dissociation of the small FK506 binding protein 12 subunit (FKBP12) increases RyR1 activity and impairs muscle function. The 1,4-benzothiazepine derivative JTV519, and the more specific derivative S107 (2,3,4,5,-tetrahydro-7-methoxy-4-methyl-1,4-benzothiazepine), are thought to improve skeletal muscle function by stabilizing the RyR1-FKBP12 complex. Here, we report a high degree of nonspecific and specific low affinity [(3)H]S107 binding to SR vesicles. SR vesicles enriched in RyR1 bound ∼48 [(3)H]S107 per RyR1 tetramer with EC(50) ∼52 µM and Hillslope ∼2. The effects of S107 and FKBP12 on RyR1 were examined under conditions that altered the redox state of RyR1. S107 increased FKBP12 binding to RyR1 in SR vesicles in the presence of reduced glutathione and the NO-donor NOC12, with no effect in the presence of oxidized glutathione. Addition of 0.15 µM FKBP12 to SR vesicles prevented FKBP12 dissociation; however, in the presence of oxidized glutathione and NOC12, FKBP12 dissociation was observed in skeletal muscle homogenates that contained 0.43 µM myoplasmic FKBP12 and was attenuated by S107. In single channel measurements with FKBP12-depleted RyR1s, in the absence and presence of NOC12, S107 augmented the FKBP12-mediated decrease in channel activity. The data suggest that S107 can reverse the harmful effects of redox active species on SR Ca(2+) release in skeletal muscle by binding to RyR1 low affinity sites.

  17. Calcium-dependent energetics of calmodulin domain interactions with regulatory regions of the Ryanodine Receptor Type 1 (RyR1).

    PubMed

    Newman, Rhonda A; Sorensen, Brenda R; Kilpatrick, Adina M; Shea, Madeline A

    2014-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) allosterically regulates the homo-tetrameric human Ryanodine Receptor Type 1 (hRyR1): apo CaM activates the channel, while (Ca(2+))4-CaM inhibits it. CaM-binding RyR1 residues 1975-1999 and 3614-3643 were proposed to allow CaM to bridge adjacent RyR1 subunits. Fluorescence anisotropy titrations monitored the binding of CaM and its domains to peptides encompassing hRyR(11975-1999) or hRyR1(3614-3643). Both CaM and its C-domain associated in a calcium-independent manner with hRyR1(3614-3643) while N-domain required calcium and bound ~250-fold more weakly. Association with hRyR1(11975-1999) was weak. Both hRyR1 peptides increased the calcium-binding affinity of both CaM domains, while maintaining differences between them. These energetics support the CaM C-domain association with hRyR1(3614-3643) at low calcium, positioning CaM to respond to calcium efflux. However, the CaM N-domain affinity for hRyR(11975-1999) alone was insufficient to support CaM bridging adjacent RyR1 subunits. Other proteins or elements of the hRyR1 structure must contribute to the energetics of CaM-mediated regulation.

  18. Bidirectional coupling between ryanodine receptors and Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel machinery sustains store-operated Ca2+ entry in human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Pratima; Dadsetan, Sepehr; Fomina, Alla F

    2012-10-26

    The expression and functional significance of ryanodine receptors (RyR) were investigated in resting and activated primary human T cells. RyR1, RyR2, and RyR3 transcripts were detected in human T cells. RyR1/2 transcript levels increased, whereas those of RyR3 decreased after T cell activation. RyR1/2 protein immunoreactivity was detected in activated but not in resting T cells. The RyR agonist caffeine evoked Ca(2+) release from the intracellular store in activated T cells but not in resting T cells, indicating that RyR are functionally up-regulated in activated T cells compared with resting T cells. In the presence of store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) via plasmalemmal Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels, RyR blockers reduced the Ca(2+) leak from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the magnitude of SOCE, suggesting that a positive feedback relationship exists between RyR and CRAC channels. Overexpression of fluorescently tagged RyR2 and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), an ER Ca(2+) sensor gating CRAC channels, in HEK293 cells revealed that RyR are co-localized with STIM1 in the puncta formed after store depletion. These data indicate that in primary human T cells, the RyR are coupled to CRAC channel machinery such that SOCE activates RyR via a Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release mechanism, which in turn reduces the Ca(2+) concentration within the ER lumen in the vicinity of STIM1, thus facilitating SOCE by reducing store-dependent CRAC channel inactivation. Treatment with RyR blockers suppressed activated T cell expansion, demonstrating the functional importance of RyR in T cells.

  19. Contribution of impaired myofibril and ryanodine receptor function to prolonged low-frequency force depression after in situ stimulation in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Daiki; Kanzaki, Keita; Kuratani, Mai; Matsunaga, Satoshi; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Wada, Masanobu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether prolonged low-frequency force depression (PLFFD) that occurs in situ is the result of decreased myofibrillar Ca(2+) sensitivity and/or reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release. Intact rat gastrocnemius muscles were electrically stimulated via the sciatic nerve until force was reduced to ~50% of the initial and dissected 30 min following the cessation of stimulation. Skinned fibre and whole muscle analyses were performed in the superficial region composed exclusively of type IIB fibres. Fatiguing stimulation significantly reduced the ratio of force at low frequency to that at high frequency to 65% in skinned fibres (1 vs. 50 Hz) and 73% in whole muscles (20 vs. 100 Hz). In order to evaluate changes in myofibrillar Ca(2+) sensitivity and ryanodine receptor caffeine sensitivity, skinned fibres were activated in Ca(2+)- and caffeine-containing solutions, respectively. Skinned fibres from fatigued muscles displayed decreased caffeine sensitivity together with increased myofibrillar Ca(2+) sensitivity. Treatment with 2,2'-dithiodipyridine and reduced glutathione induced a smaller increase in myofibrillar Ca(2+)sensitivity in fatigued than in rested fibres. In fatigued muscles, S-glutathionylation of troponin I was increased and submaximal SR Ca(2+) release, induced by 4-chloro-m-cresol, was decreased. These findings suggest that in the early stage of PLFFD that occurs in fast-twitch muscles of exercising animals and humans, S-glutathionylation of troponin I may attenuate PLFFD by increasing myofibrillar Ca(2+) sensitivity and that under such a circumstance, PLFFD may be ascribable to failure of SR Ca(2+) release.

  20. The effects of ryanodine receptor (RYR1) mutation on natural killer cell cytotoxicity, plasma cytokines and stress hormones during acute intermittent exercise in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ciepielewski, Z M; Stojek, W; Borman, A; Myślińska, D; Pałczyńska, P; Kamyczek, M

    2016-04-01

    Stress susceptibility has been mapped to a single recessive gene, the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene or halothane (Hal) gene. Homozygous (Hal(nn)), mutated pigs are sensitive to halothane and susceptible to Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS). Previous studies have shown that stress-susceptible RYR1 gene mutated homozygotes in response to restraint stress showed an increase in natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) accompanied by more pronounced stress-related hormone and anti-inflammatory cytokine changes. In order to determine the relationship of a RYR1 gene mutation with NKCC, plasma cytokines and stress-related hormones following a different stress model - exercise - 36 male pigs (representing different genotypes according to RYR1 gene mutation: NN, homozygous dominant; Nn, heterozygous; nn, homozygous recessive) were submitted to an intermittent treadmill walking. During the entire experiment the greatest level of NKCC and the greatest concentrations of interleukin (IL-) 6, IL-10, IL-12, interferon (IFN-)γ and tumor necrosis factor-α and stress-related hormones (adrenaline, prolactin, beta-endorphin) were observed in nn pigs, and the greatest concentration of IL-1 and growth hormone in NN pigs. Immunostimulatory effects of intermittent exercise on NKCC in nn pigs were concomitant with increases in IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-γ, the potent NKCC activators. Our findings suggest that stress-susceptible pigs RYR1 gene mutated pigs develop a greater level of NKCC and cytokine production in response to exercise stress. These results suggest that the heterogeneity of immunological and neuroendocrine response to exercise stress in pigs could be influenced by RYR1 gene mutation.

  1. Overexpression of progesterone receptor A isoform in mice leads to endometrial hyperproliferation, hyperplasia and atypia.

    PubMed

    Fleisch, M C; Chou, Y C; Cardiff, Robert D; Asaithambi, A; Shyamala, G

    2009-04-01

    A delicate balance in estrogen and progesterone signaling through their cognate receptors is characteristic for the physiologic state of the endometrium, and a shift in receptor isotype expression can be frequently found in human endometrial pathology. In this study, using a transgenic mouse model, we examined the mechanisms whereby alterations in progesterone receptor (PR) isotype expression leads to endometrial pathology. For an experimental model, we used transgenic mice (PR-A transgenics) carrying an imbalance in the native ratio of the two PR isoforms A and B (PR-A and PR-B) through the expression of additional A form and examined their uterine phenotype under different hormonal regimens, using various criteria. Uterine epithelial cell proliferation was augmented in PR-A transgenics and was abolished by PR antagonists. In particular, proliferative response to progesterone, independent of signaling through estrogen, was enhanced. Upon continuous exposure to estradiol and progesterone, the uteri in PR-A transgenics displayed gross enlargement, endometrial hyperplasia including atypical lesions, endometritis and pelvic inflammatory disease. Imbalanced expression of the two isoforms of PR in a transgenic model reveals multiple derangements in the regulation of uterine physiology, resulting in various pathologies including hyperplasias.

  2. Cloning and expression of progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Rekawiecki, Robert; Kowalik, Magdalena Karolina; Kotwica, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Progesterone (P4) affects a cell through its nuclear receptor (PGR), which has two main isoforms: A (PGRA) and B (PGRB). A partial section of previously unknown PGRB cDNA from cattle was cloned. Next, mRNA and protein levels for these two isoforms in corpora lutea (CL) collected during different stages of the oestrous cycle and pregnancy were determined. The PGRB mRNA level was highest on Days 2-5 of the oestrous cycle, decreased over the next few days (P<0.01) and increased again slightly on Days 17-20 (P<0.05). During pregnancy, PGRB mRNA was at its lowest level during Weeks 3-5 (P<0.01) and highest during Weeks 6-12 (P<0.01). The profile of PGRA mRNA levels was similar to that of PGRB throughout the oestrous cycle. The PGRA protein level was highest on Days 2-10 of the oestrous cycle, decreased continuously to its lowest concentration on Days 17-20 (P<0.01) and during Weeks 3-5 of pregnancy (P>0.05) and increased during Weeks 6-12 (P<0.05). PGRB protein concentration followed a similar pattern but at a markedly lower level. Both PGRA and PGRB isoforms are involved in the regulation of P4 action, especially in the newly formed CL and developed CL in the first trimester of pregnancy. These data suggest that the variable expression of these isoforms during the oestrous cycle may depend on the influence of P4.

  3. Two families of TARP isoforms that have distinct effects on the kinetic properties of AMPA receptors and synaptic currents.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chang-Hoon; St-Gelais, Fannie; Zhang, Wei; Tomita, Susumu; Howe, James R

    2007-09-20

    Transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) are auxiliary AMPA receptor subunits that regulate both the trafficking and gating properties of AMPA receptors, and different TARP isoforms display distinct expression patterns in brain. Here, we compared the effects of four TARP isoforms on the kinetics of AMPA receptor currents. Each isoform slowed the deactivation of GluR1 currents, but the slowing was greatest with gamma-4 and gamma-8. Isoform-specific differences in desensitization were also observed that correlated with effects on deactivation. TARP isoforms also differentially modulated responses to trains of glutamate applications designed to mimic high-frequency presynaptic firing. Importantly, whereas both stargazin and gamma-4 rescued excitatory synaptic transmission in cerebellar granule cells from stargazer mice, the decay of miniature EPSCs was 2-fold slower in neurons expressing gamma-4. The results show that heterogeneity in the composition of AMPA receptor/TARP complexes contributes to synapse-specific differences in EPSC decays and frequency-dependent modulation of neurotransmission.

  4. Oxygen-coupled redox regulation of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor/Ca2+ release channel (RyR1): sites and nature of oxidative modification.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi-An; Wang, Benlian; Miyagi, Masaru; Hess, Douglas T; Stamler, Jonathan S

    2013-08-09

    In mammalian skeletal muscle, Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through the ryanodine receptor/Ca(2+)-release channel RyR1 can be enhanced by S-oxidation or S-nitrosylation of separate Cys residues, which are allosterically linked. S-Oxidation of RyR1 is coupled to muscle oxygen tension (pO2) through O2-dependent production of hydrogen peroxide by SR-resident NADPH oxidase 4. In isolated SR (SR vesicles), an average of six to eight Cys thiols/RyR1 monomer are reversibly oxidized at high (21% O2) versus low pO2 (1% O2), but their identity among the 100 Cys residues/RyR1 monomer is unknown. Here we use isotope-coded affinity tag labeling and mass spectrometry (yielding 93% coverage of RyR1 Cys residues) to identify 13 Cys residues subject to pO2-coupled S-oxidation in SR vesicles. Eight additional Cys residues are oxidized at high versus low pO2 only when NADPH levels are supplemented to enhance NADPH oxidase 4 activity. pO2-sensitive Cys residues were largely non-overlapping with those identified previously as hyperreactive by administration of exogenous reagents (three of 21) or as S-nitrosylated. Cys residues subject to pO2-coupled oxidation are distributed widely within the cytoplasmic domain of RyR1 in multiple functional domains implicated in RyR1 activity-regulating interactions with the L-type Ca(2+) channel (dihydropyridine receptor) and FK506-binding protein 12 as well as in "hot spot" regions containing sites of mutation implicated in malignant hyperthermia and central core disease. pO2-coupled disulfide formation was identified, whereas neither S-glutathionylated nor sulfenamide-modified Cys residues were observed. Thus, physiological redox regulation of RyR1 by endogenously generated hydrogen peroxide is exerted through dynamic disulfide formation involving multiple Cys residues.

  5. Remodeling of the cervix and parturition in mice lacking the progesterone receptor B isoform.

    PubMed

    Yellon, Steven M; Oshiro, Bryan T; Chhaya, Tejas Y; Lechuga, Thomas J; Dias, Rejane M; Burns, Alexandra E; Force, Lindsey; Apostolakis, Ede M

    2011-09-01

    Withdrawal of progestational support for pregnancy is part of the final common pathways for parturition, but the role of nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR) isoforms in this process is not known. To determine if the PGR-B isoform participates in cervical remodeling at term, cervices were obtained from mice lacking PGR-B (PGR-BKO) and from wild-type (WT) controls before or after birth. PGR-BKO mice gave birth to viable pups at the same time as WT controls during the early morning of Day 19 postbreeding. Morphological analyses indicated that by the day before birth, cervices from PGR-BKO and WT mice had increased in size, with fewer cell nuclei/area as well as diminished collagen content and structure, as evidenced by optical density of picrosirius red-stained sections, compared to cervices from nonpregnant mice. Moreover, increased numbers of resident macrophages, but not neutrophils, were found in the prepartum cervix of PGR-BKO compared to nonpregnant mice, parallel to findings in WT mice. These results suggest that PGR-B does not contribute to the growth or degradation of the extracellular matrix or proinflammatory processes associated with recruitment of macrophages in the cervix leading up to birth. Rather, other receptors may contribute to the progesterone-dependent mechanism that promotes remodeling of the cervix during pregnancy and in the proinflammatory process associated with ripening before parturition.

  6. Altered expression of progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in human eutopic endometrium in endometriosis patients.

    PubMed

    Wölfler, Monika Martina; Küppers, Mareike; Rath, Werner; Buck, Volker Uwe; Meinhold-Heerlein, Ivo; Classen-Linke, Irmgard

    2016-07-01

    Recent data implicate an altered expression of progesterone receptor isoform A (PR-A) and B (PR-B) in the endometrium of endometriosis patients. This prospective exploratory study aimed to precisely determine the PR-A and PR-B expression using immunohistochemical techniques in eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis compared with disease-free women throughout the menstrual cycle. All symptomatic patients underwent laparoscopy for the diagnosis of endometriosis and histological confirmation of the disease (EO) whereas controls were proven disease-free (CO). In CO samples (n=10) an increased expression of PR-A and PR-B during the proliferative to early secretory phase and a decreased expression of both receptor isoforms during the mid to late secretory phase was ascertained in accordance with previous studies. In patients with endometriosis (n=16) no cycle dependent pattern of PR-A and PR-B expression was identified in contrast to patients without endometriosis. Moreover, in EO samples a huge variety of inter- and intra-individual differences in PR-A and PR-B expression were detected. These data provide further evidence that dysregulation of the PR-A and PR-B expression might contribute to the pathophysiology of endometriosis.

  7. The pivotal role of PDGF and its receptor isoforms in adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Serk; Park, Hyung-Sook; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2015-07-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of the growth factors that reportedly regulates cell growth and division of mesenchymal cells. Although PDGF isoforms and their receptors reportedly play a pivotal role in mesenchymal stem cell regulation, there is a paucity of literature reviewing the role of PDGF in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Therefore, we summarized previous reports on the expression and functional roles of PDGF and its receptor isoforms in this review. In addition, we examined findings pertaining to underlying molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways with special focus on PDGF-D/PDGFRβ. ASCs only express PDGF-A, -C, -D, PDGFRα, and PDGFRβ. PDGFRα expression decreases with adipocyte lineage, while PDGFRβ inhibits white adipocyte differentiation. In addition, PDGFRβ induces proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis and up-regulates the expression of paracrine factors in ASCs. Although PDGF-B and -D mediate their functions mainly by PDGFRβ and ROS generation, there are many differences between them in terms of regulating ASCs. PDGF-D is endogenous, generates ROS via the mitochondrial electron transport system, and regulates the autocrine loop of ASCs in vivo. Furthermore, PDGF-D has stronger mitogenic effects than PDGF-B.

  8. Alternative splicing in the fiddler crab cognate ecdysteroid receptor: variation in receptor isoform expression and DNA binding properties in response to hormone.

    PubMed

    Durica, David S; Das, Sunetra; Najar, Fares; Roe, Bruce; Phillips, Barret; Kappalli, Sudha; Anilkumar, Gopinathan

    2014-09-15

    RXR cDNA cloning from three Uca species led to the identification of 4 conserved isoforms, indicative of alternative splicing in the hinge and ligand binding domains (LBD). Sequencing of overlapping clones from a Ucapugilator genomic library identified EcR isoforms matching previously identified cDNA variants; in addition, a cryptic exon in the LBD was detected and evidence for expression of this new isoform was obtained from next-generation sequencing. RNA-seq analysis also identified a new amino terminal EcR variant. EcR and RXR transcript abundance increases throughout ovarian maturation in U. pugilator, while cognate receptor transcript abundance remains constant in a related Indo-Pacific species with a different reproductive strategy. To examine if crab RXR LBD isoforms have different physical properties in vitro, electromobility shift assays were performed with different EcR isoforms. The cognate crab and fruit fly receptors differ in their responses to hormone. Ecdysteroids did not increase DNA binding for the crab heterodimers, while ecdysteroids stimulate binding for Drosophilamelanogaster EcR/USP heterodimers. In swapping experiments, UpEcR/USP heterodimers did not show ligand-responsive differences in DNA binding; both crab RXR LBD isoforms, however, conferred ligand-responsive increases in DNA binding with DmEcRs. These data indicate that both UpRXR LBD isoforms can heterodimerize with the heterologous DmEcR receptors and promote ligand and DNA binding. Unresponsiveness of the cognate receptors to ecdysteroid, however, suggest additional factors may be required to mediate endogenous, perhaps isoform-specific, differences in EcR conformation, consistent with previously reported effects of UpRXR isoforms on UpEcR ligand-binding affinities.

  9. [Isoforms of the human histamine H3 receptor: Generation, expression in the central nervous system and functional implications].

    PubMed

    García-Gálvez, Ana Maricela; Arias-Montaño, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Histamine plays a significant role as a neuromodulator in the human central nervous system. Histamine-releasing neurons are exclusively located in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus, project to all major areas of the brain, and participate in functions such as the regulation of sleep/wakefulness, locomotor activity, feeding and drinking, analgesia, learning, and memory. The functional effects of histamine are exerted through the activation of four G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3 and H4), and in the central nervous system the first three receptors are widely expressed. The H3 receptor (H3R) is found exclusively in neuronal cells, where it functions as auto- and hetero-receptor. One remarkable characteristic of the H3R is the existence of isoforms, generated by alternative splicing of the messenger RNA. For the human H3R, 20 isoforms have been reported; although a significant number lack those regions required for agonist binding or receptor signaling, at least five isoforms appear functional upon heterologous expression. In this work we review the evidence for the generation of human H3R isoforms, their expression, and the available information regarding the functionality of such receptors.

  10. Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility arising from altered resting coupling between the skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channel and the type 1 ryanodine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Eltit, Jose Miguel; Bannister, Roger A.; Moua, Ong; Altamirano, Francisco; Hopkins, Philip M.; Pessah, Isaac N.; Molinski, Tadeusz F.; López, Jose R.; Beam, Kurt G.; Allen, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptibility is a dominantly inherited disorder in which volatile anesthetics trigger aberrant Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle and a potentially fatal rise in perioperative body temperature. Mutations causing MH susceptibility have been identified in two proteins critical for excitation–contraction (EC) coupling, the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) and CaV1.1, the principal subunit of the L-type Ca2+ channel. All of the mutations that have been characterized previously augment EC coupling and/or increase the rate of L-type Ca2+ entry. The CaV1.1 mutation R174W associated with MH susceptibility occurs at the innermost basic residue of the IS4 voltage-sensing helix, a residue conserved among all CaV channels [Carpenter D, et al. (2009) BMC Med Genet 10:104–115.]. To define the functional consequences of this mutation, we expressed it in dysgenic (CaV1.1 null) myotubes. Unlike previously described MH-linked mutations in CaV1.1, R174W ablated the L-type current and had no effect on EC coupling. Nonetheless, R174W increased sensitivity of Ca2+ release to caffeine (used for MH diagnostic in vitro testing) and to volatile anesthetics. Moreover, in CaV1.1 R174W-expressing myotubes, resting myoplasmic Ca2+ levels were elevated, and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) stores were partially depleted, compared with myotubes expressing wild-type CaV1.1. Our results indicate that CaV1.1 functions not only to activate RyR1 during EC coupling, but also to suppress resting RyR1-mediated Ca2+ leak from the SR, and that perturbation of CaV1.1 negative regulation of RyR1 leak identifies a unique mechanism that can sensitize muscle cells to MH triggers. PMID:22547813

  11. The Arrhythmogenic Calmodulin p.Phe142Leu Mutation Impairs C-domain Ca2+ Binding but Not Calmodulin-dependent Inhibition of the Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingjie; Larsen, Kamilla Taunsig; Nani, Alma; Tian, Xixi; Holt, Christian; Wang, Ruiwu; Fill, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A number of point mutations in the intracellular Ca2+-sensing protein calmodulin (CaM) are arrhythmogenic, yet their underlying mechanisms are not clear. These mutations generally decrease Ca2+ binding to CaM and impair inhibition of CaM-regulated Ca2+ channels like the cardiac Ca2+ release channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR2), and it appears that attenuated CaM Ca2+ binding correlates with impaired CaM-dependent RyR2 inhibition. Here, we investigated the RyR2 inhibitory action of the CaM p.Phe142Leu mutation (F142L; numbered including the start-Met), which markedly reduces CaM Ca2+ binding. Surprisingly, CaM-F142L had little to no aberrant effect on RyR2-mediated store overload-induced Ca2+ release in HEK293 cells compared with CaM-WT. Furthermore, CaM-F142L enhanced CaM-dependent RyR2 inhibition at the single channel level compared with CaM-WT. This is in stark contrast to the actions of arrhythmogenic CaM mutations N54I, D96V, N98S, and D130G, which all diminish CaM-dependent RyR2 inhibition. Thermodynamic analysis showed that apoCaM-F142L converts an endothermal interaction between CaM and the CaM-binding domain (CaMBD) of RyR2 into an exothermal one. Moreover, NMR spectra revealed that the CaM-F142L-CaMBD interaction is structurally different from that of CaM-WT at low Ca2+. These data indicate a distinct interaction between CaM-F142L and the RyR2 CaMBD, which may explain the stronger CaM-dependent RyR2 inhibition by CaM-F142L, despite its reduced Ca2+ binding. Collectively, these results add to our understanding of CaM-dependent regulation of RyR2 as well as the mechanistic effects of arrhythmogenic CaM mutations. The unique properties of the CaM-F142L mutation may provide novel clues on how to suppress excessive RyR2 Ca2+ release by manipulating the CaM-RyR2 interaction. PMID:27927985

  12. Modulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle expressing ryanodine receptor impaired in regulation by calmodulin and S100A1.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Naohiro; Prosser, Benjamin L; Ghassemi, Farshid; Xu, Le; Pasek, Daniel A; Eu, Jerry P; Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O; Cannon, Brian R; Wilder, Paul T; Lovering, Richard M; Weber, David; Melzer, Werner; Schneider, Martin F; Meissner, Gerhard

    2011-05-01

    In vitro, calmodulin (CaM) and S100A1 activate the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor ion channel (RyR1) at submicromolar Ca(2+) concentrations, whereas at micromolar Ca(2+) concentrations, CaM inhibits RyR1. One amino acid substitution (RyR1-L3625D) has previously been demonstrated to impair CaM binding and regulation of RyR1. Here we show that the RyR1-L3625D substitution also abolishes S100A1 binding. To determine the physiological relevance of these findings, mutant mice were generated with the RyR1-L3625D substitution in exon 74, which encodes the CaM and S100A1 binding domain of RyR1. Homozygous mutant mice (Ryr1(D/D)) were viable and appeared normal. However, single RyR1 channel recordings from Ryr1(D/D) mice exhibited impaired activation by CaM and S100A1 and impaired CaCaM inhibition. Isolated flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibers from Ryr1(D/D) mice had depressed Ca(2+) transients when stimulated by a single action potential. However, during repetitive stimulation, the mutant fibers demonstrated greater relative summation of the Ca(2+) transients. Consistently, in vivo stimulation of tibialis anterior muscles in Ryr1(D/D) mice demonstrated reduced twitch force in response to a single action potential, but greater summation of force during high-frequency stimulation. During repetitive stimulation, Ryr1(D/D) fibers exhibited slowed inactivation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release flux, consistent with increased summation of the Ca(2+) transient and contractile force. Peak Ca(2+) release flux was suppressed at all voltages in voltage-clamped Ryr1(D/D) fibers. The results suggest that the RyR1-L3625D mutation removes both an early activating effect of S100A1 and CaM and delayed suppressing effect of CaCaM on RyR1 Ca(2+) release, providing new insights into CaM and S100A1 regulation of skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling.

  13. Redox modification of ryanodine receptors by mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species contributes to aberrant Ca2+ handling in ageing rabbit hearts.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Leroy L; Li, Weiyan; Lu, Yichun; Centracchio, Jason; Terentyeva, Radmila; Koren, Gideon; Terentyev, Dmitry

    2013-12-01

    Ageing is associated with a blunted response to sympathetic stimulation and an increased risk of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Aberrant calcium (Ca(2+)) handling is an important contributor to the electrical and contractile dysfunction associated with ageing. Yet, the specific molecular mechanisms underlying abnormal Ca(2+) handling in ageing heart remain poorly understood. In this study, we used ventricular myocytes isolated from young (5-9 months) and old (4-6 years) rabbit hearts to test the hypothesis that changes in Ca(2+) homeostasis are caused by post-translational modification of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) by mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in the ageing heart. Changes in parameters of Ca(2+) handling were determined by measuring cytosolic and intra-sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) dynamics in intact and permeabilized ventricular myocytes using confocal microscopy. We also measured age-related changes in ROS production and mitochondria membrane potential using a ROS-sensitive dye and a mitochondrial voltage-sensitive fluorescent indicator, respectively. In permeablized myocytes, ageing did not change SERCA activity and spark frequency but decreased spark amplitude and SR Ca(2+) load suggesting increased RyR activity. Treatment with the antioxidant dithiothreitol reduced RyR-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak in permeabilized myocytes from old rabbit hearts to the level comparable to young. Moreover, myocytes from old rabbits had more depolarized mitochondria membrane potential and increased rate of ROS production. Under β-adrenergic stimulation, Ca(2+) transient amplitude, SR Ca(2+) load, and latency of pro-arrhythmic spontaneous Ca(2+) waves (SCWs) were decreased while RyR-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak was increased in cardiomyocytes from old rabbits. Additionally, with β-adrenergic stimulation, scavenging of mitochondrial ROS in myocytes from old rabbit hearts restored redox status of RyRs, which reduced SR Ca(2+) leak, ablated most

  14. Rank-based genome-wide analysis reveals the association of Ryanodine receptor-2 gene variants with childhood asthma among human populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The standard approach to determine unique or shared genetic factors across populations is to identify risk alleles in one population and investigate replication in others. However, since populations differ in DNA sequence information, allele frequencies, effect sizes, and linkage disequilibrium patterns, SNP association using a uniform stringent threshold on p values may not be reproducible across populations. Here, we developed rank-based methods to investigate shared or population-specific loci and pathways for childhood asthma across individuals of diverse ancestry. We performed genome-wide association studies on 859,790 SNPs genotyped in 527 affected offspring trios of European, African, and Hispanic ancestry using publically available asthma database in the Genotypes and Phenotypes database. Results Rank-based analyses showed that there are shared genetic factors for asthma across populations, more at the gene and pathway levels than at the SNP level. Although the top 1,000 SNPs were not shared, 11 genes (RYR2, PDE4D, CSMD1, CDH13, ROBO2, RBFOX1, PTPRD, NPAS3, PDE1C, SEMA5A, and CTNNA2) mapped by these SNPs were shared across populations. Ryanodine receptor 2 (RYR2, a statin response-related gene) showed the strongest association in European (p value = 2.55 × 10−7) and was replicated in African (2.57 × 10−4) and Hispanic (1.18 × 10−3) Americans. Imputation analyses based on the 1000 Genomes Project uncovered additional RYR2 variants associated with asthma. Network and functional ontology analyses revealed that RYR2 is an integral part of dermatological or allergic disorder biological networks, specifically in the functional classes involving inflammatory, eosinophilic, and respiratory diseases. Conclusion Our rank-based genome-wide analysis revealed for the first time an association of RYR2 variants with asthma and replicated previously discovered PDE4D asthma gene across human populations. The replication of top

  15. Dopamine-Induced Apoptosis of Lactotropes Is Mediated by the Short Isoform of D2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Radl, Daniela Betiana; Ferraris, Jimena; Boti, Valeria; Seilicovich, Adriana; Sarkar, Dipak Kumar; Pisera, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine, through D2 receptor (D2R), is the major regulator of lactotrope function in the anterior pituitary gland. Both D2R isoforms, long (D2L) and short (D2S), are expressed in lactotropes. Although both isoforms can transduce dopamine signal, they differ in the mechanism that leads to cell response. The administration of D2R agonists, such as cabergoline, is the main pharmacological treatment for prolactinomas, but resistance to these drugs exists, which has been associated with alterations in D2R expression. We previously reported that dopamine and cabergoline induce apoptosis of lactotropes in primary culture in an estrogen-dependent manner. In this study we used an in vivo model to confirm the permissive action of estradiol in the apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells induced by D2R agonists. Administration of cabergoline to female rats induced apoptosis, measured by Annexin-V staining, in anterior pituitary gland from estradiol-treated rats but not from ovariectomized rats. To evaluate the participation of D2R isoforms in the apoptosis induced by dopamine we used lactotrope-derived PR1 cells stably transfected with expression vectors encoding D2L or D2S receptors. In the presence of estradiol, dopamine induced apoptosis, determined by ELISA and TUNEL assay, only in PR1-D2S cells. To study the role of p38 MAPK in apoptosis induced by D2R activation, anterior pituitary cells from primary culture or PR1-D2S were incubated with an inhibitor of the p38 MAPK pathway (SB203850). SB203580 blocked the apoptotic effect of D2R activation in lactotropes from primary cultures and PR1-D2S cells. Dopamine also induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation, determined by western blot, in PR1-D2S cells and estradiol enhanced this effect. These data suggest that, in the presence of estradiol, D2R agonists induce apoptosis of lactotropes by their interaction with D2S receptors and that p38 MAPK is involved in this process. PMID:21464994

  16. Differential regulation of oestrogen receptor β isoforms by 5' untranslated regions in cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laura; Brannan, Rebecca A; Hanby, Andrew M; Shaaban, Abeer M; Verghese, Eldo T; Peter, Mark B; Pollock, Steven; Satheesha, Sampoorna; Szynkiewicz, Marcin; Speirs, Valerie; Hughes, Thomas A

    2010-08-01

    Oestrogen receptors (ERs) are critical regulators of the behaviour of many cancers. Despite this, the roles and regulation of one of the two known ERs - ERβ- are poorly understood. This is partly because analyses have been confused by discrepancies between ERβ expression at mRNA and proteins levels, and because ERβ is expressed as several functionally distinct isoforms. We investigated human ERβ 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) and their influences on ERβ expression and function. We demonstrate that two alternative ERβ 5'UTRs have potent and differential influences on expression acting at the level of translation. We show that their influences are modulated by cellular context and in carcinogenesis, and demonstrate the contributions of both upstream open reading frames and RNA secondary structure. These regulatory mechanisms offer explanations for the non-concordance of ERβ mRNA and protein. Importantly, we also demonstrate that 5'UTRs allow the first reported mechanisms for differential regulation of the expression of the ERβ isoforms 1, 2 and 5, and thereby have critical influences on ERβ function.

  17. Isoform/variant mRNAs for sex steroid hormone receptors in humans.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Shuji; Shoda, Tomoko; Kato, Junzo; Hoshi, Kazuhiko

    2003-04-01

    The open reading frames of human sex steroid hormone receptors (hSSHRs) are composed of eight exons. In addition, the presence of various exons - including 5'-untranslated exons, alternative coding exons and novel 'intronic' exons - has been demonstrated in the genes encoding hSSHRs. The isoform/variant hSSHR mRNAs generated from thes e exons can be tentatively classified into seven types. In type 1, different mRNAs are generated with the use of alternative transcription start sites. In type 2, one or more exons are skipped. In type 3, one or more exons are duplicated. In type 4, distinct mRNAs containing different 5'-untranslated exon(s) are synthesized. In type 5, distinct mRNAs possessing different coding exon(s) are generated. In type 6, mRNA is synthesized by intronic exons and coding exons 4/5-8. In type 7, mRNA with insertion of intronic exon(s) is generated. Here, we review the isoform/variant hSSHR mRNAs and the structure of the genes encoding them.

  18. Studies on two ecdysone receptor isoforms of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana.

    PubMed

    Perera, S C; Ladd, T R; Dhadialla, T S; Krell, P J; Sohi, S S; Retnakaran, A; Palli, S R

    1999-06-25

    A full-length cDNA clone corresponding to the Choristoneura fumiferana ecdysone receptor-A isoform (CfEcR-A) was isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence of CfEcR-A differed from CfEcR-B in the NH2-terminal region of the A/B domain. The CfEcR-A-specific region showed high amino acid identity with EcR-A isoforms of Manduca sexta, Bombyx mori, Drosophila melanogaster and Tenebrio molitor. Isoform-specific probes were used to study the expression of EcR-A and EcR-B mRNAs. Both probes detected 6 kb mRNAs that were present in second-sixth larval instars and in the pupae. Both EcR-A and EcR-B mRNA levels increased during the molting periods. In the sixth instar larvae, the increase in EcR-A and EcR-B mRNA levels were more pronounced in the midgut than in epidermis and fat body. Both EcR-A and EcR-B mRNAs were induced in CF-203 cells (a cell line developed from C. fumiferana midgut) grown in the presence of 4 x 10(-6) M 20E. EcR-B specific mRNAs were induced within 1 h of exposure to 20E, but EcR-A specific mRNAs were induced only after 3 h of exposure to 20E. Induction of mRNAs for both isoforms was unaffected by the presence of a protein synthesis inhibitor, cyclohexamide, in the culture medium. RH-5992, a stable ecdysone agonist, caused a similar induction pattern of EcR-A and EcR-B mRNAs in the midgut, epidermis and fat body of sixth instar larvae. In vitro translated CfEcR-A, CfEcR-B and CfUSP proteins were used to study the DNA binding and ligand binding properties of EcR-A/USP and EcR-B/USP protein complexes. The Kd values indicated that both complexes have similar binding affinities for ecdysone response elements and ponasterone A.

  19. Distinct Transcript Isoforms of the Atypical Chemokine Receptor 1 (ACKR1) / Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) Gene Are Expressed in Lymphoblasts and Altered Isoform Levels Are Associated with Genetic Ancestry and the Duffy-Null Allele

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Melissa B.; Walens, Andrea; Hire, Rupali; Mumin, Kauthar; Brown, Andrea M.; Ford, DeJuana; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Monteil, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The Atypical ChemoKine Receptor 1 (ACKR1) gene, better known as Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC or Duffy), is responsible for the Duffy Blood Group and plays a major role in regulating the circulating homeostatic levels of pro-inflammatory chemokines. Previous studies have shown that one common variant, the Duffy Null (Fy-) allele that is specific to African Ancestry groups, completely removes expression of the gene on erythrocytes; however, these individuals retain endothelial expression. Additional alleles are associated with a myriad of clinical outcomes related to immune responses and inflammation. In addition to allele variants, there are two distinct transcript isoforms of DARC which are expressed from separate promoters, and very little is known about the distinct transcriptional regulation or the distinct functionality of these protein isoforms. Our objective was to determine if the African specific Fy- allele alters the expression pattern of DARC isoforms and therefore could potentially result in a unique signature of the gene products, commonly referred to as antigens. Our work is the first to establish that there is expression of DARC on lymphoblasts. Our data indicates that people of African ancestry have distinct relative levels of DARC isoforms expressed in these cells. We conclude that the expression of both isoforms in combination with alternate alleles yields multiple Duffy antigens in ancestry groups, depending upon the haplotypes across the gene. Importantly, we hypothesize that DARC isoform expression patterns will translate into ancestry-specific inflammatory responses that are correlated with the axis of pro-inflammatory chemokine levels and distinct isoform-specific interactions with these chemokines. Ultimately, this work will increase knowledge of biological mechanisms underlying disparate clinical outcomes of inflammatory-related diseases among ethnic and geographic ancestry groups. PMID:26473357

  20. Isoforms of the Erythropoietin receptor in dopaminergic neurons of the Substantia Nigra.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzi, Federica; Zucchelli, Silvia; Bertuzzi, Maria; Santoro, Claudio; Tell, Gianluca; Carninci, Piero; Gustincich, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) regulates erythrocytes differentiation in blood. In the brain, EpoR has been shown to protect several neuronal cell types from cell death, including the A9 dopaminergic neurons (DA) of the Substantia Nigra (SN). These cells form the nigrostriatal pathway and are devoted to the control of postural reflexes and voluntary movements. Selective degeneration of A9 DA neurons leads to Parkinson's disease. By the use of nanoCAGE, a technology that allows the identification of Transcription Start Sites (TSSs) at a genome-wide level, we have described the promoter-level expression atlas of mouse A9 DA neurons purified with Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM). Here, we identify mRNA variants of the Erythropoietin Receptor (DA-EpoR) transcribed from alternative TSSs. Experimental validation and full-length cDNA cloning is integrated with gene expression analysis in the FANTOM5 database. In DA neurons, the EpoR gene encodes for a N-terminal truncated receptor. Based on STAT5 phosphorylation assays, we show that the new variant of N-terminally truncated EpoR acts as decoy when co-expressed with the full-length form. A similar isoform is also found in human. This work highlights new complexities in the regulation of Erythropoietin (EPO) signaling in the brain.

  1. INTERACTION OF PAH-RELATED COMPOUNDS WITH THE ALPHA AND BETA ISOFORMS OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR. (R826192)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of several 4- and 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic PAHs, and their monohydroxy derivatives to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta isoforms was examined. Only compounds possessing a hydroxyl group were able to compete wit...

  2. EP3 Receptor Isoforms are Differentially Expressed in Subpopulations of Primate Granulosa Cells and Couple to Unique G-Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soon Ok; Dozier, Brandy L.; Kerry, Julie A.; Duffy, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 produced within the ovarian follicle is necessary for ovulation. Prostaglandin E2 is recognized by four distinct G-protein coupled receptors. Among them, PTGER3 (also known as EP3) is unique in that mRNA splicing generates multiple isoforms. Each isoform has a distinct amino acid composition in the C-terminal region, which is involved in G-protein coupling. To determine if monkey EP3 isoforms couple to different G-proteins, each EP3 isoform was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and intracellular signals were examined after stimulation with the EP3 agonist sulprostone. Stimulation of EP3 isoform 5 (EP3-5) reduced cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, indicating involvement of Gαi. Stimulation of EP3-9 increased cAMP, which was reduced by the general G-protein inhibitor GDP-β-S, and also increased intracellular calcium, which was reduced by pertussis toxin and GDP-β-S. So, EP3-9 likely couples to both Gαs and a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein to regulate intracellular signals. Stimulation of EP3-14 increased cAMP, which was further increased by pertussis toxin, so EP3-14 likely regulates cAMP via multiple G-proteins. Granulosa cell expression of all EP3 isoforms increased in response to an ovulatory dose of hCG. Two EP3 isoforms were differentially expressed in functional subpopulations of granulosa cells. EP3-5 was low in granulosa cells at the follicle apex while EP3-9 was high in cumulus granulosa cells. Differential expression of EP3 isoforms may yield different intracellular responses to prostaglandin E2 in granulosa cell subpopulations, contributing to the different roles played by granulosa cell subpopulations in the process of ovulation. PMID:24062570

  3. Human CB1 Receptor Isoforms, present in Hepatocytes and β-cells, are Involved in Regulating Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    González-Mariscal, Isabel; Krzysik-Walker, Susan M.; Doyle, Máire E.; Liu, Qing-Rong; Cimbro, Raffaello; Santa-Cruz Calvo, Sara; Ghosh, Soumita; Cieśla, Łukasz; Moaddel, Ruin; Carlson, Olga D.; Witek, Rafal P.; O’Connell, Jennifer F.; Egan, Josephine M.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutics aimed at blocking the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor for treatment of obesity resulted in significant improvements in liver function, glucose uptake and pancreatic β-cell function independent of weight loss or CB1 receptor blockade in the brain, suggesting that peripherally-acting only CB1 receptor blockers may be useful therapeutic agents. Neuropsychiatric side effects and lack of tissue specificity precluded clinical use of first-generation, centrally acting CB1 receptor blockers. In this study we specifically analyzed the potential relevance to diabetes of human CB1 receptor isoforms in extraneural tissues involved in glucose metabolism. We identified an isoform of the human CB1 receptor (CB1b) that is highly expressed in β-cells and hepatocytes but not in the brain. Importantly, CB1b shows stronger affinity for the inverse agonist JD-5037 than for rimonabant compared to CB1 full length. Most relevant to the field, CB1b is a potent regulator of adenylyl cyclase activity in peripheral metabolic tissues. CB1b blockade by JD-5037 results in stronger adenylyl cyclase activation compared to rimonabant and it is a better enhancer of insulin secretion in β-cells. We propose this isoform as a principal pharmacological target for the treatment of metabolic disorders involving glucose metabolism. PMID:27641999

  4. Human CB1 Receptor Isoforms, present in Hepatocytes and β-cells, are Involved in Regulating Metabolism.

    PubMed

    González-Mariscal, Isabel; Krzysik-Walker, Susan M; Doyle, Máire E; Liu, Qing-Rong; Cimbro, Raffaello; Santa-Cruz Calvo, Sara; Ghosh, Soumita; Cieśla, Łukasz; Moaddel, Ruin; Carlson, Olga D; Witek, Rafal P; O'Connell, Jennifer F; Egan, Josephine M

    2016-09-19

    Therapeutics aimed at blocking the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor for treatment of obesity resulted in significant improvements in liver function, glucose uptake and pancreatic β-cell function independent of weight loss or CB1 receptor blockade in the brain, suggesting that peripherally-acting only CB1 receptor blockers may be useful therapeutic agents. Neuropsychiatric side effects and lack of tissue specificity precluded clinical use of first-generation, centrally acting CB1 receptor blockers. In this study we specifically analyzed the potential relevance to diabetes of human CB1 receptor isoforms in extraneural tissues involved in glucose metabolism. We identified an isoform of the human CB1 receptor (CB1b) that is highly expressed in β-cells and hepatocytes but not in the brain. Importantly, CB1b shows stronger affinity for the inverse agonist JD-5037 than for rimonabant compared to CB1 full length. Most relevant to the field, CB1b is a potent regulator of adenylyl cyclase activity in peripheral metabolic tissues. CB1b blockade by JD-5037 results in stronger adenylyl cyclase activation compared to rimonabant and it is a better enhancer of insulin secretion in β-cells. We propose this isoform as a principal pharmacological target for the treatment of metabolic disorders involving glucose metabolism.

  5. From "junk" to gene: curriculum vitae of a primate receptor isoform gene.

    PubMed

    Singer, Silke S; Männel, Daniela N; Hehlgans, Thomas; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2004-08-20

    Exonization of Alu retroposons awakens public opinion, particularly when causing genetic diseases. However, often neglected, alternative "Alu-exons" also carry the potential to greatly enhance genetic diversity by increasing the transcriptome of primates chiefly via alternative splicing.Here, we report a 5' exon generated from one of the two alternative transcripts in human tumor necrosis factor receptor gene type 2 (p75TNFR) that contains an ancient Alu-SINE, which provides an alternative N-terminal protein-coding domain. We follow the primate evolution over the past 63 million years to reconstruct the key events that gave rise to a novel receptor isoform. The Alu integration and start codon formation occurred between 58 and 40 million years ago (MYA) in the common ancestor of anthropoid primates. Yet a functional gene product could not be generated until a novel splice site and an open reading frame were introduced between 40 and 25 MYA on the catarrhine lineage (Old World monkeys including apes).

  6. Discoidin domain receptor 1: isoform expression and potential functions in cirrhotic human liver.

    PubMed

    Song, Sunmi; Shackel, Nicholas A; Wang, Xin M; Ajami, Katerina; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Gorrell, Mark D

    2011-03-01

    Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that binds and is activated by collagens. Transcriptional profiling of cirrhosis in human liver using a DNA array and quantitative PCR detected elevated mRNA expression of DDR1 compared with that in nondiseased liver. The present study characterized DDR1 expression in cirrhotic and nondiseased human liver and examined the cellular effects of DDR1 expression. mRNA expression of all five isoforms of DDR1 was detected in human liver, whereas DDR1a demonstrated differential expression in liver with hepatitis C virus and primary biliary cirrhosis compared with nondiseased liver. In addition, immunoblot analysis detected shed fragments of DDR1 more readily in cirrhotic liver than in nondiseased liver. Inasmuch as DDR1 is subject to protease-mediated cleavage after prolonged interaction with collagen, this differential expression may indicate more intense activation of DDR1 protein in cirrhotic compared with nondiseased liver. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence localized intense DDR1 mRNA and protein expression to epithelial cells including hepatocytes at the portal-parenchymal interface and the luminal aspect of the biliary epithelium. Overexpression of DDR1a altered hepatocyte behavior including increased adhesion and less migration on extracelular matrix substrates. DDR1a regulated extracellular expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2. These data elucidate DDR1 function pertinent to cirrhosis and indicate the importance of epithelial cell-collagen interactions in chronic liver injury.

  7. Differential regulation of constitutive androstane receptor expression by hepatocyte nuclear factor4alpha isoforms.

    PubMed

    Pascussi, Jean Marc; Robert, Agnes; Moreau, Amelie; Ramos, Jeanne; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Navarro, Francis; Blanc, Pierre; Assenat, Eric; Maurel, Patrick; Vilarem, Marie Jose

    2007-05-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) controls the metabolism and elimination of endogenous and exogenous toxic compounds by up-regulating a battery of genes. In this work, we analyzed the expression of human CAR (hCAR) in normal liver during development and in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and investigated the effect of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha isoforms (HNF4alpha1 and HNF4alpha7) on the hCAR gene promoter. By performing functional analysis of hCAR 5'-deletions including mutants, chromatin immunoprecipitation in human hepatocytes, electromobility shift and cotransfection assays, we identified a functional and species-conserved HNF4alpha response element (DR1: ccAGGCCTtTGCCCTga) at nucleotide -144. Both HNF4alpha isoforms bind to this element with similar affinity. However, HNF4alpha1 strongly enhanced hCAR promoter activity whereas HNF4alpha7 was a poor activator and acted as a repressor of HNF4alpha1-mediated transactivation of the hCAR promoter. PGC1alpha stimulated both HNF4alpha1-mediated and HNF4alpha7-mediated hCAR transactivation to the same extent, whereas SRC1 exhibited a marked specificity for HNF4alpha1. Transduction of human hepatocytes by HNF4alpha7-expressing lentivirus confirmed this finding. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between CAR and HNF4alpha1 mRNA levels in human liver samples during development, and an inverse correlation between CAR and HNF4alpha7 mRNA levels in HCC. These observations suggest that HNF4alpha1 positively regulates hCAR expression in normal developing and adult livers, whereas HNF4alpha7 represses hCAR gene expression in HCC.

  8. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) indicates that association with the type I ryanodine receptor (RyR1) causes reorientation of multiple cytoplasmic domains of the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) α(1S) subunit.

    PubMed

    Polster, Alexander; Ohrtman, Joshua D; Beam, Kurt G; Papadopoulos, Symeon

    2012-11-30

    The skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) in the t-tubular membrane serves as the Ca(2+) channel and voltage sensor for excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, triggering Ca(2+) release via the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). The two proteins appear to be physically linked, and both the α(1S) and β(1a) subunits of the DHPR are essential for EC coupling. Within α(1S), cytoplasmic domains of importance include the I-II loop (to which β(1a) binds), the II-III and III-IV loops, and the C terminus. However, the spatial relationship of these domains to one another has not been established. Here, we have taken the approach of measuring FRET between fluorescent proteins inserted into pairs of α(1S) cytoplasmic domains. Expression of these constructs in dyspedic (RyR1 null) and dysgenic (α(1S) null) myotubes was used to test for function and targeting to plasma membrane/SR junctions and to test whether the presence of RyR1 caused altered FRET. We found that in the absence of RyR1, measureable FRET occurred between the N terminus and C terminus (residue 1636), and between the II-III loop (residue 626) and both the N and C termini; the I-II loop (residue 406) showed weak FRET with the II-III loop but not with the N terminus. Association with RyR1 caused II-III loop FRET to decrease with the C terminus and increase with the N terminus and caused I-II loop FRET to increase with both the II-III loop and N terminus. Overall, RyR1 appears to cause a substantial reorientation of the cytoplasmic α(1S) domains consistent with their becoming more closely packed.

  9. Redundant ecdysis regulatory functions of three nuclear receptor HR3 isoforms in the direct-developing insect Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Josefa; Martín, David; Bellés, Xavier

    2007-03-01

    In hemimetabolous insects, the molecular basis of the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)-triggered genetic hierarchy is practically unknown. In the cockroach Blattella germanica, we had previously characterized one isoform of the ecdysone receptor, BgEcR-A, and two isoforms of its heterodimeric partner, BgRXR-S and BgRXR-L. One of the early-late genes of the 20E-triggered genetic hierarchy, is HR3. In the present paper, we report the discovery of three isoforms of HR3 in B. germanica, that were named BgHR3-A, BgHR3-B(1) and BgHR3-B(2). Expression studies in prothoracic gland, epidermis and fat body indicate that the expression of the three isoforms coincides with the peak of circulating ecdysteroids at each nymphal instar. Experiments in vitro with fat body tissue have shown that 20E induces the expression of BgHR3 isoforms, and that incubation with 20E and the protein inhibitor cycloheximide does not inhibit the induction, which indicates that the effect of 20E on BgHR3 activation is direct. This has been further confirmed by RNAi in vivo of BgEcR-A, which has shown that this nuclear receptor is required to fully activate the expression of BgHR3. RNAi has been also used to demonstrate the functions of BgHR3 in ecdysis. Nymphs with silenced BgHR3 completed the apolysis but were unable to ecdyse (they had duplicated and superimposed the mouth parts, the hypopharinge, the tracheal system and the cuticle layers). This indicates that BgHR3 is directly involved in ecdysis. Finally, RNAi of specific isoforms has showed that they are functionally redundant, at least regarding the ecdysis process.

  10. A novel isoform of the orphan nuclear receptor RORbeta is specifically expressed in pineal gland and retina.

    PubMed

    André, E; Gawlas, K; Becker-André, M

    1998-08-31

    RORbeta is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily whose ligand is unknown. Expression of RORbeta is confined to the central nervous system and its pattern suggests that this orphan nuclear receptor is implicated in the processing of sensory information and in circadian timing. In rats, RORbeta mRNA levels oscillate robustly in pineal gland and retina, displaying a 24h rhythm. Here we report the cloning of the cDNA of a novel isoform of RORbeta from rat pineal tissue. Expression of this isoform, called RORbeta2, is confined to pineal gland and retina and strongly increases at night. RORbeta2 shares common DNA- and putative ligand-binding domains with the canonical RORbeta (referred to as RORbeta1), but is characterized by a different amino-terminal domain. This structural difference renders RORbeta2 much more selectively binding to DNA than RORbeta1. Moreover, in contrast to RORbeta1, the novel isoform efficiently activates transcription also in non-neuronal cell lines. Thus, the two RORbeta isoforms are likely to regulate different sets of genes in different physiological contexts. 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. N-terminal SAP97 isoforms differentially regulate synaptic structure and postsynaptic surface pools of AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Lucy; Baddeley, David; Ambroziak, Wojciech; Waites, Clarissa L; Garner, Craig C; Soeller, Christian; Montgomery, Johanna M

    2017-02-28

    The location and density of postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors is controlled by scaffolding proteins within the postsynaptic density (PSD). SAP97 is a PSD protein with two N-terminal isoforms, α and β, that have opposing effects on synaptic strength thought to result from differential targeting of AMPA receptors into distinct synaptic versus extrasynaptic locations, respectively. In this study, we have applied dSTORM super resolution imaging in order to localize the synaptic and extrasynaptic pools of AMPA receptors in neurons expressing α or βSAP97. Unexpectedly, we observed that both α and βSAP97 enhanced the localization of AMPA receptors at synapses. However, this occurred via different mechanisms: αSAP97 increased PSD size and consequently the number of receptor binding sites, whilst βSAP97 increased synaptic receptor cluster size and surface AMPA receptor density at the PSD edge and surrounding perisynaptic sites without changing PSD size. αSAP97 also strongly enlarged presynaptic active zone protein clusters, consistent with both presynaptic and postsynaptic enhancement underlying the previously observed αSAP97-induced increase in AMPA receptor-mediated currents. In contrast, βSAP97-expressing neurons increased the proportion of immature filopodia that express higher levels of AMPA receptors, decreased the number of functional presynaptic terminals, and also reduced the size of the dendritic tree and delayed the maturation of mushroom spines. Our data reveal that SAP97 isoforms can specifically regulate surface AMPA receptor nanodomain clusters, with βSAP97 increasing extrasynaptic receptor domains at peri-synaptic and filopodial sites. Moreover, βSAP97 negatively regulates synaptic maturation both structurally and functionally. These data support diverging presynaptic and postsynaptic roles of SAP97 N-terminal isoforms in synapse maturation and plasticity. As numerous splice isoforms exist in

  12. TGF-β regulates isoform switching of FGF receptors and epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Shirakihara, Takuya; Horiguchi, Kana; Miyazawa, Keiji; Ehata, Shogo; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Morita, Ikuo; Miyazono, Kohei; Saitoh, Masao

    2011-01-01

    The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial event in wound healing, tissue repair, and cancer progression in adult tissues. Here, we demonstrate that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β induced EMT and that long-term exposure to TGF-β elicited the epithelial–myofibroblastic transition (EMyoT) by inactivating the MEK-Erk pathway. During the EMT process, TGF-β induced isoform switching of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors, causing the cells to become sensitive to FGF-2. Addition of FGF-2 to TGF-β-treated cells perturbed EMyoT by reactivating the MEK-Erk pathway and subsequently enhanced EMT through the formation of MEK-Erk-dependent complexes of the transcription factor δEF1/ZEB1 with the transcriptional corepressor CtBP1. Consequently, normal epithelial cells that have undergone EMT as a result of combined TGF-β and FGF-2 stimulation promoted the invasion of cancer cells. Thus, TGF-β and FGF-2 may cooperate with each other and may regulate EMT of various kinds of cells in cancer microenvironment during cancer progression. PMID:21224849

  13. FSH-Receptor Isoforms and FSH-dependent Gene Transcription in Human Monocytes and Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Lisa J; Tourkova, Irina; Wang, Yujuan; Sharrow, Allison C; Landau, Michael S; Yaroslavskiy, Beatrice B; Li, Sun; Zaidi, Mone; Blair, Harry C

    2010-01-01

    Cells of the monocyte series respond to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) by poorly characterized mechanisms. We studied FSH-receptors (FSH-R) and FSH response in nontransformed human monocytes and in osteoclasts differentiated from these cells. Western blot and PCR confirmed FSH-R expression on monocytes or osteoclasts, although at low levels relative to ovarian controls. Monocyte and osteoclast FSH-Rs differed from FSH-R from ovarian cells, reflecting variable splicing in exons 8–10. Monocytes produced no cAMP, the major signal in ovarian cells, in response to FSH. However, monocytes or osteoclasts transcribed TNFα in response to the FSH. No relation of expression of osteoclast FSH-R to the sex of cell donors or to exposure to sex hormones was apparent. Controls for FSH purity and endotoxin contamination were negative. Unamplified cRNA screening in adherent CD14 cells after 2 hours in 25 ng/ml FSH showed increased transcription of RANKL signalling proteins. Transcription of key proteins that stimulate bone turnover, TNFα and TSG-6, increased 2–3 fold after FSH treatment. Smaller but significant changes occurred in transcripts of selected signalling, adhesion, and cytoskeletal proteins. We conclude that monocyte and osteoclast FSH response diverges from that of ovarian cells, reflecting, at least in part, varying FSH-R isoforms. PMID:20171950

  14. Targeting of the Nuclear Receptor Coativator Isoform Delta 3aib1 in Breast Cancer. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    using a regulatable AIB1 directed ribozyme , resulted in reduced tumor growth in vivo. Overall, these data indicate a major role for AIB1 and its isoform...regulatable AIB1 directed ribozyme , resulted in reduced tumor growth in vivo. Overall, these data indicate a major role for AIB1 and its isoform ∆3AIB1 in

  15. Promoter hypermethylation of progesterone receptor isoform B (PR-B) in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Strawn, Estil; Basir, Zainab; Halverson, Gloria; Guo, Sun-Wei

    2006-01-01

    The physiological effects of progesterone (P) are mediated by two isoforms of progesterone receptors (PRs): PR-A and PR-B. Progestins have long been used in the treatment of endometriosis but unfortunately the relief of pain is relatively short-term. In addition, about nine percent of women with endometriosis simply do not respond to progestin therapy due to unknown reasons. In fact, a general tendency for relative progesterone resistance within eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with endometriosis and also the downregulation of PR-B, but not PR-A, in endometriosis have been noted. Since promoter hypermethylation is well-documented to be associated with transcriptional silencing, we sought to determine the methylation status of the PR-A and PR-B promoter regions in the epithelial component of endometriotic implants using a combination of laser capture microdissection (LCM), methylation specific PCR, and bisulfite sequencing. We found that the promoter region of PR-B, but not PR-A, is hypermethylated in endometriosis as compared with controls. In addition, the PR-B expression was significantly reduced in the ectopic endometrium. Our finding suggests that progesterone resistance in endometriosis in general and the down regulation of PR-B, but not PR-A, in particular, are a result of promoter hypermethylation of PR-B, but not PR-A. This, in conjunction with our reported aberrant methylation of HOXA10 in the eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis, strongly suggests that endometriosis is an epigenetic disease. This perspective should potentially open up new avenues for the delineation of pathogenesis of endometriosis, and might also lead to novel ways to treat the disease through reversing aberrant methylation via pharmacological means.

  16. The Paradoxical Signals of Two TrkC Receptor Isoforms Supports a Rationale for Novel Therapeutic Strategies in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Barcelona, Pablo F.; Galan, Alba; Aboulkassim, Tahar; Teske, Katrina; Rogers, Mary-Louise; Bertram, Lisa; Wang, Jing; Yousefi, Masoud; Rush, Robert; Fabian, Marc; Cashman, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Full length TrkC (TrkC-FL) is a receptor tyrosine kinase whose mRNA can be spliced to a truncated TrkC.T1 isoform lacking the kinase domain. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) activates TrkC-FL to maintain motor neuron health and function and TrkC.T1 to produce neurotoxic TNF-α; hence resulting in opposing pathways. In mouse and human ALS spinal cord, the reduction of miR-128 that destabilizes TrkC.T1 mRNA results in up-regulated TrkC.T1 and TNF-α in astrocytes. We exploited conformational differences to develop an agonistic mAb 2B7 that selectively activates TrkC-FL, to circumvent TrkC.T1 activation. In mouse ALS, 2B7 activates spinal cord TrkC-FL signals, improves spinal cord motor neuron phenotype and function, and significantly prolongs life-span. Our results elucidate biological paradoxes of receptor isoforms and their role in disease progression, validate the concept of selectively targeting conformational epitopes in naturally occurring isoforms, and may guide the development of pro-neuroprotective (TrkC-FL) and anti-neurotoxic (TrkC.T1) therapeutic strategies. PMID:27695040

  17. Cloning and characterization of glutamate receptor subunit 4 (GLUA4) and its alternatively spliced isoforms in turtle brain.

    PubMed

    Sabirzhanov, Boris; Keifer, Joyce

    2011-07-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors sensitive to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), GluAs, play an important role in neural development, synaptic plasticity, and neurodegeneration. Previous studies using an in vitro model of eyeblink classical conditioning in pond turtles suggested that acquisition of conditioning is associated with synaptic delivery of AMPA receptors containing GluA4 subunits. However, sequences of the GluA4 subunit, expression profile, and its alternatively spliced isoforms in turtle brain have not been previously determined. The sequence and domain structure of turtle GluA4 (tGluA4) and its splice variants was characterized. We found ten isoforms of tGluA4 including several previously unidentified truncated variants. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of tGluA4 flip/flop, tGluA4c flip/flop, and tGluA4s showed they are highly similar to known isoforms of the GluA4 subunit identified in chick. Examination of the relative abundance of mRNA expression for the tGluA4 variants showed that the flip and flop versions of tGluA4 and tGluA4c, and a novel truncated variant, tGluA4trc1, which is also expressed as protein, are major forms in the adult turtle brain. Identification of these alternatively spliced isoforms of tGluA4 will provide a unique opportunity to assess their role in synaptic plasticity through the application of short interfering RNAs.

  18. Estrogens Induce Expression of Membrane-Associated Estrogen Receptor α Isoforms in Lactotropes

    PubMed Central

    Zárate, Sandra; Jaita, Gabriela; Ferraris, Jimena; Eijo, Guadalupe; Magri, María L.; Pisera, Daniel; Seilicovich, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Estrogens are key to anterior pituitary function, stimulating hormone release and controlling cell fate to achieve pituitary dynamic adaptation to changing physiological conditions. In addition to their classical mechanism of action through intracellular estrogen receptors (ERs), estrogens exert rapid actions via cell membrane-localized ERs (mERs). We previously showed that E2 exerts a rapid pro-apoptotic action in anterior pituitary cells, especially in lactotropes and somatotropes, through activation of mERs. In the present study, we examined the involvement of mERα in the rapid pro-apoptotic action of estradiol by TUNEL in primary cultures of anterior pituitary cells from ovariectomized rats using a cell-impermeable E2 conjugate (E2-BSA) and an ERα selective antagonist (MPP dihydrochloride). We studied mERα expression during the estrous cycle and its regulation by gonadal steroids in vivo by flow cytometry. We identified ERα variants in the plasma membrane of anterior pituitary cells during the estrous cycle and studied E2 regulation of these mERα variants in vitro by surface biotinylation and Western Blot. E2-BSA-induced apoptosis was abrogated by MPP in total anterior pituitary cells and lactotropes. In cycling rats, we detected a higher number of lactotropes and a lower number of somatotropes expressing mERα at proestrus than at diestrus. Acute E2 treatment increased the percentage of mERα-expressing lactotropes whereas it decreased the percentage of mERα-expressing somatotropes. We detected three mERα isoforms of 66, 39 and 22 kDa. Expression of mERα66 and mERα39 was higher at proestrus than at diestrus, and short-term E2 incubation increased expression of these two mERα variants. Our results indicate that the rapid apoptotic action exerted by E2 in lactotropes depends on mERα, probably full-length ERα and/or a 39 kDa ERα variant. Expression and activation of mERα variants in lactotropes could be one of the mechanisms through which E2

  19. Distinct cellular and subcellular distributions of G protein-coupled receptor kinase and arrestin isoforms in the striatum.

    PubMed

    Bychkov, Evgeny; Zurkovsky, Lilia; Garret, Mika B; Ahmed, Mohamed R; Gurevich, Eugenia V

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and arrestins mediate desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Arrestins also mediate G protein-independent signaling via GPCRs. Since GRK and arrestins demonstrate no strict receptor specificity, their functions in the brain may depend on their cellular complement, expression level, and subcellular targeting. However, cellular expression and subcellular distribution of GRKs and arrestins in the brain is largely unknown. We show that GRK isoforms GRK2 and GRK5 are similarly expressed in direct and indirect pathway neurons in the rat striatum. Arrestin-2 and arrestin-3 are also expressed in neurons of both pathways. Cholinergic interneurons are enriched in GRK2, arrestin-3, and GRK5. Parvalbumin-positive interneurons express more of GRK2 and less of arrestin-2 than medium spiny neurons. The GRK5 subcellular distribution in the human striatal neurons is altered by its phosphorylation: unphosphorylated enzyme preferentially localizes to synaptic membranes, whereas phosphorylated GRK5 is found in plasma membrane and cytosolic fractions. Both GRK isoforms are abundant in the nucleus of human striatal neurons, whereas the proportion of both arrestins in the nucleus was equally low. However, overall higher expression of arrestin-2 yields high enough concentration in the nucleus to mediate nuclear functions. These data suggest cell type- and subcellular compartment-dependent differences in GRK/arrestin-mediated desensitization and signaling.

  20. Distinct Cellular and Subcellular Distributions of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase and Arrestin Isoforms in the Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Bychkov, Evgeny; Zurkovsky, Lilia; Garret, Mika B.; Ahmed, Mohamed R.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and arrestins mediate desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Arrestins also mediate G protein-independent signaling via GPCRs. Since GRK and arrestins demonstrate no strict receptor specificity, their functions in the brain may depend on their cellular complement, expression level, and subcellular targeting. However, cellular expression and subcellular distribution of GRKs and arrestins in the brain is largely unknown. We show that GRK isoforms GRK2 and GRK5 are similarly expressed in direct and indirect pathway neurons in the rat striatum. Arrestin-2 and arrestin-3 are also expressed in neurons of both pathways. Cholinergic interneurons are enriched in GRK2, arrestin-3, and GRK5. Parvalbumin-positive interneurons express more of GRK2 and less of arrestin-2 than medium spiny neurons. The GRK5 subcellular distribution in the human striatal neurons is altered by its phosphorylation: unphosphorylated enzyme preferentially localizes to synaptic membranes, whereas phosphorylated GRK5 is found in plasma membrane and cytosolic fractions. Both GRK isoforms are abundant in the nucleus of human striatal neurons, whereas the proportion of both arrestins in the nucleus was equally low. However, overall higher expression of arrestin-2 yields high enough concentration in the nucleus to mediate nuclear functions. These data suggest cell type- and subcellular compartment-dependent differences in GRK/arrestin-mediated desensitization and signaling. PMID:23139825

  1. Hepatic Farnesoid X-Receptor Isoforms α2 and α4 Differentially Modulate Bile Salt and Lipoprotein Metabolism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boesjes, Marije; Bloks, Vincent W.; Hageman, Jurre; Bos, Trijnie; van Dijk, Theo H.; Havinga, Rick; Wolters, Henk; Jonker, Johan W.; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear receptor FXR acts as an intracellular bile salt sensor that regulates synthesis and transport of bile salts within their enterohepatic circulation. In addition, FXR is involved in control of a variety of crucial metabolic pathways. Four FXR splice variants are known, i.e. FXRα1-4. Although these isoforms show differences in spatial and temporal expression patterns as well as in transcriptional activity, the physiological relevance hereof has remained elusive. We have evaluated specific roles of hepatic FXRα2 and FXRα4 by stably expressing these isoforms using liver-specific self-complementary adeno-associated viral vectors in total body FXR knock-out mice. The hepatic gene expression profile of the FXR knock-out mice was largely normalized by both isoforms. Yet, differential effects were also apparent; FXRα2 was more effective in reducing elevated HDL levels and transrepressed hepatic expression of Cyp8b1, the regulator of cholate synthesis. The latter coincided with a switch in hydrophobicity of the bile salt pool. Furthermore, FXRα2-transduction caused an increased neutral sterol excretion compared to FXRα4 without affecting intestinal cholesterol absorption. Our data show, for the first time, that hepatic FXRα2 and FXRα4 differentially modulate bile salt and lipoprotein metabolism in mice. PMID:25506828

  2. Expression of eight glucocorticoid receptor isoforms in the human preterm placenta vary with fetal sex and birthweight

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Z.; Hodyl, N.A.; Stark, M.J.; Fuller, P.J.; Cole, T.; Lu, N.; Clifton, V.L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Administration of betamethasone to women at risk of preterm delivery is known to be associated with reduced fetal growth via alterations in placental function and possibly direct effects on the fetus. The placental glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is central to this response and recent evidence suggests there are numerous isoforms for GR in term placentae. In this study we have questioned whether GR isoform expression varies in preterm placentae in relation to betamethasone exposure, fetal sex and birthweight. Methods Preterm (24–36 completed weeks of gestation, n = 55) and term placentae (>37 completed weeks of gestation, n = 56) were collected at delivery. Placental GR expression was examined using Western Blot and analysed in relation to gestational age at delivery, fetal sex, birthweight and beta-methasone exposure. Data was analysed using non-parametric tests. Results Eight known isoforms of the GR were detected in the preterm placenta and include GRα (94 kDa), GRβ (91 kDa), GRα C (81 kDa) GR P (74 kDa) GR A (65 kDa), GRα D1–3 (50–55 kDa). Expression varied between preterm and term placentae with a greater expression of GRα C in preterm placentae relative to term placentae. The only sex differences in preterm placentae was that GRα D2 expression was higher in males than females. There were no alterations in preterm placental GR expression in association with betamethasone exposure. Discussion GRα C is the isoform involved in glucocorticoid induced apoptosis and suggests that its predominance in preterm placentae may contribute to the pathophysiology of preterm birth. PMID:25990415

  3. Intracellular calcium homeostasis in human primary muscle cells from malignant hyperthermia-susceptible and normal individuals. Effect Of overexpression of recombinant wild-type and Arg163Cys mutated ryanodine receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Censier, K; Urwyler, A; Zorzato, F; Treves, S

    1998-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a hypermetabolic disease triggered by volatile anesthetics and succinylcholine in genetically predisposed individuals. Nine point mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR) gene have so far been identified and shown to correlate with the MH-susceptible phenotype, yet direct evidence linking abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis to mutations in the RYR1 cDNA has been obtained for few mutations. In this report, we show for the first time that cultured human skeletal muscle cells derived from MH-susceptible individuals exhibit a half-maximal halothane concentration causing an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration which is twofold lower than that of cells derived from MH-negative individuals. We also present evidence demonstrating that overexpression of wild-type RYR1 in cells obtained from MH-susceptible individuals does not restore the MH-negative phenotype, as far as Ca2+ transients elicited by halothane are concerned; on the other hand, overexpression of a mutated RYR1 Arg163Cys Ca2+ channel in muscle cells obtained from MH-negative individuals conveys hypersensitivity to halothane. Finally, our results show that the resting Ca2+ concentration of cultured skeletal muscle cells from MH-negative and MH-susceptible individuals is not significantly different. PMID:9502764

  4. Ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) possessing malignant hyperthermia mutation R615C exhibits heightened sensitivity to dysregulation by non-coplanar 2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95).

    PubMed

    Ta, Tram Anh; Pessah, Isaac N

    2007-07-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptibility is conferred by inheriting one of >60 missense mutations within the highly regulated microsomal Ca(2+) channel known as ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). Although MH susceptible patients lack overt clinical signs, a potentially lethal MH syndrome can be triggered by exposure to halogenated alkane anesthetics. This study compares how non-coplanar 2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95), a congener identified in environmental and human samples, alters the binding properties of [(3)H]ryanodine to RyR1 in vitro. Junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was isolated from skeletal muscle dissected from wild type pigs ((Wt)RyR1) and pigs homozygous for MH mutation R615C ((MH)RyR1), a mutation also found in humans. Although the level of (Wt)RyR1 and (MH)RyR1 expression is the same, (MH)RyR1 shows heightened sensitivity to activation and altered regulation by physiological cations. We report here that (MH)RyR1 shows more pronounced activation by Ca(2+), and is less sensitive to channel inhibition by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), compared to (Wt)RyR1. In a buffer containing 100nM free Ca(2+), conditions typically found in resting cells, PCB 95 (50-1000nM) enhances the activity of (MH)RyR1 whereas it has no detectable effect on (Wt)RyR1. PCB 95 (2microM) decreases channel inhibition by Mg(2+) to a greater extent in (MH)RyR1 (IC(50) increased nine-fold) compared to (Wt)RyR1 (IC(50) increased by 2.5-fold). PCB95 reduces inhibition by Ca(2+) two-fold more with (MH)RyR1 than (Wt)RyR1. Our data suggest that non-coplanar PCBs are more potent and efficacious toward (MH)RyR1 than (Wt)RyR1, and have more profound effects on its cation regulation. Considering the important roles of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in regulating Ca(2+) signals involving RyR channels, these data provide the first mechanistic evidence that a genetic mutation known to confer susceptibility to pharmacological agents also enhances sensitivity to an environmental contaminant.

  5. Receptor to glutamate NMDA-type: the functional diversity of the nr1 isoforms and pharmacological properties.

    PubMed

    Flores-Soto, Mario Eduardo; Chaparro-Huerta, Verónica; Escoto-Delgadillo, Martha; Ureña-Guerrero, Mónica Elisa; Camins, Antoni; Beas-Zarate, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and interacts with two classes of receptor: metabotropic and ionotropic receptors. Ionotropic receptors are divided according to the affinity of their specific agonists: Nmethyl- D-aspartate (NMDA), amino acid-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole acid (AMPA) and kainic acid (KA). NMDA receptors (NMDA-R) are macromolecular structures that are formed by different combinations of subunits: NMDAR1 (NR1), NMDAR2 (NR2) and NMDAR3 (NR3). The study of this receptor has aroused great interest, partly due to its role in synaptic plasticity but mainly because of its permeability to the Ca(2+) ion. This review examines the molecular composition of NMDA-R and the variants of NR1 subunit editing in association with NR2 subunit dimers, which form the main components of this receptor. Their composition, structure, function and distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns demonstrate the versatility and diversity of functionally different isoforms of NR1 subunits and the various pharmacological properties of the NR2 subunit. Finally, the involvement of NMDA-R in the excitotoxicity phenomenon, as well as, its expression changes under these conditions as neuronal response are also discussed.

  6. Melanoma cells produce multiple laminin isoforms and strongly migrate on α5 laminin(s) via several integrin receptors.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Yuko; Hansson, Johan; Sasaki, Takako; Rousselle, Patricia; Domogatskaya, Anna; Rodin, Sergey; Tryggvason, Karl; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2011-05-01

    Melanoma cells express and interact with laminins (LMs) and other basement membrane components during invasion and metastasis. In the present study we have investigated the production and migration-promoting activity of laminin isoforms in melanoma. Immunohistochemistry of melanoma specimens and immunoprecipitation/western blotting of melanoma cell lines indicated expression of laminin-111/121, laminin-211, laminin-411/421, and laminin-511/521. Laminin-332 was not detected. In functional assays, laminin-111, laminin-332, and laminin-511, but not laminin-211 and laminin-411, strongly promoted haptotactic cell migration either constitutively or following stimulation with insulin-like growth factors. Both placenta and recombinant laminin-511 preparations were highly active, and the isolated recombinant IVa domain of LMα5 also promoted cell migration. Function-blocking antibodies in cell migration assays revealed α6β1 integrin as the major receptor for laminin-111, and both α3β1 and α6β1 integrins for laminin-332 and laminin-511. In contrast, isolated LMα5 IVa domain-promoted melanoma cell migration was largely mediated via αVβ3 integrin and inhibited by RGD peptides. Given the ubiquitous expression of α5 laminins in melanoma cells and in melanoma-target tissues/anatomical structures, as well as the strong migration-promoting activity of these laminin isoforms, the α5 laminins emerge as putative primary extracellular matrix mediators of melanoma invasion and metastasis via α3β1 and other integrin receptors.

  7. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

  8. An α-helical C-terminal tail segment of the skeletal L-type Ca2+ channel β1a subunit activates ryanodine receptor type 1 via a hydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Karunasekara, Yamuna; Rebbeck, Robyn T; Weaver, Llara M; Board, Philip G; Dulhunty, Angela F; Casarotto, Marco G

    2012-12-01

    Excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in skeletal muscle depends on protein interactions between the transverse tubule dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) voltage sensor and intracellular ryanodine receptor (RyR1) calcium release channel. We present novel data showing that the C-terminal 35 residues of the β(1a) subunit adopt a nascent α-helix in which 3 hydrophobic residues align to form a hydrophobic surface that binds to RyR1 isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle. Mutation of the hydrophobic residues (L496, L500, W503) in peptide β(1a)V490-M524, corresponding to the C-terminal 35 residues of β(1a), reduced peptide binding to RyR1 to 15.2 ± 7.1% and prevented the 2.9 ± 0.2-fold activation of RyR1 by 10 nM wild-type peptide. An upstream hydrophobic heptad repeat implicated in β(1a) binding to RyR1 does not contribute to RyR1 activation. Wild-type β(1a)A474-A508 peptide (10 nM), containing heptad repeat and hydrophobic surface residues, increased RyR1 activity by 2.3 ± 0.2- and 2.2 ± 0.3-fold after mutation of the heptad repeat residues. We conclude that specific hydrophobic surface residues in the 35 residue β(1a) C-terminus bind to RyR1 and increase channel activity in lipid bilayers and thus may support skeletal EC coupling.

  9. Cloning and identification of a novel thyroid hormone receptor β isoform expressed in the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rong-Lan; Sun, Bei; Liu, Ying; Li, Jing-Hua; Xiong, Wei-Li; Liang, Dong-Chun; Guo, Gang; Zuo, Ai-Jun; Zhang, Jing-Yu

    2014-04-01

    We have previously identified a novel Trβ isoform (TrβΔ) in the rat, in which a novel exon N (108 bps) was found between exon 3 and exon 4 of TrβΔ, which represents the only difference between TrβΔ and Trβ1. In this study, we searched for an elongated Trβ2-like subtype with one additional exon N. We successfully isolated the entire mRNA/cDNA of a novel elongated Trβ2 isoform via PCR in the rat pituitary gland. The mRNA/cDNA was only 108 bps (exon N) longer than that Trβ2, and the extension of the sequence was between exon 3 and 4 of Trβ. The whole sequence of this novel Trβ isoform has been published in NCBI GenBank (HM043807.1); it is named TRbeta2Delta (Trβ2Δ). In adult rat pituitary tissue, quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of Trβ2Δ and Trβ2 were roughly equal (P > 0.05). We cloned, expressed, and purified the His-Trβ2Δ protein [recombinant TRβ2Δ (rTRβ2Δ)]. SDS-PAGE and western blotting revealed that the molecular weight of rTRβ2Δ was 58.2 kDa. Using a radioligand binding assay and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, rTRβ2Δ-bound T3 with high affinity and recognized thyroid hormone response element (TRE) binding sites. Finally, in vitro transfection experiments further confirmed that rTRβ2Δ binding T3 significantly promotes the transcription of target genes via the TRE. Here, we have provided evidence suggesting that rTRβ2Δ is a novel functional TR isoform.

  10. Calcium/calmodulin‐dependent kinase II and nitric oxide synthase 1‐dependent modulation of ryanodine receptors during β‐adrenergic stimulation is restricted to the dyadic cleft

    PubMed Central

    Dries, Eef; Santiago, Demetrio J.; Johnson, Daniel M.; Gilbert, Guillaume; Holemans, Patricia; Korte, Sanne M.; Roderick, H. Llewelyn

    2016-01-01

    Key points The dyadic cleft, where coupled ryanodine receptors (RyRs) reside, is thought to serve as a microdomain for local signalling, as supported by distinct modulation of coupled RyRs dependent on Ca2+/calmodulin‐dependent kinase II (CaMKII) activation during high‐frequency stimulation.Sympathetic stimulation through β‐adrenergic receptors activates an integrated signalling cascade, enhancing Ca2+ cycling and is at least partially mediated through CaMKII.Here we report that CaMKII activation during β‐adrenergic signalling is restricted to the dyadic cleft, where it enhances activity of coupled RyRs thereby contributing to the increase in diastolic events. Nitric oxide synthase 1 equally participates in the local modulation of coupled RyRs.In contrast, the increase in the Ca2+ content of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and related increase in the amplitude of the Ca2+ transient are primarily protein kinase A‐dependent.The present data extend the concept of microdomain signalling in the dyadic cleft and give perspectives for selective modulation of RyR subpopulations and diastolic events. Abstract In cardiac myocytes, β‐adrenergic stimulation enhances Ca2+ cycling through an integrated signalling cascade modulating L‐type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs), phospholamban and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Ca2+/calmodulin‐dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) are proposed as prime mediators for increasing RyR open probability. We investigate whether this pathway is confined to the high Ca2+ microdomain of the dyadic cleft and thus to coupled RyRs. Pig ventricular myocytes are studied under whole‐cell voltage‐clamp and confocal line‐scan imaging with Fluo‐4 as a [Ca2+]i indicator. Following conditioning depolarizing pulses, spontaneous RyR activity is recorded as Ca2+ sparks, which are assigned to coupled and non‐coupled RyR clusters. Isoproterenol (ISO) (10 nm) increases Ca2+ spark frequency in both populations of RyRs. However

  11. Molecular cloning and expression of prostaglandin F2α receptor isoforms during ovulation in the ovarian follicles of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiming; Su, Xiurong; Li, Taiwu; Pan, Daodong; Sena, Johnny; Dhillon, Jasvinder

    2010-11-01

    Prostaglandins F2α levels increase during ovulatory period in Xenopus laevis in response to stimulation by gonadotropins and progesterone. PGF2α exerts its effects on ovulation through interaction with its receptor (FP) in ovaries. Little is known about the characteristics of the FP receptor and its regulation during the ovulatory period in non-mammalian species. In the present study, two isoforms of prostaglandin F receptor (FP A and B) cDNAs were isolated from Xenopus laevis ovarian tissues using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNAs of FP A and FP B were sequenced. In Xenopus laevis ovary, FP A and B mRNA levels were up-regulated during gonadotropin- and progresterone-induced ovulation in vitro. The mRNA level of FP B was higher than that of FP A. Moreover, FP A and FP B mRNA levels were measured in various tissues including eye, liver, lungs, heart, muscle, ovary, and skin. Overall, FP B mRNA level was approximately 10- to 100-fold higher than that of FP A, except in the muscle and skin where FP A mRNA level was comparable to that of FP B. The results suggest that in Xenopus ovarian follicles FP receptors play an important role during gonadotropin- and progesterone-induced ovulation.

  12. Bile Salt Export Pump is Dysregulated with Altered Farnesoid X Receptor Isoform Expression in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Song, Xiulong; Valanejad, Leila; Vasilenko, Alexander; More, Vijay; Qiu, Xi; Chen, Weikang; Lai, Yurong; Slitt, Angela; Stoner, Matthew; Yan, Bingfang; Deng, Ruitang

    2012-01-01

    As a canalicular bile acid effluxer, bile salt export pump (BSEP) plays a vital role in maintaining bile acid homeostasis. BSEP deficiency leads to severe cholestasis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in young children. Regardless of the etiology, chronic inflammation is the common pathological process for HCC development. Clinical studies showed that bile acid homeostasis is disrupted in HCC patients with elevated serum bile acid level as a proposed marker for HCC. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that BSEP expression was severely diminished in HCC tissues and markedly reduced in adjacent non-tumor tissues. In contrast to mouse, human BSEP was regulated by farnesoid x receptor (FXR) in an isoform-dependent manner. FXRα2 exhibited a much more potent activity than FXRα1 in transactivating human BSEP in vitro and in vivo. The decreased BSEP expression in HCC was associated with altered relative expression of FXRα1 and FXRα2. The FXRα1/FXRα2 ratios were significantly increased with undetectable FXRα2 expression in one third of the HCC tumor samples. Similar correlation between BSEP and FXR isoform expression was confirmed in hepatoma Huh 7 and HepG2 cells. Further studies showed that intrahepatic proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were significantly elevated in HCC tissues. Treatment of Huh 7 cells with IL-6 and TNF-α resulted in a marked increase in the FXRα1/FXRα2 ratio concurrent with a significant decrease in BSEP expression. In conclusion, BSEP expression was severely diminished in HCC patients associated with alteration of FXR isoform expression induced by inflammation, and the restoration of BSEP expression through suppressing inflammation in the liver may re-establish the bile acid homeostasis. PMID:23213087

  13. Differences in the C-terminus contribute to variations in trafficking between rat and human 5-HT(2A) receptor isoforms: identification of a primate-specific tripeptide ASK motif that confers GRK-2 and beta arrestin-2 interactions.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Aditi; Sankar, Shobhana; Panicker, Mitradas M

    2010-02-01

    Internalization and recycling of G-protein coupled receptors are important cellular processes regulating receptor function. These are receptor-subtype and cell type-specific. Although important, trafficking variations between receptor isoforms of different species has received limited attention. We report here, differences in internalization and recycling between rat and human serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) isoforms expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells in response to serotonin. Although the human and rat 5-HT(2A)Rs differ by only a few amino acids, the human receptor takes longer to recycle to the cell surface after internalization, with the additional involvement of beta arrestin-2 and G-protein receptor kinase 2. The interaction of beta arrestin-2 with the human receptor causes the delay in recycling and is dependent on a primate-specific ASK motif present in the C-terminus of the receptor. Conversion of this motif to NCT, the corresponding sequence present in the rat isoform, results in the human isoform trafficking like the rat receptor. Replacing the serine 457 with alanine in the ASK motif of human isoform resulted in faster recycling, although with continued arrestin-dependent internalization. This study establishes significant differences between the two isoforms with important implications in our understanding of the human 5-HT(2A)R functions; and indicates that extrapolating results from non-human receptor isoforms to human subtypes is not without caveats.

  14. Species differences in cannabinoid receptor 2 (CNR2 gene): identification of novel human and rodent CB2 isoforms, differential tissue expression, and regulation by cannabinoid receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing-Rong; Pan, Chun-Hung; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Li, Chuan-Yun; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Ishiguro, Hiroki; Arinami, Tadao; Onaivi, Emmanuel Shan; Uhl, George R.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabinoids, endocannabinoids and marijuana activate two well-characterized cannabinoid receptors (CBRs), CB1-Rs and CB2-Rs. The expression of CB1-Rs in the brain and periphery has been well studied but neuronal CB2-Rs have received much less attention than CB1-Rs. Many studies have now identified and characterized functional glial and neuronal CB2-Rs in the central nervous system. However, many features of CB2-R gene structure, regulation and variation remain poorly characterized in comparison to the CB1-R. Here, we report on the discovery of a novel human CB2 gene promoter encoding testis (CB2A) isoform with starting exon located ca 45 kb upstream from the previously identified promoter encoding the spleen isoform (CB2B). The 5′ exons of both CB2 isoforms are untranslated 5′UTRs and alternatively spliced to the major protein coding exon of the CB2 gene. CB2A is expressed higher in testis and brain than CB2B that is expressed higher in other peripheral tissues than CB2A. Species comparison found that the CB2 gene of human, rat and mouse genomes deviated in their gene structures and isoform expression patterns. mCB2A expression was increased significantly in the cerebellum of mice treated with the CB-R mixed agonist, WIN55212-2. These results provide much improved information about CB2 gene structure and its human and rodent variants that should be considered in developing CB2-R-based therapeutic agents. PMID:19496827

  15. Role for the thromboxane A2 receptor β-isoform in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Katie L.; Stevens, Veronica; Upton, Dannielle H.; McCracken, Sharon A.; Simpson, Ann M.; Cheng, Yan; Tasevski, Vitomir; Morris, Jonathan M.; Ashton, Anthony W.

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathology of pregnancy that results in failure of the fetus to reach its genetically determined growth potential. In developed nations the most common cause of IUGR is impaired placentation resulting from poor trophoblast function, which reduces blood flow to the fetoplacental unit, promotes hypoxia and enhances production of bioactive lipids (TXA2 and isoprostanes) which act through the thromboxane receptor (TP). TP activation has been implicated as a pathogenic factor in pregnancy complications, including IUGR; however, the role of TP isoforms during pregnancy is poorly defined. We have determined that expression of the human-specific isoform of TP (TPβ) is increased in placentae from IUGR pregnancies, compared to healthy pregnancies. Overexpression of TPα enhanced trophoblast proliferation and syncytialisation. Conversely, TPβ attenuated these functions and inhibited migration. Expression of the TPβ transgene in mice resulted in growth restricted pups and placentae with poor syncytialisation and diminished growth characteristics. Together our data indicate that expression of TPα mediates normal placentation; however, TPβ impairs placentation, and promotes the development of IUGR, and represents an underappreciated pathogenic factor in humans. PMID:27363493

  16. Dystrophin Threshold Level Necessary for Normalization of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase, Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase, and Ryanodine Receptor-Calcium Release Channel Type 1 Nitrosylation in Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy Dystrophinopathy.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Christel; Le Guiner, Caroline; Falcone, Sestina; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Peccate, Cécile; Lorain, Stéphanie; Benkhelifa-Ziyyat, Sofia; Guigand, Lydie; Montus, Marie; Servais, Laurent; Voit, Thomas; Piétri-Rouxel, France

    2016-09-01

    At present, the clinically most advanced strategy to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the exon-skipping strategy. Whereas antisense oligonucleotide-based clinical trials are underway for DMD, it is essential to determine the dystrophin restoration threshold needed to ensure improvement of muscle physiology at the molecular level. A preclinical trial has been conducted in golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs treated in a forelimb by locoregional delivery of rAAV8-U7snRNA to promote exon skipping on the canine dystrophin messenger. Here, we exploited rAAV8-U7snRNA-transduced GRMD muscle samples, well characterized for their percentage of dystrophin-positive fibers, with the aim of defining the threshold of dystrophin rescue necessary for normalization of the status of neuronal nitric oxide synthase mu (nNOSμ), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and ryanodine receptor-calcium release channel type 1 (RyR1), crucial actors for efficient contractile function. Results showed that restoration of dystrophin in 40% of muscle fibers is needed to decrease abnormal cytosolic nNOSμ expression and to reduce overexpression of iNOS, these two parameters leading to a reduction in the NO level in the muscle fibers. Furthermore, the same percentage of dystrophin-positive fibers of 40% was associated with the normalization of RyR1 nitrosylation status and with stabilization of the RyR1-calstabin1 complex that is required to facilitate coupled gating. We concluded that a minimal threshold of 40% of dystrophin-positive fibers is necessary for the reinstatement of central proteins needed for proper muscle contractile function, and thus identified a rate of dystrophin expression significantly improving, at the molecular level, the dystrophic muscle physiology.

  17. SMRT isoforms mediate repression and anti-repression of nuclear receptor heterodimers.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J D; Umesono, K; Evans, R M

    1996-01-01

    Transcriptional repression represents an important component in the regulation of cell differentiation and oncogenesis mediated by nuclear hormone receptors. Hormones act to relieve repression, thus allowing receptors to function as transcriptional activators. The transcriptional corepressor SMRT was identified as a silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors. SMRT is highly related to another corepressor, N-CoR, suggesting the existence of a new family of receptor-interacting proteins. We demonstrate that SMRT is a ubiquitous nuclear protein that interacts with unliganded receptor heterodimers in mammalian cells. Furthermore, expression of the receptor-interacting domain of SMRT acts as an antirepressor, suggesting the potential importance of splicing variants as modulators of thyroid hormone and retinoic acid signaling. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8755515

  18. Retinoic acid receptor α1 variants, RARα1ΔB and RARα1ΔBC, define a new class of nuclear receptor isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Parrado, Antonio; Despouy, Gilles; Kraïba, Radhia; Pogam, Carole Le; Dupas, Stéphane; Choquette, Maryline; Robledo, Macarena; Larghero, Jérôme; Bui, Hung; Gall, Isabelle Le; Rochette-Egly, Cécile; Chomienne, Christine; Padua, Rose Ann

    2001-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) binds and activates retinoid X receptor (RXR)/retinoic acid receptor (RAR) heterodimers, which regulate the transcription of genes that have retinoic acid response elements (RARE). The RAR isotypes (α, β and γ) are comprised of six regions designated A–F. Two isoforms of RARα, 1 and 2, have been identified in humans, which have different A regions generated by differential promoter usage and alternative splicing. We have isolated two new splice variants of RARα1 from human B lymphocytes. In one of these variants, exon 2 is juxtaposed to exon 5, resulting in an altered reading frame and a stop codon. This variant, designated RARα1ΔB, does not code for a functional receptor. In the second variant, exon 2 is juxtaposed to exon 6, maintaining the reading frame. This isoform, designated RARα1ΔBC, retains most of the functional domains of RARα1, but omits the transactivation domain AF-1 and the DNA-binding domain. Consequently, it does not bind nor transactivate RARE on its own. Nevertheless, RARα1ΔBC interacts with RXRα and, as an RXRα/RARα1ΔBC heterodimer, transactivates the DR5 RARE upon all-trans-RA binding. The use of RAR- and RXR-specific ligands shows that, whereas transactivation of the DR5 RARE through the RXRα/RARα1 heterodimer is mediated only by RAR ligands, transactivation through the RXRα/RARα1ΔBC heterodimer is mediated by RAR and RXR ligands. Whilst RARα1 has a broad tissue distribution, RARα1ΔBC has a more heterogeneous distribution, but with significant expression in myeloid cells. RARα1ΔBC is an infrequent example of a functional nuclear receptor which deletes the DNA-binding domain. PMID:11812818

  19. Expression of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms down-regulated by thyroid hormone in human medulloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Monden, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Yasuyo; Hashida, Tetsu; Ishii, Sumiyasu; Tomaru, Takuya; Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Koshi; Satoh, Teturou; Yamada, Masanobu; Mori, Masatomo; Kasai, Kikuo

    2006-04-01

    The role of thyroid hormone (T3) in the regulation of growth and development of the central nervous system including the cerebellum has been well established. However, the effects of thyroid hormone on malignant tumors derived from the cerebellum remain poorly understood. Our analysis mainly focused on expression levels of TR isoforms and the effects of thyroid hormone in human medulloblastoma HTB-185 cells. Northern blot analysis revealed TRalpha2 mRNA but not TRalpha1, beta1 or beta2 mRNA in the cell. The TRalpha1 and TRbeta1 mRNAs were detected only by RT-PCR method and TRbeta2 was not expressed. Incubation of T3 for 24 h decreased TRalpha1, TRalpha2 and TRbeta1 mRNA. Addition of actinomycin D caused an acute increase in the basal TR mRNA levels and the rate of decrease of all kinds of TR isoform mRNA was accelerated in the T3-treated groups compared to controls, indicating that the stability of TR mRNA was affected by T3. Incubation with cycloheximide also blocked a decrease in TR mRNA levels in the T3-treated HTB-185 cells suggesting that down-regulation of TR mRNA required the synthesis of new protein. Our data provide novel evidence for the expression of TRs down-regulated by T3 in HTB-185 cells, suggesting that TR expression is post-transcriptionally regulated by T3 at the level of RNA stability.

  20. Isoform-specific Binding of Selenoprotein P to the β-Propeller Domain of Apolipoprotein E Receptor 2 Mediates Selenium Supply*

    PubMed Central

    Kurokawa, Suguru; Bellinger, Frederick P.; Hill, Kristina E.; Burk, Raymond F.; Berry, Marla J.

    2014-01-01

    Sepp1 supplies selenium to tissues via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Mice, rats, and humans have 10 selenocysteines in Sepp1, which are incorporated via recoding of the stop codon, UGA. Four isoforms of rat Sepp1 have been identified, including full-length Sepp1 and three others, which terminate at the second, third, and seventh UGA codons. Previous studies have shown that the longer Sepp1 isoforms bind to the low density lipoprotein receptor apoER2, but the mechanism remains unclear. To identify the essential residues for apoER2 binding, an in vitro Sepp1 binding assay was developed using different Sec to Cys substituted variants of Sepp1 produced in HEK293T cells. ApoER2 was found to bind the two longest isoforms. These results suggest that Sepp1 isoforms with six or more selenocysteines are taken up by apoER2. Furthermore, the C-terminal domain of Sepp1 alone can bind to apoER2. These results indicate that apoER2 binds to the Sepp1 C-terminal domain and does not require the heparin-binding site, which is located in the N-terminal domain. Site-directed mutagenesis identified three residues of Sepp1 that are necessary for apoER2 binding. Sequential deletion of extracellular domains of apoER2 surprisingly identified the YWTD β-propeller domain as the Sepp1 binding site. Finally, we show that apoER2 missing the ligand-binding repeat region, which can result from cleavage at a furin cleavage site present in some apoER2 isoforms, can act as a receptor for Sepp1. Thus, longer isoforms of Sepp1 with high selenium content interact with a binding site distinct from the ligand-binding domain of apoER2 for selenium delivery. PMID:24532792

  1. Insulin and Insulin-like Growth Factor II Differentially Regulate Endocytic Sorting and Stability of Insulin Receptor Isoform A*

    PubMed Central

    Morcavallo, Alaide; Genua, Marco; Palummo, Angela; Kletvikova, Emilia; Jiracek, Jiri; Brzozowski, Andrzej M.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Belfiore, Antonino; Morrione, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The insulin receptor isoform A (IR-A) binds both insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II, although the affinity for IGF-II is 3–10-fold lower than insulin depending on a cell and tissue context. Notably, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking the IGF-IR and expressing solely the IR-A (R−/IR-A), IGF-II is a more potent mitogen than insulin. As receptor endocytosis and degradation provide spatial and temporal regulation of signaling events, we hypothesized that insulin and IGF-II could affect IR-A biological responses by differentially regulating IR-A trafficking. Using R−/IR-A cells, we discovered that insulin evoked significant IR-A internalization, a process modestly affected by IGF-II. However, the differential internalization was not due to IR-A ubiquitination. Notably, prolonged stimulation of R−/IR-A cells with insulin, but not with IGF-II, targeted the receptor to a degradative pathway. Similarly, the docking protein insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) was down-regulated after prolonged insulin but not IGF-II exposure. Similar results were also obtained in experiments using [NMeTyrB26]-insulin, an insulin analog with IR-A binding affinity similar to IGF-II. Finally, we discovered that IR-A was internalized through clathrin-dependent and -independent pathways, which differentially regulated the activation of downstream effectors. Collectively, our results suggest that a lower affinity of IGF-II for the IR-A promotes lower IR-A phosphorylation and activation of early downstream effectors vis à vis insulin but may protect IR-A and IRS-1 from down-regulation thereby evoking sustained and robust mitogenic stimuli. PMID:22318726

  2. Isoform switching of steroid receptor co-activator-1 attenuates glucocorticoid-induced anxiogenic amygdala CRH expression.

    PubMed

    Zalachoras, I; Verhoeve, S L; Toonen, L J; van Weert, L T C M; van Vlodrop, A M; Mol, I M; Meelis, W; de Kloet, E R; Meijer, O C

    2016-12-01

    Maladaptive glucocorticoid effects contribute to stress-related psychopathology. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that mediates many of these effects uses multiple signaling pathways. We have tested the hypothesis that manipulation of downstream factors ('coregulators') can abrogate potentially maladaptive GR-mediated effects on fear-motivated behavior that are linked to corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). For this purpose the expression ratio of two splice variants of steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) was altered via antisense-mediated 'exon-skipping' in the central amygdala of the mouse brain. We observed that a change in splicing towards the repressive isoform SRC-1a strongly reduced glucocorticoid-induced responsiveness of Crh mRNA expression and increased methylation of the Crh promoter. The transcriptional GR target gene Fkbp5 remained responsive to glucocorticoids, indicating gene specificity of the effect. The shift of the SRC-1 splice variants altered glucocorticoid-dependent exploratory behavior and attenuated consolidation of contextual fear memory. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that manipulation of GR signaling pathways related to the Crh gene can selectively diminish potentially maladaptive effects of glucocorticoids.

  3. Glucocorticoid receptor isoforms direct distinct mitochondrial programs to regulate ATP production

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, David J.; Poolman, Toryn M.; Williamson, Andrew J. K.; Wang, Zichen; Clark, Neil R.; Ma’ayan, Avi; Whetton, Anthony D.; Brass, Andrew; Matthews, Laura C.; Ray, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a nuclear receptor and major drug target, has a highly conserved minor splice variant, GRγ, which differs by a single arginine within the DNA binding domain. GRγ, which comprises 10% of all GR transcripts, is constitutively expressed and tightly conserved through mammalian evolution, suggesting an important non-redundant role. However, to date no specific role for GRγ has been reported. We discovered significant differences in subcellular localisation, and nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling in response to ligand. In addition the GRγ transcriptome and protein interactome was distinct, and with a gene ontology signal for mitochondrial regulation which was confirmed using Seahorse technology. We propose that evolutionary conservation of the single additional arginine in GRγ is driven by a distinct, non-redundant functional profile, including regulation of mitochondrial function. PMID:27226058

  4. Fluorescent Protein–Labeled Glucocorticoid Receptor alpha Isoform Trafficking in Cultured Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dibas, Adnan; Jiang, Ming; Fudala, Rafal; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Clark, Abbot F.; Yorio, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize the roles of the cytoskeleton and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) in steroid-induced glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GRα) translocation in cultured human trabecular meshwork cells. Methods. Stably transfected red fluorescent protein (RFP)-GRα NTM5 cell lines were developed. Nuclear localization of RFP-GRα in NTM5 cells treated with vehicle (ethanol), dexamethasone (DEX), or RU486 was measured in cytosolic and nuclear fractions by western blotting and laser confocal microscopy. Cytochalasin D, colchicine, and 17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG, an HSP90 inhibitor), were tested for their abilities to affect GRα trafficking. Nuclear export of RFP-GRα was studied using confocal microscopy following DEX or RU486 removal. Results. NTM5 cells transfected with RFP-GRα showed a clear cytosolic localization of receptor that underwent nuclear localization after DEX treatment. RFP-GRα translocation was temperature sensitive, occurring at 37°C but not at room temperature. Neither cytochalasin D nor colchicine blocked DEX-induced or RU486-induced RFP-GRα nuclear translocation; however, 17AAG prevented DEX-induced RFP-GRα nuclear translocation. Both nuclear import and export of DEX-induced RFP-GRα were faster than RU-486–induced nuclear shuttling. Conclusions. RFP-GRα receptor behaves similarly to the wild-type GRα with its cytosolic localization and shuttling to nucleus after DEX or RU486 treatment. HSP90 is required for nuclear translocation, but the disruption of cytoskeleton had no effect on nuclear translocation of RFP-GRα. PMID:22447868

  5. Targeting of the Nuclear Receptor Coactivator Isoform DELTA3AIB1 in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    lab showed that the downregulation of overall levels of AIB1 plus ∆3AIB1, using a regulatable AIB1 directed ribozyme , resulted in reduced tumor...overall levels of AIB1 plus ∆3AIB1, using a regulatable AIB1 directed ribozyme , resulted in reduced tumor growth in vivo. Overall, these data indicate a...Reiter R, Powers C, Wellstein A, Riegel AT. Ribozyme targeting shows that the nuclear receptor coactivator AIB1 is a rate-limiting factor for estrogen

  6. Targeting of the Nuclear Receptor Coactivator Isoform Delta3Air in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Annabell Oh on a study in which siRNA directed at nucleotides 564-582 of AIBI to selectively reduce AIBI gene expression in the MCF-7 breast cancer...I mediates Insulin-like Growth Factor 1-Induced Phenotypic Changes in Human Breast Cancer Cells." Annabell Oh, Heinz Joachim List, Ronald Reiter...Receptor Coactivator AIB1 Mediates Insulin-like Growth Factor I-induced Phenotypic Changes in Human Breast Cancer Cells Annabell Oh,1 Heinz-Joachim List,1

  7. Differential α4(+)/(−)β2 Agonist-binding Site Contributions to α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Function within and between Isoforms*

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Linda M.; Weltzin, Maegan M.; Eaton, J. Brek; Cooper, John F.; Lindstrom, Jon M.; Lukas, Ronald J.; Whiteaker, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Two α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α4β2-nAChR) isoforms exist with (α4)2(β2)3 and (α4)3(β2)2 subunit stoichiometries and high versus low agonist sensitivities (HS and LS), respectively. Both isoforms contain a pair of α4(+)/(−)β2 agonist-binding sites. The LS isoform also contains a unique α4(+)/(−)α4 site with lower agonist affinity than the α4(+)/(−)β2 sites. However, the relative roles of the conserved α4(+)/(−)β2 agonist-binding sites in and between the isoforms have not been studied. We used a fully linked subunit concatemeric nAChR approach to express pure populations of HS or LS isoform α4β2*-nAChR. This approach also allowed us to mutate individual subunit interfaces, or combinations thereof, on each isoform background. We used this approach to systematically mutate a triplet of β2 subunit (−)-face E-loop residues to their non-conserved α4 subunit counterparts or vice versa (β2HQT and α4VFL, respectively). Mutant-nAChR constructs (and unmodified controls) were expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Acetylcholine concentration-response curves and maximum function were measured using two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. Surface expression was measured with 125I-mAb 295 binding and was used to define function/nAChR. If the α4(+)/(−)β2 sites contribute equally to function, making identical β2HQT substitutions at either site should produce similar functional outcomes. Instead, highly differential outcomes within the HS isoform, and between the two isoforms, were observed. In contrast, α4VFL mutation effects were very similar in all positions of both isoforms. Our results indicate that the identity of subunits neighboring the otherwise equivalent α4(+)/(−)β2 agonist sites modifies their contributions to nAChR activation and that E-loop residues are an important contributor to this neighbor effect. PMID:26644472

  8. Differential α4(+)/(-)β2 Agonist-binding Site Contributions to α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Function within and between Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Linda M; Weltzin, Maegan M; Eaton, J Brek; Cooper, John F; Lindstrom, Jon M; Lukas, Ronald J; Whiteaker, Paul

    2016-01-29

    Two α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α4β2-nAChR) isoforms exist with (α4)2(β2)3 and (α4)3(β2)2 subunit stoichiometries and high versus low agonist sensitivities (HS and LS), respectively. Both isoforms contain a pair of α4(+)/(-)β2 agonist-binding sites. The LS isoform also contains a unique α4(+)/(-)α4 site with lower agonist affinity than the α4(+)/(-)β2 sites. However, the relative roles of the conserved α4(+)/(-)β2 agonist-binding sites in and between the isoforms have not been studied. We used a fully linked subunit concatemeric nAChR approach to express pure populations of HS or LS isoform α4β2*-nAChR. This approach also allowed us to mutate individual subunit interfaces, or combinations thereof, on each isoform background. We used this approach to systematically mutate a triplet of β2 subunit (-)-face E-loop residues to their non-conserved α4 subunit counterparts or vice versa (β2HQT and α4VFL, respectively). Mutant-nAChR constructs (and unmodified controls) were expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Acetylcholine concentration-response curves and maximum function were measured using two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. Surface expression was measured with (125)I-mAb 295 binding and was used to define function/nAChR. If the α4(+)/(-)β2 sites contribute equally to function, making identical β2HQT substitutions at either site should produce similar functional outcomes. Instead, highly differential outcomes within the HS isoform, and between the two isoforms, were observed. In contrast, α4VFL mutation effects were very similar in all positions of both isoforms. Our results indicate that the identity of subunits neighboring the otherwise equivalent α4(+)/(-)β2 agonist sites modifies their contributions to nAChR activation and that E-loop residues are an important contributor to this neighbor effect.

  9. MicroRNA-281 regulates the expression of ecdysone receptor (EcR) isoform B in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hundreds of Bombyx mori miRNAs had been identified in recent years, but their function in vivo remains poorly understood. The silkworm EcR gene (BmEcR) has three transcriptional isoforms, A, B1 and B2. Isoform sequences are different in the 3’UTR region of the gene, which is the case only in insects...

  10. Both liver-X receptor (LXR) isoforms control energy expenditure by regulating Brown Adipose Tissue activity

    PubMed Central

    Korach-André, Marion; Archer, Amena; Barros, Rodrigo P.; Parini, Paolo; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2011-01-01

    Brown adipocytes are multilocular lipid storage cells that play a crucial role in nonshivering thermogenesis. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is a unique feature of brown fat cells that allows heat generation on sympathetic nervous system stimulation. As conventional transcriptional factors that are activated in various signaling pathways, liver-X receptors (LXRs) play important roles in many physiological processes. The role of LXRs in the regulation of energy homeostasis remains unclear, however. Female WT, LXRαβ−/−, LXRα−/−, and LXRβ−/− mice were fed with either a normal diet (ND) or a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) supplemented with or without GW3965-LXR agonist. LXRαβ−/− mice exhibited higher energy expenditure (EE) as well as higher UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) compared with WT mice on the HCD. In addition, long-term treatment of WT mice with GW3965 showed lower EE at thermoneutrality (30 °C) and lower Ucp1 expression level in BAT. Furthermore, H&E staining of the BAT of LXRαβ−/− mice exhibited decreased lipid droplet size compared with WT mice on the HCD associated with a more intense UCP1-positive reaction. Quantification of triglyceride (TG) content in BAT showed lower TG accumulation in LXRβ−/− mice compared with WT mice. Surprisingly, GW3965 treatment increased TG content (twofold) in the BAT of WT and LXRα−/− mice but not in LXRβ−/− mice. Furthermore, glucose transporter (GLUT4) in the BAT of LXRα−/− and LXRβ−/− mice was sixfold and fourfold increased, respectively, compared with WT mice on the ND. These findings suggest that LXRα as well as LXRβ could play a crucial role in the regulation of energy homeostasis in female mice and may be a potential target for the treatment of obesity and energy regulation. PMID:21173252

  11. The Short isoform of the CEACAM1 receptor in intestinal T cells regulates mucosal immunity and homeostasis via Tfh cell induction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lanfen; Chen, Zhangguo; Baker, Kristi; Halvorsen, E lizabeth M.; da Cunha, Andre Pires; Flak, Magdalena B.; Gerber, Georg; Huang, Yu-Hwa; Hosomi, Shuhei; Arthur, J anelle C.; Dery, Ken J.; Nagaishi, Takashi; Beauchemin, Nicole; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Ho, Joshua W. K.; Shively, John E.; Jobin, Christian; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Bry, Lynn; Weiner, Howard L.; Higgins, Darren E.; Blumberg, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule like I (CEACAM1) is expressed on activated T cells and signals through either a long (L) cytoplasmic tail containing immune receptor tyrosine based inhibitory motifs, which provide inhibitory function, or a short (S) cytoplasmic tail with an unknown role. Previous studies on peripheral T cells show that CEACAM1-L isoforms predominate with little to no detectable CEACAM1-S isoforms in mouse and human. We show here that this was not the case in tissue resident T cells of intestines and gut associated lymphoid tissues which demonstrated predominant expression of CEACAM1-S isoforms relative to CEACAM1-L isoforms in human and mouse. This tissue resident predominance of CEACAM1-S expression was determined by the intestinal environment where it served a stimulatory function leading to the regulation of T cell subsets associated with generation of secretory IgA immunity, the regulation of mucosal commensalism, and defense of the barrier against enteropathogens. PMID:23123061

  12. Regulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-Iα) gene expression by the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC-1) isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Sadana, Prabodh; Zhang, Yi; Song, Shulan; Cook, George A.; Elam, Marshall B.; Park, Edwards A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivators (PGC-1) have important roles in mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolic control in a variety of tissues. There are multiple isoforms of PGC-1 including PGC-1α and PGC-1β. Both the PGC-1α and β isoforms promote mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation, but only PGC-1α stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) is a key enzyme regulating mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. In these studies, we determined that PGC-1β stimulated expression of the “liver” isoform of CPT-I (CPT-Iα) but that PGC-1β did not induce pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) which is a regulator of pyruvate metabolism. The CPT-Iα gene is induced by thyroid hormone. We found that T3 increased the expression of PGC-1β and that PGC-1β enhanced the T3 induction of CPT-Iα. The thyroid hormone receptor interacts with PGC-1β in a ligand dependent manner. Unlike PGC-1α, the interaction of PGC-1β and the T3 receptor does not occur exclusively through the leucine-X-X-leucine-leucine motif in PGC-1β. We have found that PGC-1β is associated with the CPT-Iα gene in vivo. Overall, our results demonstrate that PGC-1β is a coactivator in the T3 induction of CPT-Iα and that PGC-1β has similarities and differences with the PGC-1α isoform. PMID:17239528

  13. Protease-activated receptor-2 stimulates intestinal epithelial chloride transport through activation of PLC and selective PKC isoforms.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Jacques Q; Moreau, France; MacNaughton, Wallace K

    2009-06-01

    Serine proteases play important physiological roles through their activity at G protein-coupled protease-activated receptors (PARs). We examined the roles that specific phospholipase (PL) C and protein kinase (PK) C (PKC) isoforms play in the regulation of PAR(2)-stimulated chloride secretion in intestinal epithelial cells. Confluent SCBN epithelial monolayers were grown on Snapwell supports and mounted in modified Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (I(sc)) responses to basolateral application of the selective PAR(2) activating peptide, SLIGRL-NH(2), were monitored as a measure of net electrogenic ion transport caused by PAR(2) activation. SLIGRL-NH(2) induced a transient I(sc) response that was significantly reduced by inhibitors of PLC (U73122), phosphoinositol-PLC (ET-18), phosphatidylcholine-PLC (D609), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K; LY294002). Immunoblot analysis revealed the phosphorylation of both PLCbeta and PLCgamma following PAR(2) activation. Pretreatment of the cells with inhibitors of PKC (GF 109203X), PKCalpha/betaI (Gö6976), and PKCdelta (rottlerin), but not PKCzeta (selective pseudosubstrate inhibitor), also attenuated this response. Cellular fractionation and immunoblot analysis, as well as confocal immunocytochemistry, revealed increases of PKCbetaI, PKCdelta, and PKCepsilon, but not PKCalpha or PKCzeta, in membrane fractions following PAR(2) activation. Pretreatment of the cells with U73122, ET-18, or D609 inhibited PKC activation. Inhibition of PI3K activity only prevented PKCdelta translocation. Immunoblots revealed that PAR(2) activation induced phosphorylation of both cRaf and ERK1/2 via PKCdelta. Inhibition of PKCbetaI and PI3K had only a partial effect on this response. We conclude that basolateral PAR(2)-induced chloride secretion involves activation of PKCbetaI and PKCdelta via a PLC-dependent mechanism resulting in the stimulation of cRaf and ERK1/2 signaling.

  14. Dynamics of signaling between Ca(2+) sparks and Ca(2+)- activated K(+) channels studied with a novel image-based method for direct intracellular measurement of ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) current.

    PubMed

    ZhuGe, R; Fogarty, K E; Tuft, R A; Lifshitz, L M; Sayar, K; Walsh, J V

    2000-12-01

    Ca(2+) sparks are highly localized cytosolic Ca(2+) transients caused by a release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum via ryanodine receptors (RyRs); they are the elementary events underlying global changes in Ca(2+) in skeletal and cardiac muscle. In smooth muscle and some neurons, Ca(2+) sparks activate large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BK channels) in the spark microdomain, causing spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) that regulate membrane potential and, hence, voltage-gated channels. Using the fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator fluo-3 and a high speed widefield digital imaging system, it was possible to capture the total increase in fluorescence (i.e., the signal mass) during a spark in smooth muscle cells, which is the first time such a direct approach has been used in any system. The signal mass is proportional to the total quantity of Ca(2+) released into the cytosol, and its rate of rise is proportional to the Ca(2+) current flowing through the RyRs during a spark (I(Ca(spark))). Thus, Ca(2+) currents through RyRs can be monitored inside the cell under physiological conditions. Since the magnitude of I(Ca(spark)) in different sparks varies more than fivefold, Ca(2+) sparks appear to be caused by the concerted opening of a number of RyRs. Sparks with the same underlying Ca(2+) current cause STOCs, whose amplitudes vary more than threefold, a finding that is best explained by variability in coupling ratio (i.e., the ratio of RyRs to BK channels in the spark microdomain). The time course of STOC decay is approximated by a single exponential that is independent of the magnitude of signal mass and has a time constant close to the value of the mean open time of the BK channels, suggesting that STOC decay reflects BK channel kinetics, rather than the time course of [Ca(2+)] decline at the membrane. Computer simulations were carried out to determine the spatiotemporal distribution of the Ca(2+) concentration resulting from the measured

  15. Ternary Complex of Transforming Growth Factor-[beta]1 Reveals Isoform-specific Ligand Recognition and Receptor Recruitment in the Superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Radaev, Sergei; Zou, Zhongcheng; Huang, Tao; Lafer, Eileen M.; Hinck, Andrew P.; Sun, Peter D.

    2010-11-03

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1, -{beta}2, and -{beta}3 are 25-kDa homodimeric polypeptides that play crucial nonoverlapping roles in embryogenesis, tissue development, carcinogenesis, and immune regulation. Here we report the 3.0-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the ternary complex between human TGF-{beta}1 and the extracellular domains of its type I and type II receptors, T{beta}RI and T{beta}RII. The TGF-{beta}1 ternary complex structure is similar to previously reported TGF-{beta}3 complex except with a 10{sup o} rotation in T{beta}RI docking orientation. Quantitative binding studies showed distinct kinetics between the receptors and the isoforms of TGF-{beta}. T{beta}RI showed significant binding to TGF-{beta}2 and TGF-{beta}3 but not TGF-{beta}1, and the binding to all three isoforms of TGF-{beta} was enhanced considerably in the presence of T{beta}RII. The preference of TGF-{beta}2 to T{beta}RI suggests a variation in its receptor recruitment in vivo. Although TGF-{beta}1 and TGF-{beta}3 bind and assemble their ternary complexes in a similar manner, their structural differences together with differences in the affinities and kinetics of their receptor binding may underlie their unique biological activities. Structural comparisons revealed that the receptor-ligand pairing in the TGF-{beta} superfamily is dictated by unique insertions, deletions, and disulfide bonds rather than amino acid conservation at the interface. The binding mode of T{beta}RII on TGF-{beta} is unique to TGF-{beta}s, whereas that of type II receptor for bone morphogenetic protein on bone morphogenetic protein appears common to all other cytokines in the superfamily. Further, extensive hydrogen bonds and salt bridges are present at the high affinity cytokine-receptor interfaces, whereas hydrophobic interactions dominate the low affinity receptor-ligand interfaces.

  16. Nonsterol Isoprenoids Activate Human Constitutive Androstane Receptor in an Isoform-Selective Manner in Primary Cultured Mouse Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rondini, Elizabeth A.; Duniec-Dmuchowski, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory previously reported that accumulation of nonsterol isoprenoids following treatment with the squalene synthase inhibitor, squalestatin 1 (SQ1) markedly induced cytochrome P450 (CYP)2B1 mRNA and reporter activity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes, which was dependent on activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). The objective of the current study was to evaluate whether isoprenoids likewise activate murine CAR (mCAR) or one or more isoforms of human CAR (hCAR) produced by alternative splicing (SPTV, hCAR2; APYLT, hCAR3). We found that SQ1 significantly induced Cyp2b10 mRNA (∼3.5-fold) in primary hepatocytes isolated from both CAR–wild-type and humanized CAR transgenic mice, whereas the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor pravastatin had no effect. In the absence of CAR, basal Cyp2b10 mRNA levels were reduced by 28-fold and the effect of SQ1 on Cyp2b10 induction was attenuated. Cotransfection with an expression plasmid for hCAR1, but not hCAR2 or hCAR3, mediated SQ1-induced CYP2B1 and CYP2B6 reporter activation in hepatocytes isolated from CAR-knockout mice. This effect was also observed following treatment with the isoprenoid trans,trans-farnesol. The direct agonist CITCO increased interaction of hCAR1, hCAR2, and hCAR3 with steroid receptor coactivator-1. However, no significant effect on coactivator recruitment was observed with SQ1, suggesting an indirect activation mechanism. Further results from an in vitro ligand binding assay demonstrated that neither farnesol nor other isoprenoids are direct ligands for hCAR1. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that SQ1 activates CYP2B transcriptional responses through farnesol metabolism in an hCAR1-dependent manner. Further, this effect probably occurs through an indirect mechanism. PMID:26798158

  17. Identification of Eight Different Isoforms of the Glucocorticoid Receptor in Guinea Pig Placenta: Relationship to Preterm Delivery, Sex and Betamethasone Exposure.

    PubMed

    Saif, Zarqa; Dyson, Rebecca M; Palliser, Hannah K; Wright, Ian M R; Lu, Nick; Clifton, Vicki L

    2016-01-01

    The placental glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is central to glucocorticoid signalling and for mediating steroid effects on pathways associated with fetal growth and lung maturation but the GR has not been examined in the guinea pig placenta even though this animal is regularly used as a model of preterm birth and excess glucocorticoid exposure. Guinea pig dams received subcutaneous injections of either vehicle or betamethasone at 24 and 12 hours prior to preterm or term caesarean-section delivery. At delivery pup and organ weights were recorded. Placentae were dissected, weighed and analysed using Western blot to examine GR isoform expression in nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts. A comparative examination of the guinea pig GR gene identified it is capable of producing seven of the eight translational GR isoforms which include GRα-A, C1, C2, C3, D1, D2, and D3. GRα-B is not produced in the Guinea Pig. Total GR antibody identified 10 specific bands from term (n = 29) and preterm pregnancies (n = 27). Known isoforms included GRγ, GRα A, GRβ, GRP, GRA and GRα D1-3. There were sex and gestational age differences in placental GR isoform expression. Placental GRα A was detected in the cytoplasm of all groups but was significantly increased in the cytoplasm and nucleus of preterm males and females exposed to betamethasone and untreated term males (KW-ANOVA, P = 0.0001, P = 0.001). Cytoplasmic expression of GRβ was increased in female preterm placentae and preterm and term male placentae exposed to betamethasone (P = 0.01). Nuclear expression of GRβ was increased in all placentae exposed to betamethasone (P = 0.0001). GRα D2 and GRα D3 were increased in male preterm placentae when exposed to betamethasone (P = 0.01, P = 0.02). The current data suggests the sex-specific placental response to maternal betamethasone may be dependent on the expression of a combination of GR isoforms.

  18. Angiotensin II stimulates calcineurin activity in proximal tubule epithelia through AT-1 receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC-gamma1 isoform.

    PubMed

    Lea, Janice P; Jin, Shao G; Roberts, Brian R; Shuler, Michael S; Marrero, Mario B; Tumlin, James A

    2002-07-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) contributes to the maintenance of extracellular fluid volume by regulating sodium transport in the nephron. In nonepithelial cells, activation of phospholipase C (PLC) by AT-1 receptors stimulates the generation of 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) and the release of intracellular calcium. Calcineurin, a serine-threonine phosphatase, is activated by calcium and calmodulin, and both PLC and calcineurin have been linked to sodium transport in the proximal tubule. An examination of whether AngII activates calcineurin in a model of proximal tubule epithelia (LLC-PK1 cells) was performed; AngII increased calcineurin activity within 30 s. An examination of whether AngII activates PLC in proximal tubule epithelia was also performed after first showing that all three families of PLC isoforms are present in LLC-PK1 cells. Application of AngII increased IP(3) generation by 60% within 15 s, which coincided with AngII-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC-gamma1 isoform also observed at 15 s. AngII-induced tyrosine phosphorylation was blocked by the AT-1 receptor antagonist, Losartan. Subsequently, an inhibitor of tyrosine phosphorylation blocked the AngII-induced activation of calcineurin, as did coincubation with an inhibitor of PLC activity and with an antagonist of the AT-1 receptor. It is therefore concluded that AngII stimulates calcineurin phosphatase activity in proximal tubule epithelial cells through a mechanism involving AT-1 receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC isoform.

  19. LAR tyrosine phosphatase receptor: alternative splicing is preferential to the nervous system, coordinated with cell growth and generates novel isoforms containing extensive CAG repeats

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Receptor-linked tyrosine phosphatases regulate cell growth by dephosphorylating proteins involved in tyrosine kinase signal transduction. The leukocyte common antigen-related (LAR) tyrosine phosphatase receptor has sequence similarity to the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM and is located in a chromosomal region (1p32- 33) frequently altered in neuroectodermal tumors. To understand the function of receptor-linked tyrosine phosphatases in neural development, we sought to identify LAR isoforms preferentially expressed in the nervous system and cellular processes regulating LAR alternative splicing. We report here the isolation of a series of rat LAR cDNA clones arising from complex combinatorial alternative splicing, not previously demonstrated for the tyrosine phosphatase- receptor gene family in general. Isoforms included: (a) deletions of the fourth, sixth and seventh fibronectin type III-like domains; (b) an alternatively spliced novel cassette exon in the fifth fibronectin type III-like domain; (c) two alternatively spliced novel cassette exons in the juxtamembrane region; (d) a retained intron in the extracellular region with in-frame stop codons predicting a secreted LAR isoform; and (e) an LAR transcript including an alternative 3' untranslated region containing multiple stretches of tandem CAG repeats up to 21 repeats in length. This number of repeats was in the range found in normal alleles of genes in which expansions of repeats are associated with neurodegenerative disease and the genetic phenomenon of anticipation. RT-PCR and Northern analysis demonstrated that LAR alternative splicing occurred preferentially in neuromuscular tissue in vivo and in neurons compared to astrocytes in vitro and was developmentally regulated. Alternative splicing was also regulated in PC12 cells by NGF, in 3T3 fibroblasts by cell confluence and in sciatic nerve and muscle subsequent to nerve transection. Western blot analysis demonstrated that alternatively spliced

  20. Ryanodine interferes with charge movement repriming in amphibian skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, A; Caputo, C

    1996-01-01

    Cut twitch muscle fibers mounted in a triple Vaseline-gap chamber were used to study the effects of ryanodine on intramembranous charge movement, and in particular on the repriming of charge 1. Charge 1 repriming was measured either under steady-state conditions or by using a pulse protocol designed to study the time course of repriming. This protocol consisted of repolarizing the fibers to -100 mV from a holding potential of 0 mV, and then measuring the reprimed charge moving in the potential range between -40 and +20 mV. Ryanodine at a high concentration (100 microM) did not affect the maximum amount of movable charge 1 and charge 2, or their voltage dependence. This indicates that the alkaloid does not interact with the voltage sensor molecules. However, ryanodine did reduce the amount of reprimed charge 1 by approximately 60% suggesting the possibility of a retrograde interaction between ryanodine receptors and voltage sensors. PMID:8770214

  1. Reduced Peripheral Expression of the Glucocorticoid Receptor α Isoform in Individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Cumulative Effect of Trauma Burden

    PubMed Central

    Morath, Julia; Adenauer, Hannah; Elbert, Thomas; Engler, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious psychiatric condition that was found to be associated with altered functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and changes in glucocorticoid (GC) responsiveness. The physiological actions of GCs are primarily mediated through GC receptors (GR) of which isoforms with different biological activities exist. This study aimed to investigate whether trauma-experience and/or PTSD are associated with altered expression of GR splice variants. Methods GRα and GRβ mRNA expression levels were determined by real-time quantitative PCR in whole blood samples of individuals with chronic and severe forms of PTSD (n = 42) as well as in ethnically matched reference subjects (non-PTSD, n = 35). Results Individuals suffering from PTSD exhibited significantly lower expression of the predominant and functionally active GRα isoform compared to non-PTSD subjects. This effect remained significant when accounting for gender, smoking, psychotropic medication or comorbid depression. Moreover, the GRα expression level was significantly negatively correlated with the number of traumatic event types experienced, both in the whole sample and within the PTSD patient group. Expression of the less abundant and non-ligand binding GRβ isoform was comparable between patient and reference groups. Conclusions Reduced expression of the functionally active GRα isoform in peripheral blood cells of individuals with PTSD seems to be a cumulative effect of trauma burden rather than a specific feature of PTSD since non-PTSD subjects with high trauma load showed an intermediate phenotype between PTSD patients and individuals with no or few traumatic experiences. PMID:24466032

  2. Hemicalcin, a new toxin from the Iranian scorpion Hemiscorpius lepturus which is active on ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Feng, Wei; Ram, Narendra; Borchani, Lamia; Ronjat, Michel; Akbari, Abolfazl; Pessah, Isaac N.; De Waard, Michel; El Ayeb, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, we purified and characterized a novel toxin named hemicalcin from the venom of the Iranian chactoid scorpion Hemiscorpius lepturus where it represents 0.6% of the total protein content. It is a 33-mer basic peptide reticulated by three disulfide bridges, and that shares between 85 and 91% sequence identity with four other toxins, all known or supposed to be active on ryanodine-sensitive calcium channels. Hemicalcin differs from these other toxins by seven amino acids at positions 9 (leucine/arginine), 12 (alanine/glutamic acid), 13 (aspartic acid/asparagine), 14 (lysine/asparagine), 18 (serine/glycine), 26 (threonine/alanine) and 28 (proline/isoleucine/alanine). In spite of these differences, hemicalcin remains active on ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ channels, since it increases [3H]ryanodine binding on RyR1 (ryanodine receptor type 1) and triggers Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic vesicles. Bilayer lipid membrane experiments, in which the RyR1 channel is reconstituted and its gating properties are analysed, indicate that hemicalcin promotes an increase in the opening probability at intermediate concentration and induces a long-lasting subconductance level of 38% of the original amplitude at higher concentrations. Mice intracerebroventricular inoculation of 300 ng of hemicalcin induces neurotoxic symptoms in vivo, followed by death. Overall, these data identify a new biologically active toxin that belongs to a family of peptides active on the ryanodine-sensitive channel. PMID:17291197

  3. Selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons does not alter [3H]-ryanodine binding in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Noël, F; Geurts, M; Maloteaux, J M

    2000-02-01

    Dopamine nigrostriatal neurons are important for motor control and may contain a particularly dense population of ryanodine receptors involved in the control of dopamine release. To test this hypothesis, we used a classical model of unilateral selective lesion of these neurons in rats based on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection into the substantia nigra. Binding of [3H]-GBR 12935, used as a presynaptic marker since it labels specifically the dopamine uptake complex, was dramatically decreased by 83-100% in striatum homogenates after 6-OHDA lesion. On the contrary, no reduction of [3H]-ryanodine binding was observed. The present data indicate that [3H]-ryanodine binding sites present in rat striatum are not preferentially localized in dopaminergic terminals.

  4. 3,5-di-iodothyronine stimulates tilapia growth through an alternate isoform of thyroid hormone receptor β1.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Ramírez, Pamela; Luna, Maricela; Valverde-R, Carlos; Orozco, Aurea

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies in our laboratory have shown that in some teleosts, 3,5-di-iodothyronine (T2 or 3,5-T2) is as bioactive as 3,5,3'-tri-iodothyronine (T3) and that its effects are in part mediated by a TRβ1 (THRB) isoform that contains a 9-amino acid insert in its ligand-binding domain (long TRβ1 (L-TRβ1)), whereas T3 binds preferentially to a short TRβ1 (S-TRβ1) isoform that lacks this insert. To further understand the functional relevance of T2 bioactivity and its mechanism of action, we used in vivo and ex vivo (organotypic liver cultures) approaches and analyzed whether T3 and T2 differentially regulate the S-TRβ1 and L-TRβ1s during a physiological demand such as growth. In vivo, T3 and T2 treatment induced body weight gain in tilapia. The expression of L-TRβ1 and S-TRβ1 was specifically regulated by T2 and T3 respectively both in vivo and ex vivo. The TR antagonist 1-850 effectively blocked thyroid hormone-dependent gene expression; however, T3 or T2 reversed 1-850 effects only on S-TRβ1 or L-TRβ1 expression, respectively. Together, our results support the notion that both T3 and T2 participate in the growth process; however, their effects are mediated by different, specific TRβ1 isoforms.

  5. Rescue of gamma2 subunit-deficient mice by transgenic overexpression of the GABAA receptor gamma2S or gamma2L subunit isoforms.

    PubMed

    Baer, K; Essrich, C; Balsiger, S; Wick, M J; Harris, R A; Fritschy, J M; Lüscher, B

    2000-07-01

    The gamma2 subunit is an important functional determinant of GABAA receptors and is essential for formation of high-affinity benzodiazepine binding sites and for synaptic clustering of major GABAA receptor subtypes along with gephyrin. There are two splice variants of the gamma2 subunit, gamma2 short (gamma2S) and gamma2 long (gamma2L), the latter carrying in the cytoplasmic domain an additional eight amino acids with a putative phosphorylation site. Here, we show that transgenic mice expressing either the gamma2S or gamma2L subunit on a gamma2 subunit-deficient background are phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type. They express nearly normal levels of gamma2 subunit protein and [3H]flumazenil binding sites. Likewise, the distribution, number and size of GABAA receptor clusters colocalized with gephyrin are similar to wild-type in both juvenile and adult mice. Our results indicate that the two gamma2 subunit splice variants can substitute for each other and fulfil the basic functions of GABAA receptors, allowing in vivo studies that address isoform-specific roles in phosphorylation-dependent regulatory mechanisms.

  6. Expression of the TPα and TPβ isoforms of the thromboxane prostanoid receptor (TP) in prostate cancer: clinical significance and diagnostic potential

    PubMed Central

    Mulvaney, Eamon P.; Shilling, Christine; Eivers, Sarah B.; Perry, Antoinette S.; Bjartell, Anders; Kay, Elaine W.; Watson, R. William; Kinsella, B. Therese

    2016-01-01

    The prostanoid thromboxane (TX) A2 plays a central role in haemostasis and is increasingly implicated in cancer progression. TXA2 signals through two T Prostanoid receptor (TP) isoforms termed TPα and TPβ, with both encoded by the TBXA2R gene. Despite exhibiting several functional and regulatory differences, the role of the individual TP isoforms in neoplastic diseases is largely unknown. This study evaluated expression of the TPα and TPβ isoforms in tumour microarrays of the benign prostate and different pathological (Gleason) grades of prostate cancer (PCa). Expression of TPβ was significantly increased in PCa relative to benign tissue and strongly correlated with increasing Gleason grade. Furthermore, higher TPβ expression was associated with increased risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) and significantly shorter disease-free survival time in patients post-surgery. While TPα was more variably expressed than TPβ in PCa, increased/high TPα expression within the tumour also trended toward increased BCR and shorter disease-free survival time. Comparative genomic CpG DNA methylation analysis revealed substantial differences in the extent of methylation of the promoter regions of the TBXA2R that specifically regulate expression of TPα and TPβ, respectively, both in benign prostate and in clinically-derived tissue representative of precursor lesions and progressive stages of PCa. Collectively, TPα and TPβ expression is differentially regulated both in the benign and tumourigenic prostate, and coincides with clinical pathology and altered CpG methylation of the TBXA2R gene. Analysis of TPβ, or a combination of TPα/TPβ, expression levels may have significant clinical potential as a diagnostic biomarker and predictor of PCa disease recurrence. PMID:27689401

  7. Urocortins and CRF type 2 receptor isoforms expression in the rat stomach are regulated by endotoxin: role in the modulation of delayed gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Pu-Qing; Wu, S Vincent; Taché, Yvette

    2012-07-01

    Peripheral activation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF(2)) by urocortin 1, 2, or 3 (Ucns) exerts powerful effects on gastric function; however, little is known about their expression and regulation in the stomach. We investigated the expression of Ucns and CRF(2) isoforms by RT-PCR in the gastric corpus (GC) mucosa and submucosa plus muscle (S+M) or laser captured layers in naive rats, their regulations by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/kg ip) over 24 h, and the effect of the CRF(2) antagonist astresssin(2)-B (100 μg/kg sc) on LPS-induced delayed gastric emptying (GE) 2-h postinjection. Transcripts of Ucns and CRF(2b,) the most common wild-type CRF(2) isoform in the periphery, were expressed in all layers, including myenteric neurons. LPS increased Ucn mRNA levels significantly in both mucosa and S+M, reaching a maximal response at 6 h postinjection and returning to basal levels at 24 h except for Ucn 1 in S+M. By contrast, CRF(2b) mRNA level was significantly decreased in the mucosa and M+S with a nadir at 6 h. In addition, CRF(2a), reportedly only found in the brain, and the novel splice variant CRF(2a-3) were also detected in the GC, antrum, and pylorus. LPS reciprocally regulated these variants with a decrease of CRF(2a) and an increase of CRF(2a-3) in the GC 6 h postinjection. Astressin(2)-B exacerbated LPS-delayed GE (42-73%, P < 0.001). These data indicate that Ucn and CRF(2) isoforms are widely distributed throughout the rat stomach and inversely regulated by immune stress. The CRF(2) signaling system may act to counteract the early gastric motor alterations to endotoxemia.

  8. The Paired Basic Amino Acid-cleaving Enzyme 4 (PACE4) Is Involved in the Maturation of Insulin Receptor Isoform B

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Imène; Poggi, Marjorie; Bonardo, Bernadette; Govers, Roland; Landrier, Jean-François; Tian, Sun; Leibiger, Ingo; Day, Robert; Creemers, John W. M.; Peiretti, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Gaining the full activity of the insulin receptor (IR) requires the proteolytic cleavage of its proform by intra-Golgi furin-like activity. In mammalian cells, IR is expressed as two isoforms (IRB and IRA) that are responsible for insulin action. However, only IRA transmits the growth-promoting and mitogenic effects of insulin-like growth factor 2. Here we demonstrate that the two IR isoforms are similarly cleaved by furin, but when this furin-dependent maturation is inefficient, IR proforms move to the cell surface where the proprotein convertase PACE4 selectively supports IRB maturation. Therefore, in situations of impaired furin activity, the proteolytic maturation of IRB is greater than that of IRA, and accordingly, the amount of phosphorylated IRB is also greater than that of IRA. We highlight the ability of a particular proprotein convertase inhibitor to effectively reduce the maturation of IRA and its associated mitogenic signaling without altering the signals emanating from IRB. In conclusion, the selective PACE4-dependent maturation of IRB occurs when furin activity is reduced; accordingly, the pharmacological inhibition of furin reduces IRA maturation and its mitogenic potential without altering the insulin effects. PMID:25527501

  9. Effects of chronic academic stress on mental state and expression of glucocorticoid receptor α and β isoforms in healthy Japanese medical students.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Ken; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Murata, Akiho; Akaike, Yoko; Katsuura, Sakurako; Nishida, Kensei; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kuwano, Yuki; Kawai, Tomoko; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2011-07-01

    Chronic academic stress responses were assessed by measuring mental state, salivary cortisol levels, and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene expression in healthy Japanese medical students challenging the national medical license examination. Mental states of 17 male and 9 female medical undergraduates, aged 25.0 ± 1.2 years (mean ± SD), were assessed by the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) 2 months before, 2 days before, and 1 month after the examination. At the same time points, saliva and blood were collected. STAI-state scores peaked 2 days before the examination. Scores on STAI-trait and SDS, and salivary cortisol levels were consistently higher during the pre-examination period. One month after the examination, all these measures had significantly decreased to baseline levels. Real-time reverse transcription PCR showed that this chronic anxious state did not change the expression of the functional GRα mRNA isoform in peripheral leukocytes, while it resulted in reduced expression of the GRβ isoform 2 days before the examination. Our results replicate and extend a significant impact of chronic academic stressors on the mental state of healthy Japanese medical students and suggest a possible association of GRβ gene in response to psychological stress.

  10. The single fgf receptor gene in the beetle Tribolium castaneum codes for two isoforms that integrate FGF8- and Branchless-dependent signals.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rahul; Beer, Katharina; Iwanov, Katharina; Schmöhl, Felix; Beckmann, Paula Indigo; Schröder, Reinhard

    2015-06-15

    The precise regulation of cell-cell communication by numerous signal-transduction pathways is fundamental for many different processes during embryonic development. One important signalling pathway is the evolutionary conserved fibroblast-growth-factor (FGF)-pathway that controls processes like cell migration, axis specification and mesoderm formation in vertebrate and invertebrate animals. In the model insect Drosophila, the FGF ligand / receptor combinations of FGF8 (Pyramus and Thisbe) / Heartless (Htl) and Branchless (Bnl) / Breathless (Btl) are required for the migration of mesodermal cells and for the formation of the tracheal network respectively with both the receptors functioning independently of each other. However, only a single fgf-receptor gene (Tc-fgfr) has been identified in the genome of the beetle Tribolium. We therefore asked whether both the ligands Fgf8 and Bnl could transduce their signal through a common FGF-receptor in Tribolium. Indeed, we found that the function of the single Tc-fgfr gene is essential for mesoderm differentiation as well as for the formation of the tracheal network during early development. Ligand specific RNAi for Tc-fgf8 and Tc-bnl resulted in two distinct non-overlapping phenotypes of impaired mesoderm differentiation and abnormal formation of the tracheal network in Tc-fgf8- and Tc-bnl(RNAi) embryos respectively. We further show that the single Tc-fgfr gene encodes at least two different receptor isoforms that are generated through alternative splicing. We in addition demonstrate through exon-specific RNAi their distinct tissue-specific functions. Finally, we discuss the structure of the fgf-receptor gene from an evolutionary perspective.

  11. Dienogest, a synthetic progestin, down-regulates expression of CYP19A1 and inflammatory and neuroangiogenesis factors through progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in endometriotic cells.

    PubMed

    Ichioka, Masayuki; Mita, Shizuka; Shimizu, Yutaka; Imada, Kazunori; Kiyono, Tohru; Bono, Yukiko; Kyo, Satoru

    2015-03-01

    Dienogest (DNG) is a selective progesterone receptor (PR) agonist and oral administration of DNG is used for the treatment of endometriosis. DNG is considered to act on PR to down-regulate pathophysiological factors associated with endometriosis. PR exists as two major isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, and their physiological functions are mostly distinct. It was suggested that PR isoform expression patterns are altered in endometriosis, but it is unknown whether the pharmacological effects of DNG are exerted through PR-A, PR-B or both. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacological effects of DNG through these PR isoforms on the expression of CYP19A1 which encodes aromatase and inflammatory and neuroangiogenesis factors associated with the pain and progression of endometriosis. We used immortalized human endometriotic epithelial cell lines that specifically express PR-A or PR-B in a spheroid cell culture system, and treated them with DNG. We evaluated messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of CYP19A1, prostaglandin (PG)E2 synthase (cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES)-1), inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1) and neuroangiogenesis factors (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF)) using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, PGE2 production was measured by enzyme immunoassay. We found that DNG down-regulated mRNA expression of CYP19A1, COX-2, mPGES-1, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, NGF and VEGF, and PGE2 production in human endometriotic epithelial cell lines that specifically express either PR-A or PR-B. These results demonstrate that DNG activates both PR-A and PR-B and down-regulates the expression of pathophysiological factors associated with pain and progression of endometriosis. Our results suggest that DNG exerts therapeutic efficacy against the pain and progression of endometriosis regardless of PR isoform expression patterns.

  12. Opposing roles of nuclear receptor HNF4α isoforms in colitis and colitis-associated colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Deol, Poonamjot; Evans, Jane R; Vuong, Linh M; Chen, Gang; Briançon, Nadege; Bolotin, Eugene; Lytle, Christian; Nair, Meera G; Sladek, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    HNF4α has been implicated in colitis and colon cancer in humans but the role of the different HNF4α isoforms expressed from the two different promoters (P1 and P2) active in the colon is not clear. Here, we show that P1-HNF4α is expressed primarily in the differentiated compartment of the mouse colonic crypt and P2-HNF4α in the proliferative compartment. Exon swap mice that express only P1- or only P2-HNF4α have different colonic gene expression profiles, interacting proteins, cellular migration, ion transport and epithelial barrier function. The mice also exhibit altered susceptibilities to experimental colitis (DSS) and colitis-associated colon cancer (AOM+DSS). When P2-HNF4α-only mice (which have elevated levels of the cytokine resistin-like β, RELMβ, and are extremely sensitive to DSS) are crossed with Retnlb-/- mice, they are rescued from mortality. Furthermore, P2-HNF4α binds and preferentially activates the RELMβ promoter. In summary, HNF4α isoforms perform non-redundant functions in the colon under conditions of stress, underscoring the importance of tracking them both in colitis and colon cancer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10903.001 PMID:27166517

  13. RORγt, a Novel Isoform of an Orphan Receptor, Negatively Regulates Fas Ligand Expression and IL-2 Production in T Cells

    PubMed Central

    He, You-Wen; Deftos, Michael L.; Ojala, Ethan W.; Bevan, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We have identified RORγt, a novel, thymus-specific isoform of the orphan nuclear receptor RORγ that is expressed predominantly in CD4+ CD8+ double-positive thymocytes. Ectopic expression of RORγt protects T cell hybridomas from activation-induced cell death by inhibiting the upregulation of Fas ligand. Following hybridoma stimulation, RORγt also inhibits IL-2 production but does not affect the induction of Nur-77 and Egr-3 nor the upregulation of CD69. Both the ligand-binding and DNA-binding domains of RORγt are required for this effect. We propose that the role of RORγt expression in immature thymocytes is to inhibit Fas ligand expression and cytokine secretion following engagement of their TCR during positive or negative selection. PMID:9881970

  14. Implication of insulin receptor A isoform and IRA/IGF-IR hybrid receptors in the aortic vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation: role of TNF-α and IGF-II.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Escribano, Óscar; Perdomo, Liliana; Otero, Yolanda F; García-Gómez, Gema; Fernández, Silvia; Beneit, Nuria; Benito, Manuel

    2013-07-01

    To assess the role of insulin receptor (IR) isoforms (IRA and IRB) in the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) involved in the atherosclerotic process, we generated new VSMC lines bearing IR (wild-type VSMCs; IRLoxP(+/+) VSMCs), lacking IR (IR(-/-) VSMCs) or expressing IRA (IRA VSMCs) or IRB (IRB VSMCs). Insulin and different proatherogenic stimuli induced a significant increase of IRA expression in IRLoxP(+/+) VSMCs. Moreover, insulin, through ERK signaling, and the proatherogenic stimuli, through ERK and p38 signaling, induced a higher proliferation in IRA than IRB VSMCs. The latter effect might be due to IRA cells showing a higher expression of angiotensin II, endothelin 1, and thromboxane 2 receptors and basal association between IRA and these receptors. Furthermore, TNF-α induced in a ligand-dependent manner a higher association between IRA and TNF-α receptor 1 (TNF-R1). On the other hand, IRA overexpression might favor the atherogenic actions of IGF-II. Thereby, IGF-II or TNF-α induced IRA and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) overexpression as well as an increase of IRA/IGF-IR hybrid receptors in VSMCs. More importantly, we observed a significant increase of IRA, TNF-R1, and IGF-IR expression as well as higher association of IRA with TNF-R1 or IGF-IR in the aorta from ApoE(-/-) and BATIRKO mice, 2 models showing vascular damage. In addition, anti-TNF-α treatment prevented those effects in BATIRKO mice. Finally, our data suggest that the IRA isoform and its association with TNF-R1 or IGF-IR confers proliferative advantage to VSMCs, mainly in response to TNF-α or IGF-II, which might be of significance in the early atherosclerotic process.

  15. Insulin Restores Gestational Diabetes Mellitus–Reduced Adenosine Transport Involving Differential Expression of Insulin Receptor Isoforms in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Westermeier, Francisco; Salomón, Carlos; González, Marcelo; Puebla, Carlos; Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Cifuentes, Fredi; Leiva, Andrea; Casanello, Paola; Sobrevia, Luis

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether insulin reverses gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)–reduced expression and activity of human equilibrative nucleoside transporters 1 (hENT1) in human umbilical vein endothelium cells (HUVECs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Primary cultured HUVECs from full-term normal (n = 44) and diet-treated GDM (n = 44) pregnancies were used. Insulin effect was assayed on hENT1 expression (protein, mRNA, SLC29A1 promoter activity) and activity (initial rates of adenosine transport) as well as endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity (serine1177 phosphorylation, l-citrulline formation). Adenosine concentration in culture medium and umbilical vein blood (high-performance liquid chromatography) as well as insulin receptor A and B expression (quantitative PCR) were determined. Reactivity of umbilical vein rings to adenosine and insulin was assayed by wire myography. Experiments were in the absence or presence of l-NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; NO synthase inhibitor) or ZM-241385 (an A2A-adenosine receptor antagonist). RESULTS Umbilical vein blood adenosine concentration was higher, and the adenosine- and insulin-induced NO/endothelium-dependent umbilical vein relaxation was lower in GDM. Cells from GDM exhibited increased insulin receptor A isoform expression in addition to the reported NO–dependent inhibition of hENT1-adenosine transport and SLC29A1 reporter repression, and increased extracellular concentration of adenosine and NO synthase activity. Insulin reversed all these parameters to values in normal pregnancies, an effect blocked by ZM-241385 and l-NAME. CONCLUSIONS GDM and normal pregnancy HUVEC phenotypes are differentially responsive to insulin, a phenomenon where insulin acts as protecting factor for endothelial dysfunction characteristic of this syndrome. Abnormal adenosine plasma levels, and potentially A2A-adenosine receptors and insulin receptor A, will play crucial roles in this phenomenon in GDM. PMID:21515851

  16. Ligand-Binding Affinity at the Insulin Receptor Isoform-A and Subsequent IR-A Tyrosine Phosphorylation Kinetics are Important Determinants of Mitogenic Biological Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksha, Harinda; Forbes, Briony E.

    2015-01-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor that can mediate both metabolic and mitogenic biological actions. The IR isoform-A (IR-A) arises from alternative splicing of exon 11 and has different ligand binding and signaling properties compared to the IR isoform-B. The IR-A not only binds insulin but also insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) with high affinity. IGF-II acting through the IR-A promotes cancer cell proliferation, survival, and migration by activating some unique signaling molecules compared to those activated by insulin. This observation led us to investigate whether the different IR-A signaling outcomes in response to IGF-II and insulin could be attributed to phosphorylation of a different subset of IR-A tyrosine residues or to the phosphorylation kinetics. We correlated IR-A phosphorylation to activation of molecules involved in mitogenic and metabolic signaling (MAPK and Akt) and receptor internalization rates (related to mitogenic signaling). We also extended this study to incorporate two ligands that are known to promote predominantly mitogenic [(His4, Tyr15, Thr49, Ile51) IGF-I, qIGF-I] or metabolic (S597 peptide) biological actions, to see if common mechanisms can be used to define mitogenic or metabolic signaling through the IR-A. The threefold lower mitogenic action of IGF-II compared to insulin was associated with a decreased potency in activation of Y960, Y1146, Y1150, Y1151, Y1316, and Y1322, in MAPK phosphorylation and in IR-A internalization. With the poorly mitogenic S597 peptide, it was a decreased rate of tyrosine phosphorylation rather than potency that was associated with a low mitogenic potential. We conclude that both decreased affinity of IR-A binding and kinetics of IR-A phosphorylation can independently lead to a lower mitogenic activity. None of the studied parameters could account for the lower metabolic activity of qIGF-I. PMID:26217307

  17. Molecular characterization and tissue distribution of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator isoforms, ARNT1 and ARNT2, and identification of novel splice variants in common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Seon; Kim, Eun-Young; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-04-01

    High levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) are accumulated in fish-eating birds including common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). Most of the biochemical and toxic effects of TCDD are mediated by a basic helix-loop-helix and a conserved region among Per, ARNT, and Sim (bHLH/PAS) proteins, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT). To study the molecular mechanism of TCDD toxicity in common cormorant as an avian model species, characterization of the AHR/ARNT signaling pathway in this species is necessary. The present study focuses on molecular characterization of ARNT from common cormorant (ccARNT). The cDNA of the ccARNT isoform, ccARNT1 obtained by the screening of hepatic cDNA library contains a 2424-bp open reading frame that encodes 807 amino acids, exhibiting high identities (92%) with chicken ARNT. This isoform contains a unique 22 amino acid residue in 3' end of PAS A domain as is also recognized in chicken ARNT. The ccARNT2 cDNA isolated from brain tissue has a 2151-bp open reading frame. The deduced amino acid sequence of ccARNT2 protein (716 aa) shows a conservation of bHLH and PAS motif in its N-terminal region with high similarities (96% and 78%, respectively) to that of ccARNT1. Using quantitative RT-PCR methods, the tissue distribution profiles of ccARNT1 and ccARNT2 were unveiled. Both ccARNT1 and ccARNT2 mRNAs were ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues including liver. The expression profile of ccARNT1 was comparable with that of rodent ARNT1, but ccARNT2 was not with rodent ARNT2, implying different roles of ARNT2 between the two species. There was a significant positive correlation between ARNT1 and ARNT2 mRNA expression levels in the liver of wild cormorant population, indicating that their expressions may be enforced by similar transcriptional regulation mechanism. Novel variants of ccARNT1 and ccARNT2 isoforms that were supposed to

  18. Opposite effects of the p52shc/p46shc and p66shc splicing isoforms on the EGF receptor-MAP kinase-fos signalling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, E; Mele, S; Salcini, A E; Pelicci, G; Lai, K M; Superti-Furga, G; Pawson, T; Di Fiore, P P; Lanfrancone, L; Pelicci, P G

    1997-01-01

    Shc proteins are targets of activated tyrosine kinases and are implicated in the transmission of activation signals to Ras. The p46shc and p52shc isoforms share a C-terminal SH2 domain, a proline- and glycine-rich region (collagen homologous region 1; CH1) and a N-terminal PTB domain. We have isolated cDNAs encoding for a third Shc isoform, p66shc. The predicted amino acid sequence of p66shc overlaps that of p52shc and contains a unique N-terminal region which is also rich in glycines and prolines (CH2). p52shc/p46shc is found in every cell type with invariant reciprocal relationship, whereas p66shc expression varies from cell type to cell type. p66shc differs from p52shc/p46shc in its inability to transform mouse fibroblasts in vitro. Like p52shc/p46shc, p66shc is tyrosine-phosphorylated upon epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation, binds to activated EGF receptors (EGFRs) and forms stable complexes with Grb2. However, unlike p52shc/p46shc it does not increase EGF activation of MAP kinases, but inhibits fos promoter activation. The isolated CH2 domain retains the inhibitory effect of p66shc on the fos promoter. p52shc/p46shc and p66shc, therefore, appear to exert different effects on the EGFR-MAP kinase and other signalling pathways that control fos promoter activity. Regulation of p66shc expression might, therefore, influence the cellular response to growth factors. PMID:9049300

  19. Delayed Parturition and Altered Myometrial Progesterone Receptor Isoform A Expression in Mice Null for Kruppel-like Factor 9

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-term and delayed labor conditions are devastating health problems, with currently unknown etiologies. We previously showed that the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) influences the expression and/or transcriptional activity of receptors for estrogen and progesterone in endometria...

  20. Inhibition of insulin receptor gene expression and insulin signaling by fatty acid: interplay of PKC isoforms therein.

    PubMed

    Dey, Debleena; Mukherjee, Mohua; Basu, Dipanjan; Datta, Malabika; Roy, Sib Sankar; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Bhattacharya, Samir

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acids are known to play a key role in promoting the loss of insulin sensitivity causing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, underlying mechanism involved here is still unclear. Incubation of rat skeletal muscle cells with palmitate followed by I(125)- insulin binding to the plasma membrane receptor preparation demonstrated a two-fold decrease in receptor occupation. In searching the cause for this reduction, we found that palmitate inhibition of insulin receptor (IR) gene expression effecting reduced amount of IR protein in skeletal muscle cells. This was followed by the inhibition of insulin-stimulated IRbeta tyrosine phosphorylation that consequently resulted inhibition of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS 1) and IRS 1 associated phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3 Kinase), phosphoinositide dependent kinase-1 (PDK 1) phosphorylation. PDK 1 dependent phosphorylation of PKCzeta and Akt/PKB were also inhibited by palmitate. Surprisingly, although PKCepsilon phosphorylation is PDK1 dependent, palmitate effected its constitutive phosphorylation independent of PDK1. Time kinetics study showed translocation of palmitate induced phosphorylated PKCepsilon from cell membrane to nuclear region and its possible association with the inhibition of IR gene transcription. Our study suggests one of the pathways through which fatty acid can induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cell.

  1. Insulin receptor isoform A confers a higher proliferative capability to pancreatic beta cells enabling glucose availability and IGF-I signaling.

    PubMed

    Escribano, Oscar; Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Díaz-Castroverde, Sabela; Nevado, Carmen; García, Gema; Otero, Yolanda F; Perdomo, Liliana; Beneit, Nuria; Benito, Manuel

    2015-07-05

    The main compensatory response to insulin resistance is the pancreatic beta cell hyperplasia to account for increased insulin secretion. In fact, in a previous work we proposed a liver-pancreas endocrine axis with IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor type I) secreted by the liver acting on IRA insulin receptor in beta cells from iLIRKO mice (inducible Liver Insulin Receptor KnockOut) that showed a high IRA/IRB ratio. However, the role of insulin receptor isoforms in the IGF-I-induced beta cell proliferation as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. For this purpose, we have used four immortalized mouse beta cell lines: bearing IR (IRLoxP), lacking IR (IRKO), expressing exclusively IRA (IRA), or alternatively expressing IRB (IRB). Pancreatic beta cell proliferation studies showed that IRA cells are more sensitive than those expressing IRB to the mitogenic response induced by IGF-I, acting through the pathway IRA/IRS-1/2/αp85/Akt/mTORC1/p70S6K. More importantly, IRA beta cells, but not IRB, showed an increased glucose uptake as compared with IRLoxP cells, this effect being likely owing to an enhanced association between Glut-1 and Glut-2 with IRA. Overall, our results strongly suggest a prevalent role of IRA in glucose availability and IGF-I-induced beta cell proliferation mainly through mTORC1. These results could explain, at least partially, the role played by the liver-secreted IGF-I in the compensatory beta cell hyperplasia observed in response to severe hepatic insulin resistance in iLIRKO mice.

  2. Ecdysteroid receptor from the American lobster Homarus americanus: EcR/RXR isoform cloning and ligand-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Ann M; Behrendt, Lars; Stegeman, John J; Verslycke, Tim

    2011-09-01

    In arthropods, ecdysteroids regulate molting by activating a heterodimer formed by the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR). While this mechanism is similar in insects and crustaceans, variation in receptor splicing, dimerization and ligand affinity adds specificity to molting processes. This study reports the EcR and RXR sequences from American lobster, a commercially and ecologically important crustacean. We cloned two EcR splice variants, both of which specifically bind ponasterone A, and two RXR variants, both of which enhance binding of ponasterone A to the EcR. Lobster EcR has high affinity for ponasterone A and muristerone and moderately high affinity for the insecticide tebufenozide. Bisphenol A, diethyl phthalate, and two polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 29 and PCB 30), environmental chemicals shown to interfere with crustacean molting, showed little or no affinity for lobster EcR. These studies establish the molecular basis for investigation of lobster ecdysteroid signaling and signal disruption by environmental chemicals.

  3. Sequence analysis and identification of new isoform of EP4 receptors in different atlantic salmon tissues (Salmo salar L.) and its role in PGE2 induced immunomodulation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tz Chun; Gamil, Amr Ahmed Abdelrahim; Koenig, Melanie; Evensen, Øystein

    2015-01-01

    PGE2 plays an important role in a broad spectrum of physiological and pathological processes mediated through a membrane-bound G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) called EP receptor. In mammals, four subtypes of EP receptor (EP 1-4) are identified and each of them functions through different signal transduction pathways. Orthologous EP receptors have also been identified in other non-mammalian species, such as chicken and zebrafish. EP4 is the only identified PGE2 receptor to date in Atlantic salmon but its tissue distribution and function have not been studied in any detail. In this study, we first sequenced EP4 receptor in different tissues and found that the presence of the 3nt deletion in the 5' untranslated region was accompanied by silent mutation at nt 668. While attempting to amplify the same sequence in TO cells (an Atlantic salmon macrophage-like cell line), we failed to obtain the full-length product. Further investigation revealed different isoform of EP4 receptor in TO cells and we subsequently documented its presence in different Atlantic salmon tissues. These two isoforms of EP4 receptor share high homology in their first half of sequence but differ in the second half part with several deletion segments though the final length of coding sequence is the same for two isoforms. We further studied the immunomodulation effect of PGE2 in TO cells and found that PGE2 inhibited the induction of CXCL-10, CCL-4, IL-8 and IL-1β genes expression in a time dependent manner and without cAMP upregulation.

  4. Ryanodine modification of RyR1 retrogradely affects L-type Ca(2+) channel gating in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Bannister, R A; Beam, K G

    2009-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, there is bidirectional signalling between the L-type Ca(2+) channel (1,4-dihydropyridine receptor; DHPR) and the type 1 ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+) release channel (RyR1) of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In the case of "orthograde signalling" (i.e., excitation-contraction coupling), the conformation of RyR1 is controlled by depolarization-induced conformational changes of the DHPR resulting in Ca(2+) release from the SR. "Retrograde coupling" is manifested as enhanced L-type current. The nature of this retrograde signal, and its dependence on RyR1 conformation, are poorly understood. Here, we have examined L-type currents in normal myotubes after an exposure to ryanodine (200 microM, 1 h at 37 degrees C) sufficient to lock RyR1 in a non-conducting, inactivated, conformational state. This treatment caused an increase in L-type current at less depolarized test potentials in comparison to myotubes similarly exposed to vehicle as a result of a approximately 5 mV hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage-dependence of activation. Charge movements of ryanodine-treated myotubes were also shifted to more hyperpolarizing potentials (approximately 13 mV) relative to vehicle-treated myotubes. Enhancement of the L-type current by ryanodine was absent in dyspedic (RyR1 null) myotubes, indicating that ryanodine does not act directly on the DHPR. Our findings indicate that in retrograde signaling, the functional state of RyR1 influences conformational changes of the DHPR involved in activation of L-type current. This raises the possibility that physiological regulators of the conformational state of RyR1 (e.g., Ca(2+), CaM, CaMK, redox potential) may also affect DHPR gating.

  5. DSD-1-Proteoglycan/Phosphacan and receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase-beta isoforms during development and regeneration of neural tissues.

    PubMed

    Faissner, Andreas; Heck, Nicolas; Dobbertin, Alexandre; Garwood, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between neurons and glial cells play important roles in regulating key events of development and regeneration of the CNS. Thus, migrating neurons are partly guided by radial glia to their target, and glial scaffolds direct the growth and directional choice of advancing axons, e.g., at the midline. In the adult, reactive astrocytes and myelin components play a pivotal role in the inhibition of regeneration. The past years have shown that astrocytic functions are mediated on the molecular level by extracellular matrix components, which include various glycoproteins and proteoglycans. One important, developmentally regulated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is DSD-1-PG/phosphacan, a glial derived proteoglycan which represents a splice variant of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)-beta (also known as PTP-zeta). Current evidence suggests that this proteoglycan influences axon growth in development and regeneration, displaying inhibitory or stimulatory effects dependent on the mode of presentation, and the neuronal lineage. These effects seem to be mediated by neuronal receptors of the Ig-CAM superfamily.

  6. Tissue-specific expression of betaKlotho and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor isoforms determines metabolic activity of FGF19 and FGF21.

    PubMed

    Kurosu, Hiroshi; Choi, Mihwa; Ogawa, Yasushi; Dickson, Addie S; Goetz, Regina; Eliseenkova, Anna V; Mohammadi, Moosa; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Kliewer, Steven A; Kuro-o, Makoto

    2007-09-14

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 subfamily of ligands, FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23, function as hormones that regulate bile acid, fatty acid, glucose, and phosphate metabolism in target organs through activating FGF receptors (FGFR1-4). We demonstrated that Klotho and betaKlotho, homologous single-pass transmembrane proteins that bind to FGFRs, are required for metabolic activity of FGF23 and FGF21, respectively. Here we show that, like FGF21, FGF19 also requires betaKlotho. Both FGF19 and FGF21 can signal through FGFR1-3 bound by betaKlotho and increase glucose uptake in adipocytes expressing FGFR1. Additionally, both FGF19 and FGF21 bind to the betaKlotho-FGFR4 complex; however, only FGF19 signals efficiently through FGFR4. Accordingly, FGF19, but not FGF21, activates FGF signaling in hepatocytes that primarily express FGFR4 and reduces transcription of CYP7A1 that encodes the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. We conclude that the expression of betaKlotho, in combination with particular FGFR isoforms, determines the tissue-specific metabolic activities of FGF19 and FGF21.

  7. Luteotropic and luteolytic factors regulate mRNA and protein expression of progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in the bovine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Rekawiecki, Robert; Kowalik, Magdalena Karolina; Kotwica, Jan

    2014-12-17

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of luteotropic and luteolytic factors on the mRNA and protein levels of progesterone receptor isoforms A (PGRA) and B (PGRB) in the bovine endometrium. Endometrial slices from Days 6-10 and 17-20 of the oestrous cycle were treated with LH (100ngmL-1), oestradiol (E2; 1×10-8M), prostaglandin (PG) E2 (1×10-6M) and PGF2? (1×10-6M) and the nitric oxide donor NONOate (1×10-4M); these treatments lasted for 6h for mRNA expression analysis and 24h for protein expression analysis. On Days 6-10 of the oestrous cycle PGRAB (PGRAB; the entire PGRA mRNA sequence is common to the PGRB mRNA sequence) mRNA expression in endometrial slices was enhanced by E2 treatment (PPGRB mRNA expression was increased by LH (PPPPGRAB mRNA expression increased after E2 (P2 (PPGRB mRNA expression was increased by PGE2 (P2? (PPPPPP2? (P2 (P2? (P<0.001). These data suggest that luteotropic and luteolytic factors affect PGRA and PGRB mRNA and protein levels, and this may regulate the effects of progesterone on endometrial cells.

  8. Ecdysone receptor isoform-B mediates soluble trehalase expression to regulate growth and development in the mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür).

    PubMed

    Tan, Y-A; Xiao, L-B; Zhao, J; Xiao, Y-F; Sun, Y; Bai, L-X

    2015-12-01

    Ecdysone receptor (EcR) is the hormonal receptor of ecdysteroids and strictly regulates growth and development in insects. However, the action mechanism of EcR is not very clear. In this study, the cDNA of EcR isoform-B was cloned from Apolygus lucorum (AlEcR-B) and its expression profile was investigated. We reduced AlEcR-B mRNA expression using systemic RNA interference in vivo, and obtained knockdown specimens. Examination of these specimens indicated that AlEcR-B is required for nymphal survival, and that reduced expression is associated with longer development time and lower nymphal weight. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of the observed suppression effects, we selected trehalase for a detailed study. Transcript encoding soluble trehalase (AlTre-1) was up-regulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone and in agreement with the mRNA expression of AlEcR-B. The expression profile of AlTre-1, soluble trehalase activity and translated protein level in the midgut of surviving nymphs were down-regulated, compared with controls, after the knockdown expression of AlEcR-B. By contrast, membrane-bound trehalase activity, the related gene expression and translated protein level remained at their initial levels. However, trehalose content significantly increased and the glucose content significantly decreased under the same conditions. We propose that AlEcR-B controls normal carbohydrate metabolism by mediating the expression of AlTre-1 to regulate the growth and development in A. lucorum, which provide an extended information into the functions of AlEcR-B.

  9. Secreted Isoform of Human Lynx1 (SLURP-2): Spatial Structure and Pharmacology of Interactions with Different Types of Acetylcholine Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyukmanova, E. N.; Shulepko, M. A.; Shenkarev, Z. O.; Bychkov, M. L.; Paramonov, A. S.; Chugunov, A. O.; Kulbatskii, D. S.; Arvaniti, M.; Dolejsi, Eva; Schaer, T.; Arseniev, A. S.; Efremov, R. G.; Thomsen, M. S.; Dolezal, V.; Bertrand, D.; Dolgikh, D. A.; Kirpichnikov, M. P.

    2016-08-01

    Human-secreted Ly-6/uPAR-related protein-2 (SLURP-2) regulates the growth and differentiation of epithelial cells. Previously, the auto/paracrine activity of SLURP-2 was considered to be mediated via its interaction with the α3β2 subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here, we describe the structure and pharmacology of a recombinant analogue of SLURP-2. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed a ‘three-finger’ fold of SLURP-2 with a conserved β-structural core and three protruding loops. Affinity purification using cortical extracts revealed that SLURP-2 could interact with the α3, α4, α5, α7, β2, and β4 nAChR subunits, revealing its broader pharmacological profile. SLURP-2 inhibits acetylcholine-evoked currents at α4β2 and α3β2-nAChRs (IC50 ~0.17 and >3 μM, respectively) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In contrast, at α7-nAChRs, SLURP-2 significantly enhances acetylcholine-evoked currents at concentrations <1 μM but induces inhibition at higher concentrations. SLURP-2 allosterically interacts with human M1 and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) that are overexpressed in CHO cells. SLURP-2 was found to promote the proliferation of human oral keratinocytes via interactions with α3β2-nAChRs, while it inhibited cell growth via α7-nAChRs. SLURP-2/mAChRs interactions are also probably involved in the control of keratinocyte growth. Computer modeling revealed possible SLURP-2 binding to the ‘classical’ orthosteric agonist/antagonist binding sites at α7 and α3β2-nAChRs.

  10. Secreted Isoform of Human Lynx1 (SLURP-2): Spatial Structure and Pharmacology of Interactions with Different Types of Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lyukmanova, E. N.; Shulepko, M. A.; Shenkarev, Z. O.; Bychkov, M. L.; Paramonov, A. S.; Chugunov, A. O.; Kulbatskii, D. S.; Arvaniti, M.; Dolejsi, Eva; Schaer, T.; Arseniev, A. S.; Efremov, R. G.; Thomsen, M. S.; Dolezal, V.; Bertrand, D.; Dolgikh, D. A.; Kirpichnikov, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Human-secreted Ly-6/uPAR-related protein-2 (SLURP-2) regulates the growth and differentiation of epithelial cells. Previously, the auto/paracrine activity of SLURP-2 was considered to be mediated via its interaction with the α3β2 subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here, we describe the structure and pharmacology of a recombinant analogue of SLURP-2. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed a ‘three-finger’ fold of SLURP-2 with a conserved β-structural core and three protruding loops. Affinity purification using cortical extracts revealed that SLURP-2 could interact with the α3, α4, α5, α7, β2, and β4 nAChR subunits, revealing its broader pharmacological profile. SLURP-2 inhibits acetylcholine-evoked currents at α4β2 and α3β2-nAChRs (IC50 ~0.17 and >3 μM, respectively) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In contrast, at α7-nAChRs, SLURP-2 significantly enhances acetylcholine-evoked currents at concentrations <1 μM but induces inhibition at higher concentrations. SLURP-2 allosterically interacts with human M1 and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) that are overexpressed in CHO cells. SLURP-2 was found to promote the proliferation of human oral keratinocytes via interactions with α3β2-nAChRs, while it inhibited cell growth via α7-nAChRs. SLURP-2/mAChRs interactions are also probably involved in the control of keratinocyte growth. Computer modeling revealed possible SLURP-2 binding to the ‘classical’ orthosteric agonist/antagonist binding sites at α7 and α3β2-nAChRs. PMID:27485575

  11. NF-κB and Androgen Receptor Variant 7 Induce Expression of SRD5A Isoforms and Confer 5ARI Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Austin, David C.; Strand, Douglas W.; Love, Harold L.; Franco, Omar E.; Grabowska, Magdalena M.; Miller, Nicole L.; Hameed, Omar; Clark, Peter E.; Matusik, Robert J.; Jin, Ren J.; Hayward, Simon W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is treated with 5α-reductase inhibitors (5ARI). These drugs inhibit the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone resulting in apoptosis and prostate shrinkage. Most patients initially respond to 5ARIs; however, failure is common especially in inflamed prostates, and often results in surgery. This communication examines a link between activation of NF-κB and increased expression of SRD5A2 as a potential mechanism by which patients fail 5ARI therapy. METHODS Tissue was collected from “Surgical” patients, treated specifically for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to advanced BPH; and, cancer free transition zone from “Incidental” patients treated for low grade, localized peripheral zone prostate cancer. Clinical, molecular and histopathological profiles were analyzed. Human prostatic stromal and epithelial cell lines were genetically modified to regulate NF-κB activity, androgen receptor (AR) full length (AR-FL), and AR variant 7 (AR-V7) expression. RESULTS SRD5A2 is upregulated in advanced BPH. SRD5A2 was significantly associated with prostate volume determined by Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS), and with more severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) determined by American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUASS). Synthesis of androgens was seen in cells in which NF-κB was activated. AR-FL and AR-V7 expression increased SRD5A2 expression while forced activation of NF-κB increased all three SRD5A isoforms. Knockdown of SRD5A2 in the epithelial cells resulted in significant reduction in proliferation, AR target gene expression, and response to testosterone (T). In tissue recombinants, canonical NF-κB activation in prostatic epithelium elevated all three SRD5A isoforms and resulted in in vivo growth under castrated conditions. CONCLUSION Increased BPH severity in patients correlates with SRD5A2 expression. We demonstrate that NF-κB and AR-V7 upregulate SRD5A expression providing a mechanism

  12. Onapristone (ZK299) and mifepristone (RU486) regulate the messenger RNA and protein expression levels of the progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in the bovine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Rekawiecki, Robert; Kowalik, Magdalena K; Kotwica, Jan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether progesterone (P(4)) and its antagonists, onapristone (ZK299) and mifepristone (RU486), affect the levels of PGRA and PGRB messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in the cow uterus which may be important in understanding whether the final physiological effect evoked by an antagonist depends on PGR isoform bound to the antagonist. Endometrial slices on Days 6 to 10 and 17 to 20 of the estrous cycle were treated for 6 or 24 hours for mRNA and protein expression analysis, respectively, with P4, ZK299, or RU486 at a dose of 10(-4), 10(-5), or 10(-6) M. In the samples on Days 6 to 10 of the estrous cycle, PGRAB mRNA was stimulated by P(4) (10(-4) M; P < 0.01) and RU486 (10(-6); P < 0.001) and was decreased by ZK299 (10(-5); P < 0.05). In contrast, PGRB mRNA was decreased by the all P(4) (P < 0.01) and ZK299 (P < 0.001) doses and by two of the RU486 doses (10(-4) M; P < 0.01 and 10(-5) M; P < 0.01). In samples on Days 17 to 20 of the estrous cycle, PGRAB mRNA was stimulated by RU486 (10(-5) M; P < 0.001). PGRB mRNA was decreased by P(4) (10(-4) and 10(-5) M; P < 0.001), ZK299 (10(-4) and 10(-5) M; P < 0.001), and RU486 (10(-4) M; P < 0.01 and 10(-6) M; P < 0.001) and was increased by ZK299 (10(-6) M; P < 0.001) and RU486 (10(-5) M; P < 0.001). In samples on Days 6 to 10 of the estrous cycle, PGRB protein levels were decreased (P < 0.05) by all three ZK299 doses and by two of the RU486 doses (10(-4) M; P < 0.05 and 10(-5) M; P < 0.01). In contrast, in samples on Days 17 to 20, both PGRA and PGRB protein levels were decreased by ZK299 stimulation (10(-5) M; P < 0.05 and 10(-5) M; P < 0.01, respectively), whereas only PGRA protein levels were increased by RU486 (10(-5) M; P < 0.01). Both ZK299 and RU486 may exhibit both agonist and antagonist properties depending on which receptor isoform they affect. As a result, an increase or decrease in the expression of a particular PGR isoform will be observed.

  13. The expression of the truncated isoform of somatostatin receptor subtype 5 associates with aggressiveness in medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Molè, Daniela; Gentilin, Erica; Ibañez-Costa, Alejandro; Gagliano, Teresa; Gahete, Manuel D; Tagliati, Federico; Rossi, Roberta; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa; Pansini, Giancarlo; Luque, Raúl M; Castaño, Justo P; degli Uberti, Ettore; Zatelli, Maria Chiara

    2015-11-01

    The truncated somatostatin receptor variant sst5TMD4 associates with increased invasiveness and aggressiveness in breast cancer. We previously found that sst5 activation may counteract sst2 selective agonist effects in a medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cell line, the TT cells, and that sst5TMD4 is overexpressed in poorly differentiated thyroid cancers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate sst5TMD4 expression in a series of human MTC and to explore the functional role of sst5TMD4 in TT cells. We evaluated sst5TMD4 and sst5 expression in 36 MTC samples. Moreover, we investigated the role of sst5TMD4 in TT cells evaluating cell number, DNA synthesis, free cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), calcitonin and vascular endothelial growth factor levels, cell morphology, protein expression, and invasion. We found that in MTC the balance between sst5TMD4 and sst5 expression influences disease stage. sst5TMD4 overexpression in TT cells confers a greater growth capacity, blocks sst2 agonist-induced antiproliferative effects, modifies the cell phenotype, decreases E-cadherin and phosphorylated β-catenin levels, increases vimentin, total β-catenin and phosphorylated GSK3B levels (in keeping with the development of epithelial to mesenchymal transition), and confers a greater invasion capacity. This is the first evidence indicating that sst5TMD4 is expressed in human MTC cells, where it associates with more aggressive behavior, suggesting that sst5TMD4 might play a functionally relevant role.

  14. The truncated isoform of somatostatin receptor5 (sst5TMD4) is associated with poorly differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Puig-Domingo, Manel; Luque, Raúl M; Reverter, Jordi L; López-Sánchez, Laura M; Gahete, Manuel D; Culler, Michael D; Díaz-Soto, Gonzalo; Lomeña, Francisco; Squarcia, Mattia; Mate, José Luis; Mora, Mireia; Fernández-Cruz, Laureano; Vidal, Oscar; Alastrué, Antonio; Balibrea, Jose; Halperin, Irene; Mauricio, Dídac; Castaño, Justo P

    2014-01-01

    Somatostatin receptors (ssts) are expressed in thyroid cancer cells, but their biological significance is not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess ssts in well differentiated (WDTC) and poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (PDTC) by means of imaging and molecular tools and its relationship with the efficacy of somatostatin analog treatment. Thirty-nine cases of thyroid carcinoma were evaluated (20 PDTC and 19 WDTC). Depreotide scintigraphy and mRNA levels of sst-subtypes, including the truncated variant sst5TMD4, were carried out. Depreotide scans were positive in the recurrent tumor in the neck in 6 of 11 (54%) PDTC, and in those with lung metastases in 5/11 cases (45.4%); sst5TMD4 was present in 18/20 (90%) of PDTC, being the most densely expressed sst-subtype, with a 20-fold increase in relation to sst2. In WDTC, sst2 was the most represented, while sst5TMD4 was not found; sst2 was significantly increased in PDTC in comparison to WDTC. Five depreotide positive PDTC received octreotide for 3-6 months in a pilot study with no changes in the size of the lesions in 3 of them, and a significant increase in the pulmonary and cervical lesions in the other 2. All PDTC patients treated with octreotide showed high expression of sst5TMD4. ROC curve analysis demonstrated that only sst5TMD4 discriminates between PDTC and WDTC. We conclude that sst5TMD4 is overexpressed in PDTC and may be involved in the lack of response to somatostatin analogue treatment.

  15. Developmental toxicity of 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zebrafish is differentially dependent on AH receptor isoforms and hepatic cytochrome P4501A metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Incardona, John P. . E-mail: john.incardona@noaa.gov; Day, Heather L.; Collier, Tracy K.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2006-12-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from fossil fuels are ubiquitous contaminants and occur in aquatic habitats as highly variable and complex mixtures of compounds containing 2 to 6 rings. For aquatic species, PAHs are generally accepted as acting through either of two modes of action: (1) 'dioxin-like' toxicity mediated by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which controls a battery of genes involved in PAH metabolism, such as cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and (2) 'nonpolar narcosis', in which tissue uptake is dependent solely on hydrophobicity and toxicity is mediated through non-specific partitioning into lipid bilayers. As part of a systematic analysis of mechanisms of PAH developmental toxicity in zebrafish, we show here that three tetracyclic PAHs (pyrene, chrysene, and benz[a]anthracene) activate the AHR pathway tissue-specifically to induce distinct patterns of CYP1A expression. Using morpholino knockdown of ahr1a, ahr2, and cyp1a, we show that distinct embryolarval syndromes induced by exposure to two of these compounds are differentially dependent on tissue-specific activation of AHR isoforms or metabolism by CYP1A. Exposure of embryos with and without circulation (silent heart morphants) resulted in dramatically different patterns of CYP1A induction, with circulation required to deliver some compounds to internal tissues. Therefore, biological effects of PAHs cannot be predicted simply by quantitative measures of AHR activity or a compound's hydrophobicity. These results indicate that current models of PAH toxicity in fish are greatly oversimplified and that individual PAHs are pharmacologically active compounds with distinct and specific cellular targets.

  16. Expression of autocrine prolactin and the short isoform of prolactin receptor are associated with inflammatory response and apoptosis in monocytes stimulated with Mycobacterium bovis proteins.

    PubMed

    López-Rincón, Gonzalo; Mancilla, Raúl; Pereira-Suárez, Ana L; Martínez-Neri, Priscila A; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Estrada-Chávez, Ciro

    2015-06-01

    Increased levels of prolactin (PRL) have recently been associated with carcinogenesis and the exacerbation of autoimmune diseases, and might be involved in the progression of tuberculosis (TB). To investigate the relationship between PRL and prolactin receptor (PRLr) expression with inflammatory response and apoptosis in monocytes, we used THP-1 cells stimulated with antigens of the Mycobacterium bovis AN5 strain culture filtrate protein (CFP-M. bovis). Western blot (WB), real-time Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and immunocytochemistry were performed to identify both PRL and PRLr molecules. PRL bioactivity and proinflammatory cytokine detection were assessed. The results showed that PRL and PRLr messenger RNA (mRNA) were synthesized in THP-1 monocytes induced with CFP-M. bovis at peaks of 176- and 404-fold, respectively. PRL forms of 60 and 80kDa and PRLr isoforms of 40, 50, and 65kDa were also identified as time-dependent, while 60-kDa PRL, as well as 40-, and 50-kDa PRLr, were found as soluble forms in culture media and later in the nucleus of THP-1 monocytes. PRL of 60kDa released by monocytes exhibited bioactivity in Nb2 cells, and both synthesized PRL and synthesized PRLr were related with nitrite and proinflammatory cytokine levels proapoptotic activity in CFP-M. bovis-induced monocytes. Our results suggest the overexpression of a full-autocrine loop of PRL and PRLr in monocytes that enhances the inflammatory response and apoptosis after priming with M. bovis antigens.

  17. Human Growth Hormone: 45-kDa Isoform with Extraordinarily Stable Interchain Disulfide Links has Attenuated Receptor-Binding and Cell-Proliferative Activities

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Juan J.; Grigorian, Alexei L.; Muñoz, Jesus; Aguilar, Roberto M.; Treviño, Lisa R.; Martinez, Andrew O.; Haro, Luis S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Human growth hormone (hGH) is a complex mixture of molecular isoforms. Gaps in our knowledge exist regarding the structures and biological significances of the uncharacterized hGH molecular variants. Mercaptoethanol-resistant 45-kDa human growth hormone (MER-45kDa hGH) is an extraordinarily stable disulfide-linked hGH homodimer whose biological significance is unknown. Objectives To elucidate the pharmacokinetic abilities of dimeric MER-45-kDa hGH to bind to GH and prolactin (PRL) receptors and to elucidate its abilities to stimulate cell-proliferation in lactogen-induced and somatogen-induced in vitro cell proliferation bioassays. Design The binding of MER-45-kDa hGH to GH and PRL receptors was tested in radioreceptorassays (RRAs). Competitive displacements of [125I]-bovine GH from bovine liver membranes, [125I]-ovine PRL from lactating rabbit mammary gland membranes and [125I]-hGH from human IM-9 lymphocytes by unlabelled GHs, PRLs or dimeric MER-45-kDa hGH were evaluated. The abilities of dimeric MER-45-kDa hGH to stimulate proliferation of lactogen-responsive Nb2 lymphoma cells and to stimulate proliferation of somatogen-responsive T47-D human breast cancer cells was assessed by incubation of cells with GHs or PRLs and subsequently measuring growth using the MTS cell proliferation assay. Results Dimeric MER-45-kDa hGH, compared to monomeric hGH, had reduced binding affinities to both GH and prolactin receptors. In a bovine liver GH radioreceptorassay its ED50 (197.5 pM) was 40.8% that of monomeric hGH. In a human IM-9 lymphocyte hGH RRA its ED50 (2.96 nM) was 26.2% that of monomeric hGH. In a lactating rabbit mammary gland prolactin RRA its ED50 (3.56 nM) was 16.8% that of a monomeric hGH. Dimeric MER-45-kDa hGH, compared to monomeric hGH, had a diminished capacity to stimulate proliferation of cells in vitro. In a dose-response relationship assessing proliferation of Nb2 lymphoma cells its ED50 (191 pM) was 18.0% that of monomeric hGH. While

  18. Temperature and Ca2+ dependence of [3H]ryanodine binding in the burbot (Lota lota L.) heart.

    PubMed

    Vornanen, Matti

    2006-02-01

    Opening and closing of the cardiac ryanodine (Ry) receptor (RyR) are coordinated by the free intracellular Ca2+ concentration, thus making the Ca2+ binding properties of the RyR important for excitation-contraction coupling. Unlike mammalian cardiac RyRs, which lose their normal function at low temperatures, RyRs of ectothermic vertebrates remain operative at 2-4 degrees C, as indicated by Ry sensitivity of contractile force. To investigate the mechanisms of low temperature adaptation of ectothermic RyRs, we compared Ca2+-dependent kinetics of [3H]ryanodine binding in cardiac preparations of a fish (burbot, Lota lota) and a mammal (rat). The number of ventricular [3H]ryanodine binding sites determined at 20 degrees C was 1.54 times higher in rat than burbot heart (0.401 +/- 0.039 and 0.264 +/- 0.019 pmol/mg protein, respectively) (P < 0.02), while the binding affinity (Kd) for [3H]ryanodine was similar (3.38 +/- 0.63 and 4.38 +/- 1.14 nM for rat and burbot, respectively) (P = 0.47). The high-affinity [3H]ryanodine binding to burbot and rat cardiac preparations was tightly coordinated by the free Ca2+ concentration at both 20 degrees C and 2 degrees C and did not differ between the two species. Half-maximal [3H]ryanodine binding occurred at 0.191 +/- 0.027 microM and 0.164 +/- 0.034 microM Ca2+ for rat and at 0.212 +/- 0.035 microM and 0.188 +/- 0.039 microM Ca2+ for burbot (P = 0.65), at 2 degrees C and 20 degrees C, respectively. In two other fish species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and crucian carp (Carassius carassius), the Ca2+-binding affinity at 20 degrees C was 4.4 and 5.9 times lower, respectively, than in the burbot. At 20 degrees C, the rate of [3H]ryanodine binding to the high-affinity binding site was similar in rat and burbot but was drastically slowed in rat at 2 degrees C. At 2 degrees C, [3H]ryanodine failed to dissociate from rat cardiac RyRs, and at 10 degrees C and 20 degrees C, the rate of dissociation was two to three times slower in

  19. Type I (RI) and type II (RII) receptors for transforming growth factor-beta isoforms are expressed subsequent to transforming growth factor-beta ligands during excisional wound repair.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, L. I.; Sung, J. J.; Siebert, J. W.; Longaker, M. T.

    1997-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta isoforms (TGF-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3) regulate cell growth and differentiation and have critical regulatory roles in the process of tissue repair and remodeling. Signal transduction for TGF-beta function is transmitted by a heteromeric complex of receptors consisting of two serine/threonine kinase transmembrane proteins (RI and RII). We have previously shown that each TGF-beta isoform is widely expressed in a distinct spatial and temporal pattern throughout the processes of excisional and incisional wound repair. As the presence of TGF-beta receptors determines cellular responsiveness, we have currently examined, by immunohistochemistry, the localization of RI (ALK-1, ALK-5) and RII throughout repair of full-thickness excisional wounds up to 21 days after wounding. The expression of RI (ALK-5) and RII co-localized in both the unwounded and wounded skin and was present in the same cell types as TGF-beta ligands. However, immunoreactivity for TGF-beta receptors, throughout repair, occurred 1 to 5 days later than TGF-beta isoform immunostaining. This implies that the presence of TGF-beta ligands may up-regulate TGF-beta receptors for function and/or may reflect a lag due to local processing of latent TGF-beta. As observed for the immunohistochemical localization of TGF-beta isoforms in unwounded skin, RI and RII were expressed throughout the four layers of the epidermis, showing a wavy pattern of slight to moderate immunostaining, and hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands were moderately immunoreactive. The extracellular matrix, fibroblasts, and blood vessels in the dermis were not immunoreactive. After injury, as observed for TGF-beta ligands, RI and RII expression was increased in the epidermis adjacent to the wound and the epithelium migrating over the wound was completely devoid of TGF-beta receptor immunoreactivity until re-epithelialization was completed by day 7 after wounding. The dermis was only

  20. Niflumic acid differentially modulates two types of skeletal ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+)-release channels.

    PubMed

    Oba, T

    1997-11-01

    The effects of niflumic acid on ryanodine receptors (RyRs) of frog skeletal muscle were studied by incorporating sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles into planar lipid bilayers. Frog muscle had two distinct types of RyRs in the SR: one showed a bell-shaped channel activation curve against cytoplasmic Ca2+ or niflumic acid, and its mean open probability (Po) was increased by perchlorate at 20-30 mM (termed "alpha-like" RyR); the other showed a sigmoidal activation curve against Ca2+ or niflumic acid, with no effect on perchlorate (termed "beta-like" RyR). The unitary conductance and reversal potential of both channel types were unaffected after exposure to niflumic acid when clamped at 0 mV. When clamped at more positive potentials, the beta-like RyR channel rectified this, increasing the unitary current. Treatment with niflumic acid did not inhibit the response of both channels to Ca2+ release channel modulators such as caffeine, ryanodine, and ruthenium red. The different effects of niflumic acid on Po and the unitary current amplitude in both types of channels may be attributable to the lack or the presence of inactivation sites and/or distinct responses to agonists.

  1. Cardiac toxicity of 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is differentially dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 isoform during zebrafish development

    SciTech Connect

    Incardona, John P. Linbo, Tiffany L.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2011-12-15

    Petroleum-derived compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), commonly occur as complex mixtures in the environment. Recent studies using the zebrafish experimental model have shown that PAHs are toxic to the embryonic cardiovascular system, and that the severity and nature of this developmental cardiotoxicity varies by individual PAH. In the present study we characterize the toxicity of the relatively higher molecular weight 5-ring PAHs benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[e]pyrene (BeP), and benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF). While all three compounds target the cardiovascular system, the underlying role of the ligand-activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR2) and the tissue-specific induction of the cytochrome p450 metabolic pathway (CYP1A) were distinct for each. BaP exposure (40 {mu}M) produced AHR2-dependent bradycardia, pericardial edema, and myocardial CYP1A immunofluorescence. By contrast, BkF exposure (4-40 {mu}M) caused more severe pericardial edema, looping defects, and erythrocyte regurgitation through the atrioventricular valve that were AHR2-independent (i.e., absent myocardial or endocardial CYP1A induction). Lastly, exposure to BeP (40 {mu}M) yielded a low level of CYP1A+ signal in the vascular endothelium of the head and trunk, without evident toxic effects on cardiac function or morphogenesis. Combined with earlier work on 3- and 4-ring PAHs, our findings provide a more complete picture of how individual PAHs may drive the cardiotoxicity of mixtures in which they predominate. This will improve toxic injury assessments and risk assessments for wild fish populations that spawn in habitats altered by overlapping petroleum-related human impacts such as oil spills, urban stormwater runoff, or sediments contaminated by legacy industrial activities. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PAH compounds with 5 rings in different arrangements caused differential tissue-specific patterns of CYP1A induction in zebrafish embryos. Black

  2. Differences between disease-associated endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) isoforms in cellular expression, interactions with tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) and regulation by cytokines.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, N; Low, W Y; Onipinla, A; Mein, C; Caulfield, M; Munroe, P B; Chernajovsky, Y

    2015-05-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) processes peptides for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I presentation and promotes cytokine receptor ectodomain shedding. These known functions of ERAP1 may explain its genetic association with several autoimmune inflammatory diseases. In this study, we identified four novel alternatively spliced variants of ERAP1 mRNA, designated as ΔExon-11, ΔExon-13, ΔExon-14 and ΔExon-15. We also observed a rapid and differential modulation of ERAP1 mRNA levels and spliced variants in different cell types pretreated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We have studied three full-length allelic forms of ERAP1 (R127-K528, P127-K528, P127-R528) and one spliced variant (ΔExon-11) and assessed their interactions with tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) in transfected cells. We observed variation in cellular expression of different ERAP1 isoforms, with R127-K528 being expressed at a much lower level. Furthermore, the cellular expression of full-length P127-K528 and ΔExon-11 spliced variant was enhanced significantly when co-transfected with TNF-R1. Isoforms P127-K528, P127-R528 and ΔExon-11 spliced variant associated with TNF-R1, and this interaction occurred in a region within the first 10 exons of ERAP1. Supernatant-derived vesicles from transfected cells contained the full-length and ectodomain form of soluble TNF-R1, as well as carrying the full-length ERAP1 isoforms. We observed marginal differences between TNF-R1 ectodomain levels when co-expressed with individual ERAP1 isoforms, and treatment of transfected cells with tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 exerted variable effects on TNF-R1 ectodomain cleavage. Our data suggest that ERAP1 isoforms may exhibit differential biological properties and inflammatory mediators could play critical roles in modulating ERAP1 expression, leading to altered functional activities of this enzyme.

  3. Differential regulation of insulin receptor substrates-1 and -2 (IRS-1 and IRS-2) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase isoforms in liver and muscle of the obese diabetic (ob/ob) mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Kerouz, N J; Hörsch, D; Pons, S; Kahn, C R

    1997-01-01

    Intracellular insulin signaling involves a series of alternative and complementary pathways created by the multiple substrates of the insulin receptor (IRS) and the various isoforms of SH2 domain signaling molecules that can interact with these substrates. In this study, we have evaluated the roles of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in signaling to the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase pathway in the ob/ob mouse, a model of the insulin resistance of obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. We find that the levels of expression of both IRS-1 and IRS-2 are decreased approximately 50% in muscle, whereas in liver the decrease is significantly greater for IRS-2 (72%) than for IRS-1 (29%). This results in differential decreases in IRS-1 and IRS-2 phosphorylation, docking of the p85alpha regulatory subunit of PI 3-kinase, and activation of this enzyme in these two insulin target tissues. In ob/ob liver there is also a change in expression of the alternatively spliced isoforms of the regulatory subunits for PI 3-kinase that was detected at the protein and mRNA level. This resulted in a 45% decrease in the p85alpha form of PI 3-kinase, a ninefold increase in the AS53/p55alpha, and a twofold increase in p50alpha isoforms. Thus, there are multiple alterations in the early steps of insulin signaling in the ob/ob mouse, with differential regulation of IRS-1 and IRS-2, various PI 3-kinase regulatory isoforms, and a lack of compensation for the decrease in insulin signaling by any of the known alternative pathways at these levels. PMID:9399964

  4. Activation of presynaptic and postsynaptic ryanodine-sensitive calcium stores is required for the induction of long-term depression at GABAergic synapses in the neonatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Caillard, O; Ben-Ari, Y; Gaïarsa, J L

    2000-09-01

    The role of internal calcium stores in the induction of long-term depression at GABAergic synapses was investigated in the neonatal rat hippocampus. Whole-cell recordings of CA3 pyramidal neurons were performed on hippocampal slices from neonatal (2-4 d old) rats. In control conditions, tetanic stimulation (TS) evoked an NMDA-dependent long-term depression of GABA(A) receptor-mediated postsynaptic responses (LTD(GABA-A)). LTD(GABA-A) was prevented when the cells were loaded with ruthenium red, a blocker of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) stores, whereas loading the cells with heparin, a blocker of IP3-induced Ca2+ release stores, had no effect. The effects of ryanodine, another compound that interferes with CICR stores, were also investigated. Intracellular injection of ryanodine prevented the induction of LTD(GABA-A) only when the TS was preceded by depolarizing pulses that increase intracellular Ca2+ concentration. When applied in the bath, ryanodine prevented the induction of LTD(GABA-A). Altogether, these results suggest that ryanodine acts as a Ca2+-dependent blocker of CICR stores and that the induction of LTD(GABA-A) required the activation of both presynaptic and postsynaptic CICR stores.

  5. T cell receptor complexes containing Fc epsilon RI gamma homodimers in lieu of CD3 zeta and CD3 eta components: a novel isoform expressed on large granular lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    CD3 zeta and CD3 eta form disulfide-linked homo- or heterodimers important in targeting partially assembled Ti alpha-beta/CD3 gamma delta epsilon T cell receptor (TCR) complexes to the cell surface and transducing stimulatory signals after antigen recognition. Here we identify a new TCR isoform expressed on splenic CD2+, CD3/Ti alpha- beta+, CD4-, CD8-, CD16+, NK1.1+ mouse large granular lymphocytes (LGL), which are devoid of CD3 zeta and CD3 eta proteins. The TCRs of this subset contain homodimers of the gamma subunit of the high affinity receptor for IgE (Fc epsilon RI gamma) in lieu of CD3 zeta and/or CD3 eta proteins. The LGL display natural killer-like activity and are cytotoxic for B cell hybridomas producing anti-CD3 epsilon and anti-CD16 monoclonal antibodies, demonstrating the signaling capacity of both TCR and CD16 in this cell type. These findings provide evidence for an additional level of complexity of TCR signal transduction isoforms in naturally occurring T cell subsets. PMID:1530959

  6. Muscle Dysfunction in Androgen Deprivation: Role of Ryanodine Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    during ADT-related bone loss. We studied the effect of ORX in young and aged mice over a period of 20 weeks after surgery. We found that ORX mice had...of BMD was reached at 4 weeks after ORX, we will measure muscle specific force at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after surgery to determine if an early calcium...pump has 100µl capacity with duration of release from 1-4 weeks . This will insure a constant release of S107 at 50mg/kg/day for 28 days. Dr

  7. Surface charge potentiates conduction through the cardiac ryanodine receptor channel

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Single channel currents through cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channels were measured in very low levels of current carrier (e.g., 1 mM Ba2+). The hypothesis that surface charge contributes to these anomalously large single channel currents was tested by changing ionic strength and surface charge density. Channel identity and sidedness was pharmacologically determined. At low ionic strength (20 mM Cs+), Cs+ conduction in the lumen-->myoplasm (L-->M) direction was significantly greater than in the reverse direction (301.7 +/- 92.5 vs 59.8 +/- 38 pS, P < 0.001; mean +/- SD, t test). The Cs+ concentration at which conduction reached half saturation was asymmetric (32 vs 222 mM) and voltage independent. At high ionic strength (400 mM Cs+), conduction in both direction saturated at 550 +/- 32 pS. Further, neutralization of carboxyl groups on the lumenal side of the channel significantly reduced conduction (333.0 +/- 22.5 vs 216.2 +/- 24.4 pS, P < 0.002). These results indicate that negative surface charge exists near the lumenal mouth of the channel but outside the electric field of the membrane. In vivo, this surface charge may potentiate conduction by increasing the local Ca2+ concentration and thus act as a preselection filter for this poorly selective channel. PMID:8035165

  8. A de novo novel cardiac ryanodine mutation (Ser4155Tyr) associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Mantziari, Lilian; Vassilikos, Vassilios; Anastasakis, Aris; Kotsaka, Xanthippi; Paraskevaidis, Stelios; Styliadis, Ioannis H; Luria, David

    2013-11-01

    We describe the case of a 14-year-old girl with a history of syncopal episodes triggered by stress or exercise. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia was diagnosed with the aid of an implantable loop recorder. The genetic testing of the patient and her family revealed a de novo novel missense mutation (Ser4155Tyr) in the exon 90 of the ryanodine receptor gene. This mutation affects a highly conserved residue (S4155) and results to replacement of serine (S) with tyrosine (Y) leading to change in physical and chemical properties. The girl was treated with an implantable defibrillator, metoprolol and flecainide. Over 1 year of follow-up she had no recurrence of ventricular tachycardia.

  9. Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component 1, serpine mRNA binding protein 1 and nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in the bovine myometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Slonina, Dominika; Kowalik, Magdalena K; Kotwica, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the (1) expression of progesterone membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), serpine mRNA binding protein 1 (SERBP1) and progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA and (2) protein expression levels of PGRMC1, SERBP1 and PR isoforms A and B in the bovine myometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Uteri from cows on days 1-5, 6-10, 11-16 and 17-21 of the estrous cycle and weeks 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12 of pregnancy were used (n=5-6 per period). There were no changes (P>0.05) in PGRMC1 mRNA expression during the estrous cycle, while expression of SERBP1 and PR mRNA was the lowest (P<0.05) on days 11-16 relative to other days of the cycle. The highest mRNA expression of PGRMC1, SERBP1 and PR was found during pregnancy. There were no changes (P>0.05) in SERBP1 protein expression in cycling and pregnant cows, while the highest (P<0.05) PGRMC1 protein expression was found during weeks 3-5 of pregnancy. Similar protein expression profiles for PRA and PRB were found, and protein levels were highest on days 1-5 of the estrous cycle. From day 6 of the cycle, PRA and PRB protein expression decreased and were maintained at this lower level during pregnancy. In conclusion, our study assessed mRNA and protein expression levels of PGRMC1, SERBP1 and PR in the bovine myometrium during the estrous cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy. It is possible that progesterone (P4) affects myometrial function in a genomic and nongenomic manner.

  10. Receptor-mediated stimulation of lipid signalling pathways in CHO cells elicits the rapid transient induction of the PDE1B isoform of Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated cAMP phosphodiesterase.

    PubMed

    Spence, S; Rena, G; Sullivan, M; Erdogan, S; Houslay, M D

    1997-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells) do not exhibit any Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE1) activity. Challenge of CHO cells with agonists for endogenous P2-purinoceptors, lysophosphatidic acid receptors and thrombin receptors caused a similar rapid transient induction of PDE1 activity in each instance. This was also evident on noradrenaline challenge of a cloned CHO cell line transfected so as to overexpress alpha 1B-adrenoceptors. This novel PDE1 activity appeared within about 15 min of exposure to ligands, rose to a maximum value within 30 min to 1 h and then rapidly decreased. In each case, the expression of novel PDE1 activity was blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D. Challenge with insulin of either native CHO cells or a CHO cell line transfected so as to overexpress the human insulin receptor failed to induce PDE1 activity. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analyses, using degenerate primers able to detect the PDE1C isoform, did not amplify any fragment from RNA preparations of CHO cells expressing PDE1 activity, although they did so from the human thyroid carcinoma FTC133 cell line. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analyses, using degenerate primers able to detect the PDE1A and PDE1B isoforms, successfully amplified a fragment of the predicted size from RNA preparations of both CHO cells expressing PDE1 activity and human Jurkat T-cells. Sequencing of the PCR products, generated using the PDE1A/B primers, yielded a novel sequence which, by analogy with sequences reported for bovine and murine PDE1B forms, suggests that the PDE1 species induced in CHO cells through protein kinase C activation and that expressed in Jurkat T-cells are PDE1B forms.

  11. Inhibition of tracheal smooth muscle contraction and myosin phosphorylation by ryanodine

    SciTech Connect

    Gerthoffer, W.T.; Murphey, K.A.; Khoyi, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that muscarinic activation of airway smooth muscle in low Ca++ solutions increases myosin phosphorylation without increasing tension. Blocking Ca++ influx reduced phosphorylation, but not to basal levels. It was proposed that release of intracellular Ca++ contributed to dissociation of phosphorylation and contraction. To test this hypothesis the effects of ryanodine were studied under similar conditions. Ryanodine (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) antagonized caffeine-induced contraction of canine tracheal smooth muscle. Ryanodine also reduced carbachol-induced contractions and carbachol-induced myosin phosphorylation. The effect of ryanodine on potassium and serotonin-induced contractions was also investigated to test for a nonspecific inhibitory effect. In contrast to the effect on carbachol responses, ryanodine (10(-5) M) potentiated the contractile response to low concentrations of serotonin and potassium, but had no effect on the maximum response to either stimulant. Carbachol (10(-6) M) and ryanodine (10(-5) M) both significantly decreased /sup 45/Ca++ content of tracheal muscle. The effect of ryanodine and carbachol together on /sup 45/Ca++ content was not greater than either drug alone suggesting that ryanodine reduces the caffeine and carbachol responses by depleting releaseable Ca++ stores. Ryanodine significantly reduced Ca++-induced contraction and myosin phosphorylation in carbachol-stimulated muscle, suggesting that some of the Ca++ responsible for elevated phosphorylation is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

  12. Activation of Type 1 CRH receptor isoforms induces serotonin release from human carcinoid BON-1N cells: an enterochromaffin cell model.

    PubMed

    Wu, S Vincent; Yuan, Pu-Qing; Lai, Jim; Wong, Kelvin; Chen, Monica C; Ohning, Gordon V; Taché, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    CRH and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) are expressed in human colonic enterochromaffin (EC) cells, but their interactions at the cellular level remain largely unknown. The mechanistic and functional relationship between CRH and 5-HT systems in EC cells was investigated in a human carcinoid cloned BON cell line (BON-1N), widely used as an in vitro model of EC cell function. First, we identified multiple CRH(1) splice variants, including CRH(1a), CRH(1c), CRH(1f), and a novel form lacking exon 4, designated here as CRH(1i), in the BON-1N cells. The expression of CRH(1i) was also confirmed in human brain cortex, pituitary gland, and ileum. Immunocytochemistry and immunoblot analysis confirmed that BON-1N cells were CRH(1) and 5-HT positive. CRH, urocortin (Ucn)-1, and cortagine, a selective CRH(1) agonist, all increased intracellular cAMP, and this concentration-dependent response was inhibited by CRH(1)-selective antagonist NBI-35965. CRH and Ucn-1, but not Ucn-2, stimulated significant ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In transfected human embryonic kidney-293 cells, CRH(1i) isoforms produced a significant increase in pERK1/2 in response to CRH(1) agonists that was sensitive to NBI-35965. CRH and Ucn-1 stimulated 5-HT release that reached a maximal increase of 3.3- and 4-fold at 10(-8) m over the basal level, respectively. In addition, exposure to CRH for 24-h up-regulated tryptophan hydroxylase-1 mRNA levels in the BON-1N cells. These findings define the expression of EC cell-specific CRH(1) isoforms and activation of CRH(1)-dependent pathways leading to 5-HT release and synthesis; thus, providing functional evidence of a link exists between CRH and 5-HT systems, which have implications in stress-induced CRH(1) and 5-HT-mediated stimulation of lower intestinal function.

  13. VEGFA splicing: divergent isoforms regulate spermatogonial stem cell maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Kevin M.; Clopton, Debra T.; Lu, Ningxia; Pohlmeier, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite being well-known for regulating angiogenesis in both normal and tumorigenic environments, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) has been recently implicated in male fertility, namely in the maintenance of spermatogonial stem cells (SSC). The VEGFA gene can be spliced into multiple distinct isoforms that are either angiogenic or antiangiogenic in nature. Although studies have demonstrated the alternative splicing of VEGFA, including the divergent roles of the two isoform family types, many investigations do not differentiate between them. Data concerning VEGFA in the mammalian testis are limited, but the various angiogenic isoforms appear to promote seminiferous cord formation and to form a gradient across which cells may migrate. Treatment with either antiangiogenic isoforms of VEGFA or with inhibitors to angiogenic signaling impair these processes. Serendipitously, expression of KDR, the primary receptor for both types of VEGFA isoforms, was observed on male germ cells. These findings led to further investigation of the way that VEGFA elicits avascular functions within testes. Following treatment of donor perinatal male mice with either antiangiogenic VEGFA165b or angiogenic VEGFA164 isoforms, seminiferous tubules were less colonized following transplantation with cells from VEGFA165b-treated donors. Thus, VEGFA165b and possibly other antiangiogenic isoforms of VEGFA reduce SSC number either by promoting premature differentiation, inducing cell death, or by preventing SSC formation. Thus, angiogenic isoforms of VEGFA are hypothesized to promote SSC self-renewal, and the divergent isoforms are thought to balance one another to maintain SSC homeostasis in vivo. PMID:26553653

  14. Isoform-specific monoubiquitination, endocytosis, and degradation of alternatively spliced ErbB4 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Sundvall, Maria; Korhonen, Anna; Paatero, Ilkka; Gaudio, Eugenio; Melino, Gerry; Croce, Carlo M; Aqeilan, Rami I; Elenius, Klaus

    2008-03-18

    Endocytosis and subsequent lysosomal degradation serve as a well characterized mechanism to fine-tune and down-regulate EGFR signaling. However, other members of the EGFR/ErbB receptor family have been reported to be endocytosis-impaired. Here we demonstrate that endocytosis of ErbB4 is regulated in an isoform-specific manner: CYT-1 isoforms were efficiently endocytosed whereas CYT-2 isoforms were endocytosis-impaired. CYT-1 isoforms in endocytic vesicles colocalized with Rab5 and Rab7 indicating trafficking via early endosomes to late endosomal/lysosomal structures. A PPXY motif within the CYT-1-specific sequence that lacks from CYT-2 was necessary both for ubiquitination and endocytosis of CYT-1 isoforms and provided a binding site for a WW domain-containing ubiquitin ligase Itch. Itch catalyzed ubiquitination of ErbB4 CYT-1, promoted its localization into intracellular vesicles, and stimulated degradation of ErbB4 CYT-1. Dominant negative Itch suppressed ErbB4 CYT-1 endocytosis and degradation. These data indicate that ErbB4 isoforms differ in endocytosis and degradation by a mechanism mediated by CYT-1-specific PPXY motif interacting with a WW domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase.

  15. Structural Basis of Dscam Isoform Specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Meijers,R.; Puettmann-Holgado, R.; Skiniotis, G.; Liu, J.; Walz, T.; Wang, J.; Schmucker, D.

    2007-01-01

    The Dscam gene gives rise to thousands of diverse cell surface receptors1 thought to provide homophilic and heterophilic recognition specificity for neuronal wiring and immune responses. Mutually exclusive splicing allows for the generation of sequence variability in three immunoglobulin ecto-domains, D2, D3 and D7. We report X-ray structures of the amino-terminal four immunoglobulin domains (D1-D4) of two distinct Dscam isoforms. The structures reveal a horseshoe configuration, with variable residues of D2 and D3 constituting two independent surface epitopes on either side of the receptor. Both isoforms engage in homo-dimerization coupling variable domain D2 with D2, and D3 with D3. These interactions involve symmetric, antiparallel pairing of identical peptide segments from epitope I that are unique to each isoform. Structure-guided mutagenesis and swapping of peptide segments confirm that epitope I, but not epitope II, confers homophilic binding specificity of full-length Dscam receptors. Phylogenetic analysis shows strong selection of matching peptide sequences only for epitope I. We propose that peptide complementarity of variable residues in epitope I of Dscam is essential for homophilic binding specificity.

  16. A novel substituted aminoquinoline selectively targets voltage-sensitive sodium channel isoforms and NMDA receptor subtypes and alleviates chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Tabakoff, Boris; Ren, Wenhua; Vanderlinden, Lauren; Snell, Lawrence D; Matheson, Christopher J; Wang, Ze-Jun; Levinson, Rock; Smothers, C Thetford; Woodward, John J; Honse, Yumiko; Lovinger, David; Rush, Anthony M; Sather, William A; Gustafson, Daniel L; Hoffman, Paula L

    2016-08-05

    Recent understanding of the systems that mediate complex disease states, has generated a search for molecules that simultaneously modulate more than one component of a pathologic pathway. Chronic pain syndromes are etiologically connected to functional changes (sensitization) in both peripheral sensory neurons and in the central nervous system (CNS). These functional changes involve modifications of a significant number of components of signal generating, signal transducing and signal propagating pathways. Our analysis of disease-related changes which take place in sensory neurons during sensitization led to the design of a molecule that would simultaneously inhibit peripheral NMDA receptors and voltage sensitive sodium channels. In the current report, we detail the selectivity of N,N-(diphenyl)-4-ureido-5,7-dichloro-2-carboxy-quinoline (DCUKA) for action at NMDA receptors composed of different subunit combinations and voltage sensitive sodium channels having different α subunits. We show that DCUKA is restricted to the periphery after oral administration, and that circulating blood levels are compatible with its necessary concentrations for effects at the peripheral cognate receptors/channels that were assayed in vitro. Our results demonstrate that DCUKA, at concentrations circulating in the blood after oral administration, can modulate systems which are upregulated during peripheral sensitization, and are important for generating and conducting pain information to the CNS. Furthermore, we demonstrate that DCUKA ameliorates the hyperalgesia of chronic pain without affecting normal pain responses in neuropathic and inflammation-induced chronic pain models.

  17. Isoforms of Melanopsin Mediate Different Behavioral Responses to Light

    PubMed Central

    Jagannath, Aarti; Hughes, Steven; Abdelgany, Amr; Pothecary, Carina A.; Di Pretoro, Simona; Pires, Susana S.; Vachtsevanos, Athanasios; Pilorz, Violetta; Brown, Laurence A.; Hossbach, Markus; MacLaren, Robert E.; Halford, Stephanie; Gatti, Silvia; Hankins, Mark W.; Wood, Matthew J.A.; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Melanopsin (OPN4) is a retinal photopigment that mediates a wide range of non-image-forming (NIF) responses to light [1, 2] including circadian entrainment [3], sleep induction [4], the pupillary light response (PLR) [5], and negative masking of locomotor behavior (the acute suppression of activity in response to light) [6]. How these diverse NIF responses can all be mediated by a single photopigment has remained a mystery. We reasoned that the alternative splicing of melanopsin could provide the basis for functionally distinct photopigments arising from a single gene. The murine melanopsin gene is indeed alternatively spliced, producing two distinct isoforms, a short (OPN4S) and a long (OPN4L) isoform, which differ only in their C terminus tails [7]. Significantly, both isoforms form fully functional photopigments [7]. Here, we show that different isoforms of OPN4 mediate different behavioral responses to light. By using RNAi-mediated silencing of each isoform in vivo, we demonstrated that the short isoform (OPN4S) mediates light-induced pupillary constriction, the long isoform (OPN4L) regulates negative masking, and both isoforms contribute to phase-shifting circadian rhythms of locomotor behavior and light-mediated sleep induction. These findings demonstrate that splice variants of a single receptor gene can regulate strikingly different behaviors. PMID:26320947

  18. Isoforms of Melanopsin Mediate Different Behavioral Responses to Light.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, Aarti; Hughes, Steven; Abdelgany, Amr; Pothecary, Carina A; Di Pretoro, Simona; Pires, Susana S; Vachtsevanos, Athanasios; Pilorz, Violetta; Brown, Laurence A; Hossbach, Markus; MacLaren, Robert E; Halford, Stephanie; Gatti, Silvia; Hankins, Mark W; Wood, Matthew J A; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N

    2015-09-21

    Melanopsin (OPN4) is a retinal photopigment that mediates a wide range of non-image-forming (NIF) responses to light including circadian entrainment, sleep induction, the pupillary light response (PLR), and negative masking of locomotor behavior (the acute suppression of activity in response to light). How these diverse NIF responses can all be mediated by a single photopigment has remained a mystery. We reasoned that the alternative splicing of melanopsin could provide the basis for functionally distinct photopigments arising from a single gene. The murine melanopsin gene is indeed alternatively spliced, producing two distinct isoforms, a short (OPN4S) and a long (OPN4L) isoform, which differ only in their C terminus tails. Significantly, both isoforms form fully functional photopigments. Here, we show that different isoforms of OPN4 mediate different behavioral responses to light. By using RNAi-mediated silencing of each isoform in vivo, we demonstrated that the short isoform (OPN4S) mediates light-induced pupillary constriction, the long isoform (OPN4L) regulates negative masking, and both isoforms contribute to phase-shifting circadian rhythms of locomotor behavior and light-mediated sleep induction. These findings demonstrate that splice variants of a single receptor gene can regulate strikingly different behaviors.

  19. DNA signals at isoform promoters

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhiming; Xiong, Yuanyan; Dai, Xianhua

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional heterogeneity is extensive in the genome, and most genes express variable transcript isoforms. However, whether variable transcript isoforms of one gene are regulated by common promoter elements remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated whether isoform promoters of one gene have separated DNA signals for transcription and translation initiation. We found that TATA box and nucleosome-disfavored DNA sequences are prevalent in distinct transcript isoform promoters of one gene. These DNA signals are conserved among species. Transcript isoform has a RNA-determined unstructured region around its start site. We found that these DNA/RNA features facilitate isoform transcription and translation. These results suggest a DNA-encoded mechanism by which transcript isoform is generated. PMID:27353836

  20. Changes in Knee Laxity and Relaxin Receptor Isoforms Expression (RXFP1/RXFP2) in the Knee throughout Estrous Cycle Phases in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Firouzeh; Soori, Rahman; Dehghan, Parvin; Gholami, Khadijeh; Muniandy, Sekaran; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Yusof, Ashril

    2016-01-01

    The changes in knee laxity and relaxin receptor expression at different phases of rodent estrous cycle are not known. Here, changes in the parameter were investigated in rats at different phases of the estrous cycle. Estrous cycle phases of intact female rats were determined by cytological examination of the vaginal smear. Following phase identification, blood was collected for serum hormone analyses. Knee passive range of motion (ROM) was determined by using a digital miniature goniometer. The animals were then sacrificed and patellar tendon, collateral ligaments and hamstring muscles were harvested for relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 and 2 (RXFP1/RXFP2) analyses. Knee passive ROM was the highest at proestrus followed by diestrus and the lowest at estrus. Estrogen level was the highest at proestrus while progesterone and relaxin levels were the highest at diestrus. A strong correlation was observed between relaxin and progesterone levels. At proestrus, expression of RXFP1 and RXFP2 proteins and mRNAs were the highest at proestrus followed by diestrus and estrus. The finding shows that higher level of progesterone and relaxin in diestrus might be responsible for higher laxity of knee joint in rats.

  1. Changes in Knee Laxity and Relaxin Receptor Isoforms Expression (RXFP1/RXFP2) in the Knee throughout Estrous Cycle Phases in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Firouzeh; Soori, Rahman; Dehghan, Parvin; Gholami, Khadijeh; Muniandy, Sekaran; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Yusof, Ashril

    2016-01-01

    The changes in knee laxity and relaxin receptor expression at different phases of rodent estrous cycle are not known. Here, changes in the parameter were investigated in rats at different phases of the estrous cycle. Estrous cycle phases of intact female rats were determined by cytological examination of the vaginal smear. Following phase identification, blood was collected for serum hormone analyses. Knee passive range of motion (ROM) was determined by using a digital miniature goniometer. The animals were then sacrificed and patellar tendon, collateral ligaments and hamstring muscles were harvested for relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 and 2 (RXFP1/RXFP2) analyses. Knee passive ROM was the highest at proestrus followed by diestrus and the lowest at estrus. Estrogen level was the highest at proestrus while progesterone and relaxin levels were the highest at diestrus. A strong correlation was observed between relaxin and progesterone levels. At proestrus, expression of RXFP1 and RXFP2 proteins and mRNAs were the highest at proestrus followed by diestrus and estrus. The finding shows that higher level of progesterone and relaxin in diestrus might be responsible for higher laxity of knee joint in rats. PMID:27513858

  2. Skeletal muscle calcium channel ryanodine and the development of pale, soft, and exudative meat in poultry.

    PubMed

    Paião, F G; Ferracin, L M; Pedrão, M; Kato, T; Shimokomaki, M

    2013-08-20

    The development of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) breast fillet meat has become an economic burden for the poultry industry worldwide. PSE meat results in 1.0-1.5% loss in moisture and carcass weight, and a 2010 estimate of the Brazilian annual production put the economic loss due to PSE at over US$30 million. In the USA, PSE has caused an annual loss of up to US$200 million to the poultry industries. The underlying causes of the color abnormality in PSE meat are not fully understood. However, the likely physiological origin of PSE broiler meat is an excessive release of Ca(2+) promoted by a genetic mutation of the ryanodine receptor (RYR), a Ca(2+)-channel protein in the skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. In pigs, the genetic cause of PSE meat has been identified as a point mutation in the RYR1 gene at nucleotide 1843, which causes an amino acid substitution (Arg615 to Cys615) in the RYR. This mutation leads to an alteration in Ca(2+) homeostasis, hypermetabolism, intense muscle contraction, and malignant hyperthermia in pigs susceptible to porcine stress syndrome. An understanding of this process represents the basis for breeding strategies aimed at eliminating the RYR1 mutation from global pig populations, a strategy that the poultry industry intends to emulate. The aim of this study was to review the subject, with an emphasis on the most recent developments in the field.

  3. Effects of ryanodine on cardiac contraction, excitation-contraction coupling and "Treppe" in the conscious dog.

    PubMed

    Kalthof, B; Sato, N; Iwase, M; Shen, Y T; Mirsky, I; Patrick, T A; Vatner, S F

    1995-10-01

    The effects of ryanodine on left ventricular (LV) function and hemodynamics were studied in 16 conscious dogs, chronically instrumented for measurements of LV pressures and dimensions. Systemic infusion of ryanodine (0.5-4 micrograms/kg i.v.) resulted in a dose-dependent depression of cardiac contraction. For example, ryanodine, 4 micrograms/kg i.v., decreased LV fractional shortening by 30.5 +/- 4.1%, LV dP/dt by 41.5 +/- 4.0% and Vcfc by 37.8 +/- 4.1%, while increasing the isovolumic relaxation time constant, tau, from 23.1 +/- 1.4 to 34.1 +/- 3.6 ms without a major effect on preload or afterload. Ryanodine also depressed (P < 0.05) the plateau phase of the mechanical restitution and post-extrasystolic potentiation responses, indicating a direct effect on excitation-contraction coupling. The heart rate dependent positive staircase ("Treppe") was significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) after ryanodine infusion, i.e. LV dP/dt rose by 43.1 +/- 4.7% with an increase in heart rate from 150 to 240 beats/min in the presence of ryanodine 4 micrograms/kg, but by only 7.5 +/- 2.1% without ryanodine. The more pronounced "Treppe" in the conscious dog under the condition of impaired SR calcium release caused by ryanodine, supports the concept that the classical Bowditch "Treppe" reflects either a state of myocardial depression due to alteration in SR calcium handling, or enhanced availability of trans-sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx. This finding may help to understand the discrepancy in the importance of the "Treppe" between conscious animals and more isolated preparations.

  4. Postnatal exposure to a high-carbohydrate diet interferes epigenetically with thyroid hormone receptor induction of the adult male rat skeletal muscle glucose transporter isoform 4 expression.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Nupur; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Srinivasan, Malathi; Mahmood, Saleh; Patel, Mulchand S; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2014-10-01

    Early life nutritional intervention causes adult-onset insulin resistance and obesity in rats. Thyroid hormone receptor (TR), in turn, transcriptionally enhances skeletal muscle Glut4 expression. We tested the hypothesis that reduced circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone and T4 concentrations encountered in postnatal (PN4-PN24) high-carbohydrate (HC) milk formula-fed versus the mother-fed controls (MF) would epigenetically interfere with TR induction of adult (100 days) male rat skeletal muscle Glut4 expression, thereby providing a molecular mechanism mediating insulin resistance. We observed increased DNA methylation of the CpG island with enhanced recruitment of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b and MeCP2 in the glut4 promoter region along with reduced acetylation of histone (H)2A.Z and H4 particularly at the H4.lysine (K)16 residue, which was predominantly mediated by histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). This was followed by enhanced recruitment of heterochromatin protein 1β to the glut4 promoter with increased Suv39H1 methylase concentrations. These changes reduced TR binding of the T3 response element of the glut4 gene (TREs; -473 to -450 bp) detected qualitatively in vivo (electromobility shift assay) and quantified ex vivo (chromatin immunoprecipitation). In addition, the recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator and CREB-binding protein to the glut4 promoter-protein complex was reduced. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the interaction between TR and CBP to be reduced and HDAC4 to be enhanced in HC versus MF groups. These molecular changes were associated with diminished skeletal muscle Glut4 mRNA and protein concentrations. We conclude that early postnatal exposure to HC diet epigenetically reduced TR induction of adult male skeletal muscle Glut4 expression, uncovering novel molecular mechanisms contributing to adult insulin resistance and obesity.

  5. Coupling of D2R Short but not D2R Long receptor isoform to the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway renders striatal neurons vulnerable to mutant huntingtin.

    PubMed

    Galan-Rodriguez, Beatriz; Martin, Elodie; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Déglon, Nicole; Betuing, Sandrine; Caboche, Jocelyne

    2017-01-01

    Huntington's disease, an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, results from abnormal polyglutamine extension in the N-terminal region of the huntingtin protein. This mutation causes preferential degeneration of striatal projection neurons. We previously demonstrated, in vitro, that dopaminergic D2 receptor stimulation acted in synergy with expanded huntingtin to increase aggregates formation and striatal death through activation of the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway. In vivo, in a lentiviral-mediated model of expanded huntingtin expression in the rat striatum, we found that the D2 antagonist haloperidol protects striatal neurons against expanded huntingtin-mediated toxicity. Two variant transcripts are generated by alternative splicing of the of D2 receptor gene, the D2R-Long and the D2R-Short, which are thought to play different functional roles. We show herein that overexpression of D2R-Short, but not D2R-Long in cell lines is associated with activation of the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. In striatal neurons in culture, the selective D2 agonist Quinpirole triggers phosphorylation of cofilin, a downstream effector of ROCK, which is abrogated by siRNAs that knockdown both D2R-Long and D2R-Short, but not by siRNAs targeting D2R-Long alone. Aggregate formation and neuronal death induced by expanded huntingtin, were potentiated by Quinpirole. This D2 agonist-mediated effect was selectively inhibited by the siRNA targeting both D2R-Long and D2R-Short but not D2R-Long alone. Our data provide evidence for a specific coupling of D2R-Short to the RhoA/ROCK/cofilin pathway, and its involvement in striatal vulnerability to expanded huntingtin. A new route for targeting Rho-ROCK signaling in Huntington's disease is unraveled with our findings.

  6. Improved recovery and delayed cytokine induction after closed head injury in mice with central overexpression of the secreted isoform of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Tehranian, Roya; Andell-Jonsson, Siv; Beni, Sara M; Yatsiv, Ido; Shohami, Esther; Bartfai, Tamas; Lundkvist, Johan; Iverfeldt, Kerstin

    2002-08-01

    The acute inflammatory response following traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been shown to play an important role in the development of secondary tissue damage. The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), are induced early after brain injury and have been implicated in the delayed damage. The IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) has been shown to modulate the proinflammatory cytokine cascade by blocking the binding of IL-1 to its signaling receptor. In this study, we investigated the effect of transgenic overexpression of IL-1ra on the cytokine expression and neurological damage in a closed head injury (CHI) model of TBI. The neurological recovery, as analyzed by neurological severity score (NSS), was significantly higher in transgenic mice overexpressing the human secreted form of IL-1ra in astrocytes, directed by the murine glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter, as compared to wild-type mice. Analysis of tissue levels of cytokines by ELISA showed increased levels of TNFalpha in the cerebral cortex from the wild type mice 1 h after injury. After 4 h significant increases in the levels of IL-1beta and IL-6 were observed in the wild type mice. In the transgenic mice, on the other hand, no effect on TNFalpha levels was observed and no significant increases in IL-1beta and IL-6 levels could be detected until 6 h after injury. Thus, it can be concluded that blockage of IL-1 signaling by elevated levels of IL-1ra has a neuroprotective effect, in agreement with previous reports, and that central overexpression of IL-1ra results in delayed proinflammatory cytokine induction and improved neurological recovery after traumatic brain injury.

  7. Laminin isoforms and their integrin receptors in glioma cell migration and invasiveness: Evidence for a role of alpha5-laminin(s) and alpha3beta1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Kawataki, Tomoyuki; Yamane, Tetsu; Naganuma, Hirofumi; Rousselle, Patricia; Andurén, Ingegerd; Tryggvason, Karl; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2007-11-01

    Glioma cell infiltration of brain tissue often occurs along the basement membrane (BM) of blood vessels. In the present study we have investigated the role of laminins, major structural components of BMs and strong promoters of cell migration. Immunohistochemical studies of glioma tumor tissue demonstrated expression of alpha2-, alpha3-, alpha4- and alpha5-, but not alpha1-, laminins by the tumor vasculature. In functional assays, alpha3 (Lm-332/laminin-5)- and alpha5 (Lm-511/laminin-10)-laminins strongly promoted migration of all glioma cell lines tested. alpha1-Laminin (Lm-111/laminin-1) displayed lower activity, whereas alpha2 (Lm-211/laminin-2)- and alpha4 (Lm-411/laminin-8)-laminins were practically inactive. Global integrin phenotyping identified alpha3beta1 as the most abundant integrin in all the glioma cell lines, and this laminin-binding integrin exclusively or largely mediate the cell migration. Moreover, pretreatment of U251 glioma cells with blocking antibodies to alpha3beta1 integrin followed by intracerebral injection into nude mice inhibited invasion of the tumor cells into the brain tissue. The cell lines secreted Lm-211, Lm-411 and Lm-511, at different ratios. The results indicate that glioma cells secrete alpha2-, alpha4- and alpha5-laminins and that alpha3- and alpha5-laminins, found in brain vasculature, selectively promote glioma cell migration. They identify alpha3beta1 as the predominant integrin and laminin receptor in glioma cells, and as a brain invasion-mediating integrin.

  8. Cell-specific expression of TLR9 isoforms in inflammation.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Kelly J; Highton, John; Hessian, Paul A

    2011-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key pattern recognition receptors during an immune response. With five isoforms of human TLR9 described, we hypothesised that differential expression of TLR9 isoforms in different cell types would result in variable contributions to the overall input from TLR9 during inflammation. We assessed the molecular expression of the TLR9 isoforms, TLR9-A, -C and -D. In normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, B-lymphocytes express ∼100-fold more TLR9-A transcript than monocytes or T-lymphocytes, which predominantly express the TLR9-C transcript. Switches in isoform predominance accompany B-lymphocyte development. TLR9 protein expression in rheumatoid inflammatory lesions reflected the TLR9 isoform expression by immune cells. Herein we suggest that B-lymphocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells contribute the ∼3-fold higher TLR9-A transcript levels observed in inflamed synovium when compared to subcutaneous rheumatoid nodules. In contrast, macrophages and T-lymphocytes contribute the ∼4-fold higher TLR9-C transcript levels seen in nodules, compared to synovia. From protein sequence, predictions of subcellular localisation suggest TLR9-B may locate to the mitochondria, whereas TLR9-D adopts an opposing orientation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Consistent with this, structure models raise the possibility of alternative ligands for the TLR9-B and TLR9-D variants. Our results highlight differences in the expression of human TLR9 isoforms in normal and inflamed tissues, with differing contributions to inflammation.

  9. Cardiac toxicity of 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is differentially dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 isoform during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Linbo, Tiffany L; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2011-12-01

    Petroleum-derived compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), commonly occur as complex mixtures in the environment. Recent studies using the zebrafish experimental model have shown that PAHs are toxic to the embryonic cardiovascular system, and that the severity and nature of this developmental cardiotoxicity varies by individual PAH. In the present study we characterize the toxicity of the relatively higher molecular weight 5-ring PAHs benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[e]pyrene (BeP), and benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF). While all three compounds target the cardiovascular system, the underlying role of the ligand-activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR2) and the tissue-specific induction of the cytochrome p450 metabolic pathway (CYP1A) were distinct for each. BaP exposure (40μM) produced AHR2-dependent bradycardia, pericardial edema, and myocardial CYP1A immunofluorescence. By contrast, BkF exposure (4-40μM) caused more severe pericardial edema, looping defects, and erythrocyte regurgitation through the atrioventricular valve that were AHR2-independent (i.e., absent myocardial or endocardial CYP1A induction). Lastly, exposure to BeP (40μM) yielded a low level of CYP1A+ signal in the vascular endothelium of the head and trunk, without evident toxic effects on cardiac function or morphogenesis. Combined with earlier work on 3- and 4-ring PAHs, our findings provide a more complete picture of how individual PAHs may drive the cardiotoxicity of mixtures in which they predominate. This will improve toxic injury assessments and risk assessments for wild fish populations that spawn in habitats altered by overlapping petroleum-related human impacts such as oil spills, urban stormwater runoff, or sediments contaminated by legacy industrial activities.

  10. Ryanodine modification of cardiac muscle responses to potassium-free solutions. Evidence for inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    To test whether ryanodine blocks the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiac muscle, we examined its effects on the aftercontractions and transient depolarizations or transient inward currents developed by guinea pig papillary muscles and voltage-clamped calf cardiac Purkinje fibers in potassium-free solutions. Ryanodine (0.1-1.0 microM) abolished or prevented aftercontractions and transient depolarizations by the papillary muscles without affecting any of the other sequelae of potassium removal. In the presence of 4.7 mM potassium and at a stimulation rate of 1 Hz, ryanodine had only a small variable effect on papillary muscle force development and action potential characteristics. In calf Purkinje fibers, ryanodine (1 nM-1 microM) completely blocked the aftercontractions and transient inward currents without altering the steady state current-voltage relationship. Ryanodine also abolished the twitch in potassium-free solutions, but it enhanced the tonic force during depolarizing voltage- clamp steps. This latter effect was dependent on the combination of ryanodine and potassium-free solutions. The slow inward current was not blocked by 1 microM ryanodine, but ryanodine did appear to abolish an outward current that remained in the presence of 0.5 mM 4- aminopyridine. Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that ryanodine, by inhibiting the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, prevents the oscillations in intracellular calcium that activate the transient inward currents and aftercontractions associated with calcium overload states. PMID:6631403

  11. The paired basic amino acid-cleaving enzyme 4 (PACE4) is involved in the maturation of insulin receptor isoform B: an opportunity to reduce the specific insulin receptor-dependent effects of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2).

    PubMed

    Kara, Imène; Poggi, Marjorie; Bonardo, Bernadette; Govers, Roland; Landrier, Jean-François; Tian, Sun; Leibiger, Ingo; Day, Robert; Creemers, John W M; Peiretti, Franck

    2015-01-30

    Gaining the full activity of the insulin receptor (IR) requires the proteolytic cleavage of its proform by intra-Golgi furin-like activity. In mammalian cells, IR is expressed as two isoforms (IRB and IRA) that are responsible for insulin action. However, only IRA transmits the growth-promoting and mitogenic effects of insulin-like growth factor 2. Here we demonstrate that the two IR isoforms are similarly cleaved by furin, but when this furin-dependent maturation is inefficient, IR proforms move to the cell surface where the proprotein convertase PACE4 selectively supports IRB maturation. Therefore, in situations of impaired furin activity, the proteolytic maturation of IRB is greater than that of IRA, and accordingly, the amount of phosphorylated IRB is also greater than that of IRA. We highlight the ability of a particular proprotein convertase inhibitor to effectively reduce the maturation of IRA and its associated mitogenic signaling without altering the signals emanating from IRB. In conclusion, the selective PACE4-dependent maturation of IRB occurs when furin activity is reduced; accordingly, the pharmacological inhibition of furin reduces IRA maturation and its mitogenic potential without altering the insulin effects.

  12. Inhibition of aryl hydrocarbon receptor transactivation and DNA adduct formation by CYP1 isoform-selective metabolic deactivation of benzo[a]pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Kaori; Uno, Shigeyuki; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko; Kusumi, Yoshiaki; Mitsumata, Masako; Yamada, Sachiko; Makishima, Makoto

    2008-07-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polyaromatic hydrocarbon produced by the combustion of cigarettes and coke ovens, is a known procarcinogen. BaP activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and induces the expression of a battery of genes, including CYP1A1, which metabolize BaP to toxic compounds. The possible role of CYP1 enzymes in mediating BaP detoxification or metabolic activation remains to be elucidated. In this study, we assessed the effects of CYP1 enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1) on BaP-induced AhR transactivation and DNA adduct formation in HEK293 cells and HepG2 cells. Transfection of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, but not CYP1A2, suppressed BaP-induced activation of AhR. Expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, but not CYP1B1, inhibited DNA adduct formation in BaP-treated HepG2 cells. These results indicate that CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 play a role in deactivation of BaP on AhR and that CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 are involved in BaP detoxification by suppressing DNA adduct formation. BaP treatment did not induce DNA adduct formation in HEK293 cells, even after transfection of CYP1 enzymes, suggesting that expression of CYP1 enzymes is not sufficient for DNA adduct formation. Lower expression of epoxide hydrolase and higher expression of glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and GSTM1/M2 were observed in HEK293 cells compared with HepG2 cells. Dynamic expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 along with expression of other enzymes such as epoxide hydrolase and phase II enzymes may determine the detoxification or metabolic activation of BaP.

  13. Zinc-induced cardiomyocyte relaxation in a rat model of hyperglycemia is independent of myosin isoform.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ting; Cheema, Yaser; Tremble, Sarah M; Bell, Stephen P; Chen, Zengyi; Subramanian, Meenakumari; LeWinter, Martin M; VanBuren, Peter; Palmer, Bradley M

    2012-11-02

    It has been reported previously that diabetic cardiomyopathy can be inhibited or reverted with chronic zinc supplementation. In the current study, we hypothesized that total cardiac calcium and zinc content is altered in early onset diabetes mellitus characterized in part as hyperglycemia (HG) and that exposure of zinc ion (Zn2+) to isolated cardiomyocytes would enhance contraction-relaxation function in HG more so than in nonHG controls. To better control for differential cardiac myosin isoform expression as occurs in rodents after β-islet cell necrosis, hypothyroidism was induced in 16 rats resulting in 100% β-myosin heavy chain expression in the heart. β-Islet cell necrosis was induced in half of the rats by streptozocin administration. After 6 wks of HG, both HG and nonHG controls rats demonstrated similar myofilament performance measured as thin filament calcium sensitivity, native thin filament velocity in the myosin motility assay and contractile velocity and power. Extracellular Zn2+ reduced cardiomyocyte contractile function in both groups, but enhanced relaxation function significantly in the HG group compared to controls. Most notably, a reduction in diastolic sarcomere length with increasing pacing frequencies, i.e., incomplete relaxation, was more pronounced in the HG compared to controls, but was normalized with extracellular Zn2+ application. This is a novel finding implicating that the detrimental effect of HG on cardiomyocyte Ca2+ regulation can be amelioration by Zn2+. Among the many post-translational modifications examined, only phosphorylation of ryanodine receptor (RyR) at S-2808 was significantly higher in HG compared to nonHG. We did not find in our hypothyroid rats any differentiating effects of HG on myofibrillar protein phosphorylation, lysine acetylation, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine and advanced glycated end-products, which are often implicated as complicating factors in cardiac performance due to HG. Our results suggest that the

  14. IL-6 Receptor Isoforms and Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    MHC class II molecules [ 2 , 5]. An endoge- nous ligand for LY75 has not yet been defined, but targeting antigens such as HIV gag protein, Yersinia...published related to the characterization and general phenotype of these mice ( 2 ). Xenograft studies using ovarian cancer cell lines in SCID mice...the same dramatic delay in wound healing seen A B C D E FIGURE 1. Generation of IL-6ra–deficient mice. A, Schematic depicting exons 2 –6 of the genomic

  15. Isoform-specific regulation of adenylyl cyclase: a potential target in future pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Iwatsubo, Kousaku; Tsunematsu, Takashi; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2003-06-01

    Adenylyl cyclase (AC) is a target enzyme of multiple G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In the past decade, the cloning, structure and biochemical properties of nine AC isoforms were reported, and each isoform of AC shows distinct patterns of tissue distribution and biochemical/pharmacological properties. In addition to the conventional regulators of this enzyme, such as calmodulin (CaM) or PKC, novel regulators, for example, caveolin, have been identified. Most importantly, these regulators work on AC in an isoform dependent manner. Recent studies have demonstrated that certain classic AC inhibitors, i.e., P-site inhibitors, show an isoform-dependent inhibition of AC. The side chain modifications of forskolin, a diterpene extract from Coleus forskolii, markedly enhance its isoform selectivity. When taken together, these findings suggest that it is feasible to develop new pharmacotherapeutic agents that target AC isoforms to regulate various neurohormonal signals in a highly tissue-/organ-specific manner.

  16. One isoform of Arg/Abl2 tyrosine kinase is nuclear and the other seven cytosolic isoforms differently modulate cell morphology, motility and the cytoskeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Cristina; Torsello, Barbara; Di Stefano, Vitalba; Zipeto, Maria A.; Facchetti, Rita; Bombelli, Silvia; Perego, Roberto A.

    2013-08-01

    The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Abelson related gene (Arg/Abl2) regulates cell migration and morphogenesis by modulating the cytoskeleton. Arg promotes actin-based cell protrusions and spreading, and inhibits cell migration by attenuating stress fiber formation and contractility via activation of the RhoA inhibitor, p190RhoGAP, and by regulating focal adhesion dynamics also via CrkII phosphorylation. Eight full-length Arg isoforms with different N- and C-termini are endogenously expressed in human cells. In this paper, the eight Arg isoforms, subcloned in the pFLAG-CMV2 vector, were transfected in COS-7 cells in order to study their subcellular distribution and role in cell morphology, migration and cytoskeletal modulation. The transfected 1BSCTS Arg isoform has a nuclear distribution and phosphorylates CrkII in the nucleus, whilst the other isoforms are detected in the cytoplasm. The 1BLCTL, 1BSCTL, 1ASCTS isoforms were able to significantly decrease stress fibers, induce cell shrinkage and filopodia-like protrusions with a significant increase in p190RhoGAP phosphorylation. In contrast, 1ALCTL, 1ALCTS, 1ASCTL and 1BLCTS isoforms do not significantly decrease stress fibers and induce the formation of retraction tail-like protrusions. The 1BLCTL and 1ALCTL isoforms have different effects on cell migration and focal adhesions. All these data may open new perspectives to study the mechanisms of cell invasiveness. -Highlights: • Each of the eight Arg isoforms was transfected in COS-7 cells. • Only the 1BSCTS Arg isoform has a nuclear distribution in transfected cells. • The cytoplasmic isoforms and F-actin colocalize cortically and in cell protrusions. • Arg isoforms differently phosphorylate p190RhoGAP and CrkII. • Arg isoforms differently modulate stress fibers, cell protrusions and motility.

  17. Akt isoforms in vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haixiang; Littlewood, Trevor; Bennett, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian serine/threonine Akt kinases comprise three closely related isoforms: Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3. Akt activation has been implicated in both normal and disease processes, including in development and metabolism, as well as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Although Akt signalling has been identified as a promising therapeutic target in cancer, its role in cardiovascular disease is less clear. Importantly, accumulating evidence suggests that the three Akt isoforms exhibit distinct tissue expression profiles, localise to different subcellular compartments, and have unique modes of activation. Consistent with in vitro findings, genetic studies in mice show distinct effects of individual Akt isoforms on the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. This review summarises recent studies of individual Akt isoforms in atherosclerosis, vascular remodelling and aneurysm formation, to provide a comprehensive overview of Akt function in vascular disease. PMID:25929188

  18. ICAM-1: isoforms and phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Theresa N; Bullard, Daniel C; Barnum, Scott R

    2014-05-15

    ICAM-1 plays an important role in leukocyte trafficking, immunological synapse formation, and numerous cellular immune responses. Although considered a single glycoprotein, there are multiple membrane-bound and soluble ICAM-1 isoforms that arise from alternative splicing and proteolytic cleavage during inflammatory responses. The function and expression of these isoforms on various cell types are poorly understood. In the generation of ICAM-1-deficient mice, two isoform-deficient ICAM-1 mutants were inadvertently produced as a result of alternative splicing. These mice, along with true ICAM-1-deficient mice and newly generated ICAM-1-transgenic mice, have provided the opportunity to begin examining the role of ICAM-1 isoforms (singly or in combination) in various disease settings. In this review, we highlight the sharply contrasting disease phenotypes using ICAM-1 isoform mutant mice. These studies demonstrate that ICAM-1 immunobiology is highly complex but that individual isoforms, aside from the full-length molecule, make significant contributions to disease development and pathogenesis.

  19. ICAM-1: Isoforms and Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Theresa N.; Bullard, Daniel C.; Barnum, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays an important role in leukocyte trafficking, immunological synapse formation and, numerous cellular immune responses. Although considered a single glycoprotein, there are multiple membrane bound and soluble ICAM-1 isoforms which arise from alternative splicing and proteolytic cleavage during inflammatory responses. The function and expression of these isoforms on various cell types is poorly understood. In the generation of ICAM-1-deficient mice, two isoform-deficient ICAM-1 mutants were inadvertently produced due to alternative splicing. These mice along with true ICAM-1-deficient mice and newly generated ICAM-1 transgenic mice have provided the opportunity to begin examining the role of ICAM-1 isoforms (singly or in combination) in various disease settings. In this review we highlight the sharply contrasting disease phenotypes using ICAM-1 isoform mutant mice. These studies demonstrate that ICAM-1 immunobiology is highly complex but that individual isoforms, aside from the full-length molecule, make significant contributions to disease development and pathogenesis. PMID:24795464

  20. Laminin isoforms in endothelial and perivascular basement membranes.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Lema F; Di Russo, Jacopo; Sorokin, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    Laminins, one of the major functional components of basement membranes, are found underlying endothelium, and encasing pericytes and smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall. Depending on the type of blood vessel (capillary, venule, postcapillary venule, vein or artery) and their maturation state, both the endothelial and mural cell phenotype vary, with associated changes in laminin isoform expression. Laminins containing the α4 and α5 chains are the major isoforms found in the vessel wall, with the added contribution of laminin α2 in larger vessels. We here summarize current data on the precise localization of these laminin isoforms and their receptors in the different layers of the vessel wall, and their potential contribution to vascular homeostasis.

  1. Regulation of PGC-1α Isoform Expression in Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Popov, D. V.; Lysenko, E. A.; Kuzmin, I. V.; Vinogradova, Vinogradova; Grigoriev, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    The coactivator PGC-1α is the key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle expresses several PGC-1α isoforms. This review covers the functional role of PGC-1α isoforms and the regulation of their exercise-associated expression in skeletal muscle. The patterns of PGC-1α mRNA expression may markedly differ at rest and after muscle activity. Different signaling pathways are activated by different physiological stimuli, which regulate the expression of the PGC-1α gene from the canonical and alternative promoters: expression from a canonical (proximal) promoter is regulated by activation of the AMPK; expression from an alternative promoter, via a β2-adrenergic receptor. All transcripts from both promoters are subject to alternative splicing. As a result, truncated isoforms that possess different properties are translated: truncated isoforms are more stable and predominantly activate angiogenesis, whereas full-length isoforms manly regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. The existence of several isoforms partially explains the broad-spectrum function of this protein and allows the organism to adapt to different physiological stimuli. Regulation of the PGC-1α gene expression by different signaling pathways provides ample opportunity for pharmacological influence on the expression of this gene. Those opportunities might be important for the treatment and prevention of various diseases, such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. Elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms of the PGC-1α gene expression and their functional role may provide an opportunity to control the expression of different isoforms through exercise and/or pharmacological intervention. PMID:25927001

  2. Use-dependence of ryanodine effects on postrest contraction in ferret cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Malecot, C O; Katzung, B G

    1987-04-01

    During an investigation of the effect of ryanodine on contractions in cardiac muscle, it was found that long rest periods removed all or most of the drug's effect. Therefore, we studied the kinetics of block development and recovery from block produced by low concentrations of ryanodine (1-100 pM) on the postrest contractions of ferret papillary muscle. At 100 pM, ryanodine depressed steady-state contraction amplitude slightly (4.2 +/- 1.1% mean +/- SEM, n = 10) but strongly inhibited (40-80%) the first contraction (postrest contraction) elicited on restimulation of the preparation after rest periods of 1 second to 5 minutes. Under control conditions, the nearly maximal potentiation of the twitch occurring after a standard test rest period (30 seconds of rest) was not affected by a preceding conditioning rest of up to 20 minutes. In the presence of 100 pM ryanodine, a conditioning rest increased the amplitude of the twitch elicited after a test rest, and the test rest contraction recovered toward control (drug-free) amplitude monoexponentially (time constant, 582 +/- 105 seconds). Block of postrest contraction could be reinduced by stimulation and occurred faster when higher rates were used (time constants, 758 seconds at 1 Hz and 107 +/- 26 seconds at 3 Hz). Since rest potentiation of twitch tension is believed to be mostly dependent on extra calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, the results suggest that the ryanodine-induced blockade of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum is use-dependent and recovers during diastole.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Isoform-targeted regulation of cardiac adenylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2003-01-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to develop strategies for regulating the intracellular cyclic AMP signal pharmacologically, with an intention to establish either new medical therapeutic methods or experimental tools. In the past decades, many pharmacological reagents have been identified that regulate this pathway at the level of the receptor. G protein, adenylyl cyclase, cyclic AMP, protein kinase A and phosphodiesterase. Since the cloning of adenylyl cyclase isoforms during the 1990s, investigators including ourselves have tried to find reagents that regulate the activity of this enzyme directly in an isoform-dependent manner. The ultimate goal of developing such reagents would be to regulate the cyclic AMP signal in an organ-dependent manner. Ourselves and other workers have reported that such reagents may vary from a simple cation to kinases. In a more recent study, using the results from crystallographic studies and computer-assisted drug design programs, we have identified subtype-selective regulators of adenylyl cyclase. Such regulators are mostly based upon forskolin, a diterpene compound obtained from Coleus forskolii, that acts directly on adenylyl cyclase to increase the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. Similarly, novel reagents have been identified that inhibit a specific adenylyl cyclase isoform (e.g. type 5 adenylyl cyclase). Such reagents would potentially provide a new therapeutic strategy to treat hypertension, for example, as well as methods to selectively stimulate or inhibit this adenylyl cyclase isoform, which may be reminiscent of overexpression or knocking out of the cardiac adenylyl cyclase isoform by the use of a pharmacological method.

  4. A neuron-specific cytoplasmic dynein isoform preferentially transports TrkB signaling endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Junghoon; Lo, Kevin W.-H.; Myers, Kenneth R.; Carr, Tiffany M.; Humsi, Michael K.; Rasoul, Bareza A.; Segal, Rosalind A.; Pfister, K. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is the multisubunit motor protein for retrograde movement of diverse cargoes to microtubule minus ends. Here, we investigate the function of dynein variants, defined by different intermediate chain (IC) isoforms, by expressing fluorescent ICs in neuronal cells. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)–IC incorporates into functional dynein complexes that copurify with membranous organelles. In living PC12 cell neurites, GFP–dynein puncta travel in both the anterograde and retrograde directions. In cultured hippocampal neurons, neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) signaling endosomes are transported by cytoplasmic dynein containing the neuron-specific IC-1B isoform and not by dynein containing the ubiquitous IC-2C isoform. Similarly, organelles containing TrkB isolated from brain by immunoaffinity purification also contain dynein with IC-1 but not IC-2 isoforms. These data demonstrate that the IC isoforms define dynein populations that are selectively recruited to transport distinct cargoes. PMID:18559670

  5. Functional specificity of PMCA isoforms?

    PubMed

    Domi, Teuta; Di Leva, Francesca; Fedrizzi, Laura; Rimessi, Alessandro; Brini, Marisa

    2007-03-01

    In mammals, four different genes encode four PMCA isoforms. PMCA1 and PMCA4 are expressed ubiquitously. PMCA2 and PMCA3 are expressed prevalently in the central nervous systems. More than 30 variants are generated by mechanisms of alternative splicing. The physiological meaning of the existence of such elevated number of isoforms is not clear, but it would be plausible to relate it to the cell-specific demands of Ca2+ homeostasis. To characterize functional specificity of PMCA variants we have investigated two aspects: the effects of the overexpression of the different PMCA variants on cellular Ca2+ handling and the existence of possible isoform-specific interactions with partner proteins using a yeast two-hybrid technique. The four basic PMCA isoforms were coexpressed in CHO cells together with the Ca2+-sensitive recombinant photoprotein aequorin. The effects of their overexpression on Ca2+ homeostasis were monitored in the living cells. They had revealed that the ubiquitous isoforms 1 and 4 are less effective in reducing the Ca2+ peaks generated by cell stimulation as compared to the neuron-specific isoforms 2 and 3. To establish whether these differences were related to different and new physiological regulators of the pump, the 90 N-terminal residues of PMCA2 and PMCA4 have been used as baits for the search of molecular partners. Screening of a human brain cDNA library with the PMCA4 bait specified the epsilon-isoform of protein 14-3-3, whereas no 14-3-3 epsilon clone was obtained with the PMCA2 bait. Overexpression of PMCA4/14-3-3 epsilon (but not of PMCA2/14-3-3 epsilon) in HeLa cells together with targeted aequorins showed that the ability of the cells to export Ca2+ was impaired. Thus, the interaction with 14-3-3 epsilon inhibited PMCA4 but not PMCA2. The role of PMCA2 has been further characterized by Ca2+ measurements in cells overexpressing different splicing variants. The results indicated that the combination of alternative splicing at two different

  6. Autocrine VEGF Isoforms Differentially Regulate Endothelial Cell Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hideki; Rundqvist, Helene; Branco, Cristina; Johnson, Randall S.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) is involved in all the essential biology of endothelial cells, from proliferation to vessel function, by mediating intercellular interactions and monolayer integrity. It is expressed as three major alternative spliced variants. In mice, these are VEGF120, VEGF164, and VEGF188, each with different affinities for extracellular matrices and cell surfaces, depending on the inclusion of heparin-binding sites, encoded by exons 6 and 7. To determine the role of each VEGF isoform in endothelial homeostasis, we compared phenotypes of primary endothelial cells isolated from lungs of mice expressing single VEGF isoforms in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The differential expression and distribution of VEGF isoforms affect endothelial cell functions, such as proliferation, adhesion, migration, and integrity, which are dependent on the stability of and affinity to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). We found a correlation between autocrine VEGF164 and VEGFR2 stability, which is also associated with increased expression of proteins involved in cell adhesion. Endothelial cells expressing only VEGF188, which localizes to extracellular matrices or cell surfaces, presented a mesenchymal morphology and weakened monolayer integrity. Cells expressing only VEGF120 lacked stable VEGFR2 and dysfunctional downstream processes, rendering the cells unviable. Endothelial cells expressing these different isoforms in isolation also had differing rates of apoptosis, proliferation, and signaling via nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. These data indicate that autocrine signaling of each VEGF isoform has unique functions on endothelial homeostasis and response to hypoxia, due to both distinct VEGF distribution and VEGFR2 stability, which appears to be, at least partly, affected by differential NO production. This study demonstrates that each autocrine VEGF isoform has a distinct effect on downstream functions, namely VEGFR2-regulated endothelial cell homeostasis in

  7. Cell, isoform, and environment factors shape gradients and modulate chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Chang, S Laura; Cavnar, Stephen P; Takayama, Shuichi; Luker, Gary D; Linderman, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine gradient formation requires multiple processes that include ligand secretion and diffusion, receptor binding and internalization, and immobilization of ligand to surfaces. To understand how these events dynamically shape gradients and influence ensuing cell chemotaxis, we built a multi-scale hybrid agent-based model linking gradient formation, cell responses, and receptor-level information. The CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 signaling axis is highly implicated in metastasis of many cancers. We model CXCL12 gradient formation as it is impacted by CXCR4 and CXCR7, with particular focus on the three most highly expressed isoforms of CXCL12. We trained and validated our model using data from an in vitro microfluidic source-sink device. Our simulations demonstrate how isoform differences on the molecular level affect gradient formation and cell responses. We determine that ligand properties specific to CXCL12 isoforms (binding to the migration surface and to CXCR4) significantly impact migration and explain differences in in vitro chemotaxis data. We extend our model to analyze CXCL12 gradient formation in a tumor environment and find that short distance, steep gradients characteristic of the CXCL12-γ isoform are effective at driving chemotaxis. We highlight the importance of CXCL12-γ in cancer cell migration: its high effective affinity for both extracellular surface sites and CXCR4 strongly promote CXCR4+ cell migration. CXCL12-γ is also more difficult to inhibit, and we predict that co-inhibition of CXCR4 and CXCR7 is necessary to effectively hinder CXCL12-γ-induced migration. These findings support the growing importance of understanding differences in protein isoforms, and in particular their implications for cancer treatment.

  8. VEGF-A isoforms program differential VEGFR2 signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Fearnley, Gareth W.; Smith, Gina A.; Abdul-Zani, Izma; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Mughal, Nadeem A.; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Kearney, Mark T.; Zachary, Ian C.; Tomlinson, Darren C.; Harrison, Michael A.; Wheatcroft, Stephen B.; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 triggers multiple signal transduction pathways, which regulate endothelial cell responses that control vascular development. Multiple isoforms of VEGF-A can elicit differential signal transduction and endothelial responses. However, it is unclear how such cellular responses are controlled by isoform-specific VEGF-A–VEGFR2 complexes. Increasingly, there is the realization that the membrane trafficking of receptor–ligand complexes influences signal transduction and protein turnover. By building on these concepts, our study shows for the first time that three different VEGF-A isoforms (VEGF-A165, VEGF-A121 and VEGF-A145) promote distinct patterns of VEGFR2 endocytosis for delivery into early endosomes. This differential VEGFR2 endocytosis and trafficking is linked to VEGF-A isoform-specific signal transduction events. Disruption of clathrin-dependent endocytosis blocked VEGF-A isoform-specific VEGFR2 activation, signal transduction and caused substantial depletion in membrane-bound VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 levels. Furthermore, such VEGF-A isoforms promoted differential patterns of VEGFR2 ubiquitylation, proteolysis and terminal degradation. Our study now provides novel insights into how different VEGF-A isoforms can bind the same receptor tyrosine kinase and elicit diverse cellular outcomes. PMID:27044325

  9. One isoform of Arg/Abl2 tyrosine kinase is nuclear and the other seven cytosolic isoforms differently modulate cell morphology, motility and the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Cristina; Torsello, Barbara; Di Stefano, Vitalba; Zipeto, Maria A; Facchetti, Rita; Bombelli, Silvia; Perego, Roberto A

    2013-08-01

    The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Abelson related gene (Arg/Abl2) regulates cell migration and morphogenesis by modulating the cytoskeleton. Arg promotes actin-based cell protrusions and spreading, and inhibits cell migration by attenuating stress fiber formation and contractility via activation of the RhoA inhibitor, p190RhoGAP, and by regulating focal adhesion dynamics also via CrkII phosphorylation. Eight full-length Arg isoforms with different N- and C-termini are endogenously expressed in human cells. In this paper, the eight Arg isoforms, subcloned in the pFLAG-CMV2 vector, were transfected in COS-7 cells in order to study their subcellular distribution and role in cell morphology, migration and cytoskeletal modulation. The transfected 1BSCTS Arg isoform has a nuclear distribution and phosphorylates CrkII in the nucleus, whilst the other isoforms are detected in the cytoplasm. The 1BLCTL, 1BSCTL, 1ASCTS isoforms were able to significantly decrease stress fibers, induce cell shrinkage and filopodia-like protrusions with a significant increase in p190RhoGAP phosphorylation. In contrast, 1ALCTL, 1ALCTS, 1ASCTL and 1BLCTS isoforms do not significantly decrease stress fibers and induce the formation of retraction tail-like protrusions. The 1BLCTL and 1ALCTL isoforms have different effects on cell migration and focal adhesions. All these data may open new perspectives to study the mechanisms of cell invasiveness.

  10. Evidence for multiple protein kinase C isoforms in the leukocytes of a marine teleost, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Mericko, P A; Burnett, K G

    1998-05-01

    The protein kinase C (PKC) family of isozymes mediates a diverse range of cellular functions, including activation of vertebrate lymphocytes through membrane-bound antigen receptors. The complex role of PKC in mammalian cells may be orchestrated in part by the presence of multiple isoforms, each of which displays a distinctive tissue distribution, substrate specificity and pattern of regulation. In the present study, PKC isoforms were identified in peripheral blood leukocytes of the marine teleost fish Sciaenops ocellatus by immunoprecipitation and Western blot using antibodies to mammalian isoforms. Functional activity was monitored by evaluating translocation of the teleost isoforms from membrane to cytosol in response to phorbol ester treatment. Teleost conventional isoforms PKC alpha and PKC beta (82 kDa) completely translocated out of the cytosol in response to phorbol ester. Phorbol ester did not induce translocation of teleost atypical isoform PKC zeta (67 kDa), as has been shown for its mammalian homologue. Although their identity as distinct isoforms is less clear, proposed teleost novel PKC delta (84, 86 kDa) and PKC eta (83, 85 kDa) also translocated out of the cytosol. The presence of multiple isoforms representing each of the three major classes of PKC in red drum leukocytes implies that the complexity of signal transduction pathways in vertebrates is highly conserved.

  11. Inference of Isoforms from Short Sequence Reads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jianxing; Li, Wei; Jiang, Tao

    Due to alternative splicing events in eukaryotic species, the identification of mRNA isoforms (or splicing variants) is a difficult problem. Traditional experimental methods for this purpose are time consuming and cost ineffective. The emerging RNA-Seq technology provides a possible effective method to address this problem. Although the advantages of RNA-Seq over traditional methods in transcriptome analysis have been confirmed by many studies, the inference of isoforms from millions of short sequence reads (e.g., Illumina/Solexa reads) has remained computationally challenging. In this work, we propose a method to calculate the expression levels of isoforms and infer isoforms from short RNA-Seq reads using exon-intron boundary, transcription start site (TSS) and poly-A site (PAS) information. We first formulate the relationship among exons, isoforms, and single-end reads as a convex quadratic program, and then use an efficient algorithm (called IsoInfer) to search for isoforms. IsoInfer can calculate the expression levels of isoforms accurately if all the isoforms are known and infer novel isoforms from scratch. Our experimental tests on known mouse isoforms with both simulated expression levels and reads demonstrate that IsoInfer is able to calculate the expression levels of isoforms with an accuracy comparable to the state-of-the-art statistical method and a 60 times faster speed. Moreover, our tests on both simulated and real reads show that it achieves a good precision and sensitivity in inferring isoforms when given accurate exon-intron boundary, TSS and PAS information, especially for isoforms whose expression levels are significantly high.

  12. Activation and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase isoforms by forskolin analogs.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Cibele; Papa, Dan; Hübner, Melanie; Mou, Tung-Chung; Lushington, Gerald H; Seifert, Roland

    2008-04-01

    Adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms 1 to 9 are differentially expressed in tissues and constitute an interesting drug target. ACs 1 to 8 are activated by the diterpene, forskolin (FS). It is unfortunate that there is a paucity of AC isoform-selective activators. To develop such compounds, an understanding of the structure/activity relationships of diterpenes is necessary. Therefore, we examined the effects of FS and nine FS analogs on ACs 1, 2, and 5 expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. Diterpenes showed the highest potencies at AC1 and the lowest potencies at AC2. We identified full agonists, partial agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists, i.e., diterpenes that reduced basal AC activity. Each AC isoform exhibited a distinct pharmacological profile. AC2 showed the highest basal activity of all AC isoforms and highest sensitivity to inverse agonistic effects of 1-deoxy-forskolin, 7-deacetyl-1,9-dideoxy-forskolin, and, particularly, BODIPY-forskolin. In contrast, BODIPY-forskolin acted as partial agonist at the other ACs. 1-Deoxy-forskolin analogs were devoid of agonistic activity at ACs but antagonized the effects of FS in a mixed competitive/noncompetitive manner. At purified catalytic AC subunits, BODIPY-forskolin acted as weak partial agonist/strong partial antagonist. Molecular modeling revealed that the BODIPY group rotates promiscuously outside of the FS-binding site. Collectively, ACs are not uniformly activated and inhibited by FS and FS analogs, demonstrating the feasibility to design isoform-selective FS analogs. The two- and multiple-state models, originally developed to conceptualize ligand effects at G-protein-coupled receptors, can be applied to ACs to explain certain experimental data.

  13. Identification of a novel splice variant isoform of TREM-1 in human neutrophil granules1

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Sankar; Keck, Kathy; Vrenios, Michelle; Pope, Marshall; Pearl, Merideth; Doerschug, Kevin; Klesney-Tait, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is critical for inflammatory signal amplification. Humans have two forms of TREM-1: a membrane receptor (mbTREM-1), associated with the adaptor DAP12, and a soluble receptor detected at times of infection. The membrane receptor isoform acts synergistically with the TLR pathway to promote cytokine secretion and neutrophil migration while the soluble receptor functions as a counter regulatory molecule. In multiple models of sepsis, exogenous administration of soluble forms of TREM-1 attenuates inflammation and markedly improves survival. Despite intense interest in soluble TREM-1 both as a clinical predictor of survival and as a therapeutic tool, the origin of native soluble TREM-1 remains controversial. Utilizing human neutrophils, we identified a 15 kDa TREM-1 isoform in primary (azurophilic) and secondary (specific) granules. Mass spectrometric analysis, ELISA, and immunoblot confirm that the 15 kD protein is a novel splice variant of TREM-1 (TREM-1sv). Neutrophil stimulation with P. aeruginosa, LPS, or PAM(3)Cys4 resulted in degranulation and release of TREM-1sv. The addition of exogenous TREM-1sv inhibited TREM-1 receptor mediated proinflammatory cytokine production. Thus these data reveal that TREM-1 isoforms simultaneously activate and inhibit inflammation via the canonical membrane TREM-1 molecule and this newly discovered granular isoform, TREM-1sv. PMID:26561551

  14. Channel properties of the splicing isoforms of the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel Anoctamin 2.

    PubMed

    Ponissery Saidu, Samsudeen; Stephan, Aaron B; Talaga, Anna K; Zhao, Haiqing; Reisert, Johannes

    2013-06-01

    Anoctamin (ANO)2 (or TMEM16B) forms a cell membrane Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel that is present in cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, vomeronasal microvilli, and photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Alternative splicing of Ano2 transcripts generates multiple variants with the olfactory variants skipping exon 14 and having alternative splicing of exon 4. In the present study, 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis was conducted to characterize the 5' end of olfactory Ano2 transcripts, which showed that the most abundant Ano2 transcripts in the olfactory epithelium contain a novel starting exon that encodes a translation initiation site, whereas transcripts of the publically available sequence variant, which has an alternative and longer 5' end, were present in lower abundance. With two alternative starting exons and alternative splicing of exon 4, four olfactory ANO2 isoforms are thus possible. Patch-clamp experiments in transfected HEK293T cells expressing these isoforms showed that N-terminal sequences affect Ca(2+) sensitivity and that the exon 4-encoded sequence is required to form functional channels. Coexpression of the two predominant isoforms, one with and one without the exon 4 sequence, as well as coexpression of the two rarer isoforms showed alterations in channel properties, indicating that different isoforms interact with each other. Furthermore, channel properties observed from the coexpression of the predominant isoforms better recapitulated the native channel properties, suggesting that the native channel may be composed of two or more splicing isoforms acting as subunits that together shape the channel properties.

  15. Control of interval-force relation in canine ventricular myocardium studied with ryanodine.

    PubMed Central

    Bose, D.; Hryshko, L. V.; King, B. W.; Chau, T.

    1988-01-01

    1. The mechanism of post-extrasystolic, rest and frequency potentiation was studied in canine isolated ventricular muscle. 2. Ryanodine, which impairs Ca availability from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), reduced the amplitude of the extrasystole less than that of the steady state contraction. Ryanodine also inhibited post-extrasystolic potentiation and converted rest-potentiation into rest depression. Rest-potentiation was blocked preferentially by ryanodine compared to post-extrasystolic potentiation. An increase in the contribution of extracellular Ca to the extrasystolic contraction could not entirely account for the post-extrasystolic potentiation. 3. Prolonged rest, by itself, also caused depression of the first post-rest contraction. During rest-potentiation, SR Ca seemed to play a greater role in contraction than transmembrane Ca influx. However, the ability of the 'release pool' of Ca in the SR to be reprimed after a contraction was reduced. This was seen as a decrease in post-extrasystolic potentiation elicited immediately after rest. 4. A decrease in stimulus interval was associated with a transient decrease in contraction amplitude followed by an increase. An abrupt increase in stimulus interval had the opposite effect. Ryanodine blocked the initial transient changes and accelerated the delayed changes. These results suggest that the transient changes in contraction after sudden changes in drive interval are dependent on the SR. 5. Transmembrane Ca entry and the rate of recovery of the Ca release process (repriming) in the SR after a contraction seem to be interval-dependent. The data also indicate that different mechanisms are involved in post-extrasystolic and rest-potentiation. 6. The results are consistent with a model which proposes 'recirculation' of activator Ca within the SR after a contraction or of the presence of an appreciable amount of inactivation of the SR Ca release process during normal stimulation. An increased pool of releasable Ca

  16. The structural organization of the human skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.S.; Fujii, Junichi; Khanna, V.K.

    1996-05-15

    The RYR1 gene encoding the Ca{sup 2+} release channel of human skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum has been cloned and exon/intron boundaries have been determined, together with a minimum of 30 bp of intron sequence flanking each splice junction. The gene contains 106 exons, of which two are alternatively spliced. The length of the gene, determined by the alignment of 16 genomic phage clones, a cosmid clone, and several long polymerase chain reaction products, is approximately 160 kb. Exons range from 15 to 813 bp, while introns range from 85 to about 16,000 bp. Analysis of the gene has confirmed published errors in the human RYR1 cDNA and confirmed the structure of two alternatively spliced exons. The numbering of the nucleotides comprising the RYR1 cDNA and the numbering of amino acids encoded by them were corrected to account for these earlier errors and omissions. Analysis of 2.4 kb of the 5{prime} upstream sequence indicated the presence of a CCAAT box and several Sp1 binding sites between nucleotides -200 and -60 bp, flanking the proposed transcription factor binding sites were identified throughout the 5{prime} sequence. Knowledge of the structure of the RYR1 gene will provide an invaluable resource for the discovery of mutations in the gene that are casual of human malignant hyperthermia and central core disease. 58 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Ryanodine receptor phosphorylation by oxidized CaMKII contributes to the cardiotoxic effects of cardiac glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Hsiang-Ting; Liu, Bin; Snyder, Jedidiah S.; Lou, Qing; Brundage, Elizabeth A.; Velez-Cortes, Florencia; Wang, Honglan; Ziolo, Mark T.; Anderson, Mark E.; Sen, Chandan K.; Wehrens, Xander H.T.; Fedorov, Vadim V.; Biesiadecki, Brandon J.; Hund, Thomas J.; Györke, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Aims Recent studies suggest that proarrhythmic effects of cardiac glycosides (CGs) on cardiomyocyte Ca2+ handling involve generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the specific pathway(s) of ROS production and the subsequent downstream molecular events that mediate CG-dependent arrhythmogenesis remain to be defined. Methods and results We examined the effects of digitoxin (DGT) on Ca2+ handling and ROS production in cardiomyocytes using a combination of pharmacological approaches and genetic mouse models. Myocytes isolated from mice deficient in NADPH oxidase type 2 (NOX2KO) and mice transgenically overexpressing mitochondrial superoxide dismutase displayed markedly increased tolerance to the proarrhythmic action of DGT as manifested by the inhibition of DGT-dependent ROS and spontaneous Ca2+ waves (SCW). Additionally, DGT-induced mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization was abolished in NOX2KO cells. DGT-dependent ROS was suppressed by the inhibition of PI3K, PKC, and the mitochondrial KATP channel, suggesting roles for these proteins, respectively, in activation of NOX2 and in mitochondrial ROS generation. Western blot analysis revealed increased levels of oxidized CaMKII in WT but not in NOX2KO hearts treated with DGT. The DGT-induced increase in SCW frequency was abolished in myocytes isolated from mice in which the Ser 2814 CaMKII phosphorylation site on RyR2 is constitutively inactivated. Conclusion These results suggest that the arrhythmogenic adverse effects of CGs on Ca2+ handling involve PI3K- and PKC-mediated stimulation of NOX2 and subsequent NOX2-dependent ROS release from the mitochondria; mitochondria-derived ROS then activate CaMKII with consequent phosphorylation of RyR2 at Ser 2814. PMID:24104877

  18. Unambiguous observation of blocked states reveals altered, blocker-induced, cardiac ryanodine receptor gating

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Thomas, N. Lowri; Williams, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    The flow of ions through membrane channels is precisely regulated by gates. The architecture and function of these elements have been studied extensively, shedding light on the mechanisms underlying gating. Recent investigations have focused on ion occupancy of the channel’s selectivity filter and its ability to alter gating, with most studies involving prokaryotic K+ channels. Some studies used large quaternary ammonium blocker molecules to examine the effects of altered ionic flux on gating. However, the absence of blocking events that are visibly distinct from closing events in K+ channels makes unambiguous interpretation of data from single channel recordings difficult. In this study, the large K+ conductance of the RyR2 channel permits direct observation of blocking events as distinct subconductance states and for the first time demonstrates the differential effects of blocker molecules on channel gating. This experimental platform provides valuable insights into mechanisms of blocker-induced modulation of ion channel gating. PMID:27703263

  19. Robust stratification of breast cancer subtypes using differential patterns of transcript isoform expression.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Thomas P; Brown, Christopher D; Bandlamudi, Chaitanya; McNerney, Megan; Kittler, Ralf; Montoya, Vanessa; Peterson, April; Grossman, Robert; White, Kevin P

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death of women worldwide, is a heterogenous disease with multiple different subtypes. These subtypes carry important implications for prognosis and therapy. Interestingly, it is known that these different subtypes not only have different biological behaviors, but also have distinct gene expression profiles. However, it has not been rigorously explored whether particular transcriptional isoforms are also differentially expressed among breast cancer subtypes, or whether transcript isoforms from the same sets of genes can be used to differentiate subtypes. To address these questions, we analyzed the patterns of transcript isoform expression using a small set of RNA-sequencing data for eleven Estrogen Receptor positive (ER+) subtype and fourteen triple negative (TN) subtype tumors. We identified specific sets of isoforms that distinguish these tumor subtypes with higher fidelity than standard mRNA expression profiles. We found that alternate promoter usage, alternative splicing, and alternate 3'UTR usage are differentially regulated in breast cancer subtypes. Profiling of isoform expression in a second, independent cohort of 68 tumors confirmed that expression of splice isoforms differentiates breast cancer subtypes. Furthermore, analysis of RNAseq data from 594 cases from the TCGA cohort confirmed the ability of isoform usage to distinguish breast cancer subtypes. Also using our expression data, we identified several RNA processing factors that were differentially expressed between tumor subtypes and/or regulated by estrogen receptor, including YBX1, YBX2, MAGOH, MAGOHB, and PCBP2. RNAi knock-down of these RNA processing factors in MCF7 cells altered isoform expression. These results indicate that global dysregulation of splicing in breast cancer occurs in a subtype-specific and reproducible manner and is driven by specific differentially expressed RNA processing factors.

  20. Robust stratification of breast cancer subtypes using differential patterns of transcript isoform expression

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, Thomas P.; Bandlamudi, Chaitanya; Kittler, Ralf; Montoya, Vanessa; Peterson, April; Grossman, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death of women worldwide, is a heterogenous disease with multiple different subtypes. These subtypes carry important implications for prognosis and therapy. Interestingly, it is known that these different subtypes not only have different biological behaviors, but also have distinct gene expression profiles. However, it has not been rigorously explored whether particular transcriptional isoforms are also differentially expressed among breast cancer subtypes, or whether transcript isoforms from the same sets of genes can be used to differentiate subtypes. To address these questions, we analyzed the patterns of transcript isoform expression using a small set of RNA-sequencing data for eleven Estrogen Receptor positive (ER+) subtype and fourteen triple negative (TN) subtype tumors. We identified specific sets of isoforms that distinguish these tumor subtypes with higher fidelity than standard mRNA expression profiles. We found that alternate promoter usage, alternative splicing, and alternate 3’UTR usage are differentially regulated in breast cancer subtypes. Profiling of isoform expression in a second, independent cohort of 68 tumors confirmed that expression of splice isoforms differentiates breast cancer subtypes. Furthermore, analysis of RNAseq data from 594 cases from the TCGA cohort confirmed the ability of