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Sample records for saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes

  1. ROG1 encodes a monoacylglycerol lipase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Vishnu Varthini, Lakshmanaperumal; Selvaraju, Kandasamy; Srinivasan, Malathi; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2015-01-01

    Lipid metabolism is extensively studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we report that revertant of glycogen synthase kinase mutation-1 (Rog1p) possesses monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipase activity in S. cerevisiae. The lipase activity of Rog1p was confirmed in two ways: through analysis of a strain with a double deletion of ROG1 and monoglyceride lipase YJU3 (yju3Δrog1Δ) and by site-directed mutagenesis of the ROG1 lipase motif (GXSXG). Rog1p is localized in both the cytosol and the nucleus. Overexpression of ROG1 in a ROG1-deficient strain resulted in an accumulation of reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that Rog1p is a MAG lipase that regulates lipid homeostasis.

  2. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Hoc1, a Suppressor of Pkc1, Encodes a Putative Glycosyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Neiman, A. M.; Mhaiskar, V.; Manus, V.; Galibert, F.; Dean, N.

    1997-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PKC1 encodes a protein kinase C isozyme that regulates cell wall synthesis. Here we describe the characterization of HOC1, a gene identified by its ability to suppress the cell lysis phenotype of pkc1-371 cells. The HOC1 gene (Homologous to OCH1) is predicted to encode a type II integral membrane protein that strongly resembles Och1p, an α-1,6-mannosyltransferase. Immunofluorescence studies localized Hoc1p to the Golgi apparatus. While overexpression of HOC1 rescued the pkc1-371 temperature-sensitive cell lysis phenotype, disruption of HOC1 lowered the restrictive temperature of the pkc1-371 allele. Disruption of HOC1 also resulted in hypersensitivity to Calcofluor White and hygromycin B, phenotypes characteristic of defects in cell wall integrity and protein glycosylation, respectively. The function of HOC1 appears to be distinct from that of OCH1. Taken together, these results suggest that HOC1 encodes a Golgi-localized putative mannosyltransferase required for the proper construction of the cell wall. PMID:9055074

  3. Characterization of a New Multigene Family Encoding Isomaltases in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the IMA Family*

    PubMed Central

    Teste, Marie-Ange; François, Jean Marie; Parrou, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    It has been known for a long time that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can assimilate α-methylglucopyranoside and isomaltose. We here report the identification of 5 genes (YGR287c, YIL172c, YJL216c, YJL221c and YOL157c), which, similar to the SUCx, MALx, or HXTx multigene families, are located in the subtelomeric regions of different chromosomes. They share high nucleotide sequence identities between themselves (66–100%) and with the MALx2 genes (63–74%). Comparison of their amino acid sequences underlined a substitution of threonine by valine in region II, one of the four highly conserved regions of the α-glucosidase family. This change was previously shown to be sufficient to discriminate α-1,4- to α-1,6-glucosidase activity in YGR287c (Yamamoto, K., Nakayama, A., Yamamoto, Y., and Tabata, S. (2004) Eur. J. Biochem. 271, 3414–3420). We showed that each of these five genes encodes a protein with α-glucosidase activity on isomaltose, and we therefore renamed these genes IMA1 to IMA5 for IsoMAltase. Our results also illustrated that sequence polymorphisms among this family led to interesting variability of gene expression patterns and of catalytic efficiencies on different substrates, which altogether should account for the absence of functional redundancy for growth on isomaltose. Indeed, deletion studies revealed that IMA1/YGR287c encodes the major isomaltase and that growth on isomaltose required the presence of AGT1, which encodes an α-glucoside transporter. Expressions of IMA1 and IMA5/YJL216c were strongly induced by maltose, isomaltose, and α-methylglucopyranoside, in accordance with their regulation by the Malx3p-transcription system. The physiological relevance of this IMAx multigene family in S. cerevisiae is discussed. PMID:20562106

  4. High affinity of acid phosphatase encoded by PHO3 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for thiamin phosphates.

    PubMed

    Nosaka, K

    1990-02-01

    The enzymatic properties of acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.2) encoded by PHO3 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is repressed by thiamin and has thiamin-binding activity at pH 5.0, were investigated to study physiological functions. The following results led to the conclusion that thiamin-repressible acid phosphatase physiologically catalyzes the hydrolysis of thiamin phosphates in the periplasmic space of S. cerevisiae, thus participating in utilization of the thiamin moiety of the phosphates by yeast cells: (a) thiamin-repressible acid phosphatase showed Km values of 1.6 and 1.7 microM at pH 5.0 for thiamin monophosphate and thiamin pyrophosphate, respectively. These Km values were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than those (0.61 and 1.7 mM) for p-nitrophenyl phosphate; (b) thiamin exerted remarkable competitive inhibition in the hydrolysis of thiamin monophosphate (Ki 2.2 microM at pH 5.0), whereas the activity for p-nitrophenyl phosphate was slightly affected by thiamin; (c) the inhibitory effect of inorganic phosphate, which does not repress the thiamin-repressible enzyme, on the hydrolysis of thiamin monophosphate was much smaller than that of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Moreover, the modification of thiamin-repressible acid phosphatase of S. cerevisiae with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide resulted in the complete loss of thiamin-binding activity and the Km value of the modified enzyme for thiamin monophosphate increased nearly to the value of the native enzyme for p-nitrophenyl phosphate. These results also indicate that the high affinity of the thiamin-repressible acid phosphatase for thiamin phosphates is due to the thiamin-binding properties of this enzyme.

  5. Molecular cloning, characterization, and overexpression of ERG7, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding lanosterol synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Corey, E J; Matsuda, S P; Bartel, B

    1994-01-01

    We report the cloning, characterization, and overexpression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERG7, which encodes lanosterol synthase [(S)-2,3-epoxysqualene mutase (cyclizing, lanosterol forming), EC 5.4.99.7], the enzyme responsible for the complex cyclization/rearrangement step in sterol biosynthesis. Oligonucleotide primers were designed corresponding to protein sequences conserved between Candida albicans ERG7 and the related Arabidopsis thaliana cycloartenol synthase [(S)-2,3-epoxysqualene mutase (cyclizing, cycloartenol forming), EC 5.4.99.8]. A PCR product was amplified from yeast genomic DNA using these primers and was used to probe yeast libraries by hybridization. Partial-length clones homologous to the two known epoxysqualene mutases were isolated, but a full-length sequence was found neither in cDNA nor genomic libraries, whether in phage or plasmids. Two overlapping clones were assembled to make a functional reconstruction of the gene, which contains a 2196-bp open reading frame capable of encoding an 83-kDa protein. The reconstruction complemented the erg7 mutation when driven from either its native promoter or the strong ADH1 promoter. Images PMID:8134375

  6. The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Spt7 Gene Encodes a Very Acidic Protein Important for Transcription in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gansheroff, L. J.; Dollard, C.; Tan, P.; Winston, F.

    1995-01-01

    Mutations in the SPT7 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae originally were identified as suppressors of Ty and {delta small} insertion mutations in the 5' regions of the HIS4 and LYS2 genes. Other genes that have been identified in mutant hunts of this type have been shown to play a role in transcription. In this work we show that SPT7 is also important for proper transcription in vivo. We have cloned and sequenced the SPT7 gene and have shown that it encodes a large, acidic protein that is localized to the nucleus. The SPT7 protein contains a bromodomain sequence; a deletion that removes the bromodomain from the SPT7 protein causes no detectable mutant phenotype. Strains that contain an spt7 null mutation are viable but grow very slowly and have transcriptional defects at many loci including insertion mutations, Ty elements, the INO1 gene and the MFA1 gene. These transcriptional defects and other mutant phenotypes are similar to those caused by certain mutations in SPT15, which encodes the TATA binding protein (TBP). The similarity of the phenotypes of spt7 and spt15 mutants, including effects of spt7 mutations on the transcription start site of certain genes, suggests that SPT7 plays an important role in transcription initiation in vivo. PMID:7713415

  7. RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein containing a tract of 13 consecutive aspartates

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, P.; Weber, S.; Prakash, L.

    1985-01-01

    The RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for postreplication repair of UV-damaged DNA, for induced mutagenesis, and for sporulation. The authors have mapped the transcripts and determined the nucleotide sequence of the cloned RAD6 gene. The RAD6 gene encodes two transcripts of 0.98 and 0.86 kilobases which differ only in their 3' termini. The transcribed region contains an open reading frame of 516 nucleotides. The rad6-1 and rad6-3 mutant alleles, which the authors have cloned and sequenced, introduce amber and ochre nonsense mutations, respectively into the open reading frame, proving that it encodes the RAD6 protein. The RAD6 protein predicted by the nucleotide sequence is 172 amino acids long, has a molecular weight of 19,704, and contains 23.3% acidic and 11.6% basic residues. Its most striking feature is the highly acidic carboxyl terminus: 20 of the 23 terminal amino acids are acidic, including 13 consecutive aspartates. RAD6 protein thus resembles high mobility group proteins HMG-1 and HMG-2, which each contain a carboxyl-proximal tract of acidic amino acids. 48 references, 6 figures.

  8. Molecular cloning of a gene encoding an ARS binding factor from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, E E; Stefanec, M J; Biswas, S B

    1990-01-01

    We report the isolation of the gene for origin binding factor 1 (OBF1) from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by screening a yeast genomic DNA library in lambda gt11 with an ARS-specific oligonucleotide probe. One recombinant encoded a fusion protein of approximately 180 kDa that bound ARS-specific oligonucleotide probes in vitro. The restriction map of this gene was determined after isolation of the complete gene by screening a yeast genomic DNA library in YEp24. Characterization of the gene for OBF1 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Northern and Southern blot analyses demonstrated that (i) the gene is located in chromosome IV, (ii) the gene is a single-copy gene, (iii) the mRNA is approximately 3.8 kilobases, which could code for an approximately 130-kDa polypeptide, consistent with the reported size of OBF1. An antibody, affinity-purified using the lysogen-encoded fusion protein, specifically detected an approximately 130-kDa polypeptide in yeast extract. The isolation of the gene for OBF1 should allow further analysis of the mechanism of action of this protein in vitro and in vivo. Images PMID:1697686

  9. One of the fumarate reductase isoenzymes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is encoded by the OSM1 gene.

    PubMed

    Muratsubaki, H; Enomoto, K

    1998-04-15

    Soluble fumarate reductase from yeast irreversibly catalyzes the reduction of fumarate to succinate and has noncovalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide. In yeast, there are two isoenzymes of fumarate reductase, which can be distinguished on the basis of their absorption or nonabsorption to DE-52 columns. Previously, we have purified FRDS1 and isolated its gene (FRDS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, FRDS2 was purified to homogeneity by four chromatography steps. The N-terminal and C-terminal amino acid sequences of FRDS2 were identical to the deduced amino acid sequence of the OSM1 gene (EMBL Database Accession No. L-26347), whose isolation and biochemical properties have not been studied up until now. From these results, we conclude that FRDS2 is encoded by the OSM1 gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of the OSM1 gene revealed that FRDS2 is synthesized as a precursor protein containing a presequence composed of 32 amino acid residues. The mature enzyme consists of a protein of 469 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 51,370. The N-terminal extension had the characteristics of a typical signal sequence required for targeting and sorting to a noncytosolic destination. In fact, FRDS2 was found to be located in promitochondria.

  10. Co-expression of a Saccharomyces diastaticus glucoamylase-encoding gene and a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens alpha-amylase-encoding gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Steyn, A J; Pretorius, I S

    1991-04-01

    A glucoamylase-encoding gene (STA2) from Saccharomyces diastaticus and an alpha-amylase-encoding gene (AMY) from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were cloned separately into a yeast-integrating shuttle vector (YIp5), generating recombinant plasmids pSP1 and pSP2, respectively. The STA2 and AMY genes were jointly cloned into YIp5, generating plasmid pSP3. Subsequently, the dominant selectable marker APH1, encoding resistance to Geneticin G418 (GtR), was cloned into pSP3, resulting in pSP4. For enhanced expression of GtR, the APH1 gene was fused to the GAL10 promoter and terminated by the URA3 terminator, resulting in pSP5. Plasmid pSP5 was converted to a circular minichromosome (pSP6) by the addition of the ARS1 and CEN4 sequences. Laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed with plasmids pSP1 through pSP6, stably produced and secreted glucoamylase and/or alpha-amylase. Brewers' and distillers' yeast transformed with pSP6 were also capable of secreting amylolytic enzymes. Yeast transformants containing pSP1, pSP2 and pSP3 assimilated soluble starch with an efficiency of 69%, 84% and 93%, respectively. The major starch hydrolysis products produced by crude amylolytic enzymes found in the culture broths of the pSP1-, pSP2- and pSP3-containing transformants, were glucose, glucose and maltose (1:1), and glucose and maltose (3:1), respectively. These results confirmed that co-expression of the STA2 and AMY genes synergistically enhanced starch degradation.

  11. Molecular and genetic analysis of the gene encoding the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strand exchange protein Sep1.

    PubMed

    Tishkoff, D X; Johnson, A W; Kolodner, R D

    1991-05-01

    Vegetatively grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells contain an activity that promotes a number of homologous pairing reactions. A major portion of this activity is due to strand exchange protein 1 (Sep1), which was originally purified as a 132,000-Mr species (R. Kolodner, D. H. Evans, and P. T. Morrison, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:5560-5564, 1987). The gene encoding Sep1 was cloned, and analysis of the cloned gene revealed a 4,587-bp open reading frame capable of encoding a 175,000-Mr protein. The protein encoded by this open reading frame was overproduced and purified and had a relative molecular weight of approximately 160,000. The 160,000-Mr protein was at least as active in promoting homologous pairing as the original 132,000-Mr species, which has been shown to be a fragment of the intact 160,000-Mr Sep1 protein. The SEP1 gene mapped to chromosome VII within 20 kbp of RAD54. Three Tn10LUK insertion mutations in the SEP1 gene were characterized. sep1 mutants grew more slowly than wild-type cells, showed a two- to fivefold decrease in the rate of spontaneous mitotic recombination between his4 heteroalleles, and were delayed in their ability to return to growth after UV or gamma irradiation. Sporulation of sep1/sep1 diploids was defective, as indicated by both a 10- to 40-fold reduction in spore formation and reduced spore viability of approximately 50%. The majority of sep1/sep1 diploid cells arrested in meiosis after commitment to recombination but prior to the meiosis I cell division. Return-to-growth experiments showed that sep1/sep1 his4X/his4B diploids exhibited a five- to sixfold greater meiotic induction of His+ recombinants than did isogenic SEP1/SEP1 strains. sep1/sep1 mutants also showed an increased frequency of exchange between HIS4, LEU2, and MAT and a lack of positive interference between these markers compared with wild-type controls. The interaction between sep1, rad50, and spo13 mutations suggested that SEP1 acts in meiosis in a pathway that is

  12. Deletion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARO8 gene, encoding an aromatic amino acid transaminase, enhances phenylethanol production from glucose.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Gabriele; Knijnenburg, Theo A; Liti, Gianni; Louis, Edward J; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Phenylethanol has a characteristic rose-like aroma that makes it a popular ingredient in foods, beverages and cosmetics. Microbial production of phenylethanol currently relies on whole-cell bioconversion of phenylalanine with yeasts that harbour an Ehrlich pathway for phenylalanine catabolism. Complete biosynthesis of phenylethanol from a cheap carbon source, such as glucose, provides an economically attractive alternative for phenylalanine bioconversion. In this study, synthetic genetic array (SGA) screening was applied to identify genes involved in regulation of phenylethanol synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screen focused on transcriptional regulation of ARO10, which encodes the major decarboxylase involved in conversion of phenylpyruvate to phenylethanol. A deletion in ARO8, which encodes an aromatic amino acid transaminase, was found to underlie the transcriptional upregulation of ARO10 during growth, with ammonium sulphate as the sole nitrogen source. Physiological characterization revealed that the aro8Δ mutation led to substantial changes in the absolute and relative intracellular concentrations of amino acids. Moreover, deletion of ARO8 led to de novo production of phenylethanol during growth on a glucose synthetic medium with ammonium as the sole nitrogen source. The aro8Δ mutation also stimulated phenylethanol production when combined with other, previously documented, mutations that deregulate aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. The resulting engineered S. cerevisiae strain produced >3 mm phenylethanol from glucose during growth on a simple synthetic medium. The strong impact of a transaminase deletion on intracellular amino acid concentrations opens new possibilities for yeast-based production of amino acid-derived products.

  13. Isolation of the GFA1 gene encoding glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase of Sporothrix schenckii and its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, Juan Francisco; González-Ibarra, Joaquín; Álvarez-Vargas, Aurelio; Milewski, Slawomir; Villagómez-Castro, Julio César; Cano-Canchola, Carmen; López-Romero, Everardo

    2015-06-01

    Glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlcN-6-P synthase) is an essential enzyme involved in cell wall biogenesis that has been proposed as a strategic target for antifungal chemotherapy. Here we describe the cloning and functional characterization of Sporothrix schenckii GFA1 gene which was isolated from a genomic library of the fungus. The gene encodes a predicted protein of 708 amino acids that is homologous to GlcN-6-P synthases from other sources. The recombinant enzyme restored glucosamine prototrophy of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gfa1 null mutant. Purification and biochemical analysis of the recombinant enzyme revealed some differences from the wild type enzyme, such as improved stability and less sensitivity to UDP-GlcNAc. The sensitivity of the recombinant enzyme to the selective inhibitor FMDP [N(3)-(4-methoxyfumaroyl)-l-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid] and other properties were similar to those previously reported for the wild type enzyme.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells harboring the gene encoding sarcotoxin IA secrete a peptide that is toxic to plant pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Aly, R; Granot, D; Mahler-Slasky, Y; Halpern, N; Nir, D; Galun, E

    1999-06-01

    Sarcotoxin IA is a cecropin-type antibacterial protein produced by the flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina. Similar to other bactericidal small proteins produced by insects, sarcotoxin IA is released into the hemolymph of larvae and nymphs upon mechanical injury or bacterial infection. The gene (sarco) that encodes this toxin was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells and was expressed under a constitutive yeast promoter. The transformed yeast cells were grown in a liquid medium, and a peptide with a similar molecular size to that of the mature sarcotoxin IA was detected in the medium by Western blot analysis. The secreted sarcotoxin-like peptide (SLP) had a potent cytotoxic effect against several bacteria, including plant pathogenic bacteria, similar to the toxic effects of the authentic sarcotoxin IA. Erwinia carotovora was more susceptible to the toxic medium than Pseudomonas solanacearum and Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans. Thus, yeast may be used in the production of such proteins for employment against various bacterial pathogens.

  15. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ACR3 gene encodes a putative membrane protein involved in arsenite transport.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, R; Bobrowicz, P; Ułaszewski, S

    1997-11-28

    The cluster of three genes, ACR1, ACR2, and ACR3, previously was shown to confer arsenical resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The overexpression of ACR3 induced high level arsenite resistance. The presence of ACR3 together with ACR2 on a multicopy plasmid was conducive to increased arsenate resistance. The function of ACR3 gene has now been investigated. Amino acid sequence analysis of Acr3p showed that this hypothetical protein has hydrophobic character with 10 putative transmembrane spans and is probably located in yeast plasma membrane. We constructed the acr3 null mutation. The resulting disruptants were 5-fold more sensitive to arsenate and arsenite than wild-type cells. The acr3 disruptants showed wild-type sensitivity to antimony, tellurite, cadmium, and phenylarsine oxide. The mechanism of arsenical resistance was assayed by transport experiments using radioactive arsenite. We did not observe any significant differences in the accumulation of 76AsO33- in wild-type cells, acr1 and acr3 disruptants. However, the high dosage of ACR3 gene resulted in loss of arsenite uptake. These results suggest that arsenite resistance in yeast is mediated by an arsenite transporter (Acr3p).

  16. Sec59 encodes a membrane protein required for core glycosylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, M; Kepes, F; Schekman, R

    1989-01-01

    When incubated at a restrictive temperature, Saccharomyces cerevisiae sec59 mutant cells accumulate inactive and incompletely glycosylated forms of secretory proteins. Three different secretory polypeptides (invertase, pro-alpha-factor, and pro-carboxypeptidase Y) accumulated within a membrane-bounded organelle, presumably the endoplasmic reticulum, and resisted proteolytic degradation unless the membrane was permeabilized with detergent. Molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis of the SEC59 gene predicted an extremely hydrophobic protein product of 59 kilodaltons. This prediction was confirmed by reconstitution of the sec59 defect in vitro. The alpha-factor precursor, which was translated in a soluble fraction from wild-type cells, was translocated into, but inefficiently glycosylated within, membranes from sec59 mutant cells. Residual glycosylation activity of membranes of sec59 cells was thermolabile compared with the activity of wild-type membranes. Partial restoration of glycosylation was obtained in reactions that were supplemented with mannose or GDP-mannose, but not those supplemented with other sugar nucleotides. These results were consistent with a role for the Sec59 protein in the transfer of mannose to dolichol-linked oligosaccharide. Images PMID:2657387

  17. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae BAR1 gene encodes an exported protein with homology to pepsin.

    PubMed Central

    MacKay, V L; Welch, S K; Insley, M Y; Manney, T R; Holly, J; Saari, G C; Parker, M L

    1988-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae a cells secrete an extracellular protein, called "barrier" activity, that acts as an antagonist of alpha factor, the peptide mating pheromone produced by mating-type alpha cells. We report here the DNA sequence of BAR1, the structural gene for barrier activity. The deduced primary translation product of 587 amino acids has a putative signal peptide, nine potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites, and marked sequence similarity of the first two-thirds of the protein with pepsin-like proteases. Barrier activity was abolished by in vitro mutation of an aspartic acid predicted from this sequence homology to be in the active site. Therefore, barrier protein is probably a protease that cleaves alpha factor. The sequence similarity suggests that the first two-thirds of the barrier protein is organized into two distinct structural domains like those of the pepsin-like proteases. However, the BAR1 gene product has a third carboxyl-terminal domain of unknown function; deletion of at least 166 of the 191 amino acids of this region has no significant effect on barrier activity. Images PMID:3124102

  18. Deletion of the Leader Peptide of the Mitochondrially Encoded Precursor of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit II

    PubMed Central

    Torello, A. T.; Overholtzer, M. H.; Cameron, V. L.; Bonnefoy, N.; Fox, T. D.

    1997-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (Cox2p) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is synthesized within mitochondria as a precursor, pre-Cox2p. The 15-amino acid leader peptide is processed after export to the intermembrane space. Leader peptides are relatively unusual in mitochondrially coded proteins: indeed mammalian Cox2p lacks a leader peptide. We generated two deletions in the S. cerevisiae COX2 gene, removing either the leader peptide (cox2-20) or the leader peptide and processing site (cox2-21) without altering either the promoter or the mRNA-specific translational activation site. When inserted into mtDNA, both deletions substantially reduced the steady-state levels of Cox2p and caused a tight nonrespiratory phenotype. A respiring pseudorevertant of the cox2-20 mutant was heteroplasmic for the original mutant mtDNA and a ρ(-) mtDNA whose deletion fused the first 251 codons of the mitochondrial gene encoding cytochrome b to the cox2-20 sequence. The resulting fusion protein was processed to yield functional Cox2p. Thus, the presence of amino-terminal cytochrome b sequence bypassed the need for the pre-Cox2p leader peptide. We propose that the pre-Cox2p leader peptide contains a targeting signal necessary for membrane insertion, without which it remains in the matrix and is rapidly degraded. PMID:9093845

  19. Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein phosphatase 2A performs an essential cellular function and is encoded by two genes.

    PubMed Central

    Sneddon, A A; Cohen, P T; Stark, M J

    1990-01-01

    Two genes (PPH21 and PPH22) encoding the yeast homologues of protein serine-threonine phosphatase 2A have been cloned from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomic library using a rabbit protein phosphatase 2A cDNA as a hybridization probe. The PPH genes are genetically linked on chromosome IV and are predicted to encode polypeptides each with 74% amino acid sequence identity to rabbit type 2A protein phosphatase, indicating once again the extraordinarily high degree of sequence conservation shown by protein-phosphatases from different species. The two PPH genes show less than 10% amino acid sequence divergence from each other and while disruption of either PPH gene alone is without any major effect, the double disruption is lethal. This indicates that protein phosphatase 2A activity is an essential cellular function in yeast. Measurement of type 2A protein phosphatase activity in yeast strains lacking one or other of the genes indicates that they account for most, if not all, protein phosphatase 2A activity in the cell. Images Fig. 5. PMID:2176150

  20. HFA1 encoding an organelle-specific acetyl-CoA carboxylase controls mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hoja, Ursula; Marthol, Sandra; Hofmann, Jörg; Stegner, Sabine; Schulz, Rainer; Meier, Sandra; Greiner, Eva; Schweizer, Eckhart

    2004-05-21

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, HFA1, encodes a >250-kDa protein, which is required for mitochondrial function. Hfa1p exhibits 72% overall sequence similarity (54% identity) to ACC1-encoded yeast cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Nevertheless, HFA1 and ACC1 functions are not overlapping because mutants of the two genes have different phenotypes and do not complement each other. Whereas ACC1 is involved in cytoplasmic fatty acid synthesis, the phenotype of hfa1Delta disruptants resembles that of mitochondrial fatty-acid synthase mutants. They fail to grow on lactate or glycerol, and the mitochondrial cofactor, lipoic acid, is reduced to <10% of its normal cellular concentration. Other than Acc1p, the N-terminal sequence of Hfa1p comprises a canonical mitochondrial targeting signal together with a matrix protease cleavage site. Accordingly, the HFA1-encoded protein was specifically assigned by Western blotting of appropriate cell fractions to the mitochondrial compartment. Removal of the mitochondrial targeting sequence abolished the competence of HFA1 DNA to complement hfal null mutants. Conversely and in contrast to the intact HFA1 sequence, the signal sequence-free HFA1 gene complemented the mutational loss of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Expression of HFA1 under the control of the ACC1 promoter restored cellular ACC activity in ACC1-defective yeast mutants to wild type levels. From this finding, it is concluded that HFA1 encodes a specific mitochondrial acetyl-CoA carboxylase providing malonyl-CoA for intraorganellar fatty acid and, in particular, lipoic acid synthesis. PMID:14761959

  1. The ATX1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a small metal homeostasis factor that protects cells against reactive oxygen toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, S J; Culotta, V C

    1995-01-01

    In aerobic organisms, protection against oxidative damage involves the combined action of highly specialized antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of another gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that plays a critical role in detoxification of reactive oxygen species. This gene, named ATX1, was originally isolated by its ability to suppress oxygen toxicity in yeast lacking SOD. ATX1 encodes a 8.2-kDa polypeptide exhibiting significant similarity and identity to various bacterial metal transporters. Potential ATX1 homologues were also identified in multicellular eukaryotes, including the plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In yeast cells, ATX1 evidently acts in the transport and/or partitioning of copper, and this role in copper homeostasis appears to be directly relevant to the ATX1 suppression of oxygen toxicity: ATX1 was incapable of compensating for SOD when cells were depleted of exogenous copper. Strains containing a deletion in the chromosomal ATX1 locus were generated. Loss of ATX1 function rendered both mutant and wild-type SOD strains hypersensitive toward paraquat (a generator of superoxide anion) and was also associated with an increased sensitivity toward hydrogen peroxide. Hence, ATX1 protects cells against the toxicity of both superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7731983

  2. The PXL1 Gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Encodes a Paxillin-like Protein Functioning in Polarized Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Mackin, Nancy A.; Sousou, Tarek J.; Erdman, Scott E.

    2004-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae open reading frame YKR090w encodes a predicted protein displaying similarity in organization to paxillin, a scaffolding protein that organizes signaling and actin cytoskeletal regulating activities in many higher eucaryotic cell types. We found that YKR090w functions in a manner analogous to paxillin as a mediator of polarized cell growth; thus, we have named this gene PXL1 (Paxillin-like protein 1). Analyses of pxl1Δ strains show that PXL1 is required for the selection and maintenance of polarized growth sites during vegetative growth and mating. Genetic analyses of strains lacking both PXL1 and the Rho GAP BEM2 demonstrate that such cells display pronounced growth defects in response to different conditions causing Rho1 pathway activation. PXL1 also displays genetic interactions with the Rho1 effector FKS1. Pxl1p may therefore function as a modulator of Rho-GTPase signaling. A GFP::Pxl1 fusion protein localizes to sites of polarized cell growth. Experiments mapping the localization determinants of Pxl1p demonstrate the existence of localization mechanisms conserved between paxillin and Pxl1p and indicate an evolutionarily ancient and conserved role for LIM domain proteins in acting to modulate cell signaling and cytoskeletal organization during polarized growth. PMID:14767053

  3. Cloning, primary structure, and regulation of the HIS7 gene encoding a bifunctional glutamine amidotransferase: cyclase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kuenzler, M; Balmelli, T; Egli, C M; Paravicini, G; Braus, G H

    1993-09-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae HIS7 gene was cloned by its location immediately downstream of the previously isolated and characterized ARO4 gene. The two genes have the same orientation with a distance of only 416 bp between the two open reading frames. The yeast HIS7 gene represents the first isolated eukaryotic gene encoding the enzymatic activities which catalyze the fifth and sixth step in histidine biosynthesis. The open reading frame of the HIS7 gene has a length of 1,656 bp resulting in a gene product of 552 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 61,082. Two findings implicate a bifunctional nature of the HIS7 gene product. First, the N-terminal and C-terminal segments of the deduced HIS7 amino acid sequence show significant homology to prokaryotic monofunctional glutamine amidotransferases and cyclases, respectively, involved in histidine biosynthesis. Second, the yeast HIS7 gene is able to suppress His auxotrophy of corresponding Escherichia coli hisH and hisF mutants. HIS7 gene expression is regulated by the general control system of amino acid biosynthesis. GCN4-dependent and GCN4-independent (basal) transcription use different initiator elements in the HIS7 promoter.

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPS2 Encodes a Membrane Protein Localized at the Spindle Pole Body and the Nuclear Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Centeno, María de la Cruz; McBratney, Susan; Monterrosa, Antonio; Byers, Breck; Mann, Carl; Winey, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The MPS2 (monopolar spindle two) gene is one of several genes required for the proper execution of spindle pole body (SPB) duplication in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Winey et al., 1991). We report here that the MPS2 gene encodes an essential 44-kDa protein with two putative coiled-coil regions and a hydrophobic sequence. Although MPS2 is required for normal mitotic growth, some null strains can survive; these survivors exhibit slow growth and abnormal ploidy. The MPS2 protein was tagged with nine copies of the myc epitope, and biochemical fractionation experiments show that it is an integral membrane protein. Visualization of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) Mps2p fusion protein in living cells and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy of 9xmyc-Mps2p revealed a perinuclear localization with one or two brighter foci of staining corresponding to the SPB. Additionally, immunoelectron microscopy shows that GFP-Mps2p localizes to the SPB. Our analysis suggests that Mps2p is required as a component of the SPB for insertion of the nascent SPB into the nuclear envelope. PMID:10397772

  5. Transcription factor Reb1p regulates DGK1-encoded diacylglycerol kinase and lipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yixuan; Fakas, Stylianos; Han, Gil-Soo; Barbosa, Antonio Daniel; Siniossoglou, Symeon; Carman, George M

    2013-10-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the DGK1-encoded diacylglycerol kinase catalyzes the CTP-dependent phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to form phosphatidate. This enzyme, in conjunction with PAH1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase, controls the levels of phosphatidate and diacylglycerol for phospholipid synthesis, membrane growth, and lipid droplet formation. In this work, we showed that a functional level of diacylglycerol kinase is regulated by the Reb1p transcription factor. In the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, purified recombinant Reb1p was shown to specifically bind its consensus recognition sequence (CGGGTAA, -166 to -160) in the DGK1 promoter. Analysis of cells expressing the PDGK1-lacZ reporter gene showed that mutations (GT→TG) in the Reb1p-binding sequence caused an 8.6-fold reduction in β-galactosidase activity. The expression of DGK1(reb1), a DGK1 allele containing the Reb1p-binding site mutation, was greatly lower than that of the wild type allele, as indicated by analyses of DGK1 mRNA, Dgk1p, and diacylglycerol kinase activity. In the presence of cerulenin, an inhibitor of de novo fatty acid synthesis, the dgk1Δ mutant expressing DGK1(reb1) exhibited a significant defect in growth as well as in the synthesis of phospholipids from triacylglycerol mobilization. Unlike DGK1, the DGK1(reb1) expressed in the dgk1Δ pah1Δ mutant did not result in the nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane expansion, which occurs in cells lacking phosphatidate phosphatase activity. Taken together, these results indicate that the Reb1p-mediated regulation of diacylglycerol kinase plays a major role in its in vivo functions in lipid metabolism.

  6. A negative regulating element controlling transcription of the gene encoding acyl-CoA oxidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, T W; Lewin, A S; Small, G M

    1992-01-01

    Peroxisomes are induced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae when this yeast is grown in the presence of oleate, and are repressed when glucose is supplied as the carbon source. Concomitant with this is an induction/repression of peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes. We are investigating the transcriptional control of acyl-CoA oxidase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation cycle. The promoter region of POX1 from S. cerevisiae has been analyzed in POX1/lacZ fusions. Expression of the POX1/lacZ fusion protein underwent glucose repression and oleate induction. By deletion, DNA band shift and DNase I footprinting analyses we have identified a region that is involved in transcriptional repression of POX1. Elimination of this DNA sequence results in constitutive expression of POX1 when S. cerevisiae is grown on a fermentable carbon source or glycerol. Images PMID:1630920

  7. In silicio search for genes encoding peroxisomal proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kal, A J; Hettema, E H; van den Berg, M; Koerkamp, M G; van Ijlst, L; Distel, B; Tabak, H F

    2000-01-01

    The biogenesis of peroxisomes involves the synthesis of new proteins that after, completion of translation, are targeted to the organelle by virtue of peroxisomal targeting signals (PTS). Two types of PTSs have been well characterized for import of matrix proteins (PTS1 and PTS2). Induction of the genes encoding these matrix proteins takes place in oleate-containing medium and is mediated via an oleate response element (ORE) present in the region preceding these genes. The authors have searched the yeast genome for OREs preceding open reading frames (ORFs), and for ORFs that contain either a PTS1 or PTS2. Of the ORFs containing an ORE, as well as either a PTS1 or a PTS2, many were known to encode bona fide peroxisomal matrix proteins. In addition, candidate genes were identified as encoding putative new peroxisomal proteins. For one case, subcellular location studies validated the in silicio prediction. This gene encodes a new peroxisomal thioesterase.

  8. ISC1-encoded inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C is involved in Na+/Li+ halotolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Betz, Christian; Zajonc, Dirk; Moll, Matthias; Schweizer, Eckhart

    2002-08-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, toxic concentrations of Na+ orLi+ ions induce the expression of the cation-extrusion ATPase gene, ENA1. Several well-studied signal transduction pathways are known correlating high salinity to the transcriptional activation of ENA1. Nevertheless, information on the actual sensing mechanism initiating these pathways is limited. Here, we report that the ISC1-encoded phosphosphingolipid-specific phospholipase C appears to be involved in stimulation of ENA1 expression and, consequently, in mediating Na+ and Li+ tolerance in yeast. Deletion of ISC1 distinctly decreased cellular Na+ and Li+ tolerance as growth of the Deltaisc1::HIS5 mutant, DZY1, was severely impaired by 0.5 m NaCl or 0.01 m LiCl. In contrast,K+ tolerance and general osmostress regulation wereunaffected. Isc1Delta mutant growth with 0.9 m KCl and glycerol accumulation in the presence of 0.9 m NaCl or 1.5 m sorbitol were comparable to that of the wild-type. ENA1-lacZ reporter studies suggested that the increased salt sensitivity of the isc1Delta mutant is related to a significant reduction of Na+/Li+-stimulated ENA1 expression. Correspondingly, Ena1p-dependent extrusion of Na+/Li+ ions was less efficient in the isc1Delta mutant than in wild-type cells. Itis suggested that ISC1-dependent hydrolysis of an unidentified yeast inositol phosphosphingolipid represents an early event in one of the salt-induced signalling pathways of ENA1 transcriptional activation. PMID:12180980

  9. The HAP3 regulatory locus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes divergent overlapping transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, S; Pinkham, J; Wei, R; Miller, R; Guarente, L

    1988-01-01

    Activation of the CYC1 upstream activation site, UAS2, and transcription of several other genes encoding respiratory functions requires the product of the regulatory gene HAP2. We report here the isolation and characterization of a second UAS2 regulatory gene, HAP3. Like mutations in HAP2, a mutation in HAP3 abolishes the activity of UAS2 and prevents growth on nonfermentable carbon sources. The HAP3 gene was cloned and, surprisingly, was found to encode two divergently transcribed, overlapping transcripts: a 570-base RNA and a 3-kilobase (kb) RNA. Chromosomal disruption experiments defined the critical region for HAP3 function to a 1.3-kb segment in which the two transcripts overlap. Analysis of the HAP3 DNA sequence showed that the 570-base transcript could encode a protein of 144 amino acids. Synthesis of the 144-amino-acid protein under regulatory control in vivo demonstrated that this protein is essential for activity of UAS2 as well as for growth on nonfermentable carbon sources. The largest open reading frame in the critical region of the 3-kb transcript is only 86 amino acids. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrated that the 86-amino-acid open reading frame was not involved in UAS2 activity. The possible role of this 3-kb antisense RNA in HAP3 expression or function is discussed. Images PMID:2832732

  10. Purification and Properties of an Esterase from the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Identification of the Encoding Gene

    PubMed Central

    Degrassi, Giuliano; Uotila, Lasse; Klima, Raffaella; Venturi, Vittorio

    1999-01-01

    We purified an intracellular esterase that can function as an S-formylglutathione hydrolase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Its molecular mass was 40 kDa, as determined by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point was 5.0 by isoelectric focusing. The enzyme activity was optimal at 50°C and pH 7.0. The corresponding gene, YJLO68C, was identified by its N-terminal amino acid sequence and is not essential for cell viability. Null mutants have reduced esterase activities and grow slowly in the presence of formaldehyde. This enzyme may be involved in the detoxification of formaldehyde, which can be metabolized to S-formylglutathione by S. cerevisiae. PMID:10427036

  11. HPR1 encodes a global positive regulator of transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Y; Peterson, C L; Christman, M F

    1995-01-01

    The Hpr1 protein has an unknown function, although it contains a region of homology to DNA topoisomerase I. We have found that hpr1 null mutants are defective in the transcription of many physiologically unrelated genes, including GAL1, HO, ADH1, and SUC2, by using a combination of Northern (RNA) blot analysis, primer extension, and upstream activation sequence-lacZ fusions. Many of the genes positively regulated by HPR1 also require SWI1, SWI2-SNF2, SWI3, SNF5, and SNF6. The transcriptional defect at HO and the CCB::lacZ upstream activation sequence in hpr1 mutants is partially suppressed by a deletion of SIN1, which encodes an HMG1p-like protein. Elevated gene dosage of either histones H3 and H4 or H2A and H2B results in a severe growth defect in combination with an hpr1 null mutation. However, increased gene dosage of all four histones simultaneously restores near-normal growth in hpr1 mutants. Altered in vivo Dam methylase sensitivity is observed at two HPR1-dependent promoters (GAL1 and SUC2). Most of the Hpr1 protein present in the cell is in a large complex (10(6) Da) that is distinct from the SWI-SNF protein complex. We propose that HPR1 affects transcription and recombination by altering chromatin structure. PMID:7862161

  12. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPR184w gene encodes the glycogen debranching enzyme.

    PubMed

    Teste, M A; Enjalbert, B; Parrou, J L; François, J M

    2000-12-01

    The YPR184w gene encodes a 1536-amino acid protein that is 34-39% identical to the mammal, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans glycogen debranching enzyme. The N-terminal part of the protein possesses the four conserved sequences of the alpha-amylase superfamily, while the C-terminal part displays 50% similarity with the C-terminal of other eukaryotic glycogen debranching enzymes. Reliable measurement of alpha-1,4-glucanotransferase and alpha-1, 6-glucosidase activity of the yeast debranching enzyme was determined in strains overexpressing YPR184w. The alpha-1, 4-glucanotransferase activity of a partially purified preparation of debranching enzyme preferentially transferred maltosyl units than maltotriosyl. Deletion of YPR184w prevents glycogen degradation, whereas overexpression had no effect on the rate of glycogen breakdown. In response to stress and growth conditions, the transcriptional control of YPR184w gene, renamed GDB1 (for Glycogen DeBranching gene), is strictly identical to that of other genes involved in glycogen metabolism.

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae YOR071C encodes the high affinity nicotinamide riboside transporter Nrt1.

    PubMed

    Belenky, Peter A; Moga, Tiberiu G; Brenner, Charles

    2008-03-28

    NAD(+) is an essential coenzyme for hydride transfer enzymes and a substrate of sirtuins and other NAD(+)-consuming enzymes. Nicotinamide riboside is a recently discovered eukaryotic NAD(+) precursor converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamide riboside kinase pathway and by nucleosidase activity and nicotinamide salvage. Nicotinamide riboside supplementation of yeast extends replicative life span on high glucose medium. The molecular basis for nicotinamide riboside uptake was unknown in any eukaryote. Here, we show that deletion of a single gene, YOR071C, abrogates nicotinamide riboside uptake without altering nicotinic acid or nicotinamide import. The gene, which is negatively regulated by Sum1, Hst1, and Rfm1, fully restores nicotinamide riboside import and utilization when resupplied to mutant yeast cells. The encoded polypeptide, Nrt1, is a predicted deca-spanning membrane protein related to the thiamine transporter, which functions as a pH-dependent facilitator with a K(m) for nicotinamide riboside of 22 microm. Nrt1-related molecules are conserved in particular fungi, suggesting a similar basis for nicotinamide riboside uptake. PMID:18258590

  14. Arabidopsis thaliana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae NHX1 genes encode amiloride sensitive electroneutral Na+/H+ exchangers.

    PubMed Central

    Darley, C P; van Wuytswinkel , O C; van der Woude , K; Mager, W H; de Boer , A H

    2000-01-01

    Sodium at high millimolar levels in the cytoplasm is toxic to plant and yeast cells. Sequestration of Na(+) ions into the vacuole is one mechanism to confer Na(+)-tolerance on these organisms. In the present study we provide direct evidence that the Arabidopsis thaliana At-NHX1 gene and the yeast NHX1 gene encode low-affinity electroneutral Na(+)/H(+) exchangers. We took advantage of the ability of heterologously expressed At-NHX1 to functionally complement the yeast nhx1-null mutant. Experiments on vacuolar vesicles isolated from yeast expressing At-NHX1 or NHX1 provided direct evidence for pH-gradient-energized Na(+) accumulation into the vacuole. A major difference between NHX1 and At-NHX1 is the presence of a cleavable N-terminal signal peptide (SP) in the former gene. Fusion of the SP to At-NHX1 resulted in an increase in the magnitude of Na(+)/H(+) exchange, indicating a role for the SP in protein targeting or regulation. Another distinguishing feature between the plant and yeast antiporters is their sensitivity to the diuretic compound amiloride. Whereas At-NHX1 was completely inhibited by amiloride, NHX1 activity was reduced by only 20-40%. These results show that yeast as a heterologous expression system provides a convenient model to analyse structural and regulatory features of plant Na(+)/H(+) antiporters. PMID:10998367

  15. Regulatory regions in the promoters of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PYC1 and PYC2 genes encoding isoenzymes of pyruvate carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, J; Gancedo, C

    1998-07-15

    We have identified regions in the promoters of the PYC1 and PYC2 genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in their regulation in different culture conditions. In the case of PYC1, a UAS in the region between -330/-297 and three repressing sequences with the common central core CCGCC at positions -457, -432 and -399 were identified. Specific binding of nuclear proteins to the -330/-214 DNA fragment was abolished in rtg mutants suggesting a role for the RTG genes in the control of PYC1 expression. In the case of the PYC2 promoter, elimination of a fragment from -417 to -291 brings about a two-fold decrease in the expression in repressed conditions and a similar increase in derepression.

  16. Transfer RNA pseudouridine synthases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, T; Olsson, M

    1990-05-25

    A transfer RNA lacking modified nucleosides was produced by transcription in vitro of a cloned gene that encodes a Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycine tRNA. At least three different uridines (in nucleotide positions 13, 32, and 55) of this transcript tRNA are modified to pseudouridine by an extract of S. cerevisiae. Variants of the RNA substrate were also constructed that each had only one of these sites, thus allowing specific monitoring of pseudouridylation at different nucleotide positions. Using such RNAs to assay pseudouridine synthesis, enzymes producing this nucleoside were purified from an extract of S. cerevisiae. The activities corresponding to positions 13, 32, and 55 in the tRNA substrate could all be separated chromatographically, indicating that there is a separate enzyme for each of these sites. The enzyme specific for position 55 (denoted pseudouridine synthase 55) was purified approximately 4000-fold using a combination of DEAE-Sepharose, heparin-Sepharose, and hydroxylapatite.

  17. Cloning and expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase-encoding gene (XYL1) from the xylose-assimilating yeast Pichia stipitis.

    PubMed

    Amore, R; Kötter, P; Küster, C; Ciriacy, M; Hollenberg, C P

    1991-12-20

    The XYL1 gene of the yeast Pichia stipitis has been isolated from a genomic library using a specific cDNA probe, and its nucleotide (nt) sequence has been determined. In the 5' noncoding region of the P. stipitis XYL1 gene a TATAAA element (known to be necessary for transcription initiation in most yeast genes) is found at nt -81, and two CCAAT recognition motifs (often referred to as the CCAAT box) are present at nt -146 and -106. The XYL1 encodes a polypeptide of 35,927 Da that constitutes a NADH/NADPH-dependent xylose reductase (XR). The enzyme is part of the xylose-xylulose pathway that is absent or only weakly expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Extensive homology is found to the N terminus of the XR of Pachysolen tannophilus and Candida shehatae. None of the known cofactor binding domains found in many NAD-dependent dehydrogenases are present in the protein. Transformants of S. cerevisiae containing XYL1 of P. stipitis synthesize an active XR. Fusion of XYL1 with the prokaryotic tac promoter leads to a gene that can be expressed in S. cerevisiae and Escherichia coli.

  18. Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ostergaard, Simon; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge regarding Saccharomyces cerevisiae has accumulated over time, and today S. cerevisiae serves as a widley used biotechnological production organism as well as a eukaryotic model system. The high transformation efficiency, in addition to the availability of the complete yeast genome sequence, has facilitated genetic manipulation of this microorganism, and new approaches are constantly being taken to metabolicially engineer this organism in order to suit specific needs. In this paper, strategies and concepts for metabolic engineering are discussed and several examples based upon selected studies involving S. cerevisiae are reviewed. The many different studies of metabolic engineering using this organism illustrate all the categories of this multidisciplinary field: extension of substrate range, improvements of producitivity and yield, elimination of byproduct formation, improvement of process performance, improvements of cellular properties, and extension of product range including heterologous protein production. PMID:10704473

  19. FSY1, a horizontally transferred gene in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 wine yeast strain, encodes a high-affinity fructose/H+ symporter.

    PubMed

    Galeote, Virginie; Novo, Maïté; Salema-Oom, Madalena; Brion, Christian; Valério, Elisabete; Gonçalves, Paula; Dequin, Sylvie

    2010-12-01

    Transport of glucose and fructose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a crucial role in controlling the rate of wine fermentation. In S. cerevisiae, hexoses are transported by facilitated diffusion via hexose carriers (Hxt), which prefer glucose to fructose. However, utilization of fructose by wine yeast is critically important at the end of fermentation. Here, we report the characterization of a fructose transporter recently identified by sequencing the genome of the commercial wine yeast strain EC1118 and found in many other wine yeasts. This transporter is designated Fsy1p because of its homology with the Saccharomyces pastorianus fructose/H(+) symporter Fsy1p. A strain obtained by transformation of the V5 hxt1-7Δ mutant with FSY1 grew well on fructose, but to a much lesser extent on glucose as the sole carbon source. Sugar uptake and symport experiments showed that FSY1 encodes a proton-coupled symporter with high affinity for fructose (K(m) 0.24±0.04mM). Using real-time RT-PCR, we also investigated the expression pattern of FSY1 in EC1118 growing on various carbon sources. FSY1 was repressed by high concentrations of glucose or fructose and was highly expressed on ethanol as the sole carbon source. The characteristics of this transporter indicate that its acquisition could confer a significant advantage to S. cerevisiae during the wine fermentation process. This transporter is a good example of acquisition of a new function in yeast by horizontal gene transfer.

  20. BED1, a gene encoding a galactosyltransferase homologue, is required for polarized growth and efficient bud emergence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The ellipsoidal shape of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the result of successive isotropic/apical growth switches that are regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner. It is thought that growth polarity is governed by the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton that is itself under the control of the cell cycle machinery. The cell cycle and the morphogenesis cycle are tightly coupled and it has been recently suggested that a morphogenesis/polarity checkpoint control monitors bud emergence in order to maintain the coupling of these two events (Lew, D. J., and S. I. Reed. 1995. J. Cell Biol. 129:739-749). During a screen based on the inability of cells impaired in the budding process to survive when the morphogenesis checkpoint control is abolished, we identified and characterized BED1, a new gene that is required for efficient budding. Cells carrying a disrupted allele of BED1 no longer have the wild-type ellipsoidal shape characteristic of S. cerevisiae, are larger than wild-type cells, are deficient in bud emergence, and depend upon an intact morphogenesis checkpoint control to survive. These cells show defects in polarized growth despite the fact that the actin cytoskeleton appears normal. Our results suggest that Bed1 is a type II membrane protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. BED1 is significantly homologous to gma12+, a S. pombe gene coding for an alpha-1,2,-galactosyltransferase, suggesting that glycosylation of specific proteins or lipids could be important for signaling in the switch to polarized growth and in bud emergence. PMID:8567719

  1. Phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase encoded by the PEL1/PGS1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is localized in mitochondria and its expression is regulated by phospholipid precursors.

    PubMed

    Dzugasová, V; Obernauerová, M; Horváthová, K; Vachová, M; Záková, M; Subík, J

    1998-10-01

    The PEL1/PGS1 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential for the viability of rho-/rho degrees mutants and the normal cardiolipin content of cells. The PEL1-GFP fusion gene has been found to complement the pel1/pgs1 mutation and its fluorescent protein was localized to mitochondria similarly to the beta-galactosidase activity of a protein encoded by the PEL1-lacZ fusion gene. The expression of the PEL1-lacZ reporter gene was repressed in cells grown in the presence of inositol and choline, reduced in the ino2 and ino4 strains, but constitutive in the opi1 null-mutant strain. The results demonstrate that Pel1p, playing a vital role in cells impaired in the mitochondrial DNA, is localized in the mitochondria and expressed in response to inositol and choline. PMID:9799363

  2. Growth on ethanol results in co-ordinated Saccharomyces cerevisiae response to inactivation of genes encoding superoxide dismutases.

    PubMed

    Lushchak, Oleh V; Semchyshyn, Halyna M; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2007-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an essential enzyme protecting cells against oxidative stress. However, its specific role under different conditions is not clear. To study the possible role of SOD in the cell during respiration, Saccharomyces cerevisiae single and double mutants with inactivated SOD1 and/or SOD2 genes growing on ethanol as an energy and carbon source were used. Activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes as well as the level of protein carbonyls were measured. SOD activity was significantly higher in a Mn-SOD deficient strain than that in the wild-type parental strain, but significantly lower in a Cu, Zn-SOD mutant. A strong positive correlation between SOD and catalase activities (R(2) = 0.99) shows possible protection of catalase by SOD from inactivation in vivo and/or decrease in catalase activity because of lower H(2)O(2) formation in the mutant cells. SOD deficiency resulted in a malate dehydrogenase activity increase, whereas glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity was lower in SOD-deficient strains. Linear and non-linear positive correlations between SOD and isocitrate dehydrogenase activities are discussed. No changes in the activity of glutathione reductase and protein carbonyl levels support the idea that SOD-deficient cells are not exposed to strong oxidative stress during exponential growth of yeast cultures on ethanol.

  3. HKR1 encodes a cell surface protein that regulates both cell wall beta-glucan synthesis and budding pattern in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Yabe, T; Yamada-Okabe, T; Kasahara, S; Furuichi, Y; Nakajima, T; Ichishima, E; Arisawa, M; Yamada-Okabe, H

    1996-01-01

    We previously isolated the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HKR1 gene that confers on S. cerevisiae cells resistance to HM-1 killer toxin secreted by Hansenula mrakii (S. Kasahara, H. Yamada, T. Mio, Y. Shiratori, C. Miyamoto, T. Yabe, T. Nakajima, E. Ichishima, and Y. Furuichi, J. Bacteriol. 176:1488-1499, 1994). HKR1 encodes a type 1 membrane protein that contains a calcium-binding consensus sequence (EF hand motif) in the cytoplasmic domain. Although the null mutation of HKR1 is lethal, disruption of the 3' part of the coding region, which would result in deletion of the cytoplasmic domain of Hkr1p, did not affect the viability of yeast cells. This partial disruption of HKR1 significantly reduced beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity and the amount of beta-1,3-glucan in the cell wall and altered the axial budding pattern of haploid cells. Neither chitin synthase activity nor chitin content was significantly affected in the cells harboring the partially disrupted HKR1 allele. Immunofluorescence microscopy with an antibody raised against Hkr1p expressed in Escherichia coli revealed that Hkr1p was predominantly localized on the cell surface. The cell surface localization of Hkr1p required the N-terminal signal sequence because the C-terminal half of Hkr1p was detected uniformly in the cells. These results demonstrate that HKR1 encodes a cell surface protein that regulates both cell wall beta-glucan synthesis and budding pattern and suggest that bud site assembly is somehow related to beta-glucan synthesis in S. cerevisiae. PMID:8550469

  4. The hexose transporter family of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kruckeberg, A L

    1996-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae accomplishes high rates of hexose transport. The kinetics of hexose transport are complex. The capacity and kinetic complexity of hexose transport in yeast are reflected in the large number of sugar transporter genes in the genome. Twenty hexose transporter genes exist in S. cerevisiae. Some of these have been found by genetic means; many have been discovered by the comprehensive sequencing of the yeast genome. This review codifies the nomenclature of the hexose transporter genes and describes the sequence homology and structural similarity of the proteins they encode. Information about the expression and function of the transporters is presented. Access to the sequences of the genes and proteins at three sequence databases is provided via the World Wide Web.

  5. Cadmium biosorption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Volesky, B.; May, H.; Holan, Z.R. )

    1993-04-01

    Cadmium uptake by nonliving and resting cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained from aerobic or anaerobic cultures from pure cadmium-bearing solutions was examined. The highest cadmium uptake exceeding 70 mg Cd/g was observed with aerobic baker's yeast biomass from the exponential growth phase. Nearly linear sorption isotherms featured by higher sorbing resting cells together with metal deposits localized exclusively in vacuoles indicate the possibility of a different metal-sequestering mechanism when compared to dry nonliving yeasts which did not usually accumulate more than 20 mg Cd/g. The uptake of cadmium was relatively fast, 75% of the sorption completed in less than 5 min.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Two Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Genes Encoding Homologs of the Bacterial Hexa and Muts Mismatch Repair Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Reenan, R. A.; Kolodner, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    Homologs of the Escherichia coli (mutL, S and uvrD) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (hexA, B) genes involved in mismatch repair are known in several distantly related organisms. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on conserved regions of E. coli MutS protein and its homologs from Salmonella typhimurium, S. pneumoniae and human were used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify and clone mutS/hexA homologs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two DNA sequences were amplified whose deduced amino acid sequences both shared a high degree of homology with MutS. These sequences were then used to clone the full-length genes from a yeast genomic library. Sequence analysis of the two MSH genes (MSH = mutS homolog), MSH1 and MSH2, revealed open reading frames of 2877 bp and 2898 bp. The deduced amino acid sequences predict polypeptides of 109.3 kD and 109.1 kD, respectively. The overall amino acid sequence identity with the E. coli MutS protein is 28.6% for MSH1 and 25.2% for MSH2. Features previously found to be shared by MutS homologs, such as the nucleotide binding site and the helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif as well as other highly conserved regions whose function remain unknown, were also found in the two yeast homologs. Evidence presented in this and a companion study suggest that MSH1 is involved in repair of mitochondrial DNA and that MSH2 is involved in nuclear DNA repair. PMID:1459447

  7. The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Spt8 Gene Encodes a Very Acidic Protein That Is Functionally Related to Spt3 and Tata-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Eisenmann, D. M.; Chapon, C.; Roberts, S. M.; Dollard, C.; Winston, F.

    1994-01-01

    Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPT8 gene were previously isolated as suppressors of retrotransposon insertion mutations in the 5' regions of the HIS4 and LYS2 genes. Mutations in SPT8 confer phenotypes similar to those caused by particular mutations in SPT15, which encodes the TATA-binding protein (TBP). These phenotypes are also similar to those caused by mutations in the SPT3 gene, which encodes a protein that directly interacts with TBP. We have now cloned and sequenced the SPT8 gene and have shown that it encodes a predicted protein of 602 amino acids with an extremely acidic amino terminus. In addition, the predicted SPT8 amino acid sequence contains one copy of a sequence motif found in multiple copies in a number of other eukaryotic proteins, including the β subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. To investigate further the relationship between SPT8, SPT3 and TBP, we have analyzed the effect of an spt8 null mutation in combination with different spt3 and spt15 mutations. This genetic analysis has shown that an spt8 deletion mutation is suppressed by particular spt3 alleles. Taken together with previous results, these data suggest that the SPT8 protein is required, directly or indirectly, for TBP function at particular promoters and that the role of SPT8 may be to promote a functional interaction between SPT3 and TBP. PMID:8088510

  8. SSN genes that affect transcriptional repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode SIN4, ROX3, and SRB proteins associated with RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Song, W; Treich, I; Qian, N; Kuchin, S; Carlson, M

    1996-01-01

    The RNA polymerase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exists in holoenzyme forms containing a complex, known as the mediator, associated with the carboxyl-terminal domain. The mediator includes several SRB proteins and is required for transcriptional activation. Previous work showed that a cyclin-dependent kinase-cyclin pair encoded by SSN3 and SSN8, two members of the SSN suppressor family, are identical to two SRB proteins in the mediator. Here we have identified the remaining SSN genes by cloning and genetic analysis. SSN2 and SSN5 are identical to SRB9 and SRB8, respectively, which encode additional components of the mediator. Genetic evidence implicates the SSN genes in transcriptional repression. Thus, these identities provide genetic insight into mediator and carboxyl-terminal domain function, strongly suggesting a role in mediating transcriptional repression as well as activation. We also show that SSN4 and SSN7 are the same as SIN4 and ROX3, respectively, raising the possibility that these genes also encode mediator proteins.

  9. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  14. PET genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Tzagoloff, A; Dieckmann, C L

    1990-01-01

    We describe a collection of nuclear respiratory-defective mutants (pet mutants) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae consisting of 215 complementation groups. This set of mutants probably represents a substantial fraction of the total genetic information of the nucleus required for the maintenance of functional mitochondria in S. cerevisiae. The biochemical lesions of mutants in approximately 50 complementation groups have been related to single enzymes or biosynthetic pathways, and the corresponding wild-type genes have been cloned and their structures have been determined. The genes defined by an additional 20 complementation groups were identified by allelism tests with mutants characterized in other laboratories. Mutants representative of the remaining complementation groups have been assigned to one of the following five phenotypic classes: (i) deficiency in cytochrome oxidase, (ii) deficiency in coenzyme QH2-cytochrome c reductase, (iii) deficiency in mitochondrial ATPase, (iv) absence of mitochondrial protein synthesis, and (v) normal composition of respiratory-chain complexes and of oligomycin-sensitive ATPase. In addition to the genes identified through biochemical and genetic analyses of the pet mutants, we have cataloged PET genes not matched to complementation groups in the mutant collection and other genes whose products function in the mitochondria but are not necessary for respiration. Together, this information provides an up-to-date list of the known genes coding for mitochondrial constituents and for proteins whose expression is vital for the respiratory competence of S. cerevisiae. PMID:2215420

  15. A suppressor of an RNA polymerase II mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a subunit common to RNA polymerases I, II, and III.

    PubMed Central

    Archambault, J; Schappert, K T; Friesen, J D

    1990-01-01

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is a complex multisubunit enzyme responsible for the synthesis of pre-mRNA in eucaryotes. The enzyme is made of two large subunits associated with at least eight smaller polypeptides, some of which are common to all three RNA polymerase species. We have initiated a genetic analysis of RNAPII by introducing mutations in RPO21, the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNAPII in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have used a yeast genomic library to isolate plasmids that can suppress a temperature-sensitive mutation in RPO21 (rpo21-4), with the goal of identifying gene products that interact with the largest subunit of RNAPII. We found that increased expression of wild-type RPO26, a single-copy, essential gene encoding a 155-amino-acid subunit common to RNAPI, RNAPII, and RNAPIII, suppressed the rpo21-4 temperature-sensitive mutation. Mutations were constructed in vitro that resulted in single amino acid changes in the carboxy-terminal portion of the RPO26 gene product. One temperature-sensitive mutation, as well as some mutations that did not by themselves generate a phenotype, were lethal in combination with rpo21-4. These results support the idea that the RPO26 and RPO21 gene products interact. Images PMID:2247052

  16. Isolation and characterization of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes that encode proteins that bind to (TG1-3)n single strand telomeric DNA in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, J J; Zakian, V A

    1994-01-01

    By screening lambda gt11 libraries with a radiolabeled (TG1-3)n oligonucleotide, two Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes were identified that encode polypeptides that recognize the single-stranded telomeric repeat sequence (TG1-3)n. The first gene, NSR1, a previously identified gene, encodes a protein involved in ribosomal RNA maturation and possibly in transport of proteins into the nucleus. The second gene, GBP2 (G-strand Binding Protein), is an anonymous open reading frame from chromosome III. These two genes contain RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) that are found in proteins that interact with RNA. Both Nsr1p and Gbp2p bind specifically to yeast single strand (TG1-3)n DNA in vitro. To test whether these two proteins associate with telomeres in vivo, strains were constructed in which one or both of these genes were either disrupted or overexpressed. None of these alterations affected telomere length or telomere position effect. The potential role of these two (TG1-3)n binding proteins is discussed. Images PMID:7800479

  17. Cloning of a cDNA encoding cytosolic acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase from radish by functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Vollack, K U; Bach, T J

    1996-01-01

    A cDNA coding for radish (Raphanus sativus L.) acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase (AACT) was cloned by complementation of the erg10 mutation affecting AACT in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The longest reading frame encodes a protein of 406 amino acids with a predicted relative molecular weight of 42,032, with significant similarities to eukaryotic and prokaryotic thiolases. There is no evidence for the presence of a leader peptide characteristic, e.g. of glyoxysomal thiolase. Yeast transformants expressing the radish AACT gene placed under the control of the GAL1 promoter exhibited a 10-fold higher enzyme activity than a wild-type yeast strain after induction by galactose. This enzyme activity is exclusively localized in the soluble fraction but not in membranes. These data indicate that we have cloned a gene encoding cytoplasmic (biosynthetic) AACT. Genomic DNA gel blot analysis suggests the presence of a single AACT gene, which is expressed in all parts of the seedling. Expression in cotyledons appears to be light-stimulated. We present preliminary evidence that a smaller transcript represents an antisense species being read from the same gene. PMID:8756496

  18. Overexpression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannosylphosphodolichol synthase-encoding gene in Trichoderma reesei results in an increased level of protein secretion and abnormal cell ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Kruszewska, J S; Butterweck, A H; Kurzatkowski, W; Migdalski, A; Kubicek, C P; Palamarczyk, G

    1999-06-01

    Production of extracellular proteins plays an important role in the physiology of Trichoderma reesei and has potential industrial application. To improve the efficiency of protein secretion, we overexpressed in T. reesei the DPM1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encoding mannosylphosphodolichol (MPD) synthase, under homologous, constitutively acting expression signals. Four stable transformants, each with different copy numbers of tandemly integrated DPM1, exhibited roughly double the activity of MPD synthase in the respective endoplasmic reticulum membrane fraction. On a dry-weight basis, they secreted up to sevenfold-higher concentrations of extracellular proteins during growth on lactose, a carbon source promoting formation of cellulases. Northern blot analysis showed that the relative level of the transcript of cbh1, which encodes the major cellulase (cellobiohydrolase I [CBH I]), did not increase in the transformants. On the other hand, the amount of secreted CBH I and, in all but one of the transformants, intracellular CBH I was elevated. Our results suggest that posttranscriptional processes are responsible for the increase in CBH I production. The carbohydrate contents of the extracellular proteins were comparable in the wild type and in the transformants, and no hyperglycosylation was detected. Electron microscopy of the DPM1-amplified strains revealed amorphous structure of the cell wall and over three times as many mitochondria as in the control. Our data indicate that molecular manipulation of glycan biosynthesis in Trichoderma can result in improved protein secretion.

  19. Mutations in a gene encoding the. cap alpha. subunit of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae G protein indicate a role in mating pheromone signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Jahng, K.Y.; Ferguson, J.; Reed, S.I.

    1988-06-01

    Mutations which allowed conjugation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking a mating pheromone receptor gene were selected. One of the genes defined by such mutations was isolated from a yeast genomic library by complementation of a temperature-sensitive mutation and is identically to the gene GPA1 (also known as SCG1), recently shown to be highly homologous to gene encoding the ..cap alpha.. subunits of mammalian G proteins. Physiological analysis of temperature-sensitive gpal mutations suggests that the encoded G protein is involved in signaling in response to mating pheromones. Mutational disruption of G-protein activity causes cell-cycle arrest in G/sub 1/, deposition of mating-specific cell surface aggultinins, and induction of pheromone-specific mRNa, all of which are responses to pheromone in wild-type cells. In addition, mutants can conjugate without the benefit of mating pheromone or pheromone receptor. A model is presented where the activated G protein has a negative impact on a constitutive signal which normally keeps the pheromone response repressed.

  20. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-09-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression.

  1. Chronological aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Longo, Valter D; Fabrizio, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The two paradigms to study aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the chronological life span (CLS) and the replicative life span (RLS). The chronological life span is a measure of the mean and maximum survival time of non-dividing yeast populations while the replicative life span is based on the mean and maximum number of daughter cells generated by an individual mother cell before cell division stops irreversibly. Here we review the principal discoveries associated with yeast chronological aging and how they are contributing to the understanding of the aging process and of the molecular mechanisms that may lead to healthy aging in mammals. We will focus on the mechanisms of life span regulation by the Tor/Sch9 and the Ras/adenylate Ras/adenylate cyclase/PKA pathways with particular emphasis on those implicating age-dependent oxidative oxidative stress stress and DNA damage/repair.

  2. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression. PMID:26205245

  3. The GEF1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes an integral membrane protein; mutations in which have effects on respiration and iron-limited growth.

    PubMed

    Greene, J R; Brown, N H; DiDomenico, B J; Kaplan, J; Eide, D J

    1993-12-01

    We have isolated a new class of respiration-defective, i.e petite, mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutations in the GEF1 gene cause cells to grow slowly on rich media containing carbon sources utilized by respiration. This phenotype is suppressed by adding high concentrations of iron to the growth medium. Gef1- mutants also fail to grow on a fermentable carbon source, glucose, when iron is reduced to low concentrations in the medium, suggesting that the GEF1 gene is required for efficient metabolism of iron during growth on fermentable as well as respired carbon sources. However, activity of the iron uptake system appears to be unaffected in gef1- mutants. Fe(II) transporter activity and regulation is normal in gef1- mutants. Fe(III) reductase induction during iron-limited growth is disrupted, but this appears to be a secondary effect of growth rate alterations. The wild-type GEF1 gene was cloned and sequenced; it encodes a protein of 779 amino acids, 13 possible transmembrane domains, and significant similarity to chloride channel proteins from fish and mammals, suggesting that GEF1 encodes an integral membrane protein. A gef1- deletion mutation generated in vitro and introduced into wild-type haploid strains by gene transplacement was not lethal. Oxygen consumption by intact gef1- cells and by mitochondrial fractions isolated from gef1- mutants was reduced 25-50% relative to wild type, indicating that mitochondrial function is defective in these mutants. We suggest that GEF1 encodes a transport protein that is involved in intracellular iron metabolism.

  4. Genetic analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RHO3 gene, encoding a rho-type small GTPase, provides evidence for a role in bud formation

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Jun; Toh-e, Akio; Matsui, Yashushi

    1996-02-01

    RHO3 encodes a Rho-type small GTPase of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We isolated temperature-sensitive alleles and a dominant active allele of RHO3. Ts{sup -} rho3 cells lost cell polarity during bud formation and grew more isotropically than wild-type cells at nonpermissive temperatures. In contrast, cells carrying a dominant active mutant RHO3 displayed cold sensitivity, and the cells became elongated and bent, often at the position where actin patches were concentrated. These phenotypes of the rho3 mutants strongly suggest that RHO3 is involved in directing the growing points during bud formation. In addition, we found that SRO6, previously isolated as a multicopy suppressor of rho3, is the same as SEC4. The sec4-2 mutation was synthetic lethal with temperature-sensitive rho3 mutations and suppressed the cold sensitivity caused by a dominant active mutant RHO3. The genetic interactions between RHO3 and SEC4, taken together with the fact that the Rab-type GTPase Sec4p is required to fuse secretory vesicles together with plasma membrane for exocytosis, support a model in which the Rho3p pathway modulates morphogenesis during bud growth via directing organization of the actin cytoskeleton and the position of the secretory machinery for exocytosis. 59 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. At-GDI1 from Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a rab-specific GDP dissociation inhibitor that complements the sec19 mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zárský, V; Cvrcková, F; Bischoff, F; Palme, K

    1997-02-24

    Rab GTPases play a central role in the control of vesicular membrane traffic. These proteins cycle between cytosolic and membrane-bound compartments in a guanine nucleotide-dependent manner, a process that is regulated by several accessory proteins. Of particular interest are the Rab guanosine nucleotide diphosphate dissociation inhibitor proteins (Rab-GDI) which bind to prenylated Rab GTPases, slow the rate of GDP dissociation and escort GDP bound Rab proteins to their target membranes and retrieve them after completion of their catalytic cycle. We have cloned from Arabidopsis thaliana a cDNA coding for the Rab guanosine diphosphate dissociation inhibitor (AtGDI1) by functional complementation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sec19-1 mutant. The Arabidopsis cDNA potentially encodes a 49850 Da protein which is homologous to yeast GDI (49%) and to other members of the Rab-GDI family (49-63%). Northern blot analysis indicates that the mRNA is expressed in all tissues examined. The existence of a plant homologue of the Rab-GDI family indicates that the basic vesicle traffic control machinery may be highly conserved in plants as it is in yeast and mammals.

  6. Fatal Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Aortic Graft Infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor); Smith, Davey; Metzgar, David; Wills, Christopher; Fierer, Joshua

    2002-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast commonly used in baking and a frequent colonizer of human mucosal surfaces. It is considered relatively nonpathogenic in immunocompetent adults. We present a case of S. cerevisiae fungemia and aortic graft infection in an immunocompetent adult. This is the first reported case of S. cerevisiue fungemia where the identity of the pathogen was confirmed by rRNA sequencing.

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent baker.

    PubMed

    Seng, Piseth; Cerlier, Alexandre; Cassagne, Carole; Coulange, Mathieu; Legré, Regis; Stein, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Invasive infection caused by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rare. We report the first case of osteomyelitis caused by S. cerevisiae (baker's yeast) in a post-traumatic patient. The clinical outcome was favorable after surgical debridement, prolonged antifungal treatment and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. PMID:27347482

  8. Transcriptional Regulatory Networks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tong Ihn; Rinaldi, Nicola J.; Robert, François; Odom, Duncan T.; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Gerber, Georg K.; Hannett, Nancy M.; Harbison, Christopher T.; Thompson, Craig M.; Simon, Itamar; Zeitlinger, Julia; Jennings, Ezra G.; Murray, Heather L.; Gordon, D. Benjamin; Ren, Bing; Wyrick, John J.; Tagne, Jean-Bosco; Volkert, Thomas L.; Fraenkel, Ernest; Gifford, David K.; Young, Richard A.

    2002-10-01

    We have determined how most of the transcriptional regulators encoded in the eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae associate with genes across the genome in living cells. Just as maps of metabolic networks describe the potential pathways that may be used by a cell to accomplish metabolic processes, this network of regulator-gene interactions describes potential pathways yeast cells can use to regulate global gene expression programs. We use this information to identify network motifs, the simplest units of network architecture, and demonstrate that an automated process can use motifs to assemble a transcriptional regulatory network structure. Our results reveal that eukaryotic cellular functions are highly connected through networks of transcriptional regulators that regulate other transcriptional regulators.

  9. Evidence that Synthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondrially Encoded Ribosomal Protein Var1p May Be Membrane Localized

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Alessandro; Mason, Thomas L.; Fox, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    The 5′-untranslated leaders of mitochondrial mRNAs appear to localize translation within the organelle. VAR1 is the only yeast mitochondrial gene encoding a major soluble protein. A chimeric mRNA bearing the VAR1 untranslated regions and the coding sequence for pre-Cox2p appears to be translated at the inner membrane surface. We propose that translation of the ribosomal protein Var1p is also likely to occur in close proximity to the inner membrane. PMID:12796311

  10. Tangential Ultrafiltration of Aqueous "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae" Suspensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Carlos M.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Xavier, Ana M. R. B.; Eusebio, M. F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental work on ultrafiltration is presented to illustrate the practical and theoretical principles of this separation technique. The laboratory exercise comprises experiments with pure water and with aqueous "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (from commercial Baker's yeast) suspensions. With this work students detect the characteristic phenomena…

  11. High level expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of an artificial gene encoding a repeated tripeptide aspartyl-phenylyalanyl-lysine.

    PubMed

    Choi, S Y; Lee, S Y; Bock, R M

    1993-08-01

    A chemically synthesized gene, which encodes a 64 or 128 times-repeated tripeptide, aspartyl-phenylalanyl-lysine, has been cloned onto the yeast expression vector pAM82 containing the PHO5 promoter. The artificial gene (LAP gene) contains the untranslated leader sequence of the E. coli lipoprotein gene (lpp) with its transcription terminator sequence. When yeast AH22 cells transformed by recombinant plasmid containing repeated tripeptide gene were derepressed in low phosphate medium, the artificial polypeptides were synthesized to the amounts of about 30% of the total cell protein. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis indicated that the artificial polypeptides synthesized in yeast have molecular weights ranging from about 30,000 and 60,000 and have immunoreactivity with the artificial polypeptides expressed in E. coli. The artificial popypeptides in whole cell extract were insoluble and seem to be synthesized as insoluble aggregates. Electron microscopy showed the presence of inclusion bodies in the cell. These polypeptides can be hydrolyzed to tripeptides with trypsin or chymotrypsin. These properties along with the high expression and easy separation may make the artificial polypeptides a potential raw material for the production of an artificial sweetener, Aspartame.

  12. Genetic and biochemical characterization of the UGP1 gene encoding the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Daran, J M; Dallies, N; Thines-Sempoux, D; Paquet, V; François, J

    1995-10-15

    We report here that the open reading frame YKL248, previously identified during the systematic sequencing of yeast chromosome XI [Purnelle B., Skala, J., Van Dijck, L. & Goffeau, A. (1992) Yeast 8, 977-986] encodes UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase), the enzyme which catalyses the reversible formation of UDP-Glc from glucose 1-phosphate and UTP. Proof for this function come from sequence alignment of the YKL248 product with UGPase of other species, from complementation studies of an Escherichia coli galU mutant deficient in UGPase activity, and from overexpression studies. In particular, the amino acid sequence motifs involved in the binding of glucose 1-phosphate and UDP-Glc are entirely conserved between the yeast, bovine, human and potato tuber UGPases, and multi-copy expression of YKL248 resulted in a 40-fold increase in UGPase activity. This gene was, therefore, renamed UGP1. Gene disruption at the UGP1 locus in a diploid strain, followed by tetrad analysis, showed that UGPase is essential for cell viability. Functional analysis of UGP1 was, therefore, carried out by generating strains in which UGPase could be either overexpressed or depleted. This was done by generating haploid strains carrying either UGP1 on a multicopy vector or the chromosomal deletion of UGP1, and rescued by a vector bearing the wild-type gene under the control of the glucose-repressible galactose-inducible promoter. The effects of overproducing UGPase on the cell metabolism and morphology were carbon-source dependent. On glucose medium, the 40-fold increase of UGPase activity was restricted to a twofold increase in the concentration of glycogen and UDP-Glc, with no significant effect on growth. In contrast, on galactose, the 40-fold increase in UGPase activity was accompanied by several effects, including a threefold reduction of the growth rate, a 3-5-fold increase in the concentrations of UDP-Glc, UDP-Gal and galactose 1-phosphate, a higher sensitivity to calcofluor white and an

  13. Deletion of PHO13, encoding haloacid dehalogenase type IIA phosphatase, results in upregulation of the pentose phosphate pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Rin; Xu, Haiqing; Lesmana, Anastashia; Kuzmanovic, Uros; Au, Matthew; Florencia, Clarissa; Oh, Eun Joong; Zhang, Guochang; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Jin, Yong-Su

    2015-03-01

    The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily is one of the largest enzyme families, consisting mainly of phosphatases. Although intracellular phosphate plays important roles in many cellular activities, the biological functions of HAD enzymes are largely unknown. Pho13 is 1 of 16 putative HAD enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pho13 has not been studied extensively, but previous studies have identified PHO13 to be a deletion target for the generation of industrially attractive phenotypes, namely, efficient xylose fermentation and high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the improved xylose-fermenting phenotype produced by deletion of PHO13 (pho13Δ), we investigated the response of S. cerevisiae to pho13Δ at the transcriptomic level when cells were grown on glucose or xylose. Transcriptome sequencing analysis revealed that pho13Δ resulted in upregulation of the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway and NADPH-producing enzymes when cells were grown on glucose or xylose. We also found that the transcriptional changes induced by pho13Δ required the transcription factor Stb5, which is activated specifically under NADPH-limiting conditions. Thus, pho13Δ resulted in the upregulation of the PP pathway and NADPH-producing enzymes as a part of an oxidative stress response mediated by activation of Stb5. Because the PP pathway is the primary pathway for xylose, its upregulation by pho13Δ might explain the improved xylose metabolism. These findings will be useful for understanding the biological function of S. cerevisiae Pho13 and the HAD superfamily enzymes and for developing S. cerevisiae strains with industrially attractive phenotypes.

  14. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Korbekandi, Hassan; Mohseni, Soudabeh; Mardani Jouneghani, Rasoul; Pourhossein, Meraj; Iravani, Siavash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (NPs) by biotransformations using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and analysis of the sizes and shapes of the NPs produced. Dried and freshly cultured S. cerevisiae were used as the biocatalyst. Dried yeast synthesized few NPs, but freshly cultured yeast produced a large amount of them. Silver NPs were spherical, 2-20 nm in diameter, and the NPs with the size of 5.4 nm were the most frequent ones. NPs were seen inside the cells, within the cell membrane, attached to the cell membrane during the exocytosis, and outside of the cells.

  15. YNL134C from Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a novel protein with aldehyde reductase activity for detoxification of furfural derived from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xianxian; Tang, Juan; Wang, Xu; Yang, Ruoheng; Zhang, Xiaoping; Gu, Yunfu; Li, Xi; Ma, Menggen

    2015-05-01

    Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are the two main aldehyde compounds derived from pentoses and hexoses, respectively, during lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment. These two compounds inhibit microbial growth and interfere with subsequent alcohol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has the in situ ability to detoxify furfural and HMF to the less toxic 2-furanmethanol (FM) and furan-2,5-dimethanol (FDM), respectively. Herein, we report that an uncharacterized gene, YNL134C, was highly up-regulated under furfural or HMF stress and Yap1p and Msn2/4p transcription factors likely controlled its up-regulated expression. Enzyme activity assays showed that YNL134C is an NADH-dependent aldehyde reductase, which plays a role in detoxification of furfural to FM. However, no NADH- or NADPH-dependent enzyme activity was observed for detoxification of HMF to FDM. This enzyme did not catalyse the reverse reaction of FM to furfural or FDM to HMF. Further studies showed that YNL134C is a broad-substrate aldehyde reductase, which can reduce multiple aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Although YNL134C is grouped into the quinone oxidoreductase family, no quinone reductase activity was observed using 1,2-naphthoquinone or 9,10-phenanthrenequinone as a substrate, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is genetically distant to quinone reductases. Proteins similar to YNL134C in sequence from S. cerevisiae and other microorganisms were phylogenetically analysed.

  16. Mating-type gene switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Haber, J E

    1998-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae can change its mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreographed, site-specific recombination event that replaces one MAT allele with different DNA sequences encoding the opposite allele. The study of this process has yielded important insights into the control of cell lineage, the silencing of gene expression, and the formation of heterochromatin, as well as the molecular events of double-strand break-induced recombination. In addition, MAT switching provides a remarkable example of a small locus control region--the Recombination Enhancer--that controls recombination along an entire chromosome arm.

  17. Biosynthesis of glyoxylate from glycine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Kesson, Mats; Nielsen, Jens

    2005-05-01

    Glyoxylate biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is traditionally mainly ascribed to the reaction catalyzed by isocitrate lyase (Icl), which converts isocitrate to glyoxylate and succinate. However, Icl is generally reported to be repressed by glucose and yet glyoxylate is detected at high levels in S. cerevisiae extracts during cultivation on glucose. In bacteria there is an alternative pathway for glyoxylate biosynthesis that involves a direct oxidation of glycine. Therefore, we investigated the glycine metabolism in S. cerevisiae coupling metabolomics data and (13)C-isotope-labeling analysis of two reference strains and a mutant with a deletion in a gene encoding an alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase. The strains were cultivated on minimal medium containing glucose or galactose, and (13)C-glycine as sole nitrogen source. Glyoxylate presented (13)C-labeling in all cultivation conditions. Furthermore, glyoxylate seemed to be converted to 2-oxovalerate, an unusual metabolite in S. cerevisiae. 2-Oxovalerate can possibly be converted to 2-oxoisovalerate, a key precursor in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids. Hence, we propose a new pathway for glycine catabolism and glyoxylate biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae that seems not to be repressed by glucose and is active under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This work demonstrates the great potential of coupling metabolomics data and isotope-labeling analysis for pathway reconstructions.

  18. 2μ plasmid in Saccharomyces species and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Strope, Pooja K; Kozmin, Stanislav G; Skelly, Daniel A; Magwene, Paul M; Dietrich, Fred S; McCusker, John H

    2015-12-01

    We determined that extrachromosomal 2μ plasmid was present in 67 of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 100-genome strains; in addition to variation in the size and copy number of 2μ, we identified three distinct classes of 2μ. We identified 2μ presence/absence and class associations with populations, clinical origin and nuclear genotypes. We also screened genome sequences of S. paradoxus, S. kudriavzevii, S. uvarum, S. eubayanus, S. mikatae, S. arboricolus and S. bayanus strains for both integrated and extrachromosomal 2μ. Similar to S. cerevisiae, we found no integrated 2μ sequences in any S. paradoxus strains. However, we identified part of 2μ integrated into the genomes of some S. uvarum, S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae and S. bayanus strains, which were distinct from each other and from all extrachromosomal 2μ. We identified extrachromosomal 2μ in one S. paradoxus, one S. eubayanus, two S. bayanus and 13 S. uvarum strains. The extrachromosomal 2μ in S. paradoxus, S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae were distinct from each other. In contrast, the extrachromosomal 2μ in S. bayanus and S. uvarum strains were identical with each other and with one of the three classes of S. cerevisiae 2μ, consistent with interspecific transfer.

  19. Synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides as tools in molecular genetics: the characterization of the CYC1 (iso-1-cytochrome c encoding) locus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Smith, M

    1985-01-01

    The use of synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides as tools for the isolation, characterization and mutagenesis of eukaryote genes has played a major role in the molecular definition of the CYC1 locus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is the structural gene for the apoprotein of iso-1-cytochrome c. Thus, the possibility of using a synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide as a probe to identify and monitor the isolation of a specific gene was first established by model studies which defined the melting temperatures (TmS) for duplexes of oligonucleotides of different lengths and base compositions. This led to the isolation of the CYC1 locus using a synthetic 13 nucleotide probe. A more convenient strategy for determination of DNA sequences by the Sanger method was provided by using synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides as primers with denatured double-strand plasmid DNA as template. By this means, the sequence of the CYC1 locus was determined by "walking" along the gene without isolating restriction fragments of the DNA or separating DNA strands. Synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides, used as primers for reverse transcriptase with mRNA as template, were also used to precisely define the 5'- and 3'-ends of the iso-1-cytochrome c mRNA. Yet another application of synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides is their use as specific mutagens after in vitro incorporation into double-stranded DNA. In the case of iso-1-cytochrome c, this mutagenic strategy is being used to define the role of conserved amino-acids in cytochrome function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Gene Duplication in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    PubMed Central

    Hansche, P. E.; Beres, V.; Lange, P.

    1978-01-01

    Five indepdendent duplications of the acid-phosphatase (aphtase) structural gene (acp1) were recovered from chemostat populations of S. cerevisiae that were subject to selection for in vivo hyper-aphtase activity. Two of the duplications arose spontaneously. Three of them were induced by UV. All five of the duplication events involved the transpositioning of the aphtase structural gene, acp1, and all known genes distal to acp1 on the right arm of chromosome II, to the terminus of an arm of other unknown chromosomes. One of the five duplicated regions of the right arm of chromosome II was found to be transmitted mitotically and meiotically with very high fidelity. The other four duplicated regions of the right arm of chromosome II were found to be unstable, being lost at a rate of about 2% per mitosis. However, selection for increased fidelity of mitotic transmission was effective in one of these strains. No tandem duplications of the aphtase structural gene were found. PMID:348562

  1. Assessing chronological aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Wei, Min; Mirisola, Mario G; Longo, Valter D

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most studied model organisms for the identification of genes and mechanisms that affect aging. The chronological lifespan (CLS) assay, which monitors the survival of a non-dividing population, is one of the two methods to study aging in yeast. To eliminate potential artifacts and identify genes and signaling pathways that may also affect aging in higher eukaryotes, it is important to determine CLS by multiple methods. Here, we describe these methods as well as the assays to study macromolecular damage during aging in yeast, with a focus on genomic instability.

  2. Components of microtubular structures in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Pillus, L; Solomon, F

    1986-01-01

    Most studies of cytoskeletal organelles have concentrated on molecular analyses of abundant and biochemically accessible structures. In many of the classical cases, however, the nature of the system chosen has precluded a concurrent genetic analysis. The mitotic spindle of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one example of an organelle that can be studied by both classical and molecular genetics. We show here that this microtubule structure also can be examined biochemically. The spindle can be isolated by selective extractions of yeast cells by using adaptations of methods successfully applied to animal cells. In this way, microtubule-associated proteins of the yeast spindle are identified. Images PMID:3517870

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered to produce D-xylonate.

    PubMed

    Toivari, Mervi H; Ruohonen, Laura; Richard, Peter; Penttilä, Merja; Wiebe, Marilyn G

    2010-10-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered to produce D-xylonate by introducing the Trichoderma reesei xyd1 gene, encoding a D-xylose dehydrogenase. D-xylonate was not toxic to S. cerevisiae, and the cells were able to export D-xylonate produced in the cytoplasm to the supernatant. Up to 3.8 g of D-xylonate per litre, at rates of 25-36 mg of D-xylonate per litre per hour, was produced. Up to 4.8 g of xylitol per litre was also produced. The yield of D-xylonate from D-xylose was approximately 0.4 g of D-xylonate per gramme of D-xylose consumed. Deletion of the aldose reductase encoding gene GRE3 in S. cerevisiae strains expressing xyd1 reduced xylitol production by 67%, increasing the yield of D-xylonate from D-xylose. However, D-xylose uptake was reduced compared to strains containing GRE3, and the total amount of D-xylonate produced was reduced. To determine whether the co-factor NADP+ was limiting for D-xylonate production the Escherichia coli transhydrogenase encoded by udhA, the Bacillus subtilis glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoded by gapB or the S. cerevisiae glutamate dehydrogenase encoded by GDH2 was co-expressed with xyd1 in the parent and GRE3 deficient strains. Although each of these enzymes enhanced NADPH consumption on D-glucose, they did not enhance D-xylonate production, suggesting that NADP+ was not the main limitation in the current D-xylonate producing strains.

  4. Mobilomics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile Genetic Elements (MGEs) are selfish DNA integrated in the genomes. Their detection is mainly based on consensus–like searches by scanning the investigated genome against the sequence of an already identified MGE. Mobilomics aims at discovering all the MGEs in a genome and understanding their dynamic behavior: The data for this kind of investigation can be provided by comparative genomics of closely related organisms. The amount of data thus involved requires a strong computational effort, which should be alleviated. Results Our approach proposes to exploit the high similarity among homologous chromosomes of different strains of the same species, following a progressive comparative genomics philosophy. We introduce a software tool based on our new fast algorithm, called regender, which is able to identify the conserved regions between chromosomes. Our case study is represented by a unique recently available dataset of 39 different strains of S.cerevisiae, which regender is able to compare in few minutes. By exploring the non–conserved regions, where MGEs are mainly retrotransposons called Tys, and marking the candidate Tys based on their length, we are able to locate a priori and automatically all the already known Tys and map all the putative Tys in all the strains. The remaining putative mobile elements (PMEs) emerging from this intra–specific comparison are sharp markers of inter–specific evolution: indeed, many events of non–conservation among different yeast strains correspond to PMEs. A clustering based on the presence/absence of the candidate Tys in the strains suggests an evolutionary interconnection that is very similar to classic phylogenetic trees based on SNPs analysis, even though it is computed without using phylogenetic information. Conclusions The case study indicates that the proposed methodology brings two major advantages: (a) it does not require any template sequence for the wanted MGEs and (b) it can be applied to

  5. Characterization of rco-1 of Neurospora crassa, a pleiotropic gene affecting growth and development that encodes a homolog of Tup1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, C T; Ebbole, D J; Lee, B U; Brown, R E; Bourland, C; Madi, L; Yanofsky, C

    1996-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa undergoes a well-defined developmental program, conidiation, that culminates in the production of numerous asexual spores, conidia. Several cloned genes, including con-10, are expressed during conidiation but not during mycelial growth. Using a previously described selection strategy, we isolated mutants that express con-10 during mycelial growth. Selection was based on expression of an integrated DNA fragment containing the con-10 promoter-regulatory region followed by the initial segment of the con-10 open reading frame fused in frame with the bacterial hygromycin B phosphotransferase structural gene (con10'-'hph). Resistance to hygromycin results from mutational alterations that allow mycelial expression of the con-10'-'hph gene fusion. A set of drug-resistant mutants were isolated; several of these had abnormal conidiation phenotypes and were trans-acting, i.e., they allowed mycelial expression of the endogenous con-10 gene. Four of these had alterations at a single locus, designated rco-1 (regulation of conidiation). Strains with the rco-1 mutant alleles were aconidial, female sterile, had reduced growth rates, and formed hyphae that coiled in a counterclockwise direction, opposite that of the wild type. The four rco-1 mutants had distinct conidiation morphologies, suggesting that conidiation was blocked at different stages. Wild-type rco-1 was cloned by a novel procedure employing heterokaryon-assisted transformation and ligation-mediated PCR. The predicted RCO1 polypeptide is a homolog of Tup1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a multidomain protein that mediates transcriptional repression of genes concerned with a variety of processes. Like tup1 mutants, null mutants of rco-1 are viable and pleiotropic. A promoter element was identified that could be responsible for RCO1-mediated vegetative repression of con-10 and other conidiation genes. PMID:8887652

  6. Effects of pentamidine isethionate on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ludewig, G; Williams, J M; Li, Y; Staben, C

    1994-05-01

    We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system in which to examine the mechanism of action of the anti-Pneumocystis drug pentamidine. Pentamidine at low concentrations inhibited S. cerevisiae growth on nonfermentable carbon sources (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of 1.25 micrograms/ml in glycerol). Pentamidine inhibited growth on fermentable energy sources only at much higher concentrations (IC50 of 250 micrograms/ml in glucose). Inhibition at low pentamidine concentrations in glycerol was due to cytostatic activity rather than cytotoxic or mutagenic activity. Pentamidine also rapidly inhibited respiration by intact yeast cells, although inhibitory concentrations were much higher than those inhibitory to growth (IC50 of 100 micrograms/ml for respiration). Pentamidine also induced petite mutations, although only at concentrations much higher than those required for growth inhibition. These results suggest that a function essential for respiratory growth is inhibited by pentamidine and that pentamidine affects mitochondrial processes. We propose the hypothesis that the primary cellular target of pentamidine in S. cerevisiae is the mitochondrion.

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism in ecological context

    PubMed Central

    Jouhten, Paula; Ponomarova, Olga; Gonzalez, Ramon; Patil, Kiran R.

    2016-01-01

    The architecture and regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic network are among the best studied owing to its widespread use in both basic research and industry. Yet, several recent studies have revealed notable limitations in explaining genotype–metabolic phenotype relations in this yeast, especially when concerning multiple genetic/environmental perturbations. Apparently unexpected genotype–phenotype relations may originate in the evolutionarily shaped cellular operating principles being hidden in common laboratory conditions. Predecessors of laboratory S. cerevisiae strains, the wild and the domesticated yeasts, have been evolutionarily shaped by highly variable environments, very distinct from laboratory conditions, and most interestingly by social life within microbial communities. Here we present a brief review of the genotypic and phenotypic peculiarities of S. cerevisiae in the context of its social lifestyle beyond laboratory environments. Accounting for this ecological context and the origin of the laboratory strains in experimental design and data analysis would be essential in improving the understanding of genotype–environment–phenotype relationships. PMID:27634775

  8. Synthesis of Morphinan Alkaloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Fossati, Elena; Narcross, Lauren; Ekins, Andrew; Falgueyret, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Vincent J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Morphinan alkaloids are the most powerful narcotic analgesics currently used to treat moderate to severe and chronic pain. The feasibility of morphinan synthesis in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae starting from the precursor (R,S)-norlaudanosoline was investigated. Chiral analysis of the reticuline produced by the expression of opium poppy methyltransferases showed strict enantioselectivity for (S)-reticuline starting from (R,S)-norlaudanosoline. In addition, the P. somniferum enzymes salutaridine synthase (PsSAS), salutaridine reductase (PsSAR) and salutaridinol acetyltransferase (PsSAT) were functionally co-expressed in S. cerevisiae and optimization of the pH conditions allowed for productive spontaneous rearrangement of salutaridinol-7-O-acetate and synthesis of thebaine from (R)-reticuline. Finally, we reconstituted a 7-gene pathway for the production of codeine and morphine from (R)-reticuline. Yeast cell feeding assays using (R)-reticuline, salutaridine or codeine as substrates showed that all enzymes were functionally co-expressed in yeast and that activity of salutaridine reductase and codeine-O-demethylase likely limit flux to morphine synthesis. The results of this study describe a significant advance for the synthesis of morphinans in S. cerevisiae and pave the way for their complete synthesis in recombinant microbes. PMID:25905794

  9. Progress in Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Nevoigt, Elke

    2008-01-01

    Summary: The traditional use of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation has, over time, resulted in substantial accumulated knowledge concerning genetics, physiology, and biochemistry as well as genetic engineering and fermentation technologies. S. cerevisiae has become a platform organism for developing metabolic engineering strategies, methods, and tools. The current review discusses the relevance of several engineering strategies, such as rational and inverse metabolic engineering, evolutionary engineering, and global transcription machinery engineering, in yeast strain improvement. It also summarizes existing tools for fine-tuning and regulating enzyme activities and thus metabolic pathways. Recent examples of yeast metabolic engineering for food, beverage, and industrial biotechnology (bioethanol and bulk and fine chemicals) follow. S. cerevisiae currently enjoys increasing popularity as a production organism in industrial (“white”) biotechnology due to its inherent tolerance of low pH values and high ethanol and inhibitor concentrations and its ability to grow anaerobically. Attention is paid to utilizing lignocellulosic biomass as a potential substrate. PMID:18772282

  10. Synthesis of Morphinan Alkaloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Elena; Narcross, Lauren; Ekins, Andrew; Falgueyret, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Vincent J J

    2015-01-01

    Morphinan alkaloids are the most powerful narcotic analgesics currently used to treat moderate to severe and chronic pain. The feasibility of morphinan synthesis in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae starting from the precursor (R,S)-norlaudanosoline was investigated. Chiral analysis of the reticuline produced by the expression of opium poppy methyltransferases showed strict enantioselectivity for (S)-reticuline starting from (R,S)-norlaudanosoline. In addition, the P. somniferum enzymes salutaridine synthase (PsSAS), salutaridine reductase (PsSAR) and salutaridinol acetyltransferase (PsSAT) were functionally co-expressed in S. cerevisiae and optimization of the pH conditions allowed for productive spontaneous rearrangement of salutaridinol-7-O-acetate and synthesis of thebaine from (R)-reticuline. Finally, we reconstituted a 7-gene pathway for the production of codeine and morphine from (R)-reticuline. Yeast cell feeding assays using (R)-reticuline, salutaridine or codeine as substrates showed that all enzymes were functionally co-expressed in yeast and that activity of salutaridine reductase and codeine-O-demethylase likely limit flux to morphine synthesis. The results of this study describe a significant advance for the synthesis of morphinans in S. cerevisiae and pave the way for their complete synthesis in recombinant microbes. PMID:25905794

  11. Suppressor analysis of temperature-sensitive mutations of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a suppressor gene encodes the second-largest subunit of RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed Central

    Yano, R; Nomura, M

    1991-01-01

    The SRP3-1 mutation is an allele-specific suppressor of temperature-sensitive mutations in the largest subunit (A190) of RNA polymerase I from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two mutations known to be suppressed by SRP3-1 are in the putative zinc-binding domain of A190. We have cloned the SRP3 gene by using its suppressor activity and determined its complete nucleotide sequence. We conclude from the following evidence that the SRP3 gene encodes the second-largest subunit (A135) of RNA polymerase I. First, the deduced amino acid sequence of the gene product contains several regions with high homology to the corresponding regions of the second-largest subunits of RNA polymerases of various origins, including those of RNA polymerase II and III from S. cerevisiae. Second, the deduced amino acid sequence contains known amino acid sequences of two tryptic peptides from the A135 subunit of RNA polymerase I purified from S. cerevisiae. Finally, a strain was constructed in which transcription of the SRP3 gene was controlled by the inducible GAL7 promoter. When this strain, which can grow on galactose but not on glucose, was shifted from galactose medium to glucose medium, a large decrease in the cellular concentration of A135 was observed by Western blot analysis. We have also identified the specific amino acid alteration responsible for suppression by SRP3-1 and found that it is located within the putative zinc-binding domain conserved among the second-largest subunits of eucaryotic RNA polymerases. From these results, it is suggested that this putative zinc-binding domain is in physical proximity to and interacts with the putative zinc-binding domain of the A190 subunit. Images PMID:1990281

  12. PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have sequenced the structural gene and flanking regions for lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (14DM) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An open reading frame of 530 codons encodes a 60.7-kDa protein. When this gene is disrupted by integrative transformation, the resulting strain req...

  13. A new nomenclature for the cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Mager, W H; Planta, R J; Ballesta, J G; Lee, J C; Mizuta, K; Suzuki, K; Warner, J R; Woolford, J

    1997-01-01

    The availability of the complete sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome has allowed a comprehensive analysis of the genes encoding cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins in this organism. On the basis of this complete inventory a new nomenclature for the yeast ribosomal proteins is presented. PMID:9396790

  14. The sua8 suppressors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode replacements of conserved residues within the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and affect transcription start site selection similarly to sua7 (TFIIB) mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Berroteran, R W; Ware, D E; Hampsey, M

    1994-01-01

    Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sua8 gene were found to be suppressors of an aberrant ATG translation initiation codon in the leader region of the cyc1 gene. Analysis of cyc1 transcripts from sua8 mutants revealed that suppression is a consequence of diminished transcription initiation at the normal start sites in favor of initiation at downstream sites, including a site between the aberrant and normal ATG start codons. This effect is not cyc1 gene specific since initiation at other genes, including ADH1, CYC7, and HIS4, was similarly affected, although initiation at HIS3 and SPT15 was unaffected. The SUA8 gene was cloned and partially sequenced, revealing identity to RPB1, which encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. The sua8 suppressors are the result of single amino acid replacements of highly conserved residues. Three replacements were found either within or immediately preceding homology block D, and a fourth was found adjacent to homology block H, indicating that these regions play a role in defining start sites in vivo. Nearly identical effects on start site selection were observed for sua7 suppressors, which encode altered forms of TFIIB. Synthetic lethality was associated with double sua7 sua8 suppressor mutations, and recessive sua7 mutants failed to fully complement recessive sua8 mutants in heterozygous diploids (nonallelic noncomplementation). These data indicate that the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and TFIIB are important determinants of transcription start site selection in S. cerevisiae and suggest that this function might be conferred by interaction between these two proteins. Images PMID:8264591

  15. Roles for sphingolipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    Studies using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the common baker's or brewer's yeast, have progressed over the past twenty years from knowing which sphingolipids are present in cells and a basic outline of how they are made to a complete or nearly complete directory of the genes that catalyze their anabolism and catabolism. In addition, cellular processes that depend upon sphingolipids have been identified including protein trafficking/exocytosis, endocytosis and actin cytoskeleton dynamics, membrane microdomains, calcium signaling, regulation of transcription and translation, cell cycle control, stress resistance, nutrient uptake and aging. These will be summarized here along with new data not previously reviewed. Advances in our knowledge of sphingolipids and their roles in yeast are impressive but molecular mechanisms remain elusive and are a primary challenge for further progress in understanding the specific functions of sphingolipids. PMID:20919657

  16. Synchronization of the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A number of model organisms have provided the basis for our understanding of the eukaryotic cell cycle. These model organisms are generally much easier to manipulate than mammalian cells and as such provide amenable tools for extensive genetic and biochemical analysis. One of the most common model organisms used to study the cell cycle is the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This model provides the ability to synchronise cells efficiently at different stages of the cell cycle, which in turn opens up the possibility for extensive and detailed study of mechanisms regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle. Here, we describe methods in which budding yeast cells are arrested at a particular phase of the cell cycle and then released from the block, permitting the study of molecular mechanisms that drive the progression through the cell cycle.

  17. Filamentation of Metabolic Enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing-Ji; Kassim, Hakimi; Huang, Yong; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Li, Guang; Wang, Peng-Ye; Yan, Jun; Ye, Fangfu; Liu, Ji-Long

    2016-06-20

    Compartmentation via filamentation has recently emerged as a novel mechanism for metabolic regulation. In order to identify filament-forming metabolic enzymes systematically, we performed a genome-wide screening of all strains available from an open reading frame-GFP collection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We discovered nine novel filament-forming proteins and also confirmed those identified previously. From the 4159 strains, we found 23 proteins, mostly metabolic enzymes, which are capable of forming filaments in vivo. In silico protein-protein interaction analysis suggests that these filament-forming proteins can be clustered into several groups, including translational initiation machinery and glucose and nitrogen metabolic pathways. Using glutamine-utilising enzymes as examples, we found that the culture conditions affect the occurrence and length of the metabolic filaments. Furthermore, we found that two CTP synthases (Ura7p and Ura8p) and two asparagine synthetases (Asn1p and Asn2p) form filaments both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Live imaging analyses suggest that metabolic filaments undergo sub-diffusion. Taken together, our genome-wide screening identifies additional filament-forming proteins in S. cerevisiae and suggests that filamentation of metabolic enzymes is more general than currently appreciated. PMID:27312010

  18. Filamentation of Metabolic Enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing-Ji; Kassim, Hakimi; Huang, Yong; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Li, Guang; Wang, Peng-Ye; Yan, Jun; Ye, Fangfu; Liu, Ji-Long

    2016-06-20

    Compartmentation via filamentation has recently emerged as a novel mechanism for metabolic regulation. In order to identify filament-forming metabolic enzymes systematically, we performed a genome-wide screening of all strains available from an open reading frame-GFP collection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We discovered nine novel filament-forming proteins and also confirmed those identified previously. From the 4159 strains, we found 23 proteins, mostly metabolic enzymes, which are capable of forming filaments in vivo. In silico protein-protein interaction analysis suggests that these filament-forming proteins can be clustered into several groups, including translational initiation machinery and glucose and nitrogen metabolic pathways. Using glutamine-utilising enzymes as examples, we found that the culture conditions affect the occurrence and length of the metabolic filaments. Furthermore, we found that two CTP synthases (Ura7p and Ura8p) and two asparagine synthetases (Asn1p and Asn2p) form filaments both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Live imaging analyses suggest that metabolic filaments undergo sub-diffusion. Taken together, our genome-wide screening identifies additional filament-forming proteins in S. cerevisiae and suggests that filamentation of metabolic enzymes is more general than currently appreciated.

  19. Killer systems of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Nesterova, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    The killer systems of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are an unusual class of cytoplasmic symbionts of primitive eukaryotes. The genetic material of these symbionts is double-stranded RNA. They are characterized by the linearity of the genome, its fragmentation into a major and a minor fraction, which replicate separately, and their ability to control the synthesis of secretory mycocin proteins possessing a toxic action on closely related strains. The secretion of mycocins at the same time ensures acquiring of resistance to them. Strains containing killer symbionts are toxigenic and resistant to the action of their own toxin, but strains that are free of killer double-stranded RNAs are sensitive to the action of mycocins. The killer systems of S. cerevisiae have retained features relating them to viruses and are apparently the result of evolution of infectious viruses. The occurrences of such systems among monocellular eukaryotic organisms is an example of complication of the genome by means of its assembly from virus-like components. We discuss the unusual features of replication and the expression of killer systems and their utilization in the construction of vector molecules.

  20. PGM2 overexpression improves anaerobic galactose fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Saccharomyces cerevisiae galactose is initially metabolized through the Leloir pathway after which glucose 6-phosphate enters glycolysis. Galactose is controlled both by glucose repression and by galactose induction. The gene PGM2 encodes the last enzyme of the Leloir pathway, phosphoglucomutase 2 (Pgm2p), which catalyses the reversible conversion of glucose 1-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate. Overexpression of PGM2 has previously been shown to enhance aerobic growth of S. cerevisiae in galactose medium. Results In the present study we show that overexpression of PGM2 under control of the HXT7'promoter from an integrative plasmid increased the PGM activity 5 to 6 times, which significantly reduced the lag phase of glucose-pregrown cells in an anaerobic galactose culture. PGM2 overexpression also increased the anaerobic specific growth rate whereas ethanol production was less influenced. When PGM2 was overexpressed from a multicopy plasmid instead, the PGM activity increased almost 32 times. However, this increase of PGM activity did not further improve aerobic galactose fermentation as compared to the strain carrying PGM2 on the integrative plasmid. Conclusion PGM2 overexpression in S. cerevisiae from an integrative plasmid is sufficient to reduce the lag phase and to enhance the growth rate in anaerobic galactose fermentation, which results in an overall decrease in fermentation duration. This observation is of particular importance for the future development of stable industrial strains with enhanced PGM activity. PMID:20507616

  1. Membrane trafficking in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae model.

    PubMed

    Feyder, Serge; De Craene, Johan-Owen; Bär, Séverine; Bertazzi, Dimitri L; Friant, Sylvie

    2015-01-09

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best characterized eukaryotic models. The secretory pathway was the first trafficking pathway clearly understood mainly thanks to the work done in the laboratory of Randy Schekman in the 1980s. They have isolated yeast sec mutants unable to secrete an extracellular enzyme and these SEC genes were identified as encoding key effectors of the secretory machinery. For this work, the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded to Randy Schekman; the prize is shared with James Rothman and Thomas Südhof. Here, we present the different trafficking pathways of yeast S. cerevisiae. At the Golgi apparatus newly synthesized proteins are sorted between those transported to the plasma membrane (PM), or the external medium, via the exocytosis or secretory pathway (SEC), and those targeted to the vacuole either through endosomes (vacuolar protein sorting or VPS pathway) or directly (alkaline phosphatase or ALP pathway). Plasma membrane proteins can be internalized by endocytosis (END) and transported to endosomes where they are sorted between those targeted for vacuolar degradation and those redirected to the Golgi (recycling or RCY pathway). Studies in yeast S. cerevisiae allowed the identification of most of the known effectors, protein complexes, and trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, and most of them are conserved among eukaryotes.

  2. Functional Diversity of Haloacid Dehalogenase Superfamily Phosphatases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Nocek, Boguslaw; Brown, Greg; Makarova, Kira S.; Flick, Robert; Wolf, Yuri I.; Khusnutdinova, Anna; Evdokimova, Elena; Jin, Ke; Tan, Kemin; Hanson, Andrew D.; Hasnain, Ghulam; Zallot, Rémi; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Babu, Mohan; Savchenko, Alexei; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Edwards, Aled M.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Yakunin, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like enzymes comprise a large superfamily of phosphohydrolases present in all organisms. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes at least 19 soluble HADs, including 10 uncharacterized proteins. Here, we biochemically characterized 13 yeast phosphatases from the HAD superfamily, which includes both specific and promiscuous enzymes active against various phosphorylated metabolites and peptides with several HADs implicated in detoxification of phosphorylated compounds and pseudouridine. The crystal structures of four yeast HADs provided insight into their active sites, whereas the structure of the YKR070W dimer in complex with substrate revealed a composite substrate-binding site. Although the S. cerevisiae and Escherichia coli HADs share low sequence similarities, the comparison of their substrate profiles revealed seven phosphatases with common preferred substrates. The cluster of secondary substrates supporting significant activity of both S. cerevisiae and E. coli HADs includes 28 common metabolites that appear to represent the pool of potential activities for the evolution of novel HAD phosphatases. Evolution of novel substrate specificities of HAD phosphatases shows no strict correlation with sequence divergence. Thus, evolution of the HAD superfamily combines the conservation of the overall substrate pool and the substrate profiles of some enzymes with remarkable biochemical and structural flexibility of other superfamily members. PMID:26071590

  3. Ferric iron reduction and iron assimilation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G J; Lesuisse, E; Dancis, A; Roman, D G; Labbe, P; Klausner, R D

    We have used the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism to study the role of ferric iron reduction in eucaryotic iron uptake. S. cerevisiae is able to utilize ferric chelates as an iron source by reducing the ferric iron to the ferrous form, which is subsequently internalized by the cells. A gene (FRE1) was identified which encodes a protein required for both ferric iron reduction and efficient ferric iron assimilation, thus linking these two activities. The predicted FRE1 protein appears to be a membrane protein and shows homology to the beta-subunit of the human respiratory burst oxidase. These data suggest that FRE1 is a structural component of the ferric reductase. Subcellular fractionation studies showed that the ferric reductase activity of isolated plasma membranes did not reflect the activity of the intact cells, implying that cellular integrity was necessary for function of the major S. cerevisiae ferric reductase. An NADPH-dependent plasma membrane ferric reductase was partially purified from plasma membranes. Preliminary evidence suggests that the cell surface ferric reductase may, in addition to mediating cellular iron uptake, help modulate the intracellular redox potential of the yeast cell.

  4. Complex transcriptional regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CYB2 gene encoding cytochrome b2: CYP1(HAP1) activator binds to the CYB2 upstream activation site UAS1-B2.

    PubMed Central

    Lodi, T; Guiard, B

    1991-01-01

    Expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding cytochrome b2 (EC 1.2.2.3), CYB2, was investigated by direct analysis of mRNA transcripts and by measurement of the expression of lacZ fused to the CYB2 control regions. These studies indicated that regulation of the CYB2 gene is subject to several metabolic controls at the transcriptional level: inhibition due to glucose fermentation, induction by lactate, and inhibition in anaerobiosis or in absence of heme biosynthesis. Furthermore, we have shown that the CYB2 promoter contains one cis negative regulatory region and two heme-dependent positive regions, one of which is controlled by the transcriptional regulator CYP1 (HAP1) which is involved in the modulation of the expression of several oxygen-regulated genes. The CYP1 (HAP1)-binding sequence was located by gel retardation and DNase I footprinting experiments and compared with the binding sequences previously characterized in detail (UAS1CYC1, UAS'CYP3 (CYC7), and UASCTT1). Images PMID:2046677

  5. DMR1 (CCM1/YGR150C) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes an RNA-binding protein from the pentatricopeptide repeat family required for the maintenance of the mitochondrial 15S ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Puchta, Olga; Lubas, Michal; Lipinski, Kamil A; Piatkowski, Jakub; Malecki, Michal; Golik, Pawel

    2010-04-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins form the largest known RNA-binding protein family and are found in all eukaryotes, being particularly abundant in higher plants. PPR proteins localize mostly in mitochondria and chloroplasts, where they modulate organellar genome expression on the post-transcriptional level. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DMR1 (CCM1, YGR150C) encodes a PPR protein that localizes to mitochondria. Deletion of DMR1 results in a complete and irreversible loss of respiratory capacity and loss of wild-type mtDNA by conversion to rho(-)/rho(0) petites, regardless of the presence of introns in mtDNA. The phenotype of the dmr1Delta mitochondria is characterized by fragmentation of the small subunit mitochondrial rRNA (15S rRNA), that can be reversed by wild-type Dmr1p. Other mitochondrial transcripts, including the large subunit mitochondrial rRNA (21S rRNA), are not affected by the lack of Dmr1p. The purified Dmr1 protein specifically binds to different regions of 15S rRNA in vitro, consistent with the deletion phenotype. Dmr1p is therefore the first yeast PPR protein, which has an rRNA target and is probably involved in the biogenesis of mitochondrial ribosomes and translation.

  6. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae YLL012/YEH1, YLR020/YEH2, and TGL1 genes encode a novel family of membrane-anchored lipases that are required for steryl ester hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Köffel, René; Tiwari, Rashi; Falquet, Laurent; Schneiter, Roger

    2005-03-01

    Sterol homeostasis in eukaryotic cells relies on the reciprocal interconversion of free sterols and steryl esters. The formation of steryl esters is well characterized, but the mechanisms that control steryl ester mobilization upon cellular demand are less well understood. We have identified a family of three lipases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are required for efficient steryl ester mobilization. These lipases, encoded by YLL012/YEH1, YLR020/YEH2, and TGL1, are paralogues of the mammalian acid lipase family, which is composed of the lysosomal acid lipase, the gastric lipase, and four novel as yet uncharacterized human open reading frames. Lipase triple-mutant yeast cells are completely blocked in steryl ester hydrolysis but do not affect the mobilization of triacylglycerols, indicating that the three lipases are required for steryl ester mobilization in vivo. Lipase single mutants mobilize steryl esters to various degrees, indicating partial functional redundancy of the three gene products. Lipase double-mutant cells in which the third lipase is expressed from the inducible GAL1 promoter have greatly reduced steady-state levels of steryl esters, indicating that overexpression of any of the three lipases is sufficient for steryl ester mobilization in vivo. The three yeast enzymes constitute a novel class of membrane-anchored lipases that differ in topology and subcellular localization.

  7. Expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair gene RAD6 that encodes a ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, increases in response to DNA damage and in meiosis but remains constant during the mitotic cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Madura, K; Prakash, S; Prakash, L

    1990-02-25

    The RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzyme and is required for the repair of damaged DNA, mutagenesis, and sporulation. Here, we report our studies on the regulation of RAD6 gene expression after UV damage, during the mitotic cell cycle, in meiosis, and following heat shock and starvation. RAD6 mRNA levels became elevated in cells exposed to UV light, and at all UV doses the increase in mRNA levels was rapid and occurred within 30 min after exposure to UV. RAD6 mRNA levels also increased in sporulating MATa/MAT alpha cells, and the period of maximal accumulation of RAD6 mRNA during meiosis is coincident with the time during which recombination occurs. However, RAD6 mRNA levels showed no periodic fluctuation in the mitotic cell cycle, were not elevated upon heat shock, and fell in cells in the stationary phase of growth. These observations suggest that RAD6 activity is required throughout the cell cycle rather than being restricted to a specific stage, and that during meiosis, high levels of RAD6 activity may be needed at a stage coincident with genetic recombination. The observation that RAD6 transcription is not induced by heat and starvation, treatments that activate stress responses, suggests that the primary role of RAD6 is in the repair of damaged DNA rather than in adapting cells to stress situations.

  8. Force Sensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Flocculins.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cho X J; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Joseph, Ivor G; Jackson, Desmond N; Ramsook, Caleen B; Dufrêne, Yves F; Lipke, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    Many fungal adhesins have short, β-aggregation-prone sequences that play important functional roles, and in the Candida albicans adhesin Als5p, these sequences cluster the adhesins after exposure to shear force. Here, we report that Saccharomyces cerevisiae flocculins Flo11p and Flo1p have similar β-aggregation-prone sequences and are similarly stimulated by shear force, despite being nonhomologous. Shear from vortex mixing induced the formation of small flocs in cells expressing either adhesin. After the addition of Ca(2+), yeast cells from vortex-sheared populations showed greatly enhanced flocculation and displayed more pronounced thioflavin-bright surface nanodomains. At high concentrations, amyloidophilic dyes inhibited Flo1p- and Flo11p-mediated agar invasion and the shear-induced increase in flocculation. Consistent with these results, atomic force microscopy of Flo11p showed successive force-distance peaks characteristic of sequentially unfolding tandem repeat domains, like Flo1p and Als5p. Flo11p-expressing cells bound together through homophilic interactions with adhesion forces of up to 700 pN and rupture lengths of up to 600 nm. These results are consistent with the potentiation of yeast flocculation by shear-induced formation of high-avidity domains of clustered adhesins at the cell surface, similar to the activation of Candida albicans adhesin Als5p. Thus, yeast adhesins from three independent gene families use similar force-dependent interactions to drive cell adhesion. IMPORTANCE The Saccharomyces cerevisiae flocculins mediate the formation of cellular aggregates and biofilm-like mats, useful in clearing yeast from fermentations. An important property of fungal adhesion proteins, including flocculins, is the ability to form catch bonds, i.e., bonds that strengthen under tension. This strengthening is based, at least in part, on increased avidity of binding due to clustering of adhesins in cell surface nanodomains. This clustering depends on

  9. Force Sensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Flocculins

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cho X. J.; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Joseph, Ivor G.; Jackson, Desmond N.; Ramsook, Caleen B.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many fungal adhesins have short, β-aggregation-prone sequences that play important functional roles, and in the Candida albicans adhesin Als5p, these sequences cluster the adhesins after exposure to shear force. Here, we report that Saccharomyces cerevisiae flocculins Flo11p and Flo1p have similar β-aggregation-prone sequences and are similarly stimulated by shear force, despite being nonhomologous. Shear from vortex mixing induced the formation of small flocs in cells expressing either adhesin. After the addition of Ca2+, yeast cells from vortex-sheared populations showed greatly enhanced flocculation and displayed more pronounced thioflavin-bright surface nanodomains. At high concentrations, amyloidophilic dyes inhibited Flo1p- and Flo11p-mediated agar invasion and the shear-induced increase in flocculation. Consistent with these results, atomic force microscopy of Flo11p showed successive force-distance peaks characteristic of sequentially unfolding tandem repeat domains, like Flo1p and Als5p. Flo11p-expressing cells bound together through homophilic interactions with adhesion forces of up to 700 pN and rupture lengths of up to 600 nm. These results are consistent with the potentiation of yeast flocculation by shear-induced formation of high-avidity domains of clustered adhesins at the cell surface, similar to the activation of Candida albicans adhesin Als5p. Thus, yeast adhesins from three independent gene families use similar force-dependent interactions to drive cell adhesion. IMPORTANCE The Saccharomyces cerevisiae flocculins mediate the formation of cellular aggregates and biofilm-like mats, useful in clearing yeast from fermentations. An important property of fungal adhesion proteins, including flocculins, is the ability to form catch bonds, i.e., bonds that strengthen under tension. This strengthening is based, at least in part, on increased avidity of binding due to clustering of adhesins in cell surface nanodomains. This clustering depends

  10. Stationary phase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Werner-Washburne, M; Braun, E; Johnston, G C; Singer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Growth and proliferation of microorganisms such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are controlled in part by the availability of nutrients. When proliferating yeast cells exhaust available nutrients, they enter a stationary phase characterized by cell cycle arrest and specific physiological, biochemical, and morphological changes. These changes include thickening of the cell wall, accumulation of reserve carbohydrates, and acquisition of thermotolerance. Recent characterization of mutant cells that are conditionally defective only for the resumption of proliferation from stationary phase provides evidence that stationary phase is a unique developmental state. Strains with mutations affecting entry into and survival during stationary phase have also been isolated, and the mutations have been shown to affect at least seven different cellular processes: (i) signal transduction, (ii) protein synthesis, (iii) protein N-terminal acetylation, (iv) protein turnover, (v) protein secretion, (vi) membrane biosynthesis, and (vii) cell polarity. The exact nature of the relationship between these processes and survival during stationary phase remains to be elucidated. We propose that cell cycle arrest coordinated with the ability to remain viable in the absence of additional nutrients provides a good operational definition of starvation-induced stationary phase. PMID:8393130

  11. Functional profiling of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome.

    PubMed

    Giaever, Guri; Chu, Angela M; Ni, Li; Connelly, Carla; Riles, Linda; Véronneau, Steeve; Dow, Sally; Lucau-Danila, Ankuta; Anderson, Keith; André, Bruno; Arkin, Adam P; Astromoff, Anna; El-Bakkoury, Mohamed; Bangham, Rhonda; Benito, Rocio; Brachat, Sophie; Campanaro, Stefano; Curtiss, Matt; Davis, Karen; Deutschbauer, Adam; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Flaherty, Patrick; Foury, Francoise; Garfinkel, David J; Gerstein, Mark; Gotte, Deanna; Güldener, Ulrich; Hegemann, Johannes H; Hempel, Svenja; Herman, Zelek; Jaramillo, Daniel F; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L; Kötter, Peter; LaBonte, Darlene; Lamb, David C; Lan, Ning; Liang, Hong; Liao, Hong; Liu, Lucy; Luo, Chuanyun; Lussier, Marc; Mao, Rong; Menard, Patrice; Ooi, Siew Loon; Revuelta, Jose L; Roberts, Christopher J; Rose, Matthias; Ross-Macdonald, Petra; Scherens, Bart; Schimmack, Greg; Shafer, Brenda; Shoemaker, Daniel D; Sookhai-Mahadeo, Sharon; Storms, Reginald K; Strathern, Jeffrey N; Valle, Giorgio; Voet, Marleen; Volckaert, Guido; Wang, Ching-yun; Ward, Teresa R; Wilhelmy, Julie; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Yang, Yonghong; Yen, Grace; Youngman, Elaine; Yu, Kexin; Bussey, Howard; Boeke, Jef D; Snyder, Michael; Philippsen, Peter; Davis, Ronald W; Johnston, Mark

    2002-07-25

    Determining the effect of gene deletion is a fundamental approach to understanding gene function. Conventional genetic screens exhibit biases, and genes contributing to a phenotype are often missed. We systematically constructed a nearly complete collection of gene-deletion mutants (96% of annotated open reading frames, or ORFs) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA sequences dubbed 'molecular bar codes' uniquely identify each strain, enabling their growth to be analysed in parallel and the fitness contribution of each gene to be quantitatively assessed by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays. We show that previously known and new genes are necessary for optimal growth under six well-studied conditions: high salt, sorbitol, galactose, pH 8, minimal medium and nystatin treatment. Less than 7% of genes that exhibit a significant increase in messenger RNA expression are also required for optimal growth in four of the tested conditions. Our results validate the yeast gene-deletion collection as a valuable resource for functional genomics.

  12. Sugar and Glycerol Transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Linda F; Fan, Qingwen; Walker, Gordon A

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the process of transport of sugar substrates into the cell comprises a complex network of transporters and interacting regulatory mechanisms. Members of the large family of hexose (HXT) transporters display uptake efficiencies consistent with their environmental expression and play physiological roles in addition to feeding the glycolytic pathway. Multiple glucose-inducing and glucose-independent mechanisms serve to regulate expression of the sugar transporters in yeast assuring that expression levels and transporter activity are coordinated with cellular metabolism and energy needs. The expression of sugar transport activity is modulated by other nutritional and environmental factors that may override glucose-generated signals. Transporter expression and activity is regulated transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally and post-translationally. Recent studies have expanded upon this suite of regulatory mechanisms to include transcriptional expression fine tuning mediated by antisense RNA and prion-based regulation of transcription. Much remains to be learned about cell biology from the continued analysis of this dynamic process of substrate acquisition. PMID:26721273

  13. Sugar and Glycerol Transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Linda F; Fan, Qingwen; Walker, Gordon A

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the process of transport of sugar substrates into the cell comprises a complex network of transporters and interacting regulatory mechanisms. Members of the large family of hexose (HXT) transporters display uptake efficiencies consistent with their environmental expression and play physiological roles in addition to feeding the glycolytic pathway. Multiple glucose-inducing and glucose-independent mechanisms serve to regulate expression of the sugar transporters in yeast assuring that expression levels and transporter activity are coordinated with cellular metabolism and energy needs. The expression of sugar transport activity is modulated by other nutritional and environmental factors that may override glucose-generated signals. Transporter expression and activity is regulated transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally and post-translationally. Recent studies have expanded upon this suite of regulatory mechanisms to include transcriptional expression fine tuning mediated by antisense RNA and prion-based regulation of transcription. Much remains to be learned about cell biology from the continued analysis of this dynamic process of substrate acquisition.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae structural cell wall mannoprotein.

    PubMed

    Frevert, J; Ballou, C E

    1985-01-29

    A novel mannoprotein fraction with an average molecular weight of 180 000 has been isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mnn9 mutant cell wall that was solubilized by beta-glucanase digestion. The same material could be extracted from purified wall fragments with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate. The protein component, 12% by weight, is rich in proline, whereas the carbohydrate, mainly mannose, is about evenly distributed between asparagine and hydroxyamino acids. Endoglucosaminidase H digestion of the isolated mannoprotein reduced its average molecular weight to 150 000, but the mannoprotein, while still embedded in the cell wall, was inaccessible to the enzyme. Biosynthesis and translocation of the mannoprotein were investigated by following incorporation of [3H]proline into this fraction. In the presence of tunicamycin, both mnn9 and wild-type X2180 cells made a mannoprotein fraction with an average molecular weight of 140 000, whereas in the absence of the glycosylation inhibitor, the mnn9 mutant made material with a molecular weight of 180 000 and the mannoprotein made by wild-type cells was too large to penetrate the polyacrylamide gel. Although the cell wall mannoprotein was resistant to heat and proteolytic enzymes, attempts to isolate the carbohydrate-free component failed to yield any characteristic peptide material. PMID:3888262

  15. Copper transport in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, L.D.; Connelly, J.L.

    1987-05-01

    Biochemical processes involved in the movement of copper (Cu) into and out of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae have been investigated. Overall uptake of Cu was measured by disappearance of Cu from the reaction mixture by atomic absorption sensitive to 10/sup -10/M. The process of Cu influx is composed of a prerequisite binding and subsequent transport. The binding is non-energetic but is competitively inhibited by zinc(Zn). Transport is energetic as shown by an increased influx in the presence of added glucose. This process is prevented by 2,4-dinitrophenol(DNP). Cu influx is accompanied by an exchange for potassium(K) in a ratio of K:Cu=2:1. The process of Cu efflux involves a second type of binding site, probably of low affinity but large capacity. The presence of glucose causes the binding of extracellular Cu to these sites in a non-energy-dependent mechanism which prevents Cu efflux. Zn does not compete. DNP has no effect. The K:Cu ratio of 4:1 observed in the absence of glucose suggests a lowered net Cu uptake as a result of concomitant efflux activity. Finally, in the absence but not the presence of glucose, the pH of the extracellular solution increases. These observations are consistent with the idea that (a) yeast membrane has two Cu-binding sites, one of which participates in influx and one in efflux; (b) Cu exchanges with K during influx and with protons during efflux.

  16. Purification and Characterization of Put1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wanduragala, Srimevan; Sanyal, Nikhilesh; Liang, Xinwen; Becker, Donald F.

    2010-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the PUT1 and PUT2 genes are required for the conversion of proline to glutamate. The PUT1 gene encodes Put1p, a proline dehydrogenase (PRODH)1 enzyme localized in the mitochondrion. Put1p was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and shown to have a UV-visible absorption spectrum that is typical of a bound flavin cofactor. A Km value of 36 mM proline and a kcat = 27 s−1 were determined for Put1p using an artificial electron acceptor. Put1p also exhibited high activity using ubiquinone-1 (CoQ1) as an electron acceptor with a kcat = 9.6 s−1 and a Km of 33 µM for CoQ1. In addition, knockout strains of the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) homolog in S. cerevisiae were able to grow on proline as the sole nitrogen source demonstrating that ETF is not required for proline utilization in yeast. PMID:20450881

  17. Mating-Type Genes and MAT Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Haber, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Mating type in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by two nonhomologous alleles, MATa and MATα. These sequences encode regulators of the two different haploid mating types and of the diploids formed by their conjugation. Analysis of the MATa1, MATα1, and MATα2 alleles provided one of the earliest models of cell-type specification by transcriptional activators and repressors. Remarkably, homothallic yeast cells can switch their mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreographed, site-specific homologous recombination event that replaces one MAT allele with different DNA sequences encoding the opposite MAT allele. This replacement process involves the participation of two intact but unexpressed copies of mating-type information at the heterochromatic loci, HMLα and HMRa, which are located at opposite ends of the same chromosome-encoding MAT. The study of MAT switching has yielded important insights into the control of cell lineage, the silencing of gene expression, the formation of heterochromatin, and the regulation of accessibility of the donor sequences. Real-time analysis of MAT switching has provided the most detailed description of the molecular events that occur during the homologous recombinational repair of a programmed double-strand chromosome break. PMID:22555442

  18. Mating-type genes and MAT switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Haber, James E

    2012-05-01

    Mating type in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by two nonhomologous alleles, MATa and MATα. These sequences encode regulators of the two different haploid mating types and of the diploids formed by their conjugation. Analysis of the MATa1, MATα1, and MATα2 alleles provided one of the earliest models of cell-type specification by transcriptional activators and repressors. Remarkably, homothallic yeast cells can switch their mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreographed, site-specific homologous recombination event that replaces one MAT allele with different DNA sequences encoding the opposite MAT allele. This replacement process involves the participation of two intact but unexpressed copies of mating-type information at the heterochromatic loci, HMLα and HMRa, which are located at opposite ends of the same chromosome-encoding MAT. The study of MAT switching has yielded important insights into the control of cell lineage, the silencing of gene expression, the formation of heterochromatin, and the regulation of accessibility of the donor sequences. Real-time analysis of MAT switching has provided the most detailed description of the molecular events that occur during the homologous recombinational repair of a programmed double-strand chromosome break.

  19. Selected non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts in controlled multistarter fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Comitini, Francesca; Gobbi, Mirko; Domizio, Paola; Romani, Cristina; Lencioni, Livio; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Ciani, Maurizio

    2011-08-01

    Non-Saccharomyces yeasts are metabolically active during spontaneous and inoculated must fermentations, and by producing a plethora of by-products, they can contribute to the definition of the wine aroma. Thus, use of Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts as mixed starter cultures for inoculation of wine fermentations is of increasing interest for quality enhancement and improved complexity of wines. We initially characterized 34 non-Saccharomyces yeasts of the genera Candida, Lachancea (Kluyveromyces), Metschnikowia and Torulaspora, and evaluated their enological potential. This confirmed that non-Saccharomyces yeasts from wine-related environments represent a rich sink of unexplored biodiversity for the winemaking industry. From these, we selected four non-Saccharomyces yeasts to combine with starter cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mixed fermentation trials. The kinetics of growth and fermentation, and the analytical profiles of the wines produced indicate that these non-Saccharomyces strains can be used with S. cerevisiae starter cultures to increase polysaccharide, glycerol and volatile compound production, to reduce volatile acidity, and to increase or reduce the total acidity of the final wines, depending on yeast species and inoculum ratio used. The overall effects of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts on fermentation and wine quality were strictly dependent on the Saccharomyces/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratio that mimicked the differences of fermentation conditions (natural or simultaneous inoculated fermentation).

  20. Phosphate transport and sensing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Wykoff, D D; O'Shea, E K

    2001-01-01

    Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate; however, little is known about how phosphate concentrations are sensed. The similarity of Pho84p, a high-affinity phosphate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to the glucose sensors Snf3p and Rgt2p has led to the hypothesis that Pho84p is an inorganic phosphate sensor. Furthermore, pho84Delta strains have defects in phosphate signaling; they constitutively express PHO5, a phosphate starvation-inducible gene. We began these studies to determine the role of phosphate transporters in signaling phosphate starvation. Previous experiments demonstrated a defect in phosphate uptake in phosphate-starved pho84Delta cells; however, the pho84Delta strain expresses PHO5 constitutively when grown in phosphate-replete media. We determined that pho84Delta cells have a significant defect in phosphate uptake even when grown in high phosphate media. Overexpression of unrelated phosphate transporters or a glycerophosphoinositol transporter in the pho84Delta strain suppresses the PHO5 constitutive phenotype. These data suggest that PHO84 is not required for sensing phosphate. We further characterized putative phosphate transporters, identifying two new phosphate transporters, PHO90 and PHO91. A synthetic lethal phenotype was observed when five phosphate transporters were inactivated, and the contribution of each transporter to uptake in high phosphate conditions was determined. Finally, a PHO84-dependent compensation response was identified; the abundance of Pho84p at the plasma membrane increases in cells that are defective in other phosphate transporters. PMID:11779791

  1. Regulation of Cation Balance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Cyert, Martha S.; Philpott, Caroline C.

    2013-01-01

    All living organisms require nutrient minerals for growth and have developed mechanisms to acquire, utilize, and store nutrient minerals effectively. In the aqueous cellular environment, these elements exist as charged ions that, together with protons and hydroxide ions, facilitate biochemical reactions and establish the electrochemical gradients across membranes that drive cellular processes such as transport and ATP synthesis. Metal ions serve as essential enzyme cofactors and perform both structural and signaling roles within cells. However, because these ions can also be toxic, cells have developed sophisticated homeostatic mechanisms to regulate their levels and avoid toxicity. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have characterized many of the gene products and processes responsible for acquiring, utilizing, storing, and regulating levels of these ions. Findings in this model organism have often allowed the corresponding machinery in humans to be identified and have provided insights into diseases that result from defects in ion homeostasis. This review summarizes our current understanding of how cation balance is achieved and modulated in baker’s yeast. Control of intracellular pH is discussed, as well as uptake, storage, and efflux mechanisms for the alkali metal cations, Na+ and K+, the divalent cations, Ca2+ and Mg2+, and the trace metal ions, Fe2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+. Signal transduction pathways that are regulated by pH and Ca2+ are reviewed, as well as the mechanisms that allow cells to maintain appropriate intracellular cation concentrations when challenged by extreme conditions, i.e., either limited availability or toxic levels in the environment. PMID:23463800

  2. Immunoelectron Microscopy of Cryofixed Freeze-Substituted Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fišerová, Jindřiška; Richardson, Christine; Goldberg, Martin W

    2016-01-01

    Immunolabeling electron microscopy is a challenging technique with demands for perfect ultrastructural and antigen preservation. High-pressure freezing offers an excellent way to fix cellular structure. However, its use for immunolabeling has remained limited because of the low frequency of labeling due to loss of protein antigenicity or accessibility. Here we present a protocol for immunogold labeling of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that gives specific and multiple labeling while keeping the finest structural details. We use the protocol to reveal the organization of individual nuclear pore complex proteins and the position of transport factors in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to actual transport events. PMID:27515085

  3. Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Badotti, Fernanda; Dário, Marcelo G; Alves, Sergio L; Cordioli, Maria Luiza A; Miletti, Luiz C; de Araujo, Pedro S; Stambuk, Boris U

    2008-01-01

    Background Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L) initial sugar concentrations. In this study, a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase activity was engineered to transport sucrose into the cells through a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity, and the growth kinetics and biomass yields on sucrose analyzed using simple batch cultures. Results We have deleted from the genome of a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase the high-affinity sucrose-H+ symporter encoded by the AGT1 gene. This strain could still grow efficiently on sucrose due to a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity mediated by the MALx1 maltose permeases, and its further intracellular hydrolysis by cytoplasmic maltases. Although sucrose consumption by this engineered yeast strain was slower than with the parental yeast strain, the cells grew efficiently on sucrose due to an increased respiration of the carbon source. Consequently, this engineered yeast strain produced less ethanol and 1.5 to 2 times more biomass when cultivated in simple batch mode using 20 g/L sucrose as the carbon source. Conclusion Higher cell densities during batch cultures on 20 g/L sucrose were achieved by using a S. cerevisiae strain engineered in the sucrose uptake system. Such result was accomplished by effectively reducing sucrose

  4. A global topology map of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae membrane proteome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun; Melén, Karin; Osterberg, Marie; von Heijne, Gunnar

    2006-07-25

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is, arguably, the best understood eukaryotic model organism, yet comparatively little is known about its membrane proteome. Here, we report the cloning and expression of 617 S. cerevisiae membrane proteins as fusions to a C-terminal topology reporter and present experimentally constrained topology models for 546 proteins. By homology, the experimental topology information can be extended to approximately 15,000 membrane proteins from 38 fully sequenced eukaryotic genomes.

  5. Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from ethanol - induced growth inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Walker-Caprioglio, H.M.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Parks, L.W.

    1985-09-01

    Ethanol caused altered mobility of the lipophilic probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene in plasma membrane preparations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because lipids had been shown to protect yeast cells against ethanol toxicity, sterols, fatty acids, proteins, and combinations of these were tested; however, protection from growth inhibition was not seen. Ethanol-induced, prolonged lag periods and diminished growth rates in S. cerevisiae were reduced by an autoconditioning of the medium by the inoculum.

  6. Expression, processing and secretion of a proteolytically-sensitive insect diuretic hormone by Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the use of a yeast strain lacking genes encoding the Yap3 and Mkc7 endoproteases found in the secretory pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Copley, K S; Alm, S M; Schooley, D A; Courchesne, W E

    1998-01-01

    A system is described for the heterologous expression of peptides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A synthetic gene encoding a precursor of the 41 amino acid Manduca sexta diuretic hormone (Mas-DH) was expressed at 0.8 mg/l purified peptide. A precursor of a mutant peptide of Mas-DH, Mas-DH[K22Q] was also expressed. The peptides were purified, then treated with peptidylglycine alpha-amidating enzyme to generate the alpha-amidated, mature, form of Mas-DH or Mas-DH[K22Q], which were biologically active. Successful expression of full-length Mas-DH+Gly depended upon the use of a protease-deficient yeast strain. In wild-type strains, Mas-DH+Gly was recovered only as proteolytic fragments, even in the presence of various protease inhibitors. Expression of Mas-DH+Gly in strains deficient in either the Mkc7 or the Yap3 protease reduced proteolysis, while no proteolysis of Mas-DH+Gly was detectable in a strain lacking both proteases. This protease-deficient strain may prove of general utility for expression of peptides. Analysis of recovered proteolytic fragments revealed a complex pattern of cleavage sites. Both the Yap3 and Mkc7 proteases preferred to cleave at a single Glu-Lys downward arrow-Glu-Arg site. Analysis of secondary cleavage sites showed that Yap3 preferred to cleave after either Lys or Arg and Mkc7 after Lys. This paper is the first report on the in vivo activity and specificity of Yap3 and Mkc7 expressed at physiological levels. PMID:9494104

  7. Phytochelatins are synthesized by two vacuolar serine carboxypeptidases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Jana; Beck, Andreas; Meyer, Laurent; Letzel, Thomas; Grill, Erwin; Lendzian, Klaus J

    2007-04-17

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are cysteine-rich peptides that chelate heavy metal ions, thereby mediating heavy metal tolerance in plants, fission yeast, and Caenorhabditis elegans. They are synthesized from glutathione by PC synthase, a specific dipeptidyltransferase. While Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthesizes PCs upon exposure to heavy metal ions, the S. cerevisiae genome does not encode a PC synthase homologue. How PCs are synthesized in yeast is unclear. This study shows that the vacuolar serine carboxypeptidases CPY and CPC are responsible for PC synthesis in yeast. The finding of a PCS-like activity of these enzymes in vivo discloses another route for PC biosynthesis in eukaryotes.

  8. Regulation of xylose metabolism in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Salusjärvi, Laura; Kankainen, Matti; Soliymani, Rabah; Pitkänen, Juha-Pekka; Penttilä, Merja; Ruohonen, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Background Considerable interest in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol has led to metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fermentation of xylose. In the present study, the transcriptome and proteome of recombinant, xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic batch cultures on xylose were compared with those of glucose-grown cells both in glucose repressed and derepressed states. The aim was to study at the genome-wide level how signalling and carbon catabolite repression differ in cells grown on either glucose or xylose. The more detailed knowledge whether xylose is sensed as a fermentable carbon source, capable of catabolite repression like glucose, or is rather recognised as a non-fermentable carbon source is important for further engineering this yeast for more efficient anaerobic fermentation of xylose. Results Genes encoding respiratory proteins, proteins of the tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles, and gluconeogenesis were only partially repressed by xylose, similar to the genes encoding their transcriptional regulators HAP4, CAT8 and SIP1-2 and 4. Several genes that are repressed via the Snf1p/Mig1p-pathway during growth on glucose had higher expression in the cells grown on xylose than in the glucose repressed cells but lower than in the glucose derepressed cells. The observed expression profiles of the transcription repressor RGT1 and its target genes HXT2-3, encoding hexose transporters suggested that extracellular xylose was sensed by the glucose sensors Rgt2p and Snf3p. Proteome analyses revealed distinct patterns in phosphorylation of hexokinase 2, glucokinase and enolase isoenzymes in the xylose- and glucose-grown cells. Conclusion The results indicate that the metabolism of yeast growing on xylose corresponds neither to that of fully glucose repressed cells nor that of derepressed cells. This may be one of the major reasons for the suboptimal fermentation of xylose by recombinant S. cerevisiae strains

  9. [Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to monoterpenes--a review].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jidong; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2013-06-01

    Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to monoterpenes is important in both metabolic engineering of the yeast to produce these chemicals de novo and efficient use of biomass containing these chemicals. Understanding the mechanisms in the tolerance of S. cerevisiae to monoterpenes could facilitate the construction of yeast strains with enhanced monoterpenes resistance, and therefore improve related bioprocesses. Monoterpenes could disturb the redox balance in S. cerevisiae, therefore increase the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and result in cell death. S. cerevisiae has to systematically improve its antioxidative ability to deal with the ROS induced damage. The current review summarized the recent developments in demonstration of the tolerance of S. cerevisiae to different typical monoterpenes mainly from the aspect of the antioxidative mechanisms. Based on the analysis of the previous works, further attempts to demonstrate the mechanisms were proposed. PMID:24028054

  10. Synthesis of ribosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, J R

    1989-01-01

    The assembly of a eucaryotic ribosome requires the synthesis of four ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules and more than 75 ribosomal proteins. It utilizes all three RNA polymerases; it requires the cooperation of the nucleus and the cytoplasm, the processing of RNA, and the specific interaction of RNA and protein molecules. It is carried out efficiently and is exquisitely sensitive to the needs of the cell. Our current understanding of this process in the genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed. The ribosomal RNA genes are arranged in a tandem array of 100 to 200 copies. This tandem array has led to unique ways of carrying out a number of functions. Replication is asymmetric and does not initiate from every autonomously replicating sequence. Recombination is suppressed. Transcription of the major ribosomal RNA appears to involve coupling between adjacent transcription units, which are separated by the 5S RNA transcription unit. Genes for many ribosomal proteins have been cloned and sequenced. Few are linked; most are duplicated; most have an intron. There is extensive homology between yeast ribosomal proteins and those of other species. Most, but not all, of the ribosomal protein genes have one or two sites that are essential for their transcription and that bind a common transcription factor. This factor binds also to many other places in the genome, including the telomeres. There is coordinated transcription of the ribosomal protein genes under a variety of conditions. However, the cell seems to possess no mechanism for regulating the transcription of individual ribosomal protein genes in response either to a deficiency or an excess of a particular ribosomal protein. A deficiency causes slow growth. Any excess ribosomal protein is degraded very rapidly, with a half-life of 1 to 5 min. Unlike most types of cells, yeast cells appear not to regulate the translation of ribosomal proteins. However, in the case of ribosomal protein L32

  11. Analysis of the RNA Content of the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutch, Charles E.; Marshall, Pamela A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an interconnected set of relatively simple laboratory experiments in which students determine the RNA content of yeast cells and use agarose gel electrophoresis to separate and analyze the major species of cellular RNA. This set of experiments focuses on RNAs from the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", a…

  12. Molecular mechanisms of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet sensitive to ethanol at higher concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Although significant efforts have been made to study ethanol-stress response in past decades, molecular mecha...

  13. The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XII.

    PubMed

    Johnston, M; Hillier, L; Riles, L; Albermann, K; André, B; Ansorge, W; Benes, V; Brückner, M; Delius, H; Dubois, E; Düsterhöft, A; Entian, K D; Floeth, M; Goffeau, A; Hebling, U; Heumann, K; Heuss-Neitzel, D; Hilbert, H; Hilger, F; Kleine, K; Kötter, P; Louis, E J; Messenguy, F; Mewes, H W; Hoheisel, J D

    1997-05-29

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the pre-eminent organism for the study of basic functions of eukaryotic cells. All of the genes of this simple eukaryotic cell have recently been revealed by an international collaborative effort to determine the complete DNA sequence of its nuclear genome. Here we describe some of the features of chromosome XII.

  14. Improving biomass sugar utilization by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient utilization of all available sugars in lignocellulosic biomass, which is more abundant than available commodity crops and starch, represents one of the most difficult technological challenges for the production of bioethanol. The well-studied yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has played a...

  15. In vitro screening of probiotic properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii and food-borne Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    van der Aa Kühle, Alis; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jespersen, Lene

    2005-05-01

    The probiotic potential of 18 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used for production of foods or beverages or isolated from such, and eight strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, was investigated. All strains included were able to withstand pH 2.5 and 0.3% Oxgall. Adhesion to the nontumorigenic porcine jejunal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) was investigated by incorporation of 3H-methionine into the yeast cells and use of liquid scintillation counting. Only few of the food-borne S. cerevisiae strains exhibited noteworthy adhesiveness with the strongest levels of adhesion (13.6-16.8%) recorded for two isolates from blue veined cheeses. Merely 25% of the S. cerevisiae var. boulardii strains displayed good adhesive properties (16.2-28.0%). The expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1alpha decreased strikingly in IPEC-J2 cells exposed to a Shiga-like toxin 2e producing Escherichia coli strain when the cells were pre- and coincubated with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii even though this yeast strain was low adhesive (5.4%), suggesting that adhesion is not a mandatory prerequisite for such a probiotic effect. A strain of S. cerevisiae isolated from West African sorghum beer exerted similar effects hence indicating that food-borne strains of S. cerevisiae may possess probiotic properties in spite of low adhesiveness. PMID:15878404

  16. Sequence analysis of 203 kilobases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VII.

    PubMed

    Rieger, M; Brückner, M; Schäfer, M; Müller-Auer, S

    1997-09-15

    The nucleotide sequences of five major regions from chromosome VII of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been determined and analysed. These regions represent 203 kilobases corresponding to approximately one-fifth of the complete yeast chromosome VII. Two fragments originate from the left arm of this chromosome. The first one of about 15.8 kb starts approximately 75 kb from the left telomere and is bordered by the SK18 chromosomal marker. The second fragment covers the 72.6 kb region between the chromosomal markers CYH2 and ALG2. On the right chromosomal arm three regions, a 70.6 kb region between the MSB2 and the KSS1 chromosomal markers and two smaller regions dominated by the KRE11 marker and another one in the vicinity of the SER2 marker were sequenced. We found a total of 114 open reading frames (ORFs), 13 of which were completely overlapping with larger ORFs running in the opposite direction. A total of 44 yeast genes, the physiological functions of which are known, could be precisely mapped on this chromosome. Of the remaining 57 ORFs, 26 shared sequence homologies with known genes, among which were 13 other S. cerevisiae genes and five genes from other organisms. No homology with any sequence in the databases could be found for 31 ORFs. Furthermore, five Ty elements were found, one of which may not be functional due to a frame shift in its Ty1B amino acid sequence. The five chromosomal regions harboured five potential ARS elements and one sigma element together with eight tRNA genes and two snRNAs, one of which is encoded by an intron of a protein-coding gene. PMID:9290212

  17. Protective Effects of Arginine on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Against Ethanol Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yanfei; Du, Zhaoli; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Xuena; He, Xiuping

    2016-01-01

    Yeast cells are challenged by various environmental stresses in the process of industrial fermentation. As the currently main organism for bio-ethanol production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae suffers from ethanol stress. Some amino acids have been reported to be related to yeast tolerance to stresses. Here the relationship between arginine and yeast response to ethanol stress was investigated. Marked inhibitions of ethanol on cell growth, expression of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis and intracellular accumulation of arginine were observed. Furthermore, extracellular addition of arginine can abate the ethanol damage largely. To further confirm the protective effects of arginine on yeast cells, yeast strains with different levels of arginine content were constructed by overexpression of ARG4 involved in arginine biosynthesis or CAR1 encoding arginase. Intracellular arginine was increased by 18.9% or 13.1% respectively by overexpression of ARG4 or disruption of CAR1, which enhanced yeast tolerance to ethanol stress. Moreover, a 41.1% decrease of intracellular arginine was observed in CAR1 overexpressing strain, which made yeast cells keenly sensitive to ethanol. Further investigations indicated that arginine protected yeast cells from ethanol damage by maintaining the integrity of cell wall and cytoplasma membrane, stabilizing the morphology and function of organellae due to low ROS generation. PMID:27507154

  18. Functional studies of aldo-keto reductases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qing; Griest, Terry A; Harter, Theresa M; Petrash, J Mark

    2007-03-01

    We utilized the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to systematically explore physiological roles for yeast and mammalian aldo-keto reductases. Six open reading frames encoding putative aldo-keto reductases were identified when the yeast genome was queried against the sequence for human aldose reductase, the prototypical mammalian aldo-keto reductase. Recombinant proteins produced from five of these yeast open reading frames demonstrated NADPH-dependent reductase activity with a variety of aldehyde and ketone substrates. A triple aldo-keto reductase null mutant strain demonstrated a glucose-dependent heat shock phenotype which could be rescued by ectopic expression of human aldose reductase. Catalytically-inactive mutants of human or yeast aldo-keto reductases failed to effect a rescue of the heat shock phenotype, suggesting that the phenotype results from either an accumulation of one or more unmetabolized aldo-keto reductase substrates or a synthetic deficiency of aldo-keto reductase products generated in response to heat shock stress. These results suggest that multiple aldo-keto reductases fulfill functionally redundant roles in the stress response in yeast. PMID:17140678

  19. Functional studies of aldo-keto reductases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Qing; Griest, Terry A.; Harter, Theresa M.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY We utilized the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to systematically explore physiological roles for yeast and mammalian aldo-keto reductases. Six open reading frames encoding putative aldo-keto reductases were identified when the yeast genome was queried against the sequence for human aldose reductase, the prototypical mammalian aldo-keto reductase. Recombinant proteins produced from five of these yeast open reading frames demonstrated NADPH-dependent reductase activity with a variety of aldehyde and ketone substrates. A triple aldo-keto reductase null mutant strain demonstrated a glucose-dependent heat shock phenotype which could be rescued by ectopic expression of human aldose reductase. Catalytically-inactive mutants of human or yeast aldo-keto reductases failed to effect a rescue of the heat shock phenotype, suggesting that the phenotype results from either an accumulation of one or more unmetabolized aldo-keto reductase substrates or a synthetic deficiency of aldo-keto reductase products generated in response to heat shock stress. These results suggest that multiple aldo-keto reductases fulfill functionally redundant roles in the stress response in yeast. PMID:17140678

  20. Protective Effects of Arginine on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Against Ethanol Stress.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yanfei; Du, Zhaoli; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Xuena; He, Xiuping

    2016-01-01

    Yeast cells are challenged by various environmental stresses in the process of industrial fermentation. As the currently main organism for bio-ethanol production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae suffers from ethanol stress. Some amino acids have been reported to be related to yeast tolerance to stresses. Here the relationship between arginine and yeast response to ethanol stress was investigated. Marked inhibitions of ethanol on cell growth, expression of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis and intracellular accumulation of arginine were observed. Furthermore, extracellular addition of arginine can abate the ethanol damage largely. To further confirm the protective effects of arginine on yeast cells, yeast strains with different levels of arginine content were constructed by overexpression of ARG4 involved in arginine biosynthesis or CAR1 encoding arginase. Intracellular arginine was increased by 18.9% or 13.1% respectively by overexpression of ARG4 or disruption of CAR1, which enhanced yeast tolerance to ethanol stress. Moreover, a 41.1% decrease of intracellular arginine was observed in CAR1 overexpressing strain, which made yeast cells keenly sensitive to ethanol. Further investigations indicated that arginine protected yeast cells from ethanol damage by maintaining the integrity of cell wall and cytoplasma membrane, stabilizing the morphology and function of organellae due to low ROS generation. PMID:27507154

  1. Fumaric Acid Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by In Silico Aided Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guoqiang; Zou, Wei; Chen, Xiulai; Xu, Nan; Liu, Liming; Chen, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Fumaric acid (FA) is a promising biomass-derived building-block chemical. Bio-based FA production from renewable feedstock is a promising and sustainable alternative to petroleum-based chemical synthesis. Here we report on FA production by direct fermentation using metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the aid of in silico analysis of a genome-scale metabolic model. First, FUM1 was selected as the target gene on the basis of extensive literature mining. Flux balance analysis (FBA) revealed that FUM1 deletion can lead to FA production and slightly lower growth of S. cerevisiae. The engineered S. cerevisiae strain obtained by deleting FUM1 can produce FA up to a concentration of 610±31 mg L–1 without any apparent change in growth in fed-batch culture. FT-IR and 1H and 13C NMR spectra confirmed that FA was synthesized by the engineered S. cerevisiae strain. FBA identified pyruvate carboxylase as one of the factors limiting higher FA production. When the RoPYC gene was introduced, S. cerevisiae produced 1134±48 mg L–1 FA. Furthermore, the final engineered S. cerevisiae strain was able to produce 1675±52 mg L–1 FA in batch culture when the SFC1 gene encoding a succinate–fumarate transporter was introduced. These results demonstrate that the model shows great predictive capability for metabolic engineering. Moreover, FA production in S. cerevisiae can be efficiently developed with the aid of in silico metabolic engineering. PMID:23300594

  2. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient aerobic xylose consumption.

    PubMed

    Scalcinati, Gionata; Otero, José Manuel; Van Vleet, Jennifer R H; Jeffries, Thomas W; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-08-01

    Industrial biotechnology aims to develop robust microbial cell factories, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to produce an array of added value chemicals presently dominated by petrochemical processes. Xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose and the most prevalent pentose sugar found in lignocelluloses. Significant research efforts have focused on the metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for fast and efficient xylose utilization. This study aims to metabolically engineer S. cerevisiae, such that it can consume xylose as the exclusive substrate while maximizing carbon flux to biomass production. Such a platform may then be enhanced with complementary metabolic engineering strategies that couple biomass production with high value-added chemical. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulose kinase, from the native xylose-metabolizing yeast Pichia stipitis, was constructed, followed by a directed evolution strategy to improve xylose utilization rates. The resulting S. cerevisiae strain was capable of rapid growth and fast xylose consumption producing only biomass and negligible amount of byproducts. Transcriptional profiling of this strain was employed to further elucidate the observed physiology confirms a strongly up-regulated glyoxylate pathway enabling respiratory metabolism. The resulting strain is a desirable platform for the industrial production of biomass-related products using xylose as a sole carbon source. PMID:22487265

  3. Mutagenesis protocols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by in vivo overlap extension.

    PubMed

    Alcalde, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    A high recombination frequency and its ease of manipulation has made Saccharomyces cerevisiae a unique model eukaryotic organism to study homologous recombination. Indeed, the well-developed recombination machinery in S. cerevisiae facilitates the construction of mutant libraries for directed evolution experiments. In this context, in vivo overlap extension (IVOE) is a particularly attractive protocol that takes advantage of the eukaryotic apparatus to carry out combinatorial saturation mutagenesis, site-directed recombination or site-directed mutagenesis, avoiding ligation steps and additional PCR reactions that are common to standard in vitro protocols. PMID:20676972

  4. Improve carbon metabolic flux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae at high temperature by overexpressed TSL1 gene.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiang-Yang; Xu, Yan; Chen, Xiang

    2013-04-01

    This study describes a novel strategy to improve the glycolysis flux of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at high temperature. The TSL1 gene-encoding regulatory subunit of the trehalose synthase complex was overexpressed in S. cerevisiae Z-06, which increased levels of trehalose synthase activity in extracts, enhanced stress tolerance and glucose consuming rate of the yeast cells. As a consequence, the final ethanol concentration of 185.5 g/L was obtained at 38 °C for 36 h (with productivity up to 5.2 g/L/h) in 7-L fermentor, and the ethanol productivity was 92.7 % higher than that of the parent strain. The results presented here provide a novel way to enhance the carbon metabolic flux at high temperature, which will be available for the purposes of producing other primary metabolites of commercial interest using S. cerevisiae as a host.

  5. The reference genome sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: then and now.

    PubMed

    Engel, Stacia R; Dietrich, Fred S; Fisk, Dianna G; Binkley, Gail; Balakrishnan, Rama; Costanzo, Maria C; Dwight, Selina S; Hitz, Benjamin C; Karra, Kalpana; Nash, Robert S; Weng, Shuai; Wong, Edith D; Lloyd, Paul; Skrzypek, Marek S; Miyasato, Stuart R; Simison, Matt; Cherry, J Michael

    2014-03-01

    The genome of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first completely sequenced from a eukaryote. It was released in 1996 as the work of a worldwide effort of hundreds of researchers. In the time since, the yeast genome has been intensively studied by geneticists, molecular biologists, and computational scientists all over the world. Maintenance and annotation of the genome sequence have long been provided by the Saccharomyces Genome Database, one of the original model organism databases. To deepen our understanding of the eukaryotic genome, the S. cerevisiae strain S288C reference genome sequence was updated recently in its first major update since 1996. The new version, called "S288C 2010," was determined from a single yeast colony using modern sequencing technologies and serves as the anchor for further innovations in yeast genomic science. PMID:24374639

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a sexy yeast with a prion problem.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amy C; Wickner, Reed B

    2013-01-01

    Yeast prions are infectious proteins that spread exclusively by mating. The frequency of prions in the wild therefore largely reflects the rate of spread by mating counterbalanced by prion growth slowing effects in the host. We recently showed that the frequency of outcross mating is about 1% of mitotic doublings with 23-46% of total matings being outcrosses. These findings imply that even the mildest forms of the [PSI+], [URE3] and [PIN+] prions impart > 1% growth/survival detriment on their hosts. Our estimate of outcrossing suggests that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is far more sexual than previously thought and would therefore be more responsive to the adaptive effects of natural selection compared with a strictly asexual yeast. Further, given its large effective population size, a growth/survival detriment of > 1% for yeast prions should strongly select against prion-infected strains in wild populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a sexy yeast with a prion problem.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amy C; Wickner, Reed B

    2013-01-01

    Yeast prions are infectious proteins that spread exclusively by mating. The frequency of prions in the wild therefore largely reflects the rate of spread by mating counterbalanced by prion growth slowing effects in the host. We recently showed that the frequency of outcross mating is about 1% of mitotic doublings with 23-46% of total matings being outcrosses. These findings imply that even the mildest forms of the [PSI+], [URE3] and [PIN+] prions impart > 1% growth/survival detriment on their hosts. Our estimate of outcrossing suggests that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is far more sexual than previously thought and would therefore be more responsive to the adaptive effects of natural selection compared with a strictly asexual yeast. Further, given its large effective population size, a growth/survival detriment of > 1% for yeast prions should strongly select against prion-infected strains in wild populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:23764836

  8. The Interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeast during Alcoholic Fermentation Is Species and Strain Specific.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyzes the lack of culturability of different non-Saccharomyces strains due to interaction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation. Interaction was followed in mixed fermentations with 1:1 inoculation of S. cerevisiae and ten non-Saccharomyces strains. Starmerella bacillaris, and Torulaspora delbrueckii indicated longer coexistence in mixed fermentations compared with Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima. Strain differences in culturability and nutrient consumption (glucose, alanine, ammonium, arginine, or glutamine) were found within each species in mixed fermentation with S. cerevisiae. The interaction was further analyzed using cell-free supernatant from S. cerevisiae and synthetic media mimicking both single fermentations with S. cerevisiae and using mixed fermentations with the corresponding non-Saccharomyces species. Cell-free S. cerevisiae supernatants induced faster culturability loss than synthetic media corresponding to the same fermentation stage. This demonstrated that some metabolites produced by S. cerevisiae played the main role in the decreased culturability of the other non-Saccharomyces yeasts. However, changes in the concentrations of main metabolites had also an effect. Culturability differences were observed among species and strains in culture assays and thus showed distinct tolerance to S. cerevisiae metabolites and fermentation environment. Viability kit and recovery analyses on non-culturable cells verified the existence of viable but not-culturable status. These findings are discussed in the context of interaction between non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae.

  9. The Interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeast during Alcoholic Fermentation Is Species and Strain Specific

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyzes the lack of culturability of different non-Saccharomyces strains due to interaction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation. Interaction was followed in mixed fermentations with 1:1 inoculation of S. cerevisiae and ten non-Saccharomyces strains. Starmerella bacillaris, and Torulaspora delbrueckii indicated longer coexistence in mixed fermentations compared with Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima. Strain differences in culturability and nutrient consumption (glucose, alanine, ammonium, arginine, or glutamine) were found within each species in mixed fermentation with S. cerevisiae. The interaction was further analyzed using cell-free supernatant from S. cerevisiae and synthetic media mimicking both single fermentations with S. cerevisiae and using mixed fermentations with the corresponding non-Saccharomyces species. Cell-free S. cerevisiae supernatants induced faster culturability loss than synthetic media corresponding to the same fermentation stage. This demonstrated that some metabolites produced by S. cerevisiae played the main role in the decreased culturability of the other non-Saccharomyces yeasts. However, changes in the concentrations of main metabolites had also an effect. Culturability differences were observed among species and strains in culture assays and thus showed distinct tolerance to S. cerevisiae metabolites and fermentation environment. Viability kit and recovery analyses on non-culturable cells verified the existence of viable but not-culturable status. These findings are discussed in the context of interaction between non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae. PMID:27148191

  10. Physical analysis of the COR region: a cluster of six genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, K.; Stiles, J.I.; Pietras, D.F.; Melnick, L.; Sherman, F.

    1987-02-01

    Six genes, CYC1, UTR1, UTR3, OSM1, tRNAGly, and RAD7, have been localized within an 8-kilobase region on chromosome X of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The physical structures and the transcripts of these genes were identified by analyzing a normal strain and six deletion mutants by genomic blotting, transcriptional analysis, and gene disruption procedures. The well-studied CYC1 gene encodes iso-1-cytochrome c; the tRNAGly gene encodes a tRNA; deletion of OSM1 and RAD7 causes sensitivity to hypertonic medium and UV irradiation, respectively. There were no observable phenotypes in strains having deletions of the UTR1, UTR3, and tRNAGly gene. The high density of transcripts, with little or almost no intragenic regions, indicates that the chromosomal organization of S. cerevisiae resembles the chromosomal organization of procaryotes rather than higher eucaryotes.

  11. Growth of non-Saccharomyces yeasts affects nutrient availability for Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2012-07-01

    Yeast produces numerous secondary metabolites during fermentation that impact final wine quality. Although it is widely recognized that growth of diverse non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeast can positively affect flavor complexity during Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine fermentation, the inability to control spontaneous or co-fermentation processes by NS yeast has restricted their use in winemaking. We selected two NS yeasts from our Uruguayan native collection to study NS-S. cerevisiae interactions during wine fermentation. The selected strains of Hanseniaspora vineae and Metschnikowia pulcherrima had different yeast assimilable nitrogen consumption profiles and had different effects on S. cerevisiae fermentation and growth kinetics. Studies in which we varied inoculum size and using either simultaneous or sequential inoculation of NS yeast and S. cerevisiae suggested that competition for nutrients had a significant effect on fermentation kinetics. Sluggish fermentations were more pronounced when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24h after the initial stage of fermentation with a NS strain compared to co-inoculation. Monitoring strain populations using differential WL nutrient agar medium and fermentation kinetics of mixed cultures allowed for a better understanding of strain interactions and nutrient addition effects. Limitation of nutrient availability for S. cerevisiae was shown to result in stuck fermentations as well as to reduce sensory desirability of the resulting wine. Addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and a vitamin mix to a defined medium allowed for a comparison of nutrient competition between strains. Addition of DAP and the vitamin mix was most effective in preventing stuck fermentations. PMID:22687186

  12. Growth of non-Saccharomyces yeasts affects nutrient availability for Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2012-07-01

    Yeast produces numerous secondary metabolites during fermentation that impact final wine quality. Although it is widely recognized that growth of diverse non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeast can positively affect flavor complexity during Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine fermentation, the inability to control spontaneous or co-fermentation processes by NS yeast has restricted their use in winemaking. We selected two NS yeasts from our Uruguayan native collection to study NS-S. cerevisiae interactions during wine fermentation. The selected strains of Hanseniaspora vineae and Metschnikowia pulcherrima had different yeast assimilable nitrogen consumption profiles and had different effects on S. cerevisiae fermentation and growth kinetics. Studies in which we varied inoculum size and using either simultaneous or sequential inoculation of NS yeast and S. cerevisiae suggested that competition for nutrients had a significant effect on fermentation kinetics. Sluggish fermentations were more pronounced when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24h after the initial stage of fermentation with a NS strain compared to co-inoculation. Monitoring strain populations using differential WL nutrient agar medium and fermentation kinetics of mixed cultures allowed for a better understanding of strain interactions and nutrient addition effects. Limitation of nutrient availability for S. cerevisiae was shown to result in stuck fermentations as well as to reduce sensory desirability of the resulting wine. Addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and a vitamin mix to a defined medium allowed for a comparison of nutrient competition between strains. Addition of DAP and the vitamin mix was most effective in preventing stuck fermentations.

  13. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Kannan; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of cadmium (Cd) on the antioxidant status of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae serves as a good eukaryotic model system for the study of the molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress. We investigated the adaptative response of S. cerevisiae exposed to Cd. Yeast cells could tolerate up to 100 microM Cd and an inhibition in the growth and viability was observed. Exposure of yeast cells to Cd showed an increase in malondialdehyde and glutathione. The activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were also high in Cd-exposed cells. The incorporation of Cd led to significant increase in iron, zinc and inversely the calcium, copper levels were reduced. The results suggest that antioxidants were increased and are involved in the protection against macromolecular damage during oxidative stress; presumably, these enzymes are essential for counteracting the pro-oxidant effects of Cd. PMID:21355423

  14. Evidence of Natural Hybridization in Brazilian Wild Lineages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Raquel; Almeida, Pedro; Safar, Silvana V.B.; Santos, Renata Oliveira; Morais, Paula B.; Nielly-Thibault, Lou; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Landry, Christian R.; Gonçalves, Paula; Rosa, Carlos A.; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The natural biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the best known unicellular model eukaryote, remains poorly documented and understood although recent progress has started to change this situation. Studies carried out recently in the Northern Hemisphere revealed the existence of wild populations associated with oak trees in North America, Asia, and in the Mediterranean region. However, in spite of these advances, the global distribution of natural populations of S. cerevisiae, especially in regions were oaks and other members of the Fagaceae are absent, is not well understood. Here we investigate the occurrence of S. cerevisiae in Brazil, a tropical region where oaks and other Fagaceae are absent. We report a candidate natural habitat of S. cerevisiae in South America and, using whole-genome data, we uncover new lineages that appear to have as closest relatives the wild populations found in North America and Japan. A population structure analysis revealed the penetration of the wine genotype into the wild Brazilian population, a first observation of the impact of domesticated microbe lineages on the genetic structure of wild populations. Unexpectedly, the Brazilian population shows conspicuous evidence of hybridization with an American population of Saccharomyces paradoxus. Introgressions from S. paradoxus were significantly enriched in genes encoding secondary active transmembrane transporters. We hypothesize that hybridization in tropical wild lineages may have facilitated the habitat transition accompanying the colonization of the tropical ecosystem. PMID:26782936

  15. A Minimal Set of Glycolytic Genes Reveals Strong Redundancies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Central Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Solis-Escalante, Daniel; Kuijpers, Niels G A; Barrajon-Simancas, Nuria; van den Broek, Marcel; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2015-08-01

    As a result of ancestral whole-genome and small-scale duplication events, the genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and many eukaryotes still contain a substantial fraction of duplicated genes. In all investigated organisms, metabolic pathways, and more particularly glycolysis, are specifically enriched for functionally redundant paralogs. In ancestors of the Saccharomyces lineage, the duplication of glycolytic genes is purported to have played an important role leading to S. cerevisiae's current lifestyle favoring fermentative metabolism even in the presence of oxygen and characterized by a high glycolytic capacity. In modern S. cerevisiae strains, the 12 glycolytic reactions leading to the biochemical conversion from glucose to ethanol are encoded by 27 paralogs. In order to experimentally explore the physiological role of this genetic redundancy, a yeast strain with a minimal set of 14 paralogs was constructed (the "minimal glycolysis" [MG] strain). Remarkably, a combination of a quantitative systems approach and semiquantitative analysis in a wide array of growth environments revealed the absence of a phenotypic response to the cumulative deletion of 13 glycolytic paralogs. This observation indicates that duplication of glycolytic genes is not a prerequisite for achieving the high glycolytic fluxes and fermentative capacities that are characteristic of S. cerevisiae and essential for many of its industrial applications and argues against gene dosage effects as a means of fixing minor glycolytic paralogs in the yeast genome. The MG strain was carefully designed and constructed to provide a robust prototrophic platform for quantitative studies and has been made available to the scientific community.

  16. Evidence of Natural Hybridization in Brazilian Wild Lineages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Raquel; Almeida, Pedro; Safar, Silvana V B; Santos, Renata Oliveira; Morais, Paula B; Nielly-Thibault, Lou; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Landry, Christian R; Gonçalves, Paula; Rosa, Carlos A; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-01-18

    The natural biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the best known unicellular model eukaryote, remains poorly documented and understood although recent progress has started to change this situation. Studies carried out recently in the Northern Hemisphere revealed the existence of wild populations associated with oak trees in North America, Asia, and in the Mediterranean region. However, in spite of these advances, the global distribution of natural populations of S. cerevisiae, especially in regions were oaks and other members of the Fagaceae are absent, is not well understood. Here we investigate the occurrence of S. cerevisiae in Brazil, a tropical region where oaks and other Fagaceae are absent. We report a candidate natural habitat of S. cerevisiae in South America and, using whole-genome data, we uncover new lineages that appear to have as closest relatives the wild populations found in North America and Japan. A population structure analysis revealed the penetration of the wine genotype into the wild Brazilian population, a first observation of the impact of domesticated microbe lineages on the genetic structure of wild populations. Unexpectedly, the Brazilian population shows conspicuous evidence of hybridization with an American population of Saccharomyces paradoxus. Introgressions from S. paradoxus were significantly enriched in genes encoding secondary active transmembrane transporters. We hypothesize that hybridization in tropical wild lineages may have facilitated the habitat transition accompanying the colonization of the tropical ecosystem.

  17. Galactokinase encoded by GAL1 is a bifunctional protein required for induction of the GAL genes in Kluyveromyces lactis and is able to suppress the gal3 phenotype in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J; Walker-Jonah, A; Hollenberg, C P

    1991-11-01

    We have analyzed a GAL1 mutant (gal1-r strain) of the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis which lacks the induction of beta-galactosidase and the enzymes of the Leloir pathway in the presence of galactose. The data show that the K. lactis GAL1 gene product has, in addition to galactokinase activity, a function required for induction of the lactose system. This regulatory function is not dependent on galactokinase activity, as it is still present in a galactokinase-negative mutant (gal1-209). Complementation studies in Saccharomyces cervisiae show that K. lactis GAL1 and gal1-209, but not gal1-r, complement the gal3 mutation. We conclude that the regulatory function of GAL1 in K. lactis soon after induction is similar to the function of GAL3 in S. cerevisiae. PMID:1922058

  18. Regulation of cardiolipin synthase levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Su, Xuefeng; Dowhan, William

    2006-03-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae cardiolipin (CL) synthase encoded by the CRD1 gene catalyses the synthesis of CL, which is localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane and plays an important role in mitochondrial function. To investigate how CRD1 expression is regulated, a lacZ reporter gene was placed under control of the CRD1 promoter and the 5'-untranslated region of its mRNA (P(CRD1)-lacZ). P(CRD1)-lacZ expression was 2.5 times higher in early stationary phase than in logarithmic phase for glucose grown cells. Non-fermentable growth resulted in a two-fold elevation in expression relative to glucose grown cells. A shift from glycerol to glucose rapidly repressed expression, whereas a shift from glucose to glycerol had the opposite effect. The derepression of P(CRD1)-lacZ expression by non-fermentable carbon sources was dependent on mitochondrial respiration. These results support a tight coordination between translation and transcription of the CRD1 gene, since similar effects by the above factors on CRD1 mRNA levels have been reported. In glucose-grown cells, P(CRD1)-lacZ expression was repressed 70% in a pgs1delta strain (lacks phosphatidylglycerol and CL) compared with wild-type and rho- cells and elevated 2.5-fold in crd1delta cells, which have increased phosphatidylglycerol levels, suggesting a role for phosphatidylglycerol in regulating CRD1 expression. Addition of inositol to the growth medium had no effect on expression. However, expression was elevated in an ino4delta mutant but not in ino2delta cells, suggesting multiple and separate functions for the inositol-responsive INO2/INO4 gene products, which normally function as a dimer in regulating gene function.

  19. A Late Form of Nucleophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Mijaljica, Dalibor; Prescott, Mark; Devenish, Rodney J.

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy encompasses several processes by which cytosol and organelles can be delivered to the vacuole/lysosome for breakdown and recycling. We sought to investigate autophagy of the nucleus (nucleophagy) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by employing genetically encoded fluorescent reporters. The use of such a nuclear reporter, n-Rosella, proved the basis of robust assays based on either following its accumulation (by confocal microscopy), or degradation (by immunoblotting), within the vacuole. We observed the delivery of n-Rosella to the vacuole only after prolonged periods of nitrogen starvation. Dual labeling of cells with Nvj1p-EYFP, a nuclear membrane reporter of piecemeal micronucleophagy of the nucleus (PMN), and the nucleoplasm-targeted NAB35-DsRed.T3 allowed us to detect PMN soon after the commencement of nitrogen starvation whilst delivery to the vacuole of the nucleoplasm reporter was observed only after prolonged periods of nitrogen starvation. This later delivery of nuclear components to the vacuole has been designated LN (late nucleophagy). Only a very few cells showed simultaneous accumulation of both reporters (Nvj1p-EYFP and NAB35-DsRed.T3) in the vacuole. We determined, therefore, that delivery of the two respective nuclear reporters to the vacuole is temporally and spatially separated. Furthermore, our data suggest that LN is mechanistically distinct from PMN because it can occur in nvj1Δ and vac8Δ cells, and does not require ATG11. Nevertheless, a subset of the components of the core macroautophagic machinery is required for LN as it is efficiently inhibited in null mutants of several autophagy-related genes (ATG) specifying such components. Moreover, the inhibition of LN in some mutants is accompanied by alterations in nuclear morphology. PMID:22768199

  20. Interaction between Mismatch Repair and Genetic Recombination in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Alani, E.; Reenan, RAG.; Kolodner, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a set of genes that show strong amino acid sequence similarity to MutS and MutL, proteins required for mismatch repair in Escherichia coli. We examined the role of MSH2 and PMS1, yeast homologs of mutS and mutL, respectively, in the repair of base pair mismatches formed during meiotic recombination. By using specifically marked HIS4 and ARG4 alleles, we showed that msh2 mutants displayed a severe defect in the repair of all base pair mismatches as well as 1-, 2- and 4-bp insertion/deletion mispairs. The msh2 and pms1 phenotypes were indistinguishable, suggesting that the wild-type gene products act in the same repair pathway. A comparison of gene conversion events in wild-type and msh2 mutants indicated that mismatch repair plays an important role in genetic recombination. (1) Tetrad analysis at five different loci revealed that, in msh2 mutants, the majority of aberrant segregants displayed a sectored phenotype, consistent with a failure to repair mismatches created during heteroduplex formation. In wild type, base pair mismatches were almost exclusively repaired toward conversion rather than restoration. (2) In msh2 strains 10-19% of the aberrant tetrads were Ab4:4. (3) Polarity gradients at HIS4 and ARG4 were nearly abolished in msh2 mutants. The frequency of gene conversion at the 3' end of these genes was increased and was nearly the frequency observed at the 5' end. (4) Co-conversion studies were consistent with mismatch repair acting to regulate heteroduplex DNA tract length. We favor a model proposing that recombination events occur through the formation and resolution of heteroduplex intermediates and that mismatch repair proteins specifically interact with recombination enzymes to regulate the length of symmetric heteroduplex DNA. PMID:8056309

  1. Dihydroxyacetone detoxification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves formaldehyde dissimilation.

    PubMed

    Molin, Mikael; Blomberg, Anders

    2006-05-01

    To investigate Saccharomyces cerevisiae physiology during growth on the conditionally toxic triose dihydroxyacetone (DHA), protein expression was studied in strains overexpressing either of the two dihydroxyacetone kinase isogenes, DAK1 or DAK2, that grow well utilizing DHA as a carbon and energy source. DHA metabolism was found mostly similar to ethanol utilization, involving a strong component of glucose derepression, but also involved DHA-specific regulatory changes. A specific and strong (10- to 30-fold induction of formaldehyde dehydrogenase, Fdhlp, indicated activation of the formaldehyde dissimilation pathway in DHA medium. The importance of this pathway was further supported by impaired adaptation to DHA growth and DHA survival in a glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (SFA1) deletion mutant. Glutathione synthase (GSH1) deletion led to decreased DHA survival in agreement with the glutathione cofactor requirement for the SFA1-encoded activity. DHA toxicity did, however, not solely appear related to formaldehyde accumulation, because SFA1 overexpression only enhanced formaldehyde but not DHA tolerance. In further agreement with a low DHA-to-formaldehyde flux, GSH supplements in the low microM range also fully suppressed the DHA sensitivity of a gsh1Delta strain. Under growth reduction on high (100 mM) DHA medium we report increased levels of advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation on total protein. Under these high-DHA conditions expression of several stress-related proteins, e.g. a heat-shock protein (Hsp104p) and the oxidative stress indicator, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (Ahp1p) was also found induced. However, hallmark determinants of oxidative stress tolerance (e.g. YAP1, SKN7, HYR1/GPX3 and SOD2) were redundant for DHA tolerance, thus indicating mechanisms of DHA toxicity largely independent of central oxidative stress defence mechanisms. We conclude that mechanisms for DHA growth and detoxification appear complex and that the

  2. Expression of the Escherichia coli pntA and pntB genes, encoding nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its effect on product formation during anaerobic glucose fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Anderlund, M. |; Nissen, T.L. |; Nielsen, J.; Villadsen, J.; Rydstroem, J.; Hahn-Haegerdal, B.; Kielland-Brandt, M.C.

    1999-06-01

    The authors studied the physiological effect of the interconversion between the NAD(H) and NADP(H) coenzyme systems in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the membrane-bound transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Their objective was to determine if the membrane-bound transhydrogenase could work in reoxidation of NADH to NAD{sup +} in S. cerevisiae and thereby reduce glycerol formation during anaerobic fermentation. Membranes isolated from the recombinant strains exhibited reduction of 3-acetylpyridine-NAD{sup +} by NADPH and by NADH in the presence of NADP{sup +}, which demonstrated that an active enzyme was present. Unlike the situation in E. coli, however, most of the transhydrogenase activity was not present in the yeast plasma membrane; rather, the enzyme appeared to remain localized in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. During anaerobic glucose fermentation the authors observed an increase in the formation of 2-oxoglutarate, glycerol, and acetic acid in a strain expressing a high level of transhydrogenase, which indicated that increased NADPH consumption and NADH production occurred. The intracellular concentrations of NADH, NAD{sup +}, NADPH, and NADP{sup +} were measured in cells expressing transhydrogenase. The reduction of the NADPH pool indicated that the transhydrogenase transferred reducing equivalents from NADPH to NAD{sup +}.

  3. Functional expression of a heterologous nickel-dependent, ATP-independent urease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Milne, N; Luttik, M A H; Cueto Rojas, H F; Wahl, A; van Maris, A J A; Pronk, J T; Daran, J M

    2015-07-01

    In microbial processes for production of proteins, biomass and nitrogen-containing commodity chemicals, ATP requirements for nitrogen assimilation affect product yields on the energy producing substrate. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a current host for heterologous protein production and potential platform for production of nitrogen-containing chemicals, uptake and assimilation of ammonium requires 1 ATP per incorporated NH3. Urea assimilation by this yeast is more energy efficient but still requires 0.5 ATP per NH3 produced. To decrease ATP costs for nitrogen assimilation, the S. cerevisiae gene encoding ATP-dependent urease (DUR1,2) was replaced by a Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene encoding ATP-independent urease (ure2), along with its accessory genes ureD, ureF and ureG. Since S. pombe ure2 is a Ni(2+)-dependent enzyme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not express native Ni(2+)-dependent enzymes, the S. pombe high-affinity nickel-transporter gene (nic1) was also expressed. Expression of the S. pombe genes into dur1,2Δ S. cerevisiae yielded an in vitro ATP-independent urease activity of 0.44±0.01 µmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) and restored growth on urea as sole nitrogen source. Functional expression of the Nic1 transporter was essential for growth on urea at low Ni(2+) concentrations. The maximum specific growth rates of the engineered strain on urea and ammonium were lower than those of a DUR1,2 reference strain. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures with urea as nitrogen source, the engineered strain exhibited an increased release of ammonia and reduced nitrogen content of the biomass. Our results indicate a new strategy for improving yeast-based production of nitrogen-containing chemicals and demonstrate that Ni(2+)-dependent enzymes can be functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae.

  4. Ultrastructural changes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to ethanol stress.

    PubMed

    Ma, Manli; Han, Pei; Zhang, Ruimin; Li, Hao

    2013-09-01

    In the fermentative process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce bioethanol, the performance of cells is often compromised by the accumulation of ethanol. However, the mechanism of how S. cerevisiae responds against ethanol stress remains elusive. In the current study, S. cerevisiae cells were cultured in YPD (yeast extract - peptone - dextrose) medium containing various concentrations of ethanol (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 15% (v/v)). Compared with the control group without ethanol, the mean cell volume of S. cerevisiae decreased significantly in the presence of 7.5% and 10% ethanol after incubation for 16 h (P < 0.05), and in the presence of 15% ethanol at all 3 sampling time points (1, 8, and 16 h) (P < 0.05). The exposure of S. cerevisiae cells to ethanol also led to an increase in malonyldialdehyde content (P < 0.05) and a decrease in sulfhydryl group content (P < 0.05). Moreover, the observations through transmission electron microscopy enabled us to relate ultrastructural changes elicited by ethanol with the cellular stress physiology. Under ethanol stress, the integrity of the cell membrane was compromised. The swelling or distortion of mitochondria together with the occurrence of a single and large vacuole was correlated with the addition of ethanol. These results suggested that the cell membrane is one of the targets of ethanol, and the degeneration of mitochondria promoted the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

  5. [Mitochondria inheritance in yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Fizikova, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The review is devoted to the main mechanisms of mitochondria inheritance in yeast Saccharonmyces cerevisiae. The genetic mechanisms of functionally active mitochondria inheritance in eukaryotic cells is one of the most relevant in modem researches. A great number of genetic diseases are associated with mitochondria dysfunction. Plasticity of eukaryotic cell metabolism according to the environmental changes is ensured by adequate mitochondria functioning by means of ATP synthesis coordination, reactive oxygen species accumulation, apoptosis regulation and is an important factor of cell adaptation to stress. Mitochondria participation in important for cell vitality processes masters the presence of accurate mechanisms of mitochondria functions regulation according to environment fluctuations. The mechanisms of mitochondria division and distribution are highly conserved. Baker yeast S. cerevisiae is an ideal model object for mitochondria researches due to energetic metabolism lability, ability to switch over respiration to fermentation, and petite-positive phenotype. Correction of metabolism according to the environmental changes is necessary for cell vitality. The influence of respiratory, carbon, amino acid and phosphate metabolism on mitochondria functions was shown. As far as the mechanisms that stabilize functions of mitochondria and mtDNA are highly conserve, we can project yeast regularities on higher eukaryotes systems. This makes it possible to approximate understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of a great number of human diseases.

  6. Overexpression of acetyl-CoA synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases acetic acid tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jun; Holzwarth, Garrett; Penner, Michael H.; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Bakalinsky, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid-mediated inhibition of the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars impedes development of plant biomass as a source of renewable ethanol. In order to overcome this inhibition, the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to synthesize acetyl-CoA from acetic acid was increased by overexpressing ACS2 encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase. Overexpression of ACS2 resulted in higher resistance to acetic acid as measured by an increased growth rate and shorter lag phase relative to a wild-type control strain, suggesting that Acs2-mediated consumption of acetic acid during fermentation contributes to acetic acid detoxification. PMID:25673654

  7. Overexpression of acetyl-CoA synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jun; Holzwarth, Garrett; Penner, Michael H; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Bakalinsky, Alan T

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid-mediated inhibition of the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars impedes development of plant biomass as a source of renewable ethanol. In order to overcome this inhibition, the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to synthesize acetyl-CoA from acetic acid was increased by overexpressing ACS2 encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase. Overexpression of ACS2 resulted in higher resistance to acetic acid as measured by an increased growth rate and shorter lag phase relative to a wild-type control strain, suggesting that Acs2-mediated consumption of acetic acid during fermentation contributes to acetic acid detoxification.

  8. Overexpression of acetyl-CoA synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jun; Holzwarth, Garrett; Penner, Michael H; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Bakalinsky, Alan T

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid-mediated inhibition of the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars impedes development of plant biomass as a source of renewable ethanol. In order to overcome this inhibition, the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to synthesize acetyl-CoA from acetic acid was increased by overexpressing ACS2 encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase. Overexpression of ACS2 resulted in higher resistance to acetic acid as measured by an increased growth rate and shorter lag phase relative to a wild-type control strain, suggesting that Acs2-mediated consumption of acetic acid during fermentation contributes to acetic acid detoxification. PMID:25673654

  9. The pentafunctional arom enzyme of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a mosaic of monofunctional domains.

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, K; Edwards, R M; Coggins, J R

    1987-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARO1 gene which encodes the arom multifunctional enzyme has been determined. The protein sequence deduced for the pentafunctional arom polypeptide is 1588 amino acids in length and has a calculated Mr of 174555. Functional regions within the polypeptide chain have been identified by comparison with the sequences of the five monofunctional Escherichia coli enzymes whose activities correspond with those of the arom multifunctional enzyme. The observed homologies demonstrate that the arom polypeptide is a mosaic of functional domains and are consistent with the hypothesis that the ARO1 gene evolved by the linking of ancestral E. coli-like genes. PMID:2825635

  10. CTP synthetase and its role in phospholipid synthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Fang; Carman, George M.

    2008-01-01

    CTP synthetase is a cytosolic-associated glutamine amidotransferase enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent transfer of the amide nitrogen from glutamine to the C-4 position of UTP to form CTP. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the reaction product CTP is an essential precursor of all membrane phospholipids that are synthesized via the Kennedy (CDP-choline and CDP-ethanolamine branches) and CDP-diacylglycerol pathways. The URA7 and URA8 genes encode CTP synthetase in S. cerevisiae, and the URA7 gene is responsible for the majority of CTP synthesized in vivo. The CTP synthetase enzymes are allosterically regulated by CTP product inhibition. Mutations that alleviate this regulation result in an elevated cellular level of CTP and an increase in phospholipid synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. The URA7-encoded enzyme is phosphorylated by protein kinases A and C, and these phosphorylations stimulate CTP synthetase activity and increase cellular CTP levels and the utilization of the Kennedy pathway. The CTPS1 and CTPS2 genes that encode human CTP synthetase enzymes are functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae, and rescue the lethal phenotype of the ura7Δ ura8Δ double mutant that lacks CTP synthetase activity. The expression in yeast has revealed that the human CTPS1-encoded enzyme is also phosphorylated and regulated by protein kinases A and C. PMID:18439916

  11. Overproduction of fatty acids in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Guo, Daoyi; Cheng, Yongbo; Zhu, Fayin; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2014-09-01

    The long hydrocarbon fatty acyl chain is energy rich, making it an ideal precursor for liquid transportation fuels and high-value oleo chemicals. As Saccharomyces cerevisiae has many advantages for industrial production compared to Escherichia coli. Here, we attempted to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for overproduction of fatty acids. First, disruption of the beta-oxidation pathway, elimination of the acyl-CoA synthetases, overexpression of different thioesterases and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC1, and engineering the supply of precursor acetyl-CoA. The engineered strain XL122 produced more than 120 mg/L of fatty acids. In parallel, we inactivated ADH1, the dominant gene for ethanol production, to redirect the metabolic flux to fatty acids synthesis. The engineered strain DG005 produced about 140 mg/L fatty acids. Additionally, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase was identified as a critical bottleneck of fatty acids synthesis in S. cerevisiae with a cell-free system. However, overexpression of ACC1 has little effect on fatty acids biosynthesis. As it has been reported that phosphorylation of ACC1 may influent its activity, so phosphorylation sites of ACC1 were further identified. Although the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear, our results provide rationale for future studies to target this critical step. All these efforts, particularly the discovery of the limiting step are critical for developing a "cell factory" for the overproduction of fatty acids by using type I fatty acids synthase in yeast or other fungi. PMID:24752690

  12. Cell density-dependent linoleic acid toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Túlio César; de Moraes, Lídia Maria Pepe; Campos, Elida Geralda

    2011-08-01

    Since the discovery of the apoptotic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, several compounds have been shown to cause apoptosis in this organism. While the toxicity of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) peroxides towards S. cerevisiae has been known for a long time, studies on the effect of nonoxidized PUFA are scarce. The present study deals specifically with linoleic acid (LA) in its nonoxidized form and investigates its toxicity to yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to synthesize PUFA, but can take up and incorporate them into its membranes. Reports from the literature indicate that LA is not toxic to yeast cells. However, we demonstrated that yeast cell growth decreased in cultures treated with 0.1 mM LA for 4 h, and 3-(4,5 dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide reduction (a measure of respiratory activity) decreased by 47%. This toxicity was dependent on the number of cells used in the experiment. We show apoptosis induction by LA concomitant with increases in malondialdehyde, glutathione content, activities of catalase and cytochrome c peroxidase, and decreases in two metabolic enzyme activities. While the main purpose of this study was to show that LA causes cell death in yeast, our results indicate some of the molecular mechanisms of the cell toxicity of PUFA. PMID:21457450

  13. Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient anaerobic alcoholic fermentation of L-arabinose.

    PubMed

    Wisselink, H Wouter; Toirkens, Maurice J; del Rosario Franco Berriel, M; Winkler, Aaron A; van Dijken, Johannes P; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2007-08-01

    For cost-effective and efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic fractions of plant biomass, the conversion of not only major constituents, such as glucose and xylose, but also less predominant sugars, such as l-arabinose, is required. Wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the organism used in industrial ethanol production, cannot ferment xylose and arabinose. Although metabolic and evolutionary engineering has enabled the efficient alcoholic fermentation of xylose under anaerobic conditions, the conversion of l-arabinose into ethanol by engineered S. cerevisiae strains has previously been demonstrated only under oxygen-limited conditions. This study reports the first case of fast and efficient anaerobic alcoholic fermentation of l-arabinose by an engineered S. cerevisiae strain. This fermentation was achieved by combining the expression of the structural genes for the l-arabinose utilization pathway of Lactobacillus plantarum, the overexpression of the S. cerevisiae genes encoding the enzymes of the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and extensive evolutionary engineering. The resulting S. cerevisiae strain exhibited high rates of arabinose consumption (0.70 g h(-1) g [dry weight](-1)) and ethanol production (0.29 g h(-1) g [dry weight](-1)) and a high ethanol yield (0.43 g g(-1)) during anaerobic growth on l-arabinose as the sole carbon source. In addition, efficient ethanol production from sugar mixtures containing glucose and arabinose, which is crucial for application in industrial ethanol production, was achieved.

  14. Network Hubs Buffer Environmental Variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Sasha F; Siegal, Mark L

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory and developmental systems produce phenotypes that are robust to environmental and genetic variation. A gene product that normally contributes to this robustness is termed a phenotypic capacitor. When a phenotypic capacitor fails, for example when challenged by a harsh environment or mutation, the system becomes less robust and thus produces greater phenotypic variation. A functional phenotypic capacitor provides a mechanism by which hidden polymorphism can accumulate, whereas its failure provides a mechanism by which evolutionary change might be promoted. The primary example to date of a phenotypic capacitor is Hsp90, a molecular chaperone that targets a large set of signal transduction proteins. In both Drosophila and Arabidopsis, compromised Hsp90 function results in pleiotropic phenotypic effects dependent on the underlying genotype. For some traits, Hsp90 also appears to buffer stochastic variation, yet the relationship between environmental and genetic buffering remains an important unresolved question. We previously used simulations of knockout mutations in transcriptional networks to predict that many gene products would act as phenotypic capacitors. To test this prediction, we use high-throughput morphological phenotyping of individual yeast cells from single-gene deletion strains to identify gene products that buffer environmental variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find more than 300 gene products that, when absent, increase morphological variation. Overrepresented among these capacitors are gene products that control chromosome organization and DNA integrity, RNA elongation, protein modification, cell cycle, and response to stimuli such as stress. Capacitors have a high number of synthetic-lethal interactions but knockouts of these genes do not tend to cause severe decreases in growth rate. Each capacitor can be classified based on whether or not it is encoded by a gene with a paralog in the genome. Capacitors with a duplicate are highly

  15. Screening for hydrolytic enzymes reveals Ayr1p as a novel triacylglycerol lipase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ploier, Birgit; Scharwey, Melanie; Koch, Barbara; Schmidt, Claudia; Schatte, Jessica; Rechberger, Gerald; Kollroser, Manfred; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2013-12-13

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as other eukaryotes, preserves fatty acids and sterols in a biologically inert form, as triacylglycerols and steryl esters. The major triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast S. cerevisiae identified so far are Tgl3p, Tgl4p, and Tgl5p (Athenstaedt, K., and Daum, G. (2003) YMR313c/TGL3 encodes a novel triacylglycerol lipase located in lipid particles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 23317-23323; Athenstaedt, K., and Daum, G. (2005) Tgl4p and Tgl5p, two triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are localized to lipid particles. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 37301-37309). We observed that upon cultivation on oleic acid, triacylglycerol mobilization did not come to a halt in a yeast strain deficient in all currently known triacylglycerol lipases, indicating the presence of additional not yet characterized lipases/esterases. Functional proteome analysis using lipase and esterase inhibitors revealed a subset of candidate genes for yet unknown hydrolytic enzymes on peroxisomes and lipid droplets. Based on the conserved GXSXG lipase motif, putative functions, and subcellular localizations, a selected number of candidates were characterized by enzyme assays in vitro, gene expression analysis, non-polar lipid analysis, and in vivo triacylglycerol mobilization assays. These investigations led to the identification of Ayr1p as a novel triacylglycerol lipase of yeast lipid droplets and confirmed the hydrolytic potential of the peroxisomal Lpx1p in vivo. Based on these results, we discuss a possible link between lipid storage, lipid mobilization, and peroxisomal utilization of fatty acids as a carbon source.

  16. Construction of Killer Industrial Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Hau-1 and its Fermentation Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Bijender K.; Sharma, S.

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, a time tested industrial yeast possesses most of the desirable fermentation characteristics like fast growth and fermentation rate, osmotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, ability to ferment molasses, and to ferment at elevated temperatures etc. However, this yeast was found to be sensitive against the killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, killer trait was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 by protoplast fusion with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 475, a killer strain. The resultant fusants were characterized for desirable fermentation characteristics. All the technologically important characteristics of distillery yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 were retained in the fusants, and in addition the killer trait was also introduced into them. Further, the killer activity was found to be stably maintained during hostile conditions of ethanol fermentations in dextrose or molasses, and even during biomass recycling. PMID:24031519

  17. Gains and Losses of Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus

    PubMed Central

    Schaefke, Bernhard; Wang, Tzi-Yuan; Wang, Chuen-Yi; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression evolution occurs through changes in cis- or trans-regulatory elements or both. Interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their binding sites (TFBSs) constitute one of the most important points where these two regulatory components intersect. In this study, we investigated the evolution of TFBSs in the promoter regions of different Saccharomyces strains and species. We divided the promoter of a gene into the proximal region and the distal region, which are defined, respectively, as the 200-bp region upstream of the transcription starting site and as the 200-bp region upstream of the proximal region. We found that the predicted TFBSs in the proximal promoter regions tend to be evolutionarily more conserved than those in the distal promoter regions. Additionally, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used in the fermentation of alcoholic drinks have experienced more TFBS losses than gains compared with strains from other environments (wild strains, laboratory strains, and clinical strains). We also showed that differences in TFBSs correlate with the cis component of gene expression evolution between species (comparing S. cerevisiae and its sister species Saccharomyces paradoxus) and within species (comparing two closely related S. cerevisiae strains). PMID:26220934

  18. Gains and Losses of Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus.

    PubMed

    Schaefke, Bernhard; Wang, Tzi-Yuan; Wang, Chuen-Yi; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2015-07-27

    Gene expression evolution occurs through changes in cis- or trans-regulatory elements or both. Interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their binding sites (TFBSs) constitute one of the most important points where these two regulatory components intersect. In this study, we investigated the evolution of TFBSs in the promoter regions of different Saccharomyces strains and species. We divided the promoter of a gene into the proximal region and the distal region, which are defined, respectively, as the 200-bp region upstream of the transcription starting site and as the 200-bp region upstream of the proximal region. We found that the predicted TFBSs in the proximal promoter regions tend to be evolutionarily more conserved than those in the distal promoter regions. Additionally, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used in the fermentation of alcoholic drinks have experienced more TFBS losses than gains compared with strains from other environments (wild strains, laboratory strains, and clinical strains). We also showed that differences in TFBSs correlate with the cis component of gene expression evolution between species (comparing S. cerevisiae and its sister species Saccharomyces paradoxus) and within species (comparing two closely related S. cerevisiae strains).

  19. Glucose- and nitrogen sensing and regulatory mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rødkaer, Steven V; Faergeman, Nils J

    2014-08-01

    Pro- and eukaryotic cells are constantly challenged by varying concentrations of nutrients in their environment. Perceiving and adapting to such changes are therefore crucial for cellular viability. Thus, numerous specialized cellular receptors continuously sense and react to the availability of nutrients such as glucose and nitrogen. When stimulated, these receptors initiate various cellular signaling pathways, which in concert constitute a complex regulatory network. To ensure a highly specific response, these pathways and networks cross-communicate with each other and are regulated at several steps and by numerous different regulators. As numerous of these regulating proteins, biochemical mechanisms, and cellular pathways are evolutionary conserved, complex biochemical information relevant to humans can be obtained by studying simple organisms. Thus, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been recognized as a powerful model system to study fundamental biochemical processes. In the present review, we highlight central signaling pathways and molecular circuits conferring nitrogen- and glucose sensing in S. cerevisiae.

  20. Energy-dependent effects of resveratrol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Perez, Luis Alberto; Canizal-Garcia, Melina; González-Hernández, Juan Carlos; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Nava, Gerardo M; Ramos-Gomez, Minerva

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic effects induced by resveratrol have been associated mainly with the consumption of high-calorie diets; however, its effects with standard or low-calorie diets remain unclear. To better understand the interactions between resveratrol and cellular energy levels, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model. Herein it is shown that resveratrol: (a) decreased cell viability in an energy-dependent manner; (b) lessening of cell viability occurred specifically when cells were under cellular respiration; and (c) inhibition of oxygen consumption in state 4 occurred at low and standard energy levels, whereas at high energy levels oxygen consumption was promoted. These findings indicate that the effects of resveratrol are dependent on the cellular energy status and linked to metabolic respiration. Importantly, our study also revealed that S. cerevisiae is a suitable and useful model to elucidate the molecular targets of resveratrol under different nutritional statuses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Isolation of an osmotolerant ale strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Pironcheva, G

    1998-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ale strain) grown in batch culture to stationary phase was tested for its tolerance to heat (50 degrees C for 5 min), hydrogen peroxide (0.3 M) and salt (growth in 1.5 M sodium chloride/YPD medium). Yeast cells which have been exposed previously to heat shock are more tolerant to hydrogen peroxide and high salt concentrations (1.5 M NaCl) than the controls. Their fermentative activity as judged by glucose consumption and their viability, as judged by cell number and density have higher levels when compared with cells not previously exposed to heat shock. Experimental conditions facilitated the isolation of S. cerevisiae ale strain, which was tolerant to heat, and other agents such as hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride.

  2. Using weighted features to predict recombination hotspots in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoqing; Xing, Yongqiang; Cai, Lu

    2015-10-01

    Characterization and accurate prediction of recombination hotspots and coldspots have crucial implications for the mechanism of recombination. Several models have predicted recombination hot/cold spots successfully, but there is still much room for improvement. We present a novel classifier in which k-mer frequency, physical and thermodynamic properties of DNA sequences are incorporated in the form of weighted features. Applying the classifier to recombination hot/cold ORFs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we achieved an accuracy of 90%, which is ~5% higher than existing methods, such as iRSpot-PseDNC, IDQD and Random Forest. The model also predicted non-ORF recombination hot/cold spots sequences in S. cerevisiae with high accuracy. A broad applicability of the model in the field of classification is expected.

  3. Interorganelle signaling is a determinant of longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Kirchman, P A; Kim, S; Lai, C Y; Jazwinski, S M

    1999-01-01

    Replicative capacity, which is the number of times an individual cell divides, is the measure of longevity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, a process that involves signaling from the mitochondrion to the nucleus, called retrograde regulation, is shown to determine yeast longevity, and its induction resulted in postponed senescence. Activation of retrograde regulation, by genetic and environmental means, correlated with increased replicative capacity in four different S. cerevisiae strains. Deletion of a gene required for the retrograde response, RTG2, eliminated the increased replicative capacity. RAS2, a gene previously shown to influence longevity in yeast, interacts with retrograde regulation in setting yeast longevity. The molecular mechanism of aging elucidated here parallels the results of genetic studies of aging in nematodes and fruit flies, as well as the caloric restriction paradigm in mammals, and it underscores the importance of metabolic regulation in aging, suggesting a general applicability. PMID:10224252

  4. Advanced biofuel production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-06-01

    Replacement of conventional transportation fuels with biofuels will require production of compounds that can cover the complete fuel spectrum, ranging from gasoline to kerosene. Advanced biofuels are expected to play an important role in replacing fossil fuels because they have improved properties compared with ethanol and some of these may have the energy density required for use in heavy duty vehicles, ships, and aviation. Moreover, advanced biofuels can be used as drop-in fuels in existing internal combustion engines. The yeast cell factory Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be turned into a producer of higher alcohols (1-butanol and isobutanol), sesquiterpenes (farnesene and bisabolene), and fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel), and here we discusses progress in metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for production of these advanced biofuels. PMID:23628723

  5. Purification of fluorescently labeled Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spindle Pole Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Trisha N.

    2016-01-01

    Centrosomes are components of the mitotic spindle responsible for organizing microtubules and establishing a bipolar spindle for accurate chromosome segregation. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the centrosome is called the spindle pole body, a highly organized tri-laminar structure embedded in the nuclear envelope. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the purification of fluorescently labeled spindle pole bodes from S. cerevisiae. Spindle pole bodies are purified from yeast using a TAP-tag purification followed by velocity sedimentation. This highly reproducible TAP-tag purification method improves upon previous techniques and expands the scope of in vitro characterization of yeast spindle pole bodies. The genetic flexibility of this technique allows for the study of spindle pole body mutants as well as the study of spindle pole bodies during different stages of the cell cycle. The ease and reproducibility of the technique makes it possible to study spindle pole bodies using a variety of biochemical, biophysical, and microscopic techniques. PMID:27193850

  6. Direct evidence for a xylose metabolic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Batt, C.A.; Carvallo, S.; Easson, D.D.; Akedo, M.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1986-04-01

    Xylose transport, xylose reductase, and xylitol dehydrogenase activities are demonstrated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The enzymes in the xylose catabolic pathway necessary for the conversion of xylose xylulose are present, although S. cerevisiae cannot grow on xylose as a sole carbon source. Xylose transport is less efficient than glucose transport, and its rate is dependent upon aeration. Xylose reductase appears to be a xylose inducible enzyme and xylitol dehydrogenase activity is constitutive, although both are repressed by glucose. Both xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase activities are five- to tenfold lower in S. cerevisie as compared to Candida utilis. In vivo conversion of /sup 14/C-xylose in S. cerevisiage is demonstrated and xylitol is detected, although no significant levels of any other /sup 14/C-labeled metabolites (e.g., ethanol) are observed. 22 references.

  7. Characterization of oligosaccharides from an antigenic mannan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Young, M; Davies, M J; Bailey, D; Gradwell, M J; Smestad-Paulsen, B; Wold, J K; Barnes, R M; Hounsell, E F

    1998-08-01

    Mannans of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been implicated as containing the allergens to which bakers and brewers are sensitive and also the antigen recognized by patients with Crohn's disease. A fraction of S. cerevisiae mannan, Sc500, having high affinity for antibodies in Crohn's patients has been characterized by NMR spectroscopy followed by fragmentation using alkaline elimination, partial acid hydrolysis and acetolysis. The released oligosaccharides were separated by gel filtration on a Biogel P4 column and analyzed by fluorescence labeling, HPLC and methylation analysis. The relationship between structure and antigen activity was measured by competitive ELISA. The antigenic activity of the original high molecular weight mannan could be ascribed to terminal Manalpha1-->3Manalpha1-->2 sequences which are rarely found in human glycoproteins but were over-represented in Sc500 compared to other yeast mannans.

  8. Acquisition of thermotolerant yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by breeding via stepwise adaptation.

    PubMed

    Satomura, Atsushi; Katsuyama, Yoshiaki; Miura, Natsuko; Kuroda, Kouichi; Tomio, Ayako; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    A thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain, YK60-1, was bred from a parental strain, MT8-1, via stepwise adaptation. YK60-1 grew at 40°C, a temperature at which MT8-1 could not grow at all. YK60-1 exhibited faster growth than MT8-1 at 30°C. To investigate the mechanisms how MT8-1 acquired thermotolerance, DNA microarray analysis was performed. The analysis revealed the induction of stress-responsive genes such as those encoding heat shock proteins and trehalose biosynthetic enzymes in YK60-1. Furthermore, nontargeting metabolome analysis showed that YK60-1 accumulated more trehalose, a metabolite that contributes to stress tolerance in yeast, than MT8-1. In conclusion, S. cerevisiae MT8-1 acquired thermotolerance by induction of specific stress-responsive genes and enhanced intracellular trehalose levels.

  9. Molecular Basis for Strain Variation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Adhesin Flo11p

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Lipke, Peter N.; Dranginis, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT FLO11 encodes a yeast cell wall flocculin that mediates a variety of adhesive phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Flo11p is implicated in many developmental processes, including flocculation, formation of pseudohyphae, agar invasion, and formation of microbial mats and biofilms. However, Flo11p mediates different processes in different yeast strains. To investigate the mechanisms by which FLO11 determines these differences in colony morphology, flocculation, and invasion, we studied gene structure, function, and expression levels. Nonflocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae Σ1278b cells exhibited significantly higher FLO11 mRNA expression, especially in the stationary phase, than highly flocculent S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus. The two strains varied in cell surface hydrophobicity, and Flo11p contributed significantly to surface hydrophobicity in S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus but not in strain Σ1278b. Sequencing of the FLO11 gene in S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus revealed strain-specific differences, including a 15-amino-acid insertion in the adhesion domain. Flo11p adhesion domains from strain Σ1278b and S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus were expressed and used to coat magnetic beads. The adhesion domain from each strain bound preferentially to homologous cells, and the preferences were independent of the cells in which the adhesion domains were produced. These results are consistent with the idea that strain-specific variations in the amino acid sequences in the adhesion domains cause different Flo11p flocculation activities. The results also imply that strain-specific differences in expression levels, posttranslational modifications, and allelic differences outside the adhesion domains have little effect on flocculation. IMPORTANCE As a nonmotile organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae employs the cell surface flocculin Flo11/Muc1 as an important means of adapting to environmental change. However, there is a great deal of strain variation in the

  10. Molecular Basis for Strain Variation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Adhesin Flo11p.

    PubMed

    Barua, Subit; Li, Li; Lipke, Peter N; Dranginis, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    FLO11 encodes a yeast cell wall flocculin that mediates a variety of adhesive phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Flo11p is implicated in many developmental processes, including flocculation, formation of pseudohyphae, agar invasion, and formation of microbial mats and biofilms. However, Flo11p mediates different processes in different yeast strains. To investigate the mechanisms by which FLO11 determines these differences in colony morphology, flocculation, and invasion, we studied gene structure, function, and expression levels. Nonflocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae Σ1278b cells exhibited significantly higher FLO11 mRNA expression, especially in the stationary phase, than highly flocculent S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus. The two strains varied in cell surface hydrophobicity, and Flo11p contributed significantly to surface hydrophobicity in S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus but not in strain Σ1278b. Sequencing of the FLO11 gene in S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus revealed strain-specific differences, including a 15-amino-acid insertion in the adhesion domain. Flo11p adhesion domains from strain Σ1278b and S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus were expressed and used to coat magnetic beads. The adhesion domain from each strain bound preferentially to homologous cells, and the preferences were independent of the cells in which the adhesion domains were produced. These results are consistent with the idea that strain-specific variations in the amino acid sequences in the adhesion domains cause different Flo11p flocculation activities. The results also imply that strain-specific differences in expression levels, posttranslational modifications, and allelic differences outside the adhesion domains have little effect on flocculation. IMPORTANCE As a nonmotile organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae employs the cell surface flocculin Flo11/Muc1 as an important means of adapting to environmental change. However, there is a great deal of strain variation in the expression of

  11. Integration of DNA fragments by illegitimate recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Schiestl, R H; Petes, T D

    1991-01-01

    DNA fragments (generated by BamHI treatment) with no homology to the yeast genome were transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When the fragments were transformed in the presence of the BamHI enzyme, they integrated into genomic BamHI sites. When the fragments were transformed in the absence of the enzyme, they integrated into genomic G-A-T-C sites. Since the G-A-T-C sequence is present at the ends of BamHI fragments, this results indicates that four base pairs of homology are sufficient for some types of mitotic recombination. Images PMID:1881899

  12. Differential repair of UV damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Terleth, C; van Sluis, C A; van de Putte, P

    1989-06-26

    Preferential repair of UV-induced damage is a phenomenon by which mammalian cells might enhance their survival. This paper presents the first evidence that preferential repair occurs in the lower eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover an unique approach is reported to compare identical sequences present on the same chromosome and only differing in expression. We determined the removal of pyrimidine dimers from two identical alpha-mating type loci and we were able to show that the active MAT alpha locus is repaired preferentially to the inactive HML alpha locus. In a sir-3 mutant, in which both loci are active this preference is not observed.

  13. RNAi-Assisted Genome Evolution (RAGE) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Si, Tong; Zhao, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi)-assisted genome evolution (RAGE) applies directed evolution principles to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomes. Here, we use acetic acid tolerance as a target trait to describe the key steps of RAGE. Briefly, iterative cycles of RNAi screening are performed to accumulate multiplex knockdown modifications, enabling directed evolution of the yeast genome and continuous improvement of a target phenotype. Detailed protocols are provided on the reconstitution of RNAi machinery, creation of genome-wide RNAi libraries, identification and integration of beneficial knockdown cassettes, and repeated RAGE cycles. PMID:27581294

  14. Strain engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced xylose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Rin; Park, Yong-Cheol; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2013-11-01

    Efficient and rapid fermentation of all sugars present in cellulosic hydrolysates is essential for economic conversion of renewable biomass into fuels and chemicals. Xylose is one of the most abundant sugars in cellulosic biomass but it cannot be utilized by wild type Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has been used for industrial ethanol production. Therefore, numerous technologies for strain development have been employed to engineer S. cerevisiae capable of fermenting xylose rapidly and efficiently. These include i) optimization of xylose-assimilating pathways, ii) perturbation of gene targets for reconfiguring yeast metabolism, and iii) simultaneous co-fermentation of xylose and cellobiose. In addition, the genetic and physiological background of host strains is an important determinant to construct efficient and rapid xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae. Vibrant and persistent researches in this field for the last two decades not only led to the development of engineered S. cerevisiae strains ready for industrial fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysates, but also deepened our understanding of operational principles underlying yeast metabolism. PMID:23524005

  15. Sucrose and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a relationship most sweet.

    PubMed

    Marques, Wesley Leoricy; Raghavendran, Vijayendran; Stambuk, Boris Ugarte; Gombert, Andreas Karoly

    2016-02-01

    Sucrose is an abundant, readily available and inexpensive substrate for industrial biotechnology processes and its use is demonstrated with much success in the production of fuel ethanol in Brazil. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which naturally evolved to efficiently consume sugars such as sucrose, is one of the most important cell factories due to its robustness, stress tolerance, genetic accessibility, simple nutrient requirements and long history as an industrial workhorse. This minireview is focused on sucrose metabolism in S. cerevisiae, a rather unexplored subject in the scientific literature. An analysis of sucrose availability in nature and yeast sugar metabolism was performed, in order to understand the molecular background that makes S. cerevisiae consume this sugar efficiently. A historical overview on the use of sucrose and S. cerevisiae by humans is also presented considering sugarcane and sugarbeet as the main sources of this carbohydrate. Physiological aspects of sucrose consumption are compared with those concerning other economically relevant sugars. Also, metabolic engineering efforts to alter sucrose catabolism are presented in a chronological manner. In spite of its extensive use in yeast-based industries, a lot of basic and applied research on sucrose metabolism is imperative, mainly in fields such as genetics, physiology and metabolic engineering.

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under different nitrogen sources.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shaohui; Zhao, Xinrui; Zou, Huijun; Fu, Jianwei; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2014-04-14

    In cultures containing multiple sources of nitrogen, Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits a sequential use of nitrogen sources through a mechanism known as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). To identify proteins differentially expressed due to NCR, proteomic analysis of S. cerevisiae S288C under different nitrogen source conditions was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), revealing 169 candidate protein spots. Among these 169 protein spots, 121 were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The identified proteins were closely associated with four main biological processes through Gene Ontology (GO) categorical analysis. The identification of the potential proteins and cellular processes related to NCR offer a global overview of changes elicited by different nitrogen sources, providing clues into how yeast adapt to different nutritional conditions. Moreover, by comparing our proteomic data with corresponding mRNA data, proteins regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level could be distinguished. Biological significance In S. cerevisiae, different nitrogen sources provide different growth characteristics and generate different metabolites. The nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) process plays an important role for S. cerevisiae in the ordinal utilization of different nitrogen sources. NCR process can result in significant shift of global metabolic networks. Previous works on NCR primarily focused on transcriptomic level. The results obtained in this study provided a global atlas of the proteome changes triggered by different nitrogen sources and would facilitate the understanding of mechanisms for how yeast could adapt to different nutritional conditions.

  17. Human acylphosphatase cannot replace phosphoglycerate kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Van Hoek, P; Modesti, A; Ramponi, G; Kötter, P; van Dijken, J P; Pron, J T

    2001-10-01

    Human acylphosphatase (h-AP, EC 3.6.1.7) has been reported to catalyse the hydrolysis of the 1-phosphate group of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate. In vivo operation of this reaction in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae would bypass phosphoglycerate kinase and thus reduce the ATP yield from glycolysis. To investigate whether h-AP can indeed replace the S. cerevisiae phosphoglycerate kinase, a multi-copy plasmid carrying the h-AP gene under control of the yeast TDH3 promoter was introduced into a pgk1 delta mutant of S. cerevisiae. A strain carrying the expression vector without the h-AP cassette was used as a reference. For both strains, steady-state carbon- and energy-limited chemostat cultures were obtained at a dilution rate of 0.10 h(-1) on a medium containing a mixture of glucose and ethanol (15% and 85% on a carbon basis, respectively). Although the h-AP strain exhibited a high acylphosphatase activity in cell extracts, switching to glucose as sole carbon and energy source resulted in a complete arrest of glucose consumption and growth. The lack of a functional glycolytic pathway was further evident from the absence of ethanol formation in the presence of excess glucose in the culture. As h-AP cannot replace yeast phosphoglycerate kinase in vivo, the enzyme is not a useful tool to modify the ATP yield of glycolysis in S. cerevisiae.

  18. Metabolic engineering and adaptive evolution for efficient production of D-lactic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-Ho; Kwon, Eunice Y; Kim, Yong Hwan; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for microbial production of lactic acid (LA) as a monomer of biodegradable poly lactic acid (PLA). Both optical isomers, D-LA and L-LA, are required to produce stereocomplex PLA with improved properties. In this study, we developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for efficient production of D-LA. D-LA production was achieved by expressing highly stereospecific D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhA, LEUM_1756) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ATCC 8293 in S. cerevisiae lacking natural LA production activity. D-LA consumption after glucose depletion was inhibited by deleting DLD1 encoding D-lactate dehydrogenase and JEN1 encoding monocarboxylate transporter. In addition, ethanol production was reduced by deleting PDC1 and ADH1 genes encoding major pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase, respectively, and glycerol production was eliminated by deleting GPD1 and GPD2 genes encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. LA tolerance of the engineered D-LA-producing strain was enhanced by adaptive evolution and overexpression of HAA1 encoding a transcriptional activator involved in weak acid stress response, resulting in effective D-LA production up to 48.9 g/L without neutralization. In a flask fed-batch fermentation under neutralizing condition, our evolved strain produced 112.0 g/L D-LA with a yield of 0.80 g/g glucose and a productivity of 2.2 g/(L · h).

  19. Aquaporins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Karpel, Jonathan E; Bisson, Linda F

    2006-04-01

    AQY1 and AQY2 were sequenced from five commercial and five native wine yeasts. Of these, two AQY1 alleles from UCD 522 and UCD 932 were identified that encoded three or four amino-acid changes, respectively, compared with the Sigma1278b sequence. Oocytes expressing these AQY1 alleles individually exhibited increased water permeability vs. water-injected oocytes, whereas oocytes expressing the AQY2 allele from UCD 932 did not show an increase, as expected, owing to an 11 bp deletion. Wine strains lacking Aqy1p did not show a decrease in spore fitness or enological aptitude under stressful conditions, limited nitrogen, or increased temperature. The exact role of aquaporins in wine yeasts remains unclear.

  20. The Mitochondrial RNA Landscape of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Edward M.; Das, Vaijayanti; Seibert, Ryan D.; Andrulis, Erik D.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles that harbor a reduced genome, and expression of that genome requires regulated metabolism of its transcriptome by nuclear-encoded proteins. Despite extensive investigation, a comprehensive map of the yeast mitochondrial transcriptome has not been developed and all of the RNA-metabolizing proteins have not been identified, both of which are prerequisites to elucidating the basic RNA biology of mitochondria. Here, we present a mitochondrial transcriptome map of the yeast S288C reference strain. Using RNAseq and bioinformatics, we show the expression level of all transcripts, revise all promoter, origin of replication, and tRNA annotations, and demonstrate for the first time the existence of alternative splicing, mirror RNAs, and a novel RNA processing site in yeast mitochondria. The transcriptome map has revealed new aspects of mitochondrial RNA biology and we expect it will serve as a valuable resource. As a complement to the map, we present our compilation of all known yeast nuclear-encoded ribonucleases (RNases), and a screen of this dataset for those that are imported into mitochondria. We sought to identify RNases that are refractory to recovery in traditional mitochondrial screens due to an essential function or eclipsed accumulation in another cellular compartment. Using this in silico approach, the essential RNase of the nuclear and cytoplasmic exosome, Dis3p, emerges as a strong candidate. Bioinformatics and in vivo analyses show that Dis3p has a conserved and functional mitochondrial-targeting signal (MTS). A clean and marker-less chromosomal deletion of the Dis3p MTS results in a defect in the decay of intron and mirror RNAs, thus revealing a role for Dis3p in mitochondrial RNA decay. PMID:24143261

  1. [Surface display of phytase on Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient bioethanol production from corn starch].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yan; Chen, Xianzhong; Shen, Wei; Yang, Haiquan; Fan, You

    2015-12-01

    Production of bioethanol using starch as raw material has become a very prominent technology. However, phytate in the raw material not only decreases ethanol production efficiency, but also increases phosphorus discharge. In this study, to decrease phytate content in an ethanol fermentationprocess, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered forheterologous expression of phytase on the cell surface. The phy gene encoding phytase gene was fused with the C-terminal-half region of α-agglutinin and then inserted downstream of the secretion signal gene, to produce a yeast surface-display expression vector pMGK-AG-phy, which was then transformed into S. cerevisiae. The recombinant yeast strain, PHY, successfully displayed phytase on the surface of cells producing 6.4 U/g wet cells and its properties were further characterized. The growthrate and ethanol production of the PHY strain were faster than the parent S. cerevisiae strain in the fermentation medium by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Moreover, the phytate concentration decreased by 91% in dry vinasse compared to the control. In summary, we constructed recombinant S. cerevisiae strain displaying phytase on the cell surface, which could effectively reduce the content of phytate, improve the utilization value of vinasse and reduce the discharge of phosphorus. The strain reported here represents a useful novel engineering platform for developing an environment-friendly system for bioethanol production from a corn substrate. PMID:27093833

  2. Heterologous carotenoid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces the pleiotropic drug resistance stress response.

    PubMed

    Verwaal, René; Jiang, Yang; Wang, Jing; Daran, Jean-Marc; Sandmann, Gerhard; van den Berg, Johan A; van Ooyen, Albert J J

    2010-12-01

    To obtain insight into the genome-wide transcriptional response of heterologous carotenoid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcriptome of two different S. cerevisiae strains overexpressing carotenogenic genes from the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous grown in carbon-limited chemostat cultures was analysed. The strains exhibited different absolute carotenoid levels as well as different intermediate profiles. These discrepancies were further sustained by the difference of the transcriptional response exhibited by the two strains. Transcriptome analysis of the strain producing high carotenoid levels resulted in specific induction of genes involved in pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR). These genes encode ABC-type and major facilitator transporters which are reported to be involved in secretion of toxic compounds out of cells. β-Carotene was found to be secreted when sunflower oil was added to the medium of S. cerevisiae cells producing high levels of carotenoids, which was not observed when added to X. dendrorhous cells. Deletion of pdr10, one of the induced ABC transporters, decreased the transformation efficiency of a plasmid containing carotenogenic genes. The few transformants that were obtained had decreased growth rates and lower carotenoid production levels compared to a pdr5 deletion and a reference strain transformed with the same genes. Our results suggest that production of high amounts of carotenoids in S. cerevisiae leads to membrane stress, in which Pdr10 might play an important role, and a cellular response to secrete carotenoids out of the cell. PMID:20632327

  3. Morphogenesis beyond Cytokinetic Arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Javier; Cid, Víctor J.; Cenamor, Rosa; Yuste, María; Molero, Gloria; Nombela, César; Sánchez, Miguel

    1998-01-01

    The budding yeast lyt1 mutation causes cell lysis. We report here that lyt1 is an allele of cdc15, a gene which encodes a protein kinase that functions late in the cell cycle. Neither cdc15-1 nor cdc15-lyt1 strains are able to septate at 37°C, even though they may manage to rebud. Cells lyse after a shmoo-like projection appears at the distal pole of the daughter cell. Actin polarizes towards the distal pole but the septins remain at the mother–daughter neck. This morphogenetic response reflects entry into a new round of the cell cycle: the preference for polarization from the distal pole was lost in bud1 cdc15 double mutants; double cdc15-lyt1 cdc28-4 mutants, defective for START, did not develop apical projections and apical polarization was accompanied by DNA replication. The same phenomena were caused by mutations in the genes CDC14, DBF2, and TEM1, which are functionally related to CDC15. Apical polarization was delayed in cdc15 mutants as compared with budding in control cells and this delay was abolished in a septin mutant. Our results suggest that the delayed M/G1 transition in cdc15 mutants is due to a septin-dependent checkpoint that couples initiation of the cell cycle to the completion of cytokinesis. PMID:9852155

  4. Regulation of Lactobacillus plantarum contamination on the carbohydrate and energy related metabolisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shi-Jun; Lin, Xiang-Hua; Li, Hao

    2015-11-01

    During the industrial bioethanol fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are often stressed by bacterial contaminants, especially lactic acid bacteria. Generally, lactic acid bacteria contamination can inhibit S. cerevisiae cell growth through secreting lactic acid and competing with yeast cells for micronutrients and living space. However, whether are there still any other influences of lactic acid bacteria on yeast or not? In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 was co-cultivated with S. cerevisiae S288c to mimic the L. plantarum contamination in industrial bioethanol fermentation. The contaminative L. plantarum-associated expression changes of genes involved in carbohydrate and energy related metabolisms in S. cerevisiae cells were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the influence of L. plantarum on carbon source utilization and energy related metabolism in yeast cells during bioethanol fermentation. Contaminative L. plantarum influenced the expression of most of genes which are responsible for encoding key enzymes involved in glucose related metabolisms in S. cerevisiae. Specific for, contaminated L. plantarum inhibited EMP pathway but promoted TCA cycle, glyoxylate cycle, HMP, glycerol synthesis pathway, and redox pathway in S. cerevisiae cells. In the presence of L. plantarum, the carbon flux in S. cerevisiae cells was redistributed from fermentation to respiratory and more reducing power was produced to deal with the excess NADH. Moreover, L. plantarum contamination might confer higher ethanol tolerance to yeast cells through promoting accumulation of glycerol. These results also highlighted our knowledge about relationship between contaminative lactic acid bacteria and S. cerevisiae during bioethanol fermentation.

  5. Properties of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membrane dicarboxylate transporter.

    PubMed

    Aliverdieva, D A; Mamaev, D V; Bondarenko, D I; Sholtz, K F

    2006-10-01

    Transport of succinate into Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells was determined using the endogenous coupled mitochondrial succinate oxidase system. The dependence of succinate oxidation rate on the substrate concentration was a curve with saturation. At neutral pH the K(m) value of the mitochondrial "succinate oxidase" was fivefold less than that of the cellular "succinate oxidase". O-Palmitoyl-L-malate, not penetrating across the plasma membrane, completely inhibited cell respiration in the presence of succinate but not glucose or pyruvate. The linear inhibition in Dixon plots indicates that the rate of succinate oxidation is limited by its transport across the plasmalemma. O-Palmitoyl-L-malate and L-malate were competitive inhibitors (the K(i) values were 6.6 +/- 1.3 microM and 17.5 +/- 1.1 mM, respectively). The rate of succinate transport was also competitively inhibited by the malonate derivative 2-undecyl malonate (K(i) = 7.8 +/- 1.2 microM) but not phosphate. Succinate transport across the plasma membrane of S. cerevisiae is not coupled with proton transport, but sodium ions are necessary. The plasma membrane of S. cerevisiae is established to have a carrier catalyzing the transport of dicarboxylates (succinate and possibly L-malate and malonate).

  6. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  7. Increasing NADH oxidation reduces overflow metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Vemuri, G N; Eiteman, M A; McEwen, J E; Olsson, L; Nielsen, J

    2007-02-13

    Respiratory metabolism plays an important role in energy production in the form of ATP in all aerobically growing cells. However, a limitation in respiratory capacity results in overflow metabolism, leading to the formation of byproducts, a phenomenon known as "overflow metabolism" or "the Crabtree effect." The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as an important model organism for studying the Crabtree effect. When subjected to increasing glycolytic fluxes under aerobic conditions, there is a threshold value of the glucose uptake rate at which the metabolism shifts from purely respiratory to mixed respiratory and fermentative. It is well known that glucose repression of respiratory pathways occurs at high glycolytic fluxes, resulting in a decrease in respiratory capacity. Despite many years of detailed studies on this subject, it is not known whether the onset of the Crabtree effect is due to limited respiratory capacity or is caused by glucose-mediated repression of respiration. When respiration in S. cerevisiae was increased by introducing a heterologous alternative oxidase, we observed reduced aerobic ethanol formation. In contrast, increasing nonrespiratory NADH oxidation by overexpression of a water-forming NADH oxidase reduced aerobic glycerol formation. The metabolic response to elevated alternative oxidase occurred predominantly in the mitochondria, whereas NADH oxidase affected genes that catalyze cytosolic reactions. Moreover, NADH oxidase restored the deficiency of cytosolic NADH dehydrogenases in S. cerevisiae. These results indicate that NADH oxidase localizes in the cytosol, whereas alternative oxidase is directed to the mitochondria.

  8. Copper oxide nanoparticles inhibit the metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mashock, Michael J; Kappell, Anthony D; Hallaj, Nadia; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2016-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are used increasingly in industrial applications and consumer products and thus may pose risk to human and environmental health. The interaction of CuO NPs with complex media and the impact on cell metabolism when exposed to sublethal concentrations are largely unknown. In the present study, the short-term effects of 2 different sized manufactured CuO NPs on metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. The role of released Cu(2+) during dissolution of NPs in the growth media and the CuO nanostructure were considered. Characterization showed that the 28 nm and 64 nm CuO NPs used in the present study have different primary diameter, similar hydrodynamic diameter, and significantly different concentrations of dissolved Cu(2+) ions in the growth media released from the same initial NP mass. Exposures to CuO NPs or the released Cu(2+) fraction, at doses that do not have impact on cell viability, showed significant inhibition on S. cerevisiae cellular metabolic activity. A greater CuO NP effect on the metabolic activity of S. cerevisiae growth under respiring conditions was observed. Under the tested conditions the observed metabolic inhibition from the NPs was not explained fully by the released Cu ions from the dissolving NPs.

  9. Biogeographical characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast by molecular methods

    PubMed Central

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Fasoli, Giuseppe; Aguzzi, Irene; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Biogeography is the descriptive and explanatory study of spatial patterns and processes involved in the distribution of biodiversity. Without biogeography, it would be difficult to study the diversity of microorganisms because there would be no way to visualize patterns in variation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, “the wine yeast,” is the most important species involved in alcoholic fermentation, and in vineyard ecosystems, it follows the principle of “everything is everywhere.” Agricultural practices such as farming (organic versus conventional) and floor management systems have selected different populations within this species that are phylogenetically distinct. In fact, recent ecological and geographic studies highlighted that unique strains are associated with particular grape varieties in specific geographical locations. These studies also highlighted that significant diversity and regional character, or ‘terroir,’ have been introduced into the winemaking process via this association. This diversity of wild strains preserves typicity, the high quality, and the unique flavor of wines. Recently, different molecular methods were developed to study population dynamics of S. cerevisiae strains in both vineyards and wineries. In this review, we will provide an update on the current molecular methods used to reveal the geographical distribution of S. cerevisiae wine yeast. PMID:23805132

  10. Ciclohexadespipeptide beauvericin degradation by different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Meca, G; Zhou, T; Li, X Z; Ritieni, A; Mañes, J

    2013-09-01

    The interaction between the mycotoxin beauvericin (BEA) and 9 yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae named LO9, YE-2, YE5, YE-6, YE-4, A34, A17, A42 and A08 was studied. The biological degradations were carried out under aerobic conditions in the liquid medium of Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) at 25°C for 48 h and in a food/feed system composed of corn flour at 37°C for 3 days, respectively. BEA present in fermented medium and corn flour was determined using liquid chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry detector in tandem (LC-MS/MS) and the BEA degradation products produced during the fermentations were determined using the technique of the liquid chromatography coupled to a linear ion trap (LIT). Results showed that the S. cerevisiae strains reduced meanly the concentration of the BEA present in PDB by 86.2% and in a food system by 71.1%. All the S. cerevisiae strains used in this study showed a significant BEA reduction during the fermentation process employed.

  11. [Production of β-carotene by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Wang, Beibei; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Dong; Xu, Jiaoyang; Liu, Yi; Yang, Hongjiang; Dai, Zhubo; Zhang, Xueli

    2014-08-01

    β-carotene has a wide range of application in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. For microbial production of β-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the supply of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) was firstly increased in S. cerevisiae BY4742 to obtain strain BY4742-T2 through over-expressing truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHMGR), which is the major rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, and GGPP synthase (GGPS), which is a key enzyme in the diterpenoid synthetic pathway. The β-carotene synthetic genes of Pantoea agglomerans and Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were further integrated into strain BY4742-T2 for comparing β-carotene production. Over-expression of tHMGR and GGPS genes led to 26.0-fold increase of β-carotene production. In addition, genes from X. dendrorhous was more efficient than those from P. agglomerans for β-carotene production in S. cerevisiae. Strain BW02 was obtained which produced 1.56 mg/g (dry cell weight) β-carotene, which could be used further for constructing cell factories for β-carotene production. PMID:25507473

  12. [Production of β-carotene by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Wang, Beibei; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Dong; Xu, Jiaoyang; Liu, Yi; Yang, Hongjiang; Dai, Zhubo; Zhang, Xueli

    2014-08-01

    β-carotene has a wide range of application in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. For microbial production of β-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the supply of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) was firstly increased in S. cerevisiae BY4742 to obtain strain BY4742-T2 through over-expressing truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHMGR), which is the major rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, and GGPP synthase (GGPS), which is a key enzyme in the diterpenoid synthetic pathway. The β-carotene synthetic genes of Pantoea agglomerans and Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were further integrated into strain BY4742-T2 for comparing β-carotene production. Over-expression of tHMGR and GGPS genes led to 26.0-fold increase of β-carotene production. In addition, genes from X. dendrorhous was more efficient than those from P. agglomerans for β-carotene production in S. cerevisiae. Strain BW02 was obtained which produced 1.56 mg/g (dry cell weight) β-carotene, which could be used further for constructing cell factories for β-carotene production. PMID:25423750

  13. Role of social wasps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ecology and evolution.

    PubMed

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Calabretta, Antonio; Di Paola, Monica; De Filippo, Carlotta; Viola, Roberto; Capretti, Paolo; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2012-08-14

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most important model organisms and has been a valuable asset to human civilization. However, despite its extensive use in the last 9,000 y, the existence of a seasonal cycle outside human-made environments has not yet been described. We demonstrate the role of social wasps as vector and natural reservoir of S. cerevisiae during all seasons. We provide experimental evidence that queens of social wasps overwintering as adults (Vespa crabro and Polistes spp.) can harbor yeast cells from autumn to spring and transmit them to their progeny. This result is mirrored by field surveys of the genetic variability of natural strains of yeast. Microsatellites and sequences of a selected set of loci able to recapitulate the yeast strain's evolutionary history were used to compare 17 environmental wasp isolates with a collection of strains from grapes from the same region and more than 230 strains representing worldwide yeast variation. The wasp isolates fall into subclusters representing the overall ecological and industrial yeast diversity of their geographic origin. Our findings indicate that wasps are a key environmental niche for the evolution of natural S. cerevisiae populations, the dispersion of yeast cells in the environment, and the maintenance of their diversity. The close relatedness of several wasp isolates with grape and wine isolates reflects the crucial role of human activities on yeast population structure, through clonal expansion and selection of specific strains during the biotransformation of fermented foods, followed by dispersal mediated by insects and other animals.

  14. Combinatorial metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for terminal alkene production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Binbin; Lee, Dong-Yup; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2015-09-01

    Biological production of terminal alkenes has garnered a significant interest due to their industrial applications such as lubricants, detergents and fuels. Here, we engineered the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce terminal alkenes via a one-step fatty acid decarboxylation pathway and improved the alkene production using combinatorial engineering strategies. In brief, we first characterized eight fatty acid decarboxylases to enable and enhance alkene production. We then increased the production titer 7-fold by improving the availability of the precursor fatty acids. We additionally increased the titer about 5-fold through genetic cofactor engineering and gene expression tuning in rich medium. Lastly, we further improved the titer 1.8-fold to 3.7 mg/L by optimizing the culturing conditions in bioreactors. This study represents the first report of terminal alkene biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae, and the abovementioned combinatorial engineering approaches collectively increased the titer 67.4-fold. We envision that these approaches could provide insights into devising engineering strategies to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biochemicals in S. cerevisiae.

  15. Engineering cellular redox balance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved production of L-lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Young; Kang, Chang Duk; Lee, Seung Hyun; Park, Young Kyoung; Cho, Kwang Myung

    2015-04-01

    Owing to the growing market for the biodegradable and renewable polymer, polylactic acid, world demand for lactic acid is rapidly increasing. However, the very high concentrations desired for industrial production of the free lactic acid create toxicity and low pH concerns for manufacturers. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most well characterized eukaryote, a preferred microbial cell factory for the largest industrial biotechnology product (bioethanol), and a robust, commercially compatible workhorse to be exploited for the production of diverse chemicals. S. cerevisiae has also been explored as a host for lactic acid production because of its high acid tolerance. Here, we constructed an L-lactic acid-overproducing S. cerevisiae by redirecting cellular metabolic fluxes to the production of L-lactic acid. To this end, we deleted the S. cerevisiae genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase 1 (PDC1), L-lactate cytochrome-c oxidoreductase (CYB2), and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1), replacing them with a heterologous L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) gene. Two new target genes encoding isoenzymes of the external NADH dehydrogenase (NDE1 and NDE2), were also deleted from the genome to re-engineer the intracellular redox balance. The resulting strain was found to produce L-lactic acid more efficiently (32.6% increase in final L-lactic acid titer). When tested in a bioreactor in fed-batch mode, this engineered strain produced 117 g/L of L-lactic acid under low pH conditions. This result demonstrates that the redox balance engineering should be coupled with the metabolic engineering in the construction of L-lactic acid-overproducing S. cerevisiae.

  16. Deletion of host histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases strongly affects Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Jalal; van Heusden, Gerard Paul H; Hooykaas, Paul J J

    2009-09-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen that genetically transforms plant cells by transferring a part of its Ti-plasmid, the T-strand, to the host cell. Under laboratory conditions, it can also transform cells from many different nonplant organisms, including the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Collections of S. cerevisiae strains have been developed with systematic deletion of all coding sequences. Here, we used these collections to identify genes involved in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) of S. cerevisiae. We found that deletion of genes (GCN5, NGG1, YAF9 and EAF7) encoding subunits of the SAGA, SLIK, ADA and NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complexes highly increased the efficiency of AMT, while deletion of genes (HDA2, HDA3 and HST4) encoding subunits of histone deacetylase complexes decreased AMT. These effects are specific for AMT as the efficiency of chemical (lithium acetate) transformation was not or only slightly affected by these deletions. Our data are consistent with a positive role of host histone deacetylation in AMT.

  17. The Exocyst is a multiprotein complex required for exocytosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    TerBush, D R; Maurice, T; Roth, D; Novick, P

    1996-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the products of at least 15 genes are involved specifically in vesicular transport from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. Previously, we have shown that three of these genes, SEC6, SEC8 and SEC15, encode components of a multisubunit complex which localizes to the tip of the bud, the predominant site of exocytosis in S. cerevisiae. Mutations in three more of these genes, SEC3, SEC5 and SEC10, were found to disrupt the subunit integrity of the Sec6-Sec8-Sec15 complex, indicating that these genes may encode some of the remaining components of this complex. To examine this possibility, we cloned and sequenced the SEC5 and SEC10 genes, disrupted them, and either epitope tagged them (Sec5p) or prepared polyclonal antisera (Sec10p) to them for co-immunoprecipitation studies. Concurrently, we biochemically purified the remaining unidentified polypeptides of the Sec6-Sec8-Sec15 complex for peptide microsequencing. The genes encoding these components were identified by comparison of predicted amino acid sequences with those obtained from peptide microsequencing of the purified complex components. In addition to Sec6p, Sec8p and Sec15p, the complex contains the proteins encoded by SEC3, SEC5, SEC10 and a novel gene, EXO70. Since these seven proteins function together in a complex required for exocytosis, and not other intracellular trafficking steps, we have named it the Exocyst. Images PMID:8978675

  18. Intracellular signal triggered by cholera toxin in Saccharomyces boulardii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Brandão, R L; Castro, I M; Bambirra, E A; Amaral, S C; Fietto, L G; Tropia, M J; Neves, M J; Dos Santos, R G; Gomes, N C; Nicoli, J R

    1998-02-01

    As is the case for Saccharomyces boulardii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303 protects Fisher rats against cholera toxin (CT). The addition of glucose or dinitrophenol to cells of S. boulardii grown on a nonfermentable carbon source activated trehalase in a manner similar to that observed for S.cerevisiae. The addition of CT to the same cells also resulted in trehalase activation. Experiments performed separately on the A and B subunits of CT showed that both are necessary for activation. Similarly, the addition of CT but not of its separate subunits led to a cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal in both S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae. These data suggest that trehalase stimulation by CT probably occurred through the cAMP-mediated protein phosphorylation cascade. The requirement of CT subunit B for both the cAMP signal and trehalase activation indicates the presence of a specific receptor on the yeasts able to bind to the toxin, a situation similar to that observed for mammalian cells. This hypothesis was reinforced by experiments with 125I-labeled CT showing specific binding of the toxin to yeast cells. The adhesion of CT to a receptor on the yeast surface through the B subunit and internalization of the A subunit (necessary for the cAMP signal and trehalase activation) could be one more mechanism explaining protection against the toxin observed for rats treated with yeasts.

  19. Intracellular Signal Triggered by Cholera Toxin in Saccharomyces boulardii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Rogelio L.; Castro, Ieso M.; Bambirra, Eduardo A.; Amaral, Sheila C.; Fietto, Luciano G.; Tropia, Maria José M.; Neves, Maria José; Dos Santos, Raquel G.; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Nicoli, Jacques R.

    1998-01-01

    As is the case for Saccharomyces boulardii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303 protects Fisher rats against cholera toxin (CT). The addition of glucose or dinitrophenol to cells of S. boulardii grown on a nonfermentable carbon source activated trehalase in a manner similar to that observed for S. cerevisiae. The addition of CT to the same cells also resulted in trehalase activation. Experiments performed separately on the A and B subunits of CT showed that both are necessary for activation. Similarly, the addition of CT but not of its separate subunits led to a cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal in both S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae. These data suggest that trehalase stimulation by CT probably occurred through the cAMP-mediated protein phosphorylation cascade. The requirement of CT subunit B for both the cAMP signal and trehalase activation indicates the presence of a specific receptor on the yeasts able to bind to the toxin, a situation similar to that observed for mammalian cells. This hypothesis was reinforced by experiments with 125I-labeled CT showing specific binding of the toxin to yeast cells. The adhesion of CT to a receptor on the yeast surface through the B subunit and internalization of the A subunit (necessary for the cAMP signal and trehalase activation) could be one more mechanism explaining protection against the toxin observed for rats treated with yeasts. PMID:9464394

  20. Serum Anti-Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Antibodies in Greek Patients with Behcet's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vaiopoulos, George; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Papp, Maria; Kaklamanis, Faedon; Economou, Efrosyni; Zevgolis, Vassilis; Sourdis, John

    2011-01-01

    We tested 59 Greek patients with Behcet's Disease (BD) for serum anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies. No increase of these antibodies was detected in the cases compared to 55 healthy unrelated blood donors from the same population. This finding is in contrast with the correlation between Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies and BD as reported in other populations. It seems that environmental factors may contribute to disease expression in different populations, producing different effects according to the individual's genetic predisposition. Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies do not seem to be of any significance in the Greek population. PMID:21319357

  1. Producing human ceramide-NS by metabolic engineering using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Suguru; Shimamoto, Toshi; Nagano, Hideaki; Tsuruno, Masahiro; Okuhara, Hiroaki; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Tojo, Hiromasa; Kodama, Yukiko; Funato, Kouichi

    2015-11-17

    Ceramide is one of the most important intercellular components responsible for the barrier and moisture retention functions of the skin. Because of the risks involved with using products of animal origin and the low productivity of plants, the availability of ceramides is currently limited. In this study, we successfully developed a system that produces sphingosine-containing human ceramide-NS in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by eliminating the genes for yeast sphingolipid hydroxylases (encoded by SUR2 and SCS7) and introducing the gene for a human sphingolipid desaturase (encoded by DES1). The inactivation of the ceramidase gene YDC1, overexpression of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C gene ISC1, and endoplasmic reticulum localization of the DES1 gene product resulted in enhanced production of ceramide-NS. The engineered yeast strains can serve as hosts not only for providing a sustainable source of ceramide-NS but also for developing further systems to produce sphingosine-containing sphingolipids.

  2. Mam33 promotes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Roloff, Gabrielle A; Henry, Michael F

    2015-08-15

    Three mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins, Cox1, Cox2, and Cox3, comprise the core of the cytochrome c oxidase complex. Gene-specific translational activators ensure that these respiratory chain subunits are synthesized at the correct location and in stoichiometric ratios to prevent unassembled protein products from generating free oxygen radicals. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the nuclear-encoded proteins Mss51 and Pet309 specifically activate mitochondrial translation of the largest subunit, Cox1. Here we report that Mam33 is a third COX1 translational activator in yeast mitochondria. Mam33 is required for cells to adapt efficiently from fermentation to respiration. In the absence of Mam33, Cox1 translation is impaired, and cells poorly adapt to respiratory conditions because they lack basal fermentative levels of Cox1.

  3. Interplay between the cis-prenyltransferases and polyprenol reductase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Szkopinska, Anna; Swiezewska, Ewa; Rytka, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    Dolichol formation is examined in three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with mutations in the ERG20 gene encoding farnesyl diphosphate synthase (mevalonic acid pathway) and/or the ERG9 gene encoding squalene synthase (sterol synthesis pathway) differing in the amount and chain length of the polyisoprenoids synthesized. Our results suggest that the activities of two yeast cis-prenyltransferases Rer2p and Srt1p and polyprenol reductase are not co-regulated and that reductase may be the rate-limiting enzyme in dolichol synthesis if the amount of polyisoprenoids synthesized exceeds a certain level. We demonstrate that reductase preferentially acts on typical polyprenols with 13-18 isoprene residues but can reduce much longer polyprenols with even 32 isoprene residues.

  4. Mam33 promotes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Roloff, Gabrielle A.; Henry, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Three mitochondrial DNA–encoded proteins, Cox1, Cox2, and Cox3, comprise the core of the cytochrome c oxidase complex. Gene-specific translational activators ensure that these respiratory chain subunits are synthesized at the correct location and in stoichiometric ratios to prevent unassembled protein products from generating free oxygen radicals. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the nuclear-encoded proteins Mss51 and Pet309 specifically activate mitochondrial translation of the largest subunit, Cox1. Here we report that Mam33 is a third COX1 translational activator in yeast mitochondria. Mam33 is required for cells to adapt efficiently from fermentation to respiration. In the absence of Mam33, Cox1 translation is impaired, and cells poorly adapt to respiratory conditions because they lack basal fermentative levels of Cox1. PMID:26108620

  5. Producing human ceramide-NS by metabolic engineering using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Suguru; Shimamoto, Toshi; Nagano, Hideaki; Tsuruno, Masahiro; Okuhara, Hiroaki; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Tojo, Hiromasa; Kodama, Yukiko; Funato, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Ceramide is one of the most important intercellular components responsible for the barrier and moisture retention functions of the skin. Because of the risks involved with using products of animal origin and the low productivity of plants, the availability of ceramides is currently limited. In this study, we successfully developed a system that produces sphingosine-containing human ceramide-NS in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by eliminating the genes for yeast sphingolipid hydroxylases (encoded by SUR2 and SCS7) and introducing the gene for a human sphingolipid desaturase (encoded by DES1). The inactivation of the ceramidase gene YDC1, overexpression of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C gene ISC1, and endoplasmic reticulum localization of the DES1 gene product resulted in enhanced production of ceramide-NS. The engineered yeast strains can serve as hosts not only for providing a sustainable source of ceramide-NS but also for developing further systems to produce sphingosine-containing sphingolipids. PMID:26573460

  6. Producing human ceramide-NS by metabolic engineering using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Suguru; Shimamoto, Toshi; Nagano, Hideaki; Tsuruno, Masahiro; Okuhara, Hiroaki; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Tojo, Hiromasa; Kodama, Yukiko; Funato, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Ceramide is one of the most important intercellular components responsible for the barrier and moisture retention functions of the skin. Because of the risks involved with using products of animal origin and the low productivity of plants, the availability of ceramides is currently limited. In this study, we successfully developed a system that produces sphingosine-containing human ceramide-NS in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by eliminating the genes for yeast sphingolipid hydroxylases (encoded by SUR2 and SCS7) and introducing the gene for a human sphingolipid desaturase (encoded by DES1). The inactivation of the ceramidase gene YDC1, overexpression of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C gene ISC1, and endoplasmic reticulum localization of the DES1 gene product resulted in enhanced production of ceramide-NS. The engineered yeast strains can serve as hosts not only for providing a sustainable source of ceramide-NS but also for developing further systems to produce sphingosine-containing sphingolipids. PMID:26573460

  7. Transcriptional profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to propolis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Propolis is a natural product of plant resins collected by honeybees (Apis mellifera) from various plant sources. Our previous studies indicated that propolis sensitivity is dependent on the mitochondrial function and that vacuolar acidification and autophagy are important for yeast cell death caused by propolis. Here, we extended our understanding of propolis-mediated cell death in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by applying systems biology tools to analyze the transcriptional profiling of cells exposed to propolis. Methods We have used transcriptional profiling of S. cerevisiae exposed to propolis. We validated our findings by using real-time PCR of selected genes. Systems biology tools (physical protein-protein interaction [PPPI] network) were applied to analyse the propolis-induced transcriptional bevavior, aiming to identify which pathways are modulated by propolis in S. cerevisiae and potentially influencing cell death. Results We were able to observe 1,339 genes modulated in at least one time point when compared to the reference time (propolis untreated samples) (t-test, p-value 0.01). Enrichment analysis performed by Gene Ontology (GO) Term finder tool showed enrichment for several biological categories among the genes up-regulated in the microarray hybridization such as transport and transmembrane transport and response to stress. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of selected genes showed by our microarray hybridization approach was capable of providing information about S. cerevisiae gene expression modulation with a considerably high level of confidence. Finally, a physical protein-protein (PPPI) network design and global topological analysis stressed the importance of these pathways in response of S. cerevisiae to propolis and were correlated with the transcriptional data obtained thorough the microarray analysis. Conclusions In summary, our data indicate that propolis is largely affecting several pathways in the eukaryotic cell. However, the most

  8. The influence of microgravity on invasive growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E; Stassen, Catherine; Daenen, Luk; Devreese, Bart; Siewers, Verena; van Eijsden, Rudy G E; Nielsen, Jens; Delvaux, Freddy R; Willaert, Ronnie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of microgravity on colony growth and the morphological transition from single cells to short invasive filaments in the model eukaryotic organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two-dimensional spreading of the yeast colonies grown on semi-solid agar medium was reduced under microgravity in the Σ1278b laboratory strain but not in the CMBSESA1 industrial strain. This was supported by the Σ1278b proteome map under microgravity conditions, which revealed upregulation of proteins linked to anaerobic conditions. The Σ1278b strain showed a reduced invasive growth in the center of the yeast colony. Bud scar distribution was slightly affected, with a switch toward more random budding. Together, microgravity conditions disturb spatially programmed budding patterns and generate strain-dependent growth differences in yeast colonies on semi-solid medium.

  9. Domestication and Divergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Beer Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Gallone, Brigida; Steensels, Jan; Prahl, Troels; Soriaga, Leah; Saels, Veerle; Herrera-Malaver, Beatriz; Merlevede, Adriaan; Roncoroni, Miguel; Voordeckers, Karin; Miraglia, Loren; Teiling, Clotilde; Steffy, Brian; Taylor, Maryann; Schwartz, Ariel; Richardson, Toby; White, Christopher; Baele, Guy; Maere, Steven; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2016-09-01

    Whereas domestication of livestock, pets, and crops is well documented, it is still unclear to what extent microbes associated with the production of food have also undergone human selection and where the plethora of industrial strains originates from. Here, we present the genomes and phenomes of 157 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. Our analyses reveal that today's industrial yeasts can be divided into five sublineages that are genetically and phenotypically separated from wild strains and originate from only a few ancestors through complex patterns of domestication and local divergence. Large-scale phenotyping and genome analysis further show strong industry-specific selection for stress tolerance, sugar utilization, and flavor production, while the sexual cycle and other phenotypes related to survival in nature show decay, particularly in beer yeasts. Together, these results shed light on the origins, evolutionary history, and phenotypic diversity of industrial yeasts and provide a resource for further selection of superior strains. PAPERCLIP. PMID:27610566

  10. Calorie restriction extends Saccharomyces cerevisiae lifespan by increasing respiration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Su-Ju; Kaeberlein, Matt; Andalis, Alex A; Sturtz, Lori A; Defossez, Pierre-Antoine; Culotta, Valeria C; Fink, Gerald R; Guarente, Leonard

    2002-07-18

    Calorie restriction (CR) extends lifespan in a wide spectrum of organisms and is the only regimen known to lengthen the lifespan of mammals. We established a model of CR in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this system, lifespan can be extended by limiting glucose or by reducing the activity of the glucose-sensing cyclic-AMP-dependent kinase (PKA). Lifespan extension in a mutant with reduced PKA activity requires Sir2 and NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). In this study we explore how CR activates Sir2 to extend lifespan. Here we show that the shunting of carbon metabolism toward the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle and the concomitant increase in respiration play a central part in this process. We discuss how this metabolic strategy may apply to CR in animals.

  11. Isolation and Partial Purification of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cytokinetic Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brian A.; Buser, Christopher; Drubin, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Cytokinesis is the process by which a cell physically divides in two at the conclusion of a cell cycle. In animal and fungal cells, this process is mediated by a conserved set of proteins including actin, type II myosin, IQGAP proteins, F-BAR proteins, and the septins. To facilitate biochemical and ultrastructural analysis of cytokinesis, we have isolated and partially purified the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytokinetic apparatus. The isolated apparatus contains all components of the actomyosin ring for which we tested—actin, myosin heavy and light chain, and IQGAP—as well as septins and the cytokinetic F-BAR protein, Hof1p. We also present evidence indicating that the actomyosin rings associated with isolated cytokinetic apparati may be contractile in vitro, and show preliminary electron microscopic imaging of the cytokinetic apparatus. This first successful isolation of the cytokinetic apparatus from a genetically tractable organism promises to make possible a deeper understanding of cytokinesis. PMID:19790107

  12. Genetic dissection of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peng; Xiao, Yin; Hu, Yun; Sun, Haiye; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Dissection of the hereditary architecture underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for ethanol fermentation. In this work, a genomics approach was used to dissect hereditary variations in acetic acid tolerance between two phenotypically different strains. A total of 160 segregants derived from these two strains were obtained. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the acetic acid tolerance displayed a normal distribution in these segregants, and suggested that the acetic acid tolerant traits were controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, 220 SSR markers covering the whole genome were used to detect QTLs of acetic acid tolerant traits. As a result, three QTLs were located on chromosomes 9, 12, and 16, respectively, which explained 38.8-65.9 % of the range of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, twelve genes of the candidates fell into the three QTL regions by integrating the QTL analysis with candidates of acetic acid tolerant genes. These results provided a novel avenue to obtain more robust strains.

  13. Domestication and Divergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Beer Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Gallone, Brigida; Steensels, Jan; Prahl, Troels; Soriaga, Leah; Saels, Veerle; Herrera-Malaver, Beatriz; Merlevede, Adriaan; Roncoroni, Miguel; Voordeckers, Karin; Miraglia, Loren; Teiling, Clotilde; Steffy, Brian; Taylor, Maryann; Schwartz, Ariel; Richardson, Toby; White, Christopher; Baele, Guy; Maere, Steven; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2016-09-01

    Whereas domestication of livestock, pets, and crops is well documented, it is still unclear to what extent microbes associated with the production of food have also undergone human selection and where the plethora of industrial strains originates from. Here, we present the genomes and phenomes of 157 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. Our analyses reveal that today's industrial yeasts can be divided into five sublineages that are genetically and phenotypically separated from wild strains and originate from only a few ancestors through complex patterns of domestication and local divergence. Large-scale phenotyping and genome analysis further show strong industry-specific selection for stress tolerance, sugar utilization, and flavor production, while the sexual cycle and other phenotypes related to survival in nature show decay, particularly in beer yeasts. Together, these results shed light on the origins, evolutionary history, and phenotypic diversity of industrial yeasts and provide a resource for further selection of superior strains. PAPERCLIP.

  14. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  15. Phenotypic effects of membrane protein overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, Marie; Kim, Hyun; Warringer, Jonas; Melén, Karin; Blomberg, Anders; von Heijne, Gunnar

    2006-07-25

    Large-scale protein overexpression phenotype screens provide an important complement to the more common gene knockout screens. Here, we have targeted the so far poorly understood Saccharomyces cerevisiae membrane proteome and report growth phenotypes for a strain collection overexpressing approximately 600 C-terminally tagged integral membrane proteins grown both under normal and three different stress conditions. Although overexpression of most membrane proteins reduce the growth rate in synthetic defined medium, we identify a large number of proteins that, when overexpressed, confer specific resistance to various stress conditions. Our data suggest that regulation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis and the Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis system constitute major downstream targets of the yeast PKA/RAS pathway and point to a possible connection between the early secretory pathway and the cells' response to oxidative stress. We also have quantified the expression levels for >550 membrane proteins, facilitating the choice of well expressing proteins for future functional and structural studies.

  16. Yap1: A DNA damage responder in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Lori A.; Degtyareva, Natalya; Doetsch, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of signaling pathways in response to genotoxic stress is crucial for cells to properly repair DNA damage. In response to DNA damage, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species increase. One important function of such a response could be to initiate signal transduction processes. We have employed the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae to delineate DNA damage sensing mechanisms. We report a novel, unanticipated role for the transcription factor Yap1 as a DNA damage responder, providing direct evidence that reactive oxygen species are an important component of the DNA damage signaling process. Our findings reveal an epistatic link between Yap1 and the DNA base excision repair pathway. Corruption of the Yap1-mediated DNA damage response influences cell survival and genomic stability in response to exposure to genotoxic agents. PMID:22433435

  17. Hormetic Effect of H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Valishkevych, Bohdana V.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between target of rapamycin (TOR) and H2O2-induced hormetic response in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose or fructose. In general, our data suggest that: (1) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces hormesis in a TOR-dependent manner; (2) the H2O2-induced hormetic dose–response in yeast depends on the type of carbohydrate in growth medium; (3) the concentration-dependent effect of H2O2 on yeast colony growth positively correlates with the activity of glutathione reductase that suggests the enzyme involvement in the H2O2-induced hormetic response; and (4) both TOR1 and TOR2 are involved in the reciprocal regulation of the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glyoxalase 1. PMID:27099601

  18. On the Mechanism of Gene Silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Steakley, David Lee; Rine, Jasper

    2015-06-16

    Multiple mechanisms have been proposed for gene silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ranging from steric occlusion of DNA binding proteins from their recognition sequences in silenced chromatin to a specific block in the formation of the preinitiation complex to a block in transcriptional elongation. This study provided strong support for the steric occlusion mechanism by the discovery that RNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7 could be substantially blocked from transcribing from its cognate promoter when embedded in silenced chromatin. Moreover, unlike previous suggestions, we found no evidence for stalled RNA polymerase II within silenced chromatin. The effectiveness of the Sir protein-based silencing mechanism to block transcription activated by Gal4 at promoters in the domain of silenced chromatin was marginal, yet it improved when tested against mutant forms of the Gal4 protein, highlighting a role for specific activators in their sensitivity to gene silencing.

  19. Brazilian propolis protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Rafael A; de Castro, Frederico A V; Eleutherio, Elis C A; de Souza, Raquel M; da Silva, Joaquim F M; Pereira, Marcos D

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product widely used for humans. Due to its complex composition, a number of applications (antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, anesthetic, cytostatic and antioxidant) have been attributed to this substance. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a eukaryotic model we investigated the mechanisms underlying the antioxidant effect of propolis from Guarapari against oxidative stress. Submitting a wild type (BY4741) and antioxidant deficient strains (ctt1Δ, sod1Δ, gsh1Δ, gtt1Δ and gtt2Δ) either to 15 mM menadione or to 2 mM hydrogen peroxide during 60 min, we observed that all strains, except the mutant sod1Δ, acquired tolerance when previously treated with 25 μg/mL of alcoholic propolis extract. Such a treatment reduced the levels of ROS generation and of lipid peroxidation, after oxidative stress. The increase in Cu/Zn-Sod activity by propolis suggests that the protection might be acting synergistically with Cu/Zn-Sod.

  20. Mutations in Ran system affected telomere silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Naoyuki Kobayashi, Masahiko; Shimizu, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Murakami, Seishi; Nishimoto, Takeharu

    2007-11-23

    The Ran GTPase system regulates the direction and timing of several cellular events, such as nuclear-cytosolic transport, centrosome formation, and nuclear envelope assembly in telophase. To gain insight into the Ran system's involvement in chromatin formation, we investigated gene silencing at the telomere in several mutants of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which had defects in genes involved in the Ran system. A mutation of the RanGAP gene, rna1-1, caused reduced silencing at the telomere, and partial disruption of the nuclear Ran binding factor, yrb2-{delta}2, increased this silencing. The reduced telomere silencing in rna1-1 cells was suppressed by a high dosage of the SIR3 gene or the SIT4 gene. Furthermore, hyperphosphorylated Sir3 protein accumulated in the rna1-1 mutant. These results suggest that RanGAP is required for the heterochromatin structure at the telomere in budding yeast.

  1. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of butanol isomers.

    PubMed

    Generoso, Wesley Cardoso; Schadeweg, Virginia; Oreb, Mislav; Boles, Eckhard

    2015-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has decisive advantages in industrial processes due to its tolerance to alcohols and fermentation conditions. Butanol isomers are considered as suitable fuel substitutes and valuable biomass-derived chemical building blocks. Whereas high production was achieved with bacterial systems, metabolic engineering of yeast for butanol production is in the beginning. For isobutanol synthesis, combination of valine biosynthesis and degradation, and complete pathway re-localisation into cytosol or mitochondria gave promising results. However, competing pathways, co-factor imbalances and FeS cluster assembly are still major issues. 1-Butanol production via the Clostridium pathway seems to be limited by cytosolic acetyl-CoA, its central precursor. Endogenous 1-butanol pathways have been discovered via threonine or glycine catabolism. 2-Butanol production was established but was limited by B12-dependence.

  2. Yap1: a DNA damage responder in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Lori A; Degtyareva, Natalya; Doetsch, Paul W

    2012-04-01

    Activation of signaling pathways in response to genotoxic stress is crucial for cells to properly repair DNA damage. In response to DNA damage, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species increase. One important function of such a response could be to initiate signal transduction processes. We have employed the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae to delineate DNA damage sensing mechanisms. We report a novel, unanticipated role for the transcription factor Yap1 as a DNA damage responder, providing direct evidence that reactive oxygen species are an important component of the DNA damage signaling process. Our findings reveal an epistatic link between Yap1 and the DNA base excision repair pathway. Corruption of the Yap1-mediated DNA damage response influences cell survival and genomic stability in response to exposure to genotoxic agents.

  3. Protein disorder reduced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to survive heat shock.

    PubMed

    Vicedo, Esmeralda; Gasik, Zofia; Dong, Yu-An; Goldberg, Tatyana; Rost, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments established that a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) survives sudden high temperatures by specifically duplicating the entire chromosome III and two chromosomal fragments (from IV and XII). Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are not significantly over-abundant in the duplication. In contrast, we suggest a simple algorithm to " postdict " the experimental results: Find a small enough chromosome with minimal protein disorder and duplicate this region. This algorithm largely explains all observed duplications. In particular, all regions duplicated in the experiment reduced the overall content of protein disorder. The differential analysis of the functional makeup of the duplication remained inconclusive. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment suggested over-representation in processes related to reproduction and nutrient uptake. Analyzing the protein-protein interaction network (PPI) revealed that few network-central proteins were duplicated. The predictive hypothesis hinges upon the concept of reducing proteins with long regions of disorder in order to become less sensitive to heat shock attack. PMID:26673203

  4. Higher-order structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Lowary, P.T.; Widom, J. )

    1989-11-01

    We have developed a method for partially purifying chromatin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) to a level suitable for studies of its higher-order folding. This has required the use of yeast strains that are free of the ubiquitous yeast killer virus. Results from dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction show that the yeast chromatin undergoes a cation-dependent folding into 30-nm filaments that resemble those characteristic of higher-cell chromatin; moreover, the packing of nucleosomes within the yeast 30-nm filaments is similar to that of higher cells. These results imply that yeast has a protein or protein domain that serves the role of the histone H 1 found in higher cells; physical and genetic studies of the yeast activity could help elucidate the structure and function of H 1. Images of the yeast 30-nm filaments can be used to test crossed-linker models for 30-nm filament structure.

  5. Local Nanomechanical Motion of the Cell Wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelling, Andrew E.; Sehati, Sadaf; Gralla, Edith B.; Valentine, Joan S.; Gimzewski, James K.

    2004-08-01

    We demonstrate that the cell wall of living Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) exhibits local temperature-dependent nanomechanical motion at characteristic frequencies. The periodic motions in the range of 0.8 to 1.6 kHz with amplitudes of ~3 nm were measured using the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Exposure of the cells to a metabolic inhibitor causes the periodic motion to cease. From the strong frequency dependence on temperature, we derive an activation energy of 58 kJ/mol, which is consistent with the cell's metabolism involving molecular motors such as kinesin, dynein, and myosin. The magnitude of the forces observed (~10 nN) suggests concerted nanomechanical activity is operative in the cell.

  6. Construction of a flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting lactose.

    PubMed

    Domingues, L; Teixeira, J A; Lima, N

    1999-05-01

    A flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with the ability to express both the LAC4 (coding for beta-galactosidase) and LAC12 (coding for lactose permease) genes of Kluyveromyces marxianus was constructed. This recombinant strain is not only able to grow on lactose, but it can also ferment this substrate. To our knowledge this is the first time that a recombinant S. cervisiae has been found to ferment lactose in a way comparable to that of the existing lactose-fermenting yeast strains. Moreover, the flocculating capacity of the strain used in this work gives the process several advantages. On the one hand, it allows for operation in a continuous mode at high cell concentration, thus increasing the system's overall productivity; on the other hand, the biomass concentration in the effluent is reduced, thus decreasing product separation/purification costs. PMID:10390820

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yta7 regulates histone gene expression.

    PubMed

    Gradolatto, Angeline; Rogers, Richard S; Lavender, Heather; Taverna, Sean D; Allis, C David; Aitchison, John D; Tackett, Alan J

    2008-05-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yta7 protein is a component of a nucleosome bound protein complex that maintains distinct transcriptional zones of chromatin. We previously found that one protein copurifying with Yta7 is the yFACT member Spt16. Epistasis analyses revealed a link between Yta7, Spt16, and other previously identified members of the histone regulatory pathway. In concurrence, Yta7 was found to regulate histone gene transcription in a cell-cycle-dependent manner. Association at the histone gene loci appeared to occur through binding of the bromodomain-like region of Yta7 with the N-terminal tail of histone H3. Our work suggests a mechanism in which Yta7 is localized to chromatin to establish regions of transcriptional silencing, and that one facet of this cellular mechanism is to modulate transcription of histone genes.

  8. Exposure to benzene metabolites causes oxidative damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Raj, Abhishek; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2016-06-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ) and benzoquinone (BQ) are known benzene metabolites that form reactive intermediates such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study attempts to understand the effect of benzene metabolites (HQ and BQ) on the antioxidant status, cell morphology, ROS levels and lipid alterations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There was a reduction in the growth pattern of wild-type cells exposed to HQ/BQ. Exposure of yeast cells to benzene metabolites increased the activity of the anti-oxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase but lead to a decrease in ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. Increased triglyceride level and decreased phospholipid levels were observed with exposure to HQ and BQ. These results suggest that the enzymatic antioxidants were increased and are involved in the protection against macromolecular damage during oxidative stress; presumptively, these enzymes are essential for scavenging the pro-oxidant effects of benzene metabolites. PMID:27016252

  9. Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with defective vacuolar function

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamoto, K.; Yoshizawa, K.; Ohsumi, Y.; Anraku, Y.

    1988-06-01

    Mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have a small vacuolar lysine pool were isolated and characterized. Mutant KL97 (lys1 slp1-1) and strain KL197-1A (slp1-1), a prototrophic derivative of KL97, did not grow well in synthetic medium supplemented with 10 mM lysine. Genetic studies indicated that the slp1-1mutation (for small lysine pool) is recessive and is due to a single chromosomal mutation. Mutant KL97 shows the following pleiotropic defects in vacuolar functions. (i) It has small vacuolar pools for lysine, arginine, and histidine. (ii) Its growth is sensitive to lysine, histidine, Ca/sup 2 +/, heavy metal ions, and antibiotics. (iii) It has many small vesicles but no large central vacuole. (iv) It has a normal amount of the vacuolar membrane marker ..cap alpha..-mannosidase but shows reduced activities of the vacuole sap markers proteinase A, proteinase B, and carboxypeptidase Y.

  10. Heterologous production of non-ribosomal peptide LLD-ACV in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Siewers, Verena; Chen, Xiao; Huang, Le; Zhang, Jie; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-11-01

    Non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs) are a diverse family of secondary metabolites with a broad range of biological activities. We started to develop an eukaryotic microbial platform based on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for heterologous production of NRPs using delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-valine (ACV) as a model NRP. The Penicillium chrysogenum gene pcbAB encoding ACV synthetase was expressed in S. cerevisiae from a high-copy plasmid together with phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) encoding genes from Aspergillus nidulans, P. chrysogenum and Bacillus subtilis, and in all the three cases production of ACV was observed. To improve ACV synthesis, several factors were investigated. Codon optimization of the 5' end of pcbAB did not significantly increase ACV production. However, a 30-fold enhancement was achieved by lowering the cultivation temperature from 30 to 20 degrees C. When ACVS and PPTase encoding genes were integrated into the yeast genome, a 6-fold decrease in ACV production was observed indicating that gene copy number was one of the rate-limiting factors for ACV production in yeast.

  11. Substrate Specificity of Thiamine Pyrophosphate-Dependent 2-Oxo-Acid Decarboxylases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, Gabriele; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; Kötter, Peter; Pronk, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    Fusel alcohols are precursors and contributors to flavor and aroma compounds in fermented beverages, and some are under investigation as biofuels. The decarboxylation of 2-oxo acids is a key step in the Ehrlich pathway for fusel alcohol production. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, five genes share sequence similarity with genes encoding thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent 2-oxo-acid decarboxylases (2ODCs). PDC1, PDC5, and PDC6 encode differentially regulated pyruvate decarboxylase isoenzymes; ARO10 encodes a 2-oxo-acid decarboxylase with broad substrate specificity, and THI3 has not yet been shown to encode an active decarboxylase. Despite the importance of fusel alcohol production in S. cerevisiae, the substrate specificities of these five 2ODCs have not been systematically compared. When the five 2ODCs were individually overexpressed in a pdc1Δ pdc5Δ pdc6Δ aro10Δ thi3Δ strain, only Pdc1, Pdc5, and Pdc6 catalyzed the decarboxylation of the linear-chain 2-oxo acids pyruvate, 2-oxo-butanoate, and 2-oxo-pentanoate in cell extracts. The presence of a Pdc isoenzyme was also required for the production of n-propanol and n-butanol in cultures grown on threonine and norvaline, respectively, as nitrogen sources. These results demonstrate the importance of pyruvate decarboxylases in the natural production of n-propanol and n-butanol by S. cerevisiae. No decarboxylation activity was found for Thi3 with any of the substrates tested. Only Aro10 and Pdc5 catalyzed the decarboxylation of the aromatic substrate phenylpyruvate, with Aro10 showing superior kinetic properties. Aro10, Pdc1, Pdc5, and Pdc6 exhibited activity with all branched-chain and sulfur-containing 2-oxo acids tested but with markedly different decarboxylation kinetics. The high affinity of Aro10 identified it as a key contributor to the production of branched-chain and sulfur-containing fusel alcohols. PMID:22904058

  12. Copper Tolerance and Biosorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Alcoholic Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang-Yu; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Ling-Ling; Jia, Bo; Zhao, Fang; Huang, Wei-Dong; Zhan, Ji-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    At high levels, copper in grape mash can inhibit yeast activity and cause stuck fermentations. Wine yeast has limited tolerance of copper and can reduce copper levels in wine during fermentation. This study aimed to understand copper tolerance of wine yeast and establish the mechanism by which yeast decreases copper in the must during fermentation. Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lab selected strain BH8 and industrial strains AWRI R2 and Freddo) and a simple model fermentation system containing 0 to 1.50 mM Cu2+ were used. ICP-AES determined Cu ion concentration in the must decreasing differently by strains and initial copper levels during fermentation. Fermentation performance was heavily inhibited under copper stress, paralleled a decrease in viable cell numbers. Strain BH8 showed higher copper-tolerance than strain AWRI R2 and higher adsorption than Freddo. Yeast cell surface depression and intracellular structure deformation after copper treatment were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; electronic differential system detected higher surface Cu and no intracellular Cu on 1.50 mM copper treated yeast cells. It is most probably that surface adsorption dominated the biosorption process of Cu2+ for strain BH8, with saturation being accomplished in 24 h. This study demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BH8 has good tolerance and adsorption of Cu, and reduces Cu2+ concentrations during fermentation in simple model system mainly through surface adsorption. The results indicate that the strain selected from China's stress-tolerant wine grape is copper tolerant and can reduce copper in must when fermenting in a copper rich simple model system, and provided information for studies on mechanisms of heavy metal stress.

  13. Global mapping of DNA conformational flexibility on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Menconi, Giulia; Bedini, Andrea; Barale, Roberto; Sbrana, Isabella

    2015-04-01

    In this study we provide the first comprehensive map of DNA conformational flexibility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae complete genome. Flexibility plays a key role in DNA supercoiling and DNA/protein binding, regulating DNA transcription, replication or repair. Specific interest in flexibility analysis concerns its relationship with human genome instability. Enrichment in flexible sequences has been detected in unstable regions of human genome defined fragile sites, where genes map and carry frequent deletions and rearrangements in cancer. Flexible sequences have been suggested to be the determinants of fragile gene proneness to breakage; however, their actual role and properties remain elusive. Our in silico analysis carried out genome-wide via the StabFlex algorithm, shows the conserved presence of highly flexible regions in budding yeast genome as well as in genomes of other Saccharomyces sensu stricto species. Flexibile peaks in S. cerevisiae identify 175 ORFs mapping on their 3'UTR, a region affecting mRNA translation, localization and stability. (TA)n repeats of different extension shape the central structure of peaks and co-localize with polyadenylation efficiency element (EE) signals. ORFs with flexible peaks share common features. Transcripts are characterized by decreased half-life: this is considered peculiar of genes involved in regulatory systems with high turnover; consistently, their function affects biological processes such as cell cycle regulation or stress response. Our findings support the functional importance of flexibility peaks, suggesting that the flexible sequence may be derived by an expansion of canonical TAYRTA polyadenylation efficiency element. The flexible (TA)n repeat amplification could be the outcome of an evolutionary neofunctionalization leading to a differential 3'-end processing and expression regulation in genes with peculiar function. Our study provides a new support to the functional role of flexibility in genomes and a

  14. Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, Paula A. W.; Krauter, Gordon W.

    2002-01-01

    A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

  15. Expression of an endoglucanase from Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Derek; Oppert, Cris; Reynolds, Todd B; Miracle, Bethany; Oppert, Brenda; Klingeman, William E; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2014-10-01

    Insects are a largely unexploited resource in prospecting for novel cellulolytic enzymes to improve the production of ethanol fuel from lignocellulosic biomass. The cost of lignocellulosic ethanol production is expected to decrease by the combination of cellulose degradation (saccharification) and fermentation of the resulting glucose to ethanol in a single process, catalyzed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed to express efficient cellulases. While S. cerevisiae is an established heterologous expression system, there are no available data on the functional expression of insect cellulolytic enzymes for this species. To address this knowledge gap, S. cerevisiae was transformed to express the full-length cDNA encoding an endoglucanase from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1), and evaluated the activity of the transgenic product (rTcEG1). Expression of the TcEG1 cDNA in S. cerevisiae was under control of the strong glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. Cultured transformed yeast secreted rTcEG1 protein as a functional β-1,4-endoglucanase, which allowed transformants to survive on selective media containing cellulose as the only available carbon source. Evaluation of substrate specificity for secreted rTcEG1 demonstrated endoglucanase activity, although some activity was also detected against complex cellulose substrates. Potentially relevant to uses in biofuel production rTcEG1 activity increased with pH conditions, with the highest activity detected at pH 12. Our results demonstrate the potential for functional production of an insect cellulase in S. cerevisiae and confirm the stability of rTcEG1 activity in strong alkaline environments.

  16. The mannoprotein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an effective bioemulsifier.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D R; Cooper, D G; Neufeld, R J

    1988-01-01

    The mannoprotein which is a major component of the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an effective bioemulsifier. Mannoprotein emulsifier was extracted in a high yield from whole cells of fresh bakers' yeast by two methods, by autoclaving in neutral citrate buffer and by digestion with Zymolase (Miles Laboratories; Toronto, Ontario, Canada), a beta-1,3-glucanase. Heat-extracted emulsifier was purified by ultrafiltration and contained approximately 44% carbohydrate (mannose) and 17% protein. Treatment of the emulsifier with protease eliminated emulsification. Kerosene-in-water emulsions were stabilized over a broad range of conditions, from pH 2 to 11, with up to 5% sodium chloride or up to 50% ethanol in the aqueous phase. In the presence of a low concentration of various solutes, emulsions were stable to three cycles of freezing and thawing. An emulsifying agent was extracted from each species or strain of yeast tested, including 13 species of genera other than Saccharomyces. Spent yeast from the manufacture of beer and wine was demonstrated to be a possible source for the large-scale production of this bioemulsifier. PMID:3046488

  17. Genomic evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Chinese rice wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yudong; Zhang, Weiping; Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhou, Zhan; Yu, Wenwen; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lifang; Liang, Xinle; Guan, Wenjun; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian; Lin, Zhenguo

    2014-09-10

    Rice wine fermentation represents a unique environment for the evolution of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To understand how the selection pressure shaped the yeast genome and gene regulation, we determined the genome sequence and transcriptome of a S. cerevisiae strain YHJ7 isolated from Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu), a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China. By comparing the genome of YHJ7 to the lab strain S288c, a Japanese sake strain K7, and a Chinese industrial bioethanol strain YJSH1, we identified many genomic sequence and structural variations in YHJ7, which are mainly located in subtelomeric regions, suggesting that these regions play an important role in genomic evolution between strains. In addition, our comparative transcriptome analysis between YHJ7 and S288c revealed a set of differentially expressed genes, including those involved in glucose transport (e.g., HXT2, HXT7) and oxidoredutase activity (e.g., AAD10, ADH7). Interestingly, many of these genomic and transcriptional variations are directly or indirectly associated with the adaptation of YHJ7 strain to its specific niches. Our molecular evolution analysis suggested that Japanese sake strains (K7/UC5) were derived from Chinese rice wine strains (YHJ7) at least approximately 2,300 years ago, providing the first molecular evidence elucidating the origin of Japanese sake strains. Our results depict interesting insights regarding the evolution of yeast during rice wine fermentation, and provided a valuable resource for genetic engineering to improve industrial wine-making strains.

  18. Lactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Oh, Eun Joong; Pathanibul, Panchalee; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-09-20

    Lactose is an inevitable byproduct of the dairy industry. In addition to cheese manufacturing, the growing Greek yogurt industry generates excess acid whey, which contains lactose. Therefore, rapid and efficient conversion of lactose to fuels and chemicals would be useful for recycling the otherwise harmful acid whey. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a popular metabolic engineering host, cannot natively utilize lactose. However, we discovered that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (EJ2) capable of fermenting cellobiose can also ferment lactose. This finding suggests that a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) can transport lactose and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1) can hydrolyze lactose by acting as a β-galactosidase. While the lactose fermentation by the EJ2 strain was much slower than the cellobiose fermentation, a faster lactose-fermenting strain (EJ2e8) was obtained through serial subcultures on lactose. The EJ2e8 strain fermented lactose with a consumption rate of 2.16g/Lh. The improved lactose fermentation by the EJ2e8 strain was due to the increased copy number of cdt-1 and gh1-1 genes. Looking ahead, the EJ2e8 strain could be exploited for the production of other non-ethanol fuels and chemicals from lactose through further metabolic engineering. PMID:27457698

  19. Anaerobic glycerol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains under hyperosmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Modig, Tobias; Granath, Katarina; Adler, Lennart; Lidén, Gunnar

    2007-05-01

    Glycerol formation is vital for reoxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form; NADH) under anaerobic conditions and for the hyperosmotic stress response in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, relatively few studies have been made on hyperosmotic stress under anaerobic conditions. To study the combined effect of salt stress and anaerobic conditions, industrial and laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae were grown anaerobically on glucose in batch-cultures containing 40 g/l NaCl. The time needed for complete glucose conversion increased considerably, and the specific growth rates decreased by 80-90% when the cells were subjected to the hyperosmotic conditions. This was accompanied by an increased yield of glycerol and other by-products and reduced biomass yield in all strains. The slowest fermenting strain doubled its glycerol yield (from 0.072 to 0.148 g/g glucose) and a nearly fivefold increase in acetate formation was seen. In more tolerant strains, a lower increase was seen in the glycerol and in the acetate, succinate and pyruvate yields. Additionally, the NADH-producing pathway from acetaldehyde to acetate was analysed by overexpressing the stress-induced gene ALD3. However, this had no or very marginal effect on the acetate and glycerol yields. In the control experiments, the production of NADH from known sources well matched the glycerol formation. This was not the case for the salt stress experiments in which the production of NADH from known sources was insufficient to explain the formed glycerol.

  20. Proteomic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under high gravity fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trong Khoa; Chong, Poh Kuan; Gan, Chee Sian; Wright, Phillip C

    2006-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae KAY446 was utilized for ethanol production, with glucose concentrations ranging from 120 g/L (normal) to 300 g/L (high). Although grown in a high glucose environment, S. cerevisiae still retained the ability to produce ethanol with a high degree of glucose utilization. iTRAQ-mediated shotgun proteomics was applied to identify relative expression change of proteins under the different glucose conditions. A total of 413 proteins were identified from three replicate, independent LC-MS/MS runs. Unsurprisingly, many proteins in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway showed significant changes in expression level. Twenty five proteins involved in amino acid metabolism decreased their expression, while the expressions of 12 heat-shock related proteins were also identified. Under high glucose conditions, ethanol was produced as a major product. However, the assimilation of glucose as well as a number of byproducts was also enhanced. Therefore, to optimize the ethanol production under very high gravity conditions, a number of pathways will need to be deactivated, while still maintaining the correct cellular redox or osmotic state. Proteomics is demonstrated here as a tool to aid in this forward metabolic engineering.

  1. Quantifying separation and similarity in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metapopulation

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Sarah; Goddard, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic microbes are key ecosystem drivers; however, we have little theory and few data elucidating the processes influencing their observed population patterns. Here we provide an in-depth quantitative analysis of population separation and similarity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the aim of providing a more detailed account of the population processes occurring in microbes. Over 10 000 individual isolates were collected from native plants, vineyards and spontaneous ferments of fruit from six major regions spanning 1000 km across New Zealand. From these, hundreds of S. cerevisiae genotypes were obtained, and using a suite of analytical methods we provide comprehensive quantitative estimates for both population structure and rates of gene flow or migration. No genetic differentiation was detected within geographic regions, even between populations inhabiting native forests and vineyards. We do, however, reveal a picture of national population structure at scales above ∼100 km with distinctive populations in the more remote Nelson and Central Otago regions primarily contributing to this. In addition, differential degrees of connectivity between regional populations are observed and correlate with the movement of fruit by the New Zealand wine industry. This suggests some anthropogenic influence on these observed population patterns. PMID:25062126

  2. Long-chain alkane production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhou, Yongjin J; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade industrial-scale production of renewable transportation biofuels has been developed as an alternative to fossil fuels, with ethanol as the most prominent biofuel and yeast as the production organism of choice. However, ethanol is a less efficient substitute fuel for heavy-duty and maritime transportation as well as aviation due to its low energy density. Therefore, new types of biofuels, such as alkanes, are being developed that can be used as drop-in fuels and can substitute gasoline, diesel, and kerosene. Here, we describe for the first time the heterologous biosynthesis of long-chain alkanes by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that elimination of the hexadecenal dehydrogenase Hfd1 and expression of a redox system are essential for alkane biosynthesis in yeast. Deletion of HFD1 together with expression of an alkane biosynthesis pathway resulted in the production of the alkanes tridecane, pentadecane, and heptadecane. Our study provides a proof of principle for producing long-chain alkanes in the industrial workhorse S. cerevisiae, which was so far limited to bacteria. We anticipate that these findings will be a key factor for further yeast engineering to enable industrial production of alkane based drop-in biofuels, which can allow the biofuel industry to diversify beyond bioethanol.

  3. Long-chain alkane production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhou, Yongjin J; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade industrial-scale production of renewable transportation biofuels has been developed as an alternative to fossil fuels, with ethanol as the most prominent biofuel and yeast as the production organism of choice. However, ethanol is a less efficient substitute fuel for heavy-duty and maritime transportation as well as aviation due to its low energy density. Therefore, new types of biofuels, such as alkanes, are being developed that can be used as drop-in fuels and can substitute gasoline, diesel, and kerosene. Here, we describe for the first time the heterologous biosynthesis of long-chain alkanes by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that elimination of the hexadecenal dehydrogenase Hfd1 and expression of a redox system are essential for alkane biosynthesis in yeast. Deletion of HFD1 together with expression of an alkane biosynthesis pathway resulted in the production of the alkanes tridecane, pentadecane, and heptadecane. Our study provides a proof of principle for producing long-chain alkanes in the industrial workhorse S. cerevisiae, which was so far limited to bacteria. We anticipate that these findings will be a key factor for further yeast engineering to enable industrial production of alkane based drop-in biofuels, which can allow the biofuel industry to diversify beyond bioethanol. PMID:25545362

  4. Metabolomic approach for improving ethanol stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Erika; Nakayama, Yasumune; Mukai, Yukio; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2016-04-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used for brewing and ethanol production. The ethanol sensitivity of yeast cells is still a serious problem during ethanol fermentation, and a variety of genetic approaches (e.g., random mutant screening under selective pressure of ethanol) have been developed to improve ethanol tolerance. In this study, we developed a strategy for improving ethanol tolerance of yeast cells based on metabolomics as a high-resolution quantitative phenotypic analysis. We performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to identify and quantify 36 compounds on 14 mutant strains including knockout strains for transcription factor and metabolic enzyme genes. A strong relation between metabolome of these mutants and their ethanol tolerance was observed. Data mining of the metabolomic analysis showed that several compounds (such as trehalose, valine, inositol and proline) contributed highly to ethanol tolerance. Our approach successfully detected well-known ethanol stress related metabolites such as trehalose and proline thus, to further prove our strategy, we focused on valine and inositol as the most promising target metabolites in our study. Our results show that simultaneous deletion of LEU4 and LEU9 (leading to accumulation of valine) or INM1 and INM2 (leading to reduction of inositol) significantly enhanced ethanol tolerance. This study shows the potential of the metabolomic approach to identify target genes for strain improvement of S. cerevisiae with higher ethanol tolerance.

  5. Structure of the Glycosyltransferase Ktr4p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Possner, Dominik D. D.; Claesson, Magnus; Guy, Jodie E.

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, members of the Kre2/Mnt1 protein family have been shown to be α-1,2-mannosyltransferases or α-1,2-mannosylphosphate transferases, utilising an Mn2+-coordinated GDP-mannose as the sugar donor and a variety of mannose derivatives as acceptors. Enzymes in this family are localised to the Golgi apparatus, and have been shown to be involved in both N- and O-linked glycosylation of newly-synthesised proteins, including cell wall glycoproteins. Our knowledge of the nine proteins in this family is however very incomplete at present. Only one family member, Kre2p/Mnt1p, has been studied by structural methods, and three (Ktr4p, Ktr5p, Ktr7p) are completely uncharacterised and remain classified only as putative glycosyltransferases. Here we use in vitro enzyme activity assays to provide experimental confirmation of the predicted glycosyltransferase activity of Ktr4p. Using GDP-mannose as the donor, we observe activity towards the acceptor methyl-α-mannoside, but little or no activity towards mannose or α-1,2-mannobiose. We also present the structure of the lumenal catalytic domain of S. cerevisiae Ktr4p, determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.2 Å, and the complex of the enzyme with GDP to 1.9 Å resolution. PMID:26296208

  6. Data on dynamic study of cytoophidia in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Huang, Yong; Wang, Peng-Ye; Ye, Fangfu; Liu, Ji-Long

    2016-09-01

    The data in this paper are related to the research article entitled "Filamentation of metabolic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae" Q.J. Shen et al. (2016) [1]. Cytoophidia are filamentous structures discovered in fruit flies (doi:10.1016/S1673-8527(09)60046-1) J.L. Liu (2010) [2], bacteria (doi:10.1038/ncb2087) M. Ingerson-Mahar et al. (2010) [3], yeast (doi:10.1083/jcb.201003001; doi:10.1242/bio.20149613) C. Noree et al. (2010) and J. Zhang, L. Hulme, J.L. Liu (2014) [4], [5] and human cells (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029690; doi:10.1016/j.jgg.2011.08.004) K. Chen et al. (2011) and W.C. Carcamo et al. (2011) ( [6], [7]. However, there is little research on the motility of the cytoophidia. Here we selected cytoophidia formed by 6 filament-forming proteins in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae, and performed living-cell imaging of cells expressing the proteins fused with GFP. The dynamic features of the six types of cytoophidia were analyzed. In the data, both raw movies and analysed results of the dynamics of cytoophidia are presented. PMID:27274529

  7. CRISPR-Cas9 Genome Engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Owen W; Poddar, Snigdha; Cate, Jamie H D

    2016-06-01

    This protocol describes a method for CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing that results in scarless and marker-free integrations of DNA into Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomes. DNA integration results from cotransforming (1) a single plasmid (pCAS) that coexpresses the Cas9 endonuclease and a uniquely engineered single guide RNA (sgRNA) expression cassette and (2) a linear DNA molecule that is used to repair the chromosomal DNA damage by homology-directed repair. For target specificity, the pCAS plasmid requires only a single cloning modification: replacing the 20-bp guide RNA sequence within the sgRNA cassette. This CRISPR-Cas9 protocol includes methods for (1) cloning the unique target sequence into pCAS, (2) assembly of the double-stranded DNA repair oligonucleotides, and (3) cotransformation of pCAS and linear repair DNA into yeast cells. The protocol is technically facile and requires no special equipment. It can be used in any S. cerevisiae strain, including industrial polyploid isolates. Therefore, this CRISPR-Cas9-based DNA integration protocol is achievable by virtually any yeast genetics and molecular biology laboratory.

  8. Mead production: selection and characterization assays of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Paula; Dias, Teresa; Andrade, João; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Estevinho, Letícia M

    2009-08-01

    Mead is a traditional drink, which results from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey carried out by yeasts. However, when it is produced in a homemade way, mead producers find several problems, namely, the lack of uniformity in the final product, delayed and arrested fermentations, and the production of "off-flavours" by the yeasts. These problems are usually associated with the inability of yeast strains to respond and adapt to unfavourable and stressful growth conditions. The main objectives of this work were to evaluate the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from honey of the Trás-os-Montes (Northeast Portugal), to produce mead. Five strains from honey, as well as one laboratory strain and one commercial wine strain, were evaluated in terms of their fermentation performance under ethanol, sulphur dioxide and osmotic stress. All the strains showed similar behaviour in these conditions. Two yeasts strains isolated from honey and the commercial wine strain were further tested for mead production, using two different honey (a dark and a light honey), enriched with two supplements (one commercial and one developed by the research team), as fermentation media. The results obtained in this work show that S. cerevisiae strains isolated from honey, are appropriate for mead production. However it is of extreme importance to take into account the characteristics of the honey, and supplements used in the fermentation medium formulation, in order to achieve the best results in mead production.

  9. Computational models reveal genotype-phenotype associations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Franco-Duarte, Ricardo; Mendes, Inês; Umek, Lan; Drumonde-Neves, João; Zupan, Blaz; Schuller, Dorit

    2014-07-01

    Genome sequencing is essential to understand individual variation and to study the mechanisms that explain relations between genotype and phenotype. The accumulated knowledge from large-scale genome sequencing projects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates is being used to study the mechanisms that explain such relations. Our objective was to undertake genetic characterization of 172 S. cerevisiae strains from different geographical origins and technological groups, using 11 polymorphic microsatellites, and computationally relate these data with the results of 30 phenotypic tests. Genetic characterization revealed 280 alleles, with the microsatellite ScAAT1 contributing most to intrastrain variability, together with alleles 20, 9 and 16 from the microsatellites ScAAT4, ScAAT5 and ScAAT6. These microsatellite allelic profiles are characteristic for both the phenotype and origin of yeast strains. We confirm the strength of these associations by construction and cross-validation of computational models that can predict the technological application and origin of a strain from the microsatellite allelic profile. Associations between microsatellites and specific phenotypes were scored using information gain ratios, and significant findings were confirmed by permutation tests and estimation of false discovery rates. The phenotypes associated with higher number of alleles were the capacity to resist to sulphur dioxide (tested by the capacity to grow in the presence of potassium bisulphite) and the presence of galactosidase activity. Our study demonstrates the utility of computational modelling to estimate a strain technological group and phenotype from microsatellite allelic combinations as tools for preliminary yeast strain selection.

  10. Effects of proteinase A on cultivation and viability characteristics of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae WZ65.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-bo; Zhang, Hai-feng; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui; Fu, Ming-liang; He, Guo-qing

    2009-10-01

    Proteinase A (PrA), encoded by PEP4 gene, is a key enzyme in the vacuoles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We characterized the effects of PrA on cell growth and glucose metabolism in the industrial S. cerevisiae WZ65. It was observed that the lag phase of cell growth of partial PEP4 gene deletion mutant (36 h) and PrA-negative mutant (48 h) was significantly extended, compared with the wild type strain (24 h) (P<0.05), but PrA had no effect on glucose metabolism either under shaking or steady state cultivations. The logistic model was chosen to evaluate the effect of PrA on S. cerevisiae cell growth, and PrA was found to promote cell growth against insufficient oxygen condition in steady state cultivation, but had no effect in shaking cultivation. The effects of glucose starvation on cell growth of partial PEP4 gene deletion strain and PrA-negative mutant were also evaluated. The results show that PrA partial deficiency increased the adaption of S. cerevisiae to unfavorable nutrient environment, but had no effect on glucose metabolism under the stress of low glucose. During heat shock test, at 60 degrees C the reduced cell viability rate (RCVR) was 10% for the wild type S. cerevisiae and 90% for both mutant strains (P<0.01), suggesting that PrA was a negative factor for S. cerevisiae cells to survive under heat shock. As temperatures rose from 60 degrees C to 70 degrees C, the wild type S. cerevisiae had significantly lower relative glucose consumption rate (RGCR) (61.0% and 80.0%) than the partial mutant (78.0% and 98.5%) and the complete mutant (80.0% and 98.0%) (P<0.05), suggesting that, in coping with heat shock, cells of the PrA mutants increased their glucose consumption to survive. The present study may provide meaningful information for brewing industry; however, the role of PrA in industrial S. cerevisiae physiology is complex and needs to be further investigated.

  11. Role of social wasps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ecology and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Calabretta, Antonio; Di Paola, Monica; De Filippo, Carlotta; Viola, Roberto; Capretti, Paolo; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most important model organisms and has been a valuable asset to human civilization. However, despite its extensive use in the last 9,000 y, the existence of a seasonal cycle outside human-made environments has not yet been described. We demonstrate the role of social wasps as vector and natural reservoir of S. cerevisiae during all seasons. We provide experimental evidence that queens of social wasps overwintering as adults (Vespa crabro and Polistes spp.) can harbor yeast cells from autumn to spring and transmit them to their progeny. This result is mirrored by field surveys of the genetic variability of natural strains of yeast. Microsatellites and sequences of a selected set of loci able to recapitulate the yeast strain’s evolutionary history were used to compare 17 environmental wasp isolates with a collection of strains from grapes from the same region and more than 230 strains representing worldwide yeast variation. The wasp isolates fall into subclusters representing the overall ecological and industrial yeast diversity of their geographic origin. Our findings indicate that wasps are a key environmental niche for the evolution of natural S. cerevisiae populations, the dispersion of yeast cells in the environment, and the maintenance of their diversity. The close relatedness of several wasp isolates with grape and wine isolates reflects the crucial role of human activities on yeast population structure, through clonal expansion and selection of specific strains during the biotransformation of fermented foods, followed by dispersal mediated by insects and other animals. PMID:22847440

  12. An improved method of xylose utilization by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tien-Yang; Lin, Ting-Hsiang; Hsu, Teng-Chieh; Huang, Chiung-Fang; Guo, Gia-Luen; Hwang, Wen-Song

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to optimize expression levels of xylose-metabolizing enzymes to improve xylose utilization capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A xylose-utilizing recombinant S. cerevisiae strain YY2KL, able to express nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced (NADPH)-dependent xylose reductase (XR), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), and xylulokinase (XK), showed a low ethanol yield and sugar consumption rate. To optimize xylose utilization by YY2KL, a recombinant expression plasmid containing the XR gene was transformed and integrated into the aur1 site of YY2KL. Two recombinant expression plasmids containing an nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+))-dependent XDH mutant and XK genes were dually transformed and integrated into the 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sites of YY2KL. This procedure allowed systematic construction of an S. cerevisiae library with different ratios of genes for xylose-metabolizing enzymes, and well-grown colonies with different xylose fermentation capacities could be further selected in yeast protein extract (YPX) medium (1 % yeast extract, 2 % peptone, and 2 % xylose). We successfully isolated a recombinant strain with a superior xylose fermentation capacity and designated it as strain YY5A. The xylose consumption rate for strain YY5A was estimated to be 2.32 g/gDCW/h (g xylose/g dry cell weight/h), which was 2.34 times higher than that for the parent strain YY2KL (0.99 g/gDCW/h). The ethanol yield was also enhanced 1.83 times by this novel method. Optimal ratio and expression levels of xylose-metabolizing enzymes are important for efficient conversion of xylose to ethanol. This study provides a novel method that allows rapid and effective selection of ratio-optimized xylose-utilizing yeast strains. This method may be applicable to other multienzyme systems in yeast.

  13. Exploring the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Volatile Metabolome: Indigenous versus Commercial Strains

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Zélia; Melo, André; Figueiredo, Ana Raquel; Coimbra, Manuel A.; Gomes, Ana C.; Rocha, Sílvia M.

    2015-01-01

    Winemaking is a highly industrialized process and a number of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are used around the world, neglecting the diversity of native yeast strains that are responsible for the production of wines peculiar flavours. The aim of this study was to in-depth establish the S. cerevisiae volatile metabolome and to assess inter-strains variability. To fulfill this objective, two indigenous strains (BT2652 and BT2453 isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes collected in Bairrada Appellation, Portugal) and two commercial strains (CSc1 and CSc2) S. cerevisiae were analysed using a methodology based on advanced multidimensional gas chromatography (HS-SPME/GC×GC-ToFMS) tandem with multivariate analysis. A total of 257 volatile metabolites were identified, distributed over the chemical families of acetals, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenic compounds, esters, ethers, furan-type compounds, hydrocarbons, pyrans, pyrazines and S-compounds. Some of these families are related with metabolic pathways of amino acid, carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism as well as mono and sesquiterpenic biosynthesis. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used with a dataset comprising all variables (257 volatile components), and a distinction was observed between commercial and indigenous strains, which suggests inter-strains variability. In a second step, a subset containing esters and terpenic compounds (C10 and C15), metabolites of particular relevance to wine aroma, was also analysed using PCA. The terpenic and ester profiles express the strains variability and their potential contribution to the wine aromas, specially the BT2453, which produced the higher terpenic content. This research contributes to understand the metabolic diversity of indigenous wine microflora versus commercial strains and achieved knowledge that may be further exploited to produce wines with peculiar aroma properties. PMID:26600152

  14. Heterologous expression of cellulase genes in natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Davison, Steffi A; den Haan, Riaan; van Zyl, Willem Heber

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme cost is a major impediment to second-generation (2G) cellulosic ethanol production. One strategy to reduce enzyme cost is to engineer enzyme production capacity in a fermentative microorganism to enable consolidated bio-processing (CBP). Ideally, a strain with a high secretory phenotype, high fermentative capacity as well as an innate robustness to bioethanol-specific stressors, including tolerance to products formed during pre-treatment and fermentation of lignocellulosic substrates should be used. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust fermentative yeast but has limitations as a potential CBP host, such as low heterologous protein secretion titers. In this study, we evaluated natural S. cerevisiae isolate strains for superior secretion activity and other industrially relevant characteristics needed during the process of lignocellulosic ethanol production. Individual cellulases namely Saccharomycopsis fibuligera Cel3A (β-glucosidase), Talaromyces emersonii Cel7A (cellobiohydrolase), and Trichoderma reesei Cel5A (endoglucanase) were utilized as reporter proteins. Natural strain YI13 was identified to have a high secretory phenotype, demonstrating a 3.7- and 3.5-fold higher Cel7A and Cel5A activity, respectively, compared to the reference strain S288c. YI13 also demonstrated other industrially relevant characteristics such as growth vigor, high ethanol titer, multi-tolerance to high temperatures (37 and 40 °C), ethanol (10 % w/v), and towards various concentrations of a cocktail of inhibitory compounds commonly found in lignocellulose hydrolysates. This study accentuates the value of natural S. cerevisiae isolate strains to serve as potential robust and highly productive chassis organisms for CBP strain development. PMID:27470141

  15. Exploring the northern limit of the distribution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus in North America.

    PubMed

    Charron, Guillaume; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Bertin, Chloé; Dubé, Alexandre K; Landry, Christian R

    2014-03-01

    We examined the northern limit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus in northeast America. We collected 876 natural samples at 29 sites and applied enrichment methods for the isolation of mesophilic yeasts. We uncovered a large diversity of yeasts, in some cases, associated with specific substrates. Sequencing of the ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 loci allowed to assign 226 yeast strains at the species level, including 41 S. paradoxus strains. Our intensive sampling suggests that if present, S. cerevisiae is rare at these northern latitudes. Our sampling efforts spread across several months of the year revealed that successful sampling increases throughout the summer and diminishes significantly at the beginning of the fall. The data obtained on the ecological context of yeasts corroborate what was previously reported on Pichiaceae, Saccharomycodaceae, Debaryomycetaceae and Phaffomycetaceae yeast families. We identified 24 yeast isolates that could not be assigned to any known species and that may be of taxonomic, medical, or biotechnological importance. Our study reports new data on the taxonomic diversity of yeasts and new resources for studying the evolution and ecology of S. paradoxus.

  16. Functional Diversity of Haloacid Dehalogenase Superfamily Phosphatases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: BIOCHEMICAL, STRUCTURAL, AND EVOLUTIONARY INSIGHTS.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Nocek, Boguslaw; Brown, Greg; Makarova, Kira S; Flick, Robert; Wolf, Yuri I; Khusnutdinova, Anna; Evdokimova, Elena; Jin, Ke; Tan, Kemin; Hanson, Andrew D; Hasnain, Ghulam; Zallot, Rémi; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Babu, Mohan; Savchenko, Alexei; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Edwards, Aled M; Koonin, Eugene V; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2015-07-24

    The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like enzymes comprise a large superfamily of phosphohydrolases present in all organisms. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes at least 19 soluble HADs, including 10 uncharacterized proteins. Here, we biochemically characterized 13 yeast phosphatases from the HAD superfamily, which includes both specific and promiscuous enzymes active against various phosphorylated metabolites and peptides with several HADs implicated in detoxification of phosphorylated compounds and pseudouridine. The crystal structures of four yeast HADs provided insight into their active sites, whereas the structure of the YKR070W dimer in complex with substrate revealed a composite substrate-binding site. Although the S. cerevisiae and Escherichia coli HADs share low sequence similarities, the comparison of their substrate profiles revealed seven phosphatases with common preferred substrates. The cluster of secondary substrates supporting significant activity of both S. cerevisiae and E. coli HADs includes 28 common metabolites that appear to represent the pool of potential activities for the evolution of novel HAD phosphatases. Evolution of novel substrate specificities of HAD phosphatases shows no strict correlation with sequence divergence. Thus, evolution of the HAD superfamily combines the conservation of the overall substrate pool and the substrate profiles of some enzymes with remarkable biochemical and structural flexibility of other superfamily members. PMID:26071590

  17. Comparative Proteomics Analysis of Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Enhanced Biofuel Precursor Production

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoling; Feng, Huixing; Zhang, Jianhua; Chen, Wei Ning

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was metabolically modified for enhanced biofuel precursor production by knocking out genes encoding mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase and over-expression of a heterologous ATP-citrate lyase. A comparative iTRAQ-coupled 2D LC-MS/MS analysis was performed to obtain a global overview of ubiquitous protein expression changes in S. cerevisiae engineered strains. More than 300 proteins were identified. Among these proteins, 37 were found differentially expressed in engineered strains and they were classified into specific categories based on their enzyme functions. Most of the proteins involved in glycolytic and pyruvate branch-point pathways were found to be up-regulated and the proteins involved in respiration and glyoxylate pathway were however found to be down-regulated in engineered strains. Moreover, the metabolic modification of S. cerevisiae cells resulted in a number of up-regulated proteins involved in stress response and differentially expressed proteins involved in amino acid metabolism and protein biosynthesis pathways. These LC-MS/MS based proteomics analysis results not only offered extensive information in identifying potential protein-protein interactions, signal pathways and ubiquitous cellular changes elicited by the engineered pathways, but also provided a meaningful biological information platform serving further modification of yeast cells for enhanced biofuel production. PMID:24376832

  18. Increased ethanol production by deletion of HAP4 in recombinant xylose-assimilating Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Matsushika, Akinori; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2015-12-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAP4 gene encodes a transcription activator that plays a key role in controlling the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial respiration and reductive pathways. This work examines the effect of knockout of the HAP4 gene on aerobic ethanol production in a xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae strain. A hap4-deleted recombinant yeast strain (B42-DHAP4) showed increased maximum concentration, production rate, and yield of ethanol compared with the reference strain MA-B42, irrespective of cultivation medium (glucose, xylose, or glucose/xylose mixtures). Notably, B42-DHAP4 was capable of producing ethanol from xylose as the sole carbon source under aerobic conditions, whereas no ethanol was produced by MA-B42. Moreover, the rate of ethanol production and ethanol yield (0.44 g/g) from the detoxified hydrolysate of wood chips was markedly improved in B42-DHAP4 compared to MA-B42. Thus, the results of this study support the view that deleting HAP4 in xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae strains represents a useful strategy in ethanol production processes.

  19. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of n-butanol

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, EricJ.; Chan, Rossana; Prasad, Nilu; Myers, Samuel; Petzold, Christopher; Redding, Alyssa; Ouellet, Mario; Keasling, JayD.

    2008-11-25

    BackgroundIncreasing energy costs and environmental concerns have motivated engineering microbes for the production of ?second generation? biofuels that have better properties than ethanol.Results& ConclusionsSaccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered with an n-butanol biosynthetic pathway, in which isozymes from a number of different organisms (S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Clostridium beijerinckii, and Ralstonia eutropha) were substituted for the Clostridial enzymes and their effect on n-butanol production was compared. By choosing the appropriate isozymes, we were able to improve production of n-butanol ten-fold to 2.5 mg/L. The most productive strains harbored the C. beijerinckii 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which uses NADH as a co-factor, rather than the R. eutropha isozyme, which uses NADPH, and the acetoacetyl-CoA transferase from S. cerevisiae or E. coli rather than that from R. eutropha. Surprisingly, expression of the genes encoding the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from C. beijerinckii (bcd and etfAB) did not improve butanol production significantly as previously reported in E. coli. Using metabolite analysis, we were able to determine which steps in the n-butanol biosynthetic pathway were the most problematic and ripe for future improvement.

  20. ISOLATION OF A CYTOCHROME P-450 STRUCTURAL GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have transformed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host with an S. cerevisiae genomic library contained in the shuttle vector YEp24 and screened the resultant transformants for resistance to ketoconazole (Kc), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) enzyme lanosterol 14-demethyl...

  1. Creation of a synthetic xylose-inducible promoter for Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is currently used to produce ethanol from glucose, but it cannot utilize five-carbon sugars contained in the hemicellulose component of biomass feedstocks. S. cerevisiae strains engineered for xylose fermentation have been made using constitutive promoters to express the req...

  2. [Invertase Overproduction May Provide for Inulin Fermentation by Selection Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Naumov, G I; Naumova, E S

    2015-01-01

    In some recent publications, the ability of selection strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment inulin was attributed to inulinase activity. The review summarizes the literature data indicating that overproduction of invertase, an enzyme common to S. cerevisiae, may be responsible for this phenomenon. PMID:26263621

  3. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia in an elderly patient following probiotic treatment].

    PubMed

    Eren, Zehra; Gurol, Yeşim; Sonmezoglu, Meral; Eren, Hatice Seyma; Celik, Gülden; Kantarci, Gülçin

    2014-04-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as baker's yeast, is also used as a probiotic agent to treat gastroenteritis by modulating the endogenous flora and immune system. However, since there have been increasing reports of fungemia due to S.cerevisiae and its subspecies S.boulardii, it is recommended that probiotics should be cautiously used in immunosuppressed patients, people with underlying diseases and low-birth weight babies. To emphasize this phenomenon, in this report, a case of S.cerevisiae fungemia developed in a patient given probiotic treatment for antibiotic-associated diarrhea, was presented. An 88-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with left hip pain, hypotension, and confusion. Her medical history included hypertension, chronic renal failure, left knee replacement surgery, and recurrent urinary tract infections due to neurogenic bladder. She was transferred to the intensive care unit with the diagnosis of urosepsis. After obtaining blood and urine samples for culture, empirical meropenem (2 x 500 mg) and linezolid (1 x 600 mg) treatment were administered. A central venous catheter (CVC) was inserted and after one day of inotropic support, her hemodynamic parameters were stabilized. The urine culture obtained on admission yielded extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Urine culture was repeated after three days and no bacteria were isolated. On the 4th day of admission she developed diarrhea. Toxin A/B tests for Clostridium difficile were negative. To relieve diarrhea, S.boulardii (Reflor 250 mg capsules, Sanofi Aventis, Turkey) was administered twice a day, without opening capsules. Two days later, her C-reactive protein (CRP) level increased from 23.2 mg/L to 100 mg/L without fever. Her blood culture taken from the CVC yielded S.cerevisiae. Linezolid and meropenem therapies were stopped on the 13th and 14th days, respectively, while prophylactic fluconazole therapy was replaced with

  4. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia in an elderly patient following probiotic treatment].

    PubMed

    Eren, Zehra; Gurol, Yeşim; Sonmezoglu, Meral; Eren, Hatice Seyma; Celik, Gülden; Kantarci, Gülçin

    2014-04-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as baker's yeast, is also used as a probiotic agent to treat gastroenteritis by modulating the endogenous flora and immune system. However, since there have been increasing reports of fungemia due to S.cerevisiae and its subspecies S.boulardii, it is recommended that probiotics should be cautiously used in immunosuppressed patients, people with underlying diseases and low-birth weight babies. To emphasize this phenomenon, in this report, a case of S.cerevisiae fungemia developed in a patient given probiotic treatment for antibiotic-associated diarrhea, was presented. An 88-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with left hip pain, hypotension, and confusion. Her medical history included hypertension, chronic renal failure, left knee replacement surgery, and recurrent urinary tract infections due to neurogenic bladder. She was transferred to the intensive care unit with the diagnosis of urosepsis. After obtaining blood and urine samples for culture, empirical meropenem (2 x 500 mg) and linezolid (1 x 600 mg) treatment were administered. A central venous catheter (CVC) was inserted and after one day of inotropic support, her hemodynamic parameters were stabilized. The urine culture obtained on admission yielded extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Urine culture was repeated after three days and no bacteria were isolated. On the 4th day of admission she developed diarrhea. Toxin A/B tests for Clostridium difficile were negative. To relieve diarrhea, S.boulardii (Reflor 250 mg capsules, Sanofi Aventis, Turkey) was administered twice a day, without opening capsules. Two days later, her C-reactive protein (CRP) level increased from 23.2 mg/L to 100 mg/L without fever. Her blood culture taken from the CVC yielded S.cerevisiae. Linezolid and meropenem therapies were stopped on the 13th and 14th days, respectively, while prophylactic fluconazole therapy was replaced with

  5. Metabolism of sulfur amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D; Surdin-Kerjan, Y

    1997-01-01

    Sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves a large number of enzymes required for the de novo biosynthesis of methionine and cysteine and the recycling of organic sulfur metabolites. This review summarizes the details of these processes and analyzes the molecular data which have been acquired in this metabolic area. Sulfur biochemistry appears not to be unique through terrestrial life, and S. cerevisiae is one of the species of sulfate-assimilatory organisms possessing a larger set of enzymes for sulfur metabolism. The review also deals with several enzyme deficiencies that lead to a nutritional requirement for organic sulfur, although they do not correspond to defects within the biosynthetic pathway. In S. cerevisiae, the sulfur amino acid biosynthetic pathway is tightly controlled: in response to an increase in the amount of intracellular S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), transcription of the coregulated genes is turned off. The second part of the review is devoted to the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. The coordinated response to AdoMet requires two cis-acting promoter elements. One centers on the sequence TCACGTG, which also constitutes a component of all S. cerevisiae centromeres. Situated upstream of the sulfur genes, this element is the binding site of a transcription activation complex consisting of a basic helix-loop-helix factor, Cbf1p, and two basic leucine zipper factors, Met4p and Met28p. Molecular studies have unraveled the specific functions for each subunit of the Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex as well as the modalities of its assembly on the DNA. The Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex contains only one transcription activation module, the Met4p subunit. Detailed mutational analysis of Met4p has elucidated its functional organization. In addition to its activation and bZIP domains, Met4p contains two regulatory domains, called the inhibitory region and the auxiliary domain. When the level of intracellular AdoMet increases

  6. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bioconversion of D-xylose to D-xylonate.

    PubMed

    Toivari, Mervi; Nygård, Yvonne; Kumpula, Esa-Pekka; Vehkomäki, Maija-Leena; Benčina, Mojca; Valkonen, Mari; Maaheimo, Hannu; Andberg, Martina; Koivula, Anu; Ruohonen, Laura; Penttilä, Merja; Wiebe, Marilyn G

    2012-07-01

    An NAD(+)-dependent D-xylose dehydrogenase, XylB, from Caulobacter crescentus was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in production of 17 ± 2 g D-xylonate l(-1) at 0.23 gl(-1)h(-1) from 23 g D-xylose l(-1) (with glucose and ethanol as co-substrates). D-Xylonate titre and production rate were increased and xylitol production decreased, compared to strains expressing genes encoding T. reesei or pig liver NADP(+)-dependent D-xylose dehydrogenases. D-Xylonate accumulated intracellularly to ∼70 mgg(-1); xylitol to ∼18 mgg(-1). The aldose reductase encoding gene GRE3 was deleted to reduce xylitol production. Cells expressing D-xylonolactone lactonase xylC from C. crescentus with xylB initially produced more extracellular D-xylonate than cells lacking xylC at both pH 5.5 and pH 3, and sustained higher production at pH 3. Cell vitality and viability decreased during D-xylonate production at pH 3.0. An industrial S. cerevisiae strain expressing xylB efficiently produced 43 g D-xylonate l(-1) from 49 g D-xylose l(-1).

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Mutations in the β-Tubulin Gene of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, James H.; Neff, Norma F.; Botstein, David

    1985-01-01

    Of 173 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae resistant to the antimitotic drug benomyl (BenR), six also conferred cold-sensitivity for growth and three others conferred temperature-sensitivity for growth in the absence of benomyl. All of the benR mutations tested, including the nine conditional-lethal mutations, were shown to be in the same gene. This gene, TUB2, has previously been molecularly cloned and identified as the yeast structural gene encoding β-tubulin. Four of the conditional-lethal alleles of TUB2 were mapped to particular restriction fragments within the gene. One of these mutations was cloned and sequenced, revealing a single amino acid change, from arginine to histidine at amino acid position 241, which is responsible for both the BenR and the cold-sensitive lethal phenotypes. The terminal arrest morphology of conditional-lethal alleles of TUB2 at their restrictive temperature showed a characteristic cell-division-cycle defect, suggesting a requirement for tubulin function primarily in mitosis during the vegetative growth cycle. The TUB2 gene was genetically mapped to the distal left arm of chromosome VI, very near the actin gene, ACT1; no CDC (cell-division-cycle) loci have been mapped previously to this location. TUB2 is thus the first cell-division-cycle gene known to encode a cytoskeletal protein that has been identified in S. cerevisiae. PMID:2998923

  8. Regulation of cation transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the salt tolerance gene HAL3.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, A; Kron, S J; Rios, G; Fink, G R; Serrano, R

    1995-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of ion transport is essential for homeostasis as cells confront changes in their environment. The gene HAL3 encodes a novel component of this regulatory circuit in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Overexpression of HAL3 improves growth of wild-type cells exposed to toxic concentrations of sodium and lithium and suppresses the salt sensitivity conferred by mutation of the calcium-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin. Null mutants of HAL3 display salt sensitivity. The sequence of HAL3 gives little clue to its function. However, alterations in intracellular cation concentrations associated with changes in HAL3 expression suggest that HAL3 activity may directly increase cytoplasmic K+ and decrease Na+ and Li+. Cation efflux in S. cerevisiae is mediated by the P-type ATPase encoded by the ENA1/PMR24 gene, a putative plasma membrane Na+ pump whose expression is salt induced. Acting in concert with calcineurin, HAL3 is necessary for full activation of ENA1 expression. This functional complementarity is also reflected in the participation of both proteins in recovery from alpha-factor-induced growth arrest. Recently, HAL3 was isolated as a gene (named SIS2) which when overexpressed partially relieves loss of transcription of G1 cyclins in mutants lacking the protein phosphatase Sit4p. Therefore, HAL3 influences cell cycle control and ion homeostasis, acting in parallel to the protein phosphatases Sit4p and calcineurin. PMID:7565698

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the invertase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Sainz-Polo, M. Angela; Lafraya, Alvaro; Polo, Aitana; Marín-Navarro, Julia; Polaina, Julio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase (ScInv) is an enzyme encoded by the SUC2 gene that releases β-fructose from the nonreducing termini of various β-­d-fructofuranoside substrates. Its ability to produce 6-kestose by transglycosylation makes this enzyme an interesting research target for applications in industrial biotechnology. The native enzyme, which presents a high degree of oligomerization, was crystallized by vapour-diffusion methods. The crystals belonged to space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = 268.6, b = 268.6, c = 224.4 Å. The crystals diffracted to 3.3 Å resolution and gave complete data sets using a synchrotron X-ray source. PMID:23192042

  10. Detection of maltose fermentation genes in the baking yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Oda, Y; Tonomura, K

    1996-10-01

    The presence of any one of the five unlinked MAL loci (MAL1, MAL2, MAL3, MAL4 and MAL6) confers the ability to ferment maltose on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each locus is composed of three genes encoding maltose permease, alpha-glucosidase and MAL activator. Chromosomal DNA of seven representative baking strains has been separated by pulse-field gel electrophoresis and probed with three genes in MAL6 locus. The DNA bands to which all of the three MAL-derived probes simultaneously hybridized were chromosome VII carrying MAL1 in all of the strains tested, chromosome XI carrying MAL4 in six strains, chromosome III carrying MAL2 in three strains and chromosomes II and VIII carrying MAL3 and MAL6, respectively, in the one strain. The number of MAL loci in baking strains was comparable to those of brewing strains.

  11. γ-Glutamyl kinase is involved in selective autophagy of ribosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tatehashi, Yuki; Watanabe, Daisuke; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    γ-Glutamyl kinase (GK; the PRO1 gene product) is a key enzyme in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proline biosynthesis pathway. Δpro1 cells are more sensitive to various stresses than wild-type cells, suggesting that GK has an alternative function independent of proline biosynthesis. We show that PRO1 genetically interacts with UBP3, which encodes ubiquitin-specific protease, and is required for selective autophagy of ribosomes (ribophagy). Interestingly, yeast cells with PRO1 deletion or expressing inactive GK display a defect for ribophagy but not for nonselective autophagy, indicating that GK activity is indispensable for ribophagy. Gene disruption analysis suggests that ribophagy is important for cell survival during nitrogen starvation. PMID:27442630

  12. Production of geranylgeraniol on overexpression of a prenyl diphosphate synthase fusion gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ohto, Chikara; Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Obata, Shusei; Sakuradani, Eiji; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2010-07-01

    An acyclic diterpene alcohol, (E,E,E)-geranylgeraniol (GGOH), is one of the important compounds used as perfume and pharmacological agents. A deficiency of squalene (SQ) synthase activity allows yeasts to accumulate an acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol, (E,E)-farnesol, in their cells. Since sterols are essential for the growth of yeasts, a deficiency of SQ synthase activity makes the addition of supplemental sterols to the culture media necessary. To develop a GGOH production method not requiring any supplemental sterols, we overexpressed HMG1 encoding hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase and the genes of two prenyl diphosphate synthases, ERG20 and BTS1, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A prototrophic diploid coexpressing HMG1 and the ERG20-BTS1 fusion accumulated GGOH with neither disruption of the SQ synthase gene nor the addition of any supplemental sterols. The GGOH content on the diploid cultivation in a 5-l jar fermenter reached 138.8 mg/l under optimal conditions.

  13. Cyclic AMP Can Decrease Expression of Genes Subject to Catabolite Repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Zaragoza, Oscar; Lindley, Chris; Gancedo, Juana M.

    1999-01-01

    External cyclic AMP (cAMP) hindered the derepression of gluconeogenic enzymes in a pde2 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but it did not prevent invertase derepression. cAMP reduced nearly 20-fold the transcription driven by upstream activation sequence (UAS1FBP1) from FBP1, encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase; it decreased 2-fold the activation of transcription by UAS2FBP1. Nuclear extracts from cells derepressed in the presence of cAMP were impaired in the formation of specific UASFBP1-protein complexes in band shift experiments. cAMP does not appear to act through the repressing protein Mig1. Control of FBP1 transcription through cAMP is redundant with other regulatory mechanisms. PMID:10198033

  14. Transcript-specific translational regulation in the unfolded protein response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Payne, Tom; Hanfrey, Colin; Bishop, Amy L; Michael, Anthony J; Avery, Simon V; Archer, David B

    2008-02-20

    Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes stress and induces the unfolded protein response (UPR). Genome-wide analysis of translational regulation in response to the UPR-inducing agent dithiothreitol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reported. Microarray analysis, confirmed using qRT-PCR, identified transcript-specific translational regulation. Transcripts with functions in ribosomal biogenesis and assembly were translationally repressed. In contrast, mRNAs from known UPR genes, encoding the UPR transcription factor Hac1p, the ER-oxidoreductase Ero1p and the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) protein Der1p, were enriched in polysomal fractions, indicating translational up-regulation. Splicing of HAC1 mRNA is shown to be required for efficient ribosomal loading.

  15. PEB1 (PAS7) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a hydrophilic, intra- peroxisomal protein that is a member of the WD repeat family and is essential for the import of thiolase into peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We have previously described mutant S. cerevisiae that are defective in peroxisome biogenesis (peb mutants) (Zhang, J. W., Y. Han, and P. B. Lazarow. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 123:1133-1147.). In some mutants, peroxisomes are undetectable. Other mutants contain normal-looking peroxisomes but fail to package subsets of peroxisomal proteins into the organelle (Zhang, J. W., C. Luckey, and P. B. Lazarow. 1993. Mol. Biol. Cell. 4:1351-1359.). In peb1 (pas7) cells, for example, the peroxisomes contain proteins that are targeted by COOH-terminal tripeptides and contain acyl-CoA oxidase (which is probably targeted by internal oligopeptides), but fail to import thiolase (which is targeted by an NH(2)-terminal 16-amino acid sequence). These and other data suggest that there are three branches in the pathway for the import of proteins into peroxisomes, each of which contains a receptor for one type of peroxisomal topogenic information. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of the PEB1 gene, that encodes a 42,320-Da hydrophilic protein with no predicted transmembrane segment. The protein contains six WD repeats, a motif which has been found in 27 proteins involved in diverse cellular functions. The PEB1 gene product was tagged with the hemagglutinin epitope and found to rescue thiolase import in the peb1 null mutant. The epitope-tagged protein was shown to be inside of peroxisomes by immunofluorescence, digitonin permeabilization, equilibrium density centrifugation, immunoelectron microscopy, and proteinase K protection studies. The PEB1 gene product does not cleave the thiolase-targeting sequence. It may function to draw thiolase into peroxisomes. PMID:7535304

  16. A Novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae Killer Strain Secreting the X Factor Related to Killer Activity and Inhibition of S. cerevisiae K1, K2 and K28 Killer Toxins.

    PubMed

    Melvydas, Vytautas; Bružauskaitė, Ieva; Gedminienė, Genovaitė; Šiekštelė, Rimantas

    2016-09-01

    It was determined that Kx strains secrete an X factor which can inhibit all known Saccharomyces cerevisiae killer toxins (K1, K2, K28) and some toxins of other yeast species-the phenomenon not yet described in the scientific literature. It was shown that Kx type yeast strains posess a killer phenotype producing small but clear lysis zones not only on the sensitive strain α'1 but also on the lawn of S. cerevisiae K1, K2 and K28 type killer strains at temperatures between 20 and 30 °C. The pH at which killer/antikiller effect of Kx strain reaches its maximum is about 5.0-5.2. The Kx yeast were identified as to belong to S. cerevisiae species. Another newly identified S. cerevisiae killer strain N1 has killer activity but shows no antikilller properties against standard K1, K2 and K28 killer toxins. The genetic basis for Kx killer/antikiller phenotype was associated with the presence of M-dsRNA which is bigger than M-dsRNA of standard S. cerevisiae K1, K2, K28 type killer strains. Killer and antikiller features should be encoded by dsRNA. The phenomenon of antikiller (inhibition) properties was observed against some killer toxins of other yeast species. The molecular weight of newly identified killer toxins which produces Kx type strains might be about 45 kDa.

  17. Gpx3-dependent responses against oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kho, Chang Won; Lee, Phil Young; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Kang, Sunghyun; Cho, Sayeon; Lee, Do Hee; Sun, Choong-Hyun; Yi, Gwan-Su; Park, Byoung Chul; Park, Sung Goo

    2008-02-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has defense mechanisms identical to higher eukaryotes. It offers the potential for genome-wide experimental approaches owing to its smaller genome size and the availability of the complete sequence. It therefore represents an ideal eukaryotic model for studying cellular redox control and oxidative stress responses. S. cerevisiae Yap1 is a well-known transcription factor that is required for H2O2-dependent stress responses. Yap1 is involved in various signaling pathways in an oxidative stress response. The Gpx3 (Orp1/PHGpx3) protein is one of the factors related to these signaling pathways. It plays the role of a transducer that transfers the hydroperoxide signal to Yap1. In this study, using extensive proteomic and bioinformatics analyses, the function of the Gpx3 protein in an adaptive response against oxidative stress was investigated in wild-type, gpx3-deletion mutant, and gpx3-deletion mutant overexpressing Gpx3 protein strains. We identified 30 proteins that are related to the Gpx3- dependent oxidative stress responses and 17 proteins that are changed in a Gpx3-dependent manner regardless of oxidative stress. As expected, H2O2-responsive Gpx3-dependent proteins include a number of antioxidants related with cell rescue and defense. In addition, they contain a variety of proteins related to energy and carbohydrate metabolism, transcription, and protein fate. Based upon the experimental results, it is suggested that Gpx3-dependent stress adaptive response includes the regulation of genes related to the capacity to detoxify oxidants and repair oxidative stress-induced damages affected by Yap1 as well as metabolism and protein fate independent from Yap1. PMID:18309271

  18. Engineering the monomer composition of polyhydroxyalkanoates synthesized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Carlson, Ross; Srienc, Friedrich

    2006-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have received considerable interest as renewable-resource-based, biodegradable, and biocompatible plastics with a wide range of potential applications. We have engineered the synthesis of PHA polymers composed of monomers ranging from 4 to 14 carbon atoms in either the cytosol or the peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by harnessing intermediates of fatty acid metabolism. Cytosolic PHA production was supported by establishing in the cytosol critical beta-oxidation chemistries which are found natively in peroxisomes. This platform was utilized to supply medium-chain (C6 to C14) PHA precursors from both fatty acid degradation and synthesis to a cytosolically expressed medium-chain-length (mcl) polymerase from Pseudomonas oleovorans. Synthesis of short-chain-length PHAs (scl-PHAs) was established in the peroxisome of a wild-type yeast strain by targeting the Ralstonia eutropha scl polymerase to the peroxisome. This strain, harboring a peroxisomally targeted scl-PHA synthase, accumulated PHA up to approximately 7% of its cell dry weight. These results indicate (i) that S. cerevisiae expressing a cytosolic mcl-PHA polymerase or a peroxisomal scl-PHA synthase can use the 3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A intermediates from fatty acid metabolism to synthesize PHAs and (ii) that fatty acid degradation is also possible in the cytosol as beta-oxidation might not be confined only to the peroxisomes. Polymers of even-numbered, odd-numbered, or a combination of even- and odd-numbered monomers can be controlled by feeding the appropriate substrates. This ability should permit the rational design and synthesis of polymers with desired material properties. PMID:16391089

  19. The plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: structure, function, and biogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    van der Rest, M E; Kamminga, A H; Nakano, A; Anraku, Y; Poolman, B; Konings, W N

    1995-01-01

    The composition of phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols in the plasma membrane has a strong influence on the activity of the proteins associated or embedded in the lipid bilayer. Since most lipid-synthesizing enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are located in intracellular organelles, an extensive flux of lipids from these organelles to the plasma membrane is required. Although the pathway of protein traffic to the plasma membrane is similar to that of most of the lipids, the bulk flow of lipids is separate from vesicle-mediated protein transport. Recent advances in the analysis of membrane budding and membrane fusion indicate that the mechanisms of protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi and from the Golgi to plasma membrane are similar. The majority of plasma membrane proteins transport solutes across the membrane. A number of ATP-dependent export systems have been detected that couple the hydrolysis of ATP to transport of molecules out of the cell. The hydrolysis of ATP by the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase generates a proton motive force which is used to drive secondary transport processes. In S. cerevisiae, many substrates are transported by more than one system. Transport of monosaccharide is catalyzed by uniport systems, while transport of disaccharides, amino acids, and nucleosides is mediated by proton symport systems. Transport activity can be regulated at the level of transcription, e.g., induction and (catabolite) repression, but transport proteins can also be affected posttranslationally by a process termed catabolite inactivation. Catabolite inactivation is triggered by the addition of fermentable sugars, intracellular acidification, stress conditions, and/or nitrogen starvation. Phosphorylation and/or ubiquitination of the transport proteins has been proposed as an initial step in the controlled inactivation and degradation of the target enzyme. The use of artificial membranes, like secretory vesicles and plasma membranes

  20. Increased inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by protraction of UV irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, R; Haider, T; Cabaj, A; Heidenreich, E; Kundi, M

    1996-01-01

    The principle of equi-effectivity of the product of intensity and exposure time (principle of Bunsen-Roscoe) of UV irradiation has been assumed to be valid for the inactivation of microorganisms in general. Earlier studies claimed higher survival of Escherichia coli B/r with fractionated irradiation compared with single-exposure survival. However, data on the inactivation effect of protraction of UV irradiation are not available. By means of a specially designed UV irradiation apparatus which secured absolute UV dose measurements throughout the experiments, the effects of variation of UV irradiation intensities (253.7 nm) and exposure times were tested on the inactivation of a bacterial virus (Staphylococcus aureus phage A994), a vegetative bacterial strain (E. coli ATCC 25922), and bacterial spores (Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633) as well as three haploid laboratory strains (RC43a, YNN281, and YNN282) and two diploid strains (commercial bakery yeast strain and laboratory strain YNN281 x YNN282) or yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and spores of the latter diploid yeast strain. Each test organism was exposed to three UV intensities (0.02, 0.2, and 2 W/m2), with corresponding exposure times resulting in three dose levels for each intensity. Differences in inactivation rates were tested by analyses of variance and Newman-Keuls tests. Virus and bacteria showed no differences in inactivation rates by variation of intensities and exposure times within selected UV doses; hence, the principle of Bunsen-Roscoe could not be rejected for these strains. However, in the eukaryotic test strains of S. cerevisiae longer exposure times with lower intensities led to enhanced inactivation in both haploid and diploid strains, with a more pronounced effect in the diploid yeast strains, whereas in yeast spores in this dose rate effect could not be observed. PMID:8787396

  1. Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.

    PubMed

    Bellon, Jennifer R; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L; Dunn, Barbara L; Chambers, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment.

  2. Introducing a New Breed of Wine Yeast: Interspecific Hybridisation between a Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae

    PubMed Central

    Bellon, Jennifer R.; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L.; Dunn, Barbara L.; Chambers, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment. PMID:23614011

  3. Class C ABC transporters and Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuole fusion

    PubMed Central

    Sasser, Terry L; Fratti, Rutilio A

    2014-01-01

    Membrane fusion is carried out by core machinery that is conserved throughout eukaryotes. This is comprised of Rab GTPases and their effectors, and SNARE proteins, which together are sufficient to drive the fusion of reconstituted proteoliposomes. However, an outer layer of factors that are specific to individual trafficking pathways in vivo regulates the spatial and temporal occurrence of fusion. The homotypic fusion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar lysosomes utilizes a growing set of factors to regulate the fusion machinery that include members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. Yeast vacuoles have five class C ABC transporters that are known to transport a variety of toxins into the vacuole lumen as part of detoxifying the cell. We have found that ABCC transporters can also regulate vacuole fusion through novel mechanisms. For instance Ybt1 serves as negative regulator of fusion through its effects on vacuolar Ca2+ homeostasis. Additional studies showed that Ycf1 acts as a positive regulator by affecting the efficient recruitment of the SNARE Vam7. Finally, we discuss the potential interface between the translocation of lipids across the membrane bilayer, also known as lipid flipping, and the efficiency of fusion. PMID:25610719

  4. TOR and RAS pathways regulate desiccation tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Aaron Z.; Gibney, Patrick A.; Botstein, David; Koshland, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    Tolerance to desiccation in cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is inducible; only one in a million cells from an exponential culture survive desiccation compared with one in five cells in stationary phase. Here we exploit the desiccation sensitivity of exponentially dividing cells to understand the stresses imposed by desiccation and their stress response pathways. We found that induction of desiccation tolerance is cell autonomous and that there is an inverse correlation between desiccation tolerance and growth rate in glucose-, ammonia-, or phosphate-limited continuous cultures. A transient heat shock induces a 5000–fold increase in desiccation tolerance, whereas hyper-ionic, -reductive, -oxidative, or -osmotic stress induced much less. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the Sch9p-regulated branch of the TOR and Ras-cAMP pathway inhibits desiccation tolerance by inhibiting the stress response transcription factors Gis1p, Msn2p, and Msn4p and by activating Sfp1p, a ribosome biogenesis transcription factor. Among 41 mutants defective in ribosome biogenesis, a subset defective in 60S showed a dramatic increase in desiccation tolerance independent of growth rate. We suggest that reduction of a specific intermediate in 60S biogenesis, resulting from conditions such as heat shock and nutrient deprivation, increases desiccation tolerance. PMID:23171550

  5. Nutrient sensing and signaling in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Michaela; Schothorst, Joep; Kankipati, Harish Nag; Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Rubio-Texeira, Marta; Thevelein, Johan M

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a favorite organism for pioneering studies on nutrient-sensing and signaling mechanisms. Many specific nutrient responses have been elucidated in great detail. This has led to important new concepts and insight into nutrient-controlled cellular regulation. Major highlights include the central role of the Snf1 protein kinase in the glucose repression pathway, galactose induction, the discovery of a G-protein-coupled receptor system, and role of Ras in glucose-induced cAMP signaling, the role of the protein synthesis initiation machinery in general control of nitrogen metabolism, the cyclin-controlled protein kinase Pho85 in phosphate regulation, nitrogen catabolite repression and the nitrogen-sensing target of rapamycin pathway, and the discovery of transporter-like proteins acting as nutrient sensors. In addition, a number of cellular targets, like carbohydrate stores, stress tolerance, and ribosomal gene expression, are controlled by the presence of multiple nutrients. The protein kinase A signaling pathway plays a major role in this general nutrient response. It has led to the discovery of nutrient transceptors (transporter receptors) as nutrient sensors. Major shortcomings in our knowledge are the relationship between rapid and steady-state nutrient signaling, the role of metabolic intermediates in intracellular nutrient sensing, and the identity of the nutrient sensors controlling cellular growth. PMID:24483210

  6. Electroinduced release of recombinant β-galactosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ganeva, Valentina; Stefanova, Debora; Angelova, Boyana; Galutzov, Bojidar; Velasco, Isabel; Arévalo-Rodríguez, Miguel

    2015-10-10

    Yeasts are one of the most commonly used systems for recombinant protein production. When the protein is intracelullarly expressed the first step comprises a cell lysis, achieved usually by a mechanical disintegration. This leads to non-selective liberation of the cytoplasmic content, which complicates the following downstream process. Here, we present a new approach suitable for more selective and efficient recovery of large intracellular proteins from yeast, based on the combination of electropermeabilisation and subsequent treatment with lytic enzyme. The experiments were performed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing LYTAG-β-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. The permeabilzation of plasma membrane was induced by application of rectangular electric pulses, with 1.25ms duration and field intensity of 4.3-5.4kV/cm. In the presence of a reducing agent the cells released approximately 80% of the total protein 4h after electrical treatment. At the same conditions the release of the recombinant protein was very slow, reaching 45% from total activity 20h after pulse application. The great difference in the release kinetics enabled to remove a part of the total protein, without significant loss of β-galactosidase activity, only by substituting the incubation buffer. The subsequent addition of lyticase (1-2U/ml) led to recovery of approximately 70% from the recombinant enzyme, with a factor of purification 2.6, without provoking a significant cell lysis. The applicability of similar protocol for liberation of large recombinant and native proteins from yeast is discussed. PMID:26142064

  7. Distribution and regulation of stochasticity and plasticity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dar, R. D.; Karig, D. K.; Cooke, J. F.; Cox, C. D.; Simpson, M. L.

    2010-09-01

    Stochasticity is an inherent feature of complex systems with nanoscale structure. In such systems information is represented by small collections of elements (e.g. a few electrons on a quantum dot), and small variations in the populations of these elements may lead to big uncertainties in the information. Unfortunately, little is known about how to work within this inherently noisy environment to design robust functionality into complex nanoscale systems. Here, we look to the biological cell as an intriguing model system where evolution has mediated the trade-offs between fluctuations and function, and in particular we look at the relationships and trade-offsmore » between stochastic and deterministic responses in the gene expression of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We find gene regulatory arrangements that control the stochastic and deterministic components of expression, and show that genes that have evolved to respond to stimuli (stress) in the most strongly deterministic way exhibit the most noise in the absence of the stimuli. We show that this relationship is consistent with a bursty 2-state model of gene expression, and demonstrate that this regulatory motif generates the most uncertainty in gene expression when there is the greatest uncertainty in the optimal level of gene expression.« less

  8. A novel selection system for chromosome translocations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Tennyson, Rachel B; Ebran, Nathalie; Herrera, Anissa E; Lindsley, Janet E

    2002-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are common genetic abnormalities found in both leukemias and solid tumors. While much has been learned about the effects of specific translocations on cell proliferation, much less is known about what causes these chromosome rearrangements. This article describes the development and use of a system that genetically selects for rare translocation events using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A translocation YAC was created that contains the breakpoint cluster region from the human MLL gene, a gene frequently involved in translocations in leukemia patients, flanked by positive and negative selection markers. A translocation between the YAC and a yeast chromosome, whose breakpoint falls within the MLL DNA, physically separates the markers and forms the basis for the selection. When RAD52 is deleted, essentially all of the selected and screened cells contain simple translocations. The detectable translocation rates are the same in haploids and diploids, although the mechanisms involved and true translocation rates may be distinct. A unique double-strand break induced within the MLL sequences increases the number of detectable translocation events 100- to 1000-fold. This novel system provides a tractable assay for answering basic mechanistic questions about the development of chromosomal translocations. PMID:11973293

  9. Effect of polygodial on the mitochondrial ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lunde, C S; Kubo, I

    2000-07-01

    The fungicidal mechanism of a naturally occurring sesquiterpene dialdehyde, polygodial, was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an acidification assay, polygodial completely suppressed the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 3.13 microgram/ml, the same as the fungicidal concentration. Acidification occurs primarily through the proton-pumping action of the plasma membrane ATPase, Pma1p. Surprisingly, this ATPase was not directly inhibited by polygodial. In contrast, the two other membrane-bound ATPases in yeast were found to be susceptible to the compound. The mitochondrial ATPase was inhibited by polygodial in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations similar to the fungicidal concentration, whereas the vacuolar ATPase was only slightly inhibited. Cytoplasmic petite mutants, which lack mitochondrial DNA and are respiration deficient, were significantly less susceptible to polygodial than the wild type, as was shown in time-kill curves. A pet9 mutant which lacks a functional ADP-ATP translocator and is therefore respiration dependent was rapidly inhibited by polygodial. The results of these susceptibility assays link enzyme inhibition to physiological effect. Previous studies have reported that plasma membrane disruption is the mechanism of polygodial-induced cell death; however, these results support a more complex picture of its effect. A major target of polygodial in yeast is mitochondrial ATP synthase. Reduction of the ATP supply leads to a suppression of Pma1 ATPase activity and impairs adaptive responses to other facets of polygodial's cellular inhibition.

  10. Genotoxicity assessment of amaranth and allura red using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Hafiza Sumara; ur Rahman, Sajjad; Mahmood, Shahid; Anwer, Sadaf

    2013-01-01

    Amaranth (E123) and Allura red (E129), very important food azo dyes used in food, drug, paper, cosmetic and textile industries, were assessed for their genotoxic potential through comet assay in yeast cells. Comet assay was standardized by with different concentration of H(2)O(2). Concentrations of Amaranth and Allura red were maintained in sorbitol buffer starting from 9.76 to 5,000 μg/mL and 1 × 10(4) cells were incubated at two different incubation temperatures 28 and 37°C. Amaranth (E123) and Allura red (E129) were found to exhibit their genotoxic effect directly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. No significant genotoxic activity was observed for Amaranth and Allura red at 28°C but at 37°C direct relation of Amaranth concentration with comet tail was significant and no positive relation was seen with time exposure factor. At 37°C the minimum concentration of Amaranth and Allura red at which significant DNA damage observed through comet assay was 1,250 μg/mL in 2nd h post exposure time. The results indicated that food colors should be carefully used in baking products as heavy concentration of food colors could affect the fermentation process of baking.

  11. Proteomic Profiling of Autophagosome Cargo in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Mayumi; Fujii, Kiyonaga; Noda, Nobuo N.; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a bulk protein-degradation system ubiquitously conserved in eukaryotic cells. During autophagy, cytoplasmic components are enclosed in a membrane compartment, called an autophagosome. The autophagosome fuses with the vacuole/lysosome and is degraded together with its cargo. Because autophagy is important for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis by degrading unwanted proteins and organelles, identification of autophagosome cargo proteins (i.e., the targets of autophagy) will aid in understanding the physiological roles of autophagy. In this study, we developed a method for monitoring intact autophagosomes ex vivo by detecting the fluorescence of GFP-fused aminopeptidase I, the best-characterized selective cargo of autophagosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This method facilitated optimization of a biochemical procedure to fractionate autophagosomes. A combination of LC-MS/MS with subsequent statistical analyses revealed a list of autophagosome cargo proteins; some of these are selectively enclosed in autophagosomes and delivered to the vacuole in an Atg11-independent manner. The methods we describe will be useful for analyzing the mechanisms and physiological significance of Atg11-independent selective autophagy. PMID:24626240

  12. Tor1 regulates protein solubility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Theodore W.; Rardin, Matthew J.; Czerwieniec, Gregg; Evani, Uday S.; Reis-Rodrigues, Pedro; Lithgow, Gordon J.; Mooney, Sean D.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Hughes, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of insoluble protein in cells is associated with aging and aging-related diseases; however, the roles of insoluble protein in these processes are uncertain. The nature and impact of changes to protein solubility during normal aging are less well understood. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we identify 480 proteins that become insoluble during postmitotic aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and show that this ensemble of insoluble proteins is similar to those that accumulate in aging nematodes. SDS-insoluble protein is present exclusively in a nonquiescent subpopulation of postmitotic cells, indicating an asymmetrical distribution of this protein. In addition, we show that nitrogen starvation of young cells is sufficient to cause accumulation of a similar group of insoluble proteins. Although many of the insoluble proteins identified are known to be autophagic substrates, induction of macroautophagy is not required for insoluble protein formation. However, genetic or chemical inhibition of the Tor1 kinase is sufficient to promote accumulation of insoluble protein. We conclude that target of rapamycin complex 1 regulates accumulation of insoluble proteins via mechanisms acting upstream of macroautophagy. Our data indicate that the accumulation of proteins in an SDS-insoluble state in postmitotic cells represents a novel autophagic cargo preparation process that is regulated by the Tor1 kinase. PMID:23097491

  13. Crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, C. J.; Barry, T.; Doonan, S.; Petsko, G. A.; Ringe, D.

    1998-01-01

    The crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1) has been determined to 2.05 A resolution in the presence of the cofactor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and the competitive inhibitor maleate. The structure was solved by the method of molecular replacement. The final value of the crystallographic R-factor after refinement was 23.1% with good geometry of the final model. The yeast cytoplasmic enzyme is a homodimer with two identical active sites containing residues from each subunit. It is found in the "closed" conformation with a bound maleate inhibitor in each active site. It shares the same three-dimensional fold and active site residues as the aspartate aminotransferases from Escherichia coli, chicken cytoplasm, and chicken mitochondria, although it shares less than 50% sequence identity with any of them. The availability of four similar enzyme structures from distant regions of the evolutionary tree provides a measure of tolerated changes that can arise during millions of years of evolution. PMID:9655342

  14. Regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair gene RAD16.

    PubMed Central

    Bang, D D; Timmermans, V; Verhage, R; Zeeman, A M; van de Putte, P; Brouwer, J

    1995-01-01

    The RAD16 gene product has been shown to be essential for the repair of the silenced mating type loci [Bang et al. (1992) Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 3925-3931]. More recently we demonstrated that the RAD16 and RAD7 proteins are also required for repair of non-transcribed strands of active genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Waters et al. (1993) Mol. Gen. Genet. 239, 28-32]. We have studied the regulation of the RAD16 gene and found that the RAD16 transcript levels increased up to 7-fold upon UV irradiation. Heat shock at 42 degrees C also results in elevated levels of RAD16 mRNA. In sporulating MAT alpha/MATa diploid cells RAD16 mRNA is also induced. The basal level of the RAD16 transcript is constant during the mitotic cell cycle. G1-arrested cells show normal induction of RAD16 mRNA upon UV irradiation demonstrating that the induction is not a secondary consequence of G2 cell cycle arrest following UV irradiation. However, in cells arrested in G1 the induction of RAD16 mRNA after UV irradiation is not followed by a rapid decline as occurs in normal growing cells suggesting that the down regulation of RAD16 transcription is dependent on progression into the cell cycle. Images PMID:7784171

  15. The Network Architecture of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genome

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Stephen A.; Bekiranov, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We propose a network-based approach for surmising the spatial organization of genomes from high-throughput interaction data. Our strategy is based on methods for inferring architectural features of networks. Specifically, we employ a community detection algorithm to partition networks of genomic interactions. These community partitions represent an intuitive interpretation of genomic organization from interaction data. Furthermore, they are able to recapitulate known aspects of the spatial organization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, such as the rosette conformation of the genome, the clustering of centromeres, as well as tRNAs, and telomeres. We also demonstrate that simple architectural features of genomic interaction networks, such as cliques, can give meaningful insight into the functional role of the spatial organization of the genome. We show that there is a correlation between inter-chromosomal clique size and replication timing, as well as cohesin enrichment. Together, our network-based approach represents an effective and intuitive framework for interpreting high-throughput genomic interaction data. Importantly, there is a great potential for this strategy, given the rich literature and extensive set of existing tools in the field of network analysis. PMID:24349163

  16. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve 1-hexadecanol production.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xueyang; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Fatty alcohols are important components of a vast array of surfactants, lubricants, detergents, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. We have engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce 1-hexadecanol by expressing a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) from barn owl (Tyto alba). In order to improve fatty alcohol production, we have manipulated both the structural genes and the regulatory genes in yeast lipid metabolism. The acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene (ACC1) was over-expressed, which improved 1-hexadecanol production by 56% (from 45mg/L to 71mg/L). Knocking out the negative regulator of the INO1 gene in phospholipid metabolism, RPD3, further enhanced 1-hexadecanol production by 98% (from 71mg/L to 140mg/L). The cytosolic acetyl-CoA supply was next engineered by expressing a heterologous ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which increased the production of 1-hexadecanol by an additional 136% (from 140mg/L to 330mg/L). Through fed-batch fermentation using resting cells, over 1.1g/L 1-hexadecanol can be produced in glucose minimal medium, which represents the highest titer reported in yeast to date. PMID:25466225

  17. Calcium dependence of eugenol tolerance and toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Stephen K; McAinsh, Martin; Cantopher, Hanna; Sandison, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Eugenol is a plant-derived phenolic compound which has recognised therapeutical potential as an antifungal agent. However little is known of either its fungicidal activity or the mechanisms employed by fungi to tolerate eugenol toxicity. A better exploitation of eugenol as a therapeutic agent will therefore depend on addressing this knowledge gap. Eugenol initiates increases in cytosolic Ca2+ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is partly dependent on the plasma membrane calcium channel, Cch1p. However, it is unclear whether a toxic cytosolic Ca2+elevation mediates the fungicidal activity of eugenol. In the present study, no significant difference in yeast survival was observed following transient eugenol treatment in the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, using yeast expressing apoaequorin to report cytosolic Ca2+ and a range of eugenol derivatives, antifungal activity did not appear to be coupled to Ca2+ influx or cytosolic Ca2+ elevation. Taken together, these results suggest that eugenol toxicity is not dependent on a toxic influx of Ca2+. In contrast, careful control of extracellular Ca2+ (using EGTA or BAPTA) revealed that tolerance of yeast to eugenol depended on Ca2+ influx via Cch1p. These findings expose significant differences between the antifungal activity of eugenol and that of azoles, amiodarone and carvacrol. This study highlights the potential to use eugenol in combination with other antifungal agents that exhibit differing modes of action as antifungal agents to combat drug resistant infections.

  18. Redundant Regulation of Cdk1 Tyrosine Dephosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Erin K; Dysart, Michael; Lianga, Noel; Williams, Elizabeth C; Pilon, Sophie; Doré, Carole; Deneault, Jean-Sebastien; Rudner, Adam D

    2016-03-01

    Cdk1 activity drives both mitotic entry and the metaphase-to-anaphase transition in all eukaryotes. The kinase Wee1 and the phosphatase Cdc25 regulate the mitotic activity of Cdk1 by the reversible phosphorylation of a conserved tyrosine residue. Mutation of cdc25 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe blocks Cdk1 dephosphorylation and causes cell cycle arrest. In contrast, deletion of MIH1, the cdc25 homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is viable. Although Cdk1-Y19 phosphorylation is elevated during mitosis in mih1∆ cells, Cdk1 is dephosphorylated as cells progress into G1, suggesting that additional phosphatases regulate Cdk1 dephosphorylation. Here we show that the phosphatase Ptp1 also regulates Cdk1 dephosphorylation in vivo and can directly dephosphorylate Cdk1 in vitro. Using a novel in vivo phosphatase assay, we also show that PP2A bound to Rts1, the budding yeast B56-regulatory subunit, regulates dephosphorylation of Cdk1 independently of a function regulating Swe1, Mih1, or Ptp1, suggesting that PP2A(Rts1) either directly dephosphorylates Cdk1-Y19 or regulates an unidentified phosphatase. PMID:26715668

  19. MAP kinase pathways in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustin, M. C.; Albertyn, J.; Alexander, M.; Davenport, K.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A cascade of three protein kinases known as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is commonly found as part of the signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. Almost two decades of genetic and biochemical experimentation plus the recently completed DNA sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome have revealed just five functionally distinct MAPK cascades in this yeast. Sexual conjugation, cell growth, and adaptation to stress, for example, all require MAPK-mediated cellular responses. A primary function of these cascades appears to be the regulation of gene expression in response to extracellular signals or as part of specific developmental processes. In addition, the MAPK cascades often appear to regulate the cell cycle and vice versa. Despite the success of the gene hunter era in revealing these pathways, there are still many significant gaps in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms for activation of these cascades and how the cascades regulate cell function. For example, comparison of different yeast signaling pathways reveals a surprising variety of different types of upstream signaling proteins that function to activate a MAPK cascade, yet how the upstream proteins actually activate the cascade remains unclear. We also know that the yeast MAPK pathways regulate each other and interact with other signaling pathways to produce a coordinated pattern of gene expression, but the molecular mechanisms of this cross talk are poorly understood. This review is therefore an attempt to present the current knowledge of MAPK pathways in yeast and some directions for future research in this area.

  20. Efficient Sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a 96 Multiwell Format.

    PubMed

    Paulissen, Scott M; Huang, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    During times of nutritional stress, Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes gametogenesis, known as sporulation. Diploid yeast cells that are starved for nitrogen and carbon will initiate the sporulation process. The process of sporulation includes meiosis followed by spore formation, where the haploid nuclei are packaged into environmentally resistant spores. We have developed methods for the efficient sporulation of budding yeast in 96 multiwell plates, to increase the throughput of screening yeast cells for sporulation phenotypes. These methods are compatible with screening with yeast containing plasmids requiring nutritional selection, when appropriate minimal media is used, or with screening yeast with genomic alterations, when a rich presporulation regimen is used. We find that for this method, aeration during sporulation is critical for spore formation, and have devised techniques to ensure sufficient aeration that are compatible with the 96 multiwell plate format. Although these methods do not achieve the typical ~80% level of sporulation that can be achieved in large-volume flask based experiments, these methods will reliably achieve about 50-60% level of sporulation in small-volume multiwell plates. PMID:27684273

  1. Initiation of recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid meiosis.

    PubMed Central

    De Massy, B; Baudat, F; Nicolas, A

    1994-01-01

    In most eukaryotes during prophase I of meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair and recombine by coordinated molecular and cellular processes. To directly test whether or not the early steps of the initiation of recombination depend on the presence of a homologous chromosome, we have examined the formation and processing of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, the earliest physical landmark of recombination initiation) in various haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains capable of entering meiosis. We find that DSBs occur in haploid meiosis, showing that the presence of a homolog is not required for DSB formation. DSBs occur at the same positions in haploid and diploid meioses. However, these two types of meiosis exhibit subtle differences with respect to the timing of formation and levels of DSBs. In haploid meiosis, a slower rate of DSB formation and a reduction in the frequency of DSB (at one of the three sites analyzed) were observed. These results might indicate that interactions between homologs play a role in the formation of meiotic DSBs. Furthermore, haploid strains exhibit a pronounced delay in the disappearance of meiotic DSBs compared to diploid strains, which suggests that sister chromatid interactions for DSB repair are inhibited in haploid meiosis. Images PMID:7991559

  2. An overview of membrane transport proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Andre, B

    1995-12-01

    All eukaryotic cells contain a wide variety of proteins embedded in the plasma and internal membranes, which ensure transmembrane solute transport. It is now established that a large proportion of these transport proteins can be grouped into families apparently conserved throughout organisms. This article presents the data of an in silicio analysis aimed at establishing a preliminary classification of membrane transport proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This analysis was conducted at a time when about 65% of all yeast genes were available in public databases. In addition to approximately 60 transport proteins whose function was at least partially known, approximately 100 deduced protein sequences of unknown function display significant sequence similarity to membrane transport proteins characterized in yeast and/or other organisms. While some protein families have been well characterized by classical genetic experimental approaches, others have largely if not totally escaped characterization. The proteins revealed by this in silicio analysis also include a putative K+ channel, proteins similar to aquaporins of plant and animal origin, proteins similar to Na+-solute symporters, a protein very similar to electroneural cation-chloride cotransporters, and a putative Na+-H+ antiporter. A new research area is anticipated: the functional analysis of many transport proteins whose existence was revealed by genome sequencing.

  3. Water-Transfer Slows Aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Aviv; Weindling, Esther; Rabinovich, Efrat; Nachman, Iftach; Fuchs, Shai; Chuartzman, Silvia; Gal, Lihi; Schuldiner, Maya; Bar-Nun, Shoshana

    2016-01-01

    Transferring Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to water is known to extend their lifespan. However, it is unclear whether this lifespan extension is due to slowing the aging process or merely keeping old yeast alive. Here we show that in water-transferred yeast, the toxicity of polyQ proteins is decreased and the aging biomarker 47Q aggregates at a reduced rate and to a lesser extent. These beneficial effects of water-transfer could not be reproduced by diluting the growth medium and depended on de novo protein synthesis and proteasomes levels. Interestingly, we found that upon water-transfer 27 proteins are downregulated, 4 proteins are upregulated and 81 proteins change their intracellular localization, hinting at an active genetic program enabling the lifespan extension. Furthermore, the aging-related deterioration of the heat shock response (HSR), the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD), was largely prevented in water-transferred yeast, as the activities of these proteostatic network pathways remained nearly as robust as in young yeast. The characteristics of young yeast that are actively maintained upon water-transfer indicate that the extended lifespan is the outcome of slowing the rate of the aging process. PMID:26862897

  4. Nutrient sensing and signaling in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Michaela; Schothorst, Joep; Kankipati, Harish Nag; Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Rubio-Texeira, Marta; Thevelein, Johan M

    2014-03-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a favorite organism for pioneering studies on nutrient-sensing and signaling mechanisms. Many specific nutrient responses have been elucidated in great detail. This has led to important new concepts and insight into nutrient-controlled cellular regulation. Major highlights include the central role of the Snf1 protein kinase in the glucose repression pathway, galactose induction, the discovery of a G-protein-coupled receptor system, and role of Ras in glucose-induced cAMP signaling, the role of the protein synthesis initiation machinery in general control of nitrogen metabolism, the cyclin-controlled protein kinase Pho85 in phosphate regulation, nitrogen catabolite repression and the nitrogen-sensing target of rapamycin pathway, and the discovery of transporter-like proteins acting as nutrient sensors. In addition, a number of cellular targets, like carbohydrate stores, stress tolerance, and ribosomal gene expression, are controlled by the presence of multiple nutrients. The protein kinase A signaling pathway plays a major role in this general nutrient response. It has led to the discovery of nutrient transceptors (transporter receptors) as nutrient sensors. Major shortcomings in our knowledge are the relationship between rapid and steady-state nutrient signaling, the role of metabolic intermediates in intracellular nutrient sensing, and the identity of the nutrient sensors controlling cellular growth.

  5. Xylose Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Challenges and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Moysés, Danuza Nogueira; Reis, Viviane Castelo Branco; de Almeida, João Ricardo Moreira; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Many years have passed since the first genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains capable of fermenting xylose were obtained with the promise of an environmentally sustainable solution for the conversion of the abundant lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. Several challenges emerged from these first experiences, most of them related to solving redox imbalances, discovering new pathways for xylose utilization, modulation of the expression of genes of the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and reduction of xylitol formation. Strategies on evolutionary engineering were used to improve fermentation kinetics, but the resulting strains were still far from industrial application. Lignocellulosic hydrolysates proved to have different inhibitors derived from lignin and sugar degradation, along with significant amounts of acetic acid, intrinsically related with biomass deconstruction. This, associated with pH, temperature, high ethanol, and other stress fluctuations presented on large scale fermentations led the search for yeasts with more robust backgrounds, like industrial strains, as engineering targets. Some promising yeasts were obtained both from studies of stress tolerance genes and adaptation on hydrolysates. Since fermentation times on mixed-substrate hydrolysates were still not cost-effective, the more selective search for new or engineered sugar transporters for xylose are still the focus of many recent studies. These challenges, as well as under-appreciated process strategies, will be discussed in this review. PMID:26927067

  6. Ecological and Genetic Barriers Differentiate Natural Populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Clowers, Katie J; Heilberger, Justin; Piotrowski, Jeff S; Will, Jessica L; Gasch, Audrey P

    2015-09-01

    How populations that inhabit the same geographical area become genetically differentiated is not clear. To investigate this, we characterized phenotypic and genetic differences between two populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that in some cases inhabit the same environment but show relatively little gene flow. We profiled stress sensitivity in a group of vineyard isolates and a group of oak-soil strains and found several niche-related phenotypes that distinguish the populations. We performed bulk-segregant mapping on two of the distinguishing traits: The vineyard-specific ability to grow in grape juice and oak-specific tolerance to the cell wall damaging drug Congo red. To implicate causal genes, we also performed a chemical genomic screen in the lab-strain deletion collection and identified many important genes that fell under quantitative trait loci peaks. One gene important for growth in grape juice and identified by both the mapping and the screen was SSU1, a sulfite-nitrite pump implicated in wine fermentations. The beneficial allele is generated by a known translocation that we reasoned may also serve as a genetic barrier. We found that the translocation is prevalent in vineyard strains, but absent in oak strains, and presents a postzygotic barrier to spore viability. Furthermore, the translocation was associated with a fitness cost to the rapid growth rate seen in oak-soil strains. Our results reveal the translocation as a dual-function locus that enforces ecological differentiation while producing a genetic barrier to gene flow in these sympatric populations.

  7. Phosphatidylcholine Supply to Peroxisomes of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ramprecht, Claudia; Zellnig, Günther; Leitner, Erich; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid (PL) of all organelle membranes, is synthesized via two different pathways. Methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) catalyzed by the methyl transferases Cho2p/Pem1p and Opi3p/Pem2p as well as incorporation of choline through the CDP (cytidine diphosphate)-choline branch of the Kennedy pathway lead to PC formation. To determine the contribution of these two pathways to the supply of PC to peroxisomes (PX), yeast mutants bearing defects in the two pathways were cultivated under peroxisome inducing conditions, i.e. in the presence of oleic acid, and subjected to biochemical and cell biological analyses. Phenotype studies revealed compromised growth of both the cho20Δopi3Δ (mutations in the methylation pathway) and the cki1Δdpl1Δeki1Δ (mutations in the CDP-choline pathway) mutant when grown on oleic acid. Analysis of peroxisomes from the two mutant strains showed that both pathways produce PC for the supply to peroxisomes, although the CDP-choline pathway seemed to contribute with higher efficiency than the methylation pathway. Changes in the peroxisomal lipid pattern of mutants caused by defects in the PC biosynthetic pathways resulted in changes of membrane properties as shown by anisotropy measurements with fluorescent probes. In summary, our data define the origin of peroxisomal PC and demonstrate the importance of PC for peroxisome membrane formation and integrity. PMID:26241051

  8. Genomic Analysis of ATP Efflux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Peters, Theodore W; Miller, Aaron W; Tourette, Cendrine; Agren, Hannah; Hubbard, Alan; Hughes, Robert E

    2015-11-19

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays an important role as a primary molecule for the transfer of chemical energy to drive biological processes. ATP also functions as an extracellular signaling molecule in a diverse array of eukaryotic taxa in a conserved process known as purinergic signaling. Given the important roles of extracellular ATP in cell signaling, we sought to comprehensively elucidate the pathways and mechanisms governing ATP efflux from eukaryotic cells. Here, we present results of a genomic analysis of ATP efflux from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by measuring extracellular ATP levels in cultures of 4609 deletion mutants. This screen revealed key cellular processes that regulate extracellular ATP levels, including mitochondrial translation and vesicle sorting in the late endosome, indicating that ATP production and transport through vesicles are required for efflux. We also observed evidence for altered ATP efflux in strains deleted for genes involved in amino acid signaling, and mitochondrial retrograde signaling. Based on these results, we propose a model in which the retrograde signaling pathway potentiates amino acid signaling to promote mitochondrial respiration. This study advances our understanding of the mechanism of ATP secretion in eukaryotes and implicates TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and nutrient signaling pathways in the regulation of ATP efflux. These results will facilitate analysis of ATP efflux mechanisms in higher eukaryotes.

  9. Tanshinones extend chronological lifespan in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2014-10-01

    Natural products with anti-aging property have drawn great attention recently but examples of such compounds are exceedingly scarce. By applying a high-throughput assay based on yeast chronological lifespan measurement, we screened the anti-aging activity of 144 botanical materials and found that dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge have significant anti-aging activity. Tanshinones isolated from the plant including cryptotanshione, tanshinone I, and tanshinone IIa, are the active components. Among them, cryptotanshinone can greatly extend the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chronological lifespan (up to 2.5 times) in a dose- and the-time-of-addition-dependent manner at nanomolar concentrations without disruption of cell growth. We demonstrate that cryptotanshinone prolong chronological lifespan via a nutrient-dependent regime, especially essential amino acid sensing, and three conserved protein kinases Tor1, Sch9, and Gcn2 are required for cryptotanshinone-induced lifespan extension. In addition, cryptotanshinone significantly increases the lifespan of SOD2-deleted mutants. Altogether, those data suggest that cryptotanshinone might be involved in the regulation of, Tor1, Sch9, Gcn2, and Sod2, these highly conserved longevity proteins modulated by nutrients from yeast to humans.

  10. Water-Transfer Slows Aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Aviv; Weindling, Esther; Rabinovich, Efrat; Nachman, Iftach; Fuchs, Shai; Chuartzman, Silvia; Gal, Lihi; Schuldiner, Maya; Bar-Nun, Shoshana

    2016-01-01

    Transferring Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to water is known to extend their lifespan. However, it is unclear whether this lifespan extension is due to slowing the aging process or merely keeping old yeast alive. Here we show that in water-transferred yeast, the toxicity of polyQ proteins is decreased and the aging biomarker 47Q aggregates at a reduced rate and to a lesser extent. These beneficial effects of water-transfer could not be reproduced by diluting the growth medium and depended on de novo protein synthesis and proteasomes levels. Interestingly, we found that upon water-transfer 27 proteins are downregulated, 4 proteins are upregulated and 81 proteins change their intracellular localization, hinting at an active genetic program enabling the lifespan extension. Furthermore, the aging-related deterioration of the heat shock response (HSR), the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD), was largely prevented in water-transferred yeast, as the activities of these proteostatic network pathways remained nearly as robust as in young yeast. The characteristics of young yeast that are actively maintained upon water-transfer indicate that the extended lifespan is the outcome of slowing the rate of the aging process. PMID:26862897

  11. Plasmid Recombination in a Rad52 Mutant of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Dornfeld, K. J.; Livingston, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    Using plasmids capable of undergoing intramolecular recombination, we have compared the rates and the molecular outcomes of recombination events in a wild-type and a rad52 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The plasmids contain his3 heteroalleles oriented in either an inverted or a direct repeat. Inverted repeat plasmids recombine approximately 20-fold less frequently in the mutant than in the wild-type strain. Most events from both cell types have continuous coconversion tracts extending along one of the homologous segments. Reciprocal exchange occurs in fewer than 30% of events. Direct repeat plasmids recombine at rates comparable to those of inverted repeat plasmids in wild-type cells. Direct repeat conversion tracts are similar to inverted repeat conversion tracts in their continuity and length. Inverted and direct repeat plasmid recombination differ in two respects. First, rad52 does not affect the rate of direct repeat recombination as drastically as the rate of inverted repeat recombination. Second, direct repeat plasmids undergo crossing over more frequently than inverted repeat plasmids. In addition, crossovers constitute a larger fraction of mutant than wild-type direct repeat events. Many crossover events from both cell types are unusual in that the crossover HIS3 allele is within a plasmid containing the parental his3 heteroalleles. PMID:1644271

  12. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Fumihisa; Shibata, Michiko; Torigoe, Motoki; Matsumoto, Yuta; Yamamoto, Shinsuke; Takizawa, Noboru; Hada, Yoshio; Mori, Yoshihisa; Takarabe, Kenichi

    2013-06-01

    In our previous studies on the tolerance of small plants and animals to the high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa, it was shown that all the living samples could be borne at this high pressure, which is more than one order of magnitude higher than the proteinic denaturation pressure. To make this inconsistency clear, we have extended these studies to a smaller sized fungus, budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate (PC72, Sumitomo 3M), and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar (PDA). It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for 12 and 24 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is weaker than that of tardigrades.

  13. Symmetric cell division in pseudohyphae of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Kron, S J; Styles, C A; Fink, G R

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are dimorphic; in response to nitrogen starvation they switch from a yeast form (YF) to a filamentous pseudohyphal (PH) form. Time-lapse video microscopy of dividing cells reveals that YF and PH cells differ in their cell cycles and budding polarity. The YF cell cycle is controlled at the G1/S transition by the cell-size checkpoint Start. YF cells divide asymmetrically, producing small daughters from full-sized mothers. As a result, mothers and daughters bud asynchronously. Mothers bud immediately but daughters grow in G1 until they achieve a critical cell size. By contrast, PH cells divide symmetrically, restricting mitosis until the bud grows to the size of the mother. Thus, mother and daughter bud synchronously in the next cycle, without a G1 delay before Start. YF and PH cells also exhibit distinct bud-site selection patterns. YF cells are bipolar, producing their second and subsequent buds at either pole. PH cells are unipolar, producing their second and subsequent buds only from the end opposite the junction with their mother. We propose that in PH cells a G2 cell-size checkpoint delays mitosis until bud size reaches that of the mother cell. We conclude that yeast and PH forms are distinct cell types each with a unique cell cycle, budding pattern, and cell shape. Images PMID:7841518

  14. Analysis of Meiotic Recombination Pathways in the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Mao-Draayer, Y.; Galbraith, A. M.; Pittman, D. L.; Cool, M.; Malone, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    In the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, several genes appear to act early in meiotic recombination. HOP1 and RED1 have been classified as such early genes. The data in this paper demonstrate that neither a red1 nor a hop1 mutation can rescue the inviable spores produced by a rad52 spo13 strain; this phenotype helps to distinguish these two genes from other early meiotic recombination genes such as SPO11, REC104, or MEI4. In contrast, either a red1 or a hop1 mutation can rescue a rad50S spo13 strain; this phenotype is similar to that conferred by mutations in the other early recombination genes (e.g., REC104). These two different results can be explained because the data presented here indicate that a rad50S mutation does not diminish meiotic intrachromosomal recombination, similar to the mutant phenotypes conferred by red1 or hop1. Of course, RED1 and HOP1 do act in the normal meiotic interchromosomal recombination pathway; they reduce interchromosomal recombination to ~10% of normal levels. We demonstrate that a mutation in a gene (REC104) required for initiation of exchange is completely epistatic to a mutation in RED1. Finally, mutations in either HOP1 or RED1 reduce the number of double-strand breaks observed at the HIS2 meiotic recombination hotspot. PMID:8878674

  15. Transcriptional Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Desiccation and Rehydration†

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jatinder; Kumar, Deept; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Singhal, Vibha; Jervis, Jody; Garst, James F.; Slaughter, Stephen M.; DeSantis, Andrea M.; Potts, Malcolm; Helm, Richard F.

    2005-01-01

    A transcriptional analysis of the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743 to controlled air-drying (desiccation) and subsequent rehydration under minimal glucose conditions was performed. Expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle was observed to increase during drying and remained in this state during the rehydration phase. When the BY4743 expression profile for the dried sample was compared to that of a commercially prepared dry active yeast, strikingly similar expression changes were observed. The fact that these two samples, dried by different means, possessed very similar transcriptional profiles supports the hypothesis that the response to desiccation is a coordinated event independent of the particular conditions involved in water removal. Similarities between “stationary-phase-essential genes” and those upregulated during desiccation were also noted, suggesting commonalities in different routes to reduced metabolic states. Trends in extracellular and intracellular glucose and trehalose levels suggested that the cells were in a “holding pattern” during the rehydration phase, a concept that was reinforced by cell cycle analyses. Application of a “redescription mining” algorithm suggested that sulfur metabolism is important for cell survival during desiccation and rehydration. PMID:16332871

  16. In vivo Reconstitution of Algal Triacylglycerol Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chun-Hsien; Kanehara, Kazue; Nakamura, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    The current fascination with algal biofuel production stems from a high lipid biosynthetic capacity and little conflict with land plant cultivation. However, the mechanisms which enable algae to accumulate massive oil remain elusive. An enzyme for triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CrDGTT2, can produce a large amount of TAG when expressed in yeast or higher plants, suggesting a unique ability of CrDGTT2 to enhance oil production in a heterologous system. Here, we performed metabolic engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by taking advantage of CrDGTT2. We suppressed membrane phospholipid biosynthesis at the log phase by mutating OPI3, enhanced TAG biosynthetic pathway at the stationary phase by overexpressing PAH1 and CrDGTT2, and suppressed TAG hydrolysis on growth resumption from the stationary phase by knocking out DGK1. The resulting engineered yeast cells accumulated about 70-fold of TAG compared with wild type cells. Moreover, TAG production was sustainable. Our results demonstrated the enhanced and sustainable TAG production in the yeast synthetic platform. PMID:26913021

  17. Electroinduced release of recombinant β-galactosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ganeva, Valentina; Stefanova, Debora; Angelova, Boyana; Galutzov, Bojidar; Velasco, Isabel; Arévalo-Rodríguez, Miguel

    2015-10-10

    Yeasts are one of the most commonly used systems for recombinant protein production. When the protein is intracelullarly expressed the first step comprises a cell lysis, achieved usually by a mechanical disintegration. This leads to non-selective liberation of the cytoplasmic content, which complicates the following downstream process. Here, we present a new approach suitable for more selective and efficient recovery of large intracellular proteins from yeast, based on the combination of electropermeabilisation and subsequent treatment with lytic enzyme. The experiments were performed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing LYTAG-β-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. The permeabilzation of plasma membrane was induced by application of rectangular electric pulses, with 1.25ms duration and field intensity of 4.3-5.4kV/cm. In the presence of a reducing agent the cells released approximately 80% of the total protein 4h after electrical treatment. At the same conditions the release of the recombinant protein was very slow, reaching 45% from total activity 20h after pulse application. The great difference in the release kinetics enabled to remove a part of the total protein, without significant loss of β-galactosidase activity, only by substituting the incubation buffer. The subsequent addition of lyticase (1-2U/ml) led to recovery of approximately 70% from the recombinant enzyme, with a factor of purification 2.6, without provoking a significant cell lysis. The applicability of similar protocol for liberation of large recombinant and native proteins from yeast is discussed.

  18. Genetic dissection of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peng; Xiao, Yin; Hu, Yun; Sun, Haiye; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Dissection of the hereditary architecture underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for ethanol fermentation. In this work, a genomics approach was used to dissect hereditary variations in acetic acid tolerance between two phenotypically different strains. A total of 160 segregants derived from these two strains were obtained. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the acetic acid tolerance displayed a normal distribution in these segregants, and suggested that the acetic acid tolerant traits were controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, 220 SSR markers covering the whole genome were used to detect QTLs of acetic acid tolerant traits. As a result, three QTLs were located on chromosomes 9, 12, and 16, respectively, which explained 38.8-65.9 % of the range of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, twelve genes of the candidates fell into the three QTL regions by integrating the QTL analysis with candidates of acetic acid tolerant genes. These results provided a novel avenue to obtain more robust strains. PMID:27430512

  19. Biochemical basis of mitochondrial acetaldehyde dismutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Thielen, J; Ciriacy, M

    1991-01-01

    As reported previously, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells deficient in all four known genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH1 through ADH4) produce considerable amounts of ethanol during aerobic growth on glucose. It has been suggested that ethanol production in such adh0 cells is a corollary of acetaldehyde dismutation in mitochondria. This could be substantiated further by showing that mitochondrial ethanol formation requires functional electron transport, while the proton gradient or oxidative phosphorylation does not interfere with reduction of acetaldehyde in isolated mitochondria. This acetaldehyde-reducing activity is different from classical alcohol dehydrogenases in that it is associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane and also is unable to carry out ethanol oxidation. The putative cofactor is NADH + H+ generated by a soluble, matrix-located aldehyde dehydrogenase upon acetaldehyde oxidation to acetate. This enzyme has been purified from mitochondria of glucose-grown cells. It is clearly different from the known mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, which is absent in glucose-grown cells. Both acetaldehyde-reducing and acetaldehyde-oxidizing activities are also present in the mitochondrial fraction of fermentation-proficient (ADH+) cells. Mitochondrial acetaldehyde dismutation may have some significance in the removal of surplus acetaldehyde and in the formation of acetate in mitochondria during aerobic glucose fermentation. Images FIG. 4 PMID:1938903

  20. D-xylulose fermentation to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, L.C.; Gong, C.S.; Chen, L.F.; Tsao, G.T.

    1981-08-01

    Commercial bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was used to study the conversion of D-xylulose to ethanol in the presence of D-xylose. The rate of ethanol production increased with an increase in yeast cell density. The optimal temperature for D-xylulose fermentation was 35 degrees Celcius, and the optimal pH range was 4 to 6. The fermentation of D-xylulose by yeast resulted in the production of ethanol as the major product; small amounts of xylitol and glycerol were also produced. The production of xylitol was influenced by pH as well as temperature. High pH values and low temperatures enhanced xylitol production. The rate of D-xylulose fermentation decreased when the production of ethanol yielded concentrations of 4% or more. The slow conversion rate of D-xylulose to ethanol was increased by increasing the yeast cell density. The overall production of ethanol from D-xylulose by yeast cells under optimal conditions was 90% of the theoretical yield. (Refs. 21).

  1. Distribution and regulation of stochasticity and plasticity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, Roy D.; Karig, David K; Cooke, John F; Cox, Chris D.; Simpson, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Stochasticity is an inherent feature of complex systems with nanoscale structure. In such systems information is represented by small collections of elements (e.g. a few electrons on a quantum dot), and small variations in the populations of these elements may lead to big uncertainties in the information. Unfortunately, little is known about how to work within this inherently noisy environment to design robust functionality into complex nanoscale systems. Here, we look to the biological cell as an intriguing model system where evolution has mediated the trade-offs between fluctuations and function, and in particular we look at the relationships and trade-offs between stochastic and deterministic responses in the gene expression of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We find gene regulatory arrangements that control the stochastic and deterministic components of expression, and show that genes that have evolved to respond to stimuli (stress) in the most strongly deterministic way exhibit the most noise in the absence of the stimuli. We show that this relationship is consistent with a bursty 2-state model of gene expression, and demonstrate that this regulatory motif generates the most uncertainty in gene expression when there is the greatest uncertainty in the optimal level of gene expression.

  2. Distribution and regulation of stochasticity and plasticity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, R. D.; Karig, D. K.; Cooke, J. F.; Cox, C. D.; Simpson, M. L.

    2010-09-01

    Stochasticity is an inherent feature of complex systems with nanoscale structure. In such systems information is represented by small collections of elements (e.g. a few electrons on a quantum dot), and small variations in the populations of these elements may lead to big uncertainties in the information. Unfortunately, little is known about how to work within this inherently noisy environment to design robust functionality into complex nanoscale systems. Here, we look to the biological cell as an intriguing model system where evolution has mediated the trade-offs between fluctuations and function, and in particular we look at the relationships and trade-offs between stochastic and deterministic responses in the gene expression of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We find gene regulatory arrangements that control the stochastic and deterministic components of expression, and show that genes that have evolved to respond to stimuli (stress) in the most strongly deterministic way exhibit the most noise in the absence of the stimuli. We show that this relationship is consistent with a bursty 2-state model of gene expression, and demonstrate that this regulatory motif generates the most uncertainty in gene expression when there is the greatest uncertainty in the optimal level of gene expression.

  3. Carboxylic Acids Plasma Membrane Transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Casal, Margarida; Queirós, Odília; Talaia, Gabriel; Ribas, David; Paiva, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This chapter covers the functionally characterized plasma membrane carboxylic acids transporters Jen1, Ady2, Fps1 and Pdr12 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, addressing also their homologues in other microorganisms, as filamentous fungi and bacteria. Carboxylic acids can either be transported into the cells, to be used as nutrients, or extruded in response to acid stress conditions. The secondary active transporters Jen1 and Ady2 can mediate the uptake of the anionic form of these substrates by a H(+)-symport mechanism. The undissociated form of carboxylic acids is lipid-soluble, crossing the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. Furthermore, acetic acid can also be transported by facilitated diffusion via Fps1 channel. At the cytoplasmic physiological pH, the anionic form of the acid prevails and it can be exported by the Pdr12 pump. This review will highlight the mechanisms involving carboxylic acids transporters, and the way they operate according to the yeast cell response to environmental changes, as carbon source availability, extracellular pH and acid stress conditions.

  4. Rapid identification of chemical genetic interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dilworth, David; Nelson, Christopher J

    2015-04-05

    Determining the mode of action of bioactive chemicals is of interest to a broad range of academic, pharmaceutical, and industrial scientists. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or budding yeast, is a model eukaryote for which a complete collection of ~6,000 gene deletion mutants and hypomorphic essential gene mutants are commercially available. These collections of mutants can be used to systematically detect chemical-gene interactions, i.e. genes necessary to tolerate a chemical. This information, in turn, reports on the likely mode of action of the compound. Here we describe a protocol for the rapid identification of chemical-genetic interactions in budding yeast. We demonstrate the method using the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which has a well-defined mechanism of action. Our results show that the nuclear TRAMP RNA exosome and DNA repair enzymes are needed for proliferation in the presence of 5-FU, which is consistent with previous microarray based bar-coding chemical genetic approaches and the knowledge that 5-FU adversely affects both RNA and DNA metabolism. The required validation protocols of these high-throughput screens are also described.

  5. Phosphatidylcholine Supply to Peroxisomes of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Flis, Vid V; Fankl, Ariane; Ramprecht, Claudia; Zellnig, Günther; Leitner, Erich; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid (PL) of all organelle membranes, is synthesized via two different pathways. Methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) catalyzed by the methyl transferases Cho2p/Pem1p and Opi3p/Pem2p as well as incorporation of choline through the CDP (cytidine diphosphate)-choline branch of the Kennedy pathway lead to PC formation. To determine the contribution of these two pathways to the supply of PC to peroxisomes (PX), yeast mutants bearing defects in the two pathways were cultivated under peroxisome inducing conditions, i.e. in the presence of oleic acid, and subjected to biochemical and cell biological analyses. Phenotype studies revealed compromised growth of both the cho20Δopi3Δ (mutations in the methylation pathway) and the cki1Δdpl1Δeki1Δ (mutations in the CDP-choline pathway) mutant when grown on oleic acid. Analysis of peroxisomes from the two mutant strains showed that both pathways produce PC for the supply to peroxisomes, although the CDP-choline pathway seemed to contribute with higher efficiency than the methylation pathway. Changes in the peroxisomal lipid pattern of mutants caused by defects in the PC biosynthetic pathways resulted in changes of membrane properties as shown by anisotropy measurements with fluorescent probes. In summary, our data define the origin of peroxisomal PC and demonstrate the importance of PC for peroxisome membrane formation and integrity.

  6. Dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptome during bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Zhu, Bo; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Marchal, Kathleen; Dornez, Emmie; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2013-12-01

    The behavior of yeast cells during industrial processes such as the production of beer, wine, and bioethanol has been extensively studied. In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited. We investigated changes in the transcriptomes of three genetically distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during bread dough fermentation. Our results show that regardless of the genetic background, all three strains exhibit similar changes in expression patterns. At the onset of fermentation, expression of glucose-regulated genes changes dramatically, and the osmotic stress response is activated. The middle fermentation phase is characterized by the induction of genes involved in amino acid metabolism. Finally, at the latest time point, cells suffer from nutrient depletion and activate pathways associated with starvation and stress responses. Further analysis shows that genes regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, the major pathway involved in the response to osmotic stress and glycerol homeostasis, are among the most differentially expressed genes at the onset of fermentation. More importantly, deletion of HOG1 and other genes of this pathway significantly reduces the fermentation capacity. Together, our results demonstrate that cells embedded in a solid matrix such as bread dough suffer severe osmotic stress and that a proper induction of the HOG pathway is critical for optimal fermentation.

  7. Bread, beer and wine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae diversity reflects human history.

    PubMed

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Merdinoglu, Didier; Cornuet, Jean-Marie; Karst, Francis

    2007-05-01

    Fermented beverages and foods have played a significant role in most societies worldwide for millennia. To better understand how the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main fermenting agent, evolved along this historical and expansion process, we analysed the genetic diversity among 651 strains from 56 different geographical origins, worldwide. Their genotyping at 12 microsatellite loci revealed 575 distinct genotypes organized in subgroups of yeast types, i.e. bread, beer, wine, sake. Some of these groups presented unexpected relatedness: Bread strains displayed a combination of alleles intermediate between beer and wine strains, and strains used for rice wine and sake were most closely related to beer and bread strains. However, up to 28% of genetic diversity between these technological groups was associated with geographical differences which suggests local domestications. Focusing on wine yeasts, a group of Lebanese strains were basal in an F(ST) tree, suggesting a Mesopotamia-based origin of most wine strains. In Europe, migration of wine strains occurred through the Danube Valley, and around the Mediterranean Sea. An approximate Bayesian computation approach suggested a postglacial divergence (most probable period 10,000-12,000 bp). As our results suggest intimate association between man and wine yeast across centuries, we hypothesize that yeast followed man and vine migrations as a commensal member of grapevine flora.

  8. Pressure treatment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in low-moisture environments.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Marwen; Espinasse, Vincent; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Gervais, Patrick

    2009-11-01

    We investigated the influence of cell hydration on the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 1171 to withstand extreme hydrostatic pressure in order to determine the mechanisms involved in cell resistance. Hydration conditions were modified in two different ways. We first modulated the chemical potential of water by adding glycerol in cell suspensions. Another procedure consisted in dehydrating cells aerobically and immersing them in perfluorooctane, an innocuous hydrophobic liquid used as a pressure-transmitting medium, prior to pressure treatments. This original method made it possible to transmit isostatic pressure to yeast powders without changing the initial water activity (aw) level at which cells had been equilibrated. The aw ranged between 0.11 and 0.99. Pressure treatments were applied at levels of up to 600 MPa for 10 min, 24 h, and 6 days. The dehydration of cells was found to strongly limit, or even prevent, cell inactivation under pressure. Notably, cells suspended in a water-glycerol mixture with aw levels of 0.71 or below were completely protected against all pressure treatments. Moreover, cells dehydrated aerobically survived for 6 days at 600 MPa even when aw levels were relatively high (up to 0.94). We highlighted the crucial role of water content in determining cellular damage under pressure. When water is available in a sufficient amount, high pressure induces membrane permeabilization, causing uncontrolled mass transfers that could lead to death during a prolonged holding under pressure. Possible mechanisms of membrane permeabilization are discussed. PMID:19633838

  9. Direct mating between diploid sake strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shinji; Aritomi, Kazuo; Minohara, Takafumi; Nishizawa, Yoshinori; Hoshida, Hisashi; Kashiwagi, Susumu; Akada, Rinji

    2006-02-01

    Various auxotrophic mutants of diploid heterothallic Japanese sake strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were utilized for selecting mating-competent diploid isolates. The auxotrophic mutants were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and crossed with laboratory haploid tester strains carrying complementary auxotrophic markers. Zygotes were then selected on minimal medium. Sake strains exhibiting a MATa or MATalpha mating type were easily obtained at high frequency without prior sporulation, suggesting that the UV irradiation induced homozygosity at the MAT locus. Flow cytometric analysis of a hybrid showed a twofold higher DNA content than the sake diploid parent, consistent with tetraploidy. By crossing strains of opposite mating type in all possible combinations, a number of hybrids were constructed. Hybrids formed in crosses between traditional sake strains and between a natural nonhaploid isolate and traditional sake strains displayed equivalent fermentation ability without any apparent defects and produced comparable or improved sake. Isolation of mating-competent auxotrophic mutants directly from industrial yeast strains allows crossbreeding to construct polyploids suitable for industrial use without dependence on sporulation.

  10. Regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair gene RAD16.

    PubMed

    Bang, D D; Timmermans, V; Verhage, R; Zeeman, A M; van de Putte, P; Brouwer, J

    1995-05-25

    The RAD16 gene product has been shown to be essential for the repair of the silenced mating type loci [Bang et al. (1992) Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 3925-3931]. More recently we demonstrated that the RAD16 and RAD7 proteins are also required for repair of non-transcribed strands of active genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Waters et al. (1993) Mol. Gen. Genet. 239, 28-32]. We have studied the regulation of the RAD16 gene and found that the RAD16 transcript levels increased up to 7-fold upon UV irradiation. Heat shock at 42 degrees C also results in elevated levels of RAD16 mRNA. In sporulating MAT alpha/MATa diploid cells RAD16 mRNA is also induced. The basal level of the RAD16 transcript is constant during the mitotic cell cycle. G1-arrested cells show normal induction of RAD16 mRNA upon UV irradiation demonstrating that the induction is not a secondary consequence of G2 cell cycle arrest following UV irradiation. However, in cells arrested in G1 the induction of RAD16 mRNA after UV irradiation is not followed by a rapid decline as occurs in normal growing cells suggesting that the down regulation of RAD16 transcription is dependent on progression into the cell cycle.

  11. Bread, beer and wine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae diversity reflects human history.

    PubMed

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Merdinoglu, Didier; Cornuet, Jean-Marie; Karst, Francis

    2007-05-01

    Fermented beverages and foods have played a significant role in most societies worldwide for millennia. To better understand how the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main fermenting agent, evolved along this historical and expansion process, we analysed the genetic diversity among 651 strains from 56 different geographical origins, worldwide. Their genotyping at 12 microsatellite loci revealed 575 distinct genotypes organized in subgroups of yeast types, i.e. bread, beer, wine, sake. Some of these groups presented unexpected relatedness: Bread strains displayed a combination of alleles intermediate between beer and wine strains, and strains used for rice wine and sake were most closely related to beer and bread strains. However, up to 28% of genetic diversity between these technological groups was associated with geographical differences which suggests local domestications. Focusing on wine yeasts, a group of Lebanese strains were basal in an F(ST) tree, suggesting a Mesopotamia-based origin of most wine strains. In Europe, migration of wine strains occurred through the Danube Valley, and around the Mediterranean Sea. An approximate Bayesian computation approach suggested a postglacial divergence (most probable period 10,000-12,000 bp). As our results suggest intimate association between man and wine yeast across centuries, we hypothesize that yeast followed man and vine migrations as a commensal member of grapevine flora. PMID:17498234

  12. Systematic Identification of Balanced Transposition Polymorphisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Faddah, Dina A.; Ganko, Eric W.; McCoach, Caroline; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Hanlon, Sean E.; Mann, Frederick G.; Mieczkowska, Joanna O.; Jones, Corbin D.; Lieb, Jason D.; Vision, Todd J.

    2009-01-01

    High-throughput techniques for detecting DNA polymorphisms generally do not identify changes in which the genomic position of a sequence, but not its copy number, varies among individuals. To explore such balanced structural polymorphisms, we used array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) to conduct a genome-wide screen for single-copy genomic segments that occupy different genomic positions in the standard laboratory strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S90) and a polymorphic wild isolate (Y101) through analysis of six tetrads from a cross of these two strains. Paired-end high-throughput sequencing of Y101 validated four of the predicted rearrangements. The transposed segments contained one to four annotated genes each, yet crosses between S90 and Y101 yielded mostly viable tetrads. The longest segment comprised 13.5 kb near the telomere of chromosome XV in the S288C reference strain and Southern blotting confirmed its predicted location on chromosome IX in Y101. Interestingly, inter-locus crossover events between copies of this segment occurred at a detectable rate. The presence of low-copy repetitive sequences at the junctions of this segment suggests that it may have arisen through ectopic recombination. Our methodology and findings provide a starting point for exploring the origins, phenotypic consequences, and evolutionary fate of this largely unexplored form of genomic polymorphism. PMID:19503594

  13. Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Caffeine and Theobromine Production

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lu; Bhuiya, Mohammad Wadud; Li, Mengmeng; Liu, XiangQi; Han, Jixiang; Deng, WeiWei; Wang, Min; Yu, Oliver; Zhang, Zhengzhu

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) and theobromine (3, 7-dimethylxanthine) are the major purine alkaloids in plants, e.g. tea (Camellia sinensis) and coffee (Coffea arabica). Caffeine is a major component of coffee and is used widely in food and beverage industries. Most of the enzymes involved in the caffeine biosynthetic pathway have been reported previously. Here, we demonstrated the biosynthesis of caffeine (0.38 mg/L) by co-expression of Coffea arabica xanthosine methyltransferase (CaXMT) and Camellia sinensis caffeine synthase (TCS) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, we endeavored to develop this production platform for making other purine-based alkaloids. To increase the catalytic activity of TCS in an effort to increase theobromine production, we identified four amino acid residues based on structural analyses of 3D-model of TCS. Two TCS1 mutants (Val317Met and Phe217Trp) slightly increased in theobromine accumulation and simultaneously decreased in caffeine production. The application and further optimization of this biosynthetic platform are discussed. PMID:25133732

  14. Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

    2013-11-01

    The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, α-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

  15. Protein disorder reduced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to survive heat shock

    PubMed Central

    Vicedo, Esmeralda; Gasik, Zofia; Dong, Yu-An; Goldberg, Tatyana; Rost, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments established that a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s yeast) survives sudden high temperatures by specifically duplicating the entire chromosome III and two chromosomal fragments (from IV and XII). Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are not significantly over-abundant in the duplication. In contrast, we suggest a simple algorithm to “ postdict ” the experimental results: Find a small enough chromosome with minimal protein disorder and duplicate this region. This algorithm largely explains all observed duplications. In particular, all regions duplicated in the experiment reduced the overall content of protein disorder. The differential analysis of the functional makeup of the duplication remained inconclusive. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment suggested over-representation in processes related to reproduction and nutrient uptake. Analyzing the protein-protein interaction network (PPI) revealed that few network-central proteins were duplicated. The predictive hypothesis hinges upon the concept of reducing proteins with long regions of disorder in order to become less sensitive to heat shock attack. PMID:26673203

  16. Genes of succinyl-CoA ligase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Przybyla-Zawislak, B; Dennis, R A; Zakharkin, S O; McCammon, M T

    1998-12-01

    Succinyl-CoA ligase (succinyl-CoA synthetase) catalyzes the nucleotide-dependent conversion of succinyl-CoA to succinate. This enzyme functions in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and is also involved in ketone-body breakdown in animals. The enzyme is composed of alpha and beta subunits that are required for catalytic activity. Two genes, LSC1 (YOR142W) and LSC2 (YGR244C), with high similarity to succinyl-CoA ligase subunits from other species were isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression of these genes was repressed by growth on glucose and was induced threefold to sixfold during growth on nonfermentable carbon sources. The LSC genes were deleted singly and in combination. Unlike other yeast strains with defects in TCA cycle genes, strains lacking either or both LSC genes were able to grow with acetate as a carbon source. However, growth on glycerol or pyruvate was impaired. An antiserum against both subunits of the Escherichia coli enzyme was capable of recognizing the yeast succinyl-CoA ligase alpha subunit, and this band was absent in delta lsc1 deletion strains. Succinyl-CoA ligase activity was absent in mitochondria isolated from strains deleted for one or both LSC genes, but activity was restored by the presence of the appropriate LSC gene on a plasmid. The yeast succinyl-CoA ligase was shown to utilize ATP but not GTP for succinyl-CoA synthesis.

  17. Physical Properties of Cell Water in Partially Dried Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Shozo; Echigo, Akira; Nunomura, Kazuko

    1966-01-01

    The equilibrium vapor pressure, the heat of vaporization, the dielectric increment, and the NMR spectra of partially dried cells were studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with water contents varying in the range from 25 to 0.8%. The comparative study of those physical properties suggests that physical states of the microbe can be classified into four regions in accordance with the states of the cell water: the solution region, the gel region, the mobile adsorption region, and the localized water region. Much difference in the physiological properties is found between the cells in the solution region and those in the gel region, whereas the pattern changes in physical properties take place when the cells in the gel region are dried to a further extent into the mobile or the localized region. The various modes in the molecular motion of the cell water reflected in those physical properties of the cell seem to give some insight into the biological functions of the molecule in the native as well as the dried states of the cell. PMID:5970569

  18. Xylose Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Challenges and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Moysés, Danuza Nogueira; Reis, Viviane Castelo Branco; de Almeida, João Ricardo Moreira; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Many years have passed since the first genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains capable of fermenting xylose were obtained with the promise of an environmentally sustainable solution for the conversion of the abundant lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. Several challenges emerged from these first experiences, most of them related to solving redox imbalances, discovering new pathways for xylose utilization, modulation of the expression of genes of the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and reduction of xylitol formation. Strategies on evolutionary engineering were used to improve fermentation kinetics, but the resulting strains were still far from industrial application. Lignocellulosic hydrolysates proved to have different inhibitors derived from lignin and sugar degradation, along with significant amounts of acetic acid, intrinsically related with biomass deconstruction. This, associated with pH, temperature, high ethanol, and other stress fluctuations presented on large scale fermentations led the search for yeasts with more robust backgrounds, like industrial strains, as engineering targets. Some promising yeasts were obtained both from studies of stress tolerance genes and adaptation on hydrolysates. Since fermentation times on mixed-substrate hydrolysates were still not cost-effective, the more selective search for new or engineered sugar transporters for xylose are still the focus of many recent studies. These challenges, as well as under-appreciated process strategies, will be discussed in this review. PMID:26927067

  19. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for caffeine and theobromine production.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lu; Bhuiya, Mohammad Wadud; Li, Mengmeng; Liu, XiangQi; Han, Jixiang; Deng, WeiWei; Wang, Min; Yu, Oliver; Zhang, Zhengzhu

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) and theobromine (3, 7-dimethylxanthine) are the major purine alkaloids in plants, e.g., tea (Camellia sinensis) and coffee (Coffea arabica). Caffeine is a major component of coffee and is used widely in food and beverage industries. Most of the enzymes involved in the caffeine biosynthetic pathway have been reported previously. Here, we demonstrated the biosynthesis of caffeine (0.38 mg/L) by co-expression of Coffea arabica xanthosine methyltransferase (CaXMT) and Camellia sinensis caffeine synthase (TCS) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, we endeavored to develop this production platform for making other purine-based alkaloids. To increase the catalytic activity of TCS in an effort to increase theobromine production, we identified four amino acid residues based on structural analyses of 3D-model of TCS. Two TCS1 mutants (Val317Met and Phe217Trp) slightly increased in theobromine accumulation and simultaneously decreased in caffeine production. The application and further optimization of this biosynthetic platform are discussed.

  20. Architecture and Biosynthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Orlean, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The wall gives a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell its osmotic integrity; defines cell shape during budding growth, mating, sporulation, and pseudohypha formation; and presents adhesive glycoproteins to other yeast cells. The wall consists of β1,3- and β1,6-glucans, a small amount of chitin, and many different proteins that may bear N- and O-linked glycans and a glycolipid anchor. These components become cross-linked in various ways to form higher-order complexes. Wall composition and degree of cross-linking vary during growth and development and change in response to cell wall stress. This article reviews wall biogenesis in vegetative cells, covering the structure of wall components and how they are cross-linked; the biosynthesis of N- and O-linked glycans, glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors, β1,3- and β1,6-linked glucans, and chitin; the reactions that cross-link wall components; and the possible functions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic cell wall proteins. PMID:23135325

  1. Redundant Regulation of Cdk1 Tyrosine Dephosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Erin K; Dysart, Michael; Lianga, Noel; Williams, Elizabeth C; Pilon, Sophie; Doré, Carole; Deneault, Jean-Sebastien; Rudner, Adam D

    2016-03-01

    Cdk1 activity drives both mitotic entry and the metaphase-to-anaphase transition in all eukaryotes. The kinase Wee1 and the phosphatase Cdc25 regulate the mitotic activity of Cdk1 by the reversible phosphorylation of a conserved tyrosine residue. Mutation of cdc25 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe blocks Cdk1 dephosphorylation and causes cell cycle arrest. In contrast, deletion of MIH1, the cdc25 homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is viable. Although Cdk1-Y19 phosphorylation is elevated during mitosis in mih1∆ cells, Cdk1 is dephosphorylated as cells progress into G1, suggesting that additional phosphatases regulate Cdk1 dephosphorylation. Here we show that the phosphatase Ptp1 also regulates Cdk1 dephosphorylation in vivo and can directly dephosphorylate Cdk1 in vitro. Using a novel in vivo phosphatase assay, we also show that PP2A bound to Rts1, the budding yeast B56-regulatory subunit, regulates dephosphorylation of Cdk1 independently of a function regulating Swe1, Mih1, or Ptp1, suggesting that PP2A(Rts1) either directly dephosphorylates Cdk1-Y19 or regulates an unidentified phosphatase.

  2. Identification of genes affecting vacuole membrane fragmentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Michaillat, Lydie; Mayer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The equilibrium of membrane fusion and fission influences the volume and copy number of organelles. Fusion of yeast vacuoles has been well characterized but their fission and the mechanisms determining vacuole size and abundance remain poorly understood. We therefore attempted to systematically characterize factors necessary for vacuole fission. Here, we present results of an in vivo screening for deficiencies in vacuolar fragmentation activity of an ordered collection deletion mutants, representing 4881 non-essential genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screen identified 133 mutants with strong defects in vacuole fragmentation. These comprise numerous known fragmentation factors, such as the Fab1p complex, Tor1p, Sit4p and the V-ATPase, thus validating the approach. The screen identified many novel factors promoting vacuole fragmentation. Among those are 22 open reading frames of unknown function and three conspicuous clusters of proteins with known function. The clusters concern the ESCRT machinery, adaptins, and lipases, which influence the production of diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. A common feature of these factors of known function is their capacity to change membrane curvature, suggesting that they might promote vacuole fragmentation via this property.

  3. Identification of Genes Affecting Vacuole Membrane Fragmentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Michaillat, Lydie; Mayer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The equilibrium of membrane fusion and fission influences the volume and copy number of organelles. Fusion of yeast vacuoles has been well characterized but their fission and the mechanisms determining vacuole size and abundance remain poorly understood. We therefore attempted to systematically characterize factors necessary for vacuole fission. Here, we present results of an in vivo screening for deficiencies in vacuolar fragmentation activity of an ordered collection deletion mutants, representing 4881 non-essential genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screen identified 133 mutants with strong defects in vacuole fragmentation. These comprise numerous known fragmentation factors, such as the Fab1p complex, Tor1p, Sit4p and the V-ATPase, thus validating the approach. The screen identified many novel factors promoting vacuole fragmentation. Among those are 22 open reading frames of unknown function and three conspicuous clusters of proteins with known function. The clusters concern the ESCRT machinery, adaptins, and lipases, which influence the production of diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. A common feature of these factors of known function is their capacity to change membrane curvature, suggesting that they might promote vacuole fragmentation via this property. PMID:23383298

  4. Regulation of maltose utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by genes of the RAS/protein kinase A pathway.

    PubMed

    Wanke, V; Vavassori, M; Thevelein, J M; Tortora, P; Vanoni, M

    1997-02-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae maltose utilization requires a functional MAL locus, each composed of three genes: MALR (gene 3) encoding a regulatory protein, MALT (gene 1) encoding maltose permease and MALS (gene 2) encoding maltase. We show that constitutive activation of the RAS/protein kinase A pathway severely reduces growth of MAL1 strains on maltose. This may be a consequence of reduction in MALT mRNA, reduced Vmax and increased catabolite inactivation of the MALT-encoded maltose transporter in the MAL1 strain. Mutations in the GGS1/TPS1 gene, which restricts glucose influx and possibly affects signalling, relieve carbon catabolite repression on both maltase and maltose permease and reduce maltose permease inactivation.

  5. Construction of an opal suppressor by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae tRNA(Trp) gene.

    PubMed Central

    Atkin, A L; Roy, K L; Bell, J B

    1990-01-01

    In vitro mutagenesis was used to create putative opal suppressor alleles of a tRNA(Trp) gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The construct with the requisite anticodon change did not result in an active suppressor, whereas when a second change was introduced into the portion of the gene encoding the intron, an active and specific opal suppressor was produced. We propose that the secondary structure of transcripts from the first mutant may prevent efficient pre-tRNA processing, whereas normal processing occurs with the double mutant. Images PMID:2370870

  6. Expression of PEP carboxylase from Escherichia coli complements the phenotypic effects of pyruvate carboxylase mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Flores, C L; Gancedo, C

    1997-08-01

    We investigated the effects of the expression of the Escherichia coli ppc gene encoding PEP carboxylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants devoid of pyruvate carboxylase. Functional expression of the ppc gene restored the ability of the yeast mutants to grow in glucose-ammonium medium. Growth yield in this medium was the same in the transformed yeast than in the wild type although the growth rate of the transformed yeast was slower. Growth in pyruvate was slowed down in the transformed strain, likely due to a futile cycle produced by the simultaneous action of PEP carboxykinase and PEP carboxylase.

  7. Transcriptome shifts in response to furfural and acetic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2010-05-01

    Furfural and acetic acid are two prevalent inhibitors to microorganisms during cellulosic ethanol production, but molecular mechanisms of tolerance to these inhibitors are still unclear. In this study, genome-wide transcriptional responses to furfural and acetic acid were investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using microarray analysis. We found that 103 and 227 genes were differentially expressed in the response to furfural and acetic acid, respectively. Furfural downregulated genes related to transcriptional control and translational control, while it upregulated stress-responsive genes. Furthermore, furfural also interrupted the transcription of genes involved in metabolism of essential chemicals, such as etrahydrofolate, spermidine, spermine, and riboflavin monophosphate. Acetic acid downregulated genes encoding mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and regulation and upregulated genes related to amino acid metabolism. The results revealed that furfural and acetic acid had effects on multiple aspects of cellular metabolism on the transcriptional level and that mitochondria might play important roles in response to both furfural and acetic acid. This research has provided insights into molecular response to furfural and acetic acid in S. cerevisiae, and it will be helpful to construct more resistant strains for cellulosic ethanol production.

  8. Engineering and Analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain That Uses Formaldehyde as an Auxiliary Substrate▿

    PubMed Central

    Baerends, Richard J. S.; de Hulster, Erik; Geertman, Jan-Maarten A.; Daran, Jean-Marc; van Maris, Antonius J. A.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrated that formaldehyde can be efficiently coutilized by an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that expresses Hansenula polymorpha genes encoding formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FLD1) and formate dehydrogenase (FMD), in contrast to wild-type strains. Initial chemostat experiments showed that the engineered strain coutilized formaldehyde with glucose, but these mixed-substrate cultures failed to reach steady-state conditions and did not exhibit an increased biomass yield on glucose. Subsequent transcriptome analyses of chemostat cultures of the engineered strain, grown on glucose-formaldehyde mixtures, indicated that the presence of formaldehyde in the feed caused biotin limitations. Further transcriptome analysis demonstrated that this biotin inactivation was prevented by using separate formaldehyde and vitamin feeds. Using this approach, steady-state glucose-limited chemostat cultures were obtained that coutilized glucose and formaldehyde. Coutilization of formaldehyde under these conditions resulted in an enhanced biomass yield of the glucose-limited cultures. The biomass yield was quantitatively consistent with the use of formaldehyde as an auxiliary substrate that generates NADH and subsequently, via oxidative phosphorylation, ATP. On an electron pair basis, the biomass yield increase observed with formaldehyde was larger than that observed previously for formate, which is tentatively explained by different modes of formate and formaldehyde transport in S. cerevisiae. PMID:18378663

  9. Phosphoglycerate mutase knock-out mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae: physiological investigation and transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Papini, Marta; Nookaew, Intawat; Scalcinati, Gionata; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2010-10-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to adapt its metabolism to grow on different carbon sources and to shift to non-fermentative growth on C2 or C3 carbon sources (ethanol, acetate, or glycerol) through the activation of gluconeogenesis. Here, we studied the response to the deletion of the glycolytic and gluconeogenic gene GPM1, encoding for phosphoglycerate mutase. It was previously shown that a S. cerevisiae strain with non-functional copies of GPM1 can only grow when glycerol and ethanol are both present as carbon sources, whilst addition of glucose was shown to strongly inhibit growth. It was suggested that glycerol is needed to feed gluconeogenesis whilst ethanol is required for respiration. Here, we studied the physiological response of the GPM1 knock-out mutant through fermentation and transcriptome analysis. Furthermore, we compared the physiological results with those obtained through simulations using a genome-scale metabolic model, showing that glycerol is only needed in small amounts for growth. Our findings strongly suggest a severely impaired growth ability of the knock-out mutant, which presents increased transcript levels of genes involved in the pentose phosphate pathway and in the glyoxylate shunt. These results indicate an attempt to compensate for the energy imbalance caused by the deletion of the glycolytic/gluconeogenic gene within the mutant.

  10. Near-freezing effects on the proteome of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Tomás, Lidia; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Rodríguez-Vargas, Sonia; Prieto, Jose A; Randez-Gil, Francisca

    2016-03-10

    At near-freezing temperatures (0-4°C), the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae stops or is severely limited, and viability decreases. Under these conditions, yeast cells trigger a biochemical response, in which trehalose and glycerol accumulate and protect them against severe cold and freeze injury. However, the mechanisms that allow yeast cells to sustain this response have been not clarified. The effects of severe cold on the proteome of S. cerevisiae have been not investigated and its importance in providing cell survival at near-freezing temperatures and upon freezing remains unknown. Here, we have compared the protein profile of two industrial baker's yeast strains at 30°C and 4°C. Overall, a total of 16 proteins involved in energy-metabolism, translation and redox homeostasis were identified as showing increased abundance at 4°C. The predominant presence of glycolytic proteins among those upregulated at 4°C, likely represents a mechanism to maintain a constant supply of ATP for the synthesis of glycerol and other protective molecules. Accumulation of these molecules is by far the most important component in enhancing viability of baker's yeast strains upon freezing. Overexpression of genes encoding certain proteins associated with translation or redox homeostasis provided specifically protection against extreme cold damage, underlying the importance of these functions in the near-freezing response. PMID:26812658

  11. Physiological Properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from Which Hexokinase II Has Been Deleted

    PubMed Central

    Diderich, Jasper A.; Raamsdonk, Léonie M.; Kruckeberg, Arthur L.; Berden, Jan A.; Van Dam, Karel

    2001-01-01

    Hexokinase II is an enzyme central to glucose metabolism and glucose repression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion of HXK2, the gene which encodes hexokinase II, dramatically changed the physiology of S. cerevisiae. The hxk2-null mutant strain displayed fully oxidative growth at high glucose concentrations in early exponential batch cultures, resulting in an initial absence of fermentative products such as ethanol, a postponed and shortened diauxic shift, and higher biomass yields. Several intracellular changes were associated with the deletion of hexokinase II. The hxk2 mutant had a higher mitochondrial H+-ATPase activity and a lower pyruvate decarboxylase activity, which coincided with an intracellular accumulation of pyruvate in the hxk2 mutant. The concentrations of adenine nucleotides, glucose-6-phosphate, and fructose-6-phosphate are comparable in the wild type and the hxk2 mutant. In contrast, the concentration of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, an allosteric activator of pyruvate kinase, is clearly lower in the hxk2 mutant than in the wild type. The results suggest a redirection of carbon flux in the hxk2 mutant to the production of biomass as a consequence of reduced glucose repression. PMID:11282609

  12. Overexpression of NADH-dependent fumarate reductase improves D-xylose fermentation in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Salusjärvi, Laura; Kaunisto, Sanna; Holmström, Sami; Vehkomäki, Maija-Leena; Koivuranta, Kari; Pitkänen, Juha-Pekka; Ruohonen, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Deviation from optimal levels and ratios of redox cofactors NAD(H) and NADP(H) is common when microbes are metabolically engineered. The resulting redox imbalance often reduces the rate of substrate utilization as well as biomass and product formation. An example is the metabolism of D-xylose by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase encoding genes from Scheffersomyces stipitis. This pathway requires both NADPH and NAD(+). The effect of overexpressing the glycosomal NADH-dependent fumarate reductase (FRD) of Trypanosoma brucei in D-xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae alone and together with an endogenous, cytosol directed NADH-kinase (POS5Δ17) was studied as one possible solution to overcome this imbalance. Expression of FRD and FRD + POS5Δ17 resulted in 60 and 23 % increase in ethanol yield, respectively, on D-xylose under anaerobic conditions. At the same time, xylitol yield decreased in the FRD strain suggesting an improvement in redox balance. We show that fumarate reductase of T. brucei can provide an important source of NAD(+) in yeast under anaerobic conditions, and can be useful for metabolic engineering strategies where the redox cofactors need to be balanced. The effects of FRD and NADH-kinase on aerobic and anaerobic D-xylose and D-glucose metabolism are discussed.

  13. Reconstruction and Evaluation of the Synthetic Bacterial MEP Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Partow, Siavash; Siewers, Verena; Daviet, Laurent; Schalk, Michel; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Isoprenoids, which are a large group of natural and chemical compounds with a variety of applications as e.g. fragrances, pharmaceuticals and potential biofuels, are produced via two different metabolic pathways, the mevalonate (MVA) pathway and the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here, we attempted to replace the endogenous MVA pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a synthetic bacterial MEP pathway integrated into the genome to benefit from its superior properties in terms of energy consumption and productivity at defined growth conditions. It was shown that the growth of a MVA pathway deficient S. cerevisiae strain could not be restored by the heterologous MEP pathway even when accompanied by the co-expression of genes erpA, hISCA1 and CpIscA involved in the Fe-S trafficking routes leading to maturation of IspG and IspH and E. coli genes fldA and fpr encoding flavodoxin and flavodoxin reductase believed to be responsible for electron transfer to IspG and IspH. PMID:23285068

  14. Reconstruction and evaluation of the synthetic bacterial MEP pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Partow, Siavash; Siewers, Verena; Daviet, Laurent; Schalk, Michel; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Isoprenoids, which are a large group of natural and chemical compounds with a variety of applications as e.g. fragrances, pharmaceuticals and potential biofuels, are produced via two different metabolic pathways, the mevalonate (MVA) pathway and the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here, we attempted to replace the endogenous MVA pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a synthetic bacterial MEP pathway integrated into the genome to benefit from its superior properties in terms of energy consumption and productivity at defined growth conditions. It was shown that the growth of a MVA pathway deficient S. cerevisiae strain could not be restored by the heterologous MEP pathway even when accompanied by the co-expression of genes erpA, hISCA1 and CpIscA involved in the Fe-S trafficking routes leading to maturation of IspG and IspH and E. coli genes fldA and fpr encoding flavodoxin and flavodoxin reductase believed to be responsible for electron transfer to IspG and IspH. PMID:23285068

  15. Fermentation of High Concentrations of Maltose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Limited by the COMPASS Methylation Complex▿

    PubMed Central

    Houghton-Larsen, Jens; Brandt, Anders

    2006-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genes encoding maltose permeases and maltases are located in the telomeric regions of different chromosomes. The COMPASS methylation complex, which methylates lysine 4 on histone H3, controls the silencing of telomeric regions. Yeast strains deleted for SWD1, SWD3, SDC1, SET1, BRE2, or SPP1, encoding components of the COMPASS complex, fermented a medium containing 22% maltose with noticeably higher attenuation than did the wild type, resulting in production of up to 29% more ethanol. The least effective strain was spp1. Absence of COMPASS components had no effect on the fermentation of media with 20% glucose, 20% sucrose, or 16% maltose. Deletion of SWD3 resulted in larger amounts of MAL12 transcript, encoding maltase, at the late stages of fermentation of 22% maltose. A similar effect on maltase activity and maltose uptake capability was seen. The lysine 4 residue of histone H3 was trimethylated in wild-type cells at the late stages, while only small amounts of the dimethylated form were detected. Trimethylation and dimethylation of this residue were not detected in strains deleted for SWD1, SWD3, SET1, BRE2, or SDC1. Trimethylated lysine 4 was apparent only at the early stages (48 and 96 h) of fermentation in an spp1 strain. This work indicates that the COMPASS complex represses the expression of maltose utilization genes during the late stages of fermentation of a high concentration of maltose. PMID:16980427

  16. Isolation and characterization of a thiamin transport gene, THI10, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Enjo, F; Nosaka, K; Ogata, M; Iwashima, A; Nishimura, H

    1997-08-01

    We isolated a thiamin transporter gene, THI10, from a genomic library of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the complementation of a yeast mutant defective in thiamin transport activity. The THI10 gene contained an open reading frame of 1,794 base pairs encoding a 598-amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular weight of 66, 903. The nucleotide sequence of THI10 is completely identical to that of an anonymous DNA (open reading frame L8083.2) mapped to chromosome XII; two other genes (open reading frames YOR071c and YOR192c) in chromosome XV are extremely similar to THI10. Moreover, the THI10 gene product showed significant sequence homology with yeast allantoin and uracil transporters. Hydropathy profile suggested that THI10 product is highly hydrophobic and contains many transmembrane regions. Gene disruption of the THI10 locus completely abolished the thiamin transport activity and thiamin binding activity in yeast plasma membrane fraction. Both the transport and thiamin binding activities were restored in the disrupted cells when the THI10 open reading frame was expressed by yeast GAL1 promoter, suggesting that the THI10 gene encodes for the thiamin transport carrier protein. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that THI10 gene expression is regulated at the mRNA level by intracellular thiamin pyrophosphate and that it requires a positive regulatory factor encoded by THI3 gene.

  17. Electrophysiology in the eukaryotic model cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bertl, A; Bihler, H; Kettner, C; Slayman, C L

    1998-11-01

    Since the mid-1980s, use of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for expression of heterologous (foreign) genes and proteins has burgeoned for several major purposes, including facile genetic manipulation, large-scale production of specific proteins, and preliminary functional analysis. Expression of heterologous membrane proteins in yeast has not kept pace with expression of cytoplasmic proteins for two principal reasons: (1) although plant and fungal proteins express and function easily in yeast membranes, animal proteins do not, at least yet; and (2) the yeast plasma membrane is generally regarded as a difficult system to which to apply the standard electrophysiological techniques for detailed functional analysis of membrane proteins. Especially now, since completion of the genome-sequencing project for Saccharomyces, yeast membranes themselves can be seen as an ample source of diverse membrane proteins - including ion channels, pumps, and cotransporters - which lend themselves to electrophysiological analysis, and specifically to patch-clamping. Using some of these native proteins for assay, we report systematic methods to prepare both the yeast plasma membrane and the yeast vacuolar membrane (tonoplast) for patch-clamp experiments. We also describe optimized ambient conditions - such as electrode preparation, buffer solutions, and time regimens - which facilitate efficient patch recording from Saccharomyces membranes. There are two main keys to successful patch-clamping with Saccharomyces. The first is patience; the second is scrupulous cleanliness. Large cells, such as provided by polyploid strains, are also useful in yeast patch recording, especially while the skill required for gigaseal formation is being learned. Cleanliness is aided by (1) osmotic extrusion of protoplasts, after minimal digestion of yeast walls; (2) use of a rather spare suspension of protoplasts in the recording chamber; (3) maintenance of continuous chamber perfusion prior to

  18. Electrophysiology in the eukaryotic model cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bertl, A; Bihler, H; Kettner, C; Slayman, C L

    1998-11-01

    Since the mid-1980s, use of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for expression of heterologous (foreign) genes and proteins has burgeoned for several major purposes, including facile genetic manipulation, large-scale production of specific proteins, and preliminary functional analysis. Expression of heterologous membrane proteins in yeast has not kept pace with expression of cytoplasmic proteins for two principal reasons: (1) although plant and fungal proteins express and function easily in yeast membranes, animal proteins do not, at least yet; and (2) the yeast plasma membrane is generally regarded as a difficult system to which to apply the standard electrophysiological techniques for detailed functional analysis of membrane proteins. Especially now, since completion of the genome-sequencing project for Saccharomyces, yeast membranes themselves can be seen as an ample source of diverse membrane proteins - including ion channels, pumps, and cotransporters - which lend themselves to electrophysiological analysis, and specifically to patch-clamping. Using some of these native proteins for assay, we report systematic methods to prepare both the yeast plasma membrane and the yeast vacuolar membrane (tonoplast) for patch-clamp experiments. We also describe optimized ambient conditions - such as electrode preparation, buffer solutions, and time regimens - which facilitate efficient patch recording from Saccharomyces membranes. There are two main keys to successful patch-clamping with Saccharomyces. The first is patience; the second is scrupulous cleanliness. Large cells, such as provided by polyploid strains, are also useful in yeast patch recording, especially while the skill required for gigaseal formation is being learned. Cleanliness is aided by (1) osmotic extrusion of protoplasts, after minimal digestion of yeast walls; (2) use of a rather spare suspension of protoplasts in the recording chamber; (3) maintenance of continuous chamber perfusion prior to

  19. Metabolism of extracellular inositol hexaphosphate (phytate) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Andlid, Thomas A; Veide, Jenny; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2004-12-15

    Iron and zinc deficiencies are global problems, frequently leading to severe illness in vulnerable human populations. Addition of phytases can improve the bioavailability of iron and zinc in food. Saccharomyces cerevisiae would be an ideal candidate as a bioavailability improving food additive if it demonstrates significant phytase activity. The purpose of the paper was to study yeast phytase activity to obtain information required to improve strains. All yeasts tested readily degraded extracellular inositol hexaphosphate (phytate; IP6) in media with IP6 as the sole phosphorous source. Phosphate (Pi) addition yielded repression consistent with the PHO system. However, repression of IP6-degrading enzymes was not only dependent on level of Pi, but also on pH and medium composition. In complex medium, containing Pi at a concentration previously suggested to yield full repression of the secretory acid phosphatases (SAPs; e.g., [Mol. Biol. Cell 11 (2000) 4309]), and at relatively high pH, repression of phytate-degrading enzymes was weak. The capacity to degrade phytate, irrespective of Pi addition or not, was highest at the pH most distant from the pH optimum of the SAPs [Microbiol. Res. 151 (1996) 291], suggesting that expression rather than enzyme activity was affected by pH. In synthetic medium, repression was strong and pH-independent (no IP6 degradation within the range tested). The distinct difference between media shows that, in addition to known regulatory role of Pi for the PHO system, additional factors may be involved. Using a deletion strain, we further demonstrate that the main secretory acid phosphatase Pho5p is not essential for intact phytate-degrading capacity and growth without Pi, neither is Pho3p. However, when constitutively overexpressing PHO5 an increased net phytase activity was obtained, in repressing and non-repressing conditions. This proves that, although redundant in a wild type, Pho5p can catalyze hydrolysis of IP6 and that at least one

  20. Rapid and efficient galactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Quarterman, Josh; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Feng, Xueyang; Liu, Ian Y; Zhao, Huimin; Arkin, Adam P; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-07-10

    In the important industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, galactose metabolism requires energy production by respiration; therefore, this yeast cannot metabolize galactose under strict anaerobic conditions. While the respiratory dependence of galactose metabolism provides benefits in terms of cell growth and population stability, it is not advantageous for producing fuels and chemicals since a substantial fraction of consumed galactose is converted to carbon dioxide. In order to force S. cerevisiae to use galactose without respiration, a subunit (COX9) of a respiratory enzyme was deleted, but the resulting deletion mutant (Δcox9) was impaired in terms of galactose assimilation. Interestingly, after serial sub-cultures on galactose, the mutant evolved rapidly and was able to use galactose via fermentation only. The evolved strain (JQ-G1) produced ethanol from galactose with a 94% increase in yield and 6.9-fold improvement in specific productivity as compared to the wild-type strain. (13)C-metabolic flux analysis demonstrated a three-fold reduction in carbon flux through the TCA cycle of the evolved mutant with redirection of flux toward the fermentation pathway. Genome sequencing of the JQ-G1 strain revealed a loss of function mutation in a master negative regulator of the Leloir pathway (Gal80p). The mutation (Glu348*) in Gal80p was found to act synergistically with deletion of COX9 for efficient galactose fermentation, and thus the double deletion mutant Δcox9Δgal80 produced ethanol 2.4 times faster and with 35% higher yield than a single knockout mutant with deletion of GAL80 alone. When we introduced a functional COX9 cassette back into the JQ-G1 strain, the JQ-G1-COX9 strain showed a 33% reduction in specific galactose uptake rate and a 49% reduction in specific ethanol production rate as compared to JQ-G1. The wild-type strain was also subjected to serial sub-cultures on galactose but we failed to isolate a mutant capable of utilizing galactose without

  1. Ethanol fermentation in an immobilized cell reactor using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Ghasem; Younesi, Habibollah; Syahidah Ku Ismail, Ku

    2004-05-01

    Fermentation of sugar by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for production of ethanol in an immobilized cell reactor (ICR) was successfully carried out to improve the performance of the fermentation process. The fermentation set-up was comprised of a column packed with beads of immobilized cells. The immobilization of S. cerevisiae was simply performed by the enriched cells cultured media harvested at exponential growth phase. The fixed cell loaded ICR was carried out at initial stage of operation and the cell was entrapped by calcium alginate. The production of ethanol was steady after 24 h of operation. The concentration of ethanol was affected by the media flow rates and residence time distribution from 2 to 7 h. In addition, batch fermentation was carried out with 50 g/l glucose concentration. Subsequently, the ethanol productions and the reactor productivities of batch fermentation and immobilized cells were compared. In batch fermentation, sugar consumption and ethanol production obtained were 99.6% and 12.5% v/v after 27 h while in the ICR, 88.2% and 16.7% v/v were obtained with 6 h retention time. Nearly 5% ethanol production was achieved with high glucose concentration (150 g/l) at 6 h retention time. A yield of 38% was obtained with 150 g/l glucose. The yield was improved approximately 27% on ICR and a 24 h fermentation time was reduced to 7 h. The cell growth rate was based on the Monod rate equation. The kinetic constants (K(s) and mu(m)) of batch fermentation were 2.3 g/l and 0.35 g/lh, respectively. The maximum yield of biomass on substrate (Y(X-S)) and the maximum yield of product on substrate (Y(P-S)) in batch fermentations were 50.8% and 31.2% respectively. Productivity of the ICR were 1.3, 2.3, and 2.8 g/lh for 25, 35, 50 g/l of glucose concentration, respectively. The productivity of ethanol in batch fermentation with 50 g/l glucose was calculated as 0.29 g/lh. Maximum production of ethanol in ICR when compared to batch reactor has shown to increase

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley.

    PubMed

    de Ponzzes-Gomes, Camila M P B S; de Mélo, Dângelly L F M; Santana, Caroline A; Pereira, Giuliano E; Mendonça, Michelle O C; Gomes, Fátima C O; Oliveira, Evelyn S; Barbosa, Antonio M; Trindade, Rita C; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 10(5) cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production. PMID:25242923

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley

    PubMed Central

    de Ponzzes-Gomes, Camila M.P.B.S.; de Mélo, Dângelly L.F.M.; Santana, Caroline A.; Pereira, Giuliano E.; Mendonça, Michelle O.C.; Gomes, Fátima C.O.; Oliveira, Evelyn S.; Barbosa, Antonio M.; Trindade, Rita C.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 105 cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production. PMID:25242923

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley.

    PubMed

    de Ponzzes-Gomes, Camila M P B S; de Mélo, Dângelly L F M; Santana, Caroline A; Pereira, Giuliano E; Mendonça, Michelle O C; Gomes, Fátima C O; Oliveira, Evelyn S; Barbosa, Antonio M; Trindade, Rita C; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 10(5) cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production.

  5. Transcriptomic insights into the molecular response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to linoleic acid hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, P J; Lyons, V; Higgins, V J; Rogers, P J; Bailey, T D; Wu, M J

    2013-12-01

    Eukaryotic microorganisms are constantly challenged by reactive oxygen species derived endogenously or encountered in their environment. Such adversity is particularly applied to Saccharomyces cerevisiae under harsh industrial conditions. One of the major oxidants to challenge S. cerevisiae is linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LoaOOH). This study, which used genome-wide microarray analysis in conjunction with deletion mutant screening, uncovered the molecular pathways of S. cerevisiae that were altered by an arresting concentration of LoaOOH (75 μM). The oxidative stress response, iron homeostasis, detoxification through PDR transport and direct lipid β-oxidation were evident through the induction of the genes encoding for peroxiredoxins (GPX2, TSA2), the NADPH:oxidoreductase (OYE3), iron uptake (FIT2, ARN2, FET3), PDR transporters (PDR5, PDR15, SNQ2) and β-oxidation machinery (FAA2, POX1). Further, we discovered that Gpx3p, the dual redox sensor and peroxidase, is required for protection against LoaOOH, indicated by the sensitivity of gpx3Δ to a mild dose of LoaOOH (37.5 μM). Deletion of GPX3 conferred a greater sensitivity to LoaOOH than the loss of its signalling partner YAP1. Deletion of either of the iron homeostasis regulators AFT1 or AFT2 also resulted in sensitivity to LoaOOH. These novel findings for Gpx3p, Aft1p and Aft2p point to their distinct roles in response to the lipid peroxide. Finally, the expression of 89 previously uncharacterised genes was significantly altered against LoaOOH, which will contribute to their eventual annotation. PMID:24074273

  6. Genetic Analysis of Desiccation Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Calahan, Dean; Dunham, Maitreya; DeSevo, Chris; Koshland, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    Desiccation tolerance, the ability to survive nearly total dehydration, is a rare strategy for survival and reproduction observed in all taxa. However, the mechanism and regulation of this phenomenon are poorly understood. Correlations between desiccation tolerance and potential effectors have been reported in many species, but their physiological significance has not been established in vivo. Although the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits extreme desiccation tolerance, its usefulness has been hampered by an inability to reduce tolerance more than a few fold by physiological or genetic perturbations. Here we report that fewer than one in a million yeast cells from low-density logarithmic cultures survive desiccation, while 20–40% of cells from saturated cultures survive. Using this greatly expanded metric, we show that mutants defective in trehalose biosynthesis, hydrophilins, responses to hyperosmolarity, and hypersalinity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and DNA damage repair nevertheless retain wild-type levels of desiccation tolerance, suggesting that this trait involves a unique constellation of stress factors. A genome-wide screen for mutants that render stationary cells as sensitive as log phase cells identifies only mutations that block respiration. Respiration as a prerequisite for acquiring desiccation tolerance is corroborated by respiration inhibition and by growth on nonfermentable carbon sources. Suppressors bypassing the respiration requirement for desiccation tolerance reveal at least two pathways, one of which, involving the Mediator transcription complex, is associated with the shift from fermentative to respiratory metabolism. Further study of these regulators and their targets should provide important clues to the sensors and effectors of desiccation tolerance. PMID:21840858

  7. Ecological and Genetic Barriers Differentiate Natural Populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Clowers, Katie J.; Heilberger, Justin; Piotrowski, Jeff S.; Will, Jessica L.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2015-01-01

    How populations that inhabit the same geographical area become genetically differentiated is not clear. To investigate this, we characterized phenotypic and genetic differences between two populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that in some cases inhabit the same environment but show relatively little gene flow. We profiled stress sensitivity in a group of vineyard isolates and a group of oak-soil strains and found several niche-related phenotypes that distinguish the populations. We performed bulk-segregant mapping on two of the distinguishing traits: The vineyard-specific ability to grow in grape juice and oak-specific tolerance to the cell wall damaging drug Congo red. To implicate causal genes, we also performed a chemical genomic screen in the lab-strain deletion collection and identified many important genes that fell under quantitative trait loci peaks. One gene important for growth in grape juice and identified by both the mapping and the screen was SSU1, a sulfite-nitrite pump implicated in wine fermentations. The beneficial allele is generated by a known translocation that we reasoned may also serve as a genetic barrier. We found that the translocation is prevalent in vineyard strains, but absent in oak strains, and presents a postzygotic barrier to spore viability. Furthermore, the translocation was associated with a fitness cost to the rapid growth rate seen in oak-soil strains. Our results reveal the translocation as a dual-function locus that enforces ecological differentiation while producing a genetic barrier to gene flow in these sympatric populations. PMID:25953281

  8. Studies of anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    den Hollander, J.A.; Ugurbil, K.; Brown, T.R.; Bednar, M.; Redfield, C.; Shulman, R.G.

    1986-01-14

    Glucose metabolism was followed in suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using 13C NMR and 14C radioactive labeling techniques and by Warburg manometer experiments. These experiments were performed for cells grown with various carbon sources in the growth medium, so as to evaluate the effect of catabolite repression. The rate of glucose utilization was most conveniently determined by the 13C NMR experiments, which measured the concentration of (1-13C)glucose, whereas the distribution of end products was determined from the 13C and the 14C experiments. By combining these measurements the flows into the various pathways that contribute to glucose catabolism were estimated, and the effect of oxygen upon glucose catabolism was evaluated. From these measurements, the Pasteur quotient (PQ) for glucose catabolism was calculated to be 2.95 for acetate-grown cells and 1.89 for cells grown on glucose into saturation. The Warburg experiments provided an independent estimate of glucose catabolism. The PQ estimated from Warburg experiments was 2.9 for acetate-grown cells in excellent agreement with the labeled carbon experiments and 4.6 for cells grown into saturation, which did not agree. Possible explanations of these differences are discussed. From these data an estimate is obtained of the net flow through the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. The backward flow through fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-P2-ase) was calculated from the scrambling of the 13C label of (1-13C)glucose into the C1 and C6 positions of trehalose. Combining these data allowed us to calculate the net flux through phosphofructokinase (PFK). For acetate-grown cells we found that the relative flow through PFK is a factor of 1.7 faster anaerobically than aerobically.

  9. Phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Catarina; Lage, Patrícia; Vilela, Alice; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Currently, pursuing yeast strains that display both a high potential fitness for alcoholic fermentation and a favorable impact on quality is a major goal in the alcoholic beverage industry. This considerable industrial interest has led to many studies characterizing the phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial yeast populations. In this study, 20 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different geographical origins exhibited high phenotypic diversity when their response to nine biotechnologically relevant conditions was examined. Next, the fermentation fitness and metabolic traits of eight selected strains with a unique phenotypic profile were evaluated in a high-sugar synthetic medium under two nitrogen regimes. Although the strains exhibited significant differences in nitrogen requirements and utilization rates, a direct relationship between nitrogen consumption, specific growth rate, cell biomass, cell viability, acetic acid and glycerol formation was only observed under high-nitrogen conditions. In contrast, the strains produced more succinic acid under the low-nitrogen regime, and a direct relationship with the final cell biomass was established. Glucose and fructose utilization patterns depended on both yeast strain and nitrogen availability. For low-nitrogen fermentation, three strains did not fully degrade the fructose. This study validates phenotypic and metabolic diversity among commercial wine yeasts and contributes new findings on the relationship between nitrogen availability, yeast cell growth and sugar utilization. We suggest that measuring nitrogen during the stationary growth phase is important because yeast cells fermentative activity is not exclusively related to population size, as previously assumed, but it is also related to the quantity of nitrogen consumed during this growth phase.

  10. New Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast displaying enhanced resistance to freezing.

    PubMed

    Codón, Antonio C; Rincón, Ana M; Moreno-Mateos, Miguel A; Delgado-Jarana, Jesús; Rey, Manuel; Limón, Carmen; Rosado, Ivan V; Cubero, Beatriz; Peñate, Xenia; Castrejón, Francisco; Benítez, Tahía

    2003-01-15

    Three procedures were used to obtain new Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeasts with increased storage stability at -20, 4, 22, and 30 degrees C. The first used mitochondria from highly ethanol-tolerant wine yeast, which were transferred to baker's strains. Viability of the heteroplasmons was improved shortly after freezing. However, after prolonged storage, viability dramatically decreased and was accompanied by an increase in the frequency of respiratory-deficient (petite) mutant formation. This indicated that mitochondria were not stable and were incompatible with the nucleus. The strains tested regained their original resistance to freezing after recovering their own mitochondria. The second procedure used hybrid formation after protoplast fusion and isolation on selective media of fusants from baker's yeast meiotic products resistant to parafluorphenylalanine and cycloheximide, respectively. No hybrids were obtained when using the parentals, probably due to the high ploidy of the baker's strains. Hybrids obtained from nonisogenic strains manifested in all cases a resistance to freezing intermediate between those of their parental strains. Hybrids from crosses between meiotic products of the same strain were always more sensitive than their parentals. The third method was used to develop baker's yeast mutants resistant to 2-deoxy-d-glucose (DOG) and deregulated for maltose and sucrose metabolism. Mutant DOG21 displayed a slight increase in trehalose content and viability both in frozen doughs and during storage at 4 and 22 degrees C. This mutant also displayed a capacity to ferment, under laboratory conditions, both lean and sweet fresh and frozen doughs. For industrial uses, fermented lean and sweet bakery products, both from fresh and frozen doughs obtained with mutant DOG21, were of better quality with regard to volume, texture, and organoleptic properties than those produced by the wild type.

  11. Ethanol production from carob extract by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Irfan; Bialka, Katherine L; Demirci, Ali; Karhan, Mustafa

    2010-07-01

    Carob has been widely grown in the Mediterranean region for a long time. It has been regarded as only a forest tree and has been neglected for other economical benefits. However, in recent years, this fruit has gained attention for several applications. As petroleum has become depleted, renewable energy production has started to gain attention all over the world; including the production of ethanol from underutilized agricultural products such as carob. In this project, the optimum extraction conditions were determined for the carob fruit by using the response surface design method. The obtained extract was utilized for production of ethanol by using suspended Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation. The effect of various fermentation parameters such as pH, media content and inoculum size were evaluated for ethanol fermentation in carob extract. Also, in order to determine economically appropriate nitrogen sources, four different nitrogen sources were evaluated. The optimum extraction condition for carob extract was determined to be 80 degrees C, 2h in 1:4 dilution rate (fruit: water ratio) according to the result of response surface analysis (115.3g/L). When the fermentation with pH at 5.5 was applied, the final ethanol concentration and production rates were 42.6g/L and 3.37 g/L/h, respectively, which were higher than using an uncontrolled pH. Among inoculum sizes of 1%, 3%, and 5%, 3% was determined as the best inoculum size. The maximum production rate and final ethanol concentration were 3.48 g/L/h and 44.51%, respectively, with an alternative nitrogen source of meat-bone meal. Overall, this study suggested that carob extract can be utilized for production of ethanol in order to meet the demands of renewable energy.

  12. New Genes Involved in Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Ramon; Morales, Pilar; Tronchoni, Jordi; Cordero-Bueso, Gustavo; Vaudano, Enrico; Quirós, Manuel; Novo, Maite; Torres-Pérez, Rafael; Valero, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to changes in osmolarity is fundamental for the survival of living cells, and has implications in food and industrial biotechnology. It has been extensively studied in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the Hog1 stress activated protein kinase was discovered about 20 years ago. Hog1 is the core of the intracellular signaling pathway that governs the adaptive response to osmotic stress in this species. The main endpoint of this program is synthesis and intracellular retention of glycerol, as a compatible osmolyte. Despite many details of the signaling pathways and yeast responses to osmotic challenges have already been described, genome-wide approaches are contributing to refine our knowledge of yeast adaptation to hypertonic media. In this work, we used a quantitative fitness analysis approach in order to deepen our understanding of the interplay between yeast cells and the osmotic environment. Genetic requirements for proper growth under osmotic stress showed both common and specific features when hypertonic conditions were induced by either glucose or sorbitol. Tolerance to high-glucose content requires mitochondrial function, while defective protein targeting to peroxisome, GID-complex function (involved in negative regulation of gluconeogenesis), or chromatin dynamics, result in poor survival to sorbitol-induced osmotic stress. On the other side, the competitive disadvantage of yeast strains defective in the endomembrane system is relieved by hypertonic conditions. This finding points to the Golgi-endosome system as one of the main cell components negatively affected by hyperosmolarity. Most of the biological processes highlighted in this analysis had not been previously related to osmotic stress but are probably relevant in an ecological and evolutionary context. PMID:27733850

  13. Molecular basis of cell integrity and morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Cid, V J; Durán, A; del Rey, F; Snyder, M P; Nombela, C; Sánchez, M

    1995-01-01

    In fungi and many other organisms, a thick outer cell wall is responsible for determining the shape of the cell and for maintaining its integrity. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a useful model organism for the study of cell wall synthesis, and over the past few decades, many aspects of the composition, structure, and enzymology of the cell wall have been elucidated. The cell wall of budding yeasts is a complex and dynamic structure; its arrangement alters as the cell grows, and its composition changes in response to different environmental conditions and at different times during the yeast life cycle. In the past few years, we have witnessed a profilic genetic and molecular characterization of some key aspects of cell wall polymer synthesis and hydrolysis in the budding yeast. Furthermore, this organism has been the target of numerous recent studies on the topic of morphogenesis, which have had an enormous impact on our understanding of the intracellular events that participate in directed cell wall synthesis. A number of components that direct polarized secretion, including those involved in assembly and organization of the actin cytoskeleton, secretory pathways, and a series of novel signal transduction systems and regulatory components have been identified. Analysis of these different components has suggested pathways by which polarized secretion is directed and controlled. Our aim is to offer an overall view of the current understanding of cell wall dynamics and of the complex network that controls polarized growth at particular stages of the budding yeast cell cycle and life cycle. PMID:7565410

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant displaying beta-glucans on cell surface.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yumiko; Azuma, Masayuki; Takada, Yuki; Umeyama, Takashi; Kaneko, Aki; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Igarashi, Koichi; Ooshima, Hiroshi

    2007-02-01

    The deletion of MCD4 leads to an increase in beta-1,6-glucan level and a decrease in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein and mannan levels in the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that mcd4 deletion mutant (mcd4Delta) displays beta-glucans on the cell surface without a mannan cover. An observation of the cell surface of mcd4Delta cells and an examination of the effect of contact between mcd4Delta cells and mouse macrophages indicated that macrophages were activated by contact with mcd4Delta cells displaying beta-glucans on the cell surface. We further examined the effect of intraperitoneal ethanol-fixed mcd4Delta cells on the survival period of mice infected with Candida albicans. mcd4Delta cells prolonged the survival period, implying that mcd4Delta cells may enhance the immune function of mice via macrophage activation. Moreover, we examined the structures of beta-glucans (i.e., alkali- and acetic acid-insoluble beta-glucans) extracted from mcd4Delta with (13)C-NMR and the effect of extracted beta-glucans on TNF-alpha secretion from macrophages. The structures of the beta-glucans from mcd4Delta differed from those of wild type (WT); however, there was no difference in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion level between beta-glucans from mcd4Delta and those from WT. The yield of purified beta-glucans obtained from dry cells of mcd4Delta was higher than that obtained from dry cells of WT. mcd4Delta may be a superior strain for the preparation of beta-glucans. PMID:17368399

  15. Ecological and Genetic Barriers Differentiate Natural Populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Clowers, Katie J; Heilberger, Justin; Piotrowski, Jeff S; Will, Jessica L; Gasch, Audrey P

    2015-09-01

    How populations that inhabit the same geographical area become genetically differentiated is not clear. To investigate this, we characterized phenotypic and genetic differences between two populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that in some cases inhabit the same environment but show relatively little gene flow. We profiled stress sensitivity in a group of vineyard isolates and a group of oak-soil strains and found several niche-related phenotypes that distinguish the populations. We performed bulk-segregant mapping on two of the distinguishing traits: The vineyard-specific ability to grow in grape juice and oak-specific tolerance to the cell wall damaging drug Congo red. To implicate causal genes, we also performed a chemical genomic screen in the lab-strain deletion collection and identified many important genes that fell under quantitative trait loci peaks. One gene important for growth in grape juice and identified by both the mapping and the screen was SSU1, a sulfite-nitrite pump implicated in wine fermentations. The beneficial allele is generated by a known translocation that we reasoned may also serve as a genetic barrier. We found that the translocation is prevalent in vineyard strains, but absent in oak strains, and presents a postzygotic barrier to spore viability. Furthermore, the translocation was associated with a fitness cost to the rapid growth rate seen in oak-soil strains. Our results reveal the translocation as a dual-function locus that enforces ecological differentiation while producing a genetic barrier to gene flow in these sympatric populations. PMID:25953281

  16. Cellular Memory of Acquired Stress Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Qiaoning; Haroon, Suraiya; Bravo, Diego González; Will, Jessica L.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Cellular memory of past experiences has been observed in several organisms and across a variety of experiences, including bacteria “remembering” prior nutritional status and amoeba “learning” to anticipate future environmental conditions. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae maintains a multifaceted memory of prior stress exposure. We previously demonstrated that yeast cells exposed to a mild dose of salt acquire subsequent tolerance to severe doses of H2O2. We set out to characterize the retention of acquired tolerance and in the process uncovered two distinct aspects of cellular memory. First, we found that H2O2 resistance persisted for four to five generations after cells were removed from the prior salt treatment and was transmitted to daughter cells that never directly experienced the pretreatment. Maintenance of this memory did not require nascent protein synthesis after the initial salt pretreatment, but rather required long-lived cytosolic catalase Ctt1p that was synthesized during salt exposure and then distributed to daughter cells during subsequent cell divisions. In addition to and separable from the memory of H2O2 resistance, these cells also displayed a faster gene-expression response to subsequent stress at >1000 genes, representing transcriptional memory. The faster gene-expression response requires the nuclear pore component Nup42p and serves an important function by facilitating faster reacquisition of H2O2 tolerance after a second cycle of salt exposure. Memory of prior stress exposure likely provides a significant advantage to microbial populations living in ever-changing environments. PMID:22851651

  17. Nanofiltration concentration of extracellular glutathione produced by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sazuka, Takashi; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize extracellular glutathione production by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered strain and to concentrate the extracellular glutathione by membrane separation processes, including ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF). Synthetic defined (SD) medium containing 20 g L(-1) glucose was fermented for 48 h; the fermentation liquid was passed through an UF membrane to remove macromolecules. Glutathione in this permeate was concentrated for 48 h to 545.1 ± 33.6 mg L(-1) using the NF membrane; this was a significantly higher concentration than that obtained with yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) medium following 96 h NF concentration (217.9 ± 57.4 mg L(-1)). This higher glutathione concentration results from lower cellular growth in SD medium (final OD600 = 6.9 ± 0.1) than in YPD medium (final OD600 = 11.0 ± 0.6) and thus higher production of extracellular glutathione (16.0 ± 1.3 compared to 9.2 ± 2.1 mg L(-1) in YPD medium, respectively). Similar fermentation and membrane processing of sweet sorghum juice containing 20 g L(-1) total sugars provided 240.3 ± 60.6 mg L(-1) glutathione. Increased extracellular production of glutathione by this engineered strain in SD medium and subsequent UF permeation and NF concentration in shortend time may help realize industrial recovery of extracellular glutathione.

  18. Phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Currently, pursuing yeast strains that display both a high potential fitness for alcoholic fermentation and a favorable impact on quality is a major goal in the alcoholic beverage industry. This considerable industrial interest has led to many studies characterizing the phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial yeast populations. In this study, 20 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different geographical origins exhibited high phenotypic diversity when their response to nine biotechnologically relevant conditions was examined. Next, the fermentation fitness and metabolic traits of eight selected strains with a unique phenotypic profile were evaluated in a high-sugar synthetic medium under two nitrogen regimes. Although the strains exhibited significant differences in nitrogen requirements and utilization rates, a direct relationship between nitrogen consumption, specific growth rate, cell biomass, cell viability, acetic acid and glycerol formation was only observed under high-nitrogen conditions. In contrast, the strains produced more succinic acid under the low-nitrogen regime, and a direct relationship with the final cell biomass was established. Glucose and fructose utilization patterns depended on both yeast strain and nitrogen availability. For low-nitrogen fermentation, three strains did not fully degrade the fructose. This study validates phenotypic and metabolic diversity among commercial wine yeasts and contributes new findings on the relationship between nitrogen availability, yeast cell growth and sugar utilization. We suggest that measuring nitrogen during the stationary growth phase is important because yeast cells fermentative activity is not exclusively related to population size, as previously assumed, but it is also related to the quantity of nitrogen consumed during this growth phase. PMID:24949272

  19. A Computational Approach to Estimating Nondisjunction Frequency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Daniel B.; Burgess, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Errors segregating homologous chromosomes during meiosis result in aneuploid gametes and are the largest contributing factor to birth defects and spontaneous abortions in humans. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has long served as a model organism for studying the gene network supporting normal chromosome segregation. Measuring homolog nondisjunction frequencies is laborious, and involves dissecting thousands of tetrads to detect missegregation of individually marked chromosomes. Here we describe a computational method (TetFit) to estimate the relative contributions of meiosis I nondisjunction and random-spore death to spore inviability in wild type and mutant strains. These values are based on finding the best-fit distribution of 4, 3, 2, 1, and 0 viable-spore tetrads to an observed distribution. Using TetFit, we found that meiosis I nondisjunction is an intrinsic component of spore inviability in wild-type strains. We show proof-of-principle that the calculated average meiosis I nondisjunction frequency determined by TetFit closely matches empirically determined values in mutant strains. Using these published data sets, TetFit uncovered two classes of mutants: Class A mutants skew toward increased nondisjunction death, and include those with known defects in establishing pairing, recombination, and/or synapsis of homologous chromosomes. Class B mutants skew toward random spore death, and include those with defects in sister-chromatid cohesion and centromere function. Epistasis analysis using TetFit is facilitated by the low numbers of tetrads (as few as 200) required to compare the contributions to spore death in different mutant backgrounds. TetFit analysis does not require any special strain construction, and can be applied to previously observed tetrad distributions. PMID:26747203

  20. Interaction between lanthanide ions and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Ene, Cristian D; Ruta, Lavinia L; Nicolau, Ioana; Popa, Claudia V; Iordache, Virgil; Neagoe, Aurora D; Farcasanu, Ileana C

    2015-10-01

    Lanthanides are a group of non-essential elements with important imaging and therapeutic applications. Although trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln³⁺) are used as potent blockers of Ca²⁺ channels, the systematic studies correlating Ln³⁺ accumulation and toxicity to Ca²⁺ channel blocking activity are scarce. In this study, we made use of the eukaryotic model Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate the correlation between Ln³⁺ accumulation, their toxicity and their capacity to block the exogenous stress-induced Ca²⁺ influx into the cytosol. It was found that the Ln³⁺ blocked the Ca²⁺ entry into the yeast cells only when present at concentration high enough to allow rapid binding to cell surface. At lower concentrations, Ln³⁺ were taken up by the cell, but Ca²⁺ blockage was no longer achieved. At 1 mM concentration, all ions from the Ln³⁺ series could block Ca²⁺ entry into cytosol with the exception of La³⁺, and to a lesser extent, Pr³⁺ and Nd³⁺. The plasma membrane Ca²⁺-channel Cch1/Mid1 contributed to La³⁺ and Gd³⁺ entry into the cells, with a significant preference for La³⁺. The results open the possibility to obtain cells loaded with controlled amounts and ratios of Ln³⁺.

  1. Mating-type Gene Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Sheng; Haber, James E

    2015-04-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two alternative mating types designated MATa and MATα. These are distinguished by about 700 bp of unique sequences, Ya or Yα, including divergent promoter sequences and part of the open reading frames of genes that regulate mating phenotype. Homothallic budding yeast, carrying an active HO endonuclease gene, HO, can switch mating type through a recombination process known as gene conversion, in which a site-specific double-strand break (DSB) created immediately adjacent to the Y region results in replacement of the Y sequences with a copy of the opposite mating type information, which is harbored in one of two heterochromatic donor loci, HMLα or HMRa. HO gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that only half of the cells in a lineage switch to the opposite MAT allele, thus promoting conjugation and diploid formation. Study of the silencing of these loci has provided a great deal of information about the role of the Sir2 histone deacetylase and its associated Sir3 and Sir4 proteins in creating heterochromatic regions. MAT switching has been examined in great detail to learn about the steps in homologous recombination. MAT switching is remarkably directional, with MATa recombining preferentially with HMLα and MATα using HMRa. Donor preference is controlled by a cis-acting recombination enhancer located near HML. RE is turned off in MATα cells but in MATa binds multiple copies of the Fkh1 transcription factor whose forkhead-associated phosphothreonine binding domain localizes at the DSB, bringing HML into conjunction with MATa.

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tti2 Regulates PIKK Proteins and Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kyle S.; Duennwald, Martin L.; Karagiannis, Jim; Genereaux, Julie; McCarton, Alexander S.; Brandl, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The TTT complex is composed of the three essential proteins Tel2, Tti1, and Tti2. The complex is required to maintain steady state levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) proteins, including mTOR, ATM/Tel1, ATR/Mec1, and TRRAP/Tra1, all of which serve as regulators of critical cell signaling pathways. Due to their association with heat shock proteins, and with newly synthesized PIKK peptides, components of the TTT complex may act as cochaperones. Here, we analyze the consequences of depleting the cellular level of Tti2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that yeast expressing low levels of Tti2 are viable under optimal growth conditions, but the cells are sensitive to a number of stress conditions that involve PIKK pathways. In agreement with this, depleting Tti2 levels decreased expression of Tra1, Mec1, and Tor1, affected their localization and inhibited the stress responses in which these molecules are involved. Tti2 expression was not increased during heat shock, implying that it does not play a general role in the heat shock response. However, steady state levels of Hsp42 increase when Tti2 is depleted, and tti2L187P has a synthetic interaction with exon 1 of the human Huntingtin gene containing a 103 residue polyQ sequence, suggesting a general role in protein quality control. We also find that overexpressing Hsp90 or its cochaperones is synthetic lethal when Tti2 is depleted, an effect possibly due to imbalanced stoichiometry of a complex required for PIKK assembly. These results indicate that Tti2 does not act as a general chaperone, but may have a specialized function in PIKK folding and/or complex assembly. PMID:27172216

  3. Genetic effects of fresh cigarette smoke in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gairola, C

    1982-09-01

    Ability of fresh cigarette smoke from University of Kentucky reference cigarette 2R1 to induce gene conversion, reverse mutation and mitotic crossing-over in strain D7 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined. A closed cell suspension-recycle system using 2 peristaltic pumps interconnected to a single-port reverse-phase smoking machine was developed to provide complete exposure of cells to smoke within 0.2--10 sec of its generation. The exposed cells showed a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of all the 3 genetic endpoints examined. Cell age was an important factor with younger cells being more sensitive than older. Filtration studies showed that the gas phase possessed as much as 25% of the total whole-smoke activity. Activated charcoal reduced the activity of smoke in direct proportion to its amount in the filter. Acetate filter did not appreciably alter the activity. A comparison of whole smoke from various cigarettes showed that: (1) the nicotine content of a cigarette does not affect the genetic activity of smoke; (2) burley and flue-cured tobaccos have differential activity in gene conversion and reverse mutation systems; and (3) the genetic effects of whole smoke are not peculiar to tobacco pyrolysis because similar effects are produced by smokes from lettuce and other non-tobacco cigarettes. It is concluded that the yeast D7 system can be used effectively for the quantitative evaluation of genetic effects of smoke from different cigarettes, and both whole cigarette smoke and its gas phase possess mutagenic as well as recombinogenic activity that can be modified by the use of filters. PMID:6755230

  4. Topological and mutational analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fks1.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael E; Edlind, Thomas D

    2012-07-01

    Fks1, with orthologs in nearly all fungi as well as plants and many protists, plays a central role in fungal cell wall formation as the putative catalytic component of β-1,3-glucan synthase. It is also the target for an important new antifungal group, the echinocandins, as evidenced by the localization of resistance-conferring mutations to Fks1 hot spots 1, 2, and 3 (residues 635 to 649, 1354 to 1361, and 690 to 700, respectively). Since Fks1 is an integral membrane protein and echinocandins are cyclic peptides with lipid tails, Fks1 topology is key to understanding its function and interaction with echinocandins. We used hemagglutinin (HA)-Suc2-His4C fusions to C-terminally truncated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fks1 to experimentally define its topology and site-directed mutagenesis to test function of selected residues. Of the 15 to 18 transmembrane helices predicted in silico for Fks1 from evolutionarily diverse fungi, 13 were experimentally confirmed. The N terminus (residues 1 to 445) is cytosolic and the C terminus (residues 1823 to 1876) external; both are essential to Fks1 function. The cytosolic central domain (residues 715 to 1294) includes newly recognized homology to glycosyltransferases, and residues potentially involved in substrate UDP-glucose binding and catalysis are essential. All three hot spots are external, with hot spot 1 adjacent to and hot spot 3 largely embedded within the outer leaflet of the membrane. This topology suggests a model in which echinocandins interact through their lipid tails with hot spot 3 and through their cyclic peptides with hot spots 1 and 2.

  5. Capturing of the monoterpene olefin limonene produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jongedijk, Esmer; Cankar, Katarina; Ranzijn, Jorn; van der Krol, Sander; Bouwmeester, Harro; Beekwilder, Jules

    2015-01-01

    Monoterpene olefins such as limonene are plant compounds with applications as flavouring and fragrance agents, as solvents and potentially also in polymer and fuel chemistry. We engineered baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to express a (-)-limonene synthase from Perilla frutescens and a (+)-limonene synthase from Citrus limon. Both proteins were expressed either with their native plastid targeting signal or in a truncated form in which the plastidial sorting signal was removed. The yeast host strain for expression was AE9 K197G, which expresses a mutant Erg20 enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the formation of geranyl diphosphate, which is the precursor for monoterpenes. Several methods were tested to capture limonene produced by the yeast. Extraction from the culture medium by pentane, or by the addition of CaCl2 followed by solid-phase micro-extraction, did not lead to detectable limonene, indicating that limonene is rapidly lost from the culture medium. Volatile terpenes such as limonene may also be trapped in a dodecane phase added to the medium during fermentation. This method resulted in recovery of 0.028 mg/l (+)-limonene and 0.060 mg/l (-)-limonene in strains using the truncated Citrus and Perilla synthases, respectively. Trapping the headspace during culture of the limonene synthase-expressing strains resulted in higher titres, at 0.12 mg/l (+)-limonene and 0.49 mg/l (-)-limonene. These results show that the volatile properties of the olefins produced require specific methods for efficient recovery of these molecules from biotechnological production systems.

  6. A Computational Approach to Estimating Nondisjunction Frequency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chu, Daniel B; Burgess, Sean M

    2016-03-01

    Errors segregating homologous chromosomes during meiosis result in aneuploid gametes and are the largest contributing factor to birth defects and spontaneous abortions in humans. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has long served as a model organism for studying the gene network supporting normal chromosome segregation. Measuring homolog nondisjunction frequencies is laborious, and involves dissecting thousands of tetrads to detect missegregation of individually marked chromosomes. Here we describe a computational method (TetFit) to estimate the relative contributions of meiosis I nondisjunction and random-spore death to spore inviability in wild type and mutant strains. These values are based on finding the best-fit distribution of 4, 3, 2, 1, and 0 viable-spore tetrads to an observed distribution. Using TetFit, we found that meiosis I nondisjunction is an intrinsic component of spore inviability in wild-type strains. We show proof-of-principle that the calculated average meiosis I nondisjunction frequency determined by TetFit closely matches empirically determined values in mutant strains. Using these published data sets, TetFit uncovered two classes of mutants: Class A mutants skew toward increased nondisjunction death, and include those with known defects in establishing pairing, recombination, and/or synapsis of homologous chromosomes. Class B mutants skew toward random spore death, and include those with defects in sister-chromatid cohesion and centromere function. Epistasis analysis using TetFit is facilitated by the low numbers of tetrads (as few as 200) required to compare the contributions to spore death in different mutant backgrounds. TetFit analysis does not require any special strain construction, and can be applied to previously observed tetrad distributions. PMID:26747203

  7. Mating-type Gene Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Sheng; Haber, James E

    2015-04-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two alternative mating types designated MATa and MATα. These are distinguished by about 700 bp of unique sequences, Ya or Yα, including divergent promoter sequences and part of the open reading frames of genes that regulate mating phenotype. Homothallic budding yeast, carrying an active HO endonuclease gene, HO, can switch mating type through a recombination process known as gene conversion, in which a site-specific double-strand break (DSB) created immediately adjacent to the Y region results in replacement of the Y sequences with a copy of the opposite mating type information, which is harbored in one of two heterochromatic donor loci, HMLα or HMRa. HO gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that only half of the cells in a lineage switch to the opposite MAT allele, thus promoting conjugation and diploid formation. Study of the silencing of these loci has provided a great deal of information about the role of the Sir2 histone deacetylase and its associated Sir3 and Sir4 proteins in creating heterochromatic regions. MAT switching has been examined in great detail to learn about the steps in homologous recombination. MAT switching is remarkably directional, with MATa recombining preferentially with HMLα and MATα using HMRa. Donor preference is controlled by a cis-acting recombination enhancer located near HML. RE is turned off in MATα cells but in MATa binds multiple copies of the Fkh1 transcription factor whose forkhead-associated phosphothreonine binding domain localizes at the DSB, bringing HML into conjunction with MATa. PMID:26104712

  8. Cellular memory of acquired stress resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qiaoning; Haroon, Suraiya; Bravo, Diego González; Will, Jessica L; Gasch, Audrey P

    2012-10-01

    Cellular memory of past experiences has been observed in several organisms and across a variety of experiences, including bacteria "remembering" prior nutritional status and amoeba "learning" to anticipate future environmental conditions. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae maintains a multifaceted memory of prior stress exposure. We previously demonstrated that yeast cells exposed to a mild dose of salt acquire subsequent tolerance to severe doses of H(2)O(2). We set out to characterize the retention of acquired tolerance and in the process uncovered two distinct aspects of cellular memory. First, we found that H(2)O(2) resistance persisted for four to five generations after cells were removed from the prior salt treatment and was transmitted to daughter cells that never directly experienced the pretreatment. Maintenance of this memory did not require nascent protein synthesis after the initial salt pretreatment, but rather required long-lived cytosolic catalase Ctt1p that was synthesized during salt exposure and then distributed to daughter cells during subsequent cell divisions. In addition to and separable from the memory of H(2)O(2) resistance, these cells also displayed a faster gene-expression response to subsequent stress at >1000 genes, representing transcriptional memory. The faster gene-expression response requires the nuclear pore component Nup42p and serves an important function by facilitating faster reacquisition of H(2)O(2) tolerance after a second cycle of salt exposure. Memory of prior stress exposure likely provides a significant advantage to microbial populations living in ever-changing environments. PMID:22851651

  9. Genetic basis of arsenite and cadmium tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Thorsen, Michael; Perrone, Gabriel G; Kristiansson, Erik; Traini, Mathew; Ye, Tian; Dawes, Ian W; Nerman, Olle; Tamás, Markus J

    2009-01-01

    Background Arsenic and cadmium are widely distributed in nature and pose serious threats to the environment and human health. Exposure to these nonessential toxic metals may result in a variety of human diseases including cancer. However, arsenic and cadmium toxicity targets and the cellular systems contributing to tolerance acquisition are not fully known. Results To gain insight into metal action and cellular tolerance mechanisms, we carried out genome-wide screening of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid and homozygous diploid deletion mutant collections and scored for reduced growth in the presence of arsenite or cadmium. Processes found to be required for tolerance to both metals included sulphur and glutathione biosynthesis, environmental sensing, mRNA synthesis and transcription, and vacuolar/endosomal transport and sorting. We also identified metal-specific defence processes. Arsenite-specific defence functions were related to cell cycle regulation, lipid and fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and the cytoskeleton whereas cadmium-specific defence functions were mainly related to sugar/carbohydrate metabolism, and metal-ion homeostasis and transport. Molecular evidence indicated that the cytoskeleton is targeted by arsenite and that phosphorylation of the Snf1p kinase is required for cadmium tolerance. Conclusion This study has pin-pointed core functions that protect cells from arsenite and cadmium toxicity. It also emphasizes the existence of both common and specific defence systems. Since many of the yeast genes that confer tolerance to these agents have homologues in humans, similar biological processes may act in yeast and humans to prevent metal toxicity and carcinogenesis. PMID:19284616

  10. Topological and Mutational Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fks1

    PubMed Central

    Edlind, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Fks1, with orthologs in nearly all fungi as well as plants and many protists, plays a central role in fungal cell wall formation as the putative catalytic component of β-1,3-glucan synthase. It is also the target for an important new antifungal group, the echinocandins, as evidenced by the localization of resistance-conferring mutations to Fks1 hot spots 1, 2, and 3 (residues 635 to 649, 1354 to 1361, and 690 to 700, respectively). Since Fks1 is an integral membrane protein and echinocandins are cyclic peptides with lipid tails, Fks1 topology is key to understanding its function and interaction with echinocandins. We used hemagglutinin (HA)-Suc2-His4C fusions to C-terminally truncated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fks1 to experimentally define its topology and site-directed mutagenesis to test function of selected residues. Of the 15 to 18 transmembrane helices predicted in silico for Fks1 from evolutionarily diverse fungi, 13 were experimentally confirmed. The N terminus (residues 1 to 445) is cytosolic and the C terminus (residues 1823 to 1876) external; both are essential to Fks1 function. The cytosolic central domain (residues 715 to 1294) includes newly recognized homology to glycosyltransferases, and residues potentially involved in substrate UDP-glucose binding and catalysis are essential. All three hot spots are external, with hot spot 1 adjacent to and hot spot 3 largely embedded within the outer leaflet of the membrane. This topology suggests a model in which echinocandins interact through their lipid tails with hot spot 3 and through their cyclic peptides with hot spots 1 and 2. PMID:22581527

  11. Screening of Non- Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains for Tolerance to Formic Acid in Bioethanol Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Oshoma, Cyprian E; Greetham, Darren; Louis, Edward J; Smart, Katherine A; Phister, Trevor G; Powell, Chris; Du, Chenyu

    2015-01-01

    Formic acid is one of the major inhibitory compounds present in hydrolysates derived from lignocellulosic materials, the presence of which can significantly hamper the efficiency of converting available sugars into bioethanol. This study investigated the potential for screening formic acid tolerance in non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains, which could be used for the development of advanced generation bioethanol processes. Spot plate and phenotypic microarray methods were used to screen the formic acid tolerance of 7 non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. S. kudriavzeii IFO1802 and S. arboricolus 2.3319 displayed a higher formic acid tolerance when compared to other strains in the study. Strain S. arboricolus 2.3319 was selected for further investigation due to its genetic variability among the Saccharomyces species as related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and availability of two sibling strains: S. arboricolus 2.3317 and 2.3318 in the lab. The tolerance of S. arboricolus strains (2.3317, 2.3318 and 2.3319) to formic acid was further investigated by lab-scale fermentation analysis, and compared with S. cerevisiae NCYC2592. S. arboricolus 2.3319 demonstrated improved formic acid tolerance and a similar bioethanol synthesis capacity to S. cerevisiae NCYC2592, while S. arboricolus 2.3317 and 2.3318 exhibited an overall inferior performance. Metabolite analysis indicated that S. arboricolus strain 2.3319 accumulated comparatively high concentrations of glycerol and glycogen, which may have contributed to its ability to tolerate high levels of formic acid.

  12. Screening of Non- Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains for Tolerance to Formic Acid in Bioethanol Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Oshoma, Cyprian E.; Greetham, Darren; Louis, Edward J.; Smart, Katherine A.; Phister, Trevor G.; Powell, Chris; Du, Chenyu

    2015-01-01

    Formic acid is one of the major inhibitory compounds present in hydrolysates derived from lignocellulosic materials, the presence of which can significantly hamper the efficiency of converting available sugars into bioethanol. This study investigated the potential for screening formic acid tolerance in non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains, which could be used for the development of advanced generation bioethanol processes. Spot plate and phenotypic microarray methods were used to screen the formic acid tolerance of 7 non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. S. kudriavzeii IFO1802 and S. arboricolus 2.3319 displayed a higher formic acid tolerance when compared to other strains in the study. Strain S. arboricolus 2.3319 was selected for further investigation due to its genetic variability among the Saccharomyces species as related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and availability of two sibling strains: S. arboricolus 2.3317 and 2.3318 in the lab. The tolerance of S. arboricolus strains (2.3317, 2.3318 and 2.3319) to formic acid was further investigated by lab-scale fermentation analysis, and compared with S. cerevisiae NCYC2592. S. arboricolus 2.3319 demonstrated improved formic acid tolerance and a similar bioethanol synthesis capacity to S. cerevisiae NCYC2592, while S. arboricolus 2.3317 and 2.3318 exhibited an overall inferior performance. Metabolite analysis indicated that S. arboricolus strain 2.3319 accumulated comparatively high concentrations of glycerol and glycogen, which may have contributed to its ability to tolerate high levels of formic acid. PMID:26284784

  13. Divergence in wine characteristics produced by wild and domesticated strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Hyma, Katie E; Saerens, Sofie M; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Fay, Justin C

    2011-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the primary species used by wine makers to convert sugar into alcohol during wine fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is found in vineyards, but is also found in association with oak trees and other natural sources. Although wild strains of S. cerevisiae as well as other Saccharomyces species are also capable of wine fermentation, a genetically distinct group of S. cerevisiae strains is primarily used to produce wine, consistent with the idea that wine making strains have been domesticated for wine production. In this study, we demonstrate that humans can distinguish between wines produced using wine strains and wild strains of S. cerevisiae as well as its sibling species, Saccharomyces paradoxus. Wine strains produced wine with fruity and floral characteristics, whereas wild strains produced wine with earthy and sulfurous characteristics. The differences that we observe between wine and wild strains provides further evidence that wine strains have evolved phenotypes that are distinct from their wild ancestors and relevant to their use in wine production. PMID:22093681

  14. Effects of cyclohexane, an industrial solvent, on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and on isolated yeast mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Uribe, S; Rangel, P; Espínola, G; Aguirre, G

    1990-07-01

    Little information on the effects of cyclohexane at the cellular or subcellular level is available. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cyclohexane inhibited respiration and diverse energy-dependent processes. In mitochondria isolated from S. cerevisiae, oxygen uptake and ATP synthesis were inhibited, although ATPase activity was not affected. Cyclohexane effects were similar to those reported for beta-pinene and limonene, suggesting that the cyclohexane ring in these monoterpenes may be a determinant for their biological activities.

  15. Effects of cyclohexane, an industrial solvent, on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and on isolated yeast mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, S.; Rangel, P.; Espinola, G.; Aguirre, G. )

    1990-07-01

    Little information on the effects of cyclohexane at the cellular or subcellular level is available. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cyclohexane inhibited respiration and diverse energy-dependent processes. In mitochondria isolated from S. cerevisiae, oxygen uptake and ATP synthesis were inhibited, although ATPase activity was not affected. Cyclohexane effects were similar to those reported for beta-pinene and limonene, suggesting that the cyclohexane ring in these monoterpenes may be a determinant for their biological activities.

  16. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 μm installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of

  17. Adjustment of Trehalose Metabolism in Wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains To Modify Ethanol Yields

    PubMed Central

    Rossouw, D.; Heyns, E. H.; Setati, M. E.; Bosch, S.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently produce high levels of ethanol through glycolysis has been the focus of much scientific and industrial activity. Despite the accumulated knowledge regarding glycolysis, the modification of flux through this pathway to modify ethanol yields has proved difficult. Here, we report on the systematic screening of 66 strains with deletion mutations of genes encoding enzymes involved in central carbohydrate metabolism for altered ethanol yields. Five of these strains showing the most prominent changes in carbon flux were selected for further investigation. The genes were representative of trehalose biosynthesis (TPS1, encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase), central glycolysis (TDH3, encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (ZWF1, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (ACO1 and ACO2, encoding aconitase isoforms 1 and 2). Two strains exhibited lower ethanol yields than the wild type (tps1Δ and tdh3Δ), while the remaining three showed higher ethanol yields. To validate these findings in an industrial yeast strain, the TPS1 gene was selected as a good candidate for genetic modification to alter flux to ethanol during alcoholic fermentation in wine. Using low-strength promoters active at different stages of fermentation, the expression of the TPS1 gene was slightly upregulated, resulting in a decrease in ethanol production and an increase in trehalose biosynthesis during fermentation. Thus, the mutant screening approach was successful in terms of identifying target genes for genetic modification in commercial yeast strains with the aim of producing lower-ethanol wines. PMID:23793638

  18. Cross-reactions between engineered xylose and galactose pathways in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Overexpression of the PGM2 gene encoding phosphoglucomutase (Pgm2p) has been shown to improve galactose utilization both under aerobic and under anaerobic conditions. Similarly, xylose utilization has been improved by overexpression of genes encoding xylulokinase (XK), enzymes from the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (non-ox PPP) and deletion of the endogenous aldose reductase GRE3 gene in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains carrying either fungal or bacterial xylose pathways. In the present study, we investigated how the combination of these traits affect xylose and galactose utilization in the presence or absence of glucose in S. cerevisiae strains engineered with the xylose reductase (XR)-xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) pathway. Results In the absence of PGM2 overexpression, the combined overexpression of XK, the non-ox PPP and deletion of the GRE3 gene significantly delayed aerobic growth on galactose, whereas no difference was observed between the control strain and the xylose-engineered strain when the PGM2 gene was overexpressed. Under anaerobic conditions, the overexpression of the PGM2 gene increased the ethanol yield and the xylose consumption rate in medium containing xylose as the only carbon source. The possibility of Pgm2p acting as a xylose isomerase (XI) could be excluded by measuring the XI activity in both strains. The additional copy of the PGM2 gene also resulted in a shorter fermentation time during the co-consumption of galactose and xylose. However, the effect was lost upon addition of glucose to the growth medium. Conclusions PGM2 overexpression was shown to benefit xylose and galactose fermentation, alone and in combination. In contrast, galactose fermentation was impaired in the engineered xylose-utilizing strain harbouring extra copies of the non-ox PPP genes and a deletion of the GRE3 gene, unless PGM2 was overexpressed. These cross-reactions are of particular relevance for the fermentation of mixed sugars from

  19. Malic Acid Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Engineering of Pyruvate Carboxylation, Oxaloacetate Reduction, and Malate Export▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zelle, Rintze M.; de Hulster, Erik; van Winden, Wouter A.; de Waard, Pieter; Dijkema, Cor; Winkler, Aaron A.; Geertman, Jan-Maarten A.; van Dijken, Johannes P.; Pronk, Jack T.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Malic acid is a potential biomass-derivable “building block” for chemical synthesis. Since wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produce only low levels of malate, metabolic engineering is required to achieve efficient malate production with this yeast. A promising pathway for malate production from glucose proceeds via carboxylation of pyruvate, followed by reduction of oxaloacetate to malate. This redox- and ATP-neutral, CO2-fixing pathway has a theoretical maximum yield of 2 mol malate (mol glucose)−1. A previously engineered glucose-tolerant, C2-independent pyruvate decarboxylase-negative S. cerevisiae strain was used as the platform to evaluate the impact of individual and combined introduction of three genetic modifications: (i) overexpression of the native pyruvate carboxylase encoded by PYC2, (ii) high-level expression of an allele of the MDH3 gene, of which the encoded malate dehydrogenase was retargeted to the cytosol by deletion of the C-terminal peroxisomal targeting sequence, and (iii) functional expression of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe malate transporter gene SpMAE1. While single or double modifications improved malate production, the highest malate yields and titers were obtained with the simultaneous introduction of all three modifications. In glucose-grown batch cultures, the resulting engineered strain produced malate at titers of up to 59 g liter−1 at a malate yield of 0.42 mol (mol glucose)−1. Metabolic flux analysis showed that metabolite labeling patterns observed upon nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of cultures grown on 13C-labeled glucose were consistent with the envisaged nonoxidative, fermentative pathway for malate production. The engineered strains still produced substantial amounts of pyruvate, indicating that the pathway efficiency can be further improved. PMID:18344340

  20. Malic acid production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: engineering of pyruvate carboxylation, oxaloacetate reduction, and malate export.

    PubMed

    Zelle, Rintze M; de Hulster, Erik; van Winden, Wouter A; de Waard, Pieter; Dijkema, Cor; Winkler, Aaron A; Geertman, Jan-Maarten A; van Dijken, Johannes P; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2008-05-01

    Malic acid is a potential biomass-derivable "building block" for chemical synthesis. Since wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produce only low levels of malate, metabolic engineering is required to achieve efficient malate production with this yeast. A promising pathway for malate production from glucose proceeds via carboxylation of pyruvate, followed by reduction of oxaloacetate to malate. This redox- and ATP-neutral, CO(2)-fixing pathway has a theoretical maximum yield of 2 mol malate (mol glucose)(-1). A previously engineered glucose-tolerant, C(2)-independent pyruvate decarboxylase-negative S. cerevisiae strain was used as the platform to evaluate the impact of individual and combined introduction of three genetic modifications: (i) overexpression of the native pyruvate carboxylase encoded by PYC2, (ii) high-level expression of an allele of the MDH3 gene, of which the encoded malate dehydrogenase was retargeted to the cytosol by deletion of the C-terminal peroxisomal targeting sequence, and (iii) functional expression of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe malate transporter gene SpMAE1. While single or double modifications improved malate production, the highest malate yields and titers were obtained with the simultaneous introduction of all three modifications. In glucose-grown batch cultures, the resulting engineered strain produced malate at titers of up to 59 g liter(-1) at a malate yield of 0.42 mol (mol glucose)(-1). Metabolic flux analysis showed that metabolite labeling patterns observed upon nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of cultures grown on (13)C-labeled glucose were consistent with the envisaged nonoxidative, fermentative pathway for malate production. The engineered strains still produced substantial amounts of pyruvate, indicating that the pathway efficiency can be further improved.

  1. Enhanced Bioconversion of Cellobiose by Industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Used for Cellulose Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Meng-Long; Zha, Jian; He, Lin-Wei; Lv, Ya-Jin; Shen, Ming-Hua; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Cellobiose accumulation and the compromised temperature for yeast fermentation are the main limiting factors of enzymatic hydrolysis process during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In this study, genes encoding cellobiose transporter and β-glucosidase were introduced into an industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, and evolution engineering was carried out to improve the cellobiose utilization of the engineered yeast strain. The evolved strain exhibited significantly higher cellobiose consumption rate (2.8-fold) and ethanol productivity (4.9-fold) compared with its parent strain. Besides, the evolved strain showed a high cellobiose consumption rate of 3.67 g/L/h at 34°C and 3.04 g/L/h at 38°C. Moreover, little cellobiose was accumulated during SSF of Avicel using the evolved strain at 38°C, and the ethanol yield from Avicel increased by 23% from 0.34 to 0.42 g ethanol/g cellulose. Overexpression of the genes encoding cellobiose transporter and β-glucosidase accelerated cellobiose utilization, and the improvement depended on the strain background. The results proved that fast cellobiose utilization enhanced ethanol production by reducing cellobiose accumulation during SSF at high temperature. PMID:26973619

  2. Molecular response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine and laboratory strains to high sugar stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Martí, E; Zuzuarregui, A; Gomar-Alba, M; Gutiérrez, D; Gil, C; del Olmo, M

    2011-01-31

    One of the stress conditions that can affect Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells during their growth is osmotic stress. Under particular environments (for instance, during the production of alcoholic beverages) yeasts have to cope with osmotic stress caused by high sugar concentrations. Although the molecular changes and pathways involved in the response to saline or sorbitol stress are widely understood, less is known about how cells respond to high sugar concentrations. In this work we present a comprehensive study of the response to this form of stress which indicates important transcriptomic changes, especially in terms of the genes involved in both stress response and respiration, and the implication of the HOG pathway. We also describe several genes of an unknown function which are more highly expressed under 20% (w/v) glucose than under 2% (w/v) glucose. In this work we focus on the YHR087w (RTC3) gene and its encoded protein. Proteomic analysis of the mutant deletion strain reveals lower levels of several yeast Hsp proteins, which establishes a link between this protein and the response to several forms of stress. The relevance of YHR087W for the response to high sugar and other stress conditions and the relationship of the encoded protein with several Hsp proteins suggest applications of this gene in biotechnological processes in which response to stress is important.

  3. Amino acid sequence of a new mitochondrially synthesized proteolipid of the ATP synthase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Velours, J; Esparza, M; Hoppe, J; Sebald, W; Guerin, B

    1984-01-01

    The purification and the amino acid sequence of a proteolipid translated on ribosomes in yeast mitochondria is reported. This protein, which is a subunit of the ATP synthase, was purified by extraction with chloroform/methanol (2/1) and subsequent chromatography on phosphocellulose and reverse phase h.p.l.c. A mol. wt. of 5500 was estimated by chromatography on Bio-Gel P-30 in 80% formic acid. The complete amino acid sequence of this protein was determined by automated solid phase Edman degradation of the whole protein and of fragments obtained after cleavage with cyanogen bromide. The sequence analysis indicates a length of 48 amino acid residues. The calculated mol. wt. of 5870 corresponds to the value found by gel chromatography. This polypeptide contains three basic residues and no negatively charged side chain. The three basic residues are clustered at the C terminus. The primary structure of this protein is in full agreement with the predicted amino acid sequence of the putative polypeptide encoded by the mitochondrial aap1 gene recently discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, this protein shows 50% homology with the amino acid sequence of a putative polypeptide encoded by an unidentified reading frame also discovered near the mitochondrial ATPase subunit 6 gene in Aspergillus nidulans. Images Fig. 2. PMID:6323165

  4. Enhanced Bioconversion of Cellobiose by Industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Used for Cellulose Utilization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meng-Long; Zha, Jian; He, Lin-Wei; Lv, Ya-Jin; Shen, Ming-Hua; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Cellobiose accumulation and the compromised temperature for yeast fermentation are the main limiting factors of enzymatic hydrolysis process during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In this study, genes encoding cellobiose transporter and β-glucosidase were introduced into an industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, and evolution engineering was carried out to improve the cellobiose utilization of the engineered yeast strain. The evolved strain exhibited significantly higher cellobiose consumption rate (2.8-fold) and ethanol productivity (4.9-fold) compared with its parent strain. Besides, the evolved strain showed a high cellobiose consumption rate of 3.67 g/L/h at 34°C and 3.04 g/L/h at 38°C. Moreover, little cellobiose was accumulated during SSF of Avicel using the evolved strain at 38°C, and the ethanol yield from Avicel increased by 23% from 0.34 to 0.42 g ethanol/g cellulose. Overexpression of the genes encoding cellobiose transporter and β-glucosidase accelerated cellobiose utilization, and the improvement depended on the strain background. The results proved that fast cellobiose utilization enhanced ethanol production by reducing cellobiose accumulation during SSF at high temperature. PMID:26973619

  5. Involvement of Sac1 phosphoinositide phosphatase in the metabolism of phosphatidylserine in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tani, Motohiro; Kuge, Osamu

    2014-04-01

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that preferentially dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. Mutation of SAC1 causes not only the accumulation of phosphoinositides but also reduction of the phosphatidylserine (PS) level in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we characterized the mechanism underlying the PS reduction in SAC1-deleted cells. Incorporation of (32) P into PS was significantly delayed in sac1∆ cells. Such a delay was also observed in SAC1- and PS decarboxylase gene-deleted cells, suggesting that the reduction in the PS level is caused by a reduction in the rate of biosynthesis of PS. A reduction in the PS level was also observed with repression of STT4 encoding phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase or deletion of VPS34 encoding phophatidylinositol 3-kinase. However, the combination of mutations of SAC1 and STT4 or VPS34 did not restore the reduced PS level, suggesting that both the synthesis and degradation of phosphoinositides are important for maintenance of the PS level. Finally, we observed an abnormal PS distribution in sac1∆ cells when a specific probe for PS was expressed. Collectively, these results suggested that Sac1 is involved in the maintenance of a normal rate of biosynthesis and distribution of PS.

  6. Synthesis of mannosylinositol phosphorylceramides is involved in maintenance of cell integrity of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuji; Tani, Motohiro

    2015-02-01

    Complex sphingolipids play important roles in many physiologically important events in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we screened yeast mutant strains showing a synthetic lethal interaction with loss of mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide (MIPC) synthesis and found that a specific group of glycosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of mannan-type N-glycans is essential for the growth of cells lacking MIPC synthases (Sur1 and Csh1). The genetic interaction was also confirmed by repression of MNN2, which encodes alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase that synthesizes mannan-type N-glycans, by a tetracycline-regulatable system. MNN2-repressed sur1Δ csh1Δ cells exhibited high sensitivity to zymolyase treatment, and caffeine and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) strongly inhibited the growth of sur1Δ csh1Δ cells, suggesting impairment of cell integrity due to the loss of MIPC synthesis. The phosphorylated form of Slt2, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activated by impaired cell integrity, increased in sur1Δ csh1Δ cells, and this increase was dramatically enhanced by the repression of Mnn2. Moreover, the growth defect of MNN2-repressed sur1Δ csh1Δ cells was enhanced by the deletion of SLT2 or RLM1 encoding a downstream target of Slt2. These results indicated that loss of MIPC synthesis causes impairment of cell integrity, and this effect is enhanced by impaired synthesis of mannan-type N-glycans.

  7. Protein phosphatase 2A in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effects on cell growth and bud morphogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Ronne, H; Carlberg, M; Hu, G Z; Nehlin, J O

    1991-01-01

    We have cloned three genes for protein phosphatases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two of the genes, PPH21 and PPH22, encode highly similar proteins that are homologs of the mammalian protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), while the third gene, PPH3, encodes a new PP2A-related protein. Disruptions of either PPH21 or PPH22 had no effects, but spores disrupted for both genes produced very small colonies with few surviving cells. We conclude that PP2A performs an important function in yeast cells. A disruption of the third gene, PPH3, did not in itself affect growth, but it completely prevented growth of spores disrupted for both PPH21 and PPH22. Thus, PPH3 provides some PP2A-complementing activity which allows for a limited growth of PP2A-deficient cells. Strains were constructed in which we could study the phenotypes caused by either excess PP2A or total PP2A depletion. We found that the level of PP2A activity has dramatic effects on cell shape. PP2A-depleted cells develop an abnormal pear-shaped morphology which is particularly pronounced in the growing bud. In contrast, overexpression of PP2A produces more elongated cells, and high-level overexpression causes a balloonlike phenotype with huge swollen cells filled by large vacuoles. Images PMID:1656215

  8. Comparative analysis of the 5'-end regions of two repressible acid phosphatase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Thill, G P; Kramer, R A; Turner, K J; Bostian, K A

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of 5'-noncoding and N-terminal coding regions of two coordinately regulated, repressible acid phosphatase genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were determined. These unlinked genes encode different, but structurally related polypeptides of molecular weights 60,000 and 56,000. The DNA sequences of their 5'-flanking regions show stretches of extensive homology upstream of, and surrounding, a "TATA" sequence and in a region in which heterogeneous 5' ends of the p60 mRNA were mapped. The predicted amino acid sequences encoded by the N-terminal regions of both genes were confirmed by determination of the amino acid sequence of the native exocellular acid phosphatase and the partial sequence of the presecretory polypeptide synthesized in a cell-free protein synthesizing system. The N-terminal region of the p60 polypeptide was shown to be characterized by a hydrophobic 17-amino acid signal polypeptide which is absent in the native exocellular protein and thought to be necessary for acid phosphatase secretion. Images PMID:6343840

  9. Functional relationships between the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cis-prenyltransferases required for dolichol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Grabińska, Kariona; Sosińska, Grazyna; Orłowski, Jacek; Swiezewska, Ewa; Berges, Thierry; Karst, Francis; Palamarczyk, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the RER2 and SRT1 genes encode Rer2 and Srt1 proteins with cis-prenyltransferase (cis-PT-ase) activity. Both cis-PT-ases utilize farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) as a starter for polyprenyl diphosphate (dolichol backbone) formation. The products of the Rer2 and Srt1 proteins consist of 14-17 and 18-23 isoprene units, respectively. In this work we demonstrate that deletion or overexpression of SRT1 up-regulates the activity of Rer2p and dolichol content. However, upon overexpression of SRT1, preferential synthesis of longer-chain dolichols and a decrease in the amount of the shorter species are observed. Furthermore, overexpression of the ERG20 gene (encoding farnesyl diphosphate synthase, Erg20p) induces transcription of SRT1 mRNA and increases the levels of mRNA for RER2 and DPM1 (dolichyl phosphate mannose synthase, Dpm1p). Subsequently the enzymatic activity of Rer2p and dolichol content are also increased. However, the amount of Dpm1p or its enzymatic activity remain unchanged.

  10. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase IV: possible involvement in double strand break DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Leem, S H; Ropp, P A; Sugino, A

    1994-08-11

    We identified and purified a new DNA polymerase (DNA polymerase IV), which is similar to mammalian DNA polymerase beta, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and suggested that it is encoded by YCR14C (POLX) on chromosome III. Here, we provided a direct evidence that the purified DNA polymerase IV is indeed encoded by POLX. Strains harboring a pol4 deletion mutation exhibit neither mitotic growth defect nor a meiosis defect, suggesting that DNA polymerase IV participates in nonessential functions in DNA metabolism. The deletion strains did not exhibit UV-sensitivity. However, they did show weak sensitivity to MMS-treatment and exhibited a hyper-recombination phenotype when intragenic recombination was measured during meiosis. Furthermore, MAT alpha pol4 delta segregants had a higher frequency of illegitimate mating with a MAT alpha tester strain than that of wild-type cells. These results suggest that DNA polymerase IV participates in a double-strand break repair pathway. A 3.2kb of the POL4 transcript was weakly expressed in mitotically growing cells. During meiosis, a 2.2 kb POL4 transcript was greatly induced, while the 3.2 kb transcript stayed at constant levels. This induction was delayed in a swi4 delta strain during meiosis, while no effect was observed in a swi6 delta strain.

  11. New insights into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation switch: Dynamic transcriptional response to anaerobicity and glucose-excess

    PubMed Central

    van den Brink, Joost; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Pronk, Jack T; de Winde, Johannes H

    2008-01-01

    Background The capacity of respiring cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to immediately switch to fast alcoholic fermentation upon a transfer to anaerobic sugar-excess conditions is a key characteristic of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in many of its industrial applications. This transition was studied by exposing aerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures grown at a low specific growth rate to two simultaneous perturbations: oxygen depletion and relief of glucose limitation. Results The shift towards fully fermentative conditions caused a massive transcriptional reprogramming, where one third of all genes within the genome were transcribed differentially. The changes in transcript levels were mostly driven by relief from glucose-limitation. After an initial strong response to the addition of glucose, the expression profile of most transcriptionally regulated genes displayed a clear switch at 30 minutes. In this respect, a striking difference was observed between the transcript profiles of genes encoding ribosomal proteins and those encoding ribosomal biogenesis components. Not all regulated genes responded with this binary profile. A group of 87 genes showed a delayed and steady increase in expression that specifically responded to anaerobiosis. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that, despite the complexity of this multiple-input perturbation, the transcriptional responses could be categorized and biologically interpreted. By comparing this study with public datasets representing dynamic and steady conditions, 14 up-regulated and 11 down-regulated genes were determined to be anaerobic specific. Therefore, these can be seen as true "signature" transcripts for anaerobicity under dynamic as well as under steady state conditions. PMID:18304306

  12. Heterologous expression of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene [DhGPD1] from the osmotolerant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Thomé, Patricia E

    2005-08-01

    The role for the gene encoding glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (DhGPD1) from the osmotolerant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii, in glycerol production and halotolerance, was studied through its heterologous expression in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain deficient in glycerol synthesis (gpd1Delta). The expression of the DhGPD1 gene in the gpd1Delta background restored glycerol production and halotolerance to wild type levels, corroborating its role in the salt-induced production of glycerol. Although the gene was functional in S. cerevisiae, its heterologous expression was not efficient, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism may not be shared by these two yeasts.

  13. Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum differ from Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the production of aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate esters using their amino acidic precursors.

    PubMed

    Stribny, Jiri; Gamero, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-16

    Higher alcohols and acetate esters are important flavour and aroma components in the food industry. In alcoholic beverages these compounds are produced by yeast during fermentation. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most extensively used species, other species of the Saccharomyces genus have become common in fermentation processes. This study analyses and compares the production of higher alcohols and acetate esters from their amino acidic precursors in three Saccharomyces species: Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae. The global volatile compound analysis revealed that S. kudriavzevii produced large amounts of higher alcohols, whereas S. uvarum excelled in the production of acetate esters. Particularly from phenylalanine, S. uvarum produced the largest amounts of 2-phenylethyl acetate, while S. kudriavzevii obtained the greatest 2-phenylethanol formation from this precursor. The present data indicate differences in the amino acid metabolism and subsequent production of flavour-active higher alcohols and acetate esters among the closely related Saccharomyces species. This knowledge will prove useful for developing new enhanced processes in fragrance, flavour, and food industries.

  14. Isolation of xylose reductase gene of Pichia stipitis and its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Takuma, Shinya; Nakashima, Noriyuki; Tantirungkij, Manee

    1991-12-31

    A NADPH/NADH-dependent xylose reductase gene was isolated from the xylose-assimilating yeast, Pichia stipitis. DNA sequence analysis showed that the gene consists of 951 bp. The gene introduced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was transcribed to mRNA, and a considerable amount of enzyme activity was observed constitutively, whereas transcription and translation in P steps were inducible. S. cerevisiae carrying the xylose reductase gene could not, however, grow on xylose medium, and could not produce ethanol from xylose. Since xylose uptake and accumulation of xylitol by S. cerevisiae were observed, the conversion of xylitol to xylulose seemed to be limited.

  15. Genome Snapshot: a new resource at the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) presenting an overview of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, Jodi E; Balakrishnan, Rama; Christie, Karen R; Costanzo, Maria C; Dwight, Selina S; Engel, Stacia R; Fisk, Dianna G; Hong, Eurie L; Livstone, Michael S; Nash, Robert; Park, Julie; Oughtred, Rose; Skrzypek, Marek; Starr, Barry; Theesfeld, Chandra L; Williams, Jennifer; Andrada, Rey; Binkley, Gail; Dong, Qing; Lane, Christopher; Miyasato, Stuart; Sethuraman, Anand; Schroeder, Mark; Thanawala, Mayank K; Weng, Shuai; Dolinski, Kara; Botstein, David; Cherry, J Michael

    2006-01-01

    Sequencing and annotation of the entire Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome has made it possible to gain a genome-wide perspective on yeast genes and gene products. To make this information available on an ongoing basis, the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) (http://www.yeastgenome.org/) has created the Genome Snapshot (http://db.yeastgenome.org/cgi-bin/genomeSnapShot.pl). The Genome Snapshot summarizes the current state of knowledge about the genes and chromosomal features of S.cerevisiae. The information is organized into two categories: (i) number of each type of chromosomal feature annotated in the genome and (ii) number and distribution of genes annotated to Gene Ontology terms. Detailed lists are accessible through SGD's Advanced Search tool (http://db.yeastgenome.org/cgi-bin/search/featureSearch), and all the data presented on this page are available from the SGD ftp site (ftp://ftp.yeastgenome.org/yeast/).

  16. Purification, characterization, and immunofluorescence localization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae capping protein.

    PubMed

    Amatruda, J F; Cooper, J A

    1992-06-01

    Capping protein binds the barbed ends of actin filaments and nucleates actin filament assembly in vitro. We purified capping protein from Saccharomyces cervisiae. One of the two subunits is the product of the CAP2 gene, which we previously identified as the gene encoding the beta subunit of capping protein based on its sequence similarity to capping protein beta subunits in chicken and Dictyostelium (Amatruda, J. F., J. F. Cannon, K. Tatchell, C. Hug, and J. A. Cooper. 1990. Nature (Lond.) 344:352-354). Yeast capping protein has activity in critical concentration and low-shear viscometry assays consistent with barbed-end capping activity. Like chicken capping protein, yeast capping protein is inhibited by PIP2. By immunofluorescence microscopy yeast capping protein colocalizes with cortical actin spots at the site of bud emergence and at the tips of growing buds and shmoos. In contrast, capping protein does not colocalize with actin cables or with actin rings at the site of cytokinesis. PMID:1315784

  17. Improved Acetic Acid Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the WHI2 Gene Identified through Inverse Metabolic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingying; Stabryla, Lisa; Wei, Na

    2016-01-29

    Development of acetic acid-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for economically viable production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, but the goal remains a critical challenge due to limited information on effective genetic perturbation targets for improving acetic acid resistance in the yeast. This study employed a genomic-library-based inverse metabolic engineering approach to successfully identify a novel gene target, WHI2 (encoding a cytoplasmatic globular scaffold protein), which elicited improved acetic acid resistance in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of WHI2 significantly improved glucose and/or xylose fermentation under acetic acid stress in engineered yeast. The WHI2-overexpressing strain had 5-times-higher specific ethanol productivity than the control in glucose fermentation with acetic acid. Analysis of the expression of WHI2 gene products (including protein and transcript) determined that acetic acid induced endogenous expression of Whi2 in S. cerevisiae. Meanwhile, the whi2Δ mutant strain had substantially higher susceptibility to acetic acid than the wild type, suggesting the important role of Whi2 in the acetic acid response in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, overexpression of WHI2 and of a cognate phosphatase gene, PSR1, had a synergistic effect in improving acetic acid resistance, suggesting that Whi2 might function in combination with Psr1 to elicit the acetic acid resistance mechanism. These results improve our understanding of the yeast response to acetic acid stress and provide a new strategy to breed acetic acid-resistant yeast strains for renewable biofuel production.

  18. Chromosome VIII disomy influences the nonsense suppression efficiency and transition metal tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zadorsky, S P; Sopova, Y V; Andreichuk, D Y; Startsev, V A; Medvedeva, V P; Inge-Vechtomov, S G

    2015-06-01

    The SUP35 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the translation termination factor eRF3. Mutations in this gene lead to the suppression of nonsense mutations and a number of other pleiotropic phenotypes, one of which is impaired chromosome segregation during cell division. Similar effects result from replacing the S. cerevisiae SUP35 gene with its orthologues. A number of genetic and epigenetic changes that occur in the sup35 background result in partial compensation for this suppressor effect. In this study we showed that in S. cerevisiae strains in which the SUP35 orthologue from the yeast Pichia methanolica replaces the S. cerevisiae SUP35 gene, chromosome VIII disomy results in decreased efficiency of nonsense suppression. This antisuppressor effect is not associated with decreased stop codon read-through. We identified SBP1, a gene that localizes to chromosome VIII, as a dosage-dependent antisuppressor that strongly contributes to the overall antisuppressor effect of chromosome VIII disomy. Disomy of chromosome VIII also leads to a change in the yeast strains' tolerance of a number of transition metal salts.

  19. Growth and fermentation characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NK28 isolated from kiwi fruit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Sub; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Jung-Wan; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Kim, Myoung-Dong

    2013-09-28

    The influences of glucose concentration, initial medium acidity (pH), and temperature on the growth and ethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NK28, which was isolated from kiwi fruit, were examined in shake flask cultures. The optimal glucose concentration, initial medium pH, and temperature for ethanol production were 200 g/l, pH 6.0, and 35oC, respectively. Under this growth condition, S. cerevisiae NK28 produced 98.9 ± 5.67 g/l ethanol in 24 h with a volumetric ethanol production rate of 4.12 ± 0.24 g/l·h. S. cerevisiae NK28 was more tolerant to heat and ethanol than laboratory strain S. cerevisiae BY4742, and its tolerance to ethanol and fermentation inhibitors was comparable to that of an ethanologen, S. cerevisiae D5A.

  20. Physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during cell cycle oscillations.

    PubMed

    Duboc, P; Marison, I; von Stockar, U

    1996-10-18

    Synchronized populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 426 are characterized by autonomous oscillations of process variables. CO2 evolution rate, O2 uptake rate and heat production rate varied by a factor of 2 for a continuous culture grown at a dilution rate of 0.10 h-1. Elemental analysis showed that the carbon mass fraction of biomass did not change. Since the reactor is not at steady state, the elemental and energy balances were calculated on cumulated quantities, i.e. the integral of the reaction rates. It was possible to show that carbon, degree of reduction and energy balances matched. Application of simple mass balance principles for non-steady state systems indicated that oscillations were basically characterized by changes in biomass production rate. In addition, the amount of intermediates, e.g. ethanol or acetate, produced or consumed was negligible. Growth rate was low during the S-phase (0.075 h-1) and high during the G2, M and G1 phases (0.125 h-1) for a constant dilution rate of 0.10 h-1. However, nitrogen, ash, sulfur and potassium content showed systematic increases during the S-phase (bud initiation). Cell component analyses showed that changes in cellular fractions during oscillations (storage carbohydrate content decreased during the S-phase) were due to changes in production rates, particularly for protein and carbohydrates. Nevertheless, using the data evaluation techniques for dynamic systems presented here, it was shown that storage carbohydrates are not consumed during the S-phase. Only the synthesis rate of the different cell components changed depending on position in cell cycle. The growth process may be divided into two phenomena: the formation of new cells during mitosis with a low yield, and size increase of new born cells with high yield. Both kinetic and stoichiometric coefficients varied with the position in the oscillation: the results showed that biomass structure changed and that specific growth rate, as well as biomass yield

  1. One-hybrid screens at the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HMR locus identify novel transcriptional silencing factors.

    PubMed Central

    Andrulis, Erik D; Zappulla, David C; Alexieva-Botcheva, Krassimira; Evangelista, Carlos; Sternglanz, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genes located at the telomeres and the HM loci are subject to transcriptional silencing. Here, we report results of screening a Gal4 DNA-binding domain hybrid library for proteins that cause silencing when targeted to a silencer-defective HMR locus. PMID:15020450

  2. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for consolidated bioprocessing in starch and biomass conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of starch or biomass to biofuel is a two-stage process involving enzymatic treatment, followed by yeast fermentation. An alternative route would be to consolidate the process by engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of both saccharification and fermentation. An approach was d...

  3. An oxalyl-CoA synthetase is important for oxalate metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although oxalic acid is common in nature, our understanding of the mechanism(s) regulating its turnover remains incomplete. In this study we identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae acyl-activating enzyme 3 (ScAAE3) as an enzyme capable of catalyzing the conversion of oxalate to oxalyl-CoA. Based on our fi...

  4. Mitochondrial genomic dysfunction causes dephosphorylation of Sch9 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Shigeyuki; Urban, Jörg; Piccolis, Manuele; Panchaud, Nicolas; De Virgilio, Claudio; Loewith, Robbie

    2011-10-01

    TORC1-dependent phosphorylation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sch9 was dramatically reduced upon exposure to a protonophore or in respiration-incompetent ρ(0) cells but not in respiration-incompetent pet mutants, providing important insight into the molecular mechanisms governing interorganellar signaling in general and retrograde signaling in particular.

  5. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce feruloyl esterase for the release of ferulic acid from switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase gene (faeA) was cloned into Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a yeast expression vector, resulting in efficient expression and secretion of the enzyme in the medium. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange and hydrophobic interactio...

  6. The uptake of different iron salts by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gaensly, Fernanda; Picheth, Geraldo; Brand, Debora; Bonfim, Tania M B

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts can be enriched with microelements, including iron; however, special physicochemical conditions are required to formulate a culture media that promotes both yeast growth and iron uptake. Different iron sources do not affect biomass formation; however, considering efficacy, cost, stability, and compatibility with Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism, ferrous sulphate is recommended.

  7. Benchmark data for identifying N6-methyladenosine sites in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Feng, Pengmian; Ding, Hui; Lin, Hao; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This data article contains the benchmark dataset for training and testing iRNA-Methyl, a web-server predictor for identifying N6-methyladenosine sites in RNA (Chen et al., 2015 [15]). It can also be used to develop other predictors for identifying N6-methyladenosine sites in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. PMID:26958595

  8. Genome Sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Double-Stranded RNA Virus L-A-28

    PubMed Central

    Konovalovas, Aleksandras

    2016-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced the complete genome of the L-A-28 virus from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae K28 killer strain. This sequence completes the set of currently identified L-A helper viruses required for expression of double-stranded RNA-originated killer phenotypes in baking yeast. PMID:27313294

  9. Genome Sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Double-Stranded RNA Virus L-A-28.

    PubMed

    Konovalovas, Aleksandras; Serviené, Elena; Serva, Saulius

    2016-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced the complete genome of the L-A-28 virus from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae K28 killer strain. This sequence completes the set of currently identified L-A helper viruses required for expression of double-stranded RNA-originated killer phenotypes in baking yeast. PMID:27313294

  10. NDT80, a meiosis-specific gene required for exit from pachytene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Liuzhong; Ajimura, M.; Padmore, R.; Klein, C.; Kleckner, N.

    1995-12-01

    This report describes the identification of a new meiosis-specific gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae called NDT80. DNA cloning and molecular analysis revealed that the NDT80 gene maps on the right arm of chromosome 8 and is transcribed during middle meiotic prophase. 82 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of limonene concentration, enzyme loading, and pH on ethanol production from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied at 37 C. Prior to SSF, citrus peel waste underwent a steam explosion process combined with fla...

  12. Phosphate uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hansen wild type and phenotypes exposed to space flight irradiation.

    PubMed

    Berry, D; Volz, P A

    1979-10-01

    Rates of phosphate uptake were approximately twice as great for Saccharomyces cerevisiae single-cell phenotypic isolates exposed to space parameters as for the wild-type ground control. Quantitative determination of 32P was performed by liquid scintillation spectrometry utilizing Cerenkov radiation counting techniques. PMID:395899

  13. Modulation of the acute phase response in feedlot steers supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of supplementing feedlot steers with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1079 (SC) on the acute phase response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Steers (n = 18; 266 ± 4 kilograms body weight) were separated into three treatment groups (n = 6/treatm...

  14. A stationary-phase gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a member of a novel, highly conserved gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, E L; Fuge, E K; Padilla, P A; Werner-Washburne, M

    1996-01-01

    The regulation of cellular growth and proliferation in response to environmental cues is critical for development and the maintenance of viability in all organisms. In unicellular organisms, such as the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, growth and proliferation are regulated by nutrient availability. We have described changes in the pattern of protein synthesis during the growth of S. cerevisiae cells to stationary phase (E. K. Fuge, E. L. Braun, and M. Werner-Washburne, J. Bacteriol. 176:5802-5813, 1994) and noted a protein, which we designated Snz1p (p35), that shows increased synthesis after entry into stationary phase. We report here the identification of the SNZ1 gene, which encodes this protein. We detected increased SNZ1 mRNA accumulation almost 2 days after glucose exhaustion, significantly later than that of mRNAs encoded by other postexponential genes. SNZ1-related sequences were detected in phylogenetically diverse organisms by sequence comparisons and low-stringency hybridization. Multiple SNZ1-related sequences were detected in some organisms, including S. cerevisiae. Snz1p was found to be among the most evolutionarily conserved proteins currently identified, indicating that we have identified a novel, highly conserved protein involved in growth arrest in S. cerevisiae. The broad phylogenetic distribution, the regulation of the SNZ1 mRNA and protein in S. cerevisiae, and identification of a Snz protein modified during sporulation in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis support the hypothesis that Snz proteins are part of an ancient response that occurs during nutrient limitation and growth arrest. PMID:8955308

  15. Increased isobutanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by eliminating competing pathways and resolving cofactor imbalance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Isobutanol is an important target for biorefinery research as a next-generation biofuel and a building block for commodity chemical production. Metabolically engineered microbial strains to produce isobutanol have been successfully developed by introducing the Ehrlich pathway into bacterial hosts. Isobutanol-producing baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains have been developed following the strategy with respect to its advantageous characteristics for cost-effective isobutanol production. However, the isobutanol yields and titers attained by the developed strains need to be further improved through engineering of S. cerevisiae metabolism. Results Two strategies including eliminating competing pathways and resolving the cofactor imbalance were applied to improve isobutanol production in S. cerevisiae. Isobutanol production levels were increased in strains lacking genes encoding members of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex such as LPD1, indicating that the pyruvate supply for isobutanol biosynthesis is competing with acetyl-CoA biosynthesis in mitochondria. Isobutanol production was increased by overexpression of enzymes responsible for transhydrogenase-like shunts such as pyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme. The integration of a single gene deletion lpd1Δ and the activation of the transhydrogenase-like shunt further increased isobutanol levels. In a batch fermentation test at the 50-mL scale from 100 g/L glucose using the two integrated strains, the isobutanol titer reached 1.62 ± 0.11 g/L and 1.61 ± 0.03 g/L at 24 h after the start of fermentation, which corresponds to the yield at 0.016 ± 0.001 g/g glucose consumed and 0.016 ± 0.0003 g/g glucose consumed, respectively. Conclusions These results demonstrate that downregulation of competing pathways and metabolic functions for resolving the cofactor imbalance are promising strategies to construct S. cerevisiae strains that effectively produce

  16. Polycistronic expression of a β-carotene biosynthetic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae coupled to β-ionone production.

    PubMed

    Beekwilder, Jules; van Rossum, Harmen M; Koopman, Frank; Sonntag, Frank; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens; Hall, Robert D; Bosch, Dirk; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2014-12-20

    The flavour and fragrance compound β-ionone, which naturally occurs in raspberry and many other fruits and flowers, is currently produced by synthetic chemistry. This study describes a synthetic biology approach for β-ionone production from glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is partially based on polycistronic expression. Experiments with model proteins showed that the T2A sequence of the Thosea asigna virus mediated efficient production of individual proteins from a single transcript in S. cerevisiae. Subsequently, three β-carotene biosynthesis genes from the carotenoid-producing ascomycete Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (crtI, crtE and crtYB) were expressed in S. cerevisiae from a single polycistronic construct. In this construct, the individual crt proteins were separated by T2A sequences. Production of the individual proteins from the polycistronic construct was confirmed by Western blot analysis and by measuring the production of β-carotene. To enable β-ionone production, a carotenoid-cleavage dioxygenase from raspberry (RiCCD1) was co-expressed in the β-carotene producing strain. In glucose-grown cultures with a second phase of dodecane, β-ionone and geranylacetone accumulated in the organic phase. Thus, by introducing a polycistronic construct encoding a fungal carotenoid pathway and an expression cassette encoding a plant dioxygenase, a novel microbial production system has been established for a fruit flavour compound. PMID:24486029

  17. PHO13 deletion-induced transcriptional activation prevents sedoheptulose accumulation during xylose metabolism in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiqing; Kim, Sooah; Sorek, Hagit; Lee, Youngsuk; Jeong, Deokyeol; Kim, Jungyeon; Oh, Eun Joong; Yun, Eun Ju; Wemmer, David E; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Kim, Soo Rin; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-03-01

    The deletion of PHO13 (pho13Δ) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encoding a phosphatase enzyme of unknown specificity, results in the transcriptional activation of genes related to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) such as TAL1 encoding transaldolase. It has been also reported that the pho13Δ mutant of S. cerevisiae expressing a heterologous xylose pathway can metabolize xylose efficiently compared to its parental strain. However, the interaction between the pho13Δ-induced transcriptional changes and the phenotypes of xylose fermentation was not understood. Thus we investigated the global metabolic changes in response to pho13Δ when cells were exponentially growing on xylose. Among the 134 intracellular metabolites that we identified, the 98% reduction of sedoheptulose was found to be the most significant change in the pho13Δ mutant as compared to its parental strain. Because sedoheptulose-7-phosphate (S7P), a substrate of transaldolase, reduced significantly in the pho13Δ mutant as well, we hypothesized that limited transaldolase activity in the parental strain might cause dephosphorylation of S7P, leading to carbon loss and inefficient xylose metabolism. Mutants overexpressing TAL1 at different degrees were constructed, and their TAL1 expression levels and xylose consumption rates were positively correlated. Moreover, as TAL1 expression levels increased, intracellular sedoheptulose concentration dropped significantly. Therefore, we concluded that TAL1 upregulation, preventing the accumulation of sedoheptulose, is the most critical mechanism for the improved xylose metabolism by the pho13Δ mutant of engineered S. cerevisiae.

  18. Mixing of vineyard and oak-tree ecotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in North American vineyards.

    PubMed

    Hyma, Katie E; Fay, Justin C

    2013-06-01

    Humans have had a significant impact on the distribution and abundance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through its widespread use in beer, bread and wine production. Yet, similar to other Saccharomyces species, S. cerevisiae has also been isolated from habitats unrelated to fermentations. Strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes, wine must and vineyards worldwide are genetically differentiated from strains isolated from oak-tree bark, exudate and associated soil in North America. However, the causes and consequences of this differentiation have not yet been resolved. Historical differentiation of these two groups may have been influenced by geographic, ecological or human-associated barriers to gene flow. Here, we make use of the relatively recent establishment of vineyards across North America to identify and characterize any active barriers to gene flow between these two groups. We examined S. cerevisiae strains isolated from grapes and oak trees within three North American vineyards and compared them to those isolated from oak trees outside of vineyards. Within vineyards, we found evidence of migration between grapes and oak trees and potential gene flow between the divergent oak-tree and vineyard groups. Yet, we found no vineyard genotypes on oak trees outside of vineyards. In contrast, Saccharomyces paradoxus isolated from the same sources showed population structure characterized by isolation by distance. The apparent absence of ecological or genetic barriers between sympatric vineyard and oak-tree populations of S. cerevisiae implies that vineyards play an important role in the mixing between these two groups.

  19. Increased isobutanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by overexpression of genes in valine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Isobutanol can be a better biofuel than ethanol due to its higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity. Furthermore, the branched-chain structure of isobutanol gives a higher octane number than the isomeric n-butanol. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen as the production host because of its relative tolerance to alcohols, robustness in industrial fermentations, and the possibility for future combination of isobutanol production with fermentation of lignocellulosic materials. Results The yield of isobutanol was improved from 0.16 to 0.97 mg per g glucose by simultaneous overexpression of biosynthetic genes ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 in valine metabolism in anaerobic fermentation of glucose in mineral medium in S. cerevisiae. Isobutanol yield was further improved by twofold by the additional overexpression of BAT2, encoding the cytoplasmic branched-chain amino-acid aminotransferase. Overexpression of ILV6, encoding the regulatory subunit of Ilv2, in the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain decreased isobutanol production yield by threefold. In aerobic cultivations in shake flasks in mineral medium, the isobutanol yield of the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain and the reference strain were 3.86 and 0.28 mg per g glucose, respectively. They increased to 4.12 and 2.4 mg per g glucose in yeast extract/peptone/dextrose (YPD) complex medium under aerobic conditions, respectively. Conclusions Overexpression of genes ILV2, ILV3, ILV5, and BAT2 in valine metabolism led to an increase in isobutanol production in S. cerevisiae. Additional overexpression of ILV6 in the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain had a negative effect, presumably by increasing the sensitivity of Ilv2 to valine inhibition, thus weakening the positive impact of overexpression of ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 on isobutanol production. Aerobic cultivations of the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain and the reference strain showed that supplying amino acids in cultivation media gave a substantial

  20. Heterologous expression and characterization of bacterial 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Simon; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran; Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Zhou, Kang; Phon, Too Heng; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Lantz, Anna Eliasson; Kielland-Brandt, Morten C; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2013-07-01

    Transfer of a biosynthetic pathway between evolutionary distant organisms can create a metabolic shunt capable of bypassing the native regulation of the host organism, hereby improving the production of secondary metabolite precursor molecules for important natural products. Here, we report the engineering of Escherichia coli genes encoding the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway into the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the characterization of intermediate metabolites synthesized by the MEP pathway in yeast. Our UPLC-MS analysis of the MEP pathway metabolites from engineered yeast showed that the pathway is active until the synthesis of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-2,4-cyclodiphosphate, but appears to lack functionality of the last two steps of the MEP pathway, catalyzed by the [4Fe-4S] iron sulfur cluster proteins encoded by ispG and ispH. In order to functionalize the last two steps of the MEP pathway, we co-expressed the genes for the E. coli iron sulfur cluster (ISC) assembly machinery. By deleting ERG13, thereby incapacitating the mevalonate pathway, in conjunction with labeling experiments with U-¹³C₆ glucose and growth experiments, we found that the ISC assembly machinery was unable to functionalize ispG and ispH. However, we have found that leuC and leuD, encoding the heterodimeric iron-sulfur cluster protein, isopropylmalate isomerase, can complement the S. cerevisiae leu1 auxotrophy. To our knowledge, this is the first time a bacterial iron-sulfur cluster protein has been functionally expressed in the cytosol of S. cerevisiae under aerobic conditions and shows that S. cerevisiae has the capability to functionally express at least some bacterial iron-sulfur cluster proteins in its cytosol.

  1. Improvement of oxidized glutathione fermentation by thiol redox metabolism engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Aoki, Naoko; Kobayashi, Jyumpei; Kiriyama, Kentaro; Nishida, Keiji; Araki, Michihiro; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-11-01

    Glutathione is a valuable tripeptide widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. In industrial fermentation, glutathione is currently produced primarily using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Intracellular glutathione exists in two forms; the majority is present as reduced glutathione (GSH) and a small amount is present as oxidized glutathione (GSSG). However, GSSG is more stable than GSH and is a more attractive form for the storage of glutathione extracted from yeast cells after fermentation. In this study, intracellular GSSG content was improved by engineering thiol oxidization metabolism in yeast. An engineered strain producing high amounts of glutathione from over-expression of glutathione synthases and lacking glutathione reductase was used as a platform strain. Additional over-expression of thiol oxidase (1.8.3.2) genes ERV1 or ERO1 increased the GSSG content by 2.9-fold and 2.0-fold, respectively, compared with the platform strain, without decreasing cell growth. However, over-expression of thiol oxidase gene ERV2 showed almost no effect on the GSSG content. Interestingly, ERO1 over-expression did not decrease the GSH content, raising the total glutathione content of the cell, but ERV1 over-expression decreased the GSH content, balancing the increase in the GSSG content. Furthermore, the increase in the GSSG content due to ERO1 over-expression was enhanced by additional over-expression of the gene encoding Pdi1, whose reduced form activates Ero1 in the endoplasmic reticulum. These results indicate that engineering the thiol redox metabolism of S. cerevisiae improves GSSG and is critical to increasing the total productivity and stability of glutathione.

  2. Directed evolution of xylose isomerase for improved xylose catabolism and fermentation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Jellison, Taylor; Alper, Hal S

    2012-08-01

    The heterologous expression of a highly functional xylose isomerase pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae would have significant advantages for ethanol yield, since the pathway bypasses cofactor requirements found in the traditionally used oxidoreductase pathways. However, nearly all reported xylose isomerase-based pathways in S. cerevisiae suffer from poor ethanol productivity, low xylose consumption rates, and poor cell growth compared with an oxidoreductase pathway and, additionally, often require adaptive strain evolution. Here, we report on the directed evolution of the Piromyces sp. xylose isomerase (encoded by xylA) for use in yeast. After three rounds of mutagenesis and growth-based screening, we isolated a variant containing six mutations (E15D, E114G, E129D, T142S, A177T, and V433I) that exhibited a 77% increase in enzymatic activity. When expressed in a minimally engineered yeast host containing a gre3 knockout and tal1 and XKS1 overexpression, the strain expressing this mutant enzyme improved its aerobic growth rate by 61-fold and both ethanol production and xylose consumption rates by nearly 8-fold. Moreover, the mutant enzyme enabled ethanol production by these yeasts under oxygen-limited fermentation conditions, unlike the wild-type enzyme. Under microaerobic conditions, the ethanol production rates of the strain expressing the mutant xylose isomerase were considerably higher than previously reported values for yeast harboring a xylose isomerase pathway and were also comparable to those of the strains harboring an oxidoreductase pathway. Consequently, this study shows the potential to evolve a xylose isomerase pathway for more efficient xylose utilization.

  3. Genetic and biochemical characterization of a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Flick, J S; Thorner, J

    1993-01-01

    Hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) generates two second messengers, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and 1,2-diacylglycerol. The polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene (PLC1) that encodes a protein of 869 amino acids (designated Plc1p) that bears greatest resemblance to the delta isoforms of mammalian PI-PLC in terms of overall sequence similarity and domain arrangement. Plc1p contains the conserved X and Y domains found in all higher eukaryotic PI-PLCs (51 and 29% identity, respectively, to the corresponding domains of rat delta 1 PI-PLC) and also contains a presumptive Ca(2+)-binding site (an E-F hand motif). Plc1p, modified by in-frame insertion of a His6 tract and a c-myc epitope near its amino terminus, was overexpressed from the GAL1 promoter, partially purified by nickel chelate affinity chromatography, and shown to be an active PLC enzyme in vitro with properties similar to those of its mammalian counterparts. Plc1p activity was strictly Ca2+ dependent: at a high Ca2+ concentration (0.1 mM), the enzyme hydrolyzed PIP2 at a faster rate than phosphatidylinositol, and at a low Ca2+ concentration (0.5 microM), it hydrolyzed PIP2 exclusively. Cells carrying either of two different deletion-insertion mutations (plc1 delta 1::HIS3 and plc1 delta 2::LEU2) were viable but displayed several distinctive phenotypes, including temperature-sensitive growth (inviable above 35 degrees C), osmotic sensitivity, and defects in the utilization of galactose, raffinose, and glycerol at permissive temperatures (23 to 30 degrees C). The findings reported here suggest that hydrolysis of PIP2 in S. cerevisiae is required for a number of nutritional and stress-related responses. Images PMID:8395015

  4. A Novel Recombinant DNA System for High Efficiency Affinity Purification of Proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Carrick, Brian H; Hao, Linxuan; Smaldino, Philip J; Engelke, David R

    2016-03-01

    Isolation of endogenous proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been facilitated by inserting encoding polypeptide affinity tags at the C-termini of chromosomal open reading frames (ORFs) using homologous recombination of DNA fragments. Tagged protein isolation is limited by a number of factors, including high cost of affinity resins for bulk isolation and low concentration of ligands on the resin surface, leading to low isolation efficiencies and trapping of contaminants. To address this, we have created a recombinant "CelTag" DNA construct from which PCR fragments can be created to easily tag C-termini of S. cerevisiae ORFs using selection for a nat1 marker. The tag has a C-terminal cellulose binding module to be used in the first affinity step. Microgranular cellulose is very inexpensive and has an effectively continuous ligand on its surface, allowing rapid, highly efficient purification with minimal background. Cellulose-bound proteins are released by specific cleavage of an included site for TEV protease, giving nearly pure product. The tag can be lifted from the recombinant DNA construct either with or without a 13x myc epitope tag between the target ORF and the TEV protease site. Binding of CelTag protein fusions to cellulose is stable to high salt, nonionic detergents, and 1 M urea, allowing stringent washing conditions to remove loosely associated components, as needed, before specific elution. It is anticipated that this reagent could allow isolation of protein complexes from large quantities of yeast extract, including soluble, membrane-bound, or nucleic acid-associated assemblies.

  5. Pathway Compartmentalization in Peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Produce Versatile Medium Chain Fatty Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Stevens, Joseph; Feng, Xueyang

    2016-01-01

    Fatty alcohols are value-added chemicals and important components of a variety of industries, which have a >3 billion-dollar global market annually. Long chain fatty alcohols (>C12) are mainly used in surfactants, lubricants, detergents, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics while medium chain fatty alcohols (C6-C12) could be used as diesel-like biofuels. Microbial production of fatty alcohols from renewable feedstock stands as a promising strategy to enable sustainable supply of fatty alcohols. In this study, we report, for the first time, that medium chain fatty alcohols could be produced in yeast via targeted expression of a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (TaFAR) in the peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By tagging TaFAR enzyme with peroxisomal targeting signal peptides, the TaFAR could be compartmentalized into the matrix of the peroxisome to hijack the medium chain fatty acyl-CoA generated from the beta-oxidation pathway and convert them to versatile medium chain fatty alcohols (C10 &C12). The overexpression of genes encoding PEX7 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase further improved fatty alcohol production by 1.4-fold. After medium optimization in fed-batch fermentation using glucose as the sole carbon source, fatty alcohols were produced at 1.3 g/L, including 6.9% 1-decanol, 27.5% 1-dodecanol, 2.9% 1-tetradecanol and 62.7% 1-hexadecanol. This work revealed that peroxisome could be engineered as a compartmentalized organelle for producing fatty acid-derived chemicals in S. cerevisiae. PMID:27230732

  6. A novel pathway to produce butanol and isobutanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The sustainable production of biofuels remains one of the major issues of the upcoming years. Among the number of most desirable molecules to be produced, butanol and isobutanol deserve a prominent place. They have superior liquid-fuel features in respect to ethanol. Particularly, butanol has similar properties to gasoline and thus it has the potential to be used as a substitute for gasoline in currently running engines. Clostridia are recognized as natural and good butanol producers and are employed in the industrial-scale production of solvents. Due to their complex metabolic characteristics and to the difficulty of performing genetic manipulations, in recent years the Clostridia butanol pathway was expressed in other microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but in yeast the obtained results were not so promising. An alternative way for producing fusel alcohol is to exploit the degradation pathway of aminoacids released from protein hydrolysis, where proteins derive from exhausted microbial biomasses at the end of the fermentation processes. Results It is known that wine yeasts can, at the end of the fermentation process, accumulate fusel alcohols, and butanol is among them. Despite it was quite obvious to correlate said production with aminoacid degradation, a putative native pathway was never proposed. Starting from literature data and combining information about different organisms, here we demonstrate how glycine can be the substrate for butanol and isobutanol production, individuating at least one gene encoding for the necessary activities leading to butanol accumulation. During a kinetic of growth using glycine as substrate, butanol and isobutanol accumulate in the medium up to 92 and 58 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Here for the first time we demonstrate an alternative metabolic pathway for butanol and isobutanol production in the yeast S. cerevisiae, using glycine as a substrate. Doors are now opened for a number

  7. Effect of l-Proline on Sake Brewing and Ethanol Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Takaoka, Miki; Kawaguchi, Akari; Kubo, Yoshito

    2005-01-01

    During the fermentation of sake, cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are exposed to high concentrations of ethanol, thereby damaging the cell membrane and functional proteins. l-Proline protects yeast cells from damage caused by freezing or oxidative stress. In this study, we evaluated the role of intracellular l-proline in cells of S. cerevisiae grown under ethanol stress. An l-proline-accumulating laboratory strain carries a mutant allele of PRO1, pro1D154N, which encodes the Asp154Asn mutant γ-glutamyl kinase. This mutation increases the activity of γ-glutamyl kinase and γ-glutamyl phosphate reductase, which catalyze the first two steps of l-proline synthesis and which together may form a complex in vivo. When cultured in liquid medium in the presence of 9% and 18% ethanol under static conditions, the cell viability of the l-proline-accumulating laboratory strain is greater than the cell viability of the parent strain. This result suggests that intracellular accumulation of l-proline may confer tolerance to ethanol stress. We constructed a novel sake yeast strain by disrupting the PUT1 gene, which is required for l-proline utilization, and replacing the wild-type PRO1 allele with the pro1D154N allele. The resultant strain accumulated l-proline and was more tolerant to ethanol stress than was the control strain. We used the strain that could accumulate l-proline to brew sake containing five times more l-proline than what is found in sake brewed with the control strain, without affecting the fermentation profiles. PMID:16332860

  8. Pathway Compartmentalization in Peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Produce Versatile Medium Chain Fatty Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Stevens, Joseph; Feng, Xueyang

    2016-01-01

    Fatty alcohols are value-added chemicals and important components of a variety of industries, which have a >3 billion-dollar global market annually. Long chain fatty alcohols (>C12) are mainly used in surfactants, lubricants, detergents, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics while medium chain fatty alcohols (C6–C12) could be used as diesel-like biofuels. Microbial production of fatty alcohols from renewable feedstock stands as a promising strategy to enable sustainable supply of fatty alcohols. In this study, we report, for the first time, that medium chain fatty alcohols could be produced in yeast via targeted expression of a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (TaFAR) in the peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By tagging TaFAR enzyme with peroxisomal targeting signal peptides, the TaFAR could be compartmentalized into the matrix of the peroxisome to hijack the medium chain fatty acyl-CoA generated from the beta-oxidation pathway and convert them to versatile medium chain fatty alcohols (C10 & C12). The overexpression of genes encoding PEX7 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase further improved fatty alcohol production by 1.4-fold. After medium optimization in fed-batch fermentation using glucose as the sole carbon source, fatty alcohols were produced at 1.3 g/L, including 6.9% 1-decanol, 27.5% 1-dodecanol, 2.9% 1-tetradecanol and 62.7% 1-hexadecanol. This work revealed that peroxisome could be engineered as a compartmentalized organelle for producing fatty acid-derived chemicals in S. cerevisiae. PMID:27230732

  9. Outlining a future for non-Saccharomyces yeasts: selection of putative spoilage wine strains to be used in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for grape juice fermentation.

    PubMed

    Domizio, Paola; Romani, Cristina; Lencioni, Livio; Comitini, Francesca; Gobbi, Mirko; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Ciani, Maurizio

    2011-06-30

    The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts that are generally considered as spoilage yeasts, in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for grape must fermentation was here evaluated. Analysis of the main oenological characteristics of pure cultures of 55 yeasts belonging to the genera Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Saccharomycodes and Zygosaccharomyces revealed wide biodiversity within each genus. Moreover, many of these non-Saccharomyces strains had interesting oenological properties in terms of fermentation purity, and ethanol and secondary metabolite production. The use of four non-Saccharomyces yeasts (one per genus) in mixed cultures with a commercial S. cerevisiae strain at different S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratios was investigated. This revealed that most of the compounds normally produced at high concentrations by pure cultures of non-Saccharomyces, and which are considered detrimental to wine quality, do not reach threshold taste levels in these mixed fermentations. On the other hand, the analytical profiles of the wines produced by these mixed cultures indicated that depending on the yeast species and the S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratio, these non-Saccharomyces yeasts can be used to increase production of polysaccharides and to modulate the final concentrations of acetic acid and volatile compounds, such as ethyl acetate, phenyl-ethyl acetate, 2-phenyl ethanol, and 2-methyl 1-butanol.

  10. Identification and comparison of stable and unstable mRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, D; Parker, R; Jacobson, A

    1990-01-01

    We developed a procedure to measure mRNA decay rates in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and applied it to the determination of half-lives for 20 mRNAs encoded by well-characterized genes. The procedure utilizes Northern (RNA) or dot blotting to quantitate the levels of individual mRNAs after thermal inactivation of RNA polymerase II in an rpb1-1 temperature-sensitive mutant. We compared the results of this procedure with results obtained by two other procedures (approach to steady-state labeling and inhibition of transcription with Thiolutin) and also evaluated whether heat shock alter mRNA decay rates. We found that there are no significant differences in the mRNA decay rates measured in heat-shocked and non-heat-shocked cells and that, for most mRNAs, different procedures yield comparable relative decay rates. Of the 20 mRNAs studied, 11, including those encoded by HIS3, STE2, STE3, and MAT alpha 1, were unstable (t1/2 less than 7 min) and 4, including those encoded by ACT1 and PGK1, were stable (t1/2 greater than 25 min). We have begun to assess the basis and significance of such differences in the decay rates of these two classes of mRNA. Our results indicate that (i) stable and unstable mRNAs do not differ significantly in their poly(A) metabolism; (ii) deadenylation does not destabilize stable mRNAs; (iii) there is no correlation between mRNA decay rate and mRNA size; (iv) the degradation of both stable and unstable mRNAs depends on concomitant translational elongation; and (v) the percentage of rare codons present in most unstable mRNAs is significantly higher than in stable mRNAs. Images PMID:2183028

  11. De novo production of resveratrol from glucose or ethanol by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingji; Kildegaard, Kanchana R; Chen, Yun; Rodriguez, Angelica; Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-01

    Resveratrol is a natural antioxidant compound, used as food supplement and cosmetic ingredient. Microbial production of resveratrol has until now been achieved by supplementation of expensive substrates, p-coumaric acid or aromatic amino acids. Here we engineered the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce resveratrol directly from glucose or ethanol via tyrosine intermediate. First we introduced the biosynthetic pathway, consisting of tyrosine ammonia-lyase from Herpetosiphon aurantiacus, 4-coumaryl-CoA ligase from Arabidopsis thaliana and resveratrol synthase from Vitis vinifera, and obtained 2.73 ± 0.05 mg L(-1) resveratrol from glucose. Then we over-expressed feedback-insensitive alleles of ARO4 encoding 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate and ARO7 encoding chorismate mutase, resulting in production of 4.85 ± 0.31 mg L(-1) resveratrol from glucose as the sole carbon source. Next we improved the supply of the precursor malonyl-CoA by over-expressing a post-translational de-regulated version of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase encoding gene ACC1; this strategy further increased resveratrol production to 6.39 ± 0.03 mg L(-1). Subsequently, we improved the strain by performing multiple-integration of pathway genes resulting in resveratrol production of 235.57 ± 7.00 mg L(-1). Finally, fed-batch fermentation of the final strain with glucose or ethanol as carbon source resulted in a resveratrol titer of 415.65 and 531.41 mg L(-1), respectively. PMID:26344106

  12. De novo production of resveratrol from glucose or ethanol by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingji; Kildegaard, Kanchana R; Chen, Yun; Rodriguez, Angelica; Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-01

    Resveratrol is a natural antioxidant compound, used as food supplement and cosmetic ingredient. Microbial production of resveratrol has until now been achieved by supplementation of expensive substrates, p-coumaric acid or aromatic amino acids. Here we engineered the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce resveratrol directly from glucose or ethanol via tyrosine intermediate. First we introduced the biosynthetic pathway, consisting of tyrosine ammonia-lyase from Herpetosiphon aurantiacus, 4-coumaryl-CoA ligase from Arabidopsis thaliana and resveratrol synthase from Vitis vinifera, and obtained 2.73 ± 0.05 mg L(-1) resveratrol from glucose. Then we over-expressed feedback-insensitive alleles of ARO4 encoding 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate and ARO7 encoding chorismate mutase, resulting in production of 4.85 ± 0.31 mg L(-1) resveratrol from glucose as the sole carbon source. Next we improved the supply of the precursor malonyl-CoA by over-expressing a post-translational de-regulated version of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase encoding gene ACC1; this strategy further increased resveratrol production to 6.39 ± 0.03 mg L(-1). Subsequently, we improved the strain by performing multiple-integration of pathway genes resulting in resveratrol production of 235.57 ± 7.00 mg L(-1). Finally, fed-batch fermentation of the final strain with glucose or ethanol as carbon source resulted in a resveratrol titer of 415.65 and 531.41 mg L(-1), respectively.

  13. Interactions between Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in wine fermentation: influence of inoculation and nitrogen content.

    PubMed

    Taillandier, Patricia; Lai, Quoc Phong; Julien-Ortiz, Anne; Brandam, Cédric

    2014-07-01

    Alcoholic fermentation by an oenological strain of Torulaspora delbrueckii in association with an oenological strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied in mixed and sequential cultures. Experiments were performed in a synthetic grape must medium in a membrane bioreactor, a special tool designed to study indirect interactions between microorganisms. Results showed that the S. cerevisiae strain had a negative impact on the T. delbrueckii strain, leading to a viability decrease as soon as S. cerevisiae was inoculated. Even for high inoculation of T. delbrueckii (more than 20× S. cerevisiae) in mixed cultures, T. delbrueckii growth was inhibited. Substrate competition and cell-to-cell contact mechanism could be eliminated as explanations of the observed interaction, which was probably an inhibition by a metabolite produced by S. cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae should be inoculated 48 h after T. delbrueckii in order to ensure the growth of T. delbrueckii and consequently a decrease of volatile acidity and a higher isoamyl acetate production. In this case, in a medium with a high concentration of assimilable nitrogen (324 mg L(-1)), S. cerevisiae growth was not affected by T. delbrueckii. But in a sequential fermentation in a medium containing 176 mg L(-1) initial assimilable nitrogen, S. cerevisiae was not able to develop because of nitrogen exhaustion by T. delbrueckii growth during the first 48 h, leading to sluggish fermentation. PMID:24500666

  14. Alleviating Redox Imbalance Enhances 7-Dehydrocholesterol Production in Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Duo; Zhou, Xiao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining redox balance is critical for the production of heterologous secondary metabolites, whereas on various occasions the native cofactor balance does not match the needs in engineered microorganisms. In this study, 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC, a crucial precursor of vitamin D3) biosynthesis pathway was constructed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742 with endogenous ergosterol synthesis pathway blocked by knocking out the erg5 gene (encoding C-22 desaturase). The deletion of erg5 led to redox imbalance with higher ratio of cytosolic free NADH/NAD+ and more glycerol and ethanol accumulation. To alleviate the redox imbalance, a water-forming NADH oxidase (NOX) and an alternative oxidase (AOX1) were employed in our system based on cofactor regeneration strategy. Consequently, the production of 7-dehydrocholesterol was increased by 74.4% in shake flask culture. In the meanwhile, the ratio of free NADH/NAD+ and the concentration of glycerol and ethanol were reduced by 78.0%, 50.7% and 7.9% respectively. In a 5-L bioreactor, the optimal production of 7-DHC reached 44.49(±9.63) mg/L. This study provides a reference to increase the production of some desired compounds that are restricted by redox imbalance. PMID:26098102

  15. Mapping the interaction of Snf1 with TORC1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Vaga, Stefania; Chumnanpuen, Pramote; Kumar, Rahul; Vemuri, Goutham N; Aebersold, Ruedi; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient sensing and coordination of metabolic pathways are crucial functions for all living cells, but details of the coordination under different environmental conditions remain elusive. We therefore undertook a systems biology approach to investigate the interactions between the Snf1 and the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that Snf1 regulates a much broader range of biological processes compared with TORC1 under both glucose- and ammonium-limited conditions. We also find that Snf1 has a role in upregulating the NADP(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (encoded by GDH3) under derepressing condition, and therefore may also have a role in ammonium assimilation and amino-acid biosynthesis, which can be considered as a convergence of Snf1 and TORC1 pathways. In addition to the accepted role of Snf1 in regulating fatty acid (FA) metabolism, we show that TORC1 also regulates FA metabolism, likely through modulating the peroxisome and β-oxidation. Finally, we conclude that direct interactions between Snf1 and TORC1 pathways are unlikely under nutrient-limited conditions and propose that TORC1 is repressed in a manner that is independent of Snf1. PMID:22068328

  16. Solution structure of the ubiquitin-binding domain in Swa2p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chim, Nicholas; Gall, Walter E; Xiao, Jing; Harris, Mark P; Graham, Todd R; Krezel, Andrzej M

    2004-03-01

    The SWA2/AUX1 gene has been proposed to encode the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of mammalian auxilin. Swa2p is required for clathrin assembly/dissassembly in vivo, thereby implicating it in intracellular protein and lipid trafficking. While investigating the 287-residue N-terminal region of Swa2p, we found a single stably folded domain between residues 140 and 180. Using binding assays and structural analysis, we established this to be a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain, unidentified by bioinformatics of the yeast genome. We determined the solution structure of this Swa2p domain and found a characteristic three-helix UBA fold. Comparisons of structures of known UBA folds reveal that the position of the third helix is quite variable. This helix in Swa2p UBA contains a bulkier tyrosine in place of smaller residues found in other UBAs and cannot pack as close to the second helix. The molecular surface of Swa2p UBA has a mostly negative potential, with a single hydrophobic surface patch found also in the UBA domains of human protein, HHR23A. The presence of a UBA domain implicates Swa2p in novel roles involving ubiquitin and ubiquitinated substrates. We propose that Swa2p is a multifunctional protein capable of recognizing several proteins through its protein-protein recognition domains. PMID:14997574

  17. RRM3 regulates epigenetic conversions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in conjunction with Chromatin Assembly Factor I.

    PubMed

    Wyse, Brandon; Oshidari, Roxanne; Rowlands, Hollie; Abbasi, Sanna; Yankulov, Krassimir

    2016-07-01

    Chromatin structures are transmitted to daughter cells through a complex system of nucleosome disassembly and re-assembly at the advancing replication forks. However, the role of replication pausing in the transmission and perturbation of chromatin structures has not been addressed. RRM3 encodes a DNA helicase, which facilitates replication at sites covered with non-histone protein complexes (tRNA genes, active gene promoters, telomeres) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this report we show that the deletion of RRM3 reduces the frequency of epigenetic conversions in the subtelomeric regions of the chromosomes. This phenotype is strongly dependent on 2 histone chaperones, CAF-I and ASF1, which are involved in the reassembly of nucleosomes behind replication forks, but not on the histone chaperone HIR1. We also show that the deletion of RRM3 increases the spontaneous mutation rates in conjunction with CAF-I and ASF1, but not HIR1. Finally, we demonstrate that Rrm3p and CAF-I compete for the binding to the DNA replication clamp PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen). We propose that the stalling of DNA replication predisposes to epigenetic conversions and that RRM3 and CAF-I play key roles in this process. PMID:27645054

  18. AUT1, a gene essential for autophagocytosis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Schlumpberger, M; Schaeffeler, E; Straub, M; Bredschneider, M; Wolf, D H; Thumm, M

    1997-01-01

    Autophagocytosis is a starvation-induced process responsible for transport of cytoplasmic proteins to the vacuole. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, autophagy is characterized by the phenotypic appearance of autophagic vesicles inside the vacuole of strains deficient in proteinase yscB. The AUT1 gene, essential for autophagy, was isolated by complementation of the sporulation deficiency of a diploid aut1-1 mutant strain by a yeast genomic library and characterized. AUT1 is located on the right arm of chromosome XIV, 10 kb from the centromere, and encodes a protein of 310 amino acids, with an estimated molecular weight of 36 kDa. Cells carrying a chromosomal deletion of AUT1 are defective in the starvation-induced bulk flow transport of cytoplasmic proteins to the vacuole. aut1 null mutant strains are completely viable but show decreased survival rates during starvation. Homozygous delta aut1 diploid cells fail to sporulate. The selective cytoplasm-to-vacuole transport of aminopeptidase I is blocked in logarithmically growing and in starved delta autl cells. Deletion of the AUT1 gene had no obvious influence on secretion, fluid phase endocytosis, or vacuolar protein sorting. This supports the idea of autophagocytosis as being a novel route transporting proteins from the cytoplasm to the vacuole. PMID:9023185

  19. DNA polymerases delta and epsilon are required for chromosomal replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Budd, M E; Campbell, J L

    1993-01-01

    Three DNA polymerases, alpha, delta, and epsilon are required for viability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have investigated whether DNA polymerases epsilon and delta are required for DNA replication. Two temperature-sensitive mutations in the POL2 gene, encoding DNA polymerase epsilon, have been identified by using the plasmid shuffle technique. Alkaline sucrose gradient analysis of DNA synthesis products in the mutant strains shows that no chromosomal-size DNA is formed after shift of an asynchronous culture to the nonpermissive temperature. The only DNA synthesis observed is a reduced quantity of short DNA fragments. The DNA profiles of replication intermediates from these mutants are similar to those observed with DNA synthesized in mutants deficient in DNA polymerase alpha under the same conditions. The finding that DNA replication stops upon shift to the nonpermissive temperature in both DNA polymerase alpha- and DNA polymerase epsilon- deficient strains shows that both DNA polymerases are involved in elongation. By contrast, previous studies on pol3 mutants, deficient in DNA polymerase delta, suggested that there was considerable residual DNA synthesis at the nonpermissive temperature. We have reinvestigated the nature of DNA synthesis in pol3 mutants. We find that pol3 strains are defective in the synthesis of chromosomal-size DNA at the restrictive temperature after release from a hydroxyurea block. These results demonstrate that yeast DNA polymerase delta is also required at the replication fork. PMID:8417347

  20. Squalene epoxidase as a target for manipulation of squalene levels in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Garaiová, Martina; Zambojová, Veronika; Simová, Zuzana; Griač, Peter; Hapala, Ivan

    2014-03-01

    Squalene is a valuable natural substance with several biotechnological applications. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is produced in the isoprenoid pathway as the first precursor dedicated to ergosterol biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of squalene epoxidase encoded by the ERG1 gene as the target for manipulating squalene levels in yeast. Highest squalene levels (over 1000 μg squalene per 10(9)  cells) were induced by specific point mutations in ERG1 gene that reduced activity of squalene epoxidase and caused hypersensitivity to terbinafine. This accumulation of squalene in erg1 mutants did not significantly disturb their growth. Treatment with squalene epoxidase inhibitor terbinafine revealed a limit in squalene accumulation at 700 μg squalene per 10(9)  cells which was associated with pronounced growth defects. Inhibition of squalene epoxidase activity by anaerobiosis or heme deficiency resulted in relatively low squalene levels. These levels were significantly increased by ergosterol depletion in anaerobic cells which indicated feedback inhibition of squalene production by ergosterol. Accumulation of squalene in erg1 mutants and terbinafine-treated cells were associated with increased cellular content and aggregation of lipid droplets. Our results prove that targeted genetic manipulation of the ERG1 gene is a promising tool for increasing squalene production in yeast.

  1. Change in activity of serine palmitoyltransferase affects sensitivity to syringomycin E in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Toume, Moeko; Tani, Motohiro

    2014-09-01

    Syringomycin E is a cyclic lipodepsipeptide produced by strains of the plant bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Genetic studies involving the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have revealed that complex sphingolipids play important roles in the action of syringomycin E. Here, we found a novel mutation that confers resistance to syringomycin E on yeast; that is, a deletion mutant of ORM1 and ORM2, which encode negative regulators of serine palmitoyltransferase catalyzing the initial step of sphingolipid biosynthesis, exhibited resistance to syringomycin E. On the contrary, overexpression of Orm2 resulted in high sensitivity to the toxin. Moreover, overexpression of Lcb1 and Lcb2, catalytic subunits of serine palmitoyltransferase, causes resistance to the toxin, whereas partial repression of expression of Lcb1 had the opposite effect. Partial reduction of complex sphingolipids by repression of expression of Aur1, an inositol phosphorylceramide synthase, also resulted in high sensitivity to the toxin. These results suggested that an increase in sphingolipid biosynthesis caused by a change in the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase causes resistance to syringomycin E.

  2. Mutants of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae with Defects in Acetate Metabolism: Isolation and Characterization of Acn(-) Mutants

    PubMed Central

    McCammon, M. T.

    1996-01-01

    The two carbon compounds, ethanol and acetate, can be oxidatively metabolized as well as assimilated into carbohydrate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The distribution of acetate metabolic enzymes among several cellular compartments, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and cytoplasm makes it an intriguing system to study complex metabolic interactions. To investigate the complex process of carbon catabolism and assimilation, mutants unable to grow on acetate were isolated. One hundred five Acn(-) (``ACetate Nonutilizing'') mutants were sorted into 21 complementation groups with an additional 20 single mutants. Five of the groups have defects in TCA cycle enzymes: MDH1, CIT1, ACO1, IDH1, and IDH2. A defect in RTG2, involved in the retrograde communication between the mitochondrion and the nucleus, was also identified. Four genes encode enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis: ICL1, MLS1, MDH2, and PCK1. Five other genes appear to be defective in regulating metabolic activity since elevated levels of enzymes in several metabolic pathways, including the glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis, and acetyl-CoA metabolism, were detected in these mutants: ACN8, ACN9, ACN17, ACN18, and ACN42. In summary, this analysis has identified at least 22 and as many as 41 different genes involved in acetate metabolism. PMID:8878673

  3. Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive RNA polymerase II mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Himmelfarb, H J; Simpson, E M; Friesen, J D

    1987-01-01

    Three independent, recessive, temperature-sensitive (Ts-) conditional lethal mutations in the largest subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) have been isolated after replacement of a portion of the wild-type gene (RPO21) by a mutagenized fragment of the cloned gene. Measurements of cell growth, viability, and total RNA and protein synthesis showed that rpo21-1, rpo21-2, and rpo21-3 mutations caused a slow shutoff of RNAP II activity in cells shifted to the nonpermissive temperature (39 degrees C). Each mutant displayed a distinct phenotype, and one of the mutant enzymes (rpo21-1) was completely deficient in RNAP II activity in vitro. RNAP I and RNAP III in vitro activities were not affected. These results were consistent with the notion that the genetic lesions affect RNAP II assembly or holoenzyme stability. DNA sequencing revealed that in each case the mutations involved nonconservative amino acid substitutions, resulting in charge changes. The lesions harbored by all three rpo21 Ts- alleles lie in DNA sequence domains that are highly conserved among genes that encode the largest subunits of RNAP from a variety of eucaryotes; one mutation lies in a possible Zn2+ binding domain. PMID:3299061

  4. Glucose‐based microbial production of the hormone melatonin in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Germann, Susanne M.; Baallal Jacobsen, Simo A.; Schneider, Konstantin; Harrison, Scott J.; Jensen, Niels B.; Chen, Xiao; Stahlhut, Steen G.; Borodina, Irina; Luo, Hao; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Maury, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Melatonin is a natural mammalian hormone that plays an important role in regulating the circadian cycle in humans. It is a clinically effective drug exhibiting positive effects as a sleep aid and a powerful antioxidant used as a dietary supplement. Commercial melatonin production is predominantly performed by complex chemical synthesis. In this study, we demonstrate microbial production of melatonin and related compounds, such as serotonin and N‐acetylserotonin. We generated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that comprise heterologous genes encoding one or more variants of an L‐tryptophan hydroxylase, a 5‐hydroxy‐L‐tryptophan decarboxylase, a serotonin acetyltransferase, an acetylserotonin O‐methyltransferase, and means for providing the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin via heterologous biosynthesis and recycling pathways. We thereby achieved de novo melatonin biosynthesis from glucose. We furthermore accomplished increased product titers by altering expression levels of selected pathway enzymes and boosting co‐factor supply. The final yeast strain produced melatonin at a titer of 14.50 ± 0.57 mg L−1 in a 76h fermentation using simulated fed‐batch medium with glucose as sole carbon source. Our study lays the basis for further developing a yeast cell factory for biological production of melatonin. PMID:26710256

  5. A novel plasmid-based microarray screen identifies suppressors of rrp6Delta in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Abruzzi, Katharine; Denome, Sylvia; Olsen, Jens Raabjerg; Assenholt, Jannie; Haaning, Line Lindegaard; Jensen, Torben Heick; Rosbash, Michael

    2007-02-01

    Genetic screens in Saccharomyces cerevisiae provide novel information about interacting genes and pathways. We screened for high-copy-number suppressors of a strain with the gene encoding the nuclear exosome component Rrp6p deleted, with either a traditional plate screen for suppressors of rrp6Delta temperature sensitivity or a novel microarray enhancer/suppressor screening (MES) strategy. MES combines DNA microarray technology with high-copy-number plasmid expression in liquid media. The plate screen and MES identified overlapping, but also different, suppressor genes. Only MES identified the novel mRNP protein Nab6p and the tRNA transporter Los1p, which could not have been identified in a traditional plate screen; both genes are toxic when overexpressed in rrp6Delta strains at 37 degrees C. Nab6p binds poly(A)+ RNA, and the functions of Nab6p and Los1p suggest that mRNA metabolism and/or protein synthesis are growth rate limiting in rrp6Delta strains. Microarray analyses of gene expression in rrp6Delta strains and a number of suppressor strains support this hypothesis. PMID:17101774

  6. Comprehensive X-Ray Structural Studies of the Quinolinate Phosphoribosyl Transferase (BNA6) From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    di Luccio, E.; Wilson, D.K.

    2009-05-14

    Quinolinic acid phosphoribosyl transferase (QAPRTase, EC 2.4.2.19) is a 32 kDa enzyme encoded by the BNA6 gene in yeast and catalyzes the formation of nicotinate mononucleotide from quinolinate and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). QAPRTase plays a key role in the tryptophan degradation pathway via kynurenine, leading to the de novo biosynthesis of NAD{sup +} and clearing the neurotoxin quinolinate. To improve our understanding of the specificity of the eukaryotic enzyme and the course of events associated with catalysis, we have determined the crystal structures of the apo and singly bound forms with the substrates quinolinate and PRPP. This reveals that the enzyme folds in a manner similar to that of various prokaryotic forms which are {approx}30% identical in sequence. In addition, the structure of the Michaelis complex is approximated by PRPP and the quinolinate analogue phthalate bound to the active site. These results allow insight into the kinetic mechanism of QAPRTase and provide an understanding of structural diversity in the active site of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme when compared to prokaryotic homologues.

  7. Quantitative modeling of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae FLR1 regulatory network using an S-system formalism.

    PubMed

    Calçada, Dulce; Vinga, Susana; Freitas, Ana T; Oliveira, Arlindo L

    2011-10-01

    In this study we address the problem of finding a quantitative mathematical model for the genetic network regulating the stress response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the agricultural fungicide mancozeb. An S-system formalism was used to model the interactions of a five-gene network encoding four transcription factors (Yap1, Yrr1, Rpn4 and Pdr3) regulating the transcriptional activation of the FLR1 gene. Parameter estimation was accomplished by decoupling the resulting system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations into a larger nonlinear algebraic system, and using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to fit the models predictions to experimental data. The introduction of constraints in the model, related to the putative topology of the network, was explored. The results show that forcing the network connectivity to adhere to this topology did not lead to better results than the ones obtained using an unrestricted network topology. Overall, the modeling approach obtained partial success when trained on the nonmutant datasets, although further work is required if one wishes to obtain more accurate prediction of the time courses. PMID:21976379

  8. Gateway Vectors for Efficient Artificial Gene Assembly In Vitro and Expression in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Giuraniuc, Claudiu V.; MacPherson, Murray; Saka, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Construction of synthetic genetic networks requires the assembly of DNA fragments encoding functional biological parts in a defined order. Yet this may become a time-consuming procedure. To address this technical bottleneck, we have created a series of Gateway shuttle vectors and an integration vector, which facilitate the assembly of artificial genes and their expression in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our method enables the rapid construction of an artificial gene from a promoter and an open reading frame (ORF) cassette by one-step recombination reaction in vitro. Furthermore, the plasmid thus created can readily be introduced into yeast cells to test the assembled gene’s functionality. As flexible regulatory components of a synthetic genetic network, we also created new versions of the tetracycline-regulated transactivators tTA and rtTA by fusing them to the auxin-inducible degron (AID). Using our gene assembly approach, we made yeast expression vectors of these engineered transactivators, AIDtTA and AIDrtTA and then tested their functions in yeast. We showed that these factors can be regulated by doxycycline and degraded rapidly after addition of auxin to the medium. Taken together, the method for combinatorial gene assembly described here is versatile and would be a valuable tool for yeast synthetic biology. PMID:23675537

  9. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex influences transcription by RNA polymerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinfeng; Anderson, Susan J; French, Sarah L; Sikes, Martha L; Viktorovskaya, Olga V; Huband, Jacalyn; Holcomb, Katherine; Hartman, John L; Beyer, Ann L; Schneider, David A

    2013-01-01

    SWI/SNF is a chromatin remodeling complex that affects transcription initiation and elongation by RNA polymerase II. Here we report that SWI/SNF also plays a role in transcription by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion of the genes encoding the Snf6p or Snf5p subunits of SWI/SNF was lethal in combination with mutations that impair Pol I transcription initiation and elongation. SWI/SNF physically associated with ribosomal DNA (rDNA) within the coding region, with an apparent peak near the 5' end of the gene. In snf6Δ cells there was a ∼2.5-fold reduction in rRNA synthesis rate compared to WT, but there was no change in average polymerase occupancy per gene, the number of rDNA gene repeats, or the percentage of transcriptionally active rDNA genes. However, both ChIP and EM analyses showed a small but reproducible increase in Pol I density in a region near the 5' end of the gene. Based on these data, we conclude that SWI/SNF plays a positive role in Pol I transcription, potentially by modifying chromatin structure in the rDNA repeats. Our findings demonstrate that SWI/SNF influences the most robust transcription machinery in proliferating cells.

  10. Glucose-based microbial production of the hormone melatonin in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Germann, Susanne M; Baallal Jacobsen, Simo A; Schneider, Konstantin; Harrison, Scott J; Jensen, Niels B; Chen, Xiao; Stahlhut, Steen G; Borodina, Irina; Luo, Hao; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Maury, Jérôme; Forster, Jochen

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin is a natural mammalian hormone that plays an important role in regulating the circadian cycle in humans. It is a clinically effective drug exhibiting positive effects as a sleep aid and a powerful antioxidant used as a dietary supplement. Commercial melatonin production is predominantly performed by complex chemical synthesis. In this study, we demonstrate microbial production of melatonin and related compounds, such as serotonin and N-acetylserotonin. We generated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that comprise heterologous genes encoding one or more variants of an L-tryptophan hydroxylase, a 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan decarboxylase, a serotonin acetyltransferase, an acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase, and means for providing the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin via heterologous biosynthesis and recycling pathways. We thereby achieved de novo melatonin biosynthesis from glucose. We furthermore accomplished increased product titers by altering expression levels of selected pathway enzymes and boosting co-factor supply. The final yeast strain produced melatonin at a titer of 14.50 ± 0.57 mg L(-1) in a 76h fermentation using simulated fed-batch medium with glucose as sole carbon source. Our study lays the basis for further developing a yeast cell factory for biological production of melatonin.

  11. Identification of a complex genetic network underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae colony morphology

    PubMed Central

    Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Zande, Elisa; Vinces, Marcelo D; Meert, Wim; Cloots, Lore; Ryan, Owen; Marchal, Kathleen; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    When grown on solid substrates, different microorganisms often form colonies with very specific morphologies. Whereas the pioneers of microbiology often used colony morphology to discriminate between species and strains, the phenomenon has not received much attention recently. In this study, we use a genome-wide assay in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify all genes that affect colony morphology. We show that several major signalling cascades, including the MAPK, TORC, SNF1 and RIM101 pathways play a role, indicating that morphological changes are a reaction to changing environments. Other genes that affect colony morphology are involved in protein sorting and epigenetic regulation. Interestingly, the screen reveals only few genes that are likely to play a direct role in establishing colony morphology, with one notable example being FLO11, a gene encoding a cell-surface adhesin that has already been implicated in colony morphology, biofilm formation, and invasive and pseudohyphal growth. Using a series of modified promoters for fine-tuning FLO11 expression, we confirm the central role of Flo11 and show that differences in FLO11 expression result in distinct colony morphologies. Together, our results provide a first comprehensive look at the complex genetic network that underlies the diversity in the morphologies of yeast colonies. PMID:22882838

  12. The origin recognition complex links replication, sister chromatid cohesion and transcriptional silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Bernhard; Tong, Amy; Chang, Michael; Yu, Lisa; Brown, Grant W; Boone, Charles; Rine, Jasper

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in genes encoding the origin recognition complex (ORC) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affect initiation of DNA replication and transcriptional repression at the silent mating-type loci. To explore the function of ORC in more detail, a screen for genetic interactions was undertaken using large-scale synthetic lethal analysis. Combination of orc2-1 and orc5-1 alleles with the complete set of haploid deletion mutants revealed synthetic lethal/sick phenotypes with genes involved in DNA replication, chromatin structure, checkpoints, DNA repair and recombination, and other genes that were unexpected on the basis of previous studies of ORC. Many of these genetic interactions are shared with other genes that are involved in initiation of DNA replication. Strong synthetic interactions were demonstrated with null mutations in genes that contribute to sister chromatid cohesion. A genetic interaction between orc5-1 and the cohesin mutant scc1-73 suggested that ORC function contributes to sister chromatid cohesion. Thus, comprehensive screening for genetic interactions with a replication gene revealed a connection between initiation of DNA replication and sister chromatid cohesion. Further experiments linked sister chromatid cohesion genes to silencing at mating-type loci and telomeres. PMID:15238513

  13. Optimization of heterologous production of the polyketide 6-MSA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wattanachaisaereekul, Songsak; Lantz, Anna Eliasson; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Andrésson, Olafur S; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-07-01

    Polyketides are a group of natural products that have gained much interest due to their use as antibiotics, cholesterol lowering agents, immunosuppressors, and as other drugs. Many organisms that naturally produce polyketides are difficult to cultivate and only produce these metabolites in small amounts. It is therefore of general interest to transfer polyketide synthase (PKS) genes from their natural sources into heterologous hosts that can over-produce the corresponding polyketides. In this study we demonstrate the heterologous expression of 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase (6-MSAS), naturally produced by Penicillium patulum, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to activate the PKS a 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) is required. We therefore co-expressed PPTases encoded by either sfp from Bacillus subtilis or by npgA from Aspergillus nidulans. The different strains were grown in batch cultures. Growth and product concentration were measured and kinetic parameters were calculated. It was shown that both PPTases could be efficiently used for activation of PKS's in yeast as good yields of 6-MSA were obtained with both enzymes.

  14. Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with defects in acetate metabolism: isolation and characterization of Acn- mutants.

    PubMed

    McCammon, M T

    1996-09-01

    The two carbon compounds, ethanol and acetate, can be oxidatively metabolized as well as assimilated into carbohydrate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The distribution of acetate metabolic enzymes among several cellular compartments, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and cytoplasm makes it an intriguing system to study complex metabolic interactions. To investigate the complex process of carbon catabolism and assimilation, mutants unable to grow on acetate were isolated. One hundred five Acn- ("ACetate Nonutilizing") mutants were sorted into 21 complementation groups with an additional 20 single mutants. Five of the groups have defects in TCA cycle enzymes: MDH1, CIT1, ACO1, IDH1, and IDH2. A defect in RTG2, involved in the retrograde communication between the mitochondrion and the nucleus, was also identified. Four genes encode enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis: ICL1, MLS1, MDH2, and PCK1. Five other genes appear to be defective in regulating metabolic activity since elevated levels of enzymes in several metabolic pathways, including the glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis, and acetyl-CoA metabolism, were detected in these mutants: ACN8, ACN9, ACN17, ACN18, and ACN42. In summary, this analysis has identified at least 22 and as many as 41 different genes involved in acetate metabolism.

  15. Ecological Success of a Group of Saccharomyces cerevisiae/Saccharomyces kudriavzevii Hybrids in the Northern European Wine-Making Environment

    PubMed Central

    Erny, C.; Raoult, P.; Alais, A.; Butterlin, G.; Delobel, P.; Matei-Radoi, F.; Casaregola, S.

    2012-01-01

    The hybrid nature of lager-brewing yeast strains has been known for 25 years; however, yeast hybrids have only recently been descri