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Sample records for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease

  1. Karydakis operation for sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease: experience in a district general hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Anyanwu, A. C.; Hossain, S.; Williams, A.; Montgomery, A. C.

    1998-01-01

    Asymmetrical excision of sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus has been shown to be associated with low recurrence rates. We report our experience with an asymmetric technique--the Karydakis operation. Of 28 patients who had the operation over a 4-year period, no recurrences were observed in 27 patients available for follow-up (median follow-up 3 years). Three patients had complications requiring surgical intervention. The operation is easy to teach and learn and is worth considering by both specialist and non-specialist surgeons. PMID:9682644

  2. Disease that should be remembered: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease and short history

    PubMed Central

    Kanat, Burhan Hakan; Sözen, Selim

    2015-01-01

    Pilonidal sinus disease has led to heated debates since it was first described in the medical literature. Although a consensus has been built on its etiology and pathogenesis, the same course has not progressed for treatment modality. This review is a short article about the process of pilonidal sinus disease from past to present. Some important points were mentioned between the years 1833, which is accepted as the milestone for the awareness of the disease, in which it was first reported until the year of 1880, in which it was given its name. Although its name has been the same for about two centuries, some other names such as “Jeep Disease” have also been used depending on the population affected by the disease. At present, it is indisputable that the disease is acquired. Large series were presented about the treatment in the last two decades. Some surgical methods were even named after the ones who first described them and they have many supporters. However, since the treatment modalities have some advantages and disadvantages and they do not have marked superiority over others, debates still continue. We hope that pilonidal sinus disease will not lose its significance and be underrated in parallel with the developments in technology and specialization in medicine. PMID:26488023

  3. Pilonidal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ensuring high-quality patient care by advancing the science, prevention and management of disorders and diseases of the colon, rectum and anus. These brochures are inclusive but not prescriptive. Their purpose is to provide information on diseases and processes, ...

  4. Management of pilonidal disease.

    PubMed

    Kallis, Michelle P; Maloney, Caroline; Lipskar, Aaron M

    2018-06-01

    Pilonidal disease, and the treatment associated with it, can cause significant morbidity and substantial burden to patients' quality of life. Despite the plethora of surgical techniques that have been developed to treat pilonidal disease, discrepancies in technique, recurrence rates, complications, time to return to work/school and patients' aesthetic satisfaction between treatment options have led to controversy over the best approach to this common acquired disease of young adults. The management of pilonidal disease must strike a balance between recurrence and surgical morbidity. The commonly performed wide excision without closure has prolonged recovery, while flap closures speed recovery time and improve aesthetics at the expense of increased wound complications. Less invasive surgical techniques have recently evolved and are straightforward, with minimal morbidity and satisfactory results. As with any surgical intervention, the ideal treatment for pilonidal disease would be simple and cost-effective, cause minimal pain, have a limited hospital stay, low recurrence rate and require minimal time off from school or work. Less invasive procedures for pilonidal disease may be favourable as an initial approach for these patients reserving complex surgical treatment for refractory disease.

  5. Surgery for pilonidal cyst

    MedlinePlus

    Pilonidal abscess; Pilonidal dimple; Pilonidal disease; Pilonidal cyst; Pilonidal sinus ... An infected pilonidal cyst or abscess requires surgical drainage. It will not heal with antibiotic medicines. If you continue to have infections, the pilonidal cyst can be ...

  6. Less is more: "incision and curettage" as an optimal procedure for recurrent pilonidal disease.

    PubMed

    Demir, Uygar; Yazici, Pinar; Bostanci, Ozgur; Kaya, Cemal; Isil, Riza Gurhan; T Mihmanli, Mehme

    2015-01-01

    Although pilonidal disease has been a well-known entity for more than a century, recurrence of pilonidal disease is still not rare. The optimal surgical approach to recurrent disease is under debate. In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of "incision and curettage" procedure for recurrent pilonidal disease. From May 2009 to May 2013, 42 patients (37 male/5 female) underwent surgical treatment for recurrent pilonidal disease. Incision and curettage of granulation tissue, hair and debris in the cavity were performed in all cases. Data collection included demographics, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, hospital stay, return to daily activities (lying, sitting down in comfort) and work, and complete wound healing time. Mean operating time was 16.6±4.7 (10-24) minutes. Mean pain score was 1.4±1.1 (0-5) with VAS. The mean duration of returning to daily activities such as comfortable lying down, sitting and returning to work were 1.6±0.8 (1-4) days, and 3.3±2.3 (1-15) days, and 10.2±5.4 (5-33) days, respectively. The mean wound healing time was 19.9±7.8 (7-52) days. During the three-year follow-up period, no recurrence was observed. "Incision and curettage" may be performed as first-line treatment for recurrent cases. It does not require surgical skill and can be easily applied in a short time. This simple surgical option, incision curettage provides short hospital stay and quick return to daily activities, in addition to patient comfort and satisfaction. Pilonidal sinus, Recurrence, Sacrococcygeal.

  7. Cleft lift procedure for pilonidal disease: technique and perioperative management.

    PubMed

    Favuzza, J; Brand, M; Francescatti, A; Orkin, B

    2015-08-01

    Pilonidal disease is a common condition affecting young patients. It is often disruptive to their lifestyle due to recurrent abscesses or chronic wound drainage. The most common surgical treatment, "cystectomy," removes useful tissue unnecessarily and does not address the etiology of the condition. Herein, we describe the etiology of pilonidal disease and our technique for definitive management of pilonidal disease using the cleft lift procedure. In this paper, we present our method of performing the cleft lift procedure for pilonidal disease including perioperative management and surgical technique. We have used the cleft lift procedure in nearly 200 patients with pilonidal disease, in both primary and salvage procedures settings. It has been equally successful in both settings with a high rate of success. It results in a closed wound with relatively minimal discomfort and straightforward wound care. We have described our current approach to recurrent and complex pilonidal disease using the cleft lift procedure. Once learned, the cleft lift procedure is a straightforward and highly successful solution to a chronic and challenging condition.

  8. [Pit-picking surgery for pilonidal disease].

    PubMed

    Iesalnieks, I; Deimel, S; Kienle, K; Schlitt, H J; Zülke, C

    2011-10-01

    The pit-picking method was first described by J. Bascom in 1980, however, this minimally invasive technique is used only by a minority of surgeons yet. Surgery was performed under local anesthesia. All primary pits in the midline were removed by excising a border of skin of <1 mm and a 1 cm long incision was made parallel to one side of the cleft to open the chronic abscess cavity. No specific postoperative wound care was given. Pit-picking surgery was carried out 157 times in a total of 153 patients (126 males) between June 2007 and November 2010. Follow-up information was available in 123 cases and 21 patients (17%) developed disease recurrence after a mean follow-up time of 7.1 months. By multivariate analysis, a body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2) (p=0.019) and duration of the disease of ≥6 months (p=0.017) were statistically significantly associated with disease recurrence after pit-picking surgery. The recurrence occurred more often in male than in female patients (20% versus 4.5%, p=0.12) Patients with pilonidal disease can be successfully treated by the pit-picking procedure in more than 80% of selected cases. Female patients and non-overweight male patients with short-term disease benefit most from this treatment method.

  9. Fibrin glue for pilonidal sinus disease.

    PubMed

    Lund, Jon; Tou, Samson; Doleman, Brett; Williams, John P

    2017-01-13

    Pilonidal sinus disease is a common condition that mainly affects young adults. This condition can cause significant pain and impairment of normal activities. No consensus currently exists on the optimum treatment for pilonidal sinus and current therapies have various advantages and disadvantages. Fibrin glue has emerged as a potential treatment as both monotherapy and an adjunct to surgery. To assess the effects of fibrin glue alone or in combination with surgery compared with surgery alone in the treatment of pilonidal sinus disease. In December 2016 we searched: the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; CENTRAL; MEDLINE; Embase and CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trials registries and conference proceedings for ongoing and unpublished studies and scanned reference lists to identify additional studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) only. We included studies involving participants of all ages and studies conducted in any setting. We considered studies involving people with both new and recurrent pilonidal sinus. We included studies which evaluated fibrin glue monotherapy or as an adjunct to surgery. Two study authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We used standard methods expected by Cochrane. We included four RCTs with 253 participants, all were at risk of bias. One unpublished study evaluated fibrin glue monotherapy compared with Bascom's procedure, two studies evaluated fibrin glue as an adjunct to Limberg flap and one study evaluated fibrin glue as an adjunct to Karydakis flap.For fibrin glue monotherapy compared with Bascom's procedure, there were no data available for the primary outcomes of time to healing and adverse events. There was low-quality evidence of less pain on day one after the procedure with fibrin glue monotherapy compared with Bascom's procedure (mean difference (MD) -2.50, 95% confidence interval (CI

  10. Pilonidal Sinus Disease: 10 Steps to Optimize Care.

    PubMed

    Harris, Connie; Sibbald, R Gary; Mufti, Asfandyar; Somayaji, Ranjani

    2016-10-01

    To present a 10-step approach to the assessment and treatment of pilonidal sinus disease (PSD) and related wounds based on the Harris protocol, expert opinion, and a current literature review. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to: Pilonidal sinus disease (PSD) is a common problem in young adults and particularly in males with a deep natal or intergluteal cleft and coarse body hair. An approach to an individual with PSD includes the assessment of pain, activities of daily living, the pilonidal sinus, and natal cleft. Local wound care includes the management of infection (if present), along with appropriate debridement and moisture management. Treatment is optimized with patient empowerment to manage the wound and periwound environment (cleansing, dressing changes, decontamination, hair removal, minimizing friction). Self-care education includes the recognition of recurrences or infection. Early surgical intervention of these wounds is often necessary for successful outcomes. Pilonidal sinus healing by secondary intention often takes weeks to months; however, the use of the Harris protocol may decrease healing times. A number of new surgical approaches may accelerate healing. Surgical closure by primary intention is often associated with higher recurrence rates. Expert opinion in this article is combined with an evidence-based literature review. The authors have tabulated 10 key steps from the Harris protocol, including a review of the surgical techniques to improve PSD patient outcomes.

  11. Rare Location for Pilonidal Sinus: the Nasal Dorsum.

    PubMed

    Kars, Ayhan; Atalay, Fatma; Kilic, Korhan; Bingöl, Fatih; Can, Yusuf

    2018-05-14

    Pilonidal sinuses are recurrent chronic inflammatory lesions which may occur due to penetration of hair particles into skin. Herein, the authors report a pilonidal sinus case that is unusually seen on nasal dorsum and totally excised with the open technique rhinoplasty method. A 20-year-old male patient was admitted to the authors' outpatient clinic with complaints of dysmorphism and discharge from nasal dorsum. Physical examination revealed a swelling in nasal dorsum and hair-containing fistula. Excision was performed with an open rhinoplasty approach. Histo-pathology examination revealed pilonidal sinus. While pilonidal sinus is usually located in sacro-coccygeal region, it may also be seen in atypical localizations like nasal dorsum. Although the prediagnosis of a hair-containing lesion usually includes dermoid cyst, pilonidal sinus should also be considered and histo-pathological examination should certainly be performed. It is a problematic condition when it is symptomatic; however, management and treatment of the disease is easy when correct diagnosis is made.

  12. Pilonidal dimple

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer. Pilonidal dimple may appear as: A pilonidal abscess , in which the hair follicle becomes infected and ... or hole forms if there has been an abscess for a long time A pilonidal sinus, in ...

  13. Pilonidal sinus disease surgery in children: the first study to compare crystallized phenol application to primary excision and closure.

    PubMed

    Ates, Ufuk; Ergun, Ergun; Gollu, Gulnur; Sozduyar, Sumeyye; Kologlu, Meltem; Cakmak, Murat; Dindar, Huseyin; Yagmurlu, Aydin

    2018-03-01

    Pilonidal sinus (PS) is an infectious and inflammatory disease of sacrococcygeal region. Current methods include; surgical excision with/without suturing the defect, rhomboid excision and flap and chemical substance application. In this study, crystallized phenol application was compared to excision and primary closure. This retrospective study included pediatric patients with PS who were treated with excision and primer closure technique and phenol application. The patients' medical data were analyzed retrospectively. This study included 117 patients with PS. There were 52 girls (44%) and 65 boys (56%). Mean age of children was 15.6 (12-20) years. Excision and primary closure were applied to 77 patients (66%) and phenol was applied to 40 patients (34%). The children in phenol group were discharged on the operation day; mean hospitalization time in the excision and primary closure group was 2.7 (1-14) days. Mean follow up was 44.6 (8-82) months for primary excision and closure group and 8.1 (1-19) months for phenol group. Although many surgical and non-surgical treatment modalities have been described for PS, the optimal one remains unknown. Limited with the retrospective nature of the data, crystallized phenol application seems a feasible minimal invasive alternative to primary closure of PS with lower recurrence and complication rates in children. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modified Off-Midline Closure of Pilonidal Sinus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saber, Aly

    2014-01-01

    Background: Numerous surgical procedures have been described for pilonidal sinus disease, but treatment failure and disease recurrence are frequent. Conventional off-midline flap closures have relatively favorable surgical outcomes, but relatively unfavorable cosmetic outcomes. Aim: The author reported outcomes of a new simplified off-midline technique for closure of the defect after complete excision of the sinus tracts. Patients and Methods: Two hundred patients of both sexes were enrolled for modified D-shaped excisions were used to include all sinuses and their ramifications, with a simplified procedure to close the defect. Results: The overall wound infection rate was 12%, (12.2% for males and 11.1% for females). Wound disruption was necessitating laying the whole wound open and management as open technique. The overall wound disruption rate was 6%, (6.1% for males and 5.5% for females) and the overall recurrence rate was 7%. Conclusion: Our simplified off-midline closure without flap appeared to be comparable to conventional off-midline closure with flap, in terms of wound infection, wound dehiscence, and recurrence. Advantages of the simplified procedure include potentially reduced surgery complexity, reduced surgery time, and improved cosmetic outcome. PMID:24926445

  15. Modified off-midline closure of pilonidal sinus disease.

    PubMed

    Saber, Aly

    2014-05-01

    Numerous surgical procedures have been described for pilonidal sinus disease, but treatment failure and disease recurrence are frequent. Conventional off-midline flap closures have relatively favorable surgical outcomes, but relatively unfavorable cosmetic outcomes. The author reported outcomes of a new simplified off-midline technique for closure of the defect after complete excision of the sinus tracts. Two hundred patients of both sexes were enrolled for modified D-shaped excisions were used to include all sinuses and their ramifications, with a simplified procedure to close the defect. The overall wound infection rate was 12%, (12.2% for males and 11.1% for females). Wound disruption was necessitating laying the whole wound open and management as open technique. The overall wound disruption rate was 6%, (6.1% for males and 5.5% for females) and the overall recurrence rate was 7%. Our simplified off-midline closure without flap appeared to be comparable to conventional off-midline closure with flap, in terms of wound infection, wound dehiscence, and recurrence. Advantages of the simplified procedure include potentially reduced surgery complexity, reduced surgery time, and improved cosmetic outcome.

  16. Effective conservative treatment of umbilical pilonidal sinus disease: Silver nitrate? Salt?

    PubMed

    Sözen, Selim; Kanat, Burhan Hakan; Kanat, Zekiye; Bali, Ilhan; Polat, Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the three different treatment methods and investigate The effectiveness of the therapeutic effect of common salt. This retrospective study involved patients who were treated in our clinic for umbilical pilonidal sinus disease between January 2010 and December 2011. The patients were divided to three subgroups according to treatment methods. Group I: Cases treated with only local debridement and systemic antibiotic, group II: cases treated with local debridement, systemic antibiotic and silver nitrate, group 3: cases treated with debridement, systemic antibiotic and salt. In this study, 63 patients with the diagnosis of UPS were treated in our clinic. The patients were classified into three groups; group I included 20 patients, group II included 18 patients and group III included 18 patients. During 16-24 months of follow-up, 4 (20%) recurrences in group1 and 2 (11.1%) recurrences in group 2 were detected. Recurrence rate of group 3 was significantly different (5.55%) when compared to group 2. The mean period for returning to daily activities and work was 1 day for the patients. In conclusion, we suggest that pilonidal sinus cases which are not complicated by abcess and cellulitis can be treated by local removal of umbilical hairs, debridement and dressing without surgery. We conclude that application of common salt (table/ cooking salt) to umbilical pilonidal sinus with granuloma is a simple and highly effective way of treatment without any relapse and complications. Conservative treatment, Local debridement, Umblical pilonidal sinus.

  17. The V-Y flap technique in complicated and recurrent pilonidal sinus disease.

    PubMed

    Koca, Yavuz Savas; Yıldız, Ihsan; Ugur, Mustafa; Barut, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    This study presents early and long term (5 years) outcome of 61 complicated pilonidal sinus disease cases undergoing V-Y advancement flap method together with the literature data. Data of 336 patients undergoing surgery for pilonidal sinus disease between 2008 and 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with defect size ≥ 10 cm, and more than one subcutaneous sinus tunnels were assumed to have complicated pilonidal sinus disease. A total of 61 patients were included in the study. Age, gender, type of surgery, duration of hospitalization, time of drain removal, pre-operative complications, and relapse rates at post-operative 5th year were analyzed. Of the 66 patients, 51 underwent unilateral V-Y advancement and 10 patients had bilateral V-Y plasty. Mean duration of operations was 66.87±18.37 minutes for total, 61.02±12.30 minutes for unilateral V-Y plasty, and 96.70±15.04 minutes for bilateral V-Y plasty. Hemovac drains were removed at 5.59±1.91 days averagely, 5.16±1.37 in unilateral group, and 7.80±2.74 in bilateral V-Y plasty group. Of the 4 patients who developed wound site infection, 2 had unilateral and 2 had bilateral V-Y flap advancement. Postoperative hematomas developed in 2 patients with unilateral flap and one patient with bilateral flapss. Seroma occurred in 2 patients with unilateral flap and one patient with bilateral flaps. Dehiscence developed two patients, one patient from each group. The mean duration of hosptalization was 5.98±2.21 days; 5.49±1.52 in unilateral group, and 8.50±3.34 in bilateral group. Early or late relapse was not seen in any groups. V-Y advancement flap technique can be applied as an efficient method in the treatment of complicated pilonidal sinus disease due to low relapse and complication rates. Advancement flap, Complicated pilonidal sinus, Pilonidal sinus, V-Y flap.

  18. Hair epilation versus surgical excision as primary management of pilonidal disease in the pediatric population

    PubMed Central

    Bütter, Andreana; Hanson, Melissa; VanHouwelingen, Lisa; Merritt, Neil; Seabrook, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pilonidal disease is a chronic, acquired inflammatory process of the skin due to entrapped hair at the natal cleft. Reported recurrence rates are as high as 30%, and recurrence has been attributed to persistent hair near the surgical site. Although conservative measures, such as meticulous hair control and improved perineal hygiene, have been shown to be effective, these techniques typically require much effort on behalf of the patient. Laser hair epilation (LE) might solve this issue of poor patient compliance while helping patients to avoid surgical excision. In this article, we discuss recurrence rates of pilonidal disease in children treated with LE versus surgical excision in relation to findings from our institution between 2005 and 2013 as well as patient satisfaction with the treatment method. PMID:26011854

  19. Pilonidal Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... for prolonged periods of time, such as truck drivers, are at higher risk of developing a pilonidal ... common in people in their 20s) Obesity Inactive lifestyle Occupation requiring prolonged sitting Excess body hair Stiff ...

  20. Comparison of surgical Limberg flap technique and crystallized phenol application in the treatment of pilonidal sinus disease: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Akan, Kaan; Tihan, Deniz; Duman, Uğur; Özgün, Yiğit; Erol, Fatih; Polat, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to compare the efficacy of crystallized phenol method with Limberg flap in pilonidal sinus treatment. Material and Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of pilonidal sinus disease treated with surgical excision + Limberg rhomboid flap technique and crystallized phenol method between 2010–2011 in the Şevket Yılmaz Training and Research Hospital, Department of General Surgery were evaluated retrospectively. Patients’ age, sex, length of hospital stay, complications and recurrence rates were evaluated. Results: Eighty eight percent of patients were male and mean age was 26.84±6.41 in the Limberg group, and 24.72±5.00 in the crystallized phenol group. Sinus orifice locations and nature, and duration of symptoms before surgery were similar in the two groups. Length of hospital stay in the Limberg group was 1.46±0.61 days; whereas all patients in the crystallized phenol group were discharged on the same day. Infection, hematoma, wound dehiscence, and cosmetic problems were significantly higher in the Limberg group. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of recurrence and seroma formation. Conclusion: The less invasive method of crystallized phenol application may be an alternative approach to rhomboid excision and Limberg flap in patients with non-complicated pilonidal sinus disease, yielding acceptable recurrence rates. PMID:25931870

  1. Early experience of the use of fibrin sealant in the management of children with pilonidal sinus disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline Mary; Jones, Abigail; Dass, Dipankar; Murthi, Govind; Lindley, Richard

    2015-02-01

    The use of fibrin sealant in the management of pilonidal sinus disease has not previously been described in children. We present our experience of primary pit excision and use of fibrin sealant (PEF) and compare outcomes with lateralising flap procedures (LFP). A single centre retrospective case note review of all children who had undergone a definitive procedure for pilonidal sinus from August 2006 to Dec 2013 was performed using data expressed as median (range) and compared using Fisher's exact test. P<0.05 was regarded as significant. Forty-one children were identified having undergone 49 procedures, with median age 15 (12-16 years) and follow up 32 (8-92) months. Groups were comparable for disease severity. Ten children underwent primary PEF and twenty-six LFP. Two children had recurrence following primary PEF and had repeat PEF which was curative. Overall recurrence rates following PEF procedure were comparable to LFP (17% vs 21%; P=1.0). There were no wound dehiscences in the PEF group and one wound infection. There was one wound dehiscence and one wound infection in the LFP group. Median operative time for PEF was lower than LFP (20 vs 60 min, P=0.001). 83% of PEF procedures were performed as day cases. One child was lost to follow up, and two children progressed to adult services. We recommend PEF in children with pilonidal sinus disease as primary treatment and for recurrence. PEF has comparable recurrence and wound infection rates to LFPs, is performed as day case, has shorter anaesthetic times, and the risk of wound dehiscence is avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pilonidal sinus (Nadi vrana): A case study.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Pradeep; Toshikhane, Hemant

    2010-07-01

    Pilonidal sinus (PNS) occurs in the cleavage between the buttocks (natal cleft) and can cause discomfort, embarrassment and absence from work for thousands of young people (mostly men) annually. The incidence of the disease is calculated to be 26 per 100,000 people. It occurs 2.2 times more often in men than in women. Age at presentation is 21 years for men and 19 years for women this case report describes a 22-year-old man with pilonidal sinus who was treated with ksharasutra.

  3. Evaluation of intradermal absorbable and mattress sutures to close pilonidal sinus wounds with Limberg flap: a prospective randomized comparative study.

    PubMed

    Çetin, Kenan; Sikar, Hasan Ediz; Kocaoğlu, Aytaç Emre; Kündeş, Muhammet Fikri; Karahan, Mehmet; Kaptanoğlu, Levent

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to compare skin closure techniques, standard (intermittent mattress) and continuous subcuticular sutures, following Limberg flap procedure. From July 2013 to July 2015, 92 patients with sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease were prospectively randomized into 2 groups consisting of 46 patients for both. Patients underwent sinus excision and closure with Limberg flap; continuous subcuticular suture was used in subcuticular group (SG) and intermittent mattress sutures were used in mattress group (MG) for skin closure. Characteristics of patients, features of pilonidal disease, macerations, infections, wound dehiscence, flap necrosis, operation time, time of drain removal, wound complications, early recurrences, and time till return to work were compared between the 2 groups. There was no statistical difference between groups per sex, age, body mass index, smoking, number of sinuses, depth of intergluteal sulcus, distance of incision to anus, volume of extracted tissue, number of hair follicles per cm 2 , recurrence, operation, and mean follow-up time. Two patients showed signs of wound complications (4.4%) in SG, whereas 8 cases (17.4%) showed signs in MG (P < 0.05). One patient in SG had surgical site infection and required antibiotics (2.2%), where as there were 6 cases treated in MG (13.0%) (P < 0.05). Removal of drain tube, and time till return to work rates are lower for SG than MG (P < 0.05). In conclusion, surgical procedures which include Limberg flap method and subcuticular closure may reduce infection and maceration rates. Future studies are needed to achieve greater detailed evaluation.

  4. Video-assisted ablation of pilonidal sinus: a new minimally invasive treatment--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Milone, Marco; Musella, Mario; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Salvatore, Giuseppe; Sosa Fernandez, Loredana Maria; Bianco, Paolo; Zizolfi, Brunella; Nappi, Carmine; Milone, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    We hypothesized that video-assisted ablation of pilonidal sinus could be an effective, minimally invasive treatment of pilonidal sinus. This new, minimally invasive treatment allows the identification of the sinus cavity with its lateral tracks, destruction and the removal of all infected tissue, and the removal of any hair. All consecutive patients with primary sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus were screened for enrolment in our study. We analyzed time off work, time to walk without pain, time to sitting on the toilet without pain, recurrences, wound infections, and patient satisfaction (pain, health status, and aesthetic appearance). We analyzed 27 patients. All procedures were successful, with complete ablation of the sinus cavity. No infection and only 1 recurrence were recorded during the follow-up (1 year) with an immediate return to work and normal activities. In addition, patient satisfaction and aesthetic appearance were high. Our results are encouraging and suggest that this technique may offer a very effective way to treat pilonidal sinus. Further studies are necessary to validate its use in daily practice. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sacrococcygeal teratoma: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Penny, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    To review the current and relevant literature pertaining to the origin, imaging, and treatment for the sacrococcygeal teratoma in order to obtain information beneficial for radiologic technologists. Both peer-reviewed articles and contemporary imaging textbooks were used in the research for this review. The material was analyzed further for practical and instructive components for imaging professionals. The inquiry regarding the origin, imaging, and treatment of the sacrococcygeal teratoma yielded important facts and clinically useful information that radiologic technologists can use. Because the sacrococcygeal teratoma is the most common congenital tumor found in newborns, all imaging professionals who may be asked to actively or indirectly care for a patient diagnosed with the condition should have a fundamental knowledge of the origin, imaging, and treatment of this potentially fatal tumor.

  6. Converting emergency pilonidal abscess into an elective procedure.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zeiad I; Aghahoseini, Assad; Alexander, David

    2012-06-01

    Improvements in outcome after surgery for elective pilonidal sinus disease have yet to be matched for those presenting with acute disease. Traditional approaches to the management of acute pilonidal abscess have been associated with slow healing and significant loss of working time. The aim of this study was to report our approach in which a temporizing intervention allows subsequent definitive treatment with low morbidity. This article presents a prospective cohort study. This study was performed in acute admissions to the Surgical Unit in York Teaching Hospital. Patients presenting with acute pilonidal abscess, not septic, immune-compromised, or diabetic, and without skin necrosis, underwent aspiration on the surgical ward. Aspiration of pilonidal abscess under local anesthetic was performed with the use of a wide-bore needle. The abscess cavity was drained to dryness, samples were sent to the laboratory for microbiology, and empirical oral antibiotics were commenced, covering anaerobes and aerobes. Review was arranged for within 7 days to plan elective excision and primary closure of the underlying pilonidal sinus. The primary outcomes measured were the number of days required to return to normal activities, response to treatment, and any residual inflammation. Fifty-six patients were referred with acute pilonidal abscess. Forty patients met the criteria for aspiration and empirical antibiotic treatment. All were allowed to go home the same day and were reviewed within a median of 5 days. Thirty-eight (38/40) patients demonstrated complete resolution of acute inflammation and were back to normal activities the following day. Fifteen patients subsequently underwent day-case excision and primary closure at a median of 9 weeks. Another 13 are awaiting surgery, and 10 patients have declined further treatment. Two (2/40) patients did not respond, one of whom did not receive the appropriate antibiotics. Both were managed with incision and drainage. Aspiration and

  7. Comparison of Unilateral Fasciocutaneous V-Y Flap Technique with Cleft Lift Procedure in the Treatment of Recurrent Pilonidal Sinus Disease: A Retrospective Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Koca, Yavuz Savas; Yildiz, Ihsan; Okur, Selahittin Koray; Saricik, Bekir; Uğur, Mustafa; Bulbul, Mustafa Tevfik; Uslusoy, Fuat; Barut, İbrahim

    2018-02-04

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to assess treatment outcomes of the cleft lift procedure and V-Y flap technique in the treatment of recurrent pilonidal sinus disease (PSD). MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 51 patients who underwent cleft lift procedure and 43 patients who underwent fasciocutaneous V-Y flap technique were evaluated. The demographic characteristics, previous operations, duration of symptoms, perioperative complications, duration of operation and hospital stay, duration of draining of all patients, and recurrence of PSD were recorded. RESULTS The mean operation time was 35.61±5.254 min in the cleft lift group (CLG) and 57.42±7.327 min in the V-Y flap group (VYFG) (p=0.001). No wound dehiscence was found in the VYFG and 5 patients (9.8%) had wound dehiscence in the CLG (p=0.035). Draining time was 1.39±0.603 days in the CLG and 2.79±0.638 days in VYFG (p=0.001). The mean hospital stay was 1.75±0.523 days in the CLG and 3.77±1.02 days in the VYFG (p=0.001). Two patients (3.9%) in the CLG had recurrence and no recurrence was reported in the VYFG (p=0.189) in the given time interval. CONCLUSIONS Both methods in treatment of recurrent PSD can be preferred because of low complication and recurrence rates. Because no recurrence was found after the V-Y flap technique, it appears to be a preferable method despite some disadvantages.

  8. Treatment of recurrent pilonidal cysts with nd-YAG laser: report of our experience.

    PubMed

    Dragoni, F; Moretti, S; Cannarozzo, G; Campolmi, P

    2018-02-01

    Surgical treatment remains the first-line therapy of pilonidal cyst but is associated with high levels of postoperative pain, adverse events and a recurrence rate of 30%. We report our experience with laser hair removal using the Nd-YAG laser for the treatment of pilonidal cyst. Ten patients affected by pilonidal cyst were examined and treated from October 2011 to November 2016. Treatments were carried out using the Nd-YAG laser (Deka M.E.L.A, Calenzano, Florence, Italy) at a wavelength of 1064 nm at 30-day interval. Nine patients were asymptomatic after the second treatment, while in one case the symptom disappeared after the fourth session. After 4-8 treatments, the pilonidal cyst had clinically disappeared and patients subjectively felt healed. In all cases, the soft-tissue ultrasounds performed before the first and after the last session showed the disappearance of the pilonidal cyst. In the follow-up, all the patients remained asymptomatic without any disease recurrence. Nd-YAG laser is an effective treatment for pilonidal cysts, providing excellent results with quick healing and no risk of serious adverse side-effects. It could be a very attractive alternative to open surgery, enabling patients to prevent the frequent and severe postoperative issues associated with surgery.

  9. Distal scar-to-midline distance in pilonidal Limberg flap surgery is a recurrence-promoting factor: A multicenter, case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Mehmet; Ozcan, Onder; Bilgic, Ethem; Kaplan, Elif Tugce; Kaplan, Tugba; Kaplan, Fatma Cigdem

    2017-11-01

    The Limberg flap (LF) procedure is widely performed for the treatment of sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus (SPS); however, recurrences continues to be observed. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between LF designs and the risk of SPS recurrence. Sixty-one cases with recurrent disease (study group) and 194 controls, with a minimum of 5 recurrence-free years following surgery (control group), were included in the study. LF reconstructions performed in each group were classified as off-midline closure (OMC) and non-OMC types. Subsequently, the 2 groups were analyzed. After adjustment for all variables, non-OMC types showed the most prominent correlation with recurrence, followed by interrupted suturing type, family history of SPS, smoking, prolonged healing time, and younger age. The best cut-off value for the critical distance from the midline was found to be 11 mm (with 72% sensitivity and 95% specificity for recurrence). We recommend OMC modifications, with the flap tailored to create a safe margin of at least 2 cm between the flap borders and the midline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Endoscopic Pilonidal Sinus Treatment Combined With Crystalized Phenol Application May Prevent Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Gecim, Ibrahim Ethem; Goktug, Utku Ufuk; Celasin, Haydar

    2017-04-01

    No single treatment yet exists for pilonidal disease that has a short healing time, good cosmetic results, and a low rate of recurrence. Phenol crystal application and diathermy ablation through an endoscope have been used for the treatment of pilonidal disease, but this cohort is the first one to combine them. The purpose of this study was to examine the safety, effectiveness, and short- and long-term outcomes of crystalized phenol treatment combined with endoscopic pilonidal sinus treatment for pilonidal disease. This was a prospective cohort study. Procedures were performed in 2 hospitals by the same surgeon between February and July 2014. Twenty-three patients underwent surgical treatment for pilonidal disease. Under local anesthesia and sedation, all of the patients underwent a video-assisted diathermy ablation of the sinus cavity and the application of phenol crystals. Adverse events were recorded as a measure of safety and tolerability. Failure to heal and recurrence rate were documented and evaluated. Patients were discharged on the same day as surgery. There was no or minimal postoperative pain (mean visual analog scale score, 1.40 ± 0.95). Mean operation time was 20.43 ± 6.19 minutes, and the median return-to-work duration was 2.00 days (mean, 3.03 ± 2.95 d). Patients were followed-up for 18 to 24 months (mean, 22.00 ± 1.88 mo). No serious complications or rehospitalization were observed. No primary failure to heal or recurrence was observed. This study did not include a control group with which to compare and consisted of a relatively small number of patients. Crystalized phenol treatment combined with endoscopic pilonidal sinus treatment was safe, tolerable, and achieved fast and durable healing with no recurrence over an average of 22 months of follow-up.

  11. Pediatric Endoscopic Pilonidal Sinus Treatment, a Revolutionary Technique to Adopt in Children with Pilonidal Sinus Fistulas: Our Preliminary Experience.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Ciro; Izzo, Serena; Turrà, Francesco; Cerulo, Mariapina; Severino, Giovanni; Settimi, Alessandro; Iannazzone, Marta; Masieri, Lorenzo; Cortese, Giuseppe; Escolino, Maria

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to report our preliminary experience with pediatric endoscopic pilonidal sinus treatment (PEPSiT). We retrospectively reviewed the reports of 15 patients, 6 girls and 9 boys, with an average age of 16 years (range 13-18) with noninfected pilonidal sinus disease who underwent PEPSiT in our institution over an 18-month period. Four cases were redo-procedures, for recurrence of disease after open excision repair. Surgical outcomes of sinus healing, recurrence of disease, postoperative pain, hospital stay, analgesic requirements, and patient satisfaction levels were evaluated and a comparison analysis with classic open repair was performed. All procedures were performed under subarachnoid spinal anesthesia. We always adopted a fistuloscope, an endoscopic forceps, and a monopolar electrode to remove the hairs and to heal the fistula. The average length of surgery was 28.5 minutes (range 26-41). No intraoperative or postoperative complications were reported. The average pain score evaluated using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain scale during the first 48 postoperative hours was 3.2 (range 2-5). The average analgesic requirement was 22 hours (range 16-28). The average hospital stay length was 28 hours (range 22-48). They changed dressing daily, by applying a topical solution of eosin 2% and a silver sulfadiazine spray. At 1 month postoperatively, the external openings were closed in all patients and no recurrence was recorded at a mean follow-up of 6 month. PEPSiT was associated with a significantly shorter, painless, and better outcome compared to open technique. On the basis of our preliminary experience, we believe that PEPSiT is a promising technique for surgical treatment of pilonidal sinus in children. It is technically easy and quick to perform, with a short and painless hospital stay, without recurrences in our series. It allows operated patients an early return to full daily activities without restrictions that happen for the classic treatment.

  12. Pilonidal abscess in the breast: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Rashmi; Mullen, Russell; Ashton, Mark A.; Abbott, Nick C.; Pollock, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pilonidal sinus is a common entity, most often occurring in the natal cleft. Pilonidal sinus with abscess formation has also been described in hairdressers in the interdigital space. We report a case of pilonidal abscess of the breast in a hairdresser, a rarely reported site, which requires awareness on the clinician's part of this occupational risk, for appropriate management and post-surgery advice on prevention. It is particularly important to impart such information to the reporting pathologist who is key to making this histological diagnosis. PMID:24950682

  13. Post-surgical wound management of pilonidal cysts with a haemoglobin spray: a case series.

    PubMed

    Mustafi, N; Engels, P

    2016-04-01

    Painful acute cysts in the natal cleft or lower back, known as pilonidal sinus disease, are a severe burden to many younger patients. Although surgical intervention is the preferred first line treatment, postsurgical wound healing disturbances are frequently reported due to infection or other complications. Different treatment options of pilonidal cysts have been discussed in the literature, however, no standardised guideline for the postsurgical wound treatment is available. After surgery, a common recommended treatment to patients is rinsing the wound with clean water and dressing with a sterile compress. We present a case series of seven patients with wounds healing by secondary intention after surgical intervention of a pilonidal cyst. The average age of the patients was 40 years old. Of the seven patients, three had developed a wound healing disturbance, one wound had started to develop a fibrin coating and three were in a good condition. The applied wound care regimens comprised appropriate mechanical or autolytic debridement, rinsing with an antimicrobial solution, haemoglobin application, and primary and secondary dressings. In all seven cases a complete wound closure was achieved within an average of 76 days with six out of seven wounds achieving wound closure within 23-98 days. Aesthetic appearance was deemed excellent in five out of seven cases excellent and acceptable in one. Treatment of one case with a sustained healing disturbance did result in wound closure but with a poor aesthetic outcome and an extensive cicatrisation of the new tissue. Based on these results we recommend that to avoid healing disturbances of wounds healing by secondary intention after surgical pilonidal cyst intervention, an adequate wound care regime comprising appropriate wound debridement, rinsing, topically applied haemoglobin and adequate wound dressing is recommendable as early as possible after surgery.

  14. Outcomes of endoscopic pilonidal sinus treatment (EPSiT): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tien, T; Athem, R; Arulampalam, T

    2018-05-31

    Pilonidal sinus is a common disease of the natal cleft, which can lead to complications including infection and abscess formation. Various operative management options are available, but the ideal technique is still debatable. More recently minimally invasive approaches have been described. Our aim was to review the current literature on endoscopic pilonidal sinus treatment (EPSiT) and its outcomes. A systematic literature review was conducted and reported in accordance to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A search of EMBASE, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library was conducted in November 2017. Full-text studies on the use of endoscopy for the treatment of pilonidal sinus were included in the review. Initial search results returned 52 articles. Eight studies (eight case series and one randomised control trial) were included in the final qualitative synthesis. These studies demonstrated that EPSiT has good complete healing rates and low recurrence rates. There was also a high level of patient satisfaction and little time taken off work. Two studies reported modifications to the original technique. The main limitation was the lack of comparative studies. Initial studies on EPSiT have shown promising results. However, there is a need for a standardised technique and more comparative studies to validate this novel procedure.

  15. [Clinical application of modified upper gluteal rhomboid fasciocutaneous flap in repairing sacrococcygeal pressure sores].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Maohua; Yang, Xiaoliang; Wei, Bangmin; Li, Yinghao

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the method and effectiveness of repairing sacrococcygeal pressure sores with modified upper gluteal rhomboid fasciocutaneous flap. Between January 2004 and March 2011, 43 patients with sacrococcygeal pressure sores were treated. There were 25 males and 18 females with an average age of 63 years (range, 38-95 years). The disease duration was 3 months to 2 years and 6 months (mean, 8.5 months). The size of pressure sores ranged from 6 cm x 5 cm to 18 cm x 13 cm. According to the extent and lesion degree of pressure scores, 23 pressure sores were rated as degree III and 20 pressure sores as degree IV. The modified upper gluteal rhomboid flap was designed, one-side upper gluteal fasciocutaneous flaps were transplanted to repair sacrococcygeal pressure sores in 19 cases and two-side flaps in 24 cases. The size of one side flap ranged from 6.5 cm x 4.5 cm to 18.0 cm x 11.5 cm. Fluid under flap occurred in 1 case and edge necrosis of the flaps in 3 cases at 7 days after operation, which were cured after drainage and dressing change; the other flaps survived, and incisions healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 6 months to 3 years with an average of 11 months. Two patients relapsed at 5 months and 8 months, respectively; the other patients had no recurrence. The color of the flaps was normal, and the appearance and elasticity of the flaps were good. The modified upper gluteal rhomboid fasciocutaneous flap has the advantages of simple design and operation, less injury, and reliable effect in repairing sacrococcygeal pressure sores.

  16. [Pedicled superior gluteal artery perforator bilateral quadrilobed flaps for repair of large sacrococcygeal pressure sores].

    PubMed

    Hai, Henglin; Li, Huatao; Chen, Yang; Li, Qiang; Wu, Shenggang; Lili, Wang; Yan, Lei; Xiaoying, Zhou

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of pedicled superior gluteal artery perforator bilateral quadrilobed flaps for repairing large sacrococcygeal pressure sores. Between June 2003 and August 2011, 6 paraplegia patients with large sacrococcygeal pressure sores were repaired with the pedicled superior gluteal artery perforator bilateral quadrilobed flaps. There were 2 males and 4 females with an average age of 45.6 years (range, 37-62 years). The mean disease duration was 8.4 months (range, 3-26 months). According to National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) standard, 6 cases rated as degree IV. The size of pressure sores ranged from 15 cm x 13 cm to 18 cm x 16 cm. The size of flaps ranged from 18 cm x 14 cm to 21 cm x 15 cm. After operation, all flaps survived successfully. The wounds healed by first intention in 5 cases; partial dehiscence of incision occurred in 1 case, which was cured after dressing change for 26 days. Six patients were followed up 6-24 months (mean, 12.5 months). The appearance and texture of the flaps were smooth and soft with good elasticity and no ulceration. Pedicled superior gluteal artery perforator bilateral quadrilobed flaps can repair large sacrococcygeal pressure sores. The appearance of flaps is smooth and has good compression-resistance effect.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Verification of a Case of Sacrococcygeal Teratoma.

    PubMed

    Dedushi, Kreshnike; Kabashi, Serbeze; Mucaj, Sefedin; Ramadani, Naser; Hoxhaj, Astrit; Shatri, Jeton; Hasbahta, Gazmend

    2016-08-01

    Although rare, sacrococcygeal teratoma is the most common congenital neoplasm, occurring in 1 in 40,000 infants. Approximately 75% of affected infants are female. The aim of the present study was to correlate ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Three pregnant women in 27th week of gestation underwent fetal MRI after ultrasonography examination, with findings suggestive for fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Tumor size, location, extent and content were evaluated both by MRI and ultrasonography. Findings regarding tumor location, size and content were similar for both methods. There was a large well-circumscribed mixed, cystic/solid oval mass, originating from right sacro-gluteal region and projecting into the amniotic cavity, 132 × 110 × 76 mm in size. The mass had a heterogeneous appearance. The T1 high signal suggested fat component of the tumor, while T1 and T2 hypointense components suggested calcified/bony components. There was also T1 hypointense component consistent with cystic and fluid component. The imaging findings were characteristic for sacrococcygeal teratoma. There was not obvious lumbar or thoracic spinal involvement. There was no gross intrapelvic or abdominal extension, and even sacrum and coccyx appeared deformed. The amount of amniotic fluid was increased. MRI was superior to ultrasonography in the evaluation of the exact tumor extent, accurately demonstrating pelvic involvement in all of the three cases. Fetal MRI has shown to be a valuable adjunct to obstetric sonography in the evaluation of fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma, because of its higher accuracy in the determination of tumors extent and content, playing a significant role in the therapeutic planning and increasing the chances of cure for these fetuses.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Verification of a Case of Sacrococcygeal Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Dedushi, Kreshnike; Kabashi, Serbeze; Mucaj, Sefedin; Ramadani, Naser; Hoxhaj, Astrit; Shatri, Jeton; Hasbahta, Gazmend

    2016-01-01

    Although rare, sacrococcygeal teratoma is the most common congenital neoplasm, occurring in 1 in 40,000 infants. Approximately 75% of affected infants are female. The aim of the present study was to correlate ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Three pregnant women in 27th week of gestation underwent fetal MRI after ultrasonography examination, with findings suggestive for fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Tumor size, location, extent and content were evaluated both by MRI and ultrasonography. Findings regarding tumor location, size and content were similar for both methods. There was a large well-circumscribed mixed, cystic/solid oval mass, originating from right sacro-gluteal region and projecting into the amniotic cavity, 132 × 110 × 76 mm in size. The mass had a heterogeneous appearance. The T1 high signal suggested fat component of the tumor, while T1 and T2 hypointense components suggested calcified/bony components. There was also T1 hypointense component consistent with cystic and fluid component. The imaging findings were characteristic for sacrococcygeal teratoma. There was not obvious lumbar or thoracic spinal involvement. There was no gross intrapelvic or abdominal extension, and even sacrum and coccyx appeared deformed. The amount of amniotic fluid was increased. MRI was superior to ultrasonography in the evaluation of the exact tumor extent, accurately demonstrating pelvic involvement in all of the three cases. Fetal MRI has shown to be a valuable adjunct to obstetric sonography in the evaluation of fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma, because of its higher accuracy in the determination of tumors extent and content, playing a significant role in the therapeutic planning and increasing the chances of cure for these fetuses. PMID:28983369

  19. Umbilical Pilonidal Sinus, an Underestimated and Little-Known Clinical Entity: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Mehmet; Kaplan, Elif Tugce; Kaplan, Tugba; Kaplan, Fatma Cigdem

    2017-01-01

    Case series Patient: Male, 26 • Female, 21 Final Diagnosis: Umbilical pilonidal sinus Symptoms: Hair tuft in the umbilicus • pain • periumbilical dermatitis • purulent discharge from the umbilicus • skin lesions • pruritis Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Umbilicus preserving surgery Specialty: General Surgery • Dermatology • Plastic Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Umbilical pilonidal sinus (UPS) is a rare disease of young, hirsute, dark men with deep navels and poor personal hygiene. UPS could easily be misdiagnosed and mistreated due to its rarity and lack of awareness of the condition by physicians. However, the diagnosis is easy to establish with physical examination and a detailed history. Although it is being diagnosed and reported more frequently, there is still no consensus regarding best treatment options. Case Report: In this report, we present two cases of UPS, one in a man and one in a woman, who had typical symptoms of pain, swelling, and intermittent malodorous discharge from the umbilicus. They had small sinus openings with hair protruding deep in the navel. Because these two patients had previous histories of failed conservative treatments, an umbilicus preserving surgery was performed for both cases. Wounds were healed in 2–3 weeks with acceptable cosmetic results. During a more than 2 year follow-up period, there were no signs of recurrence. Conclusions: In a patient presenting with a history of intermittent discharge, itching, pain, or bleeding from the umbilicus and the presence of granulation tissue with or without protruding hair and periumbilical dermatitis, the diagnosis should consider UPS, even in female patients. Treatment generally depends on the severity of the disease, ranging from good personal hygiene to surgical excision of umbilical complex. The treatment of choice for chronic intermittent cases is surgical removal of the affected portion; paying special attention to cosmetic appearance. PMID

  20. Pilonidal sinus in Japan maritime self-defense force at Yokosuka.

    PubMed

    Chijiwa, Tsuyoshi; Suganuma, Toshiyuki; Takigawa, Toshimichi; Edogawa, Seiji; Inoue, Kimitoshi; Yanagida, Shigeki; Hatada, Junichi

    2006-07-01

    Pilonidal sinus is known to be common among soldiers but not among Asian individuals. Few reports have discussed the occurrence of pilonidal sinus in the navy. We analyzed the incidence and etiological factors of 12 cases (11 patients, with 1 recurrence) of pilonidal sinus diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 in Japan Self-Defense Force Hospital Yokosuka. All patients were male, and all lesions were in the sacral area. The patients' average age and body mass index were 29.1 years and 27.4, respectively. The surgical procedures used were primary closures (10 cases, 83.3%) and flaps (two cases, 16.7%), and the number of postoperative hospital days averaged 11.8. Pilonidal sinus was not found to be significantly common among Japan Self-Defense Force personnel in general (7 of 11 patients with pilonidal sinus; not significant); however, it was significantly more common among the crew members of Japan Self-Defense Force ships (seven of seven patients; p < 0.05), which suggests that the on-board lifestyle contributes to the occurrence of pilonidal sinus.

  1. Comparison of Three Surgical Methods in Treatment of Patients with Pilonidal Sinus: Modified Excision and Repair/Wide Excision/Wide Excision and Flap in RASOUL, OMID and SADR Hospitals( 2004-2007).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Heidari, Afshin; Jafarnejad, Babak

    2013-10-01

    This study is a comparison between three methods that are frequently used for the surgical treatment of pilonidal disease all over the world: modified excision and repair, wide excision and secondary repair, and wide excision and flap. The first technique is done by our group for the first time, and has not been described previously in the literature. This is an interventional study performed at Omid, Sadr, and Rasoul Akram hospitals on patients who had undergone operation because of pilonidal sinus disease and met the inclusion criteria between 2004 and 2007. Exclusion criteria were (1) acute pilonidal sinus diseases, (2) history of pilonidal sinus surgery, (3) history of systemic diseases (DM, malignancy, etc.), and (4) pilonidal abscess. Essential information was extracted from complete medical archives. Any data not available in files or during follow-up visits (all patients supposed to be followed at least for 1 year) were gathered by a telephone interview. A total of 194 patients met the criteria and had complete archived files. Longer duration of hospital stay was found in the "wide excision and closing with flap" method comparing with two other methods (P < 0.05). Length of incapacity for work was not different between the "wide excision and modified repair" and "wide excision" (P > 0.5) methods, but longer for "wide excision and flap" in comparison with two others (P < 0.05). Healing time was significantly longer in the "wide excision" method in comparison with two other methods (P < 0.05). However, "wide excision and modified repair" method had the least healing time between all above techniques, except for length of leaving the office. All the three recurrences (1.5 %) occurred in the wide excision and flap method (P < 0.05). The frequency of postoperative complications was 2 (3.3 %) in wide excision and modified repair, 15 (18.5 %) in wide excision, and 17 (32.7 %) in wide excision and flap closure; these differences in

  2. [Case control study on clinical effects of sacrococcygeal manipulation in the treatment of coccyx pain].

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Luo, Jie; Li, Jia-Dong; Pei, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Wei

    2016-09-25

    To study the clinical efficacy of sacral manual therapy in the treatment of coccygodynia. From November 2013 to July 2015, 184 patients with sacrococcygeal pain were divided into treatment group and control group. There were 26 males and 65 females in the treatment group, with an average age of (39.63±11.62) years old. In the control group, there were 31 males and 62 females, with an average age of (41.47±11.56) years old. The patients in the treatment group were treated with sacrococcygeal massage therapy, 3 times a week for 2 weeks. The patients in the control group were treated with Diclofenac Diethylamine Emulgel, 2 times a day for 2 weeks. The VAS pain score, score in rating scale of sacrococcygeal pain and degree of tenderness were obtained on the first day of treatment, 2, 7, 14 days and 3 months after treatment to evaluate clinical results. When comparing the VAS pain score of sacrococcygeal pain within the two groups, the differences began to reach statistical significance on the second day( P <0.001). The chagne of VAS pain scores, the change of scores in rating scale of sacrococcygeal pain and the degree of tenderness in the treatment group were all significontly larger that those in the contral group from the second day. The curative effect of sacral manipulation group is better than that of Diclofenac Diethylamine Emulgel group in the treatment of sacrococcygeal pain.

  3. Umbilical Pilonidal Sinus, an Underestimated and Little-Known Clinical Entity: Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Mehmet; Kaplan, Elif Tugce; Kaplan, Tugba; Kaplan, Fatma Cigdem

    2017-03-15

    BACKGROUND Umbilical pilonidal sinus (UPS) is a rare disease of young, hirsute, dark men with deep navels and poor personal hygiene. UPS could easily be misdiagnosed and mistreated due to its rarity and lack of awareness of the condition by physicians. However, the diagnosis is easy to establish with physical examination and a detailed history. Although it is being diagnosed and reported more frequently, there is still no consensus regarding best treatment options. CASE REPORT In this report, we present two cases of UPS, one in a man and one in a woman, who had typical symptoms of pain, swelling, and intermittent malodorous discharge from the umbilicus. They had small sinus openings with hair protruding deep in the navel. Because these two patients had previous histories of failed conservative treatments, an umbilicus preserving surgery was performed for both cases. Wounds were healed in 2-3 weeks with acceptable cosmetic results. During a more than 2 year follow-up period, there were no signs of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS In a patient presenting with a history of intermittent discharge, itching, pain, or bleeding from the umbilicus and the presence of granulation tissue with or without protruding hair and periumbilical dermatitis, the diagnosis should consider UPS, even in female patients. Treatment generally depends on the severity of the disease, ranging from good personal hygiene to surgical excision of umbilical complex. The treatment of choice for chronic intermittent cases is surgical removal of the affected portion; paying special attention to cosmetic appearance.

  4. Manuka honey as an effective treatment for chronic pilonidal sinus wounds.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M; Hamdan, M; Hailes, S; Walker, M

    2011-11-01

    A retrospective study to investigate the effectiveness of topical manuka honey in the treatment of chronic or recurrent pilonidal sinus disease (PSD), assessing the ability of this simple dressing technique to achieve complete wound healing, the time taken to achieve healing and the recurrence rate. All patients who received manuka honey dressing therapy following surgical intervention for chronic or recurrent PSD were identified over a 4-year period. In a retrospective review of case notes, data were collected on patient sex, age, nature of surgical procedures performed, time to achieve complete wound healing, and recurrences after completion of honey therapy. Seventeen patients were eligible for inclusion in the study. Mean time to commence honey therapy post-surgery was 93 days (5-517 days; median 33 days); 15 patients achieved complete wound healing, in a mean time of 65 days (14-264 days; median 49 days). Honey was discontinued in one patient due to an adverse event, and two patients experienced recurrence several months after completing honey therapy. Manuka honey dressing therapy provides an effective topical treatment for chronic/recurrent PSD. Further research is necessary to determine the optimum dressing protocol. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. There were no external sources of funding for this study.

  5. Sacrococcygeal Teratoma Presenting with Vaginal Discharge and Polyp in an Infant.

    PubMed

    Ladenhauf, Hannah N; Brandtner, M Georgina; Schimke, Christa; Ardelean, Mircia A; Metzger, Roman

    2018-06-01

    Sacrococcygeal teratoma accounts for the most common solid tumor in neonates. Because of improved technology, 50%-70% of cases can be diagnosed antenatally during routine ultrasound screenings. If not diagnosed antenatally, clinical findings at birth are distinct in most cases including a palpable or visible mass. We report an unusual case of a 1-year-old girl who presented with persistent vaginal discharge leading to diagnosis of a mucosal polypoid lesion of the vagina, ultimately revealing a hidden sacrococcygeal teratoma. We suggest thorough investigation of all infants who present with purulent discharge and recurrent vaginal mass; sacrococcygeal teratoma should routinely be considered as a differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of sacrococcygeal pressure ulcers using diffuse correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, David; Lafontant, Alec; Neidrauer, Michael; Weingarten, Michael S.; DiMaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann; Fried, Guy W.; Rece, Julianne; Lewin, Peter A.; Zubkov, Leonid

    2016-03-01

    Microcirculation is essential for proper supply of oxygen and nutritive substances to the biological tissue and the removal of waste products of metabolism. The determination of microcirculatory blood flow (mBF) is therefore of substantial interest to clinicians for assessing tissue health; particularly in pressure ulceration and suspected deep tissue injury. The goal of this pilot clinical study was to assess deep-tissue pressure ulceration by non-invasively measuring mBF using Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS). DCS provides information about the flow of red blood cells in the capillary network by measuring the temporal autocorrelation function of scattering light intensity. A novel optical probe was developed in order to obtain measurements under the load of the subject's body as pressure is applied (ischemia) and then released (reperfusion) on sacrococcygeal tissue in a hospital bed. Prior to loading measurements, baseline readings of the sacral region were obtained by measuring the subjects in a side-lying position. DCS measurements from the sacral region of twenty healthy volunteers have been compared to those of two patients who initially had similar non-blanchable redness. The temporal autocorrelation function of scattering light intensity of the patient whose redness later disappeared was similar to that of the average healthy subject. The second patient, whose redness developed into an advanced pressure ulcer two weeks later, had a substantial decrease in blood flow while under the loading position compared to healthy subjects. Preliminary results suggest the developed system may potentially predict whether non-blanchable redness will manifest itself as advanced ulceration or dissipate over time.

  7. Does pilonidal abscess heal quicker with off-midline incision and drainage?

    PubMed

    Webb, P M; Wysocki, A P

    2011-06-01

    No clinical trials have been done to guide the surgeon in the optimal technique of draining a pilonidal abscess. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the location of the incision influences wound healing. Electronic records from the surgical database at our 200-bed district general hospital were reviewed for operative technique (midline vs. lateral) for patients who underwent incision and drainage for acute pilonidal abscess between January 2003 and February 2010. These patients were admitted from the Emergency Department with a pilonidal abscess, underwent operative drainage, and returned for follow-up. The main outcome measure was wound healing time. Two hundred and forty-three pilonidal abscesses were drained, 134 with a lateral and 74 with a midline incision. All patients underwent simple longitudinal incision. No patient underwent de-roofing, marsupialisation, or closure. Forty-eight patients with midline drainage who returned for follow-up were matched for gender, age, and microbiology culture results with patients who underwent lateral drainage. Almost all were drained under general anesthesia with a median postoperative stay of 1 day. The overall length of follow-up was the same in both groups (P = 0.13). Abscesses that did not heal were followed-up for the same period of time irrespective of incision type (P = 0.48). Abscesses that healed after midline incision took approximately 3 weeks longer than those drained via a lateral incision (P = 0.02). Our study has limitations since it was a retrospective study that did not capture patients whose abscess drained spontaneously or were drained in the emergency department. Pilonidal abscess should be drained away from the midline.

  8. Gait analysis in patients operated on for sacrococcygeal teratoma.

    PubMed

    Zaccara, Antonio; Iacobelli, Barbara D; Adorisio, Ottavio; Petrarca, Maurizio; Di Rosa, Giuseppe; Pierro, Marcello M; Bagolan, Pietro

    2004-06-01

    Long-term follow-up of sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) is well established; however, little is known about the effects of extensive surgery in the pelvic and perineal region, which involves disruption of muscles providing maximal support in normal walking. Thirteen patients operated on at birth for SCT with extensive muscle dissection underwent gait studies with a Vicon 3-D motion analysis system with 6 cameras. Results were compared with 15 age-matched controls. Statistical analysis was performed with Mann-Whitney test; correlations were sought with Spearman's correlation coefficient. All subjects were independent ambulators, and no statistically significant differences were seen in walking velocity and stride length. However, in all patients, toe-off occurred earlier (at 58% +/- 1.82% of stride length) than controls (at 65.5% +/- 0.52%; P <.05). On kinetics, all patients exhibited, on both limbs, a significant reduction of hip extensory moment (-0.11 +/- 0.11 left; -0.16 +/- 0.15 right v 1.19 +/- 0.08 Newtonmeter/kg; P <.05) and of ankle dorsi/plantar moment (-0.07 +/- 0.09 right; -0.08 +/- 0.16 v -0.15 +/- 0.05 Nm/kg, p < 0.05). Knee power was also significantly reduced (0.44 +/- 0.55 right, 0.63 +/- 0.45 left v 0.04 +/- 0.05 W/kg), whereas ankle power was increased (3 +/- 1.5 right; 2.8 +/- 0.9 left v 1.97 +/- 0.2 W/kg; P <.05). No statistically significant correlation was found between tumor size and either muscle power generation or flexory/extensory moments. Patients operated on for SCT exhibit nearly normal gait patterns. However, this normal pattern is accompanied by abnormal kinetics of some ambulatory muscles, and the extent of these abnormalities appears to be independent of tumor size. A careful follow-up is warranted to verify if such modifications are stable or progress over the years, thereby impairing ambulatory potential or leading to early arthrosis.

  9. Management of pilonidal sinus by Kshar Sutra, a minimally invasive treatment.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Amar P

    2010-04-01

    A Pilonidal sinus (PNS) occurs in the cleavage between the buttocks (natal cleft) and can cause discomfort, embarrassment and absence from work. It is more common in men (as they have more hair) than in women. The most commonly used surgical techniques for this disorder include excision and primary closure and excision with reconstructive flap. However, the risk of recurrence or of developing an infection of the wound after the operation is high. Also, the patient requires longer hospitalization, and the procedure is expensive. There is a similarity between Shalyaj Nadi Vran described in Sushruta Samhita and Pilonidal sinus. Sushruta has advocated a minimally invasive para-surgical treatment, viz., Kshar Sutra procedure, for nadi vran. Hence this therapy was tried in Pilonidal sinus, and is described in this case report. Kshar Sutra treatment not only minimizes complications and recurrence but also enables the patient to resume work quicker and with less discomfort, impact upon body image and self-esteem as well as reduced cost.

  10. Taila Dāha (Cauterization with Oil) an Innovative Approach in Pilonidal Sinus.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Rabinarayan; John, Neelima Sherly; Vijayalekshmi, Sreedevi; Nair, Nj Anuja; Pasupalan, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Summary : Pilonidal sinus is a chronic inflammatory track in mid gluteal cleft usually associated with hairs with an incidence rate of twenty six per one lakh population. It is more prevalently seen in the natal cleft of hairy middle aged obese, males. Such type of non-healing tracts may be considered as Nāḍivraṇa (Sinuses) and can either be treated by the conventional Kṣārasūtra (medicated seton) therapy or contemporary treatment methods. Irrespective of whatsoever management protocol adopted, it inevitably needs long term hospitalisation and is associated with complications. A case of a 28 year old male patient, presenting with pain (within tolerable limits) in the natal cleft and frequent occurrence of a pustule which burst out spontaneously on and off, diagnosed as pilonidal sinus ( nāḍi vraṇa ) was treated with excision of tract and Tailadāha (thermal cauterization with hot oil) with a combination of yaṣṭimadhu taila and powdered Copper Sulphate (CuSO 4 ). Good haemostasis and uneventful wound healing with a minimally invasive and cost effective treatment was the outcome of study. This study represents an innovative treatment modality in pilonidal sinus.

  11. Difficulties in prenatal diagnosis of tumour in the fetal sacrococcygeal area

    PubMed Central

    Krekora, Michał; Blitek, Marek; Kęsiak, Marcin; Piaseczna-Piotrowska, Anna; Łukaszek, Stanisław; Krasomski, Grzegorz; Słodki, Maciej; Szaflik, Krzysztof; Respondek-Liberska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal ultrasound at the 20th week of gestation revealed a 3-cm tumour in the sacrococcygeal area. Initially, a sacrococcygeal teratoma was suspected on the basis of fetal ultrasonography, which revealed normal heart anatomy and an increasing tumour mass. The diagnosis was then changed to fetus in fetu or teratoma. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging at the 34th week of pregnancy confirmed the ultrasound diagnosis. No other anomalies were found. Elective caesarean section was performed at term. The care team included a paediatric surgeon, obstetricians, neonatologists, midwives, and an anesthesiologist. A female newborn was delivered in good condition. The tumour was resected in the operating room and mature teratoma was established by histopathological evaluation. Surprisingly, agenesis of the right forearm was revealed which had not been detected prenatally, despite many examinations (both in our hospital and earlier at a primary care obstetrician office). PMID:27482281

  12. Evaluation of pregnancy and delivery in 13 women who underwent resection of a sacrococcygeal teratoma during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Marijke E B; Koeneman, Margot M; Derikx, Joep P M; Coumans, Audrey; van Baren, Robertine; Heij, Hugo A; Wijnen, Marc H W A; Wijnen, René M H; van der Zee, David C; van Heurn, Ernest L W

    2014-12-12

    Sacrococcygeal teratoma resection often brings changes in pelvic anatomy and physiology with possible consequences for defecation, micturition and sexual function. It is unknown, whether these changes have any gynecological and obstetric sequelae. Until now four pregnancies after sacrococcygeal teratoma resection have been described and cesarean section has been suggested to be the method of choice for delivery. We evaluated the pregnancy course and mode of delivery in women previously treated for a sacrococcygeal teratoma. The records of all patients who underwent sacrococcygeal teratoma resection after 1970 in one of the six pediatric surgical centers in the Netherlands were reviewed retrospectively. Women aged 18 years and older were eligible for participation. Patient characteristics, details about the performed operation and tumor histology were retrieved from the records. Consenting participants completed a questionnaire addressing fertility, pregnancy and delivery details. Eighty-nine women were eligible for participation; 20 could not be traced. Informed consent was received from 41, of whom 38 returned the completed questionnaire (92.7%). Thirteen of these 38 women conceived, all but one spontaneously. In total 20 infants were born, 17 by vaginal delivery and 3 by cesarean section, in one necessitated by previous intra-abdominal surgery as a consequence of sacrococcygeal teratoma resection. Conversion to a cesarean section was never necessary. None of the 25 women without offspring reported involuntary childlessness. There are no indications that resection of a sacrococcygeal teratoma in female patients is associated with reduced fertility: spontaneous pregnancy is possible and vaginal delivery is safe for mother and child, irrespective of the sacrococcygeal teratoma classification or tumor histology.

  13. [18F]-Fluoromisonidazole Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Visualization of Tumor Hypoxia in Patients With Chordoma of the Mobile and Sacrococcygeal Spine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, Matthew D., E-mail: mcheney@lroc.harvard.edu; Chen, Yen-Lin; Lim, Ruth

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate [18F]-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FMISO-PET/CT) detection of targetable hypoxic subvolumes (HSVs) in chordoma of the mobile or sacrococcygeal spine. Methods and Materials: A prospective, pilot study of 20 patients with primary or locally recurrent chordoma of the mobile or sacrococcygeal spine treated with proton or combined proton/photon radiation therapy (RT) with or without surgery was completed. The FMISO-PET/CT was performed before RT and after 19.8-34.2 GyRBE (relative biologic effectiveness). Gross tumor volumes were delineated and HSVs defined including voxels with standardized uptake values ≥1.4 times the muscle mean. Clinical characteristics and treatments received were compared betweenmore » patients with and without HSVs. Results: The FMISO-PET/CT detected HSVs in 12 of 20 patients (60%). Baseline and interval HSV spatial concordance varied (0%-94%). Eight HSVs were sufficiently large (≥5 cm{sup 3}) to potentially allow an intensity modulated proton therapy boost. Patients with HSVs had significantly larger gross tumor volumes (median 410.0 cm{sup 3} vs 63.4 cm{sup 3}; P=.02) and were significantly more likely to have stage T2 tumors (5 of 12 vs 0 of 8; P=.04). After a median follow-up of 1.8 years (range, 0.2-4.4 years), a local recurrence has yet to be observed. Three patients developed metastatic disease, 2 with HSVs. Conclusions: Detection of targetable HSVs by FMISO-PET/CT within patients undergoing RT with or without surgery for treatment of chordoma of the mobile and sacrococcygeal spine is feasible. The study's inability to attribute interval HSV changes to treatment, rapidly changing hypoxic physiology, or imaging inconsistencies is a limitation. Further study of double-baseline FMISO-PET/CT and hypoxia-directed RT dose escalation, particularly in patients at high risk for local recurrence, is warranted.« less

  14. Sacrococcygeal teratoma in a female newborn with clinical features of trisomy 13: a case report from Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Lubala, Toni Kasole; Mukuku, Olivier; Shongo, Mick Pongombo; Mutombo, Augustin Mulangu; Lubala, Nina; Luboya, Oscar Numbi; Lukusa-Tshilobo, Prosper

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the first patient presenting clinical features of trisomy 13 in association with a sacrococcygeal teratoma. We present the case of a Congolese female infant born with bilateral cleft lip and palate, hypotelorism, microcephaly, and capillary hemangioma on her face. She presented with a large sacrococcygeal mass (15.0 cm ×12.0 cm ×5.0 cm) with a cystic consistency and a positive transillumination. This observation suggests that overexpression of certain genes on chromosome 13 may lead to tumor formation from remnant cells of Hensen's node.

  15. Conservative vs Surgical Interventions for Umbilical Pilonidal Sinus: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Mehmet; Ozcan, Onder; Kaplan, Fatma Cigdem; Yalcin, Huseyin Cahit; Salman, Bulent

    2016-05-01

    Umbilical pilonidal sinus (UPS) is one of the most neglected disorders, and there is still no clear consensus regarding optimal treatment of the disease. We therefore present our data from a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial comparing conservative vs surgical treatment of UPS. The study was conducted in Turkey between January 2012 and November 2015. All eligible patients with the diagnosis of UPS (n = 84) were randomized for either conservative treatment (CT, n = 42) or surgical treatment (ST, n = 42). All patients were followed up for at least 2 years; then, the results of both groups were compared. The primary outcomes were initial healing, recurrence, and the cure rate of the disease after each treatment modality. Mean (± SD) age of the patients was 20.83 ± 5.73 years old, and the majority were men (94%). Nearly 60% of the patients had a deep navel, and 55% had intense hair status. The main symptoms were drainage and wetness, pain, itching, and malodor. Overall, in 10 (27.8%) patients, relapse of the disease was observed in the CT group; it was observed in only 1 patient in the ST group (p = 0.002). Initial healing time was significantly shorter in the ST group (p = 0.001). Of the 81 patients who completed the 2-year follow-up, a cure could be obtained in only 28 of 41 patients in the CT group; it was achieved in all 40 patients in the ST group (68.3% vs 100%, respectively; p = 0.0001). This study provided evidence that surgical treatment is superior to conservative surgery regarding the primary and secondary outcomes of UPS at least 2 years after surgery. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Unilateral renal agenesis with subseptate uterus and sacrococcygeal teratoma: A unique triad

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Muhammad S; Imtiaz, Sheeza; Pathan, Hina; Usman, Rahila

    2017-01-01

    Unilateral renal agenesis (URA) is a rare condition with a reported incidence of 0.93–1.8 per 1000 autopsies. It is commonly diagnosed as an incidental finding on imaging. URA is frequently associated with other genitourinary anomalies. Different associations have been described in both males and females, however, to our knowledge, it has not been reported with subseptate uterus (SSU) and sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) in the same individual. Here, we present a unique case of URA with SSU and SCT. PMID:29089677

  17. Cushing's syndrome in infancy due to ectopic ACTH secretion by a sacro-coccygeal teratoma.

    PubMed

    Rydzewska, Marta; Krawczuk-Rybak, Maryna; Zajkowska, Adrianna; Jurczuk, Natalia; Polnik, Dariusz; Szalecki, Mieczysław; Moszczyńska, Elżbieta; Savage, Martin O; Bossowski, Artur

    2017-04-01

    Adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome in infancy is extremely rare. We describe the case of a sacro-coccygeal ectopic ACTH-secreting immature teratoma in an infant who also presented the triad of defects characteristic of Currarino syndrome. A girl was born with a large immature teratoma in the sacro-coccygeal region associated with anal atresia. At the age of 7 days, the concentration of α-fetoprotein (AFP) was above the age-specific normal range. Two non-radical surgical excisions of the tumour were performed. At the age of 7 months, she developed polyphagia, acne, hirsutism, hypertension and hypokalemia with elevated ACTH and absence of serum cortisol circadian rhythm. Immunostaining of tumour tissue showed ACTH-immunoreactive cells. Due to unsuccessful therapy with ketoconazole and resistance to antihypertensive medications [blood pressure (BP) 210/160 mmHg], metyrapone was administered, which controlled her ACTH and cortisol levels in the normal range. Following further removal of tumour bulk after three operations during the first year of life, there was a decrease of BP to normal values. A rare case of ectopic ACTH syndrome causing Cushing's syndrome in infancy in the context of Currarino syndrome is reported. Radical surgery has resulted in excision of the tumour and current control of Cushing's syndrome.

  18. Urogenital anomalies in girls with sacrococcygeal teratoma: a commonly missed association.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Mohamed Sameh; O'Toole, Stuart; Driver, Chris; Bradnock, Tim; Lam, Jimmy; Carachi, Robert

    2012-02-01

    The association of urogenital (UG) anomalies and sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) has not been widely reported. Our aim was to look at the national incidence and presentation of this anomaly in patients with SCT and to provide the first report of a clear anatomical description of this commonly missed association. Sacrococcygeal teratoma cases in Scotland during the last 30 years were identified. Patients with associated UG anomalies were reviewed in detail to identify their presentation, anatomy, and management. Fifty-three patients with SCT were identified, including 41 girls. Five girls (12%) subsequently had a UG anomaly diagnosed, which was not apparent at the initial surgery. Two patients presented with retention, and their anomaly was diagnosed at 6 weeks and 7 months of age. The other 3 presented with incontinence, and despite thorough assessment, including cystoscopy, their UG anomalies were not recognized until the ages of 7, 9, and 13 years. Urogenital anomalies are surprisingly common in girls with SCT. The reason for this association is unclear. None of these cases were diagnosed initially, which means that it was either missed or acquired. Urogenital anomalies should be suspected in girls with SCT and actively excluded in those with voiding difficulties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A composite gluteofemoral flap for reconstruction of large pressure sores over the sacrococcygeal region.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yun; Zhuang, Yue-Hong; Xue, Lan; Zheng, He-Ping; Lin, Jian-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Gigantic pressure sores pose a daunting challenge for plastic surgeons. This paper presents a composite gluteofemoral flap for reconstruction of large pressure sores over the sacrococcygeal region. In this anatomical study, 30 embalmed cadaveric lower limbs were used for dissection to observe the musculocutaneous perforators of the inferior gluteal artery and the longitudinal nutritional vascular chain of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. In this clinical study, eight patients underwent surgical harvest of the composite gluteofemoral flap for coverage of grade IV sacrococcygeal pressure sores. The size of the pressure sores ranged between 16 × 9 cm and 22 × 10 cm. The inferior gluteal artery was present in 26 cases and absent in four cases. It gave off two to four musculocutaneous branches with a diameter larger than 0.5 mm to the gluteus maximus. A direct cutaneous branch was given off at the inferior margin of the gluteus maximus, serving as a nutritional artery for the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. The size of the flap harvested ranged between 22 × 9 cm and 32 × 10 cm. Flaps in seven patients survived uneventfully and developed epidermal necrosis at the distal margin in one case. An average 2-year follow-up revealed no recurrence of pressure sores. The composite gluteofemoral flap, being robust in blood supply, simple in surgical procedure, and large in donor territory, is an important addition to the armamentarium. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Pilonidal sinus: an retrospective analysis of 205 cases].

    PubMed

    Castronovo, G; Ciulla, A; Urso, G; Tomasello, G; Damiani, S

    2003-01-01

    Sinus pilonidalis or the sacrococcigea cyst, normally is considered a "small surgical pathology" and actually it is controversial disease regarding its pathogenesis and treatment. Today the congenital hypothesis of this pathology is not considered. The etiopathogenesis exclude vestigia embryonic origin and consider it an inflammatory disease. Traumatism of the sacral region, hirsutism, hormonal secretion stimulating, and furrow sacral furrow cutaneous, explain the prevalence of this pathology in the male sex and in the puberale age. It usually appears after the pubertà and extension one various frequency of presentation in males sex (1.3%) regarding females (0.11%). The symptomatology can be rare or introduce itself in violent and intense way with on abscess of the region, or with only or multiple fistulas orifices from which exit materialclarly purulent. Normally cystic cavity is one, situated in the subcutaneous tissue with annexed inflammatory phenomena. This cavity to times communicates with the skyn fistulating. The treatment of election is surgical and must weighted and be regulated in relation to the entity of the lesion and its inflammatory picture. Sometimes the medical therapy with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic is not control the symptomatology and it need the surgical treatment.

  1. A Retrospective Study of Pilonidal Sinus Healing by Secondary Intention Using Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Versus Alginate or Gauze Dressings.

    PubMed

    Danne, Julia; Gwini, Stella; McKenzie, Dean; Danne, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Pilonidal sinus (PS) disease is an inflammatory skin and subcutaneous tissue condition that presents with infection, acute abscess, chronic discharging wounds, and/or pain. Surgery with open healing by secondary intention typically is used to achieve the fastest healing time with minimal recurrence rates. A retrospective analysis was conducted of data extracted from the medical records of 73 consecutive patients who had symptomatic natal cleft PS over a 10-year period to compare use of NPWT to alginate-based/gauze daily dressing (DD) changes in terms of healing time and recurrence. Variables extracted included age, gender, PS wound diameter (small <1 cm, medium 1 cm to 3 cm, large >3 cm), and time in weeks to achieving the endpoint (epithelialization). Risk factors examined that can affect healing or recurrence of previously operated PS disease included initial drainage before excision and risk factors for impaired healing (morbid obesity as determined by body mass index [BMI] ≥35, chronic infective skin conditions, and ongoing therapy with immuno-modulating drugs or chemotherapy), and loss to follow-up. Data were collected and analyzed using the chi-squared statistic, Kaplan-Meier curves, and Cox regression models. The total time of follow-up was 390 weeks for the DD group and 311 weeks for NPWT group. Patient mean age was 26.5 ± 10.7 years, most (53, 72.6%) were male, and 12 (16.4%) had comorbidities potentially affecting healing. Nine (9) were treated with primary closure and 62 patients were treated with open healing by secondary intention (2 additional patients receiving DD were excluded from the analysis because they had small sinuses that made NPWT unfeasible). Among participants, 30 (48%) received DD and 32 had NPWT. The median time to healing was 10 weeks (95% CI: 7-17) in the DD group and 8 weeks (95% CI: 7-9) in the NPWT group (not significantly different). In patients who healed, the average time to healing was 15.0 ± 18.1 and 9.8 ± 6.3 weeks in

  2. [Excision and immediate suture technic in the treatment of pilonidal fistula. Our experience].

    PubMed

    Calcina, G; Setti, P; Benati, L; Savioli, A; Galli, G

    1995-09-01

    The authors report their personal experience of the "excision and primary suture" operating technique in the surgical treatment of pilonidal sinus. A rapid recovery by postoperative day 10 was achieved in 58 out of 60 cases treated (96.7%). Dehiscence of the surgical wound was observed in 2 cases (3.3%) following ischemic lesion caused by decubitus of the cutaneous margins and healing occurred by second intenti. No cases of short- or long-term recidivation were observed. The advantages of this method are the early return to working activities, minor patient discomfort and the reduced risk that the surgical would might become infected. Three basic stages for the successful outcome of this type of surgery have been identified as follows: 1) Although and accurate tricotomy of the sacro-coccigeal region. Antibiotic therapy is started about 2 hours before surgery. 2) The precise execution of the surgical technique. 3) The continuation of antibiotic therapy until postoperative day 7. Compressive medication is removed on postoperative day 4. If these three basic stages are respected, no cases of recidivation will occur.

  3. Surgical intervention of pilonidal sinus: impact on patients' postoperative satisfaction and return to work time.

    PubMed

    Gaiser, Maria Rita; Lee, Sophia Boyoung; Enk, Alexander; Schrott, Peter; Weisser, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Pilonidal sinus (PS) is a chronic inflammatory process accompanied by psychological strain and a high rate of work incapacity. To analyze the impact of PS surgery on individual patients' satisfaction (SAT) and economic impacts on work capability. We retrospectively analyzed 40 PS patients regarding SAT and return to work time (RTW) in relation to various factors, using multivariate analysis and Pearson's correlation test. We found a significant negative correlation between SAT and RTW (p<0.01), both correlated equally strongly with duration between first diagnosis and surgery (p<0.01) and with loss of weight (p<0.05). RTW correlated with duration of painkiller intake (p<0.01). SAT correlated with gender (p<0.01), smoking cessation (p<0.05) and quantity of painkiller intake (p<0.01). Satisfaction correlated with gender (p<0.01), smoking cessation (p<0.05), and quantity of painkiller intake (p<0.05). RTW after PS surgery is influenced by factors that can be influenced prior to surgery, leading to better economic results for patients and employers as well as society.

  4. The anatomy of the sacrococcygeal cornual region and its clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Woon, Jason T K; Stringer, Mark D

    2014-09-01

    There has been no systematic study of the anatomy of the region between the sacral and coccygeal cornua. Reference texts describe an intercornual ligament connecting these structures. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy of this region, which may be relevant to unexplained cases of coccygeal pain (coccydynia) and local nerve blocks. The bony anatomy of the sacrococcygeal (SC) cornual region was analyzed in 33 CT scans obtained from supine adults of mostly European origin with no known SC pathology, 7 μCT scans of cadaver SC specimens, and 105 Asian Indian adult skeletons. A further five cadaver SC specimens were examined histologically. SC cornual fusion was seen in 45% of CT/μCT scans (mean age 67 years, 20 males) and in 20% of adult skeletons (78 males); there was no association with age or sex. In the absence of SC fusion, the mean intersacrococcygeal cornual gap was 7.1 ± 2.4 mm; this was bridged by an intercornual ligament composed of parallel vertical collagen fibers reinforced by elastin fibers on its anterior surface. Small nerve branches were observed adjacent to the ventral aspect of the intercornual ligament and, in one case, traversing the ligament. Ipsilateral sacral and coccygeal cornua are therefore normally bridged by an intercornual ligament that is probably innervated. The cornua are fused on one or both sides in 20-45% of adults. These findings may have implications for some cases of coccydynia and for anesthetists performing local nerve blocks.

  5. Abnormal umbilical cord Doppler sonograms may predict impending demise in fetuses with sacrococcygeal teratoma. A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Olutoye, Oluyinka O; Johnson, Mark P; Coleman, Beverly G; Crombleholme, Timothy M; Adzick, N Scott; Flake, Alan W

    2004-01-01

    To identify factors predictive of fetal demise in fetuses with sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT). The recent management of monochorionic twins discordant for a large SCT and a singleton with a large SCT was reviewed. Serial fetal echocardiography and ultrasonography with Doppler flow measurements documented rapid growth of the SCT in both cases with a relatively modest increase in combined cardiac output. No placentomegaly or hydrops was observed at any time. In both fetuses with SCT, evolution of abnormal umbilical artery waveforms was observed with the ultimate development of reversed end-diastolic umbilical arterial flow that was followed by sudden fetal demise. Death in these 2 fetuses with large SCTs in the absence of placentomegaly/hydrops or hemodynamic changes suggestive of evolving high-output failure suggests a previously unrecognized mechanism of death in fetuses with large rapidly growing SCTs. In these cases, fetal demise may only be heralded by abnormal umbilical artery waveforms that progress to the premorbid observation of reversed diastolic umbilical artery blood flow. Umbilical artery waveform analysis should be closely monitored with other hemodynamic parameters in fetuses with large SCTs. In such fetuses, depending on the gestational age, abnormalities in umbilical artery waveform should be considered indications for early delivery or in utero intervention to prevent fetal demise. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Abnormal umbilical cord Dopplers may predict impending demise in fetuses with sacrococcygeal teratoma. A report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Olutoye, Oluyinka O; Johnson, Mark P; Coleman, Beverly G; Crombleholme, Timothy M; Adzick, N Scott; Flake, Alan W

    2003-01-01

    To identify factors predictive of fetal demise in fetuses with sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT). The recent management of monochorionic twins discordant for a large SCT and a singleton with a large SCT were reviewed. Serial fetal echocardiography and ultrasonography with Doppler flow measurements documented rapid growth of the SCT in both cases with a relatively modest increase in combined cardiac output. No placentomegaly or hydrops was observed at any time. In both fetuses with SCT, evolution of abnormal umbilical artery waveforms was observed with the ultimate development of reversed end-diastolic umbilical arterial flow that was followed by sudden fetal demise. Death in these 2 fetuses with large SCTs in the absence of placentomegaly/hydrops or hemodynamic changes suggestive of evolving high-output failure suggests a previously unrecognized mechanism of death in fetuses with large rapidly growing SCTs. In these cases, fetal demise may only be heralded by abnormal umbilical artery waveforms that progress to the premorbid observation of reversed diastolic umbilical artery blood flow. Umbilical artery waveform analysis should be closely monitored with other hemodynamic parameters in fetuses with large SCTs. In such fetuses, depending on the gestational age, abnormalities in umbilical artery waveform should be considered indications for early delivery or in utero intervention to prevent fetal demise. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Wound closure with Karydakis flap is decreasing the perioperative costs after pilonidal sinus excision as compared to lay-open approach.

    PubMed

    Borel, F; Gaudin, C; Duchalais, E; Lehur, P-A; Meurette, G

    2017-12-01

    To assess the impact of a simple flap closing procedure by Karydakis flap (KF) after pilonidal sinus excision on the costs and healing time as compared to routine lay-open technique. Out of 44 consecutive patients operated on for pilonidal excision (November 2013-March 2015), 17 had a Karydakis flap and 27 a lay-open procedure. For each patient, the length of stay, the operating time (OT), the time needed for complete healing and postoperative care resources were recorded. The global costs included OT, nursing care quantity, and modalities until complete scar healing. One reoperation in the lay-open group was necessary during the follow-up (8±5months). No recurrence occurred. Postoperative morbidity was similar in both groups. Results showed that KF global cost was inferior as compared to lay-open technique (941±178€ vs. 1601±399€; P=0.0001), KF healed faster (32±17 vs. 59±22days; P=0.0001), whereas OT was longer in KF group (16±7 vs. 25±4min; P=0.001). KF allows a faster healing time and a 41% lower cost than lay-open technique. Preferential use of KF rather than lay-open procedure could allow a significant health cost saving. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Comparison of intratesticular lidocaine, sacrococcygeal epidural lidocaine and intravenous methadone in cats undergoing castration: a prospective, randomized, investigator-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Parra, Rocio; Zilberstein, Luca; Fontaine, Cyril; Adami, Chiara

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare three analgesic protocols for feline castration. Prospective, randomized clinical study. Forty-nine client-owned cats. Cats were injected with intramuscular (IM) dexmedetomidine (15 μg kg -1 ) and alfaxalone (3 mg kg -1 ) and assigned randomly to one of three treatment groups. Group ITL (n = 15) were administered intratesticular 2% lidocaine (0.05 mL each testicle), group SCL (n = 15) a sacrococcygeal epidural injection of 2% lidocaine (0.1 mL kg -1 ) and group IVM (n = 19) intravenous (IV) methadone (0.3 mg kg -1 ), before surgery. Cardiorespiratory variables were recorded. In case of autonomic nociceptive response, IV fentanyl (2 μg kg -1 ) was administered. During recovery, time from IM atipamezole (75 μg kg -1 , administered at the end of surgery) to sternal recumbency and to active interaction was recorded. Quality of recovery was assessed using a simple descriptive scale. Postoperative analgesia was evaluated using a visual analogue scale and the UNESP-Botucatu multidimensional composite pain scale (MCPS) at return of active interaction and then 1, 2 and 3 hours later. The three analgesic protocols were comparable in terms of intraoperative fentanyl and propofol requirement. Cardiorespiratory variables stayed within normal ranges in the majority of the cases, although group IVM had the lowest intraoperative respiratory rate (p = 0.0009). No differences were detected between groups in UNESP-Botucatu MCPS scores (p = 0.21). However, group ITL showed higher visual analogue scale score than group IVM (p = 0.001). Four cats enrolled in group ITL, as well as three of group SCL and one of group IVM, required rescue analgesics before the completion of pain assessment. Intratesticular and sacrococcygeal epidural lidocaine injections could be regarded as good alternatives to systemic opioids in cats undergoing castration, although the benefits of these techniques seem to be of shorter duration than

  9. Development of an evidence-based protocol for care of pilonidal sinus wounds healing by secondary intent using a modified reactive Delphi procedure. Part one: the literature review*.

    PubMed

    Harris, Connie L; Holloway, Samantha

    2012-04-01

    This article is in two parts. The overall aim of this section was to review the literature in relation to pilonidal sinus wounds (PSW) healing by secondary intent for a Master's of Science in Wound Healing and Tissue Repair thesis. The purpose of the literature review was to determine if an evidence-based guideline or consensus document existed for the care of these wounds, and if not, to determine the topics from which to develop items for the first round of a modified reactive Delphi questionnaire. Part two will describe the iterative process, the analysis and the results. The review found no best practice guidelines concerning PSW, and only one clinical pathway. Seventeen areas of interest were identified that may contribute to optimal healing conditions or to delayed healing. These included microbiology of infected PSW, signs and symptoms of localised or deeper (spreading) chronic wound infection, swab for c&s, role of topical antiseptics or antimicrobials, systemic antibiotics, local wound interventions, optimal positioning, wound cleansing, principles of moist wound healing/dressing selection, topical negative pressure (TNP) therapy, peri-wound skin decontamination and depilation, pain control, physical activities, optimal nutrition and patient education. © 2011 The Authors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  10. High Tumor Volume to Fetal Weight Ratio Is Associated with Worse Fetal Outcomes and Increased Maternal Risk in Fetuses with Sacrococcygeal Teratoma.

    PubMed

    Gebb, Juliana S; Khalek, Nahla; Qamar, Huma; Johnson, Mark P; Oliver, Edward R; Coleman, Beverly G; Peranteau, William H; Hedrick, Holly L; Flake, Alan W; Adzick, N Scott; Moldenhauer, Julie S

    2018-03-01

    Tumor volume to fetal weight ratio (TFR) > 0.12 before 24 weeks has been associated with poor outcome in fetuses with sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT). We evaluated TFR in predicting poor fetal outcome and increased maternal operative risk in our cohort of SCT pregnancies. This is a retrospective, single-center review of fetuses seen with SCT from 1997 to 2015. Patients who chose termination of pregnancy (TOP), delivered elsewhere, or had initial evaluation at > 24 weeks were excluded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis determined the optimal TFR to predict poor fetal outcome and increased maternal operative risk. Poor fetal outcome included fetal demise, neonatal demise, or fetal deterioration warranting open fetal surgery or delivery < 32 weeks. Increased maternal operative risk included cases necessitating open fetal surgery, classical cesarean delivery, or ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT). Of 139 pregnancies with SCT, 27 chose TOP, 14 delivered elsewhere, and 40 had initial evaluation at > 24 weeks. Thus, 58 fetuses were reviewed. ROC analysis revealed that at ≤24 weeks, TFR > 0.095 was predictive of poor fetal outcome and TFR > 0.12 was predictive of increased maternal operative risk. This study supports the use of TFR at ≤24 weeks for risk stratification of pregnancies with SCT. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The influence of age on positions of the conus medullaris, Tuffier's line, dural sac, and sacrococcygeal membrane in infants, children, adolescents, and young adults.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Yun; Kim, Eun-Hee; Song, In-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the distances between the conus medullaris and the Tuffier's line, and between the dural sac and the sacrococcygeal membrane (SCM) in the same pediatric population. Spinal magnetic resonance images and simple X-ray images of 350 patients aged from 1 month to 20 years were reviewed. Positions of the conus medullaris, Tuffier's line, the dural sac, and the SCM were identified. Each position was recorded in relation to the corresponding vertebral body segments. The distances between the conus medullaris and Tuffier's line, and between the dural sac and the SCM, were measured and then assessed according to age using an analysis of variance and a linear regression analysis. The median levels of the conus medullaris and Tuffier's line were in the lower third of L1 [the first lumbar vertebral body] and the middle third of L5, respectively. The levels of the conus medullaris and Tuffier's line were lower in younger populations. The distance between the conus medullaris and Tuffier's line ranged from 1.5 to 4.75 vertebral body height. However, a narrow range of 1.5-2.5 vertebral height was observed only in children younger than 2 years. The level of the dural sac did not differ greatly by age, but the upper limit of the SCM was lower in older populations. The distance between the dural sac and the upper limit of the SCM increased with age. In children, there is a distance of 1.5-4.75 vertebral body height between the conus medullaris and the Tuffier's line. However, these distances were narrower among younger populations. The distance between the dural sac and the upper limit of the SCM increased with age. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Diseases

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Hinds

    1985-01-01

    Although many diseases attack aspen, relatively few kill or seriously injure living trees. The common leaf diseases, in general, are widely distributed throughout the range of aspen, whereas there are subtle differences in distribution between the important decay fungi, and apparently entirely different areas of distribution of major cankercausing organisms. However,...

  13. Diseases associated with hidranitis suppurativa: part 2 of a series on hidradenitis.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2013-06-15

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), a pathologic follicular disease, impacts patients' lives profoundly and usually occurs in isolation. The diseases with the strongest association are obesity, depression, and pain. HS is associated with many diseases including acne conglobata (AC), dissecting cellulitis, pilonidal cysts, and obesity. Pyoderma fistulans sinifica (fox den disease) appears to be the same entity as Hurley Stage 2 of 3 HS. The rate of acne vulgaris in HS patients mirrors unaffected controls. The most common, albeit still uncommon, association is with seronegative, haplotype unlinked arthritis (most importantly B27), in particular spondolyarthritis. Crohn disease and HS occur together at a rate that varies from 0.6% to 38% in retrospective cases series. Ulcerative colitis occurred with HS in 14% of patients in one series. The next most common association is with pyoderma gangrenosum, but this association is likely under-reported. Synovitis-Acne-Pustulosis Hyperostosis-Osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome, which is rare, has more than 10 reports linking it to HS. Nine case reports have linked Dowling-Degos disease (DDD) to HS and two reports related HS to Fox-Fordyce disease (FF), but because both occur in the axilla this might be a mere coincidence. HS is rarely associated with ophthalmic pathology. Specifically, more than 5 reports link it to Keratitis-Ichthyosis-Deafness syndrome (KID); greater than10 cases link it to interstitial keratitis and 2 cases are linked to Behçet's disease. The presence of proteinuria and acute nephritis link HS to the kidney, especially since and reports have documented resolution of HS after renal transplant. Florid steatocystoma multiplex, Sjogren Syndrome, and HS have been linked and their reports likely underestimate their coincidence because all these entities involve occlusion (albeit by different mechanisms). Three reports link HS and amyloid, but both share some common genetic underpinnings and thus the coincidence of these

  14. Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... receive Heart Disease and Stroke email updates Submit Heart disease Heart disease is the number one killer of ... about heart disease on other websites View more Heart disease resources Related information Heart-healthy eating Diabetes Stress ...

  15. Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Control of Meningococcal Disease Resources Beyond the Science: Putting a Face on Meningococcal Disease National Meningitis Association Facts about Meningococcal Disease for Adults adultvaccination.org Meningococcal ...

  16. Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... vary by type of heart disease. Causes of cardiovascular disease While cardiovascular disease can refer to different heart or blood vessel ... Atherosclerosis is also the most common cause of cardiovascular disease. It can be caused by correctable problems, such ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Parkinson's Disease KidsHealth / For Kids / Parkinson's Disease What's in this ... symptoms of something called Parkinson's disease. What Is Parkinson's Disease? Parkinson's disease is a disorder of the central ...

  18. Gaucher Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the disease, but the procedure carries a high risk and is rarely performed in individuals with Gaucher disease. People with Gaucher disease type 1 are at increased risk for Parkinson's disease and Lewy Body Dementia. Gaucher disease type 2 is usually fatal ...

  19. Prostate Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Prostate Diseases Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... body. Approximately 3 million American men have some type of prostate disease. The most common prostate diseases ...

  20. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Parkinson’s Disease Small Text Medium Text Large Text Parkinson’s Disease Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, that ...

  1. Huntington's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes certain nerve cells in the brain to waste away. ... express emotions. If one of your parents has Huntington's disease, you have a 50 percent chance of getting ...

  2. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Crohn's disease causes inflammation of the digestive system. It is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory ... small intestine called the ileum. The cause of Crohn's disease is unknown. It may be due to an ...

  3. Hodgkin Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood tests, and a biopsy. Treatment depends on how far the disease has spread. It often includes radiation therapy or chemotherapy. The earlier the disease is diagnosed, the more effective the treatment. In most cases, Hodgkin disease can ...

  4. Lyme disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Borrelia burgdorferi Tick, deer engorged on the skin Lyme disease - Borrelia burgdorferi organism Tick, deer - adult female Lyme disease ... Accessed January 11, 2018. Steere AC. Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) due to Borrelia burgdorferi . In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  5. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... common diseases to help prevent disease and improve human health. Explore Research Funding Opportunities Grants Grants Explore Grants ... health sciences to understand human disease and improve human health. Use the search box to see research highlights ...

  6. Retinal Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are here Home Listen Retinal Diseases Macular Degeneration Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a retinal degenerative disease that causes ... is the most common form of inherited juvenile macular degeneration. The progressive vision loss associated with Stargardt disease ...

  7. Gaucher disease

    MedlinePlus

    Glucocerebrosidase deficiency; Glucosylceramidase deficiency; Lysosomal storage disease - Gaucher ... 2016:chap 86. Krasnewich DM, Sidransky E. Lysosomal storage diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman- ...

  8. Bladder Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... frequent, urgent urination Bladder cancer Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x- ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  9. Fabry Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Fabry Disease Information Page Fabry Disease Information Page What research is being done? The ... treat and prevent lipid storage diseases such as Fabry disease. Researchers hope to identify biomarkers--signs that may ...

  10. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  11. Periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Periodontal disease is the most commonly diagnosed problem in small animal veterinary medicine. In the vast majority of cases, however, there are little to no outward clinical signs of the disease process, and, therefore, therapy often comes very late in the disease course. Consequently, periodontal disease is also the most undertreated animal health problem. In addition, unchecked periodontal disease has numerous dire consequences both locally and systemically. These consequences are detailed in the article and should be utilized to educate clients and encourage compliance of therapeutic recommendations. The local consequences include oronasal fistulas, class II perio-endo lesions, pathologic fractures, ocular problems, osteomyelitis, and an increased incidence of oral cancer. Systemic diseases linked to periodontal disease include: renal, hepatic, pulmonary, and cardiac diseases; osteoporosis, adverse pregnancy effects, and diabetes mellitus. Before the discussion of consequences, this article covers the pathogenesis of periodontal disease, followed by clinical features and diagnostic tests.

  12. Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... may carry the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. Food contamination Another way disease-causing germs can infect you is through contaminated food and water. This mechanism of transmission allows germs ...

  13. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  14. Fifth disease

    MedlinePlus

    Parvovirus B19; Erythema infectiosum; Slapped cheek rash ... Fifth disease is caused by human parvovirus B19. It often affects preschoolers or school-age children during the spring. The disease spreads through the fluids in the nose and mouth ...

  15. Parkinson disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000755.htm Parkinson disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Parkinson disease results from certain brain cells dying. These cells ...

  16. Alzheimer disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... likely need to plan for their loved one's future care. The final phase of the disease may ... disease and other dementias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  17. Kawasaki disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs of heart disease, adding steroids or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors such as infliximab (Remicade) or ... Possible Complications Kawasaki disease can cause inflammation of blood vessels in the arteries, especially the coronary arteries. This ...

  18. Alexander Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... there are no ethnic, racial, geographic, or cultural/economic differences in its distribution. Alexander disease is a ... there are no ethnic, racial, geographic, or cultural/economic differences in its distribution. Alexander disease is a ...

  19. Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...

  20. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  1. Addison Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure and water and salt balance. Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands don't make ... problem with your immune system usually causes Addison disease. The immune system mistakenly attacks your own tissues, ...

  2. Legionnaires' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Legionnaires' disease is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria. You usually get it by breathing in mist from ... spread from person to person. Symptoms of Legionnaires' disease include high fever, chills, a cough, and sometimes ...

  3. Raynaud's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Raynaud's disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. It causes the ... secondary Raynaud's, which is caused by injuries, other diseases, or certain medicines. People in colder climates are ...

  4. Fifth Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Fifth disease is a viral infection caused by parvovirus B19. The virus only infects humans; it's not the same parvovirus that dogs and cats can get. Fifth disease mostly affects children. Symptoms can include a low ...

  5. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prevents your body from getting rid of extra copper. You need ... copper into bile, a digestive fluid. With Wilson disease, the copper builds up in your liver, and ...

  6. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a type of movement disorder. It happens when nerve cells in the brain don't ... coordination As symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking, or doing simple ...

  7. Chagas Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is common in Latin America but not in the United States. ... nose, the bite wound or a cut. The disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood ...

  8. Endocrine Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond ... In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are ...

  9. Mitochondrial Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Mitochondrial diseases are a group of metabolic disorders. Mitochondria are ... cells and cause damage. The symptoms of mitochondrial disease can vary. It depends on how many mitochondria ...

  10. Digestive diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007447.htm Digestive diseases To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Digestive diseases are disorders of the digestive tract, which ...

  11. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Disease KidsHealth / For Teens / Kidney Disease What's in ... Coping With Kidney Conditions Print What Do the Kidneys Do? You might never think much about some ...

  12. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... immune disease in which people can't eat gluten because it will damage their small intestine. If you have celiac disease and eat foods with gluten, your immune system responds by damaging the small ...

  13. Hashimoto's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease often leads to reduced thyroid function, or hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a disorder that occurs when the thyroid ... Hashimoto’s disease is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States. 1 Read more in ...

  14. Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the disease and what symptoms you have. For example, if you get symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the ... the disease and what symptoms you have. For example, if you get symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the ...

  15. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... 000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in the U.S. have lung ... pneumonia and tuberculosis, lung cancer, and many other breathing problems. Some lung diseases can lead to respiratory ...

  16. Kawasaki Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... descent. The disease is more likely to affect boys than girls. Most cases occur in children younger than 5 ... descent. The disease is more likely to affect boys than girls. Most cases occur in children younger than 5 ...

  17. Whipple's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... function in one or more connecting or supporting structures of the body. celiac disease —a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with the absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac ...

  18. Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Symptoms Alopecia areata (Al-uh-PEE-shuh AR-ee-AYT-uh) The immune system attacks hair ... spine is involved. Rheumatoid arthritis (ROO-muh-toid ar-THREYE-tuhss) A disease in which the immune ...

  19. Canavan Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ashkenazi Jews from eastern Poland, Lithuania, and western Russia, and among Saudi Arabians. Canavan disease can be ... Ashkenazi Jews from eastern Poland, Lithuania, and western Russia, and among Saudi Arabians. Canavan disease can be ...

  20. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Delta agent (hepatitis D) Drug-induced cholestasis Fatty liver disease Hemochromatosis Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C ... abscess Reye syndrome Sclerosing cholangitis Wilson disease Images Fatty liver, CT scan Liver with disproportional fattening, CT scan ...

  1. Fifth Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... past. The others included measles, rubella (German measles), chicken pox, scarlet fever, and roseola. Fifth disease is ... The first signs of fifth disease are mild flu- or cold-like symptoms, including: low-grade fever ...

  2. Meniere's Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schessel, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Meniere's disease is characterized by unpredictable spells of severe vertigo and fluctuations in hearing and tinnitus. This article discusses the incidence of Meniere's disease, the present status of our understanding of this disease, controversies in its diagnosis, and the multiple therapeutic modalities recruited in its treatment. (Contains…

  3. Lyme Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, George C.

    1991-01-01

    This overview of the public health significance of Lyme disease includes the microbiological specifics of the infectious spirochete, the entomology and ecology of the ticks which are the primary disease carrier, the clinical aspects and treatment stages, the known epidemiological patterns, and strategies for disease control and for expanded public…

  4. Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Soumya Brata; Sarkar, Subrata; Ghosh, Supratim; Bandyopadhyay, Subhankar

    2012-10-01

    Addison's disease is a rare endocrinal disorder, with several oral and systemic manifestations. A variety of pathological processes may cause Addison's disease. Classically, hyperpigmentation is associated with the disease, and intraoral pigmentation is perceived as the initial sign and develops earlier than the dermatological pigmentation. The symptoms of the disease usually progress slowly and an event of illness or accident can make the condition worse and may lead to a life-threatening crisis. In this case, several oral as well as systemic manifestation of the Addison's disease was encountered.

  5. Addison's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Soumya Brata; Sarkar, Subrata; Ghosh, Supratim; Bandyopadhyay, Subhankar

    2012-01-01

    Addison's disease is a rare endocrinal disorder, with several oral and systemic manifestations. A variety of pathological processes may cause Addison's disease. Classically, hyperpigmentation is associated with the disease, and intraoral pigmentation is perceived as the initial sign and develops earlier than the dermatological pigmentation. The symptoms of the disease usually progress slowly and an event of illness or accident can make the condition worse and may lead to a life-threatening crisis. In this case, several oral as well as systemic manifestation of the Addison's disease was encountered. PMID:23633816

  6. Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Thomas S.; Shapiro, Eugene D.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Lyme disease, caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. The clinical presentation varies depending on the stage of the illness: early disease includes erthyma migrans, early disseminated disease includes multiple erythema migrans, meningitis, cranial nerve palsies and carditis; late disease is primarily arthritis. The symptoms and signs of infection resolve in the vast majority of patients after appropriate treatment with antimicrobials for from 2-4 weeks. Serologic testing should be used judiciously as it often results in misdiagnosis when performed on blood from patients with a low prior probability of disease and those with non-specific symptoms such as fatigue or arthralgia without signs of infection. PMID:20513553

  7. Newcastle disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, D.E.; Friend, M.

    1999-01-01

    Newcastle Disease (ND) in domestic poultry is a focus for concern throughout much of the world’s agricultural community because of severe economic losses that have occurred from illness, death, and reduced egg production following infection with pathogenic or disease causing strains. Prior to 1990, this disease had rarely been reported as a cause of mortality in the free-living native birds of the United States or Canada. Repeated large-scale losses of double-crested cormorants from ND in both countries has resulted in a need for enhanced awareness of ND as a disease of wild birds and, therefore, its inclusion within this Manual. Background information about ND in poultry is needed to provide a perspective for understanding the complexity of the disease agent, Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Some general information about ND in other avian species is also provided, but the primary focus for this chapter is the effect of NDV on double-crested cormorants.

  8. Infectious disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on infectious disease. It addresses their major concern over outbreaks of infectious disease that could jeopardize the health, safety and/or performance of crew members engaged in long duration space missions. The Antarctic environment is seen as an analogous location on Earth and a good place to carry out such infectious disease studies and methods for proposed studies as suggested.

  9. Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from UMass Amherst . Oregon State University Oregon State University (OSU) has an ongoing outbreak of serogroup B meningococcal disease. Students should check with OSU about requirements to get ...

  10. Leishmaniasis Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Leishmaniasis General Information Leishmaniasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Additional Resources Get ...

  11. Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 60. The risk goes up as you get older. Your risk is also higher if a family member has had the disease. No treatment can stop the disease. However, some drugs may help keep symptoms from getting worse for a limited time. NIH: National Institute on Aging

  12. Kawasaki Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... is to relieve symptoms and prevent long-term damage. Most children who have the rare disease require a hospital ... stay home from school or day care. Some children may need ongoing treatment. This is necessary if they suffer damage or are at risk of health disease. Questions ...

  13. Sycamore diseases

    Treesearch

    F. I. McCracken

    1989-01-01

    The canker stain disease, one of several fungi that cause cankers of sycamore, can cause serious loss of sycamores in natural stands, plantations, and urban areas. As many as 35 percent of the trees in some stands may be diseased. Affected trees develop thin crowns, twig dieback, small leaves and epicormic branches. The narrow, elongate, bark covered, flat, spiraling...

  14. Newcastle disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The focus of this chapter, are viruses of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). All isolates of APMV-1 are of one serotype and are referred to as Newcastle disease viruses (NDV). Newcastle disease (ND) is caused only by infections with virulent isolates of APMV-1 (virulent NDV or vNDV). Virulent ...

  15. Morgellons Disease.

    PubMed

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Park, Seon Yong; Moon, Jungyoon; Choe, Yun Seon; Kim, Kyu Han

    2017-04-01

    Morgellons disease is a rare disease with unknown etiology. Herein, we report the first case of Morgellons disease in Korea. A 30-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of pruritic erythematous patches and erosions on the arms, hands, and chin. She insisted that she had fiber-like materials under her skin, which she had observed through a magnifying device. We performed skin biopsy, and observed a fiber extruding from the dermal side of the specimen. Histopathological examination showed only mild lymphocytic infiltration, and failed to reveal evidence of any microorganism. The polymerase chain reaction for Borrelia burgdorferi was negative in her serum.

  16. Morgellons Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Park, Seon Yong; Moon, Jungyoon; Choe, Yun Seon

    2017-01-01

    Morgellons disease is a rare disease with unknown etiology. Herein, we report the first case of Morgellons disease in Korea. A 30-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of pruritic erythematous patches and erosions on the arms, hands, and chin. She insisted that she had fiber-like materials under her skin, which she had observed through a magnifying device. We performed skin biopsy, and observed a fiber extruding from the dermal side of the specimen. Histopathological examination showed only mild lymphocytic infiltration, and failed to reveal evidence of any microorganism. The polymerase chain reaction for Borrelia burgdorferi was negative in her serum. PMID:28392653

  17. Disease management.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, D. J.; Fairfield, G.

    1997-01-01

    The disease management approach to patient care seeks to coordinate resources across the healthcare delivery system. The growing interest in evidence based medicine and outcomes, and a commitment to integrated care across the primary, secondary, and community care sectors, all contribute to making disease management an attractive idea. A combination of patient education, provider use of practice guidelines, appropriate consultation, and supplies of drugs and ancillary services all come together in the disease management process. But its effectiveness is largely untested, so evaluation is essential. PMID:9233330

  18. Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Haricharan, Ramanath N; Georgeson, Keith E

    2008-11-01

    Hirschsprung disease is a relatively common condition managed by pediatric surgeons. Significant advances have been made in understanding its etiologies in the last decade, especially with the explosion of molecular genetic techniques and early diagnosis. The surgical management has progressed from a two- or three-stage procedure to a primary operation. More recently, definitive surgery for Hirschsprung disease through minimally invasive techniques has gained popularity. In neonates, the advancement of treatment strategies for Hirschsprung disease continues with reduced patient morbidity and improved outcomes.

  19. [Infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Chapuis-Taillard, Caroline; de Vallière, Serge; Bochud, Pierre-Yves

    2009-01-07

    In 2008, several publications have highlighted the role of climate change and globalization on the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Studies have shown the extension towards Europe of diseases such as Crimea-Congo fever (Kosovo, Turkey and Bulgaria), leismaniosis (Cyprus) and chikungunya virus infection (Italy). The article also contains comments on Plasmodium knowlesi, a newly identified cause of severe malaria in humans, as well as an update on human transmission of the H5NI avian influenza virus. It also mentions new data on Bell's palsy as well as two vaccines (varicella-zoster and pneumococcus), and provides a list of recent guidelines for the treatment of common infectious diseases.

  20. Meniere's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... vertigo (attacks of a spinning sensation), hearing loss, tinnitus (a roaring, buzzing, or ringing sound in the ... of the disease, hearing loss often becomes permanent. Tinnitus and fullness of the ear may come and ...

  1. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Lyme Disease Risk? Bug Bites and Stings Bell's Palsy Rocky Mountain Spotted ... only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...

  2. Hirschsprung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF. Motility disorders and Hirschsprung disease. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  3. Huntington disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... recommend genetic counseling for couples with a family history of this disease who are considering having ... St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  4. Blount disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Unlike bowlegs , which tend to straighten as the child develops, Blount disease slowly gets worse. It can cause severe bowing of one or both legs. This condition is more common among African American children. It is also associated with obesity ...

  5. Behcet's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Silk Route,” which spans the region from Japan and China in the Far East to the ... the disease’s epidemiology is not well understood. In Japan, Behcet’s disease ranks as a leading cause of ...

  6. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Hemorrhoids Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & ... research into many diseases and conditions. Related Diagnostic Tests Colonoscopy Upper GI Series Upper GI Endoscopy Related ...

  7. Graves disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called hyperthyroidism . (An underactive thyroid leads to hypothyroidism .) Graves disease is the most common cause of ... radioactive iodine often will cause an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). Without getting the correct dosage of thyroid hormone ...

  8. Periodontal Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... already are in the process of dissecting the dynamics of these bacterial communities. This research may give ... shed from chronic periodontal infections enter the circulatory system and may contribute to diseases of the heart ...

  9. Sever's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... immobilize the foot so that it can heal. Recovery and Recurrence One of the most important things ... The sooner Sever's disease is addressed, the quicker recovery is. Most kids can return to physical activity ...

  10. Stargardt Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ways to prevent it. A decrease in color perception also occurs in Stargardt disease. This is because photoreceptor cells involved in color perception are concentrated in the macula. Back to top ...

  11. Vascular Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... vessels, such as diabetes or high cholesterol Smoking Obesity Losing weight, eating healthy foods, being active and not smoking can help vascular disease. Other treatments include medicines and surgery.

  12. Behcet's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this research; and the dissemination of information on research progress in these diseases. Contact Us NIAMS Archive Viewers and Players Social Media Moderation Policy FOIA Privacy Statement Accessibility Disclaimer Digital Strategy ...

  13. Cushing disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fatigue Frequent infections Headache Increased thirst and urination High blood pressure Diabetes ... Cushing disease include: Compression fractures in the spine Diabetes High blood pressure Infections Kidney stones Mood or other psychiatric problems

  14. Sandhoff Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coordinating Committees CounterACT Rigor & Transparency Scientific Resources Animal Models Cell/Tissue/DNA Clinical and Translational Resources Gene ... virus-delivered gene therapy seen in an animal model of Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases for use ...

  15. Crohn disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Current Surgical Therapy . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:164-171. Lichenstein GR. Inflammatory bowel disease. ... eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 141. Mahmoud NN, Bleier JIS, ...

  16. Sever's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... boys 10 years to 12 years of age. Soccer players and gymnasts often get Sever’s disease, but ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  17. Valve Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and valves (the endocardium). This is called infective endocarditis. Coronary artery disease Heart attack What are the ... of your heart. This infection is called infective endocarditis . Medicines Medicines are given to ease the pain ...

  18. Glomerular Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... dialysis or transplantation to replace renal function. Bacterial endocarditis, infection of the tissues inside the heart, is ... the most effective way of minimizing kidney damage. Endocarditis sometimes produces chronic kidney disease (CKD) . HIV, the ...

  19. Crohn disease

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Rioux, John D.; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Huett, Alan; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Wileman, Tom; Mizushima, Noboru; Carding, Simon; Akira, Shizuo; Parkes, Miles; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2011-01-01

    Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic and debilitating inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract.1 Prevalence in western populations is 100–150/100,000 and somewhat higher in Ashkenazi Jews. Peak incidence is in early adult life, although any age can be affected and a majority of affected individuals progress to relapsing and chronic disease. Medical treatments rely significantly on empirical corticosteroid therapy and immunosuppression, and intestinal resectional surgery is frequently required. Thus, 80% of patients with CD come to surgery for refractory disease or complications. It is hoped that an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms, for example by studying the genetic basis of CD and other forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), will lead to improved therapies and possibly preventative strategies in individuals identified as being at risk. PMID:20729636

  20. Pick disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frontotemporal dementia; FTD; Arnold Pick disease; 3R tauopathy Images Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system References Bang J, Spina S, Miller BL. Frontotemporal dementia. Lancet . 2015;386( ...

  1. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... in sexual desire or performance. Prevention Because the cause of Parkinson's is unknown, proven ways to prevent the disease also remain a mystery. However, some research has shown that caffeine — which is found in coffee, tea and cola — ...

  2. Raynaud's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... become inflamed (Buerger's disease), and a type of high blood pressure that affects the arteries of the lungs (primary ... medications. These include beta blockers, used to treat high blood pressure; migraine medications that contain ergotamine or sumatriptan; attention- ...

  3. Lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell cancer - CT scan Secondhand smoke and lung cancer Yellow nail syndrome Respiratory system References Kraft M. Approach to the patient with respiratory disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  4. Kawasaki Disease

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile, systemic vasculitic syndrome of an unknown etiology that primarily occurs in children younger than five years of age. The principal presentations of Kawasaki disease include fever, bilateral nonexudative conjunctivitis, erythema of the lips and oral mucosa, changes in the extremities, rash, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Coronary artery aneurysms or ectasia develops in 15% to 25% of untreated children with the disease, which may later lead to myocardial infarction, sudden death, or ischemic heart disease. Treatment with intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) is effective, but the mode of action is still unclear. The development of a diagnostic test, a more specific therapy, and ultimately the prevention of this potentially fatal illness in children are all dependent upon the continued advances in determining the etiopathogenesis of this fascinating disorder. PMID:17191303

  5. Graves' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood to the body (congestive heart failure). Thyroid storm. A rare, but life-threatening complication of Graves' disease is thyroid storm, also known as accelerated hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxic crisis. ...

  6. Elm diseases

    Treesearch

    John W. Peacock

    1989-01-01

    Dutch elm disease was found in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1930, and is now in most of the contiguous 48 states. The disease is caused by a fungus that has killed millions of wild and planted elms. Losses have been the greatest in the eastern United States. The fungus attacks all elms, but our native species, American, slippery, and rock elm have little or no resistance to the...

  7. Disease mongering.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Subish, P

    2007-04-01

    Convincing healthy people that they are sick and require medicines can enormously expand the market. Disease mongering can turn ordinary ailments like baldness into medical problems, consider risk factors such as hypertension and osteoporosis as diseases and frame prevalence estimates to increase potential markets. In Asia, conditions like erectile dysfunction, male pattern baldness, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and irritable bowel syndrome, and the drugs to treat them, are widely promoted. Fairness creams and traditional medicines are also widely used. The cost of disease mongering to the individual and the community is expected to be high. Some authors have argued that medicalisation of illnesses may not be a problem and the real problem may be the lack of medicines. Doctors will play a key role in combating disease mongering. Disentanglement from the pharmaceutical industry and development of a capacity for critical analysis are required. Educating patients and empowering them to make decisions are important. Several initiatives have been undertaken to combat disease mongering. Initiatives at the level of the patient and the physician are especially important. Studies on the extent and knowledge of disease mongering among doctors and medical students, and their economic and social consequences are urgently required.

  8. Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Burillo, Almudena; Bouza, Emilio

    2016-01-23

    Since first identified in early 1977, bacteria of the genus Legionella are recognised as a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia and a rare cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia. Legionella bacteria multisystem manifestations mainly affect susceptible patients as a result of age, underlying debilitating conditions, or immunosuppression. Water is the major natural reservoir for Legionella, and the pathogen is found in many different natural and artificial aquatic environments such as cooling towers or water systems in buildings, including hospitals. The term given to the severe pneumonia and systemic infection caused by Legionella bacteria is Legionnaires' disease. Over time, the prevalence of legionellosis or Legionnaires' disease has risen, which might indicate a greater awareness and reporting of the disease. Advances in microbiology have led to a better understanding of the ecological niches and pathogenesis of the condition. Legionnaires' disease is not always suspected because of its non-specific symptoms, and the diagnostic tests routinely available do not offer the desired sensitivity. However, effective antibiotics are available. Disease notification systems provide the basis for initiating investigations and limiting the scale and recurrence of outbreaks. This report reviews our current understanding of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Poewe, Werner; Seppi, Klaus; Tanner, Caroline M; Halliday, Glenda M; Brundin, Patrik; Volkmann, Jens; Schrag, Anette-Eleonore; Lang, Anthony E

    2017-03-23

    Parkinson disease is the second-most common neurodegenerative disorder that affects 2-3% of the population ≥65 years of age. Neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, which causes striatal dopamine deficiency, and intracellular inclusions containing aggregates of α-synuclein are the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson disease. Multiple other cell types throughout the central and peripheral autonomic nervous system are also involved, probably from early disease onwards. Although clinical diagnosis relies on the presence of bradykinesia and other cardinal motor features, Parkinson disease is associated with many non-motor symptoms that add to overall disability. The underlying molecular pathogenesis involves multiple pathways and mechanisms: α-synuclein proteostasis, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis, axonal transport and neuroinflammation. Recent research into diagnostic biomarkers has taken advantage of neuroimaging in which several modalities, including PET, single-photon emission CT (SPECT) and novel MRI techniques, have been shown to aid early and differential diagnosis. Treatment of Parkinson disease is anchored on pharmacological substitution of striatal dopamine, in addition to non-dopaminergic approaches to address both motor and non-motor symptoms and deep brain stimulation for those developing intractable L-DOPA-related motor complications. Experimental therapies have tried to restore striatal dopamine by gene-based and cell-based approaches, and most recently, aggregation and cellular transport of α-synuclein have become therapeutic targets. One of the greatest current challenges is to identify markers for prodromal disease stages, which would allow novel disease-modifying therapies to be started earlier.

  10. Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Catarina; Brito, Maria João; Ferreira, Gonçalo Cordeiro; Ferreira, Manuel; Nunes, Maria Ana Sampaio; Machado, Maria do Céu

    2005-09-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease among children in developed nations. Its incidence has risen in recent years and 20% of untreated patients develop coronary artery abnormalities. To analyze the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic data of cases diagnosed in Hospital Fernando Fonseca and to identify factors that may influence prognosis. A retrospective study was performed of all children admitted to Hospital Fernando Fonseca with Kawasaki disease between June 1996 and December 2003. Diagnosis was based on the presence of fever plus four of the classic criteria or three of them in association with coronary aneurysms. Demographic and clinical features, laboratory and imaging findings, therapeutic measures and evolution were analyzed. SPSS for Windows was used for statistical analysis, applying the Mann-Whitney and Fisher's exact tests. A total of 23 children were admitted. The incidence was 8.2 per 100 000 children under 5. Their ages ranged from 6 months to five years (median 20 months). Half of the patients were aged < 2 years, and 21 (91%) were under 5. Most were male (74%) and white (83%). Nine children lived in the same area and ten (43%) had a concomitant infectious disease (parvovirus, Chlamydia pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus, enterovirus and herpesvirus 6). Twenty children had typical Kawasaki disease. Twenty-two received combined therapy with aspirin and high dose immunoglobulin, which was administered, on average, on the seventh day of the disease. Coronary disease was diagnosed in seven (30%) children. The frequency of cardiac lesions was highest in the youngest age group (< 2 years). The mean follow-up was 16 months. There was no mortality and aneurysmal changes persisted in only one patient. Cardiac disorders were more frequent in the youngest age group, as has been reported elsewhere. The common geographic origin and the evidence of several infectious agents suggest that infection may

  11. Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Suzuki Kurokawa, M; Suzuki, N

    2004-09-01

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a systemic disorder of recurrent acute inflammation, characterized by major symptoms of oral aphthous ulcers, uveitis, skin lesions and genital ulcers. Involvement of intestines, vessels, and central nervous system (CNS) sometimes leads to a poor prognosis. Patients with BD are known to distribute along the ancient Silk Road. The incidence is relatively higher from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean area as roughly 1-10 patients in 10,000 people, whereas only 1-2 patients in 1,000,000 people in UK and North America. Although etiology of the disease is still unknown, high prevalence of HLA-B51, increased expression of heat shock protein 60 and Th1 dominant immune responses in the patients are considered important in its pathogenesis. Non-infectious neutrophil activation and infection with Streptococcus sanguis and herpes simplex virus would also be associated. Because BD lacks any pathognomonic symptoms and laboratory findings, the diagnosis relies largely upon the criteria proposed by the International Study Group for Behcet's disease in 1990. In Japan, the diagnosis was also made according to the Japanese criteria revised in 1987. Recently, the Behcet's Disease Research Committee of Japan again revised the Japanese criteria in 2003 to avoid overdiagnosis. The new Japanese criteria are introduced in this review. Differential diagnosis excluding Sweet's disease, pemphigus, erythema nodosum and Crohn's disease is important, and positive laboratory data for pathergy test, prick test for dead Streptococci and HLA-B51 are emphasized to make appropriate diagnosis in these criteria. Pathological findings of the disease-affected site such as erythematous nodosum is also stressed. Treatment for the disease has been chosen according to the clinical symptoms. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants, corticosteroids and colchicine are basically introduced. Recently, effects of interferon-alpha/beta, anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody

  12. Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bobby; Beal, M Flint

    2007-10-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by a profound and selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical manifestations of this complex disease include motor impairments involving resting tremor, bradykinesia, postural instability, gait difficulty and rigidity. Current medications only provide symptomatic relief and fail to halt the death of dopaminergic neurons. A major hurdle in development of neuroprotective therapies are due to limited understanding of disease processes leading to death of dopaminergic neurons. While the etiology of dopaminergic neuronal demise is elusive, a combination of genetic susceptibilities and environmental factors seems to play a critical role. The majority of PD cases are sporadic however, the discovery of genes linked to rare familial forms of disease (encoding alpha-synuclein, parkin, DJ-1, PINK-1 and LRRK2) and studies from experimental animal models has provided crucial insights into molecular mechanisms in disease pathogenesis and identified probable targets for therapeutic intervention. Recent findings implicate mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage, abnormal protein accumulation and protein phosphorylation as key molecular mechanisms compromising dopamine neuronal function and survival as the underlying cause of pathogenesis in both sporadic and familial PD. In this review we provide an overview of the most relevant findings made by the PD research community in the last year and discuss how these significant findings improved our understanding of events leading to nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration, and identification of potential cell survival pathways that could serve as targets for neuroprotective therapies in preventing this disabling neurological illness.

  13. [Dupuytren disease].

    PubMed

    Wagner, Pablo; Román, Javier A; Vergara, Jorge

    2012-09-01

    Dupuytren disease (DD) is a connective tissue disorder that consists in fibromatosis of the palmar and digital fascia (in form of nodules or flanges) that leads to the development of flexion contractures of the palm and fingers. The little and ring finger are particularly affected. The disease can limit hand function, reducing the quality of life. The disease can have a traumatic origin and is also associated with conditions such as diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, dyslipidemia, epilepsy and AIDS, among others. However, none of these conditions can fully explain the genesis of DD. A hereditary component is described in 40% of patients and is attributed to an autosomal dominant gene of variable penetrance, probably related to collagen synthesis. However there are also spontaneous and recessive inheritance cases. The diagnosis is clinical and based on physical examination. Treatment ranges from observation or use of injectable collagenase to the surgical option in cases with significant functional limitations.

  14. Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    von Roon, Alexander C; Reese, George E; Orchard, Timothy R; Tekkis, Paris P

    2007-11-07

    Crohn's disease is a long-term chronic condition of the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterised by transmural, granulomatous inflammation that occurs in a discontinuous pattern, with a tendency to form fistulae. The cause is unknown but may depend on interactions between genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and mucosal immunity. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical treatments in adults to induce remission in Crohn's disease? What are the effects of lifestyle interventions in adults with Crohn's disease to maintain remission? What are the effects of surgical interventions in adults with small-bowel Crohn's disease to induce remission? What are the effects of surgical interventions in adults with colonic Crohn's disease to induce remission? What are the effects of medical interventions to maintain remission in adults with Crohn's disease; and to maintain remission following surgery? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to March 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 60 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aminosalicylates, antibiotics, azathioprine/mercaptopurine, ciclosporin, corticosteroids (oral), enteral nutrition, fish oil, infliximab, methotrexate, probiotics, resection, segmental colectomy, smoking cessation, and strictureplasty.

  15. Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Mills, Sarah C; von Roon, Alexander C; Tekkis, Paris P; Orchard, Timothy R

    2011-04-27

    Crohn's disease is a chronic condition of the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterised by transmural, granulomatous inflammation that occurs in a discontinuous pattern, with a tendency to form fistulae. The cause is unknown but may depend on interactions between genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and mucosal immunity. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical treatments to induce remission in adults with Crohn's disease? What are the effects of surgical interventions to induce and maintain remission in adults with small-bowel Crohn's disease? What are the effects of surgical interventions to induce remission in adults with colonic Crohn's disease? What are the effects of medical interventions to maintain remission in adults with Crohn's disease; and to maintain remission following surgery? What are the effects of lifestyle interventions to maintain remission in adults with Crohn's disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 93 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aminosalicylates, antibiotics, azathioprine/mercaptopurine, ciclosporin, corticosteroids (oral), enteral nutrition, fish oil, infliximab, methotrexate, probiotics, resection, segmental colectomy, smoking cessation, and strictureplasty.

  16. Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Mills, Sarah C; von Roon, Alexander C; Tekkis, Paris P; Orchard, Timothy R

    2010-11-30

    Crohn's disease is a chronic condition of the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterised by transmural, granulomatous inflammation that occurs in a discontinuous pattern, with a tendency to form fistulae. The cause is unknown but may depend on interactions between genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and mucosal immunity. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical treatments to induce remission in adults with Crohn's disease? What are the effects of surgical interventions to induce and maintain remission in adults with small-bowel Crohn's disease? What are the effects of surgical interventions to induce remission in adults with colonic Crohn's disease? What are the effects of medical interventions to maintain remission in adults with Crohn's disease; and to maintain remission following surgery? What are the effects of lifestyle interventions to maintain remission in adults with Crohn's disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 93 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aminosalicylates, antibiotics, azathioprine/mercaptopurine, ciclosporin, corticosteroids (oral), enteral nutrition, fish oil, infliximab, methotrexate, probiotics, resection, segmental colectomy, smoking cessation, and strictureplasty.

  17. Infectious Diseases,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-29

    was of importance in arresting the disease. On the other hand, tuberculous patients may develop a sarcoidosis -like hypersensitivity to vitamin D; if...action of vitamin D and become hypercalcemic, as in sarcoidosis . Normal quantities of vitamins and other nutrients help to maintain host resistance at

  18. [Steinert disease].

    PubMed

    Bouhour, Françoise; Bost, Muriel; Vial, Christophe

    2007-06-01

    Steinert disease, also known as myotonic dystrophy type 1, is a muscle disease characterized by myotonia and by multiorgan damage that combines various degrees of muscle weakness, arrhythmia and/or cardiac conduction disorders, cataract, endocrine damage, sleep disorders and baldness. It is the most frequent of the adult-onset muscular dystrophies; its prevalence is estimated at 1/20,000 inhabitants. Diagnosis is confirmed by the demonstration of an abnormality at the 19q13-2 locus, with the use of molecular genetic techniques. Its transmission is autosomal dominant, and anticipation may occur, that is, disease may be more severe and occur earlier in offspring. Genetic counseling is often delicate for this condition because of the great variability of clinical expression, both within and between families. Prenatal diagnosis is proposed especially for maternal transmission because of the severity of the possible neonatal forms. Management ideally includes multidisciplinary annual follow-up. Disease course is usually slowly progressive but rapid deterioration may sometimes be observed. Life expectancy is reduced by the increased mortality associated with the pulmonary and cardiac complications.

  19. Pompe Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... glycogen, which is converted by the GAA into glucose, a sugar that fuels muscles. In Pompe disease, mutations in the GAA gene reduce or completely eliminate this essential enzyme. Excessive amounts of lysosomal glycogen accumulate everywhere in the body, but the cells of the heart and skeletal ...

  20. Wilson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney problems. Wilson's disease can damage the kidneys, leading to problems such as kidney stones and an abnormal number of amino acids excreted in the urine. Psychological problems. These might include personality changes, depression, irritability, bipolar disorder or psychosis. Blood problems. ...

  1. Periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Kinane, Denis F; Stathopoulou, Panagiota G; Papapanou, Panos N

    2017-06-22

    Periodontal diseases comprise a wide range of inflammatory conditions that affect the supporting structures of the teeth (the gingiva, bone and periodontal ligament), which could lead to tooth loss and contribute to systemic inflammation. Chronic periodontitis predominantly affects adults, but aggressive periodontitis may occasionally occur in children. Periodontal disease initiation and propagation is through a dysbiosis of the commensal oral microbiota (dental plaque), which then interacts with the immune defences of the host, leading to inflammation and disease. This pathophysiological situation persists through bouts of activity and quiescence, until the affected tooth is extracted or the microbial biofilm is therapeutically removed and the inflammation subsides. The severity of the periodontal disease depends on environmental and host risk factors, both modifiable (for example, smoking) and non-modifiable (for example, genetic susceptibility). Prevention is achieved with daily self-performed oral hygiene and professional removal of the microbial biofilm on a quarterly or bi-annual basis. New treatment modalities that are actively explored include antimicrobial therapy, host modulation therapy, laser therapy and tissue engineering for tissue repair and regeneration.

  2. Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Calderon-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Duyckaerts, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer disease neuropathology is characterized by the extracellular accumulation of Aβ peptide and intracellular aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau. With the progression of the disease, macroscopic atrophy affects the entorhinal area and hippocampus, amygdala, and associative regions of the neocortex. The locus coeruleus is depigmented. The deposition of Aβ is first made of diffuse deposits. Amyloid focal deposits constitute the core of the senile plaque which also comprises a corona of tau-positive neurites. Aβ deposits are found successively in the neocortex, the hippocampus, the striatum, the mesencephalon, and finally the cerebellum together with the pontine nuclei (Thal phases). Tau pathology affects in a stereotyped order some specific nuclei of the brainstem, the entorhinal area, the hippocampus, and the neocortex - first the associative areas and secondarily the primary cortices (Braak stages). Loss of synapses is observed in association with tau and Aβ pathology; neuronal loss occurs in the most affected areas. Granulovacuolar degeneration and perisomatic granules are also linked to Alzheimer disease pathology. The physiopathology of Alzheimer disease remains unknown. Familial cases suggest that Aβ deposition is the initial step, but tau pathology appears early in the course and seems to be better correlated with the symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies can lead to Giardia infections. Cats can transmit toxoplasmosis, which is dangerous for pregnant women. Others, like malaria, are ... to drink only water you know is safe. Prevention is especially important. ...

  4. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... used for chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. Other things you can do to help manage Lyme disease include: Educate yourself. There is a lot of inaccurate information to be sorted through, especially on the internet. Ask your doctor if you have questions. Track ...

  5. Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicines used to treat asthma fall into two groups: long-term control and quick relief. Long-term control medicines are ... if you should have a spirometry test . Some groups recommend routine spirometry ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HHS Phone: 800-232-4636 (TDD: ...

  6. Buerger's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the diagnosis of Buerger’s disease. In the proper clinical setting, certain angiographic findings are diagnostic of Buerger’s. These findings include a “corkscrew” appearance of arteries that result from vascular damage, particularly the arteries in the ...

  7. Sunflower diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sunflower disease chapter is part of the Sunflower Oilseeds Monograph, which will be a new publication in the AOCS Oilseeds Monograph series. The monograph contains an overview and history of sunflower crop development, how the oilseed is cultivated, how the oilseed is produced, how the seed is...

  8. Legionnaire disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... can survive in the warm, moist air conditioning systems of large buildings, including hospitals. Most cases are caused ... lung disease, such as COPD Long-term use of a breathing machine (ventilator) Medicines that suppress the immune system, including chemotherapy and steroid drugs Older age Symptoms ...

  9. Celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune disorder, induced by the intake of gluten proteins present in wheat, barley and rye. Contrary to common belief, this disorder is a protean systemic disease, rather than merely a pure digestive alteration. CD is closely associated with genes that code HLA-II antigens, mainly of DQ2 and DQ8 classes. Previously, it was considered to be a rare childhood disorder, but is actually considered a frequent condition, present at any age, which may have multiple complications. Tissue transglutaminase-2 (tTG), appears to be an important component of this disease, both, in its pathogenesis and diagnosis. Active CD is characterized by intestinal and/or extra-intestinal symptoms, villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia, and strongly positive tTG auto-antibodies. The duodenal biopsy is considered to be the “gold standard” for diagnosis, but its practice has significant limitations in its interpretation, especially in adults. Occasionally, it results in a false-negative because of patchy mucosal changes and the presence of mucosal villous atrophy is often more severe in the proximal jejunum, usually not reached by endoscopic biopsies. CD is associated with increased rates of several diseases, such as iron deficiency anemia, osteoporosis, dermatitis herpetiformis, several neurologic and endocrine diseases, persistent chronic hypertransami-nasemia of unknown origin, various types of cancer and other autoimmune disorders. Treatment of CD dictates a strict, life-long gluten-free diet, which results in remission for most individuals, although its effect on some associated extraintestinal manifestations remains to be established.

  10. Fabry disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a progressive, X-linked inherited disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to deficient or absent lysosomal α-galactosidase A activity. FD is pan-ethnic and the reported annual incidence of 1 in 100,000 may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease. Classically affected hemizygous males, with no residual α-galactosidase A activity may display all the characteristic neurological (pain), cutaneous (angiokeratoma), renal (proteinuria, kidney failure), cardiovascular (cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia), cochleo-vestibular and cerebrovascular (transient ischemic attacks, strokes) signs of the disease while heterozygous females have symptoms ranging from very mild to severe. Deficient activity of lysosomal α-galactosidase A results in progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide within lysosomes, believed to trigger a cascade of cellular events. Demonstration of marked α-galactosidase A deficiency is the definitive method for the diagnosis of hemizygous males. Enzyme analysis may occasionnally help to detect heterozygotes but is often inconclusive due to random X-chromosomal inactivation so that molecular testing (genotyping) of females is mandatory. In childhood, other possible causes of pain such as rheumatoid arthritis and 'growing pains' must be ruled out. In adulthood, multiple sclerosis is sometimes considered. Prenatal diagnosis, available by determination of enzyme activity or DNA testing in chorionic villi or cultured amniotic cells is, for ethical reasons, only considered in male fetuses. Pre-implantation diagnosis is possible. The existence of atypical variants and the availability of a specific therapy singularly complicate genetic counseling. A disease-specific therapeutic option - enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant human α-galactosidase A - has been recently introduced and its long term outcome is currently still being investigated. Conventional management consists of pain relief with analgesic drugs

  11. The Long-Term Hospitalization Experience Following Military Service in the 1991 Gulf War Among Veterans Remaining on Active Duty, 1994-2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-13

    16.1 Other disorders of breast 259 8.7 Disorders of lipoid metabolism 69 9.8 Other disorders of male genital organs 231 7.8 Nontoxic nodular goiter 56...1192) Other diseases of blood & blood-forming organs 54 26.5 Other cellulitis & abscess 559 46.9 Diseases of white blood cells 53 26.0 Pilonidal cyst

  12. [Addison's disease].

    PubMed

    Quinkler, M

    2012-09-01

    The clinical signs and symptoms of primary adrenal insufficiency are unspecific often causing a delayed diagnosis or even misdiagnosis. In the diagnostic work-up the short synacthen test is regarded as the gold standard. Hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone are the preferred therapy for Addison's disease. The management and surveillance of therapy requires experience and several aspects need to be followed to prevent side effects which might occur due to overtreatment or undertreatment. Very important aspects in therapy are the repeated teaching of the patient and relatives, the issuing of an emergency steroid card and the prescription of a glucocorticoid emergency set. Acute adrenal failure (adrenal crisis), which might be the first manifestation of adrenal insufficiency, is a life-threatening situation requiring immediate glucocorticoid administration and fluid substitution. The most common causes for an adrenal crisis are gastrointestinal infections and fever and discontinuation of glucocorticoid therapy. This article gives an up-to-date overview of diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of Addison's disease.

  13. Morgellons disease?

    PubMed

    Accordino, Robert E; Engler, Danielle; Ginsburg, Iona H; Koo, John

    2008-01-01

    Morgellons disease, a pattern of dermatologic symptoms very similar, if not identical, to those of delusions of parasitosis, was first described many centuries ago, but has recently been given much attention on the internet and in the mass media. The present authors present a history of Morgellons disease, in addition to which they discuss the potential benefit of using this diagnostic term as a means of building trust and rapport with patients to maximize treatment benefit. The present authors also suggest "meeting the patient halfway" and creating a therapeutic alliance when providing dermatologic treatment by taking their cutaneous symptoms seriously enough to provide both topical ointments as well as antipsychotic medications, which can be therapeutic in these patients.

  14. Minamata disease.

    PubMed

    Eto, K

    2000-09-01

    Minamata disease (methylmercury poisoning) was first discovered in 1956 around Minamata Bay, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. A second epidemic in Japan occurred in 1965 along the Agano River, Niigata Prefecture. This paper presents a brief review of Minamata disease with an emphasis on the cases found in Kumamoto Prefecture. At autopsy, the most conspicuous destructive lesion in the cerebrum was found in the anterior portions of the calcarine cortex. Less severe but similar lesions may be found in the post-central, pre-central and temporal transverse cortices. Secondary degeneration from primary lesions may be seen in cases with long survival. In the cerebellum, pathological changes occur deep in the hemisphere. The granule cell population was more affected, compared with Purkinje cells. Among peripheral nerves, sensory nerves were more affected than motor nerves. Our recent experimental studies that reveal knowledge of the pathogenesis of methylmercury poisoning will be discussed.

  15. Demyelinating diseases.

    PubMed

    Love, S

    2006-11-01

    A diagnosis of demyelination carries important therapeutic and prognostic implications. In most cases the diagnosis is made clinically, and involvement of the histopathologist is largely confined to postmortem confirmation and clinicopathological correlation. However, every now and then, accurate diagnosis of the presence or cause of demyelination before death hinges on the histopathological assessment. Recognition of demyelination depends on an awareness of this as a diagnostic possibility, and on the use of appropriate tinctorial and immunohistochemical stains to identify myelin, axons and inflammatory cells. In biopsy specimens, the critical distinction is usually from ischaemic or neoplastic disease, and the types of demyelinating disease most likely to be encountered are multiple sclerosis, acute-disseminated encephalomyelitis, progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy and extrapontine myelinolysis. Interpretation of the pathology has to be made in the context of the clinical, radiological and biochemical findings. Freezing of a small amount of fresh tissue allows for later virological studies, and electron microscopy is occasionally helpful for demonstration of viral particles.

  16. Hirayama disease.

    PubMed

    Kieser, David C; Cox, P J; Kieser, S C J

    2018-06-01

    Hirayama disease is an initially progressive disease caused by cervical neck flexion compressing the anterior horns of the lower cervical spinal cord. It is primarily seen in young males of Indian or Asian descent. With increasing dispersion of these populations this condition is increasingly being encountered internationally. This grand round reviews this rare but increasingly recognized condition. We present a classic case of a young Indian male with progressive hand and forearm weakness. We discuss the typical clinical presentation, appropriate investigations and management of this condition. Our patient presented with oblique amyotrophy and underwent a diagnostic flexion MRI scan which revealed anterior translation of the posterior dura with compression of the anterior horns of the lower cervical cord. He has been successfully treated in a cervical collar. This case illustrates the typical presentation, diagnostic investigations and treatment of Hirayama syndrome. It is hoped that this review will alert clinicians of this condition and optimize the management of affected individuals.

  17. [Wilsons disease].

    PubMed

    Mareček, Z; Brůha, R

    2013-07-01

    Wilsons disease is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder in which copper accumulates in tissues, especially in the liver and the brain. The genetic defect affects the P type ATPase gene (ATP7B). More than 500 mutations causing Wilsons disease have been described. The most common mutation in Central Europe concerns H1069Q. The symptoms of Wilsons disease include hepatic or neurological conditions. The hepatic condition is manifested as steatosis, acute or chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis. The neurological conditions are most often manifested after the age of 20 as motor disorders (tremor, speech and writing disorders), which may result in severe extrapyramidal syndrome with rigidity, dysarthria and muscle contractions. The dia-gnosis is based on clinical and laboratory assessments (neurological signs, liver lesions, low ceruloplasmin, increased free serum copper, high Cu volumes in urine, KayserFleischer ring). The dia-gnosis is confirmed by a high Cu level in liver tissue or genetic proof. Untreated Wilsons disease causes death of the patient. If treated properly the survival rate approximates to the survival rate of the common population. The treatment concerns either removal of copper from the body using chelating agents excreted into the urine (Penicillamine, Trientine) or limitation of copper absorption from the intestine and reducing the toxicity of copper (zinc, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate). In the Czech Republic, Penicillamine or zinc is used. A liver transplant is indicated in patients with fulminant hepatic failure or decompensated liver cirrhosis. In the family all siblings of the affected individual need to be screened in order to treat any asymptomatic subjects.

  18. Lyme disease

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Bonnie; Crabtree, Alexis; Roth, David; Blackman, Doug; Morshed, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine physicians’ level of awareness and knowledge of Lyme disease (LD) in a low-prevalence area and whether physicians’ practices align with current guidelines for treatment of LD. Design A 23-item questionnaire assessing demographic characteristics, general knowledge about LD, laboratory testing for LD, and responses to 3 clinical scenarios. Setting British Columbia (BC). Participants Pediatricians, FPs, and internal medicine specialists who were licensed to practise in BC. Main outcome measures Knowledge of signs and symptoms of LD, beliefs about risk of LD, attitudes toward LD in patients in their practices, and application of accepted practice guidelines for the treatment of LD in clinical scenarios. Results Overall, 80.6% of respondents were FPs. Average knowledge score was 72.5% for FPs and 75.0% for other specialists. Most respondents (75.6% of FPs and 71.8% of other specialists) underestimated the occurrence of erythema migrans (EM), and only 26.1% and 28.3%, respectively, knew that EM alone was diagnostic for LD. A total of 30.5% of FPs and 12.1% of other specialists reported having treated a patient for the disease despite not believing that the patient had LD. Of all the respondents, 62.1% knew that LD was a reportable disease in BC. Respondents’ reports of risk of LD in their areas were appropriately associated with actual risk based on ecological niche. Conclusion Physicians are knowledgeable about the clinical signs and symptoms of LD and aware of the risk of the disease despite being in a low-endemic area. Physicians in BC are comfortable with treating patients empirically for LD. Education is needed to inform physicians that EM is diagnostic and no laboratory testing is indicated before treatment. Raising awareness among physicians that LD is reportable might improve reporting of future cases. PMID:22734172

  19. [Botulism disease].

    PubMed

    Marcus, Nir; Hourvitz, Ariel

    2002-05-01

    Botulism is caused by a neurotoxin produced from the anaerobic, spore forming bacteria--clostridium botulinum. The disease is usually caused by toxins type A, B and E. Since the disease was first recognized in the beginning of the nineteenth century as food poisoning, different forms of intoxication were described. Infantile botulism, wound botulism, infectious botulism and inadvertent botulism are all clinical syndromes caused by the same toxin. The attempt to use the botulinum toxin as biological warfare agent is well known. Recently the potential terrorist use of botulinum toxin has become a real concern. Botulism is characterized by its classic triad: 1) symmetric descending flaccid paralysis with prominent bulbar palsies 2) afebrile patient 3) clear sensorium. The paralysis usually begins in the cranial nerves where blurred vision, dysarthia and dysphagia are the initial complaints. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, history of suspicious exposure and supportive ancillary testing to rule out other causes of neurologic dysfunction that mimic botulism such as the Guillain-Barre syndrome, Myasthenia Gravis or cerebrovascular stroke. Laboratory confirmation of suspected cases is usually delayed and treatment should begin before confirmation is completed. The treatment includes supportive care, and the administration of antitoxin which reduces mortality if given early. Since community and emergency room physicians may be the first to treat patients with any type of botulinum intoxication, they must know how to diagnose and treat this rare but potentially lethal disease.

  20. Beryllium disease

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-20

    After two workers at the nuclear weapons plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee were diagnosed earlier this year with chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a rare and sometimes fatal scarring of the lungs, the Department of Energy ordered up a 4-year probe. Now, part of that probe has begun - tests conducted by the Oak Ridge Associated Universities' Center for Epidemiological Research measuring beryllium sensitivity in 3,000 people who've been exposed to the metal's dust since Manhattan Project managers opened the Y-12 plant at Oak Ridge in 1943. Currently, 119 Y-12 employees process beryllium, which has a number ofmore » industrial uses, including rocket heat shields and nuclear weapon and electrical components. The disease often takes 20 to 25 years to develop, and the stricken employees haven't worked with beryllium for years. There is no cure for CBD, estimated to strike 2% of people exposed to the metal. Anti-inflammatory steroids alleviate such symptoms as a dry cough, weight loss, and fatigue. Like other lung-fibrosis diseases that are linked to lung cancer, some people suspect CBD might cause some lung cancer. While difficult to diagnose, about 900 cases of CBD have been reported since a Beryllium Case Registry was established in 1952. The Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that about 10,000 DOE employees and 800,000 people in private industry have worked with beryllium.« less

  1. [Treatment of Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Vavricka, St R; Rogler, G

    2009-01-21

    The therapy of Crohn's disease depends on its disease activity. For those different disease activities (such as flare, chronic active disease, remission) varying treatment concepts are followed. This overview presents important concepts in the treatment of Crohn's disease.

  2. [Bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw.

  3. Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tanowitz, H B; Kirchhoff, L V; Simon, D; Morris, S A; Weiss, L M; Wittner, M

    1992-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of morbidity in many countries in Latin America. The important modes of transmission are by the bite of the reduviid bug and blood transfusion. The organism exists in three morphological forms: trypomastigotes, amastigotes, and epimastigotes. The mechanism of transformation and differentiation is currently being explored, and signal transduction pathways of the parasites may be involved in this process. Parasite adherence to and invasion of host cells is a complex process involving complement, phospholipase, penetrin, neuraminidase, and hemolysin. Two clinical forms of the disease are recognized, acute and chronic. During the acute stage pathological damage is related to the presence of the parasite, whereas in the chronic stage few parasites are found. In recent years the roles of tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, and the interleukins in the pathogenesis of this infection have been reported. The common manifestations of chronic cardiomyopathy are arrhythmias and thromboembolic events. Autoimmune, neurogenic, and microvascular factors may be important in the pathogenesis of the cardiomyopathy. The gastrointestinal tract is another important target, and "mega syndromes" are common manifestations. The diagnosis and treatment of this infection are active areas of investigation. New serological and molecular biological techniques have improved the diagnosis of chronic infection. Exacerbations of T. cruzi infection have been reported for patients receiving immuno-suppressive therapy and for those with AIDS. Images PMID:1423218

  4. Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease even for nonsmokers. Learn about smoking and cardiovascular disease High blood cholesterol As blood cholesterol rises, so ... Overweight and obese adults with risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or ...

  5. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  6. Thyroid diseases and cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Squizzato, A; Gerdes, V E A; Brandjes, D P M; Büller, H R; Stam, J

    2005-10-01

    Acute cerebral ischemia has been described in different diseases of the thyroid gland, and not only as a result of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation and cardioembolic stroke. The purpose of this review is to summarize the studies on the relationship between thyroid diseases and cerebrovascular diseases, discussing the main findings for overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, as well as for subclinical thyroid dysfunction. In overt hyperthyroidism, cardioembolic stroke is clearly associated to thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation, and in subclinical hyperthyroidism with serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels <0.1 mU/L, the incidence of atrial fibrillation is increased. Although in vitro and in vivo studies indicate a hypercoagulability state in hyperthyroidism, there is insufficient evidence to prove that this state leads to an increased risk of cardiac emboli. However, the hypothesis that overt hyperthyroidism may cause acute cerebral venous thrombosis is intriguing. Possible associations between hyperthyroidism and Moyamoya or Giant cell arteritis have only been described in case reports. There is enough evidence that overt hypothyroidism is associated with several traditional and newer atherosclerotic risk factors, especially hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperhomocysteinemia. For subclinical hypothyroidism, these associations are less certain. Hypothyroidism has been associated with signs of aortic or coronary atherosclerosis, but no case-control or cohort studies have ever investigated hypothyroidism as a possible risk factor for atherothrombotic stroke. Hyperthyroidism is associated with atrial fibrillation and cardioembolic stroke. Hypothyroidism is associated with a worse cardiovascular risk factor profile and leads to progression of atherosclerosis. Associations between hyperthyroidism and acute cerebral venous thrombosis, Moyamoya, and Giant cell arteritis have been suggested, but sound evidence is lacking. Additional studies are needed to clarify these

  7. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... may include toxins, chemicals, and viruses. Sometimes the cause is not known. Degenerative nerve diseases include Alzheimer's disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Friedreich's ataxia Huntington's disease ...

  8. United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    Facebook Twitter Google+ Youtube Vimeo Instagram Email Menu Understanding Mitochondrial Disease What is Mito? What is Mitochondrial Disease? Types of Mitochondrial Disease Possible Symptoms Links to Other ...

  9. Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Apostolova, Liana G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose of Review: This article discusses the recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD). Recent Findings: In recent years, significant advances have been made in the fields of genetics, neuroimaging, clinical diagnosis, and staging of AD. One of the most important recent advances in AD is our ability to visualize amyloid pathology in the living human brain. The newly revised criteria for diagnosis of AD dementia embrace the use for biomarkers as supportive evidence for the underlying pathology. Guidelines for the responsible use of amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) have been developed, and the clinical and economic implications of amyloid PET imaging are actively being explored. Summary: Our improved understanding of the clinical onset, progression, neuroimaging, pathologic features, genetics, and other risk factors for AD impacts the approaches to clinical diagnosis and future therapeutic interventions. PMID:27042902

  10. Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Nussbaum, Justin M.; Seward, Matthew E.; Bloom, George S.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) has traditionally been thought to involve the misfolding and aggregation of two different factors that contribute in parallel to pathogenesis: amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, which represent proteolytic fragments of the transmembrane amyloid precursor protein, and tau, which normally functions as a neuronally enriched, microtubule-associated protein that predominantly accumulates in axons. Recent evidence has challenged this model, however, by revealing numerous functional interactions between Aβ and tau in the context of pathogenic mechanisms for AD. Moreover, the propagation of toxic, misfolded Aβ and tau bears a striking resemblance to the propagation of toxic, misfolded forms of the canonical prion protein, PrP, and misfolded Aβ has been shown to induce tau misfolding in vitro through direct, intermolecular interaction. In this review we discuss evidence for the prion-like properties of both Aβ and tau individually, as well as the intriguing possibility that misfolded Aβ acts as a template for tau misfolding in vivo. PMID:22965142

  11. [Polyethylene disease].

    PubMed

    Sosna, A; Radonský, T; Pokorný, D; Veigl, D; Horák, Z; Jahoda, D

    2003-01-01

    The experience obtained during revision surgery and findings of polyethylene granulomas in surrounding tissues of replacement as well as marked differences in the viability of implants resulted in the study of polyethylene disease and its basic mechanisms producing the development of osteoaggressive granulomas. We investigated the morphology of particles and their number in tissues surrounding the implant. The aim of our study was to develop a method for the detection of polyethylene particles in tissues, to identify different types of wear and to assess factors that may influence the viability of joint arthroplasty in general. Every revizion of joint arthroplasty performed during the last five years was evaluated in terms of the presence of polyethylene granules and the viability state of articular polyethylene inserts. A total of 55 samples were taken from tissues around loosened endoprostheses. The location of each sample was exactly determined. A technique was developed to identify wear particles and to visualize them after all organic structures of a polyethylene granuloma were dissolved with nitrogenic acid. The viability of articular polyethylene implants showed extreme differences in relation to different periods of manufacture and probably also to different methods of sterilization. Articular inserts sterilized with formaldehyde (the method used at the beginning of arthroplasty in our country) showed the highest viability and the lowest wear. The polyethylene particles present in tissues surrounding the implant were characterized in terms of morphology and size. The comparison of literature data and our results has revealed that there are many unknown facts about the quality and structure of polyethylene. The method of sterilization also appears to play a role. Because the issue is complex, we were not able to identify all factors leading, in some cases, to an early and unexpected failure of the implant and we consider further investigation to be necessary

  12. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  13. Heart disease and women

    MedlinePlus

    ... NOT consider heart disease a woman's disease. Yet cardiovascular disease is the leading killer of women over age ... gov/pubmed/25070666 . Gulati M, Bairey Merz CN. Cardiovascular disease in women. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  14. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and ... is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among coal ...

  15. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate A to Z Health Guide About Chronic Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Chronic kidney disease ( ... about Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) What is chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that ...

  16. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... care provider about when to begin screening. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition No specific diet will prevent or delay acquired ... Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la ...

  17. Celiac Disease Changes Everything

    MedlinePlus

    ... but a true gift. Read More "Celiac Disease" Articles Celiac Disease Changes Everything / What is Celiac Disease? / Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment / Four Inches and Seven Pounds… / Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease / Living Gluten- ...

  18. What Is Celiac Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and saliva are destroyed Read More "Celiac Disease" Articles Celiac Disease Changes Everything / What is Celiac Disease? / Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment / Four Inches and Seven Pounds… / Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease / Living Gluten- ...

  19. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... by Barbara Goldstein, MD (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  20. Heart Disease and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... receive Heart Disease and Stroke email updates Submit Heart Disease and Stroke Heart disease and stroke are important ... Stroke Stroke symptoms Stroke risk factors View more Heart Disease and Stroke resources Related information Heart-healthy eating ...

  1. Mad Cow Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth / For Teens / Mad Cow Disease What's ... are people to get it? What Is Mad Cow Disease? Mad cow disease is an incurable, fatal ...

  2. Heart disease - risk factors

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  3. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... buildup of plaque in the arteries to your heart. This may also be called hardening of the ...

  4. Renal disease in patients with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Boonpheng, Boonphiphop; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Wijarnpreecha, Karn

    2018-04-01

    Celiac disease, an inflammatory disease of small bowel caused by sensitivity to dietary gluten and related protein, affects approximately 0.5-1% of the population in the Western world. Extra-intestinal symptoms and associated diseases are increasingly recognized including diabetes mellitus type 1, thyroid disease, dermatitis herpetiformis and ataxia. There have also been a number of reports of various types of renal involvement in patients with celiac disease including diabetes nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome related to malabsorption, oxalate nephropathy, and associations of celiac disease with chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease. This review aims to present the current literature on possible pathologic mechanisms underlying renal disease in patients with celiac disease.

  5. Inflammatory bowel disease and airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Vutcovici, Maria; Brassard, Paul; Bitton, Alain

    2016-09-14

    Airway diseases are the most commonly described lung manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the similarities in disease pathogenesis and the sharing of important environmental risk factors and genetic susceptibility suggest that there is a complex interplay between IBD and airway diseases. Recent evidence of IBD occurrence among patients with airway diseases and the higher than estimated prevalence of subclinical airway injuries among IBD patients support the hypothesis of a two-way association. Future research efforts should be directed toward further exploration of this association, as airway diseases are highly prevalent conditions with a substantial public health impact.

  6. Lyme Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread to the nervous system, causing facial paralysis ( Bell's palsy ) or meningitis . The last stage of Lyme disease ... feeling back to normal within several weeks after treatment starts. Is Lyme Disease Contagious? Lyme disease is ...

  7. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  8. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... control in persons with Type 2 diabetes. 1 Cardiovascular Disease Persons with sleep apnea have been found to be at increased risk for a number of cardiovascular diseases. Notably, hypertension, stroke, coronary heart disease and irregular ...

  9. Lyme disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Lyme disease is an acute inflammatory disease characterized by skin changes, joint inflammation and symptoms similar to the ... that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of a deer ...

  10. Pediatric Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Free Recipe Article What is Celiac Disease Video Support Organizations National Foundation for Celiac Awareness (NFCA) Celiac Central Canadian Celiac Association Celiac Disease Foundation Celiac Sprue ... Educational support for the NASPGHAN Foundation's Celiac Disease Education Campaign ...

  11. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 29,2018 The following ... clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. At least 68 percent ...

  12. Pregnancy and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate A to Z Health Guide Pregnancy and Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email A new baby ... disease and pregnancy. Can a woman with "mild" kidney disease have a baby? That depends. There is ...

  13. Kidney Disease Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Kidneys Fail? Clinical Trials What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means your kidneys ... work, be active, and enjoy life. Will my kidneys get better? Kidney disease is often “progressive”, which ...

  14. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate Now Give Monthly Give In Honor Chronic kidney disease (CKD) www.kidneyfund.org > Kidney Disease > Chronic ... Kidney-friendly diet for CKD What causes chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Anyone can get CKD. Some people ...

  15. Kidney disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - kidney disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on kidney disease: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease -- www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney- ...

  16. Heart disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association -- www.heart.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/heartdisease

  17. Celiac disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Association -- www.csaceliacs.org Gluten Intolerance Group -- www.gluten.org National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease -- www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/celiac-disease Beyond Celiac -- www. ...

  18. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  19. Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... del paciente Transplant process Diseases treated by transplant Acute myeloid leukemia Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) ... SCID) Sickle cell disease (SCD) Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Other diseases Treatment decisions Learn ...

  20. Krabbe Disease (GLD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... del paciente Transplant process Diseases treated by transplant Acute myeloid leukemia Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) ... SCID) Sickle cell disease (SCD) Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Other diseases Treatment decisions Learn ...

  1. Learning about Your Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... del paciente Transplant process Diseases treated by transplant Acute myeloid leukemia Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) ... SCID) Sickle cell disease (SCD) Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Other diseases Treatment decisions Learn ...

  2. Chronic Diseases Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... cases of blindness among adults. 6 Health Risk Behaviors that Cause Chronic Diseases Health risk behaviors are ... The Cost of Chronic Diseases and Health Risk Behaviors In the United States, chronic diseases and conditions ...

  3. Fatty Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... fatty liver disease that is not related to heavy alcohol use. There are two kinds: Simple fatty ... disease? Alcoholic fatty liver disease is due to heavy alcohol use. Your liver breaks down most of ...

  4. Lyme Disease Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... cases of Lyme disease have been linked to blood transfusion, scientists have found that the Lyme disease bacteria ... through the use of tick control products for animals. You will not get Lyme disease from eating ...

  5. Atheroembolic renal disease

    MedlinePlus

    Renal disease - atheroembolic; Cholesterol embolization syndrome; Atheroemboli - renal; Atherosclerotic disease - renal ... disorder of the arteries. It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls ...

  6. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-03

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  7. Cardiovascular disease biomarkers across autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, Joseph; Shields, Kelly J; Liu, Chau-Ching; Manzi, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is increasingly recognized as a major cause of premature mortality among those with autoimmune disorders. There is an urgent need to identify those patients with autoimmune disease who are at risk for CVD so as to optimize therapeutic intervention and ultimately prevention. Accurate identification, monitoring and stratification of such patients will depend upon a panel of biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. This review will discuss some of the most recent biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases in autoimmune disease, including lipid oxidation, imaging biomarkers to characterize coronary calcium, plaque, and intima media thickness, biomarkers of inflammation and activated complement, genetic markers, endothelial biomarkers, and antiphospholipid antibodies. Clinical implementation of these biomarkers will not only enhance patient care but also likely accelerate the pharmaceutical pipeline for targeted intervention to reduce or eliminate cardiovascular disease in the setting of autoimmunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The integrated disease network.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kai; Buchan, Natalie; Larminie, Chris; Pržulj, Nataša

    2014-11-01

    The growing body of transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and genomic data generated from disease states provides a great opportunity to improve our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving diseases and shared between diseases. The use of both clinical and molecular phenotypes will lead to better disease understanding and classification. In this study, we set out to gain novel insights into diseases and their relationships by utilising knowledge gained from system-level molecular data. We integrated different types of biological data including genome-wide association studies data, disease-chemical associations, biological pathways and Gene Ontology annotations into an Integrated Disease Network (IDN), a heterogeneous network where nodes are bio-entities and edges between nodes represent their associations. We also introduced a novel disease similarity measure to infer disease-disease associations from the IDN. Our predicted associations were systemically evaluated against the Medical Subject Heading classification and a statistical measure of disease co-occurrence in PubMed. The strong correlation between our predictions and co-occurrence associations indicated the ability of our approach to recover known disease associations. Furthermore, we presented a case study of Crohn's disease. We demonstrated that our approach not only identified well-established connections between Crohn's disease and other diseases, but also revealed new, interesting connections consistent with emerging literature. Our approach also enabled ready access to the knowledge supporting these new connections, making this a powerful approach for exploring connections between diseases.

  9. Epigenetics of kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Nicola; Bechtel-Walz, Wibke

    2017-07-01

    DNA methylation and histone modifications determine renal programming and the development and progression of renal disease. The identification of the way in which the renal cell epigenome is altered by environmental modifiers driving the onset and progression of renal diseases has extended our understanding of the pathophysiology of kidney disease progression. In this review, we focus on current knowledge concerning the implications of epigenetic modifications during renal disease from early development to chronic kidney disease progression including renal fibrosis, diabetic nephropathy and the translational potential of identifying new biomarkers and treatments for the prevention and therapy of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease.

  10. [Periodontal disease in pediatric rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Fabri, Gisele M C; Savioli, Cynthia; Siqueira, José T; Campos, Lucia M; Bonfá, Eloisa; Silva, Clovis A

    2014-01-01

    Gingivitis and periodontitis are immunoinflammatory periodontal diseases characterized by chronic localized infections usually associated with insidious inflammation This narrative review discusses periodontal diseases and mechanisms influencing the immune response and autoimmunity in pediatric rheumatic diseases (PRD), particularly juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (C-SLE) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Gingivitis was more frequently observed in these diseases compared to health controls, whereas periodontitis was a rare finding. In JIA patients, gingivitis and periodontitis were related to mechanical factors, chronic arthritis with functional disability, dysregulation of the immunoinflammatory response, diet and drugs, mainly corticosteroids and cyclosporine. In C-SLE, gingivitis was associated with longer disease period, high doses of corticosteroids, B-cell hyperactivation and immunoglobulin G elevation. There are scarce data on periodontal diseases in JDM population, and a unique gingival pattern, characterized by gingival erythema, capillary dilation and bush-loop formation, was observed in active patients. In conclusion, gingivitis was the most common periodontal disease in PRD. The observed association with disease activity reinforces the need for future studies to determine if resolution of this complication will influence disease course or severity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Salivary gland disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bethan L; Brown, Jackie E; McGurk, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Salivary gland disease covers a wide range of pathological entities, including salivary gland-specific disease, as well as manifestations of systemic diseases. This chapter discusses the recent advances in managing obstructive salivary gland disease, the move from gland excision to gland preservation, the dilemmas in diagnosing and managing tumours of the salivary glands, and the international data collection to understand the aetiology and progression of Sjögren's disease. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Disease progression and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Holford, Nick

    2013-06-01

    The concepts of disease progression are discussed in the context of neurological disorders. The importance of understanding the time course of the response to inactive (placebo) treatment is discussed. Disease progression and response to placebo treatment both need to be considered before drug effects can be reliably identified. Criteria for distinguishing between symptomatic and disease modifying drug effects are proposed and used to interpret the results of clinical trials in pain, depression, schizophrenia, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

  13. Prion Diseases as Transmissible Zoonotic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea. PMID:24159531

  14. [Atherosclerosis in inflammatory diseases].

    PubMed

    Páramo, José A; Rodríguez, José A; Orbe, Josune

    2007-05-19

    The recognition that inflammation is a hallmark of atherosclerotic disease and its complications has led to a series of studies reporting high prevalence of atherosclerosis in chronic inflammatory diseases. Indeed, chronic immune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, are associated with proinflammation, accelerated atherosclerosis and increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Since the susceptibility towards cardiovascular events cannot be explained by classical risk factors, disease-specific pathways have been put forward as additional risk factors, potentially important for future prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis associated with chronic inflammatory diseases.

  15. Menopause and Rheumatic Disease.

    PubMed

    Talsania, Mitali; Scofield, Robert Hal

    2017-05-01

    Menopause occurs naturally in women at about 50 years of age. There is a wealth of data concerning the relationship of menopause to systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis; there are limited data concerning other rheumatic diseases. Age at menopause may affect the risk and course of rheumatic diseases. Osteoporosis, an integral part of inflammatory rheumatic diseases, is made worse by menopause. Hormone replacement therapy has been studied; its effects vary depending on the disease and even different manifestations within the same disease. Cyclophosphamide can induce early menopause, but there is underlying decreased ovarian reserve in rheumatic diseases. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. [Finnish disease heritage].

    PubMed

    Kestilä, Marjo; Ikonen, Elina; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina

    2010-01-01

    The Finnish disease heritage refers to rare hereditary diseases that occur in the Finnish population in a relatively larger proportion than in other populations. The genes underlying all of the 36 diseases of the disease heritage have been identified. Together with her group and collaborators, Leena Palotie identified 15 of these, and this review includes the description of some of these achievements. As a result of the so-called founder effect, one predominant mutation underlying these diseases occurs in our population, facilitating the diagnostics of these diseases in our country.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Alexander disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the prognosis of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency The prevalence of Alexander disease ... Degenerative Nerve Diseases Health Topic: Leukodystrophies Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Alexander disease Additional NIH ...

  18. Celiac Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... for refractory celiac disease. Read More "Celiac Disease" Articles Celiac Disease Changes Everything / What is Celiac Disease? / Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment / Four Inches and Seven Pounds… / Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease / Living Gluten- ...

  19. Lysosomal storage diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Carlos R.; Gahl, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomes are cytoplasmic organelles that contain a variety of different hydrolases. A genetic deficiency in the enzymatic activity of one of these hydrolases will lead to the accumulation of the material meant for lysosomal degradation. Examples include glycogen in the case of Pompe disease, glycosaminoglycans in the case of the mucopolysaccharidoses, glycoproteins in the cases of the oligosaccharidoses, and sphingolipids in the cases of Niemann-Pick disease types A and B, Gaucher disease, Tay-Sachs disease, Krabbe disease, and metachromatic leukodystrophy. Sometimes, the lysosomal storage can be caused not by the enzymatic deficiency of one of the hydrolases, but by the deficiency of an activator protein, as occurs in the AB variant of GM2 gangliosidosis. Still other times, the accumulated lysosomal material results from failed egress of a small molecule as a consequence of a deficient transporter, as in cystinosis or Salla disease. In the last couple of decades, enzyme replacement therapy has become available for a number of lysosomal storage diseases. Examples include imiglucerase, taliglucerase and velaglucerase for Gaucher disease, laronidase for Hurler disease, idursulfase for Hunter disease, elosulfase for Morquio disease, galsulfase for Maroteaux-Lamy disease, alglucosidase alfa for Pompe disease, and agalsidase alfa and beta for Fabry disease. In addition, substrate reduction therapy has been approved for certain disorders, such as eliglustat for Gaucher disease. The advent of treatment options for some of these disorders has led to newborn screening pilot studies, and ultimately to the addition of Pompe disease and Hurler disease to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP) in 2015 and 2016, respectively. PMID:29152458

  20. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - A multisystem disease?

    PubMed Central

    Mikolasevic, Ivana; Milic, Sandra; Turk Wensveen, Tamara; Grgic, Ivana; Jakopcic, Ivan; Stimac, Davor; Wensveen, Felix; Orlic, Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common comorbidities associated with overweight and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Importantly, NAFLD is one of its most dangerous complications because it can lead to severe liver pathologies, including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatic cellular carcinoma. Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity, NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease and therefore is a major global health problem. Currently, NAFLD is predominantly regarded as a hepatic manifestation of MetS. However, accumulating evidence indicates that the effects of NAFLD extend beyond the liver and are negatively associated with a range of chronic diseases, most notably cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is becoming increasingly clear that these diseases are the result of the same underlying pathophysiological processes associated with MetS, such as insulin resistance, chronic systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia. As a result, they have been shown to be independent reciprocal risk factors. In addition, recent data have shown that NAFLD actively contributes to aggravation of the pathophysiology of CVD, T2DM, and CKD, as well as several other pathologies. Thus, NAFLD is a direct cause of many chronic diseases associated with MetS, and better detection and treatment of fatty liver disease is therefore urgently needed. As non-invasive screening methods for liver disease become increasingly available, detection and treatment of NAFLD in patients with MetS should therefore be considered by both (sub-) specialists and primary care physicians. PMID:27920470

  1. Heart Disease (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood vessels. You might know someone who has cardiovascular disease because more than 60 million Americans have some ... The blood carries oxygen, which the cells need. Cardiovascular disease is a group of problems that occur when ...

  2. Carcinoid heart disease.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Alain M; Connolly, Heidi M; Hobday, Timothy J; Abel, Martin D; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    Carcinoid heart disease is a rare form of valvular heart disease. The management of these patients is complex, as the systemic malignant disease and the cardiac involvement have to be considered at the same time. Progress in the treatment of patients with carcinoid disease has resulted in improved symptom control and survival. Development and progression of carcinoid heart disease are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In patients with severe cardiac involvement and well-controlled systemic disease, cardiac surgery has been recognized as the only effective treatment option. Valve replacement surgery may not only be beneficial in terms of symptom relief, but may also contribute to the improved survival observed over the past 2 decades in patients with carcinoid heart disease. Early diagnosis and early surgical treatment in appropriately selected patients may provide the best results. In this article, we review the current literature regarding the biology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of carcinoid heart disease.

  3. Tay-Sachs disease

    MedlinePlus

    GM2 gangliosidosis - Tay-Sachs; Lysosomal storage disease - Tay-Sachs disease ... called gangliosides. Without this protein, gangliosides, particularly ganglioside GM2, build up in cells, often nerve cells in ...

  4. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Foundation Inc. Department of Agriculture (USDA) See all related organizations Publications Transmissible Spongiform ... Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Foundation Inc. Department of Agriculture (USDA) See all related organizations Publications Transmissible Spongiform ...

  5. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... head with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow or blocked, usually because ... other substances found in the blood. Carotid artery disease is serious because it can block the blood ...

  6. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection and inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, and other female reproductive organs. It causes scarring ... United States. Gonorrhea and chlamydia, two sexually transmitted diseases, are the most common causes of PID. Other ...

  7. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. The causes of STDs ... often help with the symptoms and keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  8. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  9. Lewy Body Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss of mental ... to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, build ...

  10. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  11. Celiac Disease: Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Greg; Feighery, Conleth F

    2015-01-01

    Historically the diagnosis of celiac disease has relied upon clinical, serological, and histological evidence. In recent years the use of sensitive serological methods has meant an increase in the diagnosis of celiac disease. The heterogeneous nature of the disorder presents a challenge in the study and diagnosis of the disease with patients varying from subclinical or latent disease to patients with overt symptoms. Furthermore the related gluten-sensitive disease dermatitis herpetiformis, while distinct in some respects, shares clinical and serological features with celiac disease. Here we summarize current best practice for the diagnosis of celiac disease and briefly discuss newer approaches. The advent of next-generation assays for diagnosis and newer clinical protocols may result in more sensitive screening and ultimately the possible replacement of the intestinal biopsy as the gold standard for celiac disease diagnosis.

  12. Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... if your father or a brother was diagnosed with heart disease before 55 years of age, or if your mother or a sister was diagnosed with heart disease before 65 years of age. Preeclampsia (pre-e- ...

  13. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  14. Men and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  15. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth / For Kids / Chronic Kidney Diseases What's ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  16. Disease Outbreak News

    MedlinePlus

    ... Iraq Nigeria Somalia South Sudan Syrian Arab Republic Yemen All emergencies » Latest » By country By disease Disease ... behavioural impact (COMBI) COMBI toolkit for behavioural and social communication in outbreak response Field workbook for COMBI ...

  17. Marburg Virus Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... MVD from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever, shigellosis, meningitis and other viral haemorrhagic fevers. Confirmation ... MVD from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever, shigellosis, meningitis and other viral haemorrhagic fevers. Confirmation ...

  18. Ebola Virus Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... EVD from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever and meningitis. Confirmation that symptoms are caused by ... EVD from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever and meningitis. Confirmation that symptoms are caused by ...

  19. Diabetic Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. ... friends about diabetic eye disease. This module includes descriptive audio and captioning. Diabetic eye disease has no ...

  20. Phytochemicals and Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Phytochemicals and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Mar 18,2014 What are phytochemicals? ... that may have promise in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease. AHA Recommendation More research on phytochemicals is ...

  1. Parkinson disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - Parkinson disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Parkinson disease : The Michael J. Fox Foundation -- www.michaeljfox.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www. ...

  2. Lung disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association -- www.lung.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...

  3. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services (C.L.A.S.S.) -- www. ...

  4. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death in the United States in both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to ...

  5. Niemann-Pick disease

    MedlinePlus

    NPD; Sphingomyelinase deficiency; Lipid storage disorder - Niemann-Pick disease; Lysosomal storage disease - Niemann-Pick ... cannot properly break down cholesterol and other fats (lipids). This leads to too much cholesterol in the ...

  6. Tay-Sachs Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... better understanding of how neurological deficits arise in lipid storage diseases and on the development of new treatments targeting disease mechanisms. Specific research on the gangliodisoses including expanding the use of ...

  7. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ...

  8. Genetic Disease Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... has used its fundraising efforts to help further research programs at Mount Sinai. Spotlight: Gaucher Gaucher Disease is the most common of the lipid storage diseases. Learn about its symptoms, how it ...

  9. Occupational Respiratory Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... other particles. Types of occupational respiratory disease include: coal workers’ pneumoconiosis, also known as Black Lung Disease ... include: Dust from things such as wood, cotton, coal, asbestos, silica, and talc. Pesticides, drug or enzyme ...

  10. Minimal change disease

    MedlinePlus

    Minimal change nephrotic syndrome; Nil disease; Lipoid nephrosis; Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood ... disease is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children. It is also seen in adults ...

  11. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... be the same one that causes vCJD in humans. Variant CJD causes less than 1% of all ... Scrapie (found in sheep) Other very rare inherited human diseases, such as Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease and ...

  12. Collagen vascular disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001223.htm Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on ... were previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many ...

  13. Learning about Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... having genetic testing can learn more about their risk for Parkinson's disease and the availability and accuracy of genetic testing for this disease by setting up an appointment with a genetics health professional. Genetic professionals work as members of health ...

  14. What Is Mitochondrial Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review Mitochondrial Structure, Function and Diseases Review Cell Biology of Diagnosis and Treatment of Mitochondrial Diseases Review ... Factories and Much More The conventional teaching in biology and medicine is that mitochondria function only as “ ...

  15. Congenital heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001114.htm Congenital heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a problem with the heart's structure ...

  16. Hypertensive heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000163.htm Hypertensive heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hypertensive heart disease refers to heart problems that occur because of ...

  17. Heart disease and intimacy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000540.htm Heart disease and intimacy To use the sharing features on ... 22267844 . Morrow DA, de Lemos JA. Stable ischemic heart disease. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann ...

  18. Rheumatoid lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules; Rheumatoid lung ... Lung problems are common in rheumatoid arthritis. They often cause no symptoms. The cause of lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. Sometimes, the medicines used to ...

  19. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... with infected tissue, usually during a medical procedure Cattle can get a disease related to CJD called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or "mad cow disease." There is concern that people can get ...

  20. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... vCJD) can be acquired by eating meat from cattle affected by a disease similar to CJD called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or, commonly, “mad cow” disease. CJD belongs to a family of human ...

  1. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chickens in the City Diseases Cat-Scratch Disease E. coli Infection Ringworm Salmonella Infection Specific Groups & Settings Public Settings Organ Transplant Patients Infants and Young ... Dominguez KL, Hazra R, Handelsman E, et al. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment ...

  2. [Emerging noninfectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Consiglio, Ezequiel

    2008-11-01

    In recent years, emerging diseases were defined as being infectious, acquiring high incidence, often suddenly, or being a threat or an unexpected phenomenon. This study discusses the hallmarks of emerging diseases, describing the existence of noninfectious emerging diseases, and elaborating on the advantages of defining noninfectious diseases as emerging ones. From the discussion of various mental health disorders, nutritional deficiencies, external injuries and violence outcomes, work injuries and occupational health, and diseases due to environmental factors, the conclusion is drawn that a wide variety of noninfectious diseases can be defined as emergent. Noninfectious emerging diseases need to be identified in order to improve their control and management. A new definition of "emergent disease" is proposed, one that emphasizes the pathways of emergence and conceptual traits, rather than descriptive features.

  3. Machado-Joseph Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Machado-Joseph Disease Fact Sheet What is Machado-Joseph disease? What are the ... the repeat is in a protein-producing or coding region of the gene. Modifications of the mutant ...

  4. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education FAQs Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) FAQ077, September 2015 ... on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & Governance ...

  5. Progression of Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  6. Kawasaki Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe ...

  7. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Educators Search English Español Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS) KidsHealth / For Kids / Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS) What's ... with ALS in the 1930s. What Happens in ALS? ALS damages motor neurons in the brain and ...

  8. Takayasu's disease in Arabs.

    PubMed Central

    Sattar, M. A.; White, A. G.; Eklof, B.; Fenech, F. F.

    1985-01-01

    Four cases of Takayasu's disease in female Arabs are reported. All patients had classical features of the disease. Typing for HLA phenotype showed that all patients had HLA A2, A9, BW35 and DR7 antigens, suggesting an immunogenetic basis for the disease. As far as we know, this is the first report of Takayasu's disease in this ethnic group. Images Figure 1 PMID:2862623

  9. Huntington's disease in Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Scrimgeour, E M

    1981-01-01

    Huntington's disease was studied in a Bantu community in northern Tanzania. Although there is evidence to suggest that the disease has been present here for over one hundred years, this is the first report of the condition in Tanzania. A survey of published reports indicates that the disease is infrequently reported in persons of Negro ancestry. PMID:6453998

  10. Armillaria Root Disease

    Treesearch

    R.E. Williams; C.G. III Shaw; P.M. Wargo; W.H. Sites

    1986-01-01

    Armillaria root disease is found throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world. In the continental United States, the disease has been reported in nearly every State. Hosts include hundreds of species of trees, shrubs, vines, and forbs growing in forests, along roadsides, and in cultivated areas. The disease is caused by fungi, which live as parasites on...

  11. Dutch elm disease

    Treesearch

    James W. Walters

    1992-01-01

    Since its discovery in the United States in 1930, Dutch elm disease has killed thousands of native elms. The three native elms, American, slippery, and rock, have little or no resistance to Dutch elm disease, but individual trees within each species vary in susceptibility to the disease. The most important of these, American elm, is scattered in upland stands but is...

  12. Disease control operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian

    1987-01-01

    Individual disease outbreaks have killed many thousands of animals on numerous occasions. Tens of thousands of migratory birds have died in single die-offs with as many as 1,000 birds succumbing in 1 day. In mammals, individual disease outbreaks have killed hundreds to thousands of animals with, for example, hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer, distemper in raccoon, Errington's disease in muskrat, and sylvatic plague in wild rodents. The ability to successfully combat such explosive situations is highly dependent n the readiness of field personnel to deal with them. Because many disease agents can spread though wildlife populations very fast, advance preparation is essential in preventing infected animals from spreading disease to additional species and locations. Carefully though-out disease contingency plans should be developed as practical working documents for field personnel and updated as necessary. Such well-designed plans can prove invaluable in minimizing wildlife losses and costs associated with disease control activities. Although requirements for disease control operations vary and must be tailored to each situation, all disease contingency planning involved general concepts and basic biological information. This chapter, intended as a practical guide, identifies the major activities and needs of disease control operations, and relates them to disease contingency planning.

  13. Venereal Disease. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Stephen J.

    This book is one in a series of contemporary topics in health science for students. The first chapter deals with the behavioral aspects of venereal disease and how the disease has been affected by our changing society. Chapter 2 discusses the magnitude of the problem, presenting various maps and charts. The history of venereal disease and the…

  14. Disease threats in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, L W; Legters, L J

    1993-02-01

    During this time of war and famine in Somalia, disease threats are encyclopedic both for Somalis and visitors. Malnutrition will amplify the magnitude and severity of endemic tropical infectious diseases. Necessary crowding around life-saving food distribution centers could turn focal infectious disease outbreaks into large epidemics.

  15. Diseases of lodgepole pine

    Treesearch

    Frank G. Hawksworth

    1964-01-01

    Diseases are a major concern to forest managers throughout the lodgepole pine type. In many areas, diseases constitute the primary management problem. As might be expected for a tree that has a distribution from Baja California, Mexico to the Yukon and from the Pacific to the Dakotas, the diseases of chief concern vary in different parts of the tree's range. For...

  16. Lyme disease antibody

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lyme disease organism, Borrelia burgdorferi Deer ticks Ticks Lyme disease - Borrelia burgdorferi organism Tick imbedded in the skin Antibodies ... Saunders; 2013:745-747. Steere AC. Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) due to Borrelia burgdorferi . In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  17. Newcastle disease virus (velogens)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is also known as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). While all NDV are referred to as APMV-1 and are of one serotype, only infections with virulent NDV (vNDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND). Newcastle disease virus strains are defined as virulent if they 1) have th...

  18. Heart Disease in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing ... the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and ...

  19. The Relationship Between Fatty Liver Disease and Periodontal Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-22

    Periodontitis is a highly prevalent and destructive chronic disease. Numerous studies support an association between periodontal disease and other...systemic diseases (diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, adverse pregnancy outcome, etc.). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a... chronic inflammatory disease that is characterized by accumulation of triglycerides and fat in the liver which may lead to fibrosis and even cirrhosis

  20. Mondor's disease of penis: a forgotten disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B; Narang, T; Radotra, B D; Gupta, S

    2005-12-01

    Mondor's disease of penis is an uncommon genital condition involving the penile sulcus in a circumferential manner. Although this disorder is almost always self limited, it is associated with considerable psychological stress and sexual disharmony. All patients attending the sexually transmitted disease clinic during 1991-2003 were examined for evidence of Mondor's disease of penis. Detailed history and clinical findings were recorded in a specially designed proforma. Histopathological examination and staining with CD31 and CD34 monoclonal antibodies was also done in 11 patients. 18 out of 1296 patients attending the sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic during the study period were found to have penile Mondor's disease, giving an incidence of 1.39%. 17 patients had history of one or more episodes of STDs. Histopathological specimens showed prominent vessels with plump endothelial cells and thickened blood vessel walls. The occasional vessel showed complete occlusion of its lumen. In our study we did not find any evidence of lymphatic involvement. Non-lymphatic vessels, mainly veins, were predominantly involved. In our opinion Mondor's phlebitis of penis or Mondor's disease of penis are better terms to describe the condition rather than non-venereal sclerosing lymphangitis.

  1. Mondor's disease of penis: a forgotten disease

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B; Narang, T; Radotra, B; Gupta, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: Mondor's disease of penis is an uncommon genital condition involving the penile sulcus in a circumferential manner. Although this disorder is almost always self limited, it is associated with considerable psychological stress and sexual disharmony. Methods: All patients attending the sexually transmitted disease clinic during 1991–2003 were examined for evidence of Mondor's disease of penis. Detailed history and clinical findings were recorded in a specially designed proforma. Histopathological examination and staining with CD31 and CD34 monoclonal antibodies was also done in 11 patients. Results: 18 out of 1296 patients attending the sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic during the study period were found to have penile Mondor's disease, giving an incidence of 1.39%. 17 patients had history of one or more episodes of STDs. Histopathological specimens showed prominent vessels with plump endothelial cells and thickened blood vessel walls. The occasional vessel showed complete occlusion of its lumen. Conclusions: In our study we did not find any evidence of lymphatic involvement. Non-lymphatic vessels, mainly veins, were predominantly involved. In our opinion Mondor's phlebitis of penis or Mondor's disease of penis are better terms to describe the condition rather than non-venereal sclerosing lymphangitis. PMID:16326851

  2. Chronic Inflammatory Disease, Lifestyle and Risk of Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-06

    Autoimmune Diseases; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases; Crohn Disease (CD); Ulcerative Colitis (UC); Arthritis, Rheumatoid (RA); Spondylarthropathies; Arthritis, Psoriatic (PsA); Psoriasis (PsO); Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

  3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation response plays an important role in host survival, and it also leads to acute and chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, bowel diseases, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and various neurodegenerative diseases. During the course of inflammation, the ROS level increases. In addition to ROS, several inflammatory mediators produced at the site lead to numerous cell-mediated damages. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a chronic intestinal disorder resulting from a dysfunctional epithelial, innate and adaptive immune response to intestinal microorganisms. The methods involving indomethacin-induced enterocolitis in rats with macroscopic changes of IBD, myeloperoxidase assay, microscopic (histologic) characters and biochemical parameters are discussed.

  4. Alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Penny, Steven M

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 100,000 deaths are attributed to alcohol abuse each year. In 2009, the World Health Organization listed alcohol use as one of the leading causes of the global burden of disease and injury. Alcoholic liver disease, a direct result of chronic alcohol abuse, insidiously destroys the normal functions of the liver. The end result of the disease, cirrhosis, culminates in a dysfunctional and diffusely scarred liver. This article discusses the clinical manifestations, imaging considerations, and treatment of alcoholic liver disease and cirrhosis. Normal liver function, liver hemodynamics, the disease of alcoholism, and the deleterious effects of alcohol also are reviewed.

  5. Pregnancy and rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Gayed, M; Gordon, C

    2007-11-01

    Pregnancy is an issue that should be discussed with all patients with rheumatic diseases who are in the reproductive age group. Infertility is rarely due to the disease but can be associated with cyclophosphamide therapy. Most rheumatic diseases that are well controlled prior to pregnancy do not deteriorate in pregnancy, providing that the patient continues with appropriate disease-modifying therapy. Some patients with inflammatory arthritis go in to remission during pregnancy. Patients with renal involvement may be at increased risk of disease flare. This needs to be distinguished from pre-eclampsia. Intrauterine growth restriction is more likely in patients with active systemic disease, hypertension, a history of thrombosis and renal involvement. Premature delivery may need to be planned to reduce the risks of stillbirth and can be associated with a variety of neonatal complications. Post-partum flare is common in all the rheumatic diseases.

  6. Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adult Diseases Resources Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... important step in staying healthy. If you have cardiovascular disease, talk with your doctor about getting your vaccinations ...

  7. Disease risk curves.

    PubMed

    Hughes, G; Burnett, F J; Havis, N D

    2013-11-01

    Disease risk curves are simple graphical relationships between the probability of need for treatment and evidence related to risk factors. In the context of the present article, our focus is on factors related to the occurrence of disease in crops. Risk is the probability of adverse consequences; specifically in the present context it denotes the chance that disease will reach a threshold level at which crop protection measures can be justified. This article describes disease risk curves that arise when risk is modeled as a function of more than one risk factor, and when risk is modeled as a function of a single factor (specifically the level of disease at an early disease assessment). In both cases, disease risk curves serve as calibration curves that allow the accumulated evidence related to risk to be expressed on a probability scale. When risk is modeled as a function of the level of disease at an early disease assessment, the resulting disease risk curve provides a crop loss assessment model in which the downside is denominated in terms of risk rather than in terms of yield loss.

  8. Miscellaneous fungal diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.

    1999-01-01

    As for other types of disease, fungal infections probably are more common causes of disease in wild birds than is currently recognized. Also, the similarity in gross lesions produced by some fungi mask the detection of less common fungi as disease agents. Numerous types of disease-causing fungi in addition to Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans have been isolated from birds; most isolations have been from poultry and wild birds being maintained in captivity. Enhanced disease surveillance that is often associated with privately owned birds and greater opportunity to detect disease in confined birds are reasons for these findings rather than any known differences in the occurrence of fungal diseases in free-ranging and captive birds. Many of the reported infections appear to have been opportunistic invasions by the fungi involved. The important points are that many fungi are capable of causing disease in birds but their collective impacts do not rival A. fumigatus as a single cause of disease in wild birds. Nevertheless, it is important to be aware of the diversity of pathogenic or disease causing fungi.

  9. [Cardiovascular disease and systemic inflammatory diseases].

    PubMed

    Cuende, José I; Pérez de Diego, Ignacio J; Godoy, Diego

    2016-01-01

    More than a century of research has shown that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process more than an infiltrative or thrombogenic process. It has been demonstrated epidemiologically and by imaging techniques, that systemic inflammatory diseases (in particular, but not exclusively, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus) increase the atherosclerotic process, and has a demonstrated pathophysiological basis. Furthermore, treatments to control inflammatory diseases can modify the course of the atherosclerotic process. Although there are no specific scales for assessing cardiovascular risk in patients with these diseases, cardiovascular risk is high. A number of specific risk scales are being developed, that take into account specific factors such as the degree of inflammatory activity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Viral Disease Networks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2010-03-01

    Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

  11. [Physical diseases in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Takase, Kojiro

    2015-09-01

    Rapid excessive alcohol drinking frequently causes disturbance of consciousness due to head trauma, brain edema, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hepatic coma and so on, provoked by acute alcohol intoxication. Rapid differential diagnosis and management are extremely important to save a life. On the other hands, the chronic users of alcohol so called alcoholism has many kinds of physical diseases such as liver diseases (i.e., fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic liver cirrhosis and miscellaneous liver disease), diabetes mellitus, injury to happen in drunkenness, pancreas disease (i.e., acute and chronic pancreatitis and deterioration of chronic pancreatitis), gastrontestinal diseases (i.e., gastroduodenal ulcer), and so on. Enough attention should be paid to above mentioned diseases, otherwise they would turn worse more with continuation and increase in quantity of the alcohol. It should be born in its mind that the excessive drinking becomes the weapon threatening life.

  12. Management of Orbital Diseases.

    PubMed

    Betbeze, Caroline

    2015-09-01

    Orbital diseases are common in dogs and cats and can present on emergency due to the acute onset of many of these issues. The difficulty with diagnosis and therapy of orbital disease is that the location of the problem is not readily visible. The focus of this article is on recognizing classical clinical presentations of orbital disease, which are typically exophthalmos, strabismus, enophthalmos, proptosis, or intraconal swelling. After the orbital disease is confirmed, certain characteristics such as pain on opening the mouth, acute vs. chronic swelling, and involvement of nearby structures can be helpful in determining the underlying cause. Abscesses, cellulitis, sialoceles, neoplasia (primary or secondary), foreign bodies, and immune-mediated diseases can all lead to exophthalmos, but it can be difficult to determine the cause of disease without advanced diagnostic imaging, such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, or computed tomography scan. Fine-needle aspirates and biopsies of the retrobulbar space can also be performed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Why infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, John G

    2014-09-15

    Infectious diseases is a broad discipline that is almost unique in contemporary medicine with its ability to cure and prevent disease, to identify specific disease causes (microbes), and to deal with diverse, sometimes massive outbreaks. The value of the infectious disease practitioner is now magnified by the crisis of antibiotic resistance, the expanding consequences of international travel, the introduction of completely new pathogen diagnostics, and healthcare reform with emphasis on infection prevention and cost in dollars and lives. Infectious disease careers have great personal rewards to the practitioner based on these observations. It is unfortunate that we have been so effective in our work, but relatively ineffective in convincing the healthcare system of this value. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. [Tuberculosis as occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2012-06-01

    There is enough evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among healthcare workers. In Peru, there are regulations granting employment rights regarding tuberculosis as an occupational disease, such as healthcare coverage for temporary or permanent disability. However, these rights have not been sufficiently socialized. This study presents information on the risk of acquiring tuberculosis in the workplace, and a review of the evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among health care workers, presenting the current Peruvian law related.

  15. [Male breast diseases].

    PubMed

    Firmin-Lefebvre, D; Misery, L

    2013-01-01

    Because andrology is relatively undeveloped in France, the dermatologist is often the doctor first consulted for diseases of the nipple in men. All dermatological diseases can in fact occur at this site. There are some specific nipple diseases such as gynaecomastia, congenital abnormalities, hyperplasia, benign tumours and breast cancer. All clinical examinations and laboratory examinations should focus on diagnosis of this type of cancer and its elimination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Tangier disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the chances of developing heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) disease. Because people with Tangier disease have very low ... HDL, they have a moderately increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Additional signs and symptoms of Tangier disease include ...

  17. Heart Disease in Hispanic Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Disease in Women Heart Disease in Hispanic Women “I thought it couldn’t be true,” says ... disease is their No. 1 killer. Why Hispanic women? While heart disease doesn’t discriminate, you could ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Fabry disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sheet (PDF) Disease InfoSearch: Fabry Disease Emory University School of Medicine (PDF) International Center for Fabry Disease, Mount Sinai School of Medicine MalaCards: fabry disease Merck Manual Consumer ...

  19. Mad Cow Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth / For Parents / Mad Cow Disease What's ... Is Being Done About It Print About Mad Cow Disease Mad cow disease has been in the ...

  20. Autoimmunity in endocrine diseases.

    PubMed

    Rose, N R; Burek, C L

    1982-01-01

    The realization that autoimmunity underlies many endocrine disorders of previously unknown etiology has greatly broadened our understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases. It has provided new explanations for their heredity and their association with particular HLA haplotypes. It has also offered new tools for diagnosing these diseases as well as monitoring their course or predicting their outcome. Finally, establishing the autoimmune basis of these diseases offers new potential for their treatment. The next quarter century of research into immunologic aspects of endocrine diseases promises to be as fruitful as the last.

  1. "Diseases and natural kinds".

    PubMed

    Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2005-01-01

    David Thomasma called for the development of a medical ethics based squarely on the philosophy of medicine. He recognized, however, that widespread anti-essentialism presented a significant barrier to such an approach. The aim of this article is to introduce a theory that challenges these anti-essentialist objections. The notion of natural kinds presents a modest form of essentialism that can serve as the basis for a foundationalist philosophy of medicine. The notion of a natural kind is neither static nor reductionistic. Disease can be understood as making necessary reference to living natural kinds without invoking the claim that diseases themselves are natural kinds. The idea that natural kinds have a natural disposition to flourish as the kinds of things that they are provides a telos to which to tether the notion of disease - an objective telos that is broader than mere survival and narrower than subjective choice. It is argued that while nosology is descriptive and may have therapeutic implications, disease classification is fundamentally explanatory. Sickness and illness, while referring to the same state of affairs, can be distinguished from disease phenomenologically. Scientific and diagnostic fallibility in making judgments about diseases do not diminish the objectivity of this notion of disease. Diseases are things, not kinds. Injury is a concept parallel to disease that also makes necessary reference to living natural kinds. These ideas provide a new possibility for the development of a philosophy of medicine with implications for medical ethics.

  2. Vaccination against Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Fettelschoss, Antonia; Zabel, Franziska; Bachmann, Martin F

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is a devastating chronic disease without adequate therapy. More than 10 years ago, it was demonstrated in transgenic mouse models that vaccination may be a novel, disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer. Subsequent clinical development has been a roller-coaster with some positive and many negative news. Here, we would like to summarize evidence that next generation vaccines optimized for old people and focusing on patients with mild disease stand a good chance to proof efficacious for the treatment of Alzheimer. PMID:24535580

  3. [Crohn's disease surgery].

    PubMed

    Kala, Zdeněk; Marek, Filip; Válek, Vlastimil A; Bartušek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Surgery of Crohns disease is an important part of the general treatment algorithm. The role of surgery is changing with the development of conservative procedures. The recent years have seen the return to early treatment of patients with Crohns disease. Given the character of the disease and its intestinal symptoms, a specific approach to these patients is necessary, especially regarding the correct choice of surgery. The paper focuses on the luminal damage of the small and large intestine including complications of the disease. We describe the individual indications for a surgical solution, including the choice of anastomosis or multiple / repeated surgeries.

  4. Miscellaneous bacterial diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.

    1999-01-01

    Disease in free-ranging birds is caused by many other pathogenic bacteria in addition to those illustrated within this section. These other diseases are currently considered less important because of their infrequent occurrence, the small numbers of birds generally lost annually, or because they primarily result from infection by opportunistic pathogens and they require concurrent disease processes for them to become apparent. The following brief highlights about the more important of these diseases are included to acquaint readers with their existence and provide some basic information about their ecology.

  5. Disease drivers of aging

    PubMed Central

    Hodes, Richard J.; Sierra, Felipe; Austad, Steven N.; Epel, Elissa; Neigh, Gretchen N.; Erlandson, Kristine M.; Schafer, Marissa J.; LeBrasseur, Nathan K.; Wiley, Christopher; Campisi, Judith; Sehl, Mary E.; Scalia, Rosario; Eguchi, Satoru; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.; Halter, Jeffrey B.; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Ahles, Tim A.; Barzilai, Nir; Hurria, Arti; Hunt, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    It has long been known that aging, at both the cellular and organismal levels, contributes to the development and progression of the pathology of many chronic diseases. However, much less research has examined the inverse relationship—the contribution of chronic diseases and their treatments to the progression of aging-related phenotypes. Here, we discuss the impact of three chronic diseases (cancer, HIV/AIDS, and diabetes) and their treatments on aging, putative mechanisms by which these effects are mediated, and the open questions and future research directions required to understand the relationships between these diseases and aging. PMID:27943360

  6. Disease control operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.; Franson, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Individual disease outbreaks have killed many thousands of animals on numerous occasions. Tens of thousands of migratory birds have died in single die-offs with as many as 1,000 birds succumbing in 1 day. The ability to successfully combat such explosive situations is highly dependent on the readiness of field personnel to deal with them. Because many disease agents can spread through wildlife populations very quickly, advance preparation is essential for preventing infected animals from spreading disease to additional species and locations. Carefully thought-out disease contingency plans should be developed as practical working documents for field personnel and updated as necessary. Well-designed plans can prove invaluable in minimizing wildlife losses and the costs associated with disease control activities.Although requirements for disease control operations vary and must be tailored to each situation, all disease contingency planning involves general concepts and basic biological information. This chapter, which is intended to be a practical guide, identifies the major activities and needs of disease control operations, and relates them to disease contingency planning.

  7. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, L-F; Crameri, G

    2014-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. They are caused by all types of pathogenic agents, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses and prions. Although they have been recognised for many centuries, their impact on public health has increased in the last few decades due to a combination of the success in reducing the spread of human infectious diseases through vaccination and effective therapies and the emergence of novel zoonotic diseases. It is being increasingly recognised that a One Health approach at the human-animal-ecosystem interface is needed for effective investigation, prevention and control of any emerging zoonotic disease. Here, the authors will review the drivers for emergence, highlight some of the high-impact emerging zoonotic diseases of the last two decades and provide examples of novel One Health approaches for disease investigation, prevention and control. Although this review focuses on emerging zoonotic viral diseases, the authors consider that the discussions presented in this paper will be equally applicable to emerging zoonotic diseases of other pathogen types.

  8. Lyme disease and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

  9. Defining an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future.

  10. Adult Still's disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... org/rare-diseases/adult-onset-stills-disease/ . Accessed March 14, 2017. Review Date 2/8/2017 Updated by: Gordon A. Starkebaum, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by ...

  11. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Diny, Nicola L.; Rose, Noel R.; Čiháková, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs. PMID:28496445

  12. Insects and diseases

    Treesearch

    John W. Couston

    2009-01-01

    Insects and diseases are a natural part of forested ecosystems. Their activity is partially regulated by biotic factors, e.g., host abundance, host quality; physical factors, e.g., soil, climate; and disturbances (Berryman 1986). Insects and diseases can influence both forest patterns and forest processes by causing, for example, defoliation and mortality. These...

  13. Beech Bark Disease

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston; James T. O' Brien

    1983-01-01

    Beech bark disease causes significant mortality and defect in American beech, Fagus grandifolia (Ehrh.). The disease results when bark, attacked and altered by the beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind., is invaded and killed by fungi, primarily Nectria coccinea var. faginata Lohman, Watson, and Ayers, and sometimes N. galligena Bres.

  14. Treating Pompe Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokor, Julie; Joseph, Drew; Darwiche, Houda

    2015-01-01

    One of the crosscutting concepts in science is cause and effect. A disease model can provide understanding of cause and effect, as teachers scaffold student thinking from molecular changes in the DNA to visible traits in the organism. The project described in this article uses Pompe disease, a rare recessive disorder, as a model of cause and…

  15. Tick-borne disease.

    PubMed

    Bratton, Robert L; Corey, Ralph

    2005-06-15

    Tick-borne diseases in the United States include Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, tularemia, babesiosis, Colorado tick fever, and relapsing fever. It is important for family physicians to consider these illnesses when patients present with influenza-like symptoms. A petechial rash initially affecting the palms and soles of the feet is associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever, whereas erythema migrans (annular macule with central clearing) is associated with Lyme disease. Various other rashes or skin lesions accompanied by fever and influenza-like illness also may signal the presence of a tick-borne disease. Early, accurate diagnosis allows treatment that may help prevent significant morbidity and possible mortality. Because 24 to 48 hours of attachment to the host are required for infection to occur, early removal can help prevent disease. Treatment with doxycycline or tetracycline is indicated for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and relapsing fever. In patients with clinical findings suggestive of tick-borne disease, treatment should not be delayed for laboratory confirmation. If no symptoms follow exposure to tick bites, empiric treatment is not indicated. The same tick may harbor different infectious pathogens and transmit several with one bite. Advising patients about prevention of tick bites, especially in the summer months, may help prevent exposure to dangerous vector-borne diseases.

  16. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Healthy Pets Healthy People, Cat-Scratch Disease Last Updated: May 19, 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Pets and Animals, Prevention and Wellness, Staying HealthyTags: Bartonella ...

  17. Neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Perl, Daniel P

    2010-01-01

    Alois Alzheimer first pointed out that the disease which would later bear his name has a distinct and recognizable neuropathological substrate. Since then, much has been added to our understanding of the pathological lesions associated with the condition. The 2 primary cardinal lesions associated with Alzheimer's disease are the neurofibrillary tangle and the senile plaque. The neurofibrillary tangle consists of abnormal accumulations of abnormally phosphorylated tau within the perikaryal cytoplasm of certain neurons. The senile plaque consists of a central core of beta-amyloid, a 4-kD peptide, surrounded by abnormally configured neuronal processes or neurites. Other neuropathological lesions are encountered in cases of Alzheimer's disease, but the disease is defined and recognized by these 2 cardinal lesions. Other lesions include poorly understood changes such as granulovacuolar degeneration and eosinophilic rodlike bodies (Hirano bodies). The loss of synaptic components is a change that clearly has a significant impact on cognitive function and represents another important morphological alteration. It is important to recognize that distinguishing between Alzheimer's disease, especially in its early stages, and normal aging may be very difficult, particularly if one is examining the brains of patients who died at an advanced old age. It is also noted that instances of pure forms of Alzheimer's disease, in the absence of other coexistent brain disease processes, such as infarctions or Parkinson's disease-related lesions, are relatively uncommon, and this must be taken into account by researchers who employ postmortem brain tissues for research. (c) 2010 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  18. [Infectious diseases research].

    PubMed

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  19. Viral respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Moise, N S

    1985-09-01

    An overview of the more commonly encountered viral diseases of the dog and cat is presented. The reader is acquainted with the principles of antiviral therapy and the drugs that have been studied for use in animal viral respiratory diseases. An update on vaccination principles and guidelines is provided.

  20. Mummy berry disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mummy Berry is the most important disease of blueberry worldwide. It has not been as severe in the southeastern U.S. on rabbiteye blueberry has it is in other areas on highbush blueberry. However, it has caused severe losses on some farms in some years. This poster gives the symptoms, disease cyc...

  1. Controlling Infectious Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

  2. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  3. Swimming Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabelli, V. J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of recreational waterborne outbreaks and cases of disease, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies; (2) predictive models of the risk of recreational waterborn disease. A list of 35 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Cushing's disease and craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed Central

    Ackland, F M; Stanhope, R; Preece, M A

    1987-01-01

    A 14-year old girl presented with growth failure and Cushing's disease. Histological examination confirmed a craniopharyngioma but failed to show that the tumour secreted adrenocorticotrophic hormone. We suggest that her Cushing's disease was caused by hypothalamic dysfunction associated with increased corticotrophin-releasing hormone secretion, secondary to the craniopharyngioma. Images Figure PMID:2823728

  5. Ethics in Prion Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Kendra; Geschwind, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is intended to discuss some of the scientific and ethical issues that are created by increased research efforts towards earlier diagnosis, as well as to treatment of, human prion diseases (and related dementias), including the resulting consequences for individuals, their families, and society. Most patients with prion disease currently are diagnosed when they are about 2/3 of the way through their disease course (Geschwind, Kuo et al. 2010; Paterson, Torres-Chae et al. 2012), when the disease has progressed so far that even treatments that stop the disease process would probably have little benefit. Although there are currently no treatments available for prion diseases, we and others have realized that we must diagnose patients earlier and with greater accuracy so that future treatments have hope of success. As approximately 15% of prion diseases have a autosomal dominant genetic etiology, this further adds to the complexity of ethical issues, particularly regarding when to conduct genetic testing, release of genetic results, and when or if to implement experimental therapies. Human prion diseases are both infectious and transmissible; great care is required to balance the needs of the family and individual with both public health needs and strained hospital budgets. It is essential to proactively examine and address the ethical issues involved, as well as to define and in turn provide best standards of care. PMID:23906487

  6. HIV Disease: Current Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Describes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), newly characterized human retrovirus which causes chronic, progressive, immune deficiency disease, the most severe phase of which is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Reviews most important current epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic information about HIV and HIV disease and provides…

  7. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... narrow or block the arteries and limit the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your body. Risk Factors Peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.) affects millions of people in the United States. The disease is more common in blacks than ...

  8. Forecasting Alzheimer's Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fackelmann, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that doctors may one day be able to identify healthy people who will develop Alzheimer's disease. Discusses recent studies in which characteristics of a person's writing early in life appear to predict the disease, and brain scans can highlight changes that may precede dementia. (CCM)

  9. Diphtheria Disease Villain

    MedlinePlus

    ... are now immunized that diphtheria was forced to change its plan of attack. The disease now targets adults who have not had the ... but attacks can happen anytime, especially in warmer climates. Criminal Record Years ago, diphtheria was a common disease among children. And, it was also a common ...

  10. AUTOINFLAMMATORY PUSTULAR NEUTROPHILIC DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Haley B.; Cowen, Edward W.

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The inflammatory pustular dermatoses constitute a spectrum of non-infectious conditions ranging from localized involvement to generalized disease with associated acute systemic inflammation and multi-organ involvement. Despite the variability in extent and severity of cutaneous presentation, each of these diseases is characterized by non-infectious neutrophilic intra-epidermal microabscesses. Many share systemic findings including fever, elevated inflammatory markers, inflammatory bowel disease and/or osteoarticular involvement, suggesting potential common pathogenic links (Figure 1). The recent discoveries of several genes responsible for heritable pustular diseases have revealed a distinct link between pustular skin disease and regulation of innate immunity. These genetic advances have led to a deeper exploration of common pathways in pustular skin disease and offer the potential for a new era of biologic therapy which targets these shared pathways. This chapter provides a new categorization of inflammatory pustular dermatoses in the context of recent genetic and biologic insights. We will discuss recently-described monogenic diseases with pustular phenotypes, including deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), deficiency of the IL-36 receptor antagonist (DITRA), CARD14-associated pustular psoriasis (CAMPS), and pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne (PAPA). We will then discuss how these new genetic advancements may inform how we view previously described pustular diseases, including pustular psoriasis and its clinical variants, with a focus on historical classification by clinical phenotype. PMID:23827244

  11. Membrane microparticles and diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z-H; Ji, C-L; Li, H; Qiu, G-X; Gao, C-J; Weng, X-S

    2013-09-01

    Membrane microparticles (MPs) are plasma membrane-derived vesicles shed by various types of activated or apoptotic cells including platelets, monocytes, endothelial cells, red blood cells, and granulocytes. MPs are being increasingly recognized as important regulators of cell-to-cell interactions. Recent evidences suggest they may play important functions not only in homeostasis but also in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases such as vascular diseases, cancer, infectious diseases and diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, inhibiting the production of MPs may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for these diseases. Here we review recent advances on the mechanism underlying the generation of MPs and the role of MPs in vascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and pathogen infection.

  12. Coffee and Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C

    2016-03-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality.

  13. Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Heneka, Michael T.; Carson, Monica J.; El Khoury, Joseph; Landreth, Gary E.; Brosseron, Frederik; Feinstein, Douglas L.; Jacobs, Andreas H.; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Vitorica, Javier; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Herrup, Karl; Frautschy, Sally A.; Finsen, Bente; Brown, Guy C.; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Yamanaka, Koji; Koistinaho, Jari; Latz, Eicke; Halle, Annett; Petzold, Gabor C.; Town, Terrence; Morgan, Dave; Shinohara, Mari L.; Perry, V. Hugh; Holmes, Clive; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Brooks, David J.; Hunot, Stephane; Joseph, Bertrand; Deigendesch, Nikolaus; Garaschuk, Olga; Boddeke, Erik; Dinarello, Charles A.; Breitner, John C.; Cole, Greg M.; Golenbock, Douglas T.; Kummer, Markus P.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is not restricted to the neuronal compartment but strongly interacts with immunological mechanisms in the brain. Misfolded and aggregated proteins bind to pattern recognition receptors on micro- and astroglia and trigger an innate immune response, characterized by the release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to disease progression and severity. Genome wide analysis suggests that several genes, which increase the risk for sporadic Alzheimer's disease en-code for factors that regulate glial clearance of misfolded proteins and the inflammatory reaction. External factors, including systemic inflammation and obesity are likely to interfere with the immunological processes of the brain and further promote disease progression. This re-view provides an overview on the current knowledge and focuses on the most recent and exciting findings. Modulation of risk factors and intervention with the described immune mechanisms are likely to lead to future preventive or therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25792098

  14. Diabetes and periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    1996-02-01

    This position paper on diabetes mellitus was prepared by the Research, Science and Therapy Committee of The American Academy of Periodontology. It is intended to: 1) update members of the dental profession on the diagnosis and medical management of patients with diabetes mellitus; 2) summarize current knowledge on the relation between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases; 3) provide an overview of factors in diabetic patients relevant to understanding the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases in these subjects; 4) outline special considerations associated with treatment of periodontal diseases in diabetic patients; and 5) discuss possible approaches to the management of diabetic emergencies in the dental office. Reliance on this position paper in patient management will not guarantee a successful outcome. Periodontal diseases often involve numerous and complex causes and symptoms. Ultimately, decisions regarding the diagnosis and treatment of disease in an individual patient must be made by the treating practitioner in light of the specific facts presented by that patient.

  15. [Childhood diseases with exanthema].

    PubMed

    Opstelten, Wim; Eekhof, Just A H; Knuistingh Neven, Arie

    2011-01-01

    - Due to high vaccination coverage, measles and rubella (German measles) are now rarely seen in the Netherlands, which makes recognition of these diseases difficult. - Measles can also occur in people who have been immunized, as a result of vaccination failure. - Swift recognition of measles and rubella is necessary in order to manage them adequately and to prevent spreading of the disease. - Measles, rubella, and erythema infectiosum ('fifth disease') may result in complications during pregnancy. - Measles, rubella, scarlet fever, erythema infectiosum, and roseola ('sixth disease') can be difficult to differentiate. - In the Netherlands, diagnosis of a patient with measles or rubella, or of more than 1 patient with erythema infectiosum within one institution, must be reported to the local health authority within 1 working day. - Exclusion from school or a day-care facility is not required for any if the diseases discussed.

  16. Autoimmune diseases and vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Vial, Thierry; Descotes, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    The potential association between vaccination and autoimmune diseases has been largely questioned in the past few years, but this assumption has mostly been based on case reports. The available evidence derived from several negative epidemiological studies is reassuring and at least indicates that vaccines are not a major cause of autoimmune diseases. However, there are still uncertainties as to whether a susceptible subpopulation may be at a higher risk of developing an autoimmune disease without causing an overall increase in the disease incidence. Based on selected examples, this review highlights the difficulties in assessing this issue. We suggest that a potential link between vaccines and autoimmune diseases cannot be definitely ruled out and should be carefully explored during the development of new candidate vaccines. Copyright John Libbey Eurotext 2003.

  17. Acral Hemorrhagic Darier Disease.

    PubMed

    Flores-Terry, M Á; García-Arpa, M; Llamas-Velasco, M; Mendoza-Chaparro, C; Ramos-Rodríguez, C

    2017-09-01

    Darier disease is an autosomal-dominant inherited condition caused by mutation of a gene, which produces a protein involved in calcium channel regulation. The disease has a variety of manifestations and lacks consistent genotype-phenotype correlations. Acral hemorrhagic Darier disease causes macules, papules, vesicles and/or hemorrhagic blisters on the extremities. Other classic signs of the disease may be present in the same patient or relatives. Histopathology reveals dyskeratosis and suprabasal acantholysis with hemorrhagic lacunae. We report 3 new cases of this type of Darier disease triggered by injuries. Response to retinoid therapy was good. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Peyronie's Disease: Still a Surgical Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Daniel; Ercole, Cesar E.; Hakky, Tariq S.; Kramer, Andrew; Carrion, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Peyronie's Disease (PD) remains a challenging and clinically significant morbid condition. Since its first description by François Gigot de la Peyronie, much of the treatment for PD remains nonstandardized. PD is characterized by the formation of fibrous plaques at the level of the tunica albuginea. Clinical manifestations include morphologic changes, such as curvatures and hourglass deformities. Here, we review the common surgical techniques for the management of patients with PD. PMID:22956943

  19. Peyronie's Disease: Still a Surgical Disease.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Daniel; Ercole, Cesar E; Hakky, Tariq S; Kramer, Andrew; Carrion, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Peyronie's Disease (PD) remains a challenging and clinically significant morbid condition. Since its first description by François Gigot de la Peyronie, much of the treatment for PD remains nonstandardized. PD is characterized by the formation of fibrous plaques at the level of the tunica albuginea. Clinical manifestations include morphologic changes, such as curvatures and hourglass deformities. Here, we review the common surgical techniques for the management of patients with PD.

  20. Rheumatic Disease Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Utiyama, Shirley R R; Zenatti, Katiane B; Nóbrega, Heloisa A J; Soares, Juliana Z C; Skare, Thelma L; Matsubara, Caroline; Muzzilo, Dominique A; Nisihara, Renato M

    2016-08-01

    Autoimmune liver diseases (ALDs) are known to be associated with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) and their autoantibodies. We aimed to study the prevalence of SARDs and related autoantibodies, as well as their prognostic implications in a group of patients with ALDs. This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty patients with ALDs (38.3% with autoimmune hepatitis; 11.7% with primary biliary cirrhosis; 25% with primary sclerosing cholangitis and 25% with overlap syndrome) were studied for the presence of SARDs and their autoantibodies. There was autoimmune rheumatic disease in 20% of the studied sample. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were the commonest (11.6% and 5%, respectively). Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) were present in 35% of the patients, followed by anti-Ro (20.0%); anti-nucleosome (18.3%); rheumatoid factor (10%) anti-CCP (8.3%); anti-RNP (8.3%); anti-ds-DNA (6.6%); anti-La (3.3%); anti-Sm (3.3%), anti-ribosomal P (3.3%). Anti-Ro (p = 0.0004), anti-La (p = 0.03), anti-RNP (p = 0.04) and anti-Sm (p = 0.03) were commonly found in patients with SARD, but not anti-DNA, anti-nucleosome and anti-ribosomal P. No differences were found in liver function tests regarding to the presence of autoantibodies. There was a high prevalence of SARD and their autoantibodies in ALD patients. Anti-Ro, anti-La, anti-RNP and anti-Sm positivity points to an association with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases. The presence of autoantibodies was not related to liver function tests.

  1. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    diseases 50,913 (35) 29,810 (36) 22 (118) Contact dermatitis 49,907 (36) 36,087 (31) 81 (100) Respiratory infections Upper respiratory infections...and abscess 694 74.4 Pilonidal cyst 65 7.0 Cellulitis and abscess of fi nger and toe 57 6.1 Contact dermatitis and other eczema 22 2.4 Disorders...and hair follicles 38,888 18.0 Contact dermatitis and other eczema 32,437 15.0 Other cellulitis and abscess 28,644 13.3 Diseases of sebaceous glands

  2. Curcumin and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Bright, John J

    2007-01-01

    The immune system has evolved to protect the host from microbial infection; nevertheless, a breakdown in the immune system often results in infection, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, myocarditis, thyroiditis, uveitis, systemic lupus erythromatosis, and myasthenia gravis are organ-specific autoimmune diseases that afflict more than 5% of the population worldwide. Although the etiology is not known and a cure is still wanting, the use of herbal and dietary supplements is on the rise in patients with autoimmune diseases, mainly because they are effective, inexpensive, and relatively safe. Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa that has traditionally been used for pain and wound-healing. Recent studies have shown that curcumin ameliorates multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease in human or animal models. Curcumin inhibits these autoimmune diseases by regulating inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma and associated JAK-STAT, AP-1, and NF-kappaB signaling pathways in immune cells. Although the beneficial effects of nutraceuticals are traditionally achieved through dietary consumption at low levels for long periods of time, the use of purified active compounds such as curcumin at higher doses for therapeutic purposes needs extreme caution. A precise understanding of effective dose, safe regiment, and mechanism of action is required for the use of curcumin in the treatment of human autoimmune diseases.

  3. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease).

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Chris

    2004-02-17

    Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) is a parasitic disease that is limited to remote, rural villages in 13 sub-Saharan African countries that do not have access to safe drinking water. It is one the next diseases targeted for eradication by the World Health Organization. Guinea worm disease is transmitted by drinking water containing copepods (water fleas) that are infected with Dracunculiasis medinensis larvae. One year after human ingestion of infected water a female adult worm emerges, typically from a lower extremity, producing painful ulcers that can impair mobility for up to several weeks. This disease occurs annually when agricultural activities are at their peak. Large proportions of economically productive individuals of a village are usually affected simultaneously, resulting in decreased agricultural productivity and economic hardship. Eradication of guinea worm disease depends on prevention, as there is no effective treatment or vaccine. Since 1986, there has been a 98% reduction in guinea worm disease worldwide, achieved primarily through community-based programs. These programs have educated local populations on how to filter drinking water to remove the parasite and how to prevent those with ulcers from infecting drinking-water sources. Complete eradication will require sustained high-level political, financial and community support.

  4. Cardiovascular diseases and periodontology.

    PubMed

    Seymour, R A; Preshaw, P M; Thomason, J M; Ellis, J S; Steele, J G

    2003-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent a widespread heterogeneous group of conditions that have significant morbidity and mortality. The various diseases and their treatments can have an impact upon the periodontium and the delivery of periodontal care. In this paper we consider three main topics and explore their relationship to the periodontist and the provision of periodontal treatment. The areas reviewed include the effect of cardiovascular drugs on the periodontium and management of patients with periodontal diseases; the risk of infective endocarditis arising from periodontal procedures; the inter-relationship between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease. Calcium-channel blockers and beta-adrenoceptor blockers cause gingival overgrowth and tooth demineralisation, respectively. Evidence suggests that stopping anticoagulant therapy prior to periodontal procedures is putting patients at a greater risk of thromboembolic disorders compared to the risk of prolonged bleeding. The relationship between dentistry and infective endocarditis remains a controversial issue. It would appear that spontaneous bacteraemia arising from a patient's oral hygiene practices is more likely to be the cause of endocarditis than one-off periodontal procedures. The efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis is uncertain (and unlikely to be proven), and the risk of death from penicillin appears to be greater than the risk of death arising from infective endocarditis. Finally, the association between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease has been explored and there seem to be many issues with respect to data handling interpretation. Many putative mechanisms have been suggested; however, these only further highlight the need for intervention studies.

  5. Osteomalacia in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Dedeoglu, Meryem; Garip, Yesim; Bodur, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Osteomalacia is a metabolic bone disorder characterized by impaired mineralization of the bone matrix. Vitamin D deficiency due to malabsorption syndromes may cause osteomalacia. This is a case of a patient with a 6-year history of seronegative spondyloarthropathy associated with Crohn's disease who was admitted to our outpatient clinic with symptoms of osteomalacia. Osteomalacia is a metabolic bone disease characterized by an impaired mineralization of the bone matrix, frequently caused by disorders in vitamin D or phosphate metabolism. Vitamin D deficiency due to malabsorption syndromes (e.g., Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, celiac disease, and jejuno-ileal bypass for obesity) may cause osteomalacia. A 43-year-old male presented with fatigue, low back pain, and morning stiffness. He had a 6-year history of seronegative spondyloarthropathy associated with Crohn's disease. Laboratory findings revealed low serum calcium, low 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, normal phosphorus, elevated parathyroid hormone, and alkaline phosphatase levels. Radiographs revealed grade IV sacroiliitis and Looser zones. He was diagnosed with osteomalacia due to the malabsorption of vitamin D. His symptoms and signs were relieved with supplements of vitamin D and calcium. Osteomalacia should be considered in differential diagnosis when assessing low back pain in the patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Vitamin D deficiency should be treated with vitamin D supplementation in patients with Crohn's disease to prevent osteomalacia.

  6. Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Akshay; Bhatia, Vidyut; Sibal, Anupam

    2016-11-15

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is increasing in the pediatric population worldwide. There is paucity of high quality scientific data regarding pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Most of the guidelines are offshoots of work done in adults, which have been adapted over time to diagnose and treat pediatric patients. This is in part related to the small numbers in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease and less extensive collaboration for multicentric trials both nationally and internationally. A literature search was performed using electronic databases i.e. Pubmed and OVID, using keywords: pediatric, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohns disease, Ulcerative colitis, epidemiology and guidelines. This article amalgamates the broad principles of diagnosing and managing a child with suspected inflammatory bowel disease. 25% of the patients with inflammatory bowel disease are children and and young adolescents. The primary concern is its impact on growth velocity, puberty and quality of life, including psychosocial issues. Treatment guidelines are being re-defined as the drug armamentarium is increasing. The emphasis will be to achieve mucosal healing and normal growth velocity with minimal drug toxicity.

  7. Indian genetic disease database

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Sanchari; Sengupta, Mainak; Dutta, Anirban; Bhattacharyya, Kausik; Bag, Sumit K.; Dutta, Chitra; Ray, Kunal

    2011-01-01

    Indians, representing about one-sixth of the world population, consist of several thousands of endogamous groups with strong potential for excess of recessive diseases. However, no database is available on Indian population with comprehensive information on the diseases common in the country. To address this issue, we present Indian Genetic Disease Database (IGDD) release 1.0 (http://www.igdd.iicb.res.in)—an integrated and curated repository of growing number of mutation data on common genetic diseases afflicting the Indian populations. Currently the database covers 52 diseases with information on 5760 individuals carrying the mutant alleles of causal genes. Information on locus heterogeneity, type of mutation, clinical and biochemical data, geographical location and common mutations are furnished based on published literature. The database is currently designed to work best with Internet Explorer 8 (optimal resolution 1440 × 900) and it can be searched based on disease of interest, causal gene, type of mutation and geographical location of the patients or carriers. Provisions have been made for deposition of new data and logistics for regular updation of the database. The IGDD web portal, planned to be made freely available, contains user-friendly interfaces and is expected to be highly useful to the geneticists, clinicians, biologists and patient support groups of various genetic diseases. PMID:21037256

  8. [Fabry's disease and hypoparathyroidism].

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent; Gregoire, Madeleine; Prieur, Fabienne; Froissart, Régis; Guffon, Nathalie; Maitre, Séverine; Fond, Laurent; Denis, Laurence; Perrot, Jean-Luc; Cambazard, Frédéric

    2002-06-01

    Fabry's disease is due to alpha-galactosidase deficiency. This rare lysosomal storage disease is transmitted by recessive X-linked heredity. Sphingolipids (galactosyl-glucosyl-ceramide) accumulate in many organs. A 19-year-old man with known hypoparathyroidism presented with telangiectasia and angiokeratomas on the buttocks, the hips, the hands and around the navel. For many years, he suffered from paroxysmal pain in the hands and feet. From childhood, he had complained of diffuse abdominal pain, associated with diarrhea. Ophthalmological slit lamp fundus examination showed corneal telangiectasia and cornea verticella. There was no kidney or heart involvement. The diagnosis of Fabry's disease was confirmed by very low levels of alpha-galactosidase. We did not find any other association of hypoparathyroidism and Fabry's disease in the literature. Hypoparathyroidism is not a manifestation of Fabry's disease. Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism is very rare and a genetic origin is known. This disease can be recessive X-linked. A co-transmission of idiopathic hypoparathyroidism and Fabry's disease is probable in our patient.

  9. The Orphan Disease Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Minlu; Zhu, Cheng; Jacomy, Alexis; Lu, Long J.; Jegga, Anil G.

    2011-01-01

    The low prevalence rate of orphan diseases (OD) requires special combined efforts to improve diagnosis, prevention, and discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. To identify and investigate relationships based on shared genes or shared functional features, we have conducted a bioinformatic-based global analysis of all orphan diseases with known disease-causing mutant genes. Starting with a bipartite network of known OD and OD-causing mutant genes and using the human protein interactome, we first construct and topologically analyze three networks: the orphan disease network, the orphan disease-causing mutant gene network, and the orphan disease-causing mutant gene interactome. Our results demonstrate that in contrast to the common disease-causing mutant genes that are predominantly nonessential, a majority of orphan disease-causing mutant genes are essential. In confirmation of this finding, we found that OD-causing mutant genes are topologically important in the protein interactome and are ubiquitously expressed. Additionally, functional enrichment analysis of those genes in which mutations cause ODs shows that a majority result in premature death or are lethal in the orthologous mouse gene knockout models. To address the limitations of traditional gene-based disease networks, we also construct and analyze OD networks on the basis of shared enriched features (biological processes, cellular components, pathways, phenotypes, and literature citations). Analyzing these functionally-linked OD networks, we identified several additional OD-OD relations that are both phenotypically similar and phenotypically diverse. Surprisingly, we observed that the wiring of the gene-based and other feature-based OD networks are largely different; this suggests that the relationship between ODs cannot be fully captured by the gene-based network alone. PMID:21664998

  10. Epigenetics of cartilage diseases.

    PubMed

    Gabay, Odile; Clouse, Kathleen A

    2016-10-01

    Osteoarticular diseases, such as arthritis or osteoarthritis, are multifactorial diseases with an underlying genetic etiology that are challenging to study. Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAS) have identified several genetic loci associated with these diseases. Epigenetics is a complex mechanism of chromatin and gene modulation through DNA methylation, histone deacetylation or microRNA, which might contribute to the inheritability of disease. Some of these mechanisms have been studied for decades in other diseases or as part of the aging process, where epigenetic changes seem to play an important role. With the implementation of better technological tools, such as the Illumina next generation sequencing, altered methylation of DNA has been linked to articular diseases and these mechanisms have been shown to regulate metalloprotease (MMP) expression and cartilage matrix integrity. Some miRNA have also been identified and more extensively characterized, such as delineation of the role played by miR-140 in chondrogenesis, followed by the discovery of numerous miRNA potentially involved in the epigenetic regulation of osteoarthritic disease. Histone deacetylases have long been linked to aging, particularly with respect to the Sirtuin family with Sirt1 as the major player. Because aging is the major risk factor for osteoarthritis, the involvement of Sirtuins in the etiology of osteoarthritis has been suggested and investigated. All of these fine regulations together shed new light on cartilage disease pathophysiology. We present in this short review an update of the role of these pathways in articular diseases. Copyright © 2015 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Ethics and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude

  12. [Obesity, a disease].

    PubMed

    Basdevant, Arnaud; Ciangura, Cécile

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has been considered as a disease by the World Health Organisation since 1997. It was previously considered a simple risk factor and a manifestation of consumer society. This recognition was based on several developments, including epidemiological data showing the worldwide spread of the disease; the increasing health expenditure due to the obesity-related increase in type 2 diabetes; and progress in pathophysiological concepts. Obesity is a chronic and progressive disease. Management approaches range from prevention to surgery, and must be adapted to the individual situation.

  13. Chronic Wasting Disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an always-fatal, neurological illness occurring in North American cervids (members of the deer family), including white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. Since its discovery in 1967, CWD has spread geographically and increased in prevalence locally. CWD is contagious; it can be transmitted freely within and among free-ranging populations. It is likely that diseased animals can transmit CWD to healthy animals long before they become clinically ill. Managing CWD in free-ranging populations is extremely difficult, therefore preventative measures designed to reduce the chance for disease spread are critically important.

  14. [Lifestyle diseases in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Harth, W; Hillert, A

    2007-10-01

    Psychosocial disorders and lifestyle trends have become more important in dermatology. Lifestyle diseases are a biopsychosocial phenomenon that can only be diagnosed and treated by paying attention to the quickly changing sociocultural aspects. The naming and popularization of the particular lifestyle diseases takes place by the media, but there is only an imprecise medical classification of these phenomena. This article gives an overview of the current situation and medical conditions of lifestyle diseases and try to assign them to an established psychosomatic diagnosis, based on the clinical symptomatic. Most often somatoform disorders, somatization disorders with a repeated presentation of physical symptoms which cannot be medically objectified or depressive disturbances are found.

  15. Autoinflammatory bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Stern, Sara M; Ferguson, Polly J

    2013-11-01

    Autoinflammatory bone disease is a new branch of autoinflammatory diseases caused by seemingly unprovoked activation of the innate immune system leading to an osseous inflammatory process. The inflammatory bone lesions in these disorders are characterized by chronic inflammation that is typically culture negative with no demonstrable organism on histopathology. The most common autoinflammatory bone diseases in childhood include chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO), synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis syndrome, Majeed syndrome, deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, and cherubism. In this article, the authors focus on CNO and summarize the distinct genetic autoinflammatory bone syndromes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    ScienceCinema

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

    2018-04-25

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  17. Zygomycetes in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ribes, Julie A.; Vanover-Sams, Carolyn L.; Baker, Doris J.

    2000-01-01

    The Zygomycetes represent relatively uncommon isolates in the clinical laboratory, reflecting either environmental contaminants or, less commonly, a clinical disease called zygomycosis. There are two orders of Zygomycetes containing organisms that cause human disease, the Mucorales and the Entomophthorales. The majority of human illness is caused by the Mucorales. While disease is most commonly linked to Rhizopus spp., other organisms are also associated with human infection, including Mucor, Rhizomucor, Absidia, Apophysomyces, Saksenaea, Cunninghamella, Cokeromyces, and Syncephalastrum spp. Although Mortierella spp. do cause disease in animals, there is no longer sufficient evidence to suggest that they are true human pathogens. The spores from these molds are transmitted by inhalation, via a variety of percutaneous routes, or by ingestion of spores. Human zygomycosis caused by the Mucorales generally occurs in immunocompromised hosts as opportunistic infections. Host risk factors include diabetes mellitus, neutropenia, sustained immunosuppressive therapy, chronic prednisone use, iron chelation therapy, broad-spectrum antibiotic use, severe malnutrition, and primary breakdown in the integrity of the cutaneous barrier such as trauma, surgical wounds, needle sticks, or burns. Zygomycosis occurs only rarely in immunocompetent hosts. The disease manifestations reflect the mode of transmission, with rhinocerebral and pulmonary diseases being the most common manifestations. Cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and allergic diseases are also seen. The Mucorales are associated with angioinvasive disease, often leading to thrombosis, infarction of involved tissues, and tissue destruction mediated by a number of fungal proteases, lipases, and mycotoxins. If the diagnosis is not made early, dissemination often occurs. Therapy, if it is to be effective, must be started early and requires combinations of antifungal drugs, surgical intervention, and reversal of the underlying risk

  18. [Therapy of hemorrhoidal disease].

    PubMed

    Herold, A

    2006-08-01

    Hemorrhoidal disease is one of the most frequent disorders in western countries. The aim of individual therapy is freedom from symptoms achieved by normalisation of anatomy and physiology. Treatment is orientated to the stage of disease: haemorrhoids 1 are treated conservatively. In addition to high-fibre diet, sclerotherapy is used. Haemorrhoids 2 prolapse during defecation and return spontaneously. First-line treatment is rubber band ligation. Haemorrhoids 3 that prolapse during defecation have to be digitally reduced, and the majority need surgery. For segmental disorders, haemorrhoidectomy according to Milligan-Morgan or Ferguson is recommended. In circular disease, Stapler hemorrhoidopexy is now the procedure of choice. Using a therapeutic regime according to the hemorrhoidal disease classification offers high healing rates and low rates of complications and recurrence.

  19. Gaucher Disease in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may also have new symptoms start during pregnancy. Women with Gaucher disease are at an increased risk ... blood platelet count, which can affect clotting) in pregnancy. Women with severe thrombocytopenia and/or clotting abnormalities could ...

  20. Bile Duct Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver transplants in children in the United States. Inflammation, which can cause scarring. Over time, this can lead to liver failure. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  1. Epidemiology of Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mayeux, Richard; Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    The global prevalence of dementia has been estimated to be as high as 24 million, and is predicted to double every 20 years until at least 2040. As the population worldwide continues to age, the number of individuals at risk will also increase, particularly among the very old. Alzheimer disease is the leading cause of dementia beginning with impaired memory. The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease include diffuse and neuritic extracellular amyloid plaques in brain that are frequently surrounded by dystrophic neurites and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. The etiology of Alzheimer disease remains unclear, but it is likely to be the result of both genetic and environmental factors. In this review we discuss the prevalence and incidence rates, the established environmental risk factors, and the protective factors, and briefly review genetic variants predisposing to disease. PMID:22908189

  2. Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... often causes dryness in the mouth and eyes. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Lupus) What is lupus? It is ... diseases may also control the symptoms associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus) and potentially slow ...

  3. Anemia of chronic disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACD include: Autoimmune disorders , such as Crohn disease , systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis , and ulcerative colitis Cancer , ... AOCD; ACD Images Blood cells References Bunn HF. Approach to the anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, ...

  4. Prescribing for periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Blair, Fiona M; Chapple, Iain L C

    2014-11-01

    With concerns about the ever-increasing development of antimicrobial resistance, it is imperative that antimicrobials are prescribed responsibly and used appropriately. This article provides an overview and simple guidelines for antimicrobial prescribing in the management of periodontal diseases.

  5. Understanding Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... information on research progress in these diseases. Contact Us NIAMS Archive Viewers and Players Social Media Moderation Policy FOIA Privacy Statement Accessibility Disclaimer Digital Strategy Open Source Data Public Data Listing NIH... ...

  6. Epidemiology of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Mayeux, Richard; Stern, Yaakov

    2012-08-01

    The global prevalence of dementia has been estimated to be as high as 24 million, and is predicted to double every 20 years until at least 2040. As the population worldwide continues to age, the number of individuals at risk will also increase, particularly among the very old. Alzheimer disease is the leading cause of dementia beginning with impaired memory. The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease include diffuse and neuritic extracellular amyloid plaques in brain that are frequently surrounded by dystrophic neurites and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. The etiology of Alzheimer disease remains unclear, but it is likely to be the result of both genetic and environmental factors. In this review we discuss the prevalence and incidence rates, the established environmental risk factors, and the protective factors, and briefly review genetic variants predisposing to disease.

  7. About Haemophilus influenzae Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Global Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis About Haemophilus influenzae Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Links Global Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  8. Pregnancy and Fifth Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Pregnancy and Fifth Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... half of pregnancy. Testing for Parvovirus B19 during Pregnancy A blood test for parvovirus B19 can show ...

  9. Carcinoid heart disease.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Alain M; Connolly, Heidi M; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2007-12-01

    In patients with carcinoid heart disease, a multidisciplinary approach to patient care is required because treatment of the systemic disease and management of cardiac involvement must be considered at the same time. Somatostatin analogue use is a therapeutic cornerstone, effective in symptomatic control of the endocrine syndrome. Chemotherapy is of limited efficacy in patients with carcinoid tumors. Hepatic resection of metastases is the preferred treatment option and has been shown to result in improved outcome. It should be considered if at least 90% of the metastases in the liver are removable. Hepatic artery embolization is usually applied if a patient is not eligible for surgical debulking. Development and progression of carcinoid heart disease complicate the carcinoid syndrome and contribute to poor prognosis. In patients with severe cardiac involvement and well-controlled systemic disease, valve replacement surgery is an effective treatment modality that can relieve intractable symptoms and contribute to improved outcome.

  10. Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Free Allergy-Free Marketplace Federal Benefits – 504 Plan, Taxes and Unemployment Celiac Disease Abroad What You Need ... 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. All contributions are tax deductible to the extent allowable by law. EIN: ...

  11. Desmosomes in acquired disease

    PubMed Central

    Stahley, Sara N.; Kowalczyk, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Desmosomes are cell-cell junctions that mediate adhesion and couple the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to sites of cell-cell contact. This architectural arrangement functions to integrate adhesion and cytoskeletal elements of adjacent cells. The importance of this robust adhesion system is evident in numerous human diseases, both inherited and acquired, that occur when desmosome function is compromised. This review focuses on autoimmune and infectious diseases that impair desmosome function. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence that desmosomal genes are often misregulated in cancer. The emphasis of our discussion is placed on how human diseases inform our understanding of basic desmosome biology, and in turn, how fundamental advances in the cell biology of desmosomes may lead to new treatments for acquired diseases of the desmosome. PMID:25795143

  12. What Is Crohn's Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... own. Recent research suggests hereditary, genetics, and/or environmental factors contribute to the development of Crohn’s Disease. The GI tract normally contains harmless bacteria, many of which aid in digestion. The immune ...

  13. Thrombospondin in colorectal disease.

    PubMed

    Behzad; Abdalla; Gardy; Battrick; Kumar; Haboubi

    2000-05-01

    To assess the presence of thrombospondin (TSP) in normal and colonic disease and correlate its presence to survival in colorectal cancers. A specific antibody was used to stain paraffin-embedded sections of human colorectal disease (103 carcinomas, 10 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 10 diverticulosis and 10 normal). The stained sections were viewed by light microscopy and the degree of staining was quantified using computer-assisted image analysis system. Seventy-three percent of carcinomas, 30% of IBD and 80% of the diverticulosis specimens stained for TSP. None of the 'normal' specimens examined showed any staining. No significant correlation could be detected between TSP expression and survival in colorectal cancer patients. The presence of TSP in the colon is not specific and merely indicates the presence of a disease process.

  14. Chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over months or years. You may not notice any symptoms for some ...

  15. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Guide Diabetes - A Major Risk Factor for Kidney Disease Print Email Diabetes mellitus, usually called diabetes, ... Asian Americans. What does diabetes do to the kidneys? With diabetes, the small blood vessels in the ...

  16. Amyloidosis and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Amyloidosis & Kidney Disease What is amyloidosis? Amyloidosis is a rare ... the organs and tissues affected. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  17. Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter your blood. They remove wastes and ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  18. von Willebrand Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert ...

  19. Reflux and Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Serving Size vs Portion Size Healthy Snacking Bone Health Taking Multivitamins Shortness of Breath and Eating Steroids and Nutrition Proper Hydration Reflux and Lung Disease Sodium Dangers Plant-Based Diets Why Breakfast Matters No Thanks Patients & Visitors Giving ...

  20. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovary, and, occasionally, other adjacent pelvic organs. The microbiology of TOAs is similar to PID and the ... Viberga I, Odlind V, Lazdane G, et al. Microbiology profile in women with pelvic inflammatory disease in ...

  1. Testing for Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... mean for you. If you have kidney disease, measuring the albumin in your urine helps your provider ... Staff Directory Budget & Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs Jobs at NIDDK ...

  2. Niemann-Pick Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS scientists are studying the mechanisms by which lipids accumulating in these storage diseases causes harm to the body. Additional research studies hope to identify biomarkers (signs that may ...

  3. Lipid Storage Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is to seek fundamental knowledge about the brain and nervous system and ... some of the major challenges in the diagnosis, management, and therapy of rare diseases, including the lipid ...

  4. Heart Disease in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... half. Awareness among women about their No. 1 killer is increasing. Heart disease is the leading cause ... women," according to a 2013 study in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) . Find Out ...

  5. Polycystic kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... don't have other diseases may be good candidates for a kidney transplant. Possible Complications Health problems ... www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. ...

  6. Ulcer disease of trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1934-01-01

    During the summer of 1933, lesions of a disease were noted among some fingerling brook, rainbow, blackspotted, and lake trout at the Cortland (New York) trout hatchery. Although these lesions bore a marked superficial resemblance to those of furunculosis, they were sufficiently atypical to warrant further investigation. A more detailed examination of the lesions proved them to be of a distinct disease, which for lack of a better name is herein called "ulcer disease," for the lesions closely resemble those described by Calkins (1899) under this name. Because of the marked resemblance to furunculosis, ulcer disease has not been generally recognized by trout culturists, and any ulcer appearing on fish has been ascribed by them to furunculosis without further question.

  7. Disease and Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Calvin

    1978-01-01

    Discusses disease and genetic disorders as evolutionary mechanisms. Emphasizes the archeological evidence from past human populations and societies, mentioning albinism, scurvy, sleeping sickness, bone conditions, various host-parasite relationships, rickets, sickle-cell anemia, diabetes, and influenza. (CS)

  8. Diabetic Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... scene, as viewed by a person with diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic macular edema The part of your retina that ... of cataracts. How common is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic retinopathy About one in three people with diabetes who ...

  9. Vaccines and Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Dellepiane, Rosa Maria; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The distinctive immune system characteristics of children with Kawasaki disease (KD) could suggest that they respond in a particular way to all antigenic stimulations, including those due to vaccines. Moreover, treatment of KD is mainly based on immunomodulatory therapy. These factors suggest that vaccines and KD may interact in several ways. These interactions could be of clinical relevance because KD is a disease of younger children who receive most of the vaccines recommended for infectious disease prevention. This paper shows that available evidence does not support an association between KD development and vaccine administration. Moreover, it highlights that administration of routine vaccines is mandatory even in children with KD and all efforts must be made to ensure the highest degree of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases for these patients. However, studies are needed to clarify currently unsolved issues, especially issues related to immunologic interference induced by intravenous immunoglobulin and biological drugs.

  10. Wilson's Disease Association International

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Colorado and graduated with a B.S. in finance. Latest News & Announcements Search Our Site About WDA ... Help Donate Volunteer Shop Online Search the Internet Corporate Sponsorship Marketplace Copyright © 1978 - 2017 The Wilson Disease ...

  11. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:59-60. Carithers RL, McClain C. Alcoholic ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 86. Haines EJ, Oyama LC. ...

  12. Epigenomics and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24283882

  13. Epigenomics and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Carotid artery disease

    MedlinePlus

    Here's what you can do to help prevent carotid artery disease and stroke: Quit smoking. Follow a healthy, low-fat diet. Do not drink more than 1 to 2 alcoholic drinks a day. Do not use recreational drugs. ...

  15. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the term used for a group of diseases with yet unknown etiology, prevalence of which is increasing almost everywhere in the world. The disease was almost non-existent four decades ago in the east, including the middle-east, while now a days it is seen more and more. In addition to the increasing prevalence, our knowledge about its pathogenesis, clinical course, diagnosis, and treatment has changed dramatically over the past couple of decades. This has changed our concept of this group of diseases, their diagnosis, treatment, and treatment goals. Considering the vast literature on the subject, it is timely to review major topics in IBD with a look on the regional progress and knowledge as well. This essay is aimed to cover this task. PMID:24829639

  16. Machado-Joseph Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... for drunkenness, difficulty with speech and swallowing, involuntary eye movements, double vision, and frequent urination. Some individuals also ... color and/or contrast, and inability to control eye movements. × Definition Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), which is also ...

  17. Lyme Disease Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the laboratory that performed your test to evaluate whether your results are "within normal limits." For ... causing Lyme borreliosis with unusually high spirochaetaemia: a descriptive study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases . Available online at ...

  18. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Getting Around: Transportation and Travel with PD Expert Briefings: Sleep and Parkinson's Nurse: ... Psychosis Why We Walk at Moving Day CareMAP: Travel and Transportation: Part 2 Interview with Nathan Slewett ...

  19. Kidney Disease (Nephropathy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... millions of tiny blood vessels that act as filters. Their job is to remove waste products from ... to fail. Failing kidneys lose their ability to filter out waste products, resulting in kidney disease. How ...

  20. Brain Diseases - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Brain Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ...

  1. Hands in Systemic Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Systemic Diseases Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Figures Figure 1 - Arthritic Swelling Figure 10 - Pyogenic ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...

  2. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... flow, which can injure nerves and other tissues. Causes PAD is caused by "hardening of the arteries." ... small arteries Coronary artery disease Impotence Open sores (ischemic ulcers on the lower legs) Tissue death (gangrene) ...

  3. Aortic Valve Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... factors, a physical exam, and with results from tests and procedures. Diagnosis and Treatment Options Diagnosis and Treatment Options There is no one test that can diagnose aortic valve disease, so your ...

  4. Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... See all Leprosy (Hansen's Disease) related NIAID Now posts Basic Research NIAID-funded investigators are developing the armadillo as a research animal model for human leprosy and developing improved skin test antigens to detect leprosy. Read more about leprosy ...

  5. Interstitial lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... for lung disease. These jobs include coal mining, sand blasting, and working on a ship. Treatment Treatment ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  6. Crohn disease - children - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 336. Sands BE, Seigel CA. Crohn's disease. In: Feldman M, ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  7. Chagas disease in prehistory.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luiz F; Jansen, Ana M; Araújo, Adauto

    2011-09-01

    The classical hypothesis proposes that Chagas disease has been originated in the Andean region among prehistoric people when they started domesticating animals, changing to sedentary habits, and adopting agriculture. These changes in their way of life happened nearly 6,000 years ago. However, paleoparasitological data based on molecular tools showed that Trypanosoma cruzi infection and Chagas disease were commonly found both in South and North American prehistoric populations long before that time, suggesting that Chagas disease may be as old as the human presence in the American continent. The study of the origin and dispersion of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among prehistoric human populations may help in the comprehension of the clinical and epidemiological questions on Chagas disease that still remain unanswered.

  8. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause heartburn and other symptoms known as gastroesophageal disease (GERD). To alleviate symptoms, dietary changes and medications are prescribed. For a patient who has persistent symptoms despite medical treatment, an anti-reflux operation may be an option.

  9. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names PID; Oophoritis; Salpingitis; Salpingo - oophoritis; Salpingo - peritonitis Images Pelvic laparoscopy Female reproductive anatomy Endometritis Uterus References McKinzie J. Sexually transmitted diseases. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, ...

  10. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newman LS. Re-examination of the blood lymphocyte transformation test in the diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease. ... et al. A study on the beryllium Lymphocyte Transformation Test and the beryllium levels in working environment. ...

  11. Diet - liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of toxic waste products. Increasing your intake of carbohydrates to be in proportion with the amount of ... severe liver disease include: Eat large amounts of carbohydrate foods. Carbohydrates should be the major source of ...

  12. Children and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z Index Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance Parasitic Disease and Malaria Strategic Priorities: 2015—2020 About our Division Get ... developing countries. The most important of these is malaria . Children in malaria-endemic countries are at high ...

  13. Women and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z Index Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance Parasitic Disease and Malaria Strategic Priorities: 2015—2020 About our Division Get ... human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pregnant women in malaria-endemic countries are at increased risk for adverse ...

  14. Hemoglobin C disease

    MedlinePlus

    Clinical hemoglobin C ... Hemoglobin C is an abnormal type of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. It is ... Americans. You are more likely to have hemoglobin C disease if someone in your family has had ...

  15. IMPROVING WATERBORNE DISEASE SURVEILLANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health surveillance has played a key role in controlling the spread of communicable disease and identifying the need for specific publich health practices, such as the filteration and chlorination of drinking water supplies. However, the characteristics of waterborne ou...

  16. Gum Disease in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Academy of Periodontology Names New Executive Director Marijuana Use Linked to Increased Gum Disease Risk Gum ... Bylaws Amendments AAP Grants Periodontal Societies AAP Member Benefits AAP Professional Education AAP Networking Opportunities AAP/Colgate ...

  17. Gum Disease and Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Academy of Periodontology Names New Executive Director Marijuana Use Linked to Increased Gum Disease Risk Gum ... Bylaws Amendments AAP Grants Periodontal Societies AAP Member Benefits AAP Professional Education AAP Networking Opportunities AAP/Colgate ...

  18. Peri-Implant Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Academy of Periodontology Names New Executive Director Marijuana Use Linked to Increased Gum Disease Risk Gum ... Bylaws Amendments AAP Grants Periodontal Societies AAP Member Benefits AAP Professional Education AAP Networking Opportunities AAP/Colgate ...

  19. Gum Disease Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Academy of Periodontology Names New Executive Director Marijuana Use Linked to Increased Gum Disease Risk Gum ... Bylaws Amendments AAP Grants Periodontal Societies AAP Member Benefits AAP Professional Education AAP Networking Opportunities AAP/Colgate ...

  20. Gum Disease and Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Academy of Periodontology Names New Executive Director Marijuana Use Linked to Increased Gum Disease Risk Gum ... Bylaws Amendments AAP Grants Periodontal Societies AAP Member Benefits AAP Professional Education AAP Networking Opportunities AAP/Colgate ...

  1. Cat scratch disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... t scratch and bite. Don't allow a cat to lick your skin, eyes, mouth, or open wounds or scratches. Use flea control measures to lower the risk your cat develops the disease. Don't touch feral cats. ...

  2. Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits - Diseases of Vegetable Crops - Diseases of Grapes - Diseases of Tree Nuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Donald H.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of four sections on plant disease recognition and control. The titles of these four sections are: (1) Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits; (2) Diseases of Vegetable Crops; (3) Diseases of Crops; and (4) Diseases of Tree Nuts. The first section discusses…

  3. Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

    MedlinePlus

    What is Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL)? Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) is a rare disease that causes tumors and cysts to grow in your body. They ... can become cancerous. What causes Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL)? Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) is a ...

  4. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  5. Subclinical thyroid disease.

    PubMed Central

    Elte, J. W.; Mudde, A. H.; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    Thyroid disease can roughly be divided into functional and anatomical disorders. Subclinical disease is by definition not accompanied by symptoms or signs and usually goes unrecognized for the bearer (and the observer). In this communication an overview will be given of existing literature and some own results concerning subclinical hypothyroidism, subclinical thyrotoxicosis and thyroid incidentalomas. Apart from definitions, data on prevalence, clinical effects, prognostic significance and the need for and response to therapy will be discussed. PMID:8731703

  6. Salmonid whirling disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markiw, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides the latest scientific and technical advances in the management of salmonid whirling disease caused by the myxosporean Myxobolus cerebralis (Syn. Myxosoma cerebralis). The complete life cycle of the parasite and the biology of the infective agent to fish, the actinosporean Triactinomyxon stage, are reviewed, and suggested procedures for detection, identification, and control of the disease are discussed. The paper offers sources of information and related reference materials of interest to fish culturists, fishery biologists, and students.

  7. [Grave's disease in 2009].

    PubMed

    Philippe, Jacques

    2009-04-08

    Grave's disease is an autoimmune disease of the thyroid gland characterized by hyperthyroidism, a homogenous goiter and occasionally an ophtalmopathy. It occurs in less than 1% of the population with a large predominance in women (10/1). Treatment is directed to inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis with carbimazole during 12-18 months. Recurrence rates after stopping treatment is about 50%; in these patients, radioactive iodine is the preferred treatment.

  8. Hyperventilation and Raynaud's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, H.; Freeman, L. J.; Nixon, P. G.

    1987-01-01

    A 42 year old woman with long standing Raynaud's disease, unresponsive to medical and surgical treatment, was noted to have a typical history of the hyperventilation syndrome. Rewarming of the hands following cold challenge was markedly prolonged in the presence of hypocapnia. It is suggested that hyperventilation may have an aetiological role in maintaining digital artery spasm in Raynaud's disease, which would benefit from recognition and treatment. PMID:3671272

  9. Calprotectin in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Ometto, Francesca; Friso, Lara; Astorri, Davide; Botsios, Costantino; Raffeiner, Bernd; Punzi, Leonardo; Doria, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Calprotectin is a heterodimer formed by two proteins, S100A8 and S100A9, which are mainly produced by activated monocytes and neutrophils in the circulation and in inflamed tissues. The implication of calprotectin in the inflammatory process has already been demonstrated, but its role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and monitoring of rheumatic diseases has gained great attention in recent years. Calprotectin, being stable at room temperature, is a candidate biomarker for the follow-up of disease activity in many autoimmune disorders, where it can predict response to treatment or disease relapse. There is evidence that a number of immunomodulators, including TNF-α inhibitors, may reduce calprotectin expression. S100A8 and S100A9 have a potential role as a target of treatment in murine models of autoimmune disorders, since the direct or indirect blockade of these proteins results in amelioration of the disease process. In this review, we will go over the biologic functions of calprotectin which might be involved in the etiology of rheumatic disorders. We will also report evidence of its potential use as a disease biomarker. Impact statement Calprotectin is an acute-phase protein produced by monocytes and neutrophils in the circulation and inflamed tissues. Calprotectin seems to be more sensitive than CRP, being able to detect minimal residual inflammation and is a candidate biomarker in inflammatory diseases. High serum levels are associated with some severe manifestations of rheumatic diseases, such as glomerulonephritis and lung fibrosis. Calprotectin levels in other fluids, such as saliva and synovial fluid, might be helpful in the diagnosis of rheumatic diseases. Of interest is also the potential role of calprotectin as a target of treatment.

  10. Cardiovascular disease in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hollan, Ivana; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Ahearn, Joseph M; Cohen Tervaert, J W; Curran, Sam; Goodyear, Carl S; Hestad, Knut A; Kahaleh, Bashar; Riggio, Marcello; Shields, Kelly; Wasko, Mary C

    2013-08-01

    Various autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), including rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus, are associated with premature atherosclerosis. However, premature atherosclerosis has not been uniformly observed in systemic sclerosis. Furthermore, although experimental models of atherosclerosis support the role of antiphospholipid antibodies in atherosclerosis, there is no clear evidence of premature atherosclerosis in antiphospholipid syndrome (APA). Ischemic events in APA are more likely to be caused by pro-thrombotic state than by enhanced atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in ARDs is caused by traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Besides other factors, inflammation and immunologic abnormalities, the quantity and quality of lipoproteins, hypertension, insulin resistance/hyperglycemia, obesity and underweight, presence of platelets bearing complement protein C4d, reduced number and function of endothelial progenitor cells, apoptosis of endothelial cells, epigenetic mechanisms, renal disease, periodontal disease, depression, hyperuricemia, hypothyroidism, sleep apnea and vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the premature CVD. Although most research has focused on systemic inflammation, vascular inflammation may play a crucial role in the premature CVD in ARDs. It may be involved in the development and destabilization of both atherosclerotic lesions and of aortic aneurysms (a known complication of ARDs). Inflammation in subintimal vascular and perivascular layers appears to frequently occur in CVD, with a higher frequency in ARD than in non-ARD patients. It is possible that this inflammation is caused by infections and/or autoimmunity, which might have consequences for treatment. Importantly, drugs targeting immunologic factors participating in the subintimal inflammation (e.g., T- and B-cells) might have a protective effect on CVD. Interestingly, vasa vasorum and cardiovascular adipose tissue may

  11. Periodontal Disease and Systemic Diseases: An Update for the Clinician.

    PubMed

    John, Vanchit; Alqallaf, Hawra; De Bedout, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    A link between periodontal disease and various systemic diseases has been investigated for several years. Interest in unearthing such a link has grown as the health care profession is looking for a better understanding of disease processes and their relationships to periodontal and other oral diseases. The article aims to provide recent information on the relationship between periodontal disease and systemic diseases such as; cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, musculoskeletal, and reproductive system related abnormalities.

  12. Curcumin and neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Monroy, Adriana; Lithgow, Gordon J.; Alavez, Silvestre

    2013-01-01

    Over the last ten years curcumin has been reported to be effective against a wide variety of diseases and is characterized as having anti-carcinogenic, hepatoprotective, thrombosuppressive, cardioprotective, anti-arthritic, and anti-infectious properties. Recent studies performed in both vertebrate and invertebrate models have been conducted to determine whether curcumin was also neuroprotective. The efficacy of curcumin in several pre-clinical trials for neurodegenerative diseases has created considerable excitement mainly due to its lack of toxicity and low cost. This suggests that curcumin could be a worthy candidate for nutraceutical intervention. Since aging is a common risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, it is possible that some compounds that target aging mechanisms could also prevent these kinds of diseases. One potential mechanism to explain several of the general health benefits associated with curcumin is that it may prevent aging-associated changes in cellular proteins that lead to protein insolubility and aggregation. This loss in protein homeostasis is associated with several age-related diseases. Recently, curcumin has been found to help maintain protein homeostasis and extend lifespan in the model invertebrate Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we review the evidence from several animal models that curcumin improves healthspan by preventing or delaying the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23303664

  13. Bilirubin and atherosclerotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Vítek, L

    2017-04-05

    Bilirubin is the final product of heme catabolism in the systemic circulation. For decades, increased serum/plasma bilirubin levels were considered an ominous sign of an underlying liver disease. However, data from recent years convincingly suggest that mildly elevated bilirubin concentrations are associated with protection against various oxidative stress-mediated diseases, atherosclerotic conditions being the most clinically relevant. Although scarce data on beneficial effects of bilirubin had been published also in the past, it took until 1994 when the first clinical study demonstrated an increased risk of coronary heart disease in subjects with low serum bilirubin levels, and bilirubin was found to be a risk factor for atherosclerotic diseases independent of standard risk factors. Consistent with these results, we proved in our own studies, that subjects with mild elevation of serum levels of unconjugated bilirubin (benign hyperbilirubinemia, Gilbert syndrome) have much lower prevalence/incidence of coronary heart as well as peripheral vascular disease. We have also demonstrated that this association is even more general, with serum bilirubin being a biomarker of numerous other diseases, often associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis. In addition, very recent data have demonstrated biological pathways modulated by bilirubin, which are responsible for observed strong clinical associations.

  14. Autoimmune liver disease 2007.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Pappas, Georgios; Muratori, Luigi; Lenzi, Marco; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune liver disease (ALD) includes a spectrum of diseases which comprises both cholestatic and hepatitic forms: autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and the so called "overlap" syndromes where hepatitic and cholestatic damage coexists. All these diseases are characterized by an extremely high heterogeneity of presentation, varying from asymptomatic, acute (as in a subset of AIH) or chronic (with aspecific symptoms such as fatigue and myalgia in AIH or fatigue and pruritus in PBC and PSC). The detection and characterization of non organ specific autoantibodies plays a major role in the diagnostic approach of autoimmune liver disease; anti nuclear reactivities (ANA) and anti smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) mark type 1 AIH, liver kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) and liver cytosol type 1 (LC1) are the serological markers of type 2 AIH; antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are associated with PBC, while no specific marker is found in PSC, since anticytoplasmic neutrophil antibodies with perinuclear pattern (atypical p-ANCA or p-ANNA) are also detected in a substantial proportion of type 1 AIH cases. Treatment options rely on immunosoppressive therapy (steroids and azathioprine) in AIH and on ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic conditions; in all these diseases liver transplantation remains the only therapeutical approach for the end stage of liver disease.

  15. Seasonal infectious disease epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Grassly, Nicholas C; Fraser, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal change in the incidence of infectious diseases is a common phenomenon in both temperate and tropical climates. However, the mechanisms responsible for seasonal disease incidence, and the epidemiological consequences of seasonality, are poorly understood with rare exception. Standard epidemiological theory and concepts such as the basic reproductive number R0 no longer apply, and the implications for interventions that themselves may be periodic, such as pulse vaccination, have not been formally examined. This paper examines the causes and consequences of seasonality, and in so doing derives several new results concerning vaccination strategy and the interpretation of disease outbreak data. It begins with a brief review of published scientific studies in support of different causes of seasonality in infectious diseases of humans, identifying four principal mechanisms and their association with different routes of transmission. It then describes the consequences of seasonality for R0, disease outbreaks, endemic dynamics and persistence. Finally, a mathematical analysis of routine and pulse vaccination programmes for seasonal infections is presented. The synthesis of seasonal infectious disease epidemiology attempted by this paper highlights the need for further empirical and theoretical work. PMID:16959647

  16. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  17. Myocardial diseases of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1986-01-01

    In this review we have attempted a comprehensive compilation of the cardiac morphologic changes that occur in spontaneous and experimental myocardial diseases of animals. Our coverage addresses diseases of mammals and birds and includes these diseases found in both domesticated and wild animals. A similar review of the myocardial diseases in this broad range of animal species has not been attempted previously. We have summarized and illustrated the gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural alterations for these myocardial diseases; and, whenever possible, we have reviewed their biochemical pathogenesis. We have arranged the myocardial diseases for presentation and discussion according to an etiologic classification with seven categories. These include a group of idiopathic or primary cardiomyopathies recognized in man (hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive types) and a large group of secondary cardiomyopathies with known causes, such as inherited tendency; nutritional deficiency; toxicity; physical injury and shock; endocrine disorders, and myocarditides of viral, bacterial, and protozoal causation. Considerable overlap exists between each of the etiologic groups in the spectrum of pathologic alterations seen in the myocardium. These include various degenerative changes, myocyte necrosis, and inflammatory lesions. However, some diseases show rather characteristic myocardial alterations such as vacuolar degeneration in anthracycline cardiotoxicity, myofibrillar lysis in furazolidone cardiotoxicity, calcification in calcinosis of mice, glycogen accumulation in the glycogenoses, lipofuscinosis in cattle, fatty degeneration in erucic acid cardiotoxicity, myofiber disarray in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and lymphocytic inflammation with inclusion bodies in canine parvoviral myocarditis. The myocardial diseases represent the largest group in the spectrum of spontaneous cardiac diseases of animals. Pericardial and endocardial diseases and congential cardiac diseases are

  18. Pathophysiology of Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Fehm, H L; Voigt, K H

    1979-01-01

    The term Cushing's disease is applied to those cases of Cushing's syndrome in which hypercortisolism is secondary to inappropriate secretion of ACTH by the pituitary. Studies on control of ACTH secretion in these patients reveal: (a) that the episodic secretion of ACTH is similar to the normal; however, frequency and amplitude of the secretory episodes lack the normal circadian rhythm; (b) that ACTH release can be stimulated by vasopressin and metyrapone in a normal or above-normal manner; and (c) that it can be suppressed by large doses of corticosteroids. When the dynamic aspects of the ACTH response to corticosteroid administration are studied, it appears that the normally negative differential feedback mechanism is converted into a positive one, whereas the delayed, integral mechanism is undisturbed. Patients with Cushing's disease in the presence of obvious pituitary tumors cannot be distinguished from those without pituitary tumors by studying only the pituitary function. All these and other well-known facts would favor the concept that ACTH secretion in Cushing's disease is under hypothalamic control whether or not a pituitary tumor is present. Moreover, there are observations that suggest that brain centers superior to the hypophysiotropic area of the hypothalamus are involved in the pathophysiology of Cushing's disease. This concept has led to the discovery of neurotropic drugs that are able to induce complete remission of Cushing's syndrome in a cerain percentage of patients. In some patients with severe psychiatric diseases, neuroendocrine abnormalities are present that resemble closely those characteristic for Cushing's disease. With the most refined neuroradiological methods, pituitary microadenomas are demonstrable in approximately 70% of patients with Cushing's disease, and this number compares well with those of earlier autopsy findings (70 to 80%). In a small number of patients (4 to 10%), these tumors are large and can easily be detected by

  19. Disease modeling in genetic kidney diseases: zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Heiko; Müller-Deile, Janina; Kinast, Mark; Schiffer, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Growing numbers of translational genomics studies are based on the highly efficient and versatile zebrafish (Danio rerio) vertebrate model. The increasing types of zebrafish models have improved our understanding of inherited kidney diseases, since they not only display pathophysiological changes but also give us the opportunity to develop and test novel treatment options in a high-throughput manner. New paradigms in inherited kidney diseases have been developed on the basis of the distinct genome conservation of approximately 70 % between zebrafish and humans in terms of existing gene orthologs. Several options are available to determine the functional role of a specific gene or gene sets. Permanent genome editing can be induced via complete gene knockout by using the CRISPR/Cas-system, among others, or via transient modification by using various morpholino techniques. Cross-species rescues succeeding knockdown techniques are employed to determine the functional significance of a target gene or a specific mutation. This article summarizes the current techniques and discusses their perspectives.

  20. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung disease Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Patient Instructions Eating extra calories when sick - adults ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Interstitial Lung Diseases Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Parkinson disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Parkinson disease Parkinson disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Parkinson disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. ...

  2. Parkinson's Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents Medications for Parkinson's disease can help many patients live productive lives and ...

  3. Lyme Disease: Fact or Fiction?

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Lyme Disease Lyme Disease Preventing tick bites On people On pets In ... What you need to know about Lyme carditis Lyme Disease Rashes and Look-alikes Diagnosis and testing Two- ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: moyamoya disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Frequency Moyamoya disease was first identified in Japan, where it is most prevalent, affecting about 5 ... unilateral moyamoya disease and quasi-moyamoya disease in Japan. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2013 Jul;115(7):930- ...

  5. National Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Date Last Reviewed: May 2018 Hansen's Disease Diagnosis & Management Patient Information English (PDF - 109 KB) Portuguese (PDF - 43 KB) ... in the United States - Diagnosis & Treatment Seminar Comprehensive Management of the Neuropathic Foot ... Links Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) (Centers for Disease ...

  6. The prion diseases of animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect several species of animals and include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, and transmissible mink encephalopat...

  7. Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... If My Kidneys Fail? Clinical Trials Managing Chronic Kidney Disease If you have chronic kidney disease (CKD), ... hard, but it’s worthwhile. Ten ways to manage kidney disease Control your blood pressure Meet your blood ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Cole disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Cole disease Cole disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Cole disease is a disorder that affects the skin. People ...

  9. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition ... they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs in people with chronic ...

  10. Infectious diseases and travelers (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Different areas of the world have different diseases and different prevalence rates of diseases. Travelers going to foreign countries may encounter diseases to which they have no natural immunity and should take any possible precautions.

  11. Rickettsiae and rickettsial diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brezina, R.; Murray, E. S.; Tarizzo, M. L.; Bögel, K.

    1973-01-01

    This paper summarizes present knowledge on rickettsiae and rickettsial diseases, and on their epidemiological characteristics, control, and public health significance. There are many natural foci of rickettsial diseases, from where the disease may spread to other areas in the world under changing socioeconomic conditions. Because of rapid long-distance travel, sporadic cases of serious rickettsial diseases may today appear far from endemic areas where the infection occurred. Even in endemic areas the disease may be misdiagnosed and deaths may occur as a result of inadequate treatment. Rapid treatment of rickettsial infections (preferably with tetracyclines) is therefore most important. Epidemic louse-borne typhus, though no longer subject to the International Health Regulations, remains one of the diseases in the WHO epidemiological surveillance programme. This disease continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in some parts of Africa and it is present also in parts of the Americas and of Asia. Scrub typhus remains a continuing and serious public health problem in areas of South-East Asia and in the Western Pacific. The annual number of reported cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the USA showed an increase during the last two decades, which may be due to improved recognition as well as to increased outdoor activities and migration of people from the city centres to the suburbs. Related forms of tick-borne typhus occur in South America, the Mediterranean region, Africa, South-East Asia, the Far East, and the Western Pacific. Increasing in number, though still sporadic, are reports of serious illness from chronic Q fever infection in many parts of the world. PMID:4547297

  12. Indium Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Takeuchi, Koichiro; Chonan, Tatsuya; Xiao, Yong-long; Harley, Russell A.; Roggli, Victor L.; Hebisawa, Akira; Tallaksen, Robert J.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Day, Gregory A.; Saito, Rena; Stanton, Marcia L.; Suarthana, Eva; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reports of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and, more recently, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in indium workers suggested that workplace exposure to indium compounds caused several different lung diseases. Methods: To better understand the pathogenesis and natural history of indium lung disease, a detailed, systematic, multidisciplinary analysis of clinical, histopathologic, radiologic, and epidemiologic data for all reported cases and workplaces was undertaken. Results: Ten men (median age, 35 years) who produced, used, or reclaimed indium compounds were diagnosed with interstitial lung disease 4-13 years after first exposure (n = 7) or PAP 1-2 years after first exposure (n = 3). Common pulmonary histopathologic features in these patients included intraalveolar exudate typical of alveolar proteinosis (n = 9), cholesterol clefts and granulomas (n = 10), and fibrosis (n = 9). Two patients with interstitial lung disease had pneumothoraces. Lung disease progressed following cessation of exposure in most patients and was fatal in two. Radiographic data revealed that two patients with PAP subsequently developed fibrosis and one also developed emphysematous changes. Epidemiologic investigations demonstrated the potential for exposure to respirable particles and an excess of lung abnormalities among coworkers. Conclusions: Occupational exposure to indium compounds was associated with PAP, cholesterol ester crystals and granulomas, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and pneumothoraces. The available evidence suggests exposure to indium compounds causes a novel lung disease that may begin with PAP and progress to include fibrosis and emphysema, and, in some cases, premature death. Prospective studies are needed to better define the natural history and prognosis of this emerging lung disease and identify effective prevention strategies. PMID:22207675

  13. Treatment of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Bradford T; Onysko, Mary K; Stob, Christian M; Hazlewood, Kathleen A

    2011-06-15

    Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia, affecting nearly one-half [corrected] of Americans older than 85 years. It is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. Amyloid plaque accumulation, neurofibrillary tau tangles, and depletion of acetylcholine are among the pathologic manifestations of Alzheimer disease. Although there are no proven modalities for preventing Alzheimer disease, hypertension treatment, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, physical activity, and cognitive engagement demonstrate modest potential. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are first-line medications for the treatment of Alzheimer disease, and are associated with mild improvements in cognitive function, behavior, and activities of daily living; however, the clinical relevance of these effects is unclear. The most common adverse effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, confusion, and cardiac arrhythmias. Short-term use of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine can modestly improve measures of cognition, behavior, and activities of daily living in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer disease. Memantine can also be used in combination with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Memantine is generally well tolerated, but whether its benefits produce clinically meaningful improvement is controversial. Although N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can slow the progression of Alzheimer disease, no pharmacologic agents can reverse the progression. Atypical antipsychotics can improve some behavioral symptoms, but have been associated with increased mortality rates in older patients with dementia. There is conflicting evidence about the benefit of selegiline, testosterone, and ginkgo for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. There is no evidence supporting the beneficial effects of vitamin E, estrogen, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy.

  14. Neurological diseases and pain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain is a frequent component of many neurological disorders, affecting 20–40% of patients for many primary neurological diseases. These diseases result from a wide range of pathophysiologies including traumatic injury to the central nervous system, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, and exploring the aetiology of pain in these disorders is an opportunity to achieve new insight into pain processing. Whether pain originates in the central or peripheral nervous system, it frequently becomes centralized through maladaptive responses within the central nervous system that can profoundly alter brain systems and thereby behaviour (e.g. depression). Chronic pain should thus be considered a brain disease in which alterations in neural networks affect multiple aspects of brain function, structure and chemistry. The study and treatment of this disease is greatly complicated by the lack of objective measures for either the symptoms or the underlying mechanisms of chronic pain. In pain associated with neurological disease, it is sometimes difficult to obtain even a subjective evaluation of pain, as is the case for patients in a vegetative state or end-stage Alzheimer's disease. It is critical that neurologists become more involved in chronic pain treatment and research (already significant in the fields of migraine and peripheral neuropathies). To achieve this goal, greater efforts are needed to enhance training for neurologists in pain treatment and promote greater interest in the field. This review describes examples of pain in different neurological diseases including primary neurological pain conditions, discusses the therapeutic potential of brain-targeted therapies and highlights the need for objective measures of pain. PMID:22067541

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Pompe disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetic Testing (2 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Glycogen storage disease type II, infantile Genetic Testing Registry: Glycogen storage disease, type II Other Diagnosis and Management Resources ( ...

  16. Castleman Disease Collaborative Network Biobank

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-12

    Castleman Disease; Castleman's Disease; Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia; Angiofollicular Lymph Hyperplasia; Angiofollicular Lymph Node Hyperplasia; Angiofollicular Lymphoid Hyperplasia; GLNH; Hyperplasia; Giant Lymph Node

  17. Happiness and neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Barak, Yoram; Achiron, Anat

    2009-04-01

    Happiness is an emotional state reflecting positive feelings and satisfaction with life, which, as an outcome in disease states or as an end point in clinical trials, is a neglected concept in most therapeutic areas. In neurological disease, happiness is important as it can be diminished either as a direct result of damage to neuronal tissue or as a reaction to a poor prognosis. The monitoring and maintenance of happiness and wellbeing have historically been considered to be peripheral to medicine. However, as happiness interacts with the patient's physical health, it is an important parameter to assess alongside all aspects of any given disease. Happiness provides a reliable overview of the patient's general status over and above standard parameters for quality of life, and is more wide-ranging than the narrow measures of disease activity or treatment efficacy that are the focus of most clinical trials. In many studies, happiness has been associated with health and success in most areas of life, including performance at work, sporting achievement and social functioning. For approximately a decade, previously studied aspects of psychology have been grouped under the label of positive psychology (PoP). Principles of this discipline are now being used to guide some treatments in neurological and psychiatric diseases. PoP aims to define patient wellbeing in scientific terms and to increase understanding of happiness, meaning in life, resilience and character strengths, as well as to determine how this knowledge can be applied clinically to promote health. Some evidence has emerged recently suggesting that improvements in patient status can result from interventions to improve the patient's level of happiness in diseases, including epilepsy, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and stroke. Several effective approaches to increase happiness employ activities to engage and stimulate patients who might otherwise be unoccupied and isolated. In

  18. [Legionnaires' disease in travellers].

    PubMed

    Jarraud, S; Reyrolle, M; Riffard, S; Lo Presti, F; Etienne, J

    1998-01-01

    The outbreak of pneumonia involving delegates to the 1976 American Legion convention at a Philadelphia hotel was the first example of travel-associated legionnaires' disease. Travel is now well known as a common risk factor for legionnaires' disease. This travel-associated disease is a preoccupation among European countries because of morbidity among citizens of the European Union. The definition of the case of legionellosis is a patient who presents an acute lower respiratory tract infection with focal signs of pneumonia and/or radiological features, and microbiological evidence of Legionella infection. A case is considered to be travel associated if the patient has spent one or more nights away from home during the ten days before becoming ill. An European Surveillance Scheme for Travel-Associated Legionnaires' Disease was established in 1987 to identify clusters and outbreaks of cases of the disease. This group centralizes the case reports of twenty-nine collaborating centres in twenty-five countries. Outbreaks of legionnaires' disease were described in hotels, camps or cruise ships. In 1996, the number of travel-associated cases of legionnaires' disease represented 16% of the total number cases. The increase of the number of reported cases may reflect improved surveillance and increased ascertainment. In Europe in 1996, the diagnosis of legionellosis was confirmed by detection of Legionella pneumophila sero-group 1 antigen in urine (36%), seroconversion (fourfold rise in antibody titre, 33%) and culture of the organism (16%). Fifteen per cent of legionellosis was diagnosed by the identification of a single high antibody titre. In France a coordination between Public Health Institutions (Réseau National de Santé Public and DDASS), clinicians, laboratories and National Reference Center was established to improve prevention and control of legionnaires' disease outbreaks. Legislation obliges to report each case. When more two cases in the same area are notified

  19. Pharmacotherapy for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jack J; Swope, David M

    2007-12-01

    The available pharmacotherapies for Parkinson's disease address symptomatology because no agent has been demonstrated to provide definite neuroprotection against the disease. Choice of pharmacotherapy must include consideration of short-term benefits as well as long-term consequences. Patients with mild Parkinson's disease often function adequately without symptomatic treatment. However, recent data suggest that initiation of treatment with a well-tolerated agent (e.g., the monoamine oxidase [MAO]-B inhibitor rasagiline) in the absence of functional impairment is associated with improved long-term outcomes. Consideration should also be given to many patient-specific factors, including patient expectations, level of disability, employment status, functional as well as chronologic age, expected efficacy and tolerability of drugs, and response to previous Parkinson's disease therapies. Increasingly, initial monotherapy begins with a nondopaminergic agent or, if the patient is considered functionally young, a dopamine agonist. Since Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder, adjustments to pharmacotherapy must be expected over time. When greater symptomatic relief is desired, or in the more frail elderly patient, levodopa therapy should be considered. If motor fluctuations develop, addition of a catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor or MAO-B inhibitor should be considered. For management of levodopa-induced dyskinesias, addition of amantadine is an option. Surgery may be considered when patients need additional symptomatic control or are experiencing severe motor complications despite pharmacologically optimized therapy.

  20. Haemorrhoids - a collagen disease?

    PubMed

    Willis, S; Junge, K; Ebrahimi, R; Prescher, A; Schumpelick, V

    2010-12-01

    The cause of haemorrhoidal disease is unknown, epidemiological data and histopathological findings support the hypothesis that reduced connective tissue stability is associated with the incidence of haemorrhoids. Therefore the aim of this study was to analyse the quantity and quality of collagen formation in the corpus cavernosum recti in patients with III°/IV° haemorrhoids in comparison with persons without haemorrhoids. Haemorrhoidectomy specimens of 31 patients with III°/IV° haemorrhoids were examined. The specimens of 20 persons who died a natural death and who had no haemorrhoidal disease served as the controls. The amount of collagen was estimated photometrically by calculating the collagen/protein ratio. The collagen I/III ratio served as parameter for the quality of collagen formation and was calculated using cross polarization spectroscopy. Patients with haemorrhoids had a significantly reduced collagen/protein ratio (42.2 ± 16.2μg/mg vs 72.5±31.0μg/mg; P= 0.02) and a significantly reduced collagen I/III ratio (2.0±0.1 vs 4.6±0.3; P<0.001) compared with persons without haemorrhoidal disease. There was no correlation with patients' age or gender.  There is a fundamental disorder of collagen metabolism in patients with haemorrhoidal disease. It remains unclear whether this is due to exogenous or endogenous influences. © 2010 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2010 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.