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Sample records for sacroiliac joint pain

  1. Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000610.htm Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a term used to describe ...

  2. Sacroiliac joint pain in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Stoev, Ivan; Powers, Alexander K; Puglisi, Joan A; Munro, Rebecca; Leonard, Jeffrey R

    2012-06-01

    The sacroiliac (SI) joint can be a pain generator in 13%-27% of cases of back pain in adults. These numbers are largely unknown for the pediatric population. In children and especially girls, development of the pelvic girdle makes the SI joint prone to misalignment. Young athletes sustain repeated stress on their SI joints, and sometimes even minor trauma can result in lasting pain that mimics radiculopathy. The authors present a series of 48 pediatric patients who were evaluated for low-back pain and were found to have SI joint misalignment as the cause of their symptoms. They were treated with a simple maneuver described in this paper that realigned their SI joint and provided significant improvement of symptoms. A retrospective review of the electronic records identified 48 patients who were referred with primary complaints of low-back pain and were determined to have SI joint misalignment during bedside examination maneuvers described here. Three patients did not have a record of their response to treatment and were excluded. Patients were evaluated by a physical therapist and had the realignment procedure performed on the day of initial consultation. The authors collected data regarding the immediate effect of the procedure, as well as the duration of pain relief at follow-up visits. Eighty percent of patients experienced dramatic improvement in symptoms that had a lasting effect after the initial treatment. The majority of them were given a home exercise program, and only 2 of the 36 patients who experienced significant relief had to be treated again. Fifty-three percent of all patients had immediate and complete resolution of symptoms. Three of the 48 patients had missing data from the medical records and were excluded from computations. Back pain is multifactorial, and the authors' data demonstrate the potential importance of SI joint pathology. Although the technique described here for treatment of misaligned SI joints in the pediatric patients is not

  3. Sacroiliac joint pain: burden of disease

    PubMed Central

    Cher, Daniel; Polly, David; Berven, Sigurd

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is an important and significant cause of low back pain. We sought to quantify the burden of disease attributable to the SIJ. Methods The authors compared EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) and Short Form (SF)-36-based health state utility values derived from the preoperative evaluation of patients with chronic SIJ pain participating in two prospective clinical trials of minimally invasive SIJ fusion versus patients participating in a nationally representative USA cross-sectional survey (National Health Measurement Study [NHMS]). Comparative analyses controlled for age, sex, and oversampling in NHMS. A utility percentile for each SIJ subject was calculated using NHMS as a reference cohort. Finally, SIJ health state utilities were compared with utilities for common medical conditions that were published in a national utility registry. Results SIJ patients (number [n]=198) had mean SF-6D and EQ-5D utility scores of 0.51 and 0.44, respectively. Values were significantly depressed (0.28 points for the SF-6D utility score and 0.43 points for EQ-5D; both P<0.0001) compared to NHMS controls. SIJ patients were in the lowest deciles for utility compared to the NHMS controls. The SIJ utility values were worse than those of many common, major medical conditions, and similar to those of other common preoperative orthopedic conditions. Conclusion Patients with SIJ pain presenting for minimally invasive surgical care have marked impairment in quality of life that is worse than in many chronic health conditions, and this is similar to other orthopedic conditions that are commonly treated surgically. SIJ utility values are in the lowest two deciles when compared to control populations. PMID:24748825

  4. Sacroiliac joint pain: Prospective, randomised, experimental and comparative study of thermal radiofrequency with sacroiliac joint block.

    PubMed

    Cánovas Martínez, L; Orduña Valls, J; Paramés Mosquera, E; Lamelas Rodríguez, L; Rojas Gil, S; Domínguez García, M

    2016-05-01

    To compare the analgesic effects between the blockade and bipolar thermal radiofrequency in the treatment of sacroiliac joint pain. Prospective, randomised and experimental study conducted on 60 patients selected in the two hospitals over a period of nine months, who had intense sacroiliac joint pain (Visual Analogue Scale [VAS]>6) that lasted more than 3 months. Patients were randomised into three groups (n=20): Group A (two intra-articular sacroiliac injections of local anaesthetic/corticosteroid guided by ultrasound in 7 days). Group B: conventional bipolar radiofrequency "palisade". Target points were the lateral branch nerves of S1, S2, and S3, distance needles 1cm. Group C: modified bipolar radiofrequency "palisade" (needle distance >1cm). Patients were evaluated at one month, three months, and one year. Demographic data, VAS reduction, and side effects of the techniques were assessed. One month after the treatment, pain reduction was >50% in the three groups P<.001. Three and 12 months after the technique, the patients of the group A did not have a significant reduction in pain. At 3 months, almost 50% patients of the group B referred to improvement of the pain (P=.03), and <25% at 12 months, and those results were statistically significant (P=.01) compared to the baseline. Group C showed an improvement of 50% at 3 and 12 months (P<.001). All patients completed the study. Bipolar radiofrequency "palisade", especially when the distance between the needles was increased, was more effective and lasted longer, compared to join block and steroids, in relieving pain sacroiliac joint. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Arslan, Ahmet; Koç, Omer Nadir; Dalkiliç, Turker; Naderi, Sait

    2010-07-01

    Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is a disorder presenting with low back and groin pain. It should be taken into consideration during the preoperative differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis and facet syndrome. Four cases with sacroiliac dysfunction are presented. The clinical and radiological signs supported the evidence of sacroiliac dysfunction, and exact diagnosis was made after positive response to sacroiliac joint block. A percutaneous sacroiliac fixation provided pain relief in all cases. The mean VAS scores reduced from 8.2 to 2.2. It is concluded that sacroiliac joint dysfunction diagnosis requires a careful physical examination of the sacroiliac joints in all cases with low back and groin pain. The diagnosis is made based on positive response to the sacroiliac block. Sacroiliac fixation was found to be effective in carefully selected cases.

  6. Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Binay Kumar; Dey, Samarjit; Biswas, Saumya; Mohan, Varinder Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF) neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] - 9/10) with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. Bilateral water cooled = RF was applied for neuroablation of nerves supplying both SI joints. Postprocedure pain intensity was 5/10 and after 7 days it was 2/10. On 18 th -month follow-up, he is pain free except for mild pain (NRS 2/10) on occasional extreme twisting of the back. This case attempts to highlight that sacral neuroablation based on cooled RF technique can be a long lasting remedial option for chronic SI joint pain unresponsive to conventional treatment.

  7. A New Radiofrequency Ablation Procedure to Treat Sacroiliac Joint Pain.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianguo; Chen, See Loong; Zimmerman, Nicole; Dalton, Jarrod E; LaSalle, Garret; Rosenquist, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain may arise from disorders of the sacroiliac joint in up to 30% of patients. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the nerves innervating the sacroiliac joint has been shown to be a safe and efficacious strategy. We aimed to develop a new RFA technique to relieve low back pain secondary to sacroiliac joint disorders. Methodology development with validation through prospective observational non-randomized trial (PONRT). Academic multidisciplinary health care system, Ohio, USA. We devised a guide-block to facilitate accurate placement of multiple electrodes to simultaneously ablate the L5 dorsal ramus and lateral branches of the S1, S2, and S3 dorsal rami. This was achieved by bipolar radiofrequency ablation (b-RFA) to create a strip lesion from the lateral border of the base of the sacral superior articular process (L5-S1 facet joint) to the lateral border of the S3 sacral foramen. We applied this technique in 31 consecutive patients and compared the operating time, x-ray exposure time and dose, and clinical outcomes with patients (n = 62) who have been treated with the cooled radiofrequency technique. Patients' level of pain relief was reported as < 50%, 50 - 80%, and > 80% pain relief at one, 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. The relationship between RFA technique and duration of pain relief was evaluated using interval-censored multivariable Cox regression. The new technique allowed reduction of operating time by more than 50%, x-ray exposure time and dose by more than 80%, and cost by more than $1,000 per case. The percent of patients who achieved > 50% pain reduction was significantly higher in the b-RFA group at 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up, compared to the cooled radiofrequency group. No complications were observed in either group. Although the major confounding factors were taken into account in the analysis, use of historical controls does not balance observed and unobserved potential confounding variables between groups so that the reported

  8. Effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain. [Subject] A 36-year-old female complained of pain in the sacroiliac joints. [Methods] The subject performed individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles for nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint for 3 weeks. Pain-provocation tests and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were evaluated before and after the exercises. [Results] After performing the individual strengthening exercises for the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, and biceps femoris muscles for 3 weeks, the subject displayed no pain in the pain provocation tests, and the VAS score was 2/10. [Conclusion] The individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles of the sacroiliac joint performed in the present study appear to be effective for sedentary workers with sacroiliac joint pain.

  9. Clinical Incidence of Sacroiliac Joint Arthritis and Pain after Sacropelvic Fixation for Spinal Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Sainoh, Takeshi; Takaso, Masashi; Inoue, Gen; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Nakamura, Junichi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Arai, Gen; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Masashi; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Sacroiliac fixation using iliac screws for highly unstable lumbar spine has been reported with an improved fusion rate and clinical results. On the other hand, there is a potential for clinical problems related to iliac fixation, including late sacroiliac joint arthritis and pain. Materials and Methods Twenty patients were evaluated. Degenerative scoliosis was diagnosed in 7 patients, failed back syndrome in 6 patients, destructive spondyloarthropathy in 4 patients, and Charcot spine in 3 patients. All patients underwent posterolateral fusion surgery incorporating lumbar, S1 and iliac screws. We evaluated the pain scores, bone union, and degeneration of sacroiliac joints by X-ray imaging and computed tomography before and 3 years after surgery. For evaluation of low back and buttock pain from sacroiliac joints 3 years after surgery, lidocaine was administered in order to examine pain relief thereafter. Results Pain scores significantly improved after surgery. All patients showed bone union at final follow-up. Degeneration of sacroiliac joints was not seen in the 20 patients 3 years after surgery. Patients showed slight low back and buttock pain 3 years after surgery. However, not all patients showed relief of the low back and buttock pain after injection of lidocaine into the sacroiliac joint, indicating that their pain did not originate from sacroiliac joints. Conclusion The fusion rate and clinical results were excellent. Also, degeneration and pain from sacroiliac joints were not seen within 3 years after surgery. We recommend sacroiliac fixation using iliac screws for highly unstable lumbar spine. PMID:22318832

  10. Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Binay Kumar; Dey, Samarjit; Biswas, Saumya; Mohan, Varinder Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF) neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] – 9/10) with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. Bilateral water cooled = RF was applied for neuroablation of nerves supplying both SI joints. Postprocedure pain intensity was 5/10 and after 7 days it was 2/10. On 18th-month follow-up, he is pain free except for mild pain (NRS 2/10) on occasional extreme twisting of the back. This case attempts to highlight that sacral neuroablation based on cooled RF technique can be a long lasting remedial option for chronic SI joint pain unresponsive to conventional treatment. PMID:28096589

  11. Leg symptoms associated with sacroiliac joint disorder and related pain.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Eiichi; Aizawa, Toshimi; Kurosawa, Daisuke; Noguchi, Kyoko

    2017-06-01

    The symptoms of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) disorders are usually detected in the buttock and groin, and occasionally referred to the thigh and leg. However, lumbar disorders also cause symptoms in these same body regions. The presence of a characteristic, symptomatic pattern in the legs would be useful for diagnosing SIJ disorders. This study aimed to identify specific leg symptoms in patients with SIJ pain originating from the posterior sacroiliac ligament and determine the rate of occurrence of these symptoms. The source population consisted of 365 consecutive patients from February 2005 to December 2007. One hundred patients were diagnosed with SIJ pain by a periarticular SIJ injection (42 males and 58 females, average age 46 years, age range, 18-75 years). A leg symptom map was made by subtracting the symptoms after a periarticular SIJ injection from the initial symptoms, and evaluating the rate of each individual symptom by area. Ninety-four patients reported pain at or around the posterior-superior iliac spine (PSIS). Leg symptoms comprised pain and a numbness/tingling sensation; ≥60% of the patients had these symptoms. Pain was mainly detected in the back, buttock, groin, and thigh areas, while numbness/tingling was mainly detected in the lateral to posterior thigh and back of the calf. Leg symptoms associated with SIJ pain originating from the posterior sacroiliac ligament include both pain and numbness, which do not usually correspond to the dermatome. These leg symptoms in addition to pain around the PSIS may indicate SIJ disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Unexplained lower abdominal pain associated with sacroiliac joint dysfunction: report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Daijiro; Isu, Toyohiko; Kim, Kyongsong; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Isobe, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman and a 31-year-old man presented with chronic lower back pain and unexplained lower abdominal pain. Both patients had groin tenderness at the medial border of the anterior superior iliac spine. The results of radiographical and physical examinations suggested sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Sacroiliac joint injection relieved their symptoms, including groin tenderness. In our experience, groin tenderness is highly specific for sacroiliac joint dysfunction. We speculate that spasm of the iliac muscle can cause groin pain and tenderness. Groin pain and a history of unexplained abdominal pain, with lower back pain, are symptoms that suggest sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Additionally, compression of the iliac muscle is a simple and useful maneuver; therefore, it can be used as a screening test for sacroiliac joint dysfunction, alongside other provocation tests.

  13. Cooled radiofrequency denervation for treatment of sacroiliac joint pain: two-year results from 20 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Kok-Yuen; Hadi, Mohamed Abdul; Pasutharnchat, Koravee; Tan, Kian-Hian

    2013-01-01

    Background Sacroiliac joint pain is a common cause of chronic low back pain. Different techniques for radiofrequency denervation of the sacroiliac joint have been used to treat this condition. However, results have been inconsistent because the variable sensory supply to the sacroiliac joint is difficult to disrupt completely using conventional radiofrequency. Cooled radiofrequency is a novel technique that uses internally cooled radiofrequency probes to enlarge lesion size, thereby increasing the chance of completely denervating the sacroiliac joint. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cooled radiofrequency denervation using the SInergy™ cooled radiofrequency system for sacroiliac joint pain. Methods The charts of 20 patients with chronic sacroiliac joint pain who had undergone denervation using the SInergy™ cooled radiofrequency system were reviewed at two years following the procedure. Outcome measures included the Numeric Rating Scale for pain intensity, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Global Perceived Effect for patient satisfaction. Results Fifteen of 20 patients showed a significant reduction in pain (a decrease of at least three points on the Numeric Rating Scale). Mean Numeric Rating Scale for pain decreased from 7.4 ± 1.4 to 3.1 ± 2.5, mean Patient Global Impression of Change was “improved” (1.4 ± 1.5), and Global Perceived Effect was reported to be positive in 16 patients at two years following the procedure. Conclusion Cooled radiofrequency denervation showed long-term efficacy for up to two years in the treatment of sacroiliac joint pain. PMID:23869175

  14. Movement of the sacroiliac joint during the Active Straight Leg Raise test in patients with long-lasting severe sacroiliac joint pain.

    PubMed

    Kibsgård, Thomas J; Röhrl, Stephan M; Røise, Olav; Sturesson, Bengt; Stuge, Britt

    2017-08-01

    The Active Straight Leg Raise is a functional test used in the assessment of pelvic girdle pain, and has shown to have good validity, reliability and responsiveness. The Active Straight Leg Raise is considered to examine the patients' ability to transfer load through the pelvis. It has been hypothesized that patients with pelvic girdle pain lack the ability to stabilize the pelvic girdle, probably due to instability or increased movement of the sacroiliac joint. This study examines the movement of the sacroiliac joints during the Active Straight Leg Raise in patients with pelvic girdle pain. Tantalum markers were inserted in the dorsal sacrum and ilium of 12 patients with long-lasting pelvic girdle pain scheduled for sacroiliac joint fusion surgery. Two to three weeks later movement of the sacroiliac joints during the Active Straight Leg Raise was measured with radiostereometric analysis. Small movements were detected. There was larger movement of the sacroiliac joint of the rested leg's sacroiliac joint compared to the lifted leg's side. A mean backward rotation of 0.8° and inward tilt of 0.3° were seen in the rested leg's sacroiliac joint. The movements of the sacroiliac joints during the Active Straight Leg Raise are small. There was a small backward rotation of the innominate bone relative to sacrum on the rested leg's side. Our findings contradict an earlier understanding that a forward rotation of the lifted leg's innominate occur while performing the Active Straight Leg Raise. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion, Radiofrequency Denervation, and Conservative Management for Sacroiliac Joint Pain: 6-Year Comparative Case Series.

    PubMed

    Vanaclocha, Vicente; Herrera, Juan Manuel; Sáiz-Sapena, Nieves; Rivera-Paz, Marlon; Verdú-López, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain is an under-recognized condition. Substantial information supports the safety and effectiveness of SIJ fusion (SIJF). Long-term follow-up after SIJF has not been reported. To determine responses to conservative management (CM), SIJ denervation, and SIJF in patients with SIJ pain unresponsive to CM. Retrospective study with long-term (up to 6 yr) follow-up of 137 patients with SIJ pain seen in an outpatient neurosurgery clinic who received either CM (n = 63), sacroiliac denervation (n = 47), or minimally invasive SIJF (n = 27). At each routine clinic visit, patients completed pain scores and Oswestry Disability Index. Additional data were extracted from medical charts. Patients treated with continued CM had no long-term improvement in pain (mean worsening of 1 point) or disability (mean Oswestry Disability Index worsened by 4-6 points), increased their use of opioids, and had poor long-term work status. SIJF patients had large improvements in SIJ pain (mean 6 points), large improvements in disability (mean 25 points), a decrease in opioid use, and good final work status. Sacroiliac denervation patients had intermediate responses (0-1 and 1-2 points, respectively). In patients with SIJ pain unresponsive to CM, SIJF resulted in excellent long-term clinical responses, with low opioid use and better work status compared to other treatments. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  16. Ankylosing spondylitis in an athlete with chronic sacroiliac joint pain.

    PubMed

    Miller, Timothy L; Cass, Nathan; Siegel, Courtney

    2014-02-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a disease in which inflammation of joints, most often in the axial skeleton, can lead to reactive fibrosis and eventual joint fusion with associated immobility and kyphosis. The disease often involves extra-articular features, such as uveitis and aortic regurgitation, as well as associated inflammatory conditions of the intestines. Its etiology is unknown. Ankylosing spondylitis most commonly presents in young males (15-30 years old) as persistent low back pain and stiffness that is worse in the morning and at night and improves with activity. The authors report the case of a young male athlete whose symptoms were initially incorrectly diagnosed as sacroiliac joint instability and dysfunction and later as a sacroiliac stress fracture before further workup revealed a seronegative spondyloarthropathy and the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis. The patient was prescribed oral indomethacin daily by the attending rheumatologist and started on a slow progression of return to running, jumping, and weight lifting. Within 4 weeks of beginning this treatment, the patient had complete cessation of pain with the medication. At follow-up 1 year after graduation from his university, the patient was nearly symptom free and working in a non-heavy labor job. The purpose of this case report is to remind sports medicine physicians of the prevalence of rheumatologic diseases in general and ankylosing spondylitis in particular and of the various ways in which spondyloarthropathies may present in athletes. Increased suspicion may lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment, potentially reducing illness severity and duration and improving the performance of athletes with this condition. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Groin pain associated with sacroiliac joint dysfunction and lumbar disorders.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Daisuke; Murakami, Eiichi; Aizawa, Toshimi

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the prevalence of groin pain in patients with sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction, lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSS), and lumbar disc herniation (LDH) who did not have hip disorders, and evaluated the clinical features that distinguished SIJ dysfunction from LSS and LDH. We evaluated 127 patients (57 men, 70 women, average age 55 years) with SIJ dysfunction, 146 (98 men, 48 women, average age 71 years) with LSS, and 124 (83 men, 41 women, average age 50 years) with LDH. The following data were retrospectively collected from the patients' medical charts: (1) the prevalence of groin pain for each pathology; (2) corresponding spinal level of LSS and LDH in the patients with groin pain; (3) the pain areas in the buttocks and back; pain increase while in positions such as sitting, lying supine, and side-lying; an SIJ shear test; and four tender points composed of the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS), long posterior sacroiliac ligament (LPSL), sacrotuberous ligament (STL), and iliac muscle. Fifty-nine (46.5%) patients with SIJ dysfunction, 10 (6.8%) with LSS, and 10 (8.1%) with LDH reported groin pain. Of the 10 patients with LSS, five presented with cauda equina symptoms, two had stenosis of L2-L3, and three had stenosis below L3-L4. The other five presented with radiculopathy: the corresponding nerve root was L2, L3, and L4 in one patient each, and L5 in two. Of the 10 patients with LDH, eight presented with radiculopathy: the corresponding nerve root was L2 and L4 in three patients each, and L5 in two. Two patients presented with L4-L5 discogenic pain without radiculopathy. In patients with groin pain, pain provoked by the SIJ shear test and the tenderness of the PSIS and LPSL were significant physical signs that differentiated SIJ dysfunction from LSS and LDH. (Fisher's exact test, P<0.05) CONCLUSION: The prevalence of groin pain in patients with SIJ dysfunction was higher than in those with LSS or LDH. When patients who do not have hip disorders

  18. Can hip abduction and external rotation discriminate sacroiliac joint pain?

    PubMed

    Adhia, Divya Bharatkumar; Tumilty, Steve; Mani, Ramakrishnan; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bussey, Melanie D

    2016-02-01

    The primary aim of the study is to determine if Hip Abduction and External Rotation (HABER) test is capable of reproducing familiar pain in individuals with low back pain (LBP) of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) origin (SIJ-positive) when compared with LBP of Non-SIJ origin (SIJ-negative). If so, the secondary aim is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of HABER test against the reference standard of pain provocation tests, and to determine which increments of the HABER test has highest sensitivity and specificity for identifying SIJ-positive individuals. Single-blinded diagnostic accuracy study. Participants [n(122)] between ages of 18-50 y, suffering from chronic non-specific LBP (≥3 months) volunteered in the study. An experienced musculoskeletal physiotherapist evaluated and classified participants into either SIJ-positive [n(45)] or SIJ-negative [n(77)], based on reference standard of pain provocation tests [≥3 positive tests = SIJ-positive]. Another musculoskeletal physiotherapist, blinded to clinical groups, evaluated participants for reproduction of familiar pain during each increment (10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, and 50°) of HABER test. The HABER test reproduced familiar pain in SIJ-positive individuals when compared with SIJ-negative individuals [p (0.001), R(2) (0.38), Exp(β) (5.95-10.32)], and demonstrated moderate level of sensitivity (67%-78%) and specificity (71%-72%) for identifying SIJ-positive individuals. Receiver operator curve analysis demonstrated that the HABER increments of ≥30° have the highest sensitivity (83%-100%) and specificity (52%-64%). The HABER test is capable of reproducing familiar pain in SIJ-positive LBP individuals and has moderate levels of sensitivity and specificity for identifying SIJ-positive LBP individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sacroiliac Joint Interventions.

    PubMed

    Soto Quijano, David A; Otero Loperena, Eduardo

    2018-02-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain is an important cause of lower back problems. Multiple SIJ injection techniques have been proposed over the years to help in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. However, the SIJ innervation is complex and variable, and truly intra-articular injections are sometimes difficult to obtain. Different sacroiliac joint injections have shown to provide pain relief in patients suffering this ailment. Various techniques for intraarticular injections, sacral branch blocks and radiofrequency ablation, both fluoroscopy guided and ultrasound guided are discussed in this paper. Less common techniques like prolotherapy, platelet rich plasma injections and botulism toxin injections are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative investigation of ligament strains during physical tests for sacroiliac joint pain using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Yao, Zhidong; Kim, Kyungsoo; Park, Won Man

    2014-06-01

    It may be assumed that the stability is affected when some ligaments are injured or loosened, and this joint instability causes sacroiliac joint pain. Several physical examinations have been used to diagnose sacroiliac pain and to isolate the source of the pain. However, more quantitative and objective information may be necessary to identify unstable or injured ligaments during these tests due to the lack of understanding of the quantitative relationship between the physical tests and the biomechanical parameters that may be related to pains in the sacroiliac joint and the surrounding ligaments. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model of the sacroiliac joint was developed and the biomechanical conditions for six typical physical tests such as the compression test, distraction test, sacral apex pressure test, thigh thrust test, Patrick's test, and Gaenslen's test were modelled. The sacroiliac joint contact pressure and ligament strain were investigated for each test. The values of contact pressure and the combination of most highly strained ligaments differed markedly among the tests. Therefore, these findings in combination with the physical tests would be helpful to identify the pain source and to understand the pain mechanism. Moreover, the technology provided in this study might be a useful tool to evaluate the physical tests, to improve the present test protocols, or to develop a new physical test protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment strategy for sacroiliac joint-related pain at or around the posterior superior iliac spine.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Eiichi; Kurosawa, Daisuke; Aizawa, Toshimi

    2018-02-01

    Pain at or around the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) is characteristic of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) -related pain. This pain can be treated by either a peri- or intra-articular injection into the joint, with the former being much easier to perform. We investigated whether peri- or intra-articular injections were more frequently effective in patients with SIJ-related pain, and aimed to create an efficient treatment strategy for SIJ-related pain at or around the PSIS. Prospective case-control study. We evaluated 85 patients with pain at or around the posterior superior iliac spine as indicated by the one finger test. First, we performed a peri-articular sacroiliac joint injection. If it was ineffective, an intra-articular injection was later given. Groin pain, sitting pain, sacroiliac joint shear test results, and posterior superior iliac spine and sacro-tuberous ligament tenderness were also compared between patients for whom a peri- or intra-articular injection was effective. Seventy-two (85%) of 85 patients had an effective injection. Out of these 72 patients, 58 (81%) had a positive peri-articular injection and 14 (19%) had a positive intra-articular injection. Four items, excluding tenderness of the sacro-tuberous ligament had no significant difference between these two injection types. To treat sacroiliac joint-related pain at or around the posterior superior iliac spine, a peri-articular injection should be performed first, and only if it is not effective should an intra-articular injection be administered. Using this strategy, we expect that most patients with sacroiliac joint-related pain will be efficiently diagnosed and treated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluoroscopy-guided Sacroiliac Joint Steroid Injection for Low Back Pain in a Patient with Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Dawson, P U; Rose, R E; Wade, N A

    2015-09-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta, also known as 'brittle bone disease', is a genetic connective tissue disease. It is characterized by bone fragility and osteopenia (low bone density). In this case, a 57-year old female presented to the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI), Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic with left low back pain rated 6/10 on the numeric rating scale (NRS). Clinically, the patient had sacroiliac joint mediated pain although X-rays did not show the sacroiliac joint changes. Fluoroscopy-guided left sacroiliac joint steroid injection was done. Numeric rating scale and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire were used to evaluate outcome. This was completed at baseline, one week follow-up and at eight weeks post fluoroscopy-guided sacroiliac joint steroid injection. Numeric rating scale improved from 6/10 before the procedure to 0/10 post procedure, and ODI questionnaire score improved from a moderate disability score of 40% to a minimal disability score of 13%. Up to eight weeks, the NRS was 0/10 and ODI remained at minimal disability of 15%. Fluoroscopy-guided sacroiliac joint injection is a known diagnostic and treatment method for sacroiliac joint mediated pain. To our knowledge, this is the first case published on the use of fluoroscopy-guided sacroiliac joint steroid injection in the treatment of sacroiliac joint mediated low back pain in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta.

  3. Sacroiliac joint tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Govender, S.

    2006-01-01

    Infections of the sacroiliac joint are uncommon and the diagnosis is usually delayed. In a retrospective study, 17 patients who had been treated for tuberculosis sacroiliitis between 1994 and 2004 were reviewed. Two patients were excluded due to a short follow-up (less than 2 years). Low back pain and difficulty in walking were the most common presenting features. Two patients presented with a buttock abscess and spondylitis of the lumbar spine was noted in two patients. The Gaenslen’s and FABER (flexion, abduction and external rotation) tests were positive in all patients. Radiological changes included loss of cortical margins with erosion of the joints. An open biopsy and curettage was performed in all patients; histology revealed chronic infection and acid-fast bacilli were isolated in nine patients. Antituberculous (TB) medication was administered for 18 months and the follow-up ranged from 3 to 10 years (mean: 5 years). The sacroiliac joint fused spontaneously within 2 years. Although all patients had mild discomfort in the lower back following treatment they had no difficulty in walking. Sacroiliac joint infection must be included in the differential diagnosis of lower back pain and meticulous history and clinical evaluation of the joint are essential. PMID:16673102

  4. Sacroiliac joint pain as an important element of psoriatic arthritis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk-Wasielewska, Agnieszka; Skorupska, Elżbieta; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2013-04-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the coexistence of arthritis with psoriasis of the skin and nails. The sacroiliac joints were observed in 34-78% of patients with psoriatic arthritis. Due to such a high prevalence of SIJ dysfunction, understanding pathophysiology of pain and the associated pain pattern becomes a very important aspect of PsA diagnosis. As far as the etiology of SI joint dysfunction is concerned, it has not been disambiguated yet. Among the main causative factors, injuries and strains of the structures surrounding the joint are noted. Joint pathology usually manifests itself by pain occurring within the area of the joint. The causes of pain may be divided into two categories: intra-articular and extra-articular. Pain caused by the SI joint may be nociceptive or neural in nature, whereas the pain pattern characteristic of the joint correlates with its innervation and is consistent with S2 dorsal rami.

  5. Pulsed Radiofrequency Application for the Treatment of Pain Secondary to Sacroiliac Joint Metastases.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yu Ri; Lee, Na Rea; Kwon, Young Suk; Jang, Ji Su; Lim, So Young

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain can result from degeneration, infection, malignancy, and trauma. Patients with metastatic bone pain who do not respond to conventional treatment may need more aggressive neuroinvasive approaches. Recently, pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) neuromodulation has emerged as a promising treatment alternative for refractory cases of SI joint pain. Nevertheless, there is no report on the treatment of pain arising from SI joint metastases with PRF. We are reporting about a 63-year-old woman suffering from buttock pain due to breast cancer metastases in the SI joint. We treated this patient with PRF neuromodulation of the L4-S3 primary dorsal rami and lateral branches using a rotating curved needle technique. The patient tolerated the procedures well, without any complications. She experienced about 70% reduction in pain, and pain relief was sustained for 10 months. This result suggests that PRF neuromodulation is a safe, effective treatment for pain from SI joint metastases.

  6. The role of sacroiliac joint dysfunction in the genesis of low back pain: the obvious is not always right.

    PubMed

    Weksler, Natan; Velan, Gad J; Semionov, Michael; Gurevitch, Boris; Klein, Moti; Rozentsveig, Vsevolod; Rudich, Tzvia

    2007-12-01

    It is a common practice to the link low back pain with protruding disc even when neurological signs are absent. Because pain caused by sacroiliac joint dysfunction can mimic discogenic or radicular low back pain, we assumed that the diagnosis of sacroiliac joint dysfunction is frequently overlooked. To assess the incidence of sacroiliac joint dysfunction in patients with low back pain and positive disc findings on CT scan or MRI, but without claudication or objective neurological deficits. Fifty patients with low back pain and disc herniation, without claudication or neurological abnormalities such as decreased motor strength, sensory alterations or sphincter incontinence and with positive pain provocation tests for sacroiliac joint dysfunction were submitted to fluoroscopic diagnostic sacroiliac joint infiltration. The mean baseline VAS pain score was 7.8 +/- 1.77 (range 5-10). Thirty minutes after infiltration, the mean VAS score was 1.3 +/- 1.76 (median 0.000E+00 with an average deviation from median = 1.30) (P = 0.0002). Forty-six patients had a VAS score ranging from 0 to 3, 8 weeks after the fluoroscopic guided infiltration. There were no serious complications after treatment. An unanticipated motor block that required hospitalization was seen in four patients, lasting from 12 to 36 h. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction should be considered strongly in the differential diagnosis of low back pain in this group of patients.

  7. Single strip lesions radiofrequency denervation for treatment of sacroiliac joint pain: two years' results.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Martina; Barbieri, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint pain can be managed by intra-articular injections or radiofrequency of its innervation. Single strip lesions radiofrequency denervation is a new system. The objective of this study was to present one of the first utilizations of this innovative technique. 60 patients who met the diagnostic criteria for sacroiliac joint syndrome were enrolled in the study. In total, 102 single strip lesions radiofrequency denervations were performed. Pain intensity was measured with the Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire and the Oswestry Disability Index whose scores were assessed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the procedure. 91.8 % of the 102 radiofrequency treatments resulted in a reduction of more than 50% pain intensity relief at 1 month, 81.6% at 3 months and 59.16% at 6 months. In 35.7% of cases, the relief was continuative up to 1 year. No relief was observed in 12.24% of cases. The ODI scores improved significantly 1 month after the procedure, compared with the baseline scores. The ODI scores after 6 months improved very clearly compared with the baseline scores and with the 3-month scores. Single strip lesions radiofrequency denervation using the Simplicity III probe is a potential modality for intermediate term relief for patients with sacroiliac pain.

  8. Sacroiliac pain in a dialysis patient

    PubMed Central

    Tristano, Antonio G

    2009-01-01

    The case is reported of a 47-year-old man with a history of chronic renal failure, treated with peritoneal dialysis, who presented with acute sacroiliac joint pain secondary to a pelvic abscess. Initially a diagnosis of infectious sacroiliitis of the left sacroiliac joint was suspected, but following investigation a pain referable to the sacroiliac joint was suspected. The patient recovered with a combination of antibiotics for the pelvic abscess and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:21994518

  9. A New Sacroiliac Joint Injection Technique and Its Short-Term Effect on Chronic Sacroiliac Region Pain.

    PubMed

    Do, Kyung Hee; Ahn, Sang Ho; Jones, Rodney; Jang, Sung Ho; Son, Su Min; Lee, Dong Gyu; Cho, Hee Kyung; Choi, Gyu Sik; Cho, Yun-Woo

    2016-10-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injections have been used to provide short-term relief of SIJ pain. In this study, the authors investigated a new technique using a superior approach. Twenty four patients with chronic SI joint paint were recruited. Each patient was treated with a single SIJ intra-articular injection plus a periarticular injection of local anesthetic and corticosteroid in one procedure. Technical accuracy of the intra-articular procedure was determined by having 2 independent observers review and rate the quality of arthrograms obtained. Treatment effects were evaluated using a numerical rating scale, the Oswestry disability index (ODI) and global perceived effect (GPE). Both independent observers agreed that satisfactory arthrograms were obtained in all patients. Pain scores and disability were significantly reduced at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after treatment. Nineteen patients (79%) reported satisfaction with treatment. No serious adverse effects were encountered. The superior approach consistently achieves good access to the SI joint, and achieves outcomes that are compatible with those of other techniques. The superior approach constitutes an alternative to other techniques for injections into the SI joint. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A randomized controlled trial of intra-articular prolotherapy versus steroid injection for sacroiliac joint pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woong Mo; Lee, Hyung Gon; Jeong, Cheol Won; Kim, Chang Mo; Yoon, Myung Ha

    2010-12-01

    Controversy exists regarding the efficacy of ligament prolotherapy in alleviating sacroiliac joint pain. The inconsistent success rates reported in previous studies may be attributed to variability in patient selection and techniques between studies. It was hypothesized that intra-articular prolotherapy for patients with a positive response to diagnostic block may mitigate the drawbacks of ligament prolotherapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and long-term effectiveness of intra-articular prolotherapy in relieving sacroiliac joint pain, compared with intra-articular steroid injection. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. The study was conducted at an outpatient pain medicine clinic at Chonnam National University Hospital in Gwang-ju, Korea. The study included patients with sacroiliac joint pain, confirmed by ≥50% improvement in response to local anesthetic block, lasting 3 months or longer, and who failed medical treatment. The treatment involved intra-articular dextrose water prolotherapy or triamcinolone acetonide injection using fluoroscopic guidance, with a biweekly schedule and maximum of three injections. Pain and disability scores were assessed at baseline, 2 weeks, and monthly after completion of treatment. The numbers of recruited patients were 23 and 25 for the prolotherapy and steroid groups, respectively. The pain and disability scores were significantly improved from baseline in both groups at the 2-week follow-up, with no significant difference between them. The cumulative incidence of ≥50% pain relief at 15 months was 58.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37.9%-79.5%) in the prolotherapy group and 10.2% (95% CI 6.7%-27.1%) in the steroid group, as determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis; there was a statistically significant difference between the groups (log-rank p < 0.005). Intra-articular prolotherapy provided significant relief of sacroiliac joint pain, and its effects lasted longer than those of steroid

  11. Sacroiliac joint pain as an important element of psoriatic arthritis diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the coexistence of arthritis with psoriasis of the skin and nails. The sacroiliac joints were observed in 34-78% of patients with psoriatic arthritis. Due to such a high prevalence of SIJ dysfunction, understanding pathophysiology of pain and the associated pain pattern becomes a very important aspect of PsA diagnosis. As far as the etiology of SI joint dysfunction is concerned, it has not been disambiguated yet. Among the main causative factors, injuries and strains of the structures surrounding the joint are noted. Joint pathology usually manifests itself by pain occurring within the area of the joint. The causes of pain may be divided into two categories: intra-articular and extra-articular. Pain caused by the SI joint may be nociceptive or neural in nature, whereas the pain pattern characteristic of the joint correlates with its innervation and is consistent with S2 dorsal rami. PMID:24278057

  12. Referred pain location depends on the affected section of the sacroiliac joint.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Daisuke; Murakami, Eiichi; Aizawa, Toshimi

    2015-03-01

    Pain referred from the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) may originate in the joint's posterior ligamentous region. The site of referred pain may depend on which SIJ section is affected. This study aimed to determine the exact origin of pain referred from four SIJ sections. The study included 50 patients with SIJ dysfunction, confirmed by more than 70 % pain relief after periarticular injection of local anesthetic into the SIJ. The posterior SIJ was divided into four sections-upper, middle, lower, and other (cranial portion of the ilium outside the SIJ)-designated sections 1, 2, 3, and 0, respectively. We then inserted a needle into the periarticular SIJ under fluoroscopy. After the patient identified the area(s) in which the needle insertion produced referred pain, we injected a mixture of 2 % lidocaine and contrast medium into the corresponding SIJ section. Referred pain from SIJ section 0 was mainly located in the upper buttock along the iliac crest; pain from section 1, around the posterosuperior iliac spine; pain from section 2, in the middle buttock area; pain from section 3, in the lower buttock. In all, 22 (44.0 %) patients complained of groin pain, which was slightly relieved by lidocaine injection into SIJ sections 1 and 0. Dysfunctional upper sections of the SIJ are associated with pain in the upper buttock and lower sections with pain in the lower buttock. Groin pain might be referred from the upper SIJ sections.

  13. Association between composites of selected motion palpation and pain provocation tests for sacroiliac joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Soleimanifar, Manijeh; Karimi, Noureddin; Arab, Amir Massoud

    2017-04-01

    The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) has been implicated as a potential source of low back and buttock pain. Several types of motion palpation and pain provocation tests are used to evaluate SIJ dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between motion palpation and pain provocation tests in assessment of SIJ problems. This study is Descriptive Correlation. 50 patients between the ages of 20 and 65 participated. Four motion palpation tests (Sitting flexion, Standing flexion, Prone knee flexion, Gillet test) and three pain provocation tests (FABER, Posterior shear, Resisted abduction test) were examined. Chi-square analysis was used to assess the relationship between results of the individuals and composites of these two groups of tests. No significant relationship was found between these two groups of tests. It seems that motion palpation tests assess SIJ dysfunction and provocative tests assessed SIJ pain which do not appear to be related. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of gait training with shoe inserts on the improvement of pain and gait in sacroiliac joint patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Byung-Yun; Yoon, Jung-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current research was to identify how gait training with shoe inserts affects the pain and gait of sacroiliac joint dysfunction patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly selected and assigned to be either the experimental group (gait training with shoe insert group) or control group. Each group consisted of 15 patients. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale, and foot pressure in a standing position and during gait was measured with a Gateview AFA-50 system (Alpus, Seoul, Republic of Korea). A paired sample t-test was used to compare the pain and gait of the sacroiliac joint before and after the intervention. Correlation between pain and walking after gait training with shoe inserts was examined by Pearson test. The level of significance was set at α=0.05. [Results] It was found that application of the intervention to the experimental group resulted in a significant decrease in sacroiliac joint pain. It was also found that there was a significant correlation between Visual Analogue Scale score and dynamic asymmetric index (r= 0.796) and that there was a negative correlation between Visual Analogue Scale score and forefoot/rear foot peak pressure ratio (r=-0.728). [Conclusion] The results of our analysis lead us to conclude that the intervention with shoe inserts had a significant influence on the pain and gait of sacroiliac joint patients. PMID:26357428

  15. The effect of gait training with shoe inserts on the improvement of pain and gait in sacroiliac joint patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Byung-Yun; Yoon, Jung-Gyu

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current research was to identify how gait training with shoe inserts affects the pain and gait of sacroiliac joint dysfunction patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly selected and assigned to be either the experimental group (gait training with shoe insert group) or control group. Each group consisted of 15 patients. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale, and foot pressure in a standing position and during gait was measured with a Gateview AFA-50 system (Alpus, Seoul, Republic of Korea). A paired sample t-test was used to compare the pain and gait of the sacroiliac joint before and after the intervention. Correlation between pain and walking after gait training with shoe inserts was examined by Pearson test. The level of significance was set at α=0.05. [Results] It was found that application of the intervention to the experimental group resulted in a significant decrease in sacroiliac joint pain. It was also found that there was a significant correlation between Visual Analogue Scale score and dynamic asymmetric index (r= 0.796) and that there was a negative correlation between Visual Analogue Scale score and forefoot/rear foot peak pressure ratio (r=-0.728). [Conclusion] The results of our analysis lead us to conclude that the intervention with shoe inserts had a significant influence on the pain and gait of sacroiliac joint patients.

  16. [Sacroiliac joint dysfunction with groin pain after an operation for lumbar spinal disorder. A case report].

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yusuke; Morimoto, Daijiro; Isu, Toyohiko; Motegi, Hiroaki; Imai, Tetsuaki; Matsumoto, Ryouji; Isobe, Masanori; Kim, Kyongsong; Sugawara, Atsushi

    2010-11-01

    A 75-year-old male presented with groin pain after an operation to treat lumbar spondylolisthesis (L5). Groin tenderness was localized to the medial border of the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS). Radiographical and physical examination raised the suspicion of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction. Injection of a painkiller into the SIJ relieved symptoms, including groin tenderness. Symptoms improved gradually, and finally disappeared after five SIJ injections. Groin pain has been reported as a referred symptom of SIJ dysfunction in 9.3-23% of patients. Prior to the patient undergoing surgery to treat lumbar spondylolisthesis, SIJ dysfunction had not been noted on physical examination. Long periods spent in the abnormal posture due to lumbar spondylolisthesis induced SIJ stress. After the operation, an improvement in daily activity actually increased stress on the SIJ, resulting in SIJ dysfunction. Certain pathologies, including SIJ dysfunction, should be considered as residual symptoms after operations for lumbar spinal diseases.

  17. Surgical versus injection treatment for injection-confirmed chronic sacroiliac joint pain

    PubMed Central

    Spiker, William Ryan; Lawrence, Brandon D.; Raich, Annie L.; Skelly, Andrea C.; Brodke, Darrel S.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review. Study rationale: Chronic sacroiliac joint pain (CSJP) is a common clinical entity with highly controversial treatment options. A recent systematic review compared surgery with denervation, but the current systematic review compares outcomes of surgical intervention with therapeutic injection for the treatment of CSJP and serves as the next step for evaluating current evidence on the comparative effectiveness of treatments for non-traumatic sacroiliac joint pain. Objective or clinical question: In adult patients with injection-confirmed CSJP, does surgical treatment lead to better outcomes and fewer complications than injection therapy? Methods: A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and June 2012. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating surgery or injection treatment for injection-confirmed CSJP. Studies involving traumatic onset or non-injection–confirmed CSJP were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence quality using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results: We identified twelve articles (seven surgical and five injection treatment) meeting our inclusion criteria. Regardless of the type of treatment, most studies reported over 40% improvement in pain as measured by Visual Analog Scale or Numeric rating Scale score. Regardless of the type of treatment, most studies reported over 20% improvement in functionality. Most complications were reported in the surgical studies. Conclusion: Surgical fusion and therapeutic injections can likely provide pain relief, improve quality of life, and improve work status. The comparative effectiveness of these interventions cannot be evaluated with the current literature. PMID:23526911

  18. Audit of conservative management of chronic low back pain in a secondary care setting--part I: facet joint and sacroiliac joint interventions.

    PubMed

    Chakraverty, Robin; Dias, Richard

    2004-12-01

    The work of a chronic back pain service in secondary care in the West Midlands is reported. The service offers acupuncture, spinal injection procedures, osteopathy and a range of other interventions for patients whose back pain has not responded to conservative management. This section of the report focuses on injection procedures for lumbar facet joint and sacroiliac joint pain, which have been shown to be the cause of chronic low back pain in 16-40% and 13-19% of patients respectively. Diagnosis relies on the use of intra-articular or sensory nerve block injections with local anaesthetic. Possible treatments following diagnosis include intra-articular corticosteroid, radiofrequency denervation (for facet joint pain) or ligament prolotherapy injections (for sacroiliac joint pain). The results of several hospital audits are reported. At six month follow up, 50% of 38 patients undergoing radiofrequency denervation following diagnostic blocks for facet joint pain had improved by more than 50%, compared to 29% of 34 patients treated with intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Sixty three per cent of 19 patients undergoing prolotherapy following diagnostic block injection for sacroiliac joint pain had improved at six months, compared to 33% of 33 who had intra-articular corticosteroid. Both radiofrequency denervation and sacroiliac prolotherapy showed good long-term outcomes at one year.

  19. Nontraumatic Testicular Pain due to Sacroiliac-Joint Dysfunction: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Leone, James E.; Middleton, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the case of a 49-year-old man who presented to the sports medicine staff with pelvic pain of 10 years' duration consistent with pudendal neuralgia. Background: Testicular pain in men is often provoked by direct trauma or may indicate an oncologic process. Differential Diagnosis: Epididymitis, athletic pubalgia, testicular tumor, sacroiliac joint dysfunction, lumbar radiculopathy. Treatment: The patient responded positively to treatment and rehabilitation to restore normal mechanics to the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. Several flare-ups since the initial treatment have been of short duration (<2 days) and less intense. Uniqueness: Pudendal neuralgia tends to affect females more than males due to changes in the alignment and stability of the pelvis from a combination of a shorter, wider pelvis and muscle imbalances associated with childbirth. Typically, males with testicular pain suffer from epididymitis or some type of testicular torsion, which was not the situation in this case. Compression is also a common cause of pudendal neuralgia, although it was not responsible for this patient's pain, making diagnosis and treatment complex. Conclusions: Many pain syndromes can be treated with removal of the original stimulus. However, recognizing the factors contributing to pelvic pain and dysfunction in males can be a challenge for the sports medicine professional. A vigilant and unassuming approach to male pelvic pain is warranted, particularly by health care providers in diverse practice settings. PMID:27626835

  20. Nontraumatic Testicular Pain due to Sacroiliac-Joint Dysfunction: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Leone, James E; Middleton, Steve

    2016-08-01

    To discuss the case of a 49-year-old man who presented to the sports medicine staff with pelvic pain of 10 years' duration consistent with pudendal neuralgia. Testicular pain in men is often provoked by direct trauma or may indicate an oncologic process. Epididymitis, athletic pubalgia, testicular tumor, sacroiliac joint dysfunction, lumbar radiculopathy. The patient responded positively to treatment and rehabilitation to restore normal mechanics to the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. Several flare-ups since the initial treatment have been of short duration (<2 days) and less intense. Pudendal neuralgia tends to affect females more than males due to changes in the alignment and stability of the pelvis from a combination of a shorter, wider pelvis and muscle imbalances associated with childbirth. Typically, males with testicular pain suffer from epididymitis or some type of testicular torsion, which was not the situation in this case. Compression is also a common cause of pudendal neuralgia, although it was not responsible for this patient's pain, making diagnosis and treatment complex. Many pain syndromes can be treated with removal of the original stimulus. However, recognizing the factors contributing to pelvic pain and dysfunction in males can be a challenge for the sports medicine professional. A vigilant and unassuming approach to male pelvic pain is warranted, particularly by health care providers in diverse practice settings.

  1. [Sacroiliac joint dysfunction presented with acute low back pain: three case reports].

    PubMed

    Hamauchi, Shuji; Morimoto, Daijiro; Isu, Toyohiko; Sugawara, Atsushi; Kim, Kyongsong; Shimoda, Yusuke; Motegi, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Isobe, Masanori

    2010-07-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) can cause low back pain when its joint capsule and ligamentous tissue are damaged. We report our experience in treating three SIJ dysfunction patients presenting with acute low back pain (a 38 year-old male, a 24 year-old male, and a 32 year-old female). SIJ dysfunction was diagnosed using the one-finger test, the modified Newton test, and SIJ injection. In all three patients, lumbar MRI demonstrated slightly degenerated lumbar lesions (lumbar canal stenosis, lumbar disc hernia). Two patients had paresthesia or pain in the leg and all three patients showed iliac muscle tenderness in the groin, which was thought to be a referred symptom because of improvement after SIJ injection. The two male patients returned to work and the problems have not recurred. Although our female patient resumed daily life as a housewife, her condition recurred at intervals of 2-3 months and she required regular SIJ injections. The prevalence of SIJ dysfunction of low back pain is about 10%, so it should be considered as a differential diagnosis when treating low back pain and designing treatment for lumbar spinal disorders.

  2. Evidence-Based Diagnosis and Treatment of the Painful Sacroiliac Joint

    PubMed Central

    Laslett, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain refers to the pain arising from the SIJ joint structures. SIJ dysfunction generally refers to aberrant position or movement of SIJ structures that may or may not result in pain. This paper aims to clarify the difference between these clinical concepts and present current available evidence regarding diagnosis and treatment of SIJ disorders. Tests for SIJ dysfunction generally have poor inter-examiner reliability. A reference standard for SIJ dysfunction is not readily available, so validity of the tests for this disorder is unknown. Tests that stress the SIJ in order to provoke familiar pain have acceptable inter-examiner reliability and have clinically useful validity against an acceptable reference standard. It is unknown if provocation tests can reliably identify extra-articular SIJ sources of pain. Three or more positive pain provocation SIJ tests have sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 78%, respectively. Specificity of three or more positive tests increases to 87% in patients whose symptoms cannot be made to move towards the spinal midline, i.e., centralize. In chronic back pain populations, patients who have three or more positive provocation SIJ tests and whose symptoms cannot be made to centralize have a probability of having SIJ pain of 77%, and in pregnant populations with back pain, a probability of 89%. This combination of test findings could be used in research to evaluate the efficacy of specific treatments for SIJ pain. Treatments most likely to be effective are specific lumbopelvic stabilization training and injections of corticosteroid into the intra-articular space. PMID:19119403

  3. Long-Term Reduction of Sacroiliac Joint Pain With Peripheral Nerve Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Guentchev, Marin; Preuss, Christian; Rink, Rainer; Peter, Levente; Sailer, Martin H M; Tuettenberg, Jochen

    2017-10-01

    We recently demonstrated that 86% of the patients treated with peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) for therapy-refractory sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain were satisfied with the result after 1 year of treatment. To investigate the long-term (up to 4 years) response rate of this novel treatment. Sixteen consecutive patients with therapy-refractory SIJ pain were treated with PNS and followed for 4 years in 3 patients, 3 years in 6 patients, and 2 years in 1 patient. Quality of life, pain, and patient satisfaction were assessed using the Oswestry Disability Index 2.0, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and International Patient Satisfaction Index. Patients reported a pain reduction from 8.8 to 1.6 (VAS) at 1 year ( P < .001), and 13 of 14 patients (92.9%) rated the therapy as effective (International Patient Satisfaction Index score ≤ 2). At 2 years, average pain score was 1.9 ( P < .001), and 9 of 10 patients (90.0%) considered the treatment a success. At 3 years, 8 of 9 patients (88.9%) were satisfied with the treatment results, reporting an average VAS of 2.0 ( P < .005). At 4 years, 2 of 3 patients were satisfied with the treatment results. We have shown for the first time that PNS is a successful long-term therapy for SIJ pain. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  4. Psychometric properties including reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Majeed pelvic score in patients with chronic sacroiliac joint pain.

    PubMed

    Bajada, Stefan; Mohanty, Khitish

    2016-06-01

    The Majeed scoring system is a disease-specific outcome measure that was originally designed to assess pelvic injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Majeed scoring system for chronic sacroiliac joint pain. Internal consistency, content validity, criterion validity, construct validity and responsiveness to change was assessed prospectively for the Majeed scoring system in a cohort of 60 patients diagnosed with sacroiliac joint pain. This diagnosis was confirmed with CT-guided sacroiliac joint anaesthetic block. The overall Majeed score showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.63). Similarly, it showed acceptable floor (0 %) and ceiling (0 %) effects. On the other hand, the domains of pain, work, sitting and sexual intercourse had high (>30 %) floor effects. Significant correlation with the physical component of the Short Form-36 (p = 0.005) and Oswestry disability index (p ≤ 0.001) was found indicating acceptable criterion validity. The overall Majeed score showed acceptable construct validity with all five developed hypotheses showing significance (p ≤ 0.05). The overall Majeed score showed acceptable responsiveness to change with a large (≥0.80) effect size and standardized response mean. Overall the Majeed scoring system demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties for outcome assessment in chronic sacroiliac joint pain. Thus, its use in this condition is adequate. However, some domains demonstrated suboptimal performance indicating that improvement might be achieved with the development of an outcome measure specific for sacroiliac joint dysfunction and degeneration.

  5. Technical Note: Treatment of Sacroiliac Joint Pain with Peripheral Nerve Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Guentchev, Marin; Preuss, Christian; Rink, Rainer; Peter, Levente; Wocker, Ernst-Ludwig; Tuettenberg, Jochen

    2015-07-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain affects older adults with a prevalence of up to 20% among patients with chronic low back pain. While pain medication, joint blocks and denervation procedures achieve pain relief in most patients, some cases fail to improve. Our goal was to determine the effectiveness of SIJ peripheral nerve stimulation in patients with severe conservative therapy-refractory SIJ pain. Here we present 12 patients with severe conservative therapy-refractory pain receiving an SIJ peripheral nerve stimulation. Patient satisfaction, pain, and quality of life were evaluated by means of the International Patient Satisfaction Index (IPSI), visual analog scale (VAS), and Oswestry Disability Index 2.0 (ODI) using standard questionnaires. For stimulation we placed an eight-pole peripheral nerve electrode parallel to the SIJ. Two weeks postoperatively, our patients reported an average ODI reduction from 57% to 32% and VAS from 9 to 2.1. IPSI was 1.1. After six months, the therapy was rated as effective in seven out of eight patients reporting at that period. The average ODI was low at 34% (p = 0.0006), while the VAS index rose to 3.8 (p < 0.0001) and IPSI to 1.9. Twelve months after stimulation, six out of seven patients considered their treatment a success with an average ODI of 21% (p < 0.0005), VAS 1.7 (p < 0.0001), and IPSI 1.3. We conclude that SIJ stimulation is a promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of intractable SIJ pain. Further studies are required to determine the precise target group and long-term effect of this novel treatment method. © 2014 International Neuromodulation Society.

  6. Pelvic Belt Effects on Health Outcomes and Functional Parameters of Patients with Sacroiliac Joint Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Niels; Möbius, Robert; Schleifenbaum, Stefan; Hammer, Karl-Heinz; Klima, Stefan; Lange, Justin S.; Soisson, Odette; Winkler, Dirk; Milani, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a common source of low back pain. However, clinical and functional signs and symptoms correlating with SIJ pain are widely unknown. Pelvic belts are routinely applied to treat SIJ pain but without sound evidence of their pain-relieving effects. This case-control study compares clinical and functional data of SIJ patients and healthy control subjects and evaluates belt effects on SIJ pain. Methods 17 SIJ patients and 17 healthy controls were included in this prospective study. The short-form 36 survey and the numerical rating scale were used to characterize health-related quality of life in patients in a six-week follow-up and the pain-reducing effects of pelvic belts. Electromyography data were obtained from the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, rectus femoris and medial vastus. Alterations of muscle activity, variability and gait patterns were compared in patients and controls along with the belts’ effects in a dynamic setting when walking. Results Significant improvements were observed in the short-form 36 survey of the SIJ patients, especially in the physical health subscores. Minor declines were also observed in the numerical rating scale on pain. Belt-related changes of muscle activity and variability were similar in patients and controls with one exception: the rectus femoris activity decreased significantly in patients with belt application when walking. Further belt effects include improved cadence and gait velocity in patients and controls. Conclusions Pelvic belts improve health-related quality of life and are potentially attributed to decreased SIJ-related pain. Belt effects include decreased rectus femoris activity in patients and improved postural steadiness during locomotion. Pelvic belts may therefore be considered as a cost-effective and low-risk treatment of SIJ pain. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02027038 PMID:26305790

  7. Innervation of the Anterior Sacroiliac Joint.

    PubMed

    Cox, Marcus; Ng, Garrett; Mashriqi, Faizullah; Iwanaga, Joe; Alonso, Fernando; Tubbs, Kevin; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-11-01

    Sacroiliac joint pain can be disabling and recalcitrant to medical therapy. The innervation of this joint is poorly understood, especially its anterior aspect. Therefore, the present cadaveric study was performed to better elucidate this anatomy. Twenty-four cadaveric sides underwent dissection of the anterior sacroiliac joint, with special attention given to any branches from regional nerves to this joint. No femoral, obturator, or lumbosacral trunk branches destined to the anterior sacroiliac joint were identified in the 24 sides. In 20 sides, one or two small branches (less than 0.5 mm in diameter) were found to arise from the L4 ventral ramus (10%), the L5 ventral ramus (80%), or simultaneously from both the L4 and L5 ventral rami (10%). The length of the branches ranged from 5 to 31 mm (mean, 14 mm). All these branches arose from the posterior part of the nerves and traveled to the anterior surface of the sacroiliac joint. No statistical significance was found between sides or sexes. An improved knowledge of the innervation of the anterior sacroiliac joint might decrease suffering in patients with chronic sacroiliac joint pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiosteriometric analysis of movement in the sacroiliac joint during a single-leg stance in patients with long-lasting pelvic girdle pain.

    PubMed

    Kibsgård, Thomas J; Røise, Olav; Sturesson, Bengt; Röhrl, Stephan M; Stuge, Britt

    2014-04-01

    Chamberlain's projections (anterior-posterior X-ray of the pubic symphysis) have been used to diagnose sacroiliac joint mobility during the single-leg stance test. This study examined the movement in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance test with precise radiostereometric analysis. Under general anesthesia, tantalum markers were inserted into the dorsal sacrum and the ilium of 11 patients with long-lasting and severe pelvic girdle pain. After two to three weeks, a radiostereometric analysis was conducted while the subjects performed a single-leg stance. Small movements were detected in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance. In both the standing- and hanging-leg sacroiliac join, a total of 0.5 degree rotation was observed; however, no translations were detected. There were no differences in total movement between the standing- and hanging-leg sacroiliac joint. The movement in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance is small and almost undetectable by the precise radiostereometric analysis. A complex movement pattern was seen during the test, with a combination of movements in the two joints. The interpretation of the results of this study is that, the Chamberlain examination likely is inadequate in the examination of sacroiliac joint movement in patients with pelvic girdle pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Classification and Treatment of Sacroiliac Joint Dislocation].

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhen; Huang, Zhong; Li, Liang; Meng, Wei-Kun; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Guang-Lin; Huang, Fu-Guo

    2017-09-01

    To develop a renewed classification and treatment regimen for sacroiliac joint dislocation. According to the direction of dislocation of sacroiliac joint,combined iliac,sacral fractures,and fracture morphology,sacroiliac joint dislocation was classified into 4 types. Type Ⅰ (sacroiliac anterior dislocation): main fracture fragments of posterior iliac wing dislocated in front of sacroiliac joint. Type Ⅱ (sacroiliac posterior dislocation): main fracture fragments of posterior iliac wing dislocated in posterior of sacroiliac joint. Type Ⅲ (Crescent fracturedislocation of the sacroiliac joint): upward dislocation of posterior iliac wing with oblique fracture through posterior iliac wing. Type ⅢA: a large crescent fragment and dislocation comprises no more than onethird of sacroiliac joint,which is typically inferior. Type ⅢB: intermediatesize crescent fragment and dislocation comprises between one and twothirds of joint. Type ⅢC: a small crescent fragment where dislocation comprises most,but not the entire joint. Different treatment regimens were selected for different types of fractures. Treatment for type Ⅰ sacroiliac joint dislocation: anterior iliac fossa approach pry stripping reset; sacroiliac joint fixed with sacroiliac screw through percutaneous. Treatment for type Ⅱ sacroiliac joint dislocation: posterior sacroiliac joint posterior approach; sacroiliac joint fixed with sacroiliac screw under computer guidance. Treatment for type ⅢA and ⅢB sacroiliac joint dislocation: posterior sacroiliac joint approach; sacroiliac joint fixed with reconstruction plate. Treatment for type ⅢC sacroiliac joint dislocation: sacroiliac joint closed reduction; sacroiliac joint fixed with sacroiliac screw through percutaneous. Treatment for type Ⅳ sacroiliac joint dislocation: posterior approach; sacroiliac joint fixed with spinal pelvic fixation. Results of 24 to 72 months patient follow-up (mean 34.5 months): 100% survival,100% wound healing,and 100

  10. Lumbar Radiofrequency Rhizotomy in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain Increases the Diagnosis of Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction in Subsequent Follow-Up Visits

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Chronic back pain is often a result of coexisting pathologies; secondary causes of pain can become more apparent sources of pain once the primary pathology has been addressed. The objective of our study was to determine if there is an increase in diagnosis of Sacroiliac joint pain following a Lumbar Rhizotomy. A list of patients who underwent Lumbar Radiofrequency during a 6-month period in our clinic was generated. Records from subsequent clinic visits were reviewed to determine if a new diagnosis of SI joint pathology was made. In patients who underwent a recent Lumbar Rhizotomy procedure to treat facetogenic pain, the prevalence of Sacroiliac joint pain increased to 70%. We infer that there is a significant increase in the diagnosis of Sacroiliac joint syndrome following a Lumbar Rhizotomy, potentially due to unmasking of a preexisting condition. In patients presenting with persistent back pain after Lumbar Rhizotomy, the clinician must have a high degree of suspicion for latent Sacroiliac joint pain prior to attributing the pain to block failure. It would be prudent to use >80% relief of pain after a diagnostic medial branch block as a diagnostic criterion for facetogenic pain rather than the currently accepted >50% in order to minimize unmasking of preexisting subclinical pain from the SI joint. PMID:28255260

  11. Lumbar Radiofrequency Rhizotomy in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain Increases the Diagnosis of Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction in Subsequent Follow-Up Visits.

    PubMed

    Rimmalapudi, Varun Kumar; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2017-01-01

    Chronic back pain is often a result of coexisting pathologies; secondary causes of pain can become more apparent sources of pain once the primary pathology has been addressed. The objective of our study was to determine if there is an increase in diagnosis of Sacroiliac joint pain following a Lumbar Rhizotomy. A list of patients who underwent Lumbar Radiofrequency during a 6-month period in our clinic was generated. Records from subsequent clinic visits were reviewed to determine if a new diagnosis of SI joint pathology was made. In patients who underwent a recent Lumbar Rhizotomy procedure to treat facetogenic pain, the prevalence of Sacroiliac joint pain increased to 70%. We infer that there is a significant increase in the diagnosis of Sacroiliac joint syndrome following a Lumbar Rhizotomy, potentially due to unmasking of a preexisting condition. In patients presenting with persistent back pain after Lumbar Rhizotomy, the clinician must have a high degree of suspicion for latent Sacroiliac joint pain prior to attributing the pain to block failure. It would be prudent to use >80% relief of pain after a diagnostic medial branch block as a diagnostic criterion for facetogenic pain rather than the currently accepted >50% in order to minimize unmasking of preexisting subclinical pain from the SI joint.

  12. The sacroiliac joint: anatomy, physiology and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Forst, Stacy L; Wheeler, Michael T; Fortin, Joseph D; Vilensky, Joel A

    2006-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a putative source of low back pain. The objective of this article is to provide clinicians with a concise review of SIJ structure and function, diagnostic indicators of SIJ-mediated pain, and therapeutic considerations. The SIJ is a true diarthrodial joint with unique characteristics not typically found in other diarthrodial joints. The joint differs with others in that it has fibrocartilage in addition to hyaline cartilage, there is discontinuity of the posterior capsule, and articular surfaces have many ridges and depressions. The sacroiliac joint is well innervated. Histological analysis of the sacroiliac joint has verified the presence of nerve fibers within the joint capsule and adjoining ligaments. It has been variously described that the sacroiliac joint receives its innervation from the ventral rami of L4 and L5, the superior gluteal nerve, and the dorsal rami of L5, S1, and S2, or that it is almost exclusively derived from the sacral dorsal rami. Even though the sacroiliac joint is a known putative source of low back and lower extremity pain, there are few findings that are pathognomonic of sacroiliac joint pain. The controlled diagnostic blocks utilizing the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) criteria demonstrated the prevalence of pain of sacroiliac joint origin in 19% to 30% of the patients suspected to have sacroiliac joint pain. Conservative management includes manual medicine techniques, pelvic stabilization exercises to allow dynamic postural control, and muscle balancing of the trunk and lower extremities. Interventional treatments include sacroiliac joint, intra-articular joint injections, radiofrequency neurotomy, prolotherapy, cryotherapy, and surgical treatment. The evidence for intra-articular injections and radiofrequency neurotomy has been shown to be limited in managing sacroiliac joint pain.

  13. The efficacy and safety of using cooled radiofrequency in treating chronic sacroiliac joint pain

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui-Hui; Zhuang, Su-Yang; Hong, Xin; Xie, Xin-Hui; Zhu, Lei; Wu, Xiao-Tao

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cooled radiofrequency procedure is a novel minimally invasive surgical technique and has been occasionally utilized in managing chronic sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain. A meta-analysis was conducted to systematically assess the efficacy and safety of using cooled radiofrequency in treating patients with chronic SIJ pain in terms of pain and disability relief, patients’ satisfaction degree as well as complications. Methods: Studies of using cooled radiofrequency procedure in managing SIJ pain were retrieved from Medline and Web of Science according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Quality evaluation was conducted using Cochrane collaboration tool for randomized controlled trials and MINORS quality assessment for noncomparative trials. Statistics were managed using Review Manager 5.3. Results: Totally 7 studies with 240 eligible patients were enrolled. The overall pooled results demonstrated that pain intensity decreased significantly after cooled radiofrequency procedure compared with that measured before treatment. The mean difference (MD) was 3.81 [95% confidence intervals (95% CIs): 3.29–4.33, P < .001] and 3.78 (95% CIs: 3.31–4.25, P < .001) as measured by the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS), respectively. Disability also relieved significantly after treatment compared with that measured before treatment. The MD was 18.2 (95% CIs: 12.22–24.17, P < .001) as measured by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Seventy-two percent of the patients presented positive results as measured by the Global Perceived Effect (GPE). The OR was 0.01 (95% CIs: 0.00–0.05, P < .001). Only mild complications were observed in the 7 studies, including transient hip pain, soreness, and numbness. Conclusion: Cooled radiofrequency procedure can significantly relieve pain and disability with no severe complications, and majority of patients are satisfied with this technique. Thus, it is safe and effective to use this

  14. Managing a Female Patient with Left Low Back Pain and Sacroiliac Joint Pain with Therapeutic Exercise: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this case study is to describe the management of a female patient with chronic left low back pain and sacroiliac joint pain (LBP/SIJP) using unique unilateral exercises developed by the Postural Restoration Institute (PRI) to address pelvic asymmetry and left hip capsule restriction, which is consistent with a Right Handed and Left Anterior Interior Chain pattern of postural asymmetry. Client Description: The client was 65-year-old woman with a 10-month history of constant left LBP/SIJP and leg pain. Intervention: The patient was seen six times to correct pelvic position/posture and left hip posterior capsule restriction via (1) muscle activation (left hamstrings, adductor magnus, and anterior gluteus medius) and (2) left hip adduction to lengthen the left posterior capsule/ischiofemoral ligament. Stabilization exercises included bilateral hamstrings, gluteus maximus, adductors, and abdominals to maintain pelvic position/posture. Measures and Outcome: Left Ober's test (initially positive) was negative at discharge. Pain as measured on the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (initially 1/10 at best and 8/10 at worst) was 0/10–0/10 at discharge. Oswestry Disability Index score (initially 20%) was 0% at discharge. The patient no longer had numbness in her left leg, and sexual intercourse had become pain free. Implications: Interventions to restore and maintain the optimal position of pelvis and hip (femoral head in the acetabulum) may be beneficial for treating patients with chronic LBP/SIJP. The patient's pain was eliminated 13 days after she first performed three exercises to reposition the pelvis and restore left posterior hip capsule extensibility and internal rotation. PMID:22379254

  15. Do Transsacral-transiliac Screws Across Uninjured Sacroiliac Joints Affect Pain and Functional Outcomes in Trauma Patients?

    PubMed

    Heydemann, John; Hartline, Braden; Gibson, Mary Elizabeth; Ambrose, Catherine G; Munz, John W; Galpin, Matthew; Achor, Timothy S; Gary, Joshua L

    2016-06-01

    Patients with pelvic ring displacement and instability can benefit from surgical reduction and instrumentation to stabilize the pelvis and improve functional outcomes. Current treatments include iliosacral screw or transsacral-transiliac screw, which provides greater biomechanical stability. However, controversy exists regarding the effects of placement of a screw across an uninjured sacroiliac joint for pelvis stabilization after trauma. Does transsacral-transiliac screw fixation of an uninjured sacroiliac joint increase pain and worsen functional outcomes at minimum 1-year followup compared with patients undergoing standard iliosacral screw fixation across the injured sacroiliac joint in patients who have sustained pelvic trauma? All patients between ages 18 and 84 years who sustained injuries to the pelvic ring (AO/OTA 61 A, B, C) who were surgically treated between 2011 and 2013 at an academic Level I trauma center were identified for selection. We included patients with unilateral sacroiliac disruption or sacral fractures treated with standard iliosacral screws across an injured hemipelvis and/or transsacral-transiliac screws placed in the posterior ring. Transsacral-transiliac screws were generally more likely to be used in patients with vertically unstable sacral injuries of the posterior ring as a result of previous reports of failures or in osteopenic patients. We excluded patients with bilateral posterior pelvic ring injuries, fixation with a device other than a screw, previous pelvic or acetabular fractures, associated acetabular fractures, and ankylosing spondylitis. Of the 110 patients who met study criteria, 53 (44%) were available for followup at least 12 months postinjury. Sixty patients were unable to be contacted by phone or mail and seven declined to participate in the study. Outcomes were obtained by members of the research team using the visual analog scale (VAS) pain score for both posterior sacroiliac joints, Short Musculoskeletal Functional

  16. The prevalence of sacroiliac joint degeneration in asymptomatic adults.

    PubMed

    Eno, Jonathan-James T; Boone, Christopher R; Bellino, Michael J; Bishop, Julius A

    2015-06-03

    Degenerative changes of the sacroiliac joint have been implicated as a cause of lower back pain in adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of sacroiliac joint degeneration in asymptomatic patients. Five hundred consecutive pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans, made at a tertiary-care medical center, of patients with no history of pain in the lower back or pelvic girdle were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed for degenerative changes of the sacroiliac joint. After exclusion criteria were applied, 373 CT scans (746 sacroiliac joints) were evaluated for degenerative changes. Regression analysis was used to determine the association between age and the degree of sacroiliac joint degeneration. The prevalence of sacroiliac joint degeneration was 65.1%, with substantial degeneration occurring in 30.5% of asymptomatic subjects. The prevalence steadily increased with age, with 91% of subjects in the ninth decade of life displaying degenerative changes. Radiographic evidence of sacroiliac joint degeneration is highly prevalent in the asymptomatic population and is associated with age. Caution must be exercised when attributing lower back or pelvic girdle pain to sacroiliac joint degeneration seen on imaging. Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  17. Pain and Opioid use Outcomes Following Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion with Decortication and Bone Grafting: The Evolusion Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Araghi, Ali; Woodruff, Robert; Colle, Kyle; Boone, Christopher; Ingham, Lisa; Tomeh, Antoine; Fielding, Louis C

    2017-01-01

    This report documents six-month results of the first 50 patients treated in a prospective, multi-center study of a minimally invasive (MI) sacroiliac (SI) joint fusion system. This cohort includes 50 patients who had MI SI joint fusion surgery and completed 6 month follow-up. Average age at baseline was 61.5, 58% were female, and SI joint-related pain duration was ≥2yrs in 54.0% of patients. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) SI joint pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), quality of life and opioid use were assessed preoperatively and at 6 months. At 6 months, mean VAS pain demonstrated a significant reduction from 76.2 at baseline to 35.1 (54% reduction, p<0.0001), with 72% of patients attaining the minimal clinically important difference (MCID, ≥20 point improvement). Mean ODI improved from 55.5 to 35.3 at 6 months (p < 0.001), with 56% of patients achieving the MCID (≥15 point improvement). Prior to surgery 33/50 (66%) of patients were taking opioids, but by 6 months the number of patients taking opioids had decreased by 55% to 15/50 (30%). Few procedural complications were reported. Two procedure-related events required hospitalization: a revision procedure (2%) for nerve impingement and one case of ongoing low back pain. Analysis of patients treated with MI SI joint fusion using the SImmetry System demonstrated that the procedure can be performed safely and results in significant improvements in pain, disability, and opioid use at 6 months. Longer term follow-up in this study will determine whether these improvements are durable, as well as the associated radiographic fusion rates.

  18. Fluoroscopically Guided Sacroiliac Joint Injections: Comparison of the Effects of Intraarticular and Periarticular Injections on Immediate and Short-Term Pain Relief.

    PubMed

    Nacey, Nicholas C; Patrie, James T; Fox, Michael G

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether intraarticular sacroiliac joint injections provide greater immediate and short-term pain relief than periarticular sacroiliac joint injections do. The records of all fluoroscopically guided sacroiliac joint injections performed over a 4-year period were identified. Patients who received an injection of 0.5 mL of bupivacaine and 0.5 mL (20 mg) of triamcinolone and who had preinjection, immediate, and 1-week postinjection pain scores (0-10 numeric scale) were included. Images from the procedures were retrospectively reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists to determine intraarticular or periarticular administration of the injection with discrepancies resolved by consensus. One hundred thirteen injections in 99 patients (65 women, 34 men; mean age, 59.4 years) met the inclusion criteria. There were 55 intraarticular and 58 periarticular injections. The mean preinjection, immediate, and 1-week postinjection pain scores for the intraarticular injections were 6.0, 1.6, and 4.1 and for the periarticular injections were 6.1, 2.0, and 4.2. The mean immediate and 1-week postinjection pain reduction were statistically significant in both groups (p < 0.001). After adjustment for age, sex, preinjection pain score, time of year, and indication for injection, no significant difference in the preinjection to immediately postinjection change in pain between intraarticular and periarticular injections (mean change, 0.37; p = 0.319) or in the preinjection to 1-week postinjection change in pain (mean change, 0.06; p = 0.888) was noted. The mean fluoroscopy times were 42.4 seconds for intraarticular injections and 60.5 seconds for periarticular injections (p = 0.32). Although both intraarticular and periarticular sacroiliac joint injections provide statistically significant immediate and 1-week postinjection pain relief, no significant difference in the degree of pain relief achieved with intraarticular and periarticular injections

  19. Stabilization of the sacroiliac joint.

    PubMed

    Shaffrey, Christopher I; Smith, Justin S

    2013-07-01

    Lower back pain and pain involving the area of the posterior iliac spine are extremely common. Degeneration of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is one potential cause for lower back pain and pain radiating into the groin or buttocks. Degenerative changes to the lumbar spine and sacroiliac joints are common. A recent study evaluating SIJ abnormalities in a primary low back pain population demonstrated 31.7% of patients demonstrated SI joint abnormalities. (4) As is the case for the evaluation and management of isolated lower back pain, the evaluation, management, and role for surgical intervention in SIJ pain is very controversial. Many patients have degenerative changes of the disc, facet joints, and SIJs. A recent systematic review performed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of tests available to clinicians to identify the disc, facet joint, or SIJ as the source of low back pain concluded that tests do exist that change the probability of the disc or SIJ (but not the facet joint) as the source of low back pain. (3) It was also concluded that the usefulness of these tests in clinical practice, particularly for guiding treatment selection, remains unclear. (3) Although there is general agreement that SIJ pathological changes are a potential cause of pain, there is far less agreement about the optimal management of these conditions. A variety of conditions can cause SIJ dysfunction including degenerative and inflammatory arthritis, trauma, prior lumbosacral fusion, hip arthritis, limb length inequality, infections, and neoplasia. (8) There is increasing evidence that image intensifier-guided single periarticular injection can correctly localize pain to the SIJ but the optimal management strategy remains controversial. Recent publications have compared surgical versus injection treatments and fusion versus denervation procedures. (1 , 8) A systematic review found improvement regardless of the treatment, with most studies reporting over 40% improvement in pain as measured

  20. Impact of sacropelvic fixation on the development of postoperative sacroiliac joint pain following multilevel stabilization for degenerative spine disease.

    PubMed

    Finger, T; Bayerl, S; Bertog, M; Czabanka, M; Woitzik, J; Vajkoczy, P

    2016-11-01

    We hypothesised, that the inclusion of the ilium for multilevel lumbosacral fusions reduces the incidence of postoperative sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain. The primary objective of this study was to compare the frequency of postoperative SIJ pain in patients undergoing multilevel stabilization with and without sacropelvic fixation for multilevel degenerative spine disease. In addition, we aimed at identifying factors that may predict the worsening or new onset of postoperative SIJ pain. A total of 63 patients with multisegmental fusion surgery with a minimum follow up of 12 months were evaluated. 34 patients received sacral fixation (SF group) and 29 patients received an additional sacropelvic fixation device (SPF group). Primary outcome parameters were changes in SIJ pain between the groups and the influence of pelvic parameters, the patient́s age, the patient́s body mass index (BMI) and the length of the stabilization on the SIJ pain. Between the two surgical groups there were no differences concerning age (p=0.3), BMI (p=0.56), length of follow up (p=0.96), length of the construct (p=0.56). In total 31.7% of the patients had a worsening/new onset of SIJ pain after surgery. An additional fixation of the SIJ with iliac screws or iliosacral plate did not have an influence on the SIJ pain (p=0.67). Likewise, pelvic parameters were not predictive for the outcome of the SIJ pain. Only an increased preoperative BMI correlated with a higher chance of a new onset of SIJ pain (p=0.037). In our retrospective study there was no influence of a sacropelvic fixation techniques on the SIJ pain in patients with multilevel degenerative spine disease after multilevel stabilization surgeries. The patients' BMI is the only preoperative factor that correlated with a higher incidence to develop postoperative SIJ pain, independently of the implantation of a sacropelvic fixation device. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pain originating from the sacroiliac joint is a common non-traumatic musculoskeletal complaint in elite inline-speedskaters - an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Study design Observational study Objectives To investigate common non-traumatic musculoskeletal complaints of the low back in elite inline-speedskaters of the German national team. Summary of background data Traumatic injuries associated with falls or collisions are well documented in speedskaters but so far no studies have investigated non-traumatic low back pain. Previously, the sacroiliac joint was suspected as a frequent origin of complaint, we aimed to investigate this assumption. Methods Two chiropractors examined elite inline-speedskaters of the German national team during three sports events between summer 2010 and 2011. A test cluster of five provocative tests for the sacroiliac joint was selected based on reliability and validity. Results A total of 37 examinations were conducted on 34 athletes with low back pain during the three sport events. The reported pain intensities ranged from mild to moderate pain (VAS 23.4 ± 13.4 to 35.1 ± 19.2). About 90% of cases showed involvement of the SI joint of which again 90% presented with left sided symptoms. Conclusions Non-traumatic complaints of the low back originating from the left sacroiliac joint frequently occur in competitive inline speedskaters. PMID:22404796

  2. Pain originating from the sacroiliac joint is a common non-traumatic musculoskeletal complaint in elite inline-speedskaters - an observational study.

    PubMed

    Ruhe, Alexander; Bos, Tino; Herbert, Arne

    2012-03-09

    Observational study To investigate common non-traumatic musculoskeletal complaints of the low back in elite inline-speedskaters of the German national team. Traumatic injuries associated with falls or collisions are well documented in speedskaters but so far no studies have investigated non-traumatic low back pain. Previously, the sacroiliac joint was suspected as a frequent origin of complaint, we aimed to investigate this assumption. Two chiropractors examined elite inline-speedskaters of the German national team during three sports events between summer 2010 and 2011. A test cluster of five provocative tests for the sacroiliac joint was selected based on reliability and validity. A total of 37 examinations were conducted on 34 athletes with low back pain during the three sport events. The reported pain intensities ranged from mild to moderate pain (VAS 23.4 ± 13.4 to 35.1 ± 19.2). About 90% of cases showed involvement of the SI joint of which again 90% presented with left sided symptoms. Non-traumatic complaints of the low back originating from the left sacroiliac joint frequently occur in competitive inline speedskaters.

  3. Referred leg pain originating from the sacroiliac joint: 6-month outcomes from the prospective randomized controlled iMIA trial.

    PubMed

    Dengler, Julius; Sturesson, Bengt; Kools, Djaya; Prestamburgo, Domenico; Cher, Daniel; van Eeckhoven, Eddie; Erk, Emanuel; Pflugmacher, Robert; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The first results from the randomized, controlled iFuse Implant System Minimally Invasive Arthrodesis (iMIA) trial showed that minimally invasive surgical management (MISM) of low back pain originating from the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) by placing transarticular triangular titanium implants reduced pain more effectively than conservative management (CM). We now conducted a separate analysis of the iMIA data to assess whether the referred leg pain (RLP) component of SIJ-associated pain may also be affected by MISM or CM. Data from 101 patients, recruited between June 2013 and May 2015 at nine European spine care centers, were included. Forty-nine patients were randomized to CM and 51 patients to MISM. RLP was defined as pain below the gluteal fold and assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Changes in RLP over 6 months were the primary endpoint. The prevalence of clinically significant RLP was 76.2 %. Over 6 months of follow-up, CM produced no significant change in RLP, which was 51.0 VAS points (interquartile range (IQR) 17.0-75.0) at baseline. In contrast, in the MISM cohort, we found a significant decrease in RLP from VAS 58.0 (IQR 24.5-80.0) at baseline to VAS 13.5 (IQR 0.0-39.3) after 6 months (p < 0.01). Improvement of RLP was associated only with the type of treatment (OR 5.04, p < 0.01), but not with patient age, sex, or different patterns of pain referral. Our analysis shows that RLP is a frequent phenomenon in patients with SIJ-associated pain. At 6 months of follow-up, MISM helped relieve RLP more effectively than CM. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01741025.

  4. [Diagnostic test scale SI5: Assessment of sacroiliac joint dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Acevedo González, Juan C; Quintero Oliveros, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is a known cause of low back pain. We think that a diagnostic score scale (SI5) may be performed to assess diagnostic utility of clinical signs of sacroiliac joint dysfunction. The primary aim of the present study was to conduct the pilot study of our new diagnostic score scale, the SI5, for sacroiliac joint syndrome. We reviewed the literature on clinical characteristics, diagnostic tests and imaging most commonly used in diagnosing sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Our group evaluated the diagnostic utility of these aspects and we used those considered most representative to develop the SI5 diagnostic scale. The SI5 scale was applied to 22 patients with low back pain; afterwards, the standard test for diagnosing this pathology (selective blockage of the SI joint) was also performed on these patients. The sensitivity and specificity for each sign were also assessed and the diagnostic scale called SI5 was then proposed, based on these data. The most sensitive clinical tests for diagnosing SI joint dysfunction were 2 patient-reported clinical characteristics, the Laguerre Test, sacroiliac rocking test and Yeomans test (greater than 80% sensitivity). The tests with greatest diagnostic specificity (>80%) were the Lewitt test, Piedallu test and Gillet test. The proposed SI5 test score scale showed sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 71%. Sacroiliac joint syndrome has been shown to produce low back pain frequently; however, the diagnostic value of examination tests for sacroiliac joint pain has been questioned by other authors. The pilot study on the SI5 diagnostic score scale showed good sensitivity and specificity. However, the process of statistical validation of the SI5 needs to be continued. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Sacroiliac joint involvement in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Arslan Tas, Didem; Yıldız, Fatih; Sakallı, Hakan; Kelle, Bayram; Ballı, Tuğsan; Erken, Eren

    2015-01-01

    One of the major problems for systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients is suggested to be articular involvement. Mostly involved joints in SSc were reported as wrist, carpometacarpal-interphalangeal, foot, knee, hip and shoulder; however, there has been little knowledge on the sacroiliac joint. Our aim was to evaluate sacroiliac joint involvement in SSc. Fifty-seven SSc patients, 54 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 64 healthy subjects were included. Anteroposterior pelvic radiographs were obtained and graded twice by three blinded rheumatologists. One competent radiologist has re-evaluated the X-ray results. The ASAS (Assessment of Spondylo Arthritis International Society) scoring method was applied for grading sacroiliac involvement. Inflammatory back pain was also evaluated. Other clinical and laboratory data were collected as proposed by the European Study Group. In the SSc group sacroiliitis was found in 13 patients (23%) and was significantly different from RA patients (two patients, 4%), P = 0.003; and the healthy control group (one participant, 2%), P < 0.001. The frequency of inflammatory back pain in SSc patients with sacroiliitis (8/13 patients, 62%) was significantly higher in SSc patients without sacroiliitis (4/44 patients, 9%), P < 0.001. The SSc patients with sacroiliitis and with inflammatory back pain (8/57 patients, 14%) were regarded as axial spondyloarthritis overlap. Male gender, diffuse subtype, inflammatory back pain and high C-reactive protein levels (odds ratio: 1.069, 1.059, 1.059 and 3.698, respectively) were found to be the significant risk factors for sacroiliitis. We suggest that, sacroiliitis may be a concern to be considered in SSc practice. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for sacroiliac joint pain: A prospective, randomized, sham-controlled short-term trial.

    PubMed

    Moon, Young Eun; Seok, Hyun; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Seung Yeol; Yeo, Jung Ho

    2017-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain can cause lower back pain and pelvic discomfort. However, there is no established standard treatment for SIJ pain. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a novel, non-invasive therapeutic modality for musculoskeletal disorders. The mechanism underlying shockwave therapy is not fully understood, but the frequency with which ESWT is applied clinically has increased over the years. We evaluated the efficacy of using ESWT to treating SIJ pain. Thirty patients with SIJ pain were assigned randomly to ESWT (n = 15) and sham control (n = 15) groups. The ESWT group received 2,000 shockwaves with energy set to the maximum level tolerable by the patient (energy density = 0.09-0.25 mJ/mm2). The probe was oriented perpendicular to the posterior SIJ line, and moved up and down along the joint line. The sham control group received 2,000 shockwaves with the probe oriented parallel to the posterior SIJ line. A 10-cm numeric rating scale (NRS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were assessed before the intervention, and 1 and 4 weeks post-intervention. Participants were instructed to refrain from using any other conservative treatment, including anti-inflammatory medication and other physical modalities during the study. In the ESWT group, NRS decreased significantly at post-treatment week 4 (3.64 (95% confidence interval, 2.29-4.99)) compared to baseline (6.42 (5.19-7.66); P < 0.05). ODI improved at 1 and 4 weeks compared to baseline, but not significantly. In the sham group, NRS and ODI did not differ at any post-treatment time point. There was a significant group difference in NRS at week 4 post-treatment (3.64 (2.29-4.99) in the ESWT group vs. 6.18 (5.34-7.02) in the sham control group; P < 0.05), but this was not the case for ODI. ESWT represents a potential therapeutic option for decreasing SIJ pain.

  7. Prevalence of degenerative and spondyloarthritis-related magnetic resonance imaging findings in the spine and sacroiliac joints in patients with persistent low back pain.

    PubMed

    Arnbak, Bodil; Jensen, Tue S; Egund, Niels; Zejden, Anna; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Manniche, Claus; Jurik, Anne G

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of degenerative and spondyloarthritis (SpA)-related magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in the spine and sacroiliac joints (SIJs) and analyse their association with gender and age in persistent low back pain (LBP) patients. Degenerative and SpA-related MRI findings in the whole spine and SIJs were evaluated in Spine Centre patients aged 18-40 years with LBP. Among the 1,037 patients, the prevalence of disc degeneration, disc contour changes and vertebral endplate signal (Modic) changes were 87 % (±SEM 1.1), 82 % (±1.2) and 48 % (±1.6). All degenerative spinal findings were most frequent in men and patients aged 30-40 years. Spinal SpA-related MRI findings were rare. In the SIJs, 28 % (±1.4) had at least one MRI finding, with bone marrow oedema being the most common (21 % (±1.3)). SIJ erosions were most prevalent in patients aged 18-29 years and bone marrow oedema in patients aged 30-40 years. SIJ sclerosis and fatty marrow deposition were most common in women. SIJ bone marrow oedema, sclerosis and erosions were most frequent in women indicating pregnancy-related LBP. The high prevalence of SIJ MRI findings associated with age, gender, and pregnancy-related LBP need further investigation of their clinical importance in LBP patients. • The location of vertebral endplate signal changes supports a mechanical aetiology. • Several sacroiliac joint findings were associated with female gender and pregnancy-related back pain. • Sacroiliac joint bone marrow oedema was frequent and age-associated, indicating a possible degenerative aetiology. • More knowledge of the clinical importance of sacroiliac joint MRI findings is needed.

  8. Innominate movement patterns, rotation trends and range of motion in individuals with low back pain of sacroiliac joint origin.

    PubMed

    Adhia, Divya Bharatkumar; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Tumilty, Steve; Bussey, Melanie D

    2016-02-01

    Innominate kinematic anomalies resulting in low back pain (LBP) of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) origin (SIJ-positive), has always been a topic of contention, owing to difficultly in its evaluation. Recent technique of electromagnetic palpation-digitization has been able to accurately quantify innominate kinematics in healthy individuals. The purpose of this study is to determine if participants with LBP of SIJ origin (SIJ-positive) demonstrate significantly different innominate kinematics than participants with LBP of non-SIJ origin (SIJ-negative). Single-blinded cross-sectional case-control study. Participants [n(122)] between the ages of 18 to 50 years, suffering from chronic non-specific LBP (≥3 months) volunteered in the study. An experienced musculoskeletal physiotherapist evaluated and classified participants into either SIJ-positive [n(45)] or SIJ-negative [n(77)] group, using the reference standard pain provocation tests [≥3 positive tests = SIJ-positive]. A research physiotherapist, blinded to clinical groups, conducted the innominate kinematic testing using a valid and reliable electromagnetic palpation-digitization technique, during prone lying incremental hip abduction-external rotation test positions. The results of the mixed model regression analyses demonstrated that SIJ-positive participants exhibited significantly different innominate movement patterns and trends of rotation, but not innominate ranges of motion, when compared with SIJ-negative LBP participants. These findings demonstrate association between SIJ pain and altered innominate kinematics, and have led the groundwork for further exploration of clinical measurement, relevance, and management of these potentially important movement observations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The transitional vertebra and sacroiliac joint dysfunction association.

    PubMed

    Illeez, Ozge Gulsum; Atıcı, Arzu; Ulger, Esra Bahadır; Kulcu, Duygu Geler; Ozkan, Feyza Unlu; Aktas, Ilknur

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether transitional vertebrae contribute to the development of sacroiliac joint dysfunction. The prevalence of transitional vertebrae in patients with lumbar pain was determined during this process, and the prevalence of sacroiliac dysfunction was compared between patients with low back pain and healthy volunteers. 700 subjects, 500 with low back pain and 200 healthy volunteers were included in this study. Five tests were applied to all participants to determine sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Positivity in three tests was regarded as dysfunction. Lateral lumbosacral and Ferguson angle X-rays were taken from the group with low back pain. The patient was evaluated a specialist radiologist in terms of presence or absence of transitional vertebrae, and if identified, what type. Transitional vertebrae were determined in 26% (n = 130) of the patients with low back pain. Type 1a was determined in 20%, type 1b in 10%, type 2a in 26.9%, type 2b in 30.8%, type 3a in 0.8%, type 3b in 4.6% and type 4 in 6.9%. The prevalence of sacroiliac joint dysfunction in the low back pain group (15.4%) and the prevalence of sacroiliac joint dysfunction in cases of transitional vertebra (28.5%) were significantly higher compared to the control groups (p < 0.05). Sacroiliac joint dysfunction must be considered when investigating the etiology of low back pain. Particular sensitivity must be exhibited on this subject in patients with transitional vertebrae.

  10. Predictors of Outcome in Conservative and Minimally Invasive Surgical Management of Pain Originating From the Sacroiliac Joint

    PubMed Central

    Dengler, Julius; Duhon, Bradley; Whang, Peter; Frank, Clay; Glaser, John; Sturesson, Bengt; Garfin, Steven; Cher, Daniel; Rendahl, Aaron; Polly, David

    2017-01-01

    Study Design. A pooled patient-level analysis of two multicenter randomized controlled trials and one multicenter single-arm prospective trial. Objective. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of outcome of conservative and minimally invasive surgical management of pain originating from the sacroiliac joint (SIJ). Summary of Background Data. Three recently published prospective trials have shown that minimally invasive SIJ fusion (SIJF) using triangular titanium implants produces better outcomes than conservative management for patients with pain originating from the SIJ. Due to limitations in individual trial sample size, analyses of predictors of treatment outcome were not conducted. Methods. We pooled individual patient data from the three trials and used random effects models with multivariate regression analysis to identify predictors for treatment outcome separately for conservative and minimally invasive surgical treatment. Outcome was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and EuroQOL-5D (EQ-5D). Results. We included 423 patients assigned to either nonsurgical management (NSM, n = 97) or SIJF (n = 326) between 2013 and 2015. The reduction in SIJ pain was 37.9 points larger [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 32.5–43.4, P < 0.0001] in the SIJF group than in the NSM group. Similarly, the improvement in ODI was 18.3 points larger (95% CI 14.3–22.4), P < 0.0001). In NSM, we found no predictors of outcome. In SIJF, a reduced improvement in outcome was predicted by smoking (P = 0.030), opioid use (P = 0.017), lower patient age (P = 0.008), and lower duration of SIJ pain (P = 0.028). Conclusions. Our results support the view that SIJF leads to better treatment outcome than conservative management of SIJ pain and that a higher margin of improvement can be predicted in nonsmokers, nonopioid users, and patients of increased age and with longer pain duration. Level of Evidence: 1 PMID

  11. Sacroiliac Joint Fusion: One Year Clinical and Radiographic Results Following Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kube, Richard A.; Muir, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recalcitrant sacroiliac joint pain responds well to minimally-invasive surgical (MIS) techniques, although long-term radiographic and fusion data are limited. Objective: To evaluate the one-year clinical results from a cohort of patients with chronic sacroiliac (SI) joint pain unresponsive to conservative therapies who have undergone minimally invasive SI joint fusion. Methods: SI joint fusion was performed between May 2011 and January 2014. Outcomes included radiographic assessment of fusion status, leg and back pain severity via visual analog scale (VAS), disability via Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and complication rate. Outcomes were measured at baseline and at follow-up appointments 6 months and 12 months post-procedure. Results: Twenty minimally invasive SI joint fusion procedures were performed on 18 patients (mean age: 47.2 (14.2), mean BMI: 29.4 (5.3), 56% female). At 12 months, the overall fusion rate was 88%. Back and leg pain improved from 81.7 to 44.1 points (p<0.001) and from 63.6 to 27.7 points (p=0.001), respectively. Disability scores improved from 61.0 to 40.5 (p=0.009). Despite a cohort containing patients with multiple comorbidities and work-related injuries, eight patients (50%) achieved the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in back pain at 12 months, with 9 (69%) patients realizing this improvement in leg pain and 8 (57%) realizing the MCID in ODI scores at 12 months. No major complications were reported. Conclusion: Minimally invasive SI joint surgery is a safe and effective procedure, with a high fusion rate, a satisfactory safety profile and significant improvements in pain severity and disability reported through 12 months post-procedure. PMID:28144378

  12. Sacroiliac Joint Fusion: One Year Clinical and Radiographic Results Following Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kube, Richard A; Muir, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Recalcitrant sacroiliac joint pain responds well to minimally-invasive surgical (MIS) techniques, although long-term radiographic and fusion data are limited. To evaluate the one-year clinical results from a cohort of patients with chronic sacroiliac (SI) joint pain unresponsive to conservative therapies who have undergone minimally invasive SI joint fusion. SI joint fusion was performed between May 2011 and January 2014. Outcomes included radiographic assessment of fusion status, leg and back pain severity via visual analog scale (VAS), disability via Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and complication rate. Outcomes were measured at baseline and at follow-up appointments 6 months and 12 months post-procedure. Twenty minimally invasive SI joint fusion procedures were performed on 18 patients (mean age: 47.2 (14.2), mean BMI: 29.4 (5.3), 56% female). At 12 months, the overall fusion rate was 88%. Back and leg pain improved from 81.7 to 44.1 points (p<0.001) and from 63.6 to 27.7 points (p=0.001), respectively. Disability scores improved from 61.0 to 40.5 (p=0.009). Despite a cohort containing patients with multiple comorbidities and work-related injuries, eight patients (50%) achieved the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in back pain at 12 months, with 9 (69%) patients realizing this improvement in leg pain and 8 (57%) realizing the MCID in ODI scores at 12 months. No major complications were reported. Minimally invasive SI joint surgery is a safe and effective procedure, with a high fusion rate, a satisfactory safety profile and significant improvements in pain severity and disability reported through 12 months post-procedure.

  13. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction: a case study.

    PubMed

    Murray, William

    2011-01-01

    Pain is a widespread issue in the United States. Nine of 10 Americans regularly suffer from pain, and nearly every person will experience low back pain at one point in their lives. Undertreated or unrelieved pain costs more than $60 billion a year from decreased productivity, lost income, and medical expenses. The ability to diagnose and provide appropriate medical treatment is imperative. This case study examines a 23-year-old Active Duty woman who is preparing to be involuntarily released from military duty for an easily correctable medical condition. She has complained of chronic low back pain that radiates into her hip and down her leg since experiencing a work-related injury. She has been seen by numerous providers for the previous 11 months before being referred to the chronic pain clinic. Upon the first appointment to the chronic pain clinic, she has been diagnosed with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. This case study will demonstrate the importance of a quality lower back pain assessment.

  14. Application of posterior pelvic tilt taping for the treatment of chronic low back pain with sacroiliac joint dysfunction and increased sacral horizontal angle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-hoon; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2012-11-01

    Kinesio Taping (KT) is a therapeutic method used by physical therapists and athletic trainers in combination with other treatment techniques for various musculoskeletal and neuromuscular problems. However, no research has evaluated the effect of KT in patients with low back pain (LBP). The purpose of this case was to describe the application of posterior pelvic tilt taping (PPTT) with Kinesio tape as a treatment for chronic LBP and to reduce the anterior pelvic tilt angle. Case report. The patien was a 20-year-old female amateur swimmer with a Cobb's angle (L1-S1) of 68°, a sacral horizontal angle of 45°, and pain in both medial buttock areas and sacroiliac joints. We performed PPTT with Kinesio tape for 2 weeks (six times per week for an average of 9 h each time). The patient’s radiographs showed that the Cobb's angle (L1-S1) had decreased from 68° to 47° and that the sacral horizontal angle had decreased from 45° to 31°. Reductions in hypomobility or motion asymmetry, as assessed by the motion palpation test, and in pain, as measured by the pain-provocation tests, were observed. On palpation for both medial buttock areas in the prone position, the patient felt no pain. The patient experienced no pain or stiffness in the low back area while performing forward flexion in the standing position with knees fully extended when washing dishes in the sink. The case study demonstrated that PPTT intervention favourably affected the pelvic inclination and sacral horizontal angle, leading to beneficial effects on sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD) and medial buttock pain. Additional research on the clinical effects of this taping procedure requires greater numbers of athletes with SIJD or LBP who have inappropriate anterior pelvic tilt angles and hyperlordosis.

  15. Pyomyositis of the iliacus muscle and pyogenic sacroiliitis after sacroiliac joint block -A case report-.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Hyeon; Byon, Hyo-Jin; Jung, Hyun Jun; Cha, Young-Deog; Lee, Doo Ik

    2013-05-01

    Sacroiliac joint block can be performed for the diagnosis and treatment of sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Although sacroiliac joint block is a common procedure, complications have not been reported in detail. We report a case of iliacus pyomyositis and sacroiliac joint infection following a sacroiliac joint block. A 70-year-old female patient received sacroiliac joint blocks to relieve pelvic pain. The patient was admitted to the emergency room two days after the final sacroiliac joint block (SIJB) with the chief complaints of left pelvic pain corresponding to a visual analogue scale (VAS) score of 9 and fever. A pelvic MRI indicated a diagnosis of myositis. After 1 month of continuous antibiotic therapy, the patient's erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level remained elevated. A (67)Ga SPECT/CT was done. Abnormal uptake was seen at the left sacroiliac joint (SIJ), and septic sacroiliitis was suspected. The CRP normalized to 0.29 mg/dl and the ESR decreased to 60 mm/hr, and the patient had no fever after 57 days of antibiotic therapy. She was directed for follow up at an outpatient clinic.

  16. Development and validation of a periarticular injection technique of the sacroiliac joint in horses.

    PubMed

    Engeli, E; Haussler, K K; Erb, H N

    2004-05-01

    Sacroiliac joint osteoarthritis has been recognised as a significant cause of poor performance in competition and racehorses. Reliable diagnostic tools are currently lacking. The diagnosis has been based typically on exclusion of other possible causes of poor performance, back pain and hindlimb lameness. To develop a safe, reliable and minimally invasive periarticular or intra-articular injection technique of potential use for diagnosis and therapy of sacroiliac joint disease in horses. Twenty-six horses were used to develop and assess a medial approach to the sacroiliac joint with a 15 gauge, 25 cm long spinal needle. In Part I, the cadaveric study, the spinal needle was introduced cranial to the contralateral tuber sacrale and advanced along the medial aspect of the ipsilateral iliac wing until the dorsal surface of the sacrum was encountered. One ml methylene blue (MB) was injected in both sacroiliac joint regions of the sacropelvic specimens. The location of MB-stained tissues relative to the sacroiliac joints was recorded after dissection and disarticulation of the sacroiliac joint. In Part II, the in vivo study, 18 horses were used to validate the in vivo application of the sacroiliac joint injection technique. Horses were restrained in stocks and sedated in preparation for needle placement. One ml MB was injected bilaterally prior to euthanasia. Stained tissues were identified and recorded at necropsy. Successful joint injections were characterised as having MB located intra-articularly or < or = 2 cm periarticularly from the sacroiliac joint margin and localised to the middle or caudal third of the sacroiliac joint. Intra-articular MB was not observed in any specimen. However, MB-stained tissue was identified periarticularly in all injection sites (n = 48). Based on the predetermined success criteria, 96% of the methylene blue depots were located at the middle or caudal third of the sacroiliac joint. Dye-stained tissue was located < or = 2 cm from the

  17. [The specificity and limitations of sacroiliac joint magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis in patients with chronic low back pain].

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Y; Zhao, Z; Luo, G; Li, Y; Zhang, J L; Huang, F

    2016-11-01

    Objective: To evaluate the specificity and limitations of sacroiliac joint magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA)in patients with chronic low back pain. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 390 patients with chronic low back pain in Department of Rheumatology, the PLA General Hospital from January 2013 to December 2015, including clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and MRI data of sacroiliac joints. Results: There were 238 men and 152 women recruited. A total of 326 cases were diagnosed as axial SpA, including 216 men and 110 women with mean age (27.10±8.64) years and mean duration (7.64±3.50) months. Among these 326 patients, 243 (74.5%) were HLA-B 27 positive. The other 64 patients were considered as diagnoses rather than SpA (non-SpA), consisting of 22 men and 42 women with mean age (31.29±7.76) years and mean duration (5.75±2.90)months. Non-SpA group had 10 (15.6%) patients with HLA-B 27 positive. There were 68.1% and 65.0% SpA patients showing bone marrow edema and bone erosion of sacroiliac joint in MRI imaging respectively. Although there were 25.0% non-SpA patients with bone marrow edema and 7.8% with bone erosion in MRI of sacroiliac joint, the scores of bone marrow edema 0.00(0.00, 0.75) and bone erosion [0.00(0.00, 0.00)] were significantly lower compared with those in axial SpA group [bone marrow edema scores 2.00(0.00, 4.00), bone erosion scores 1.00(0.00, 3.00); P <0.05]. The scores of fat infiltration [1.00(0.00, 4.25), 1.00(0.00, 4.00)] and bone sclerosis [0.00(0.00, 1.00), 0.00(0.00, 1.75)] were not statistically different between two groups. Diagnostic sensitivity of bone marrow edema and bone erosion for axial SpA were 56.4% and 64.1% respectively, specificity were 93.8% and 92.2% respectively. The positive predictive value of bone marrow edema and bone erosion for axial SpA were 9.09 and 8.21, negative predictive value were 0.46 and 0.38.Diagnositic sensitivity of

  18. Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Minimally Affects Adjacent Lumbar Segment Motion: A Finite Element Study.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Derek P; Kiapour, Ali; Yerby, Scott A; Goel, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Adjacent segment disease is a recognized consequence of fusion in the spinal column. Fusion of the sacroiliac joint is an effective method of pain reduction. Although effective, the consequences of sacroiliac joint fusion and the potential for adjacent segment disease for the adjacent lumbar spinal levels is unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the change in range of motion of the sacroiliac joint and the adjacent lumbar spinal motion segments due to sacroiliac joint fusion and compare these changes to previous literature to assess the potential for adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine. An experimentally validated finite element model of the lumbar spine and pelvis was used to simulate a fusion of the sacroiliac joint using three laterally placed triangular implants (iFuse Implant System, SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA). The range of motion of the sacroiliac joint and the adjacent lumbar spinal motion segments were calculated using a hybrid loading protocol and compared with the intact range of motion in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. The range of motions of the treated sacroiliac joints were reduced in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, by 56.6%, 59.5%, 27.8%, and 53.3%, respectively when compared with the intact condition. The stiffening of the sacroiliac joint resulted in increases at the adjacent lumbar motion segment (L5-S1) for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, of 3.0%, 3.7%, 1.1%, and 4.6%, respectively. Fusion of the sacroiliac joint resulted in substantial (> 50%) reductions in flexion, extension, and axial rotation of the sacroiliac joint with minimal (< 5%) increases in range of motion in the lumbar spine. Although the predicted increases in lumbar range of motion are minimal after sacroiliac joint fusion, the long-term clinical results remain to be investigated.

  19. Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Minimally Affects Adjacent Lumbar Segment Motion: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Kiapour, Ali; Yerby, Scott A.; Goel, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease is a recognized consequence of fusion in the spinal column. Fusion of the sacroiliac joint is an effective method of pain reduction. Although effective, the consequences of sacroiliac joint fusion and the potential for adjacent segment disease for the adjacent lumbar spinal levels is unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the change in range of motion of the sacroiliac joint and the adjacent lumbar spinal motion segments due to sacroiliac joint fusion and compare these changes to previous literature to assess the potential for adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine. Methods An experimentally validated finite element model of the lumbar spine and pelvis was used to simulate a fusion of the sacroiliac joint using three laterally placed triangular implants (iFuse Implant System, SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA). The range of motion of the sacroiliac joint and the adjacent lumbar spinal motion segments were calculated using a hybrid loading protocol and compared with the intact range of motion in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Results The range of motions of the treated sacroiliac joints were reduced in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, by 56.6%, 59.5%, 27.8%, and 53.3%, respectively when compared with the intact condition. The stiffening of the sacroiliac joint resulted in increases at the adjacent lumbar motion segment (L5-S1) for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, of 3.0%, 3.7%, 1.1%, and 4.6%, respectively. Conclusions Fusion of the sacroiliac joint resulted in substantial (> 50%) reductions in flexion, extension, and axial rotation of the sacroiliac joint with minimal (< 5%) increases in range of motion in the lumbar spine. Although the predicted increases in lumbar range of motion are minimal after sacroiliac joint fusion, the long-term clinical results remain to be investigated. PMID:26767156

  20. A systematic evaluation of prevalence and diagnostic accuracy of sacroiliac joint interventions.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Thomas T; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Gupta, Sanjeeva; Hameed, Haroon; Diwan, Sudhir; Cohen, Steven P

    2012-01-01

    The contributions of the sacroiliac joint to low back and lower extremity pain have been a subject of considerable debate and research. It is generally accepted that 10% to 25% of patients with persistent mechanical low back pain below L5 have pain secondary to sacroiliac joint pathology. However, no single historical, physical exam, or radiological feature can definitively establish a diagnosis of sacroiliac joint pain. Based on present knowledge, a proper diagnosis can only be made using controlled diagnostic blocks. The diagnosis and treatment of sacroiliac joint pain continue to be characterized by wide variability and a paucity of the literature. To evaluate the accuracy of diagnostic sacroiliac joint interventions. A systematic review of diagnostic sacroiliac joint interventions. Methodological quality assessment of included studies was performed using Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies (QAREL). Only diagnostic accuracy studies meeting at least 50% of the designated inclusion criteria were utilized for analysis. Studies scoring less than 50% are presented descriptively and analyzed critically. The level of evidence was classified as good, fair, or poor based on the quality of evidence developed by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Data sources included relevant literature identified through searches of PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to December 2011, and manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles. In this evaluation we utilized controlled local anesthetic blocks using at least 50% pain relief as the reference standard. The evidence is good for the diagnosis of sacroiliac joint pain utilizing controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks. The prevalence of sacroiliac joint pain is estimated to range between 10% and 62% based on the setting; however, the majority of analyzed studies suggest a point prevalence of around 25%, with a false-positive rate for uncontrolled blocks of approximately 20%. The

  1. A Cadaveric Study on Sacroiliac Joint Injection

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yu-Cong; Li, Yi-Kai; Yu, Cheng-Fu; Yang, Xian-Wen; Chen, Run-Qi

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study was to explore the possibility as well as the feasibility of sacroiliac joint injection following simple X-ray clip location. For the cadaveric study, 10 fixed sacroiliac joint (SIJ) sectional specimens, 4 dried cadaveric pelvises and 21 embalmed adult cadaveric pelvises were dissected, followed by an injection of contrast agent into the joint. The irrigation of the agent was observed through CT scanning. For the radiologic study, 188 CT scans of ankylosing spondylitis patients (143 male, 45 female) were collected from 2010 to 2012, in Nanfang Hospital. What was measured was (1) Distance between the posterior midline and sagittal synovium; (2) Length of the sagittal synovium; (3) Distance between the midpoint of the sagittal synovium and posterior superior iliac spine; and (4) Distance between the superficial skin vertical to the sagittal synovium point were measured. For the practice-based study: 20 patients (17 males and 3 females) with early ankylosing spondylitis, from Nanfang Hospital affiliated with Southern Medical University were recruited, and sacroiliac joint unguided injections were done on the basis of the cadaveric and radiologic study. Only the inferior 1/3rd portion parallel to the posterior midline could be injected into since the superior 2/3rd portion were filled with interosseous ligaments. Thirteen of the 20 patients received successful injections as identified by CT scan using the contrast agent. Sacroiliac joint injection following simple X-ray clip location is possible and feasible if the operation is performed by trained physicians familiar with the sacroiliac joint and its surrounding anatomic structures. PMID:25692437

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging changes of sacroiliac joints in patients with recent-onset inflammatory back pain: inter-reader reliability and prevalence of abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Heuft-Dorenbosch, Liesbeth; Weijers, René; Landewé, Robert; van der Linden, Sjef; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2006-01-01

    To study the inter-reader reliability of detecting abnormalities of sacroiliac (SI) joints in patients with recent-onset inflammatory back pain by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to study the prevalence of inflammation and structural changes at various sites of the SI joints. Sixty-eight patients with inflammatory back pain (at least four of the five following criteria: symptom onset before age 40, insidious onset, morning stiffness, duration >3 months, improvement with exercise--or three out of five of these plus night pain) were included (38% male; mean age, 34.9 years [standard deviation 10.3]; 46% HLA-B27-positive; mean symptom duration, 18 months), with symptom duration <2 years. A MRI scan of the SI joints was made in the coronal plane with the following sequences: T1-weighted spin echo, short-tau inversion recovery, T2-weighted fast-spin echo with fat saturation, and T1-spin echo with fat saturation after the administration of gadolinium. Both SI joints were scored for inflammation (separately for subchondral bone and bone marrow, joint space, joint capsule, ligaments) as well as for structural changes (erosions, sclerosis, ankylosis), by two observers independently. Agreement between the two readers was analysed by concordance and discordance rates and by kappa statistics. Inflammation was present in 32 SI joints of 22 patients, most frequently located in bone marrow and/or subchondral bone (29 joints in 21 patients). Readers agreed on the presence of inflammation in 85% of the cases in the right SI joint and in 78% of the cases in the left SI joint. Structural changes on MRI were present in 11 patients. Ten of these 11 patients also showed signs of inflammation. Agreement on the presence or absence of inflammation and structural changes of SI joints by MRI was acceptable, and was sufficiently high to be useful in ascertaining inflammatory and structural changes due to sacroiliitis. About one-third of patients with recent-onset inflammatory back pain

  3. Utilization of Facet Joint and Sacroiliac Joint Interventions in Medicare Population from 2000 to 2014: Explosive Growth Continues!

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Boswell, Mark V

    2016-10-01

    Increasing utilization of interventional techniques in managing chronic spinal pain, specifically facet joint interventions and sacroiliac joint injections, is a major concern of healthcare policy makers. We analyzed the patterns of utilization of facet and sacroiliac joint interventions in managing chronic spinal pain. The results showed significant increase of facet joint interventions and sacroiliac joint injections from 2000 to 2014 in Medicare FFS service beneficiaries. Overall, the Medicare population increased 35 %, whereas facet joint and sacroiliac joint interventions increased 313.3 % per 100,000 Medicare population with an annual increase of 10.7 %. While the increases were uniform from 2000 to 2014, there were some decreases noted for facet joint interventions in 2007, 2010, and 2013, whereas for sacroiliac joint injections, the decreases were noted in 2007 and 2013. The increases were for cervical and thoracic facet neurolysis at 911.5 % compared to lumbosacral facet neurolysis of 567.8 %, 362.9 % of cervical and thoracic facet joint blocks, 316.9 % of sacroiliac joints injections, and finally 227.3 % of lumbosacral facet joint blocks.

  4. [Sacroiliac joint disorders in Abidjan: epidemiological, clinical, radiological and etiological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Diomandé, Mohamed; Eti, E; Ouattara, B; Cheteu, K E; Kouakou Ehaulier Soh, C L; Gbané-Koné, M; Djaha Kouassi, Jean-Mermoze; Kouakou N'zué, M

    2014-10-01

    The sacroiliac joint remains unknown in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies about the sacroiliac diseases are rare Aim : Describe the epidemiological, clinical, radiological and etiological characteristics of sacroiliac joint diseases in Abidjan Methods : Retrospective and descriptive study concerning 17 patients hospitalized from February 2003 to April 2010 in the department of rheumatology of university hospital center of Cocody (Abidjan) for buttock pain or others functional signs evoking sacroiliac joint which were attested by radiographic lesions. We were interested on the epidemiological, clinical and radiological characteristics and the etiologies in the sacroiliac disease. The hospital prevalence of sacroiliac diseases was 0.55% corresponding in 17 of 3067 rheumatological diseases. The female sex predominated (82.35%) and the mean age of 25.58 years. Gyneco-obstetric events were the predominant risk factors (47.05%). Sacroiliac damage was manifested by inflammatory pain (64.7%) localized at the buttock or lumbar spine, radiating to the thigh (52.9%) and was accompanied by functional disability (82.2%) and fever was not present every time (64.7%). The physical findings were the tripod sign positive (58.8%), the monopodal backing positive (41.2%) and palpation painful of sacroiliac joint. The standard radiograph revealed a blurring aspect and widening of joint space associated with demineralization (68.4%), a joint space narrowing and erosion of articular banks (23.5%). The etiologies found were bacterial arthritis (82.3%) mainly pyogenic (70.58%), osteoarthritis (11.7%) and ankylosing spondylitis (5.9%). Sacroiliac joint diseases are rare in rheumatology practice in Abidjan, concern younger subjects and are dominated by pyogenic sacroiliitis.

  5. Fatal hemorrhage following sacroiliac joint fusion surgery: A case report.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Augsburger, Marc; Del Mar Lesta, Maria; Grabherr, Silke; Borens, Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Threaded pins and wires are commonly used in orthopedic practice and their migration intra- or post-operatively may be responsible for potentially serious complications. Vascular and visceral injury from intra-pelvic pin or guide-wire migration during or following hip surgery has been reported frequently in the literature and may result in progression through soft tissues with subsequent perforation of organs and vessels. In this report, we describe an autopsy case involving a 40-year old man suffering from chronic low back pain due to sacroiliac joint disruption. The patient underwent minimally invasive sacroiliac joint arthrodesis. Some intra-operative bleeding was noticed when a drill was retrieved, though the patient died postoperatively. Postmortem investigations allowed the source of bleeding to be identified (a perforation of a branch of the right internal iliac artery) and a potentially toxic tramadol concentration in peripheral blood to be measured. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interventional Pain Management for Sacroiliac Tumors in the Oncologic Population: A Case Series and Paradigm Approach.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Nathan; Hung, Joseph C; Puttanniah, Vinay; Lis, Eric; Laufer, Ilya; Gulati, Amitabh

    2017-05-01

    Tumors invading the sacrum and/or ilium often represent incurable metastatic disease, and treatment is targeted toward palliation of symptoms and control of pain. As systemic opioid therapy is frequently inadequate and limited by side effects, a variety of interventional techniques are available to better optimize analgesia. Using six patients as a paradigm for interventional approaches to pain relief, we present a therapeutic algorithm for treating sacroiliac tumor-related pain in the oncologic population. We describe the use of ultrasound-guided proximal sacroiliac joint corticosteroid injection, sacroiliac lateral branch radiofrequency ablation, percutaneous sacroplasty, and implantable neuraxial drug delivery devices to treat malignant sacroiliac pain in six patients. Pre- and postprocedure numerical rating scale (NRS) pain scores, duration of pain relief, and postprocedure pain medication requirements were studied for each patient. Each patient had marked improvement in their pain based on an average postprocedure NRS difference of six points. The average duration of pain relief was eight months. In all cases, opioid requirements decreased after the intervention. Depending on tumor location, burden of disease, and patient preference, patients suffering from metastatic disease to the sacrum may find benefit from use of ultrasound-guided proximal sacroiliac joint corticosteroid injection, sacroiliac lateral branch radiofrequency ablation, percutaneous sacroplasty, dorsal column stimulator leads, and/or implantable neuraxial drug delivery devices. We provide a paradigm for treatment in this patient population. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Safety and effectiveness of minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion in women with persistent post-partum posterior pelvic girdle pain: 12-month outcomes from a prospective, multi-center trial.

    PubMed

    Capobianco, Robyn; Cher, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum posterior pelvic girdle pain (PPGP) affects nearly 20 % of women who experience back pain in the peripartum period. The sacroiliac joint is a source of this pain in 75 % of women with persistent PPGP. A subset of women will fail to obtain acceptable pain relief from the current array of non-surgical treatment options. The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and effectiveness of minimally invasive sacroiliac (SI) joint fusion in women with chronic SI joint dysfunction whose pain began in the peri-partum period whose symptoms were recalcitrant to non-surgical management. A sub-group analysis of subjects with sacroiliac joint disruption and/or degenerative sacroiliitis enrolled in a prospective, multi-center trial of SI joint fusion was performed. Subjects with PPGP were identified and compared with women without PPGP and with men. Of 172 enrolled subjects, 52 were male, 100 were females without PPGP and 20 females had PPGP. PPGP subjects were significantly younger (43.3 years, vs. 52.8 for females without PPGP and 50.5 for men, p = 0.002). There were no differences in any other demographic or baseline clinical measure. Women with PPGP experienced a significant improvement in pain (-51 mm on VAS), function (-20.6 pts on ODI) and quality of life (SF-36 PCS +10.4, MCS +7.2, EQ-5D +0.31) at 12 months after surgery. These improvements were characteristic of the overall study results; no difference was detected between sub-groups. The sacroiliac joint can be a source of pain in women with persistent PPGP and should be investigated as a pain generator. In this study, women with carefully diagnosed chronic SI joint pain from PPGP recalcitrant to conservative therapies experienced clinically beneficially improvements in pain, disability and quality of life after minimally invasive SI joint fusion using a series of triangular porous plasma spray coated implants.

  8. Functional outcome from sacroiliac joint prolotherapy in patients with sacroiliac joint instability.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Agnish, Vikram

    2018-04-01

    Examine the effectiveness of sacroiliac (SI) joint prolotherapy for SI joint instability, and characterize the patients most likely to benefit from this treatment. Retrospective cohort study. Department of Veterans Affairs outpatient physical medicine clinic. Patients referred for low back pain and diagnosed with SI joint instability received a series of three SI joint prolotherapy injections (15% dextrose in lidocaine) at approximately a one-month interval. The outcome of those completing treatment was retrospectively examined, and characteristics were compared between those with at least a minimum clinically important improvement and those without improvement. Patients completed the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) before treatment was initiated, immediately preceding each prolotherapy injection, and at 3-4 month follow-up. Of 103 treated patients returning for post-treatment follow-up at a median of 117 days, 24 (23%) showed a minimum clinically important improvement despite a median of 2 years with low back pain and a mean (±SD) pre-intervention ODI of 54 ± 15 points. Much of the improvement was evident after the initial prolotherapy injection, and a 15-point improvement in ODI prior to the second prolotherapy injection had a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 80% for determining which patients would improve. A satisfactory proportion of patients with symptomatic SI joint instability as an etiology of low back pain can have clinically meaningful functional gains with prolotherapy treatment. The patients who are not likely to improve with prolotherapy are generally evident by lack of improvement following the initial prolotherapy injection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Pelvic belt effects on sacroiliac joint ligaments: a computational approach to understand therapeutic effects of pelvic belts.

    PubMed

    Sichting, Freddy; Rossol, Jerome; Soisson, Odette; Klima, Stefan; Milani, Thomas; Hammer, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint is a widely described source of low back pain. Therapeutic approaches to relieve pain include the application of pelvic belts. However, the effects of pelvic belts on sacroiliac joint ligaments as potential pain generators are mostly unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of pelvic belts on ligament load by means of a computer model. Experimental computer study using a finite element method. A computer model of the human pelvis was created, comprising bones, ligaments, and cartilage. Detailed geometries, material properties of ligaments, and in-vivo pressure distribution patterns of a pelvic belt were implemented. The effects of pelvic belts on ligament strain were computed in the double-leg stance. Pelvic belts increase sacroiliac joint motion around the sagittal axis but decrease motion around the transverse axis. With pelvic belt application, most of the strained sacroiliac joint ligaments were relieved, especially the sacrospinous, sacrotuberous, and the interosseous sacroiliac ligaments. Sacroiliac joint motion and ligament strains were minute. These results agree with validation data from other studies. Assigning homogenous and linear material properties and excluding muscle forces are clear simplifications of the complex reality. Pelvic belts alter sacroiliac joint motion and provide partial relief of ligament strain that is subjectively marked, although minimal in absolute terms. These findings confirm theories that besides being mechanical stabilizers, the sacroiliac joint ligaments are likely involved in neuromuscular feedback mechanisms. The results from our computer model help with unraveling the therapeutic mechanisms of pelvic belts.

  10. Fluoroscopic Sacroiliac Joint Injection: Is Oblique Angulation Really Necessary?

    PubMed

    Khuba, Sandeep; Agarwal, Anil; Gautam, Sujeet; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    The conventional technique for sacroiliac (SI) joint injection involves aligning the anterior and posterior aspects of the SI joint under fluoroscopic guidance and then entering the SI joint in the most caudal aspect. We wish to highlight that there is no added advantage to aligning both the anterior and posterior joint lines of the SI joint as it is time consuming, associated with additional radiation exposure, and may make the entry into the posterior SI joint technically more difficult. Observational study. Pain Clinic, Department of Anesthesiology. With the patient lying prone on fluoroscopy table, SI joint injection is performed with a 22 G, 10 cm spinal needle in a true anteroposterior (AP) view, where anterior and posterior SI joint spaces are seen as separate entities, where the medial joint space represents the posterior SI joint and the lateral joint space represents the anterior SI joint. The distal 1 cm of the medial joint space is entered under AP view. If the SI joint is seen as a straight line rather than 2 joint spaces in the AP view then the image intensifier of the fluoroscope was tilted cranially to elongate the image of the lower part of the posterior SI joint, thus facilitating entry into this part of the joint which was confirmed by administering 0.3 to 0.5 mL of radiopaque contrast medium. Sixty SI joints of 58 patients were injected under an AP fluoroscopic view. Forty-two (70%) SI joints were seen as 2 separate medial and lateral joint spaces and were entered in distal 1 cm of the medial joint space. In 18 (30%) joints seen as a straight line rather than 2 separate spaces, the image intensifier of the fluoroscope was tilted cranially to elongate the image of the lower part of the posterior SI joint and then the SI joint was entered in its distal 1 cm. Confirmation of entry into the SI joint was confirmed by with 0.3 to 0.5 mL of radiopaque contrast medium. In 4 cases the joints did not show the correct radiopaque contrast spread (3/42 and 1

  11. Anatomy and histology of the sacroiliac joints.

    PubMed

    Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2014-07-01

    The anatomy of joints provides an important basis for understanding the nature and imaging of pathologic lesions and their imaging appearance. This applies especially to the sacroiliac (SI) joints, which play a major role in the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. They are composed of two different joint portions, a cartilage-covered portion ventrally and a ligamentous portion dorsally, and thus rather complex anatomically. Knowledge of anatomy and the corresponding normal imaging findings are important in the imaging diagnosis of sacroiliitis, especially by MR imaging. A certain distinction between the two joint portions by MR imaging is only obtainable by axial slice orientation. Together with a perpendicular coronal slice orientation, it provides adequate anatomical information and thereby a possibility for detecting the anatomical site of disease-specific characteristics and normal variants simulating disease. This overview describes current knowledge about the normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the SI joints. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Sacroiliac joint tuberculosis: surgical management by posterior open-window focal debridement and joint fusion.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guo; Jiang, Li-Yuan; Yi, Zhang; Ping, Li; Duan, Chun-Yue; Yong, Cao; Liu, Jin-Yang; Hu, Jian-Zhong

    2017-11-29

    Sacroiliac joint tuberculosis(SJT) is relatively uncommon, but it may cause severe sacroiliac joint destruction and functional disorder. Few studies in the literature have been presented on SJT, reports of surgical treatment for SJT are even fewer. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed surgical management of patients with severe SJT of 3 different types and proposed to reveal the clinical manifestations and features and aim to determine the efficiency and security of such surgical treatment. We reviewed 17 patients with severe SJT of 3 different types who underwent posterior open-window focal debridement and bone graft for joint fusion. Among them,five patients with anterior sacral abscess had anterior abscess curettage before debridement. Two patients with lumbar vertebral tuberculosis received one-stage posterior tuberculous debridement, interbody fusion and instrumentation. Follow-up was performed 36 months (26 to 45 months) using the following parameters: erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR), status of joint bony fusion on CT scan, visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Buttock pain and low back pain were progressively relieved with time. 6 months later, pain was not obvious, and ESR resumed to normal levels within 3 months. Solid fusion of the sacroiliac joint occurred within 12 months in all cases. No complications or recurrence occurred. At final follow-up, all patients had no pain or only minimal discomfort over the affected joint and almost complete functional recovery. Posterior open-window focal debridement and joint fusion is an efficient and secure surgical method to treat severe SJT. If there is an abscess in the front of the sacroiliac joint, anterior abscess curettage should be performed as a supplement.

  13. Clinical comparative analysis on unstable pelvic fractures in the treatment with percutaneous sacroiliac screws and sacroiliac joint anterior plate fixation.

    PubMed

    Li, C-L

    2014-01-01

    To investigate clinical efficacy of unstable pelvic fractures in the treatment with percutaneous sacroiliac screws and sacroiliac joint anterior plate fixation. 64 patients with unstable pelvic fractures were selected in the hospital from January 2008 to June 2011, and were randomly divided into two groups.(32 patients with sacroiliac anterior plate fixation as the control group, and another 32 patients with percutaneous sacroiliac screw internal fixation as the observation group). The perioperative period clinical indicators, postoperative Matta score, postoperative Majeed function score of all patients were compared and analyzed. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, wound total length, postoperative fever time, duration of hospitalization in the observation group were significantly less than those in the control group. The complication rate (3.1%) in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (21.9%). The rate of Matta score excellent (96.9%) in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (81.2%) after the treatment. The rate of Majeed function score excellent (93.8%) in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (75%) after the treatment. Percutaneous sacroiliac screw internal fixation in the treatment of unstable pelvic fractures has less injury, less bleeding, less pain and rapid recovery which is a safe and effective minimally invasive operation method. The clinical curative effect of percutaneous sacroiliac screw internal fixation is better than anterior plate fixation for the treatment of sacroiliac joint. The full preparation before the surgery and patients with positive can substantially reduce the occurrence of complications rate.

  14. Blockade of Dickkopf (DKK)-1 induces fusion of sacroiliac joints.

    PubMed

    Uderhardt, S; Diarra, D; Katzenbeisser, J; David, J-P; Zwerina, J; Richards, W; Kronke, G; Schett, G

    2010-03-01

    To study whether Dickkopf (DKK)-1, an inhibitor of wingless (Wnt) signalling, is involved in the fusion of sacroiliac joints. Mice transgenic for tumour necrosis factor (TNFtg mice), which develop bilateral sacroiliitis, were treated with vehicle, anti-TNF antibody or anti-DKK1 antibody. Sacroiliac joints were analysed for histological signs of inflammation, bone erosion, osteoclast formation and ankylosis. Moreover, expression of collagen type X, beta-catenin and DKK-1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. There were no signs of spontaneous ankylosis of the sacroiliac joints in TNFtg mice. TNF blockade effectively reduced inflammation, bone erosion and osteoclast numbers in the sacroiliac joints, but did not lead to ankylosis. Blockade of DKK1 had no effect on inflammatory signs of sacroiliitis, but significantly reduced bone erosions and osteoclast counts. Moreover, DKK1 blockade promoted expression of collagen type X, the formation of hypertrophic chondrocytes and ankylosis of sacroiliac joints. DKK1 influences inflammatory remodelling of sacroiliac joints by prevention of joint ankylosis. This may indicate an important role of the Wnt signalling pathway in the structural bone changes of axial joint disease. Although this model does not reflect the entire spectrum of ankylosing spondylitis in humans, it helps to explain the pathophysiological processes of sacroiliac joint ankylosis, which is a hallmark of the spondyloarthritides.

  15. A systematic evaluation of the therapeutic effectiveness of sacroiliac joint interventions.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Hans; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Simopoulos, Thomas T; Christo, Paul J; Gupta, Sanjeeva; Smith, Howard S; Hameed, Haroon; Cohen, Steven P

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of the sacroiliac joint to low back and lower extremity pain has been a subject of debate with extensive research. It is generally accepted that approximately 10% to 25% of patients with persistent low back pain may have pain arising from the sacroiliac joints. In spite of this, there are currently no definite conservative, interventional, or surgical management options for managing sacroiliac joint pain. In addition, there continue to be significant variations in the application of various techniques as well as a paucity of literature. A systematic review of therapeutic sacroiliac joint interventions. To evaluate the accuracy of therapeutic sacroiliac joint interventions. The available literature on therapeutic sacroiliac joint interventions in managing chronic low back and lower extremity pain was reviewed. The quality assessment and clinical relevance criteria utilized were the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Review Group criteria for randomized trials of interventional techniques and the criteria developed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational studies. The level of evidence was classified as good, fair, or poor based on the quality of evidence developed by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Data sources included relevant literature published from 1966 through December 2011 that was identified through searches of PubMed and EMBASE, and manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles. The primary outcome measure was pain relief (short-term relief = up to 6 months and long-term > 6 months). Secondary outcome measures were improvement in functional status, psychological status, return to work, and reduction in opioid intake. For this systematic review, 56 studies were considered for inclusion. Of these, 45 studies were excluded and a total of 11 studies met inclusion criteria for methodological quality assessment with 6 randomized trials and 5 non-randomized studies. The evidence for cooled

  16. Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction in the Athlete: Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Peebles, Rebecca; Jonas, Christopher E

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is a common cause of low back pain in the athlete, especially in sports with repetitive, asymmetric loading. Complex anatomy and broad pain referral pattern make diagnosis difficult. Identifying three or more positive physical examination maneuvers for the SIJ improves examination sensitivity and specificity. Imaging is rarely helpful in establishing the diagnosis but is often used to rule out other pathology. Conservative management with activity modification, medication, physical therapy, manipulation and bracing is first line treatment. After at least 6 weeks of conservative efforts or if pain limits the athlete's tolerance of these measures, diagnostic and therapeutic intra-articular or periarticular injections or nerve blocks can be used. Radiofrequency ablation is recommended as the next approach for treatment. When all other options have been exhausted, surgical management can be considered. For athletes, once the underlying dysfunction is adequately addressed, gradual progression to full participation is encouraged.

  17. Septic arthritis of the sacroiliac joint

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Agata; Błach, Katarzyna; Silicki, Jurand; Wiland, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Septic arthritis is an inflammation of a joint caused directly by various microorganisms. It is often characterized by many unspecific symptoms. Bacteria is the most often etiological factor. We present a case report of a 76-years old woman with a unilateral septic arthritis of the sacroiliac joint. Bacterial sacroiliitis should be taken into account in patients with sacroiliitis and fever onset. Proper diagnosis can be very often difficult and delayed but fast implementation of antibiotic therapy is extremely important in the treatment process. Diagnostic imaging is crucial to the diagnosis and monitoring of septic arthritis. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most relevant tool for the detection of sacroiliitis, allowing the institution of therapeutic strategies to impede the progression of the disease. PMID:29686444

  18. Systematic Review of the Diagnostic Accuracy and Therapeutic Effectiveness of Sacroiliac Joint Interventions.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Thomas T; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Gupta, Sanjeeva; Aydin, Steve M; Kim, Chong Hwan; Solanki, Daneshvari; Nampiaparampil, Devi E; Singh, Vijay; Staats, Peter S; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint is well known as a cause of low back and lower extremity pain. Prevalence estimates are 10% to 25% in patients with persistent axial low back pain without disc herniation, discogenic pain, or radiculitis based on multiple diagnostic studies and systematic reviews. However, at present there are no definitive management options for treating sacroiliac joint pain. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic effectiveness of sacroiliac joint interventions. A systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic effectiveness of sacroiliac joint interventions. The available literature on diagnostic and therapeutic sacroiliac joint interventions was reviewed. The quality assessment criteria utilized were the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies (QAREL) checklist for diagnostic accuracy studies, Cochrane review criteria to assess sources of risk of bias, and Interventional Pain Management Techniques-Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment (IPM-QRB) criteria for randomized therapeutic trials and Interventional Pain Management Techniques-Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment for Nonrandomized Studies (IPM-QRBNR) for observational therapeutic assessments. The level of evidence was based on a best evidence synthesis with modified grading of qualitative evidence from Level I to Level V. Data sources included relevant literature published from 1966 through March 2015 that were identified through searches of PubMed and EMBASE, manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles, and all other sources. For the diagnostic accuracy assessment, and for the therapeutic modalities, the primary outcome measure of pain relief and improvement in functional status were utilized. A total of 11 diagnostic accuracy studies and 14 therapeutic studies were included. The evidence for diagnostic accuracy is Level II for dual diagnostic blocks with at least 70% pain relief as the criterion

  19. [Clinical Therapeutic Effect of Oblique Needling with Tuina in Relieving Sacroiliac Joint Injury].

    PubMed

    Kuang, Jia-yi; Li, Yu-xuan; He, Yu-feng; Gan, Lin; Wang, Ai-ming; Tang, Shao-hua; Lu, Fei-yu; Yang, Li-juan; Cat, Xue-ling; Quan, Jian-lin

    2016-04-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of oblique needling in combination with Tuina at the sacroiliac joint for patients experiencing sacroiliac joint injury. One hundred and twenty patients with sacroiliac joint injury were randomized into routine Tuina group and oblique needling combined with Tuina (Acu+ Tuina) group (n = 60 in each group). For patients of the Tuina group, routine Tuina as rotating, pressing-rubbing, digital pressing, articular moving, etc. was manipulated at Shangliao (BL 31), Ciliao (BL 32), Zhongliao (BL 31), Xialiao (BL 30), Huantiao (GB 30), Zhibian (BL 54), Weizhong (BL 40) and sacroiliac joint area. For patients of the Acu+Tuina group, the anatomical points between the bilateral iliac crests and the sacral joints were punctured obliquely with disposable acupuncture needles. The treatment was conducted for 30 min every time, once daily for 3 weeks except weekends. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, concerning intensity of pain, lifting, ability to care for oneself, ability to walk, ability to sit, sexual function, ability to stand, social life, sleep quality, and ability to travel) were employed to evaluate the patients' reactions and functional activity changes before and after the treatment. Following the treatment, of the two 60 patients in the Tuina and Acu + Tuina groups, 12 and 26 cases were cured, 20 and 20 experienced marked improvement, 16 and 11 were effective, 12 and 3 invalid, with the effective rates being 80% and 95%, respectively. The effective rate of the Acu+ Tuina group was significantly superior to that of the Tuina group (P<0.05). The VAS scores and OD were considerably decreased in both groups after the treatment and were significantly lower in the Acu+Tuina group than in the Tuina group (P<0.01). Oblique needling the anatomical points in the sacroiliac joint region combined with Tuina manipulation is evidently better than simple Tuina in reducing pain and in improving functional activity

  20. Utilization and growth patterns of sacroiliac joint injections from 2000 to 2011 in the medicare population.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hansen, Hans; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Falco, Frank J E

    2013-01-01

      The high prevalence of persistent low back pain and growing number of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities employed to manage chronic low back pain and the subsequent impact on society and the economy continue to hold sway over health care policy. Among the multiple causes responsible for chronic low back pain, the contributions of the sacroiliac joint have been a subject of debate albeit a paucity of research. At present, there are no definitive conservative, interventional or surgical management options for managing sacroiliac joint pain. It has been shown that the increases were highest for facet joint interventions and sacroiliac joint blocks with an increase of 310% per 100,000 Medicare beneficiaries from 2000 to 2011. There has not been a systematic assessment of the utilization and growth patterns of sacroiliac joint injections. Analysis of the growth patterns of sacroiliac joint injections in Medicare beneficiaries from 2000 to 2011. To evaluate the utilization and growth patterns of sacroiliac joint injections. This assessment was performed utilizing Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Physician/Supplier Procedure Summary (PSPS) Master data from 2000 to 2011. The findings of this assessment in Medicare beneficiaries from 2000 to 2011 showed a 331% increase per 100,000 Medicare beneficiaries with an annual increase of 14.2%, compared to an increase in the Medicare population of 23% or annual increase of 1.9%. The number of procedures increased from 49,554 in 2000 to 252,654 in 2011, or a rate of 125 to 539 per 100,000 Medicare beneficiaries. Among the various specialists performing sacroiliac joint injections, physicians specializing in physical medicine and rehabilitation have shown the most increase, followed by neurology with 1,568% and 698%, even though many physicians from both specialties have been enrolling in interventional pain management and pain management. Even though the numbers were small for nonphysician providers including

  1. The therapeutic efficacy of sacroiliac joint blocks with triamcinolone acetonide in the treatment of sacroiliac joint dysfunction without spondyloarthropathy.

    PubMed

    Liliang, Po-Chou; Lu, Kang; Weng, Hui-Ching; Liang, Cheng-Loong; Tsai, Yu-Duan; Chen, Han-Jung

    2009-04-20

    Prospective case series. The study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) blocks with triamcinolone acetonide in patients with SIJ pain without spondyloarthropathy. Numerous studies have demonstrated that SIJ blocks with corticosteroid/anesthetic provide long-term pain relief in seronegative spondyloarthropathy. However, only one report on SIJ dysfunction patients without spondyloarthropathy shows promising results. We conducted a prospective observational study of patients at a University Spine Center from March 2005 to May 2006. The above mentioned SIJ blocks were performed in 150 patients, and dual SIJ blocks confirmed SIJ pain in 39 patients (26%). Twenty-six patients (66.7%) experienced significant pain reduction for more than 6 weeks; the overall mean duration of pain reduction in these responders was 36.8 +/- 9.9 weeks. SIJ blocks were ineffective in 13 patients (33.3%); the mean duration of pain reduction in these patients was 4.4 +/- 1.8 weeks. Univariate analysis revealed that treatment failure was significantly associated with a history of lumbar/lumbosacral fusion (P = 0.03). SIJ blocks with triamcinolone acetonide are beneficial for some patients with SIJ pain without spondyloarthropathy. The SIJ blocks showed a long-lasting efficacy in two-thirds of the patients; however, the duration of its efficacy was shorter in patients with a history of lumbar/lumbosacral fusion. These findings suggest the need for further studies.

  2. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction in patients with herniated lumbar disc: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Madani, Seyed Pezhman; Dadian, Mohammad; Firouznia, Keykavous; Alalawi, Salah

    2013-01-01

    To determine the relative frequency of sacroiliac joint dysfunction in a sample of patients with image proven lumbar disc herniation. A single group cross-sectional study was conducted in a three year period from 2007 in an outpatient clinic at a university hospital. Overall, 202 patients aged more than or equal to 18 years with image proven herniated lumbar disc and with physical findings suggestive of lumbosacral root irritation were included. Overall, 146 (72.3%) participants had sacroiliac joint dysfunction. The dysfunction was significantly more prevalent in females (p< 0.001, adjusted OR=2.46, 95% CI=1.00 to 6.03), patients with recurrent pain (p< 0.005, adjusted OR=2.33 with 95% CI=1.10 to 4.89) and patients with positive straight leg raising provocative test (p< 0.0001, adjusted OR=5.07, 95% CI=2.37 to 10.85). There was no significant relationship between the prevalence of SIJD, and working hours, duration of low back pain, or body mass index. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is a significant pathogenic factor with high possibility of occurrence in low back pain. Thus, regardless of intervertebral disc pathology, sacroiliac joint dysfunction must be considered in clinical decision making.

  3. Minimally invasive versus open sacroiliac joint fusion: are they similarly safe and effective?

    PubMed

    Ledonio, Charles G T; Polly, David W; Swiontkowski, Marc F

    2014-06-01

    The sacroiliac joint has been implicated as a source of chronic low back pain in 15% to 30% of patients. When nonsurgical approaches fail, sacroiliac joint fusion may be recommended. Advances in intraoperative image guidance have assisted minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques using ingrowth-coated fusion rods; however, how these techniques perform relative to open anterior fusion of the sacroiliac joint using plates and screws is not known. We compared estimated blood loss (EBL), surgical time, length of hospital stay (LOS), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) between patients undergoing MIS and open sacroiliac joint fusion. We retrospectively studied 63 patients (open: 36; MIS: 27) who underwent sacroiliac joint fusion with minimum 1-year followup at our institution from 2006 to 2011. Of those, 10 in the open group had incomplete records. All patients had sacroiliac joint dysfunction confirmed by image-guided intraarticular anesthetic sacroiliac joint injection and had failed nonoperative treatment. Patients were matched via propensity score, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, history of spine fusion, and preoperative ODI scores, leaving 22 in each group. Nine patients were not matched. We reviewed patient medical records to obtain EBL, length of surgery, LOS, and pre- and postoperative ODI scores. Mean followup was 13 months (range, 11-33 months) in the open group and 15 months (range, 12-26 months) in the MIS group. Patients in the open group had a higher mean EBL (681 mL versus 41 mL, p < 0.001). Mean surgical time and LOS were shorter in the MIS group than in the open group (68 minutes versus 128 minutes and 3.3 days versus 2 days, p < 0.001 for both). With the numbers available, mean postoperative ODI scores were not different between groups (47% versus 54%, p = 0.272). EBL, surgery time, and LOS favored the MIS sacroiliac fusion group. With the numbers available, ODI scores were similar between groups, though the study size was relatively small and it is

  4. Outcomes of bilateral sacroiliac joint fusions and the importance of understanding potential coexisting lumbosacral pathology that might also require surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Dall, Bruce E; Eden, Sonia V

    2015-06-01

    Only one study in the literature describes performing a bilateral sacroiliac joint fusion, and the results were poor. Many patients needing a bilateral sacroiliac joint fusion frequently have had previous lumbosacral surgeries and present with lumbosacral pain as well. This study reviews our results in consecutive patients having had a bilateral sacroiliac joint fusion over a five-year period. Fifteen patients had bilateral sacroiliac joint fusions with 13 having concurrent lumbosacral fusions. The modified posterior midline fascial splitting approach, first described by Belanger was utilized. Patients were followed for an average of 30.3 months. There were no infections, neurovascular injuries, lasting morbidity or deaths. One non-union of a sacroiliac joint (7%) occurred, which after revision was satisfactory. There was a statistically significant drop in pain (p=0.01488) using the VAS, and patient satisfaction rates were 86%. With all those patients saying they would have the surgery again for the same result. There was no significant increase in functionality. Patients needing bilateral sacroiliac joint fusions frequently fall into the "failed back" category, and it is important to evaluate both the sacroiliac joints and the lumbosacral spine for potential pain generators. This study shows that by treating all the pain generators in both areas there were significant decreases in pain, low complications, low re-operation rates, and high patient satisfaction scores. Overall functionality, however, was not positively affected.

  5. [Development of polyaxial locking plate screw system of sacroiliac joint].

    PubMed

    Fan, Weijie; Xie, Xuesong; Zhou, Shuping; Zhang, Yonghu

    2014-09-01

    To develop an instrument for sacroiliac joint fixation with less injury and less complications. Firstly, 18 adult pelvic specimens (8 males and 10 females) were used to measure the anatomical data related to the locking plates and locking screws on the sacrum and ilium, and the polyaxial locking plate screw system of the sacroiliac joint was designed according to the anatomic data. This system was made of medical titanium alloy. Then 4 adult male plevic specimens were harvested and the experiment was divided into 3 groups: group A (normal pelvic), group B (the dislocated sacroiliac joint fixed with sacroiliac screws), and group C (the dislocated sacroiliac joint fixed with polyaxial locking plate screw system). The vertical displacement of sacroiliac joint under the condition of 0-700 N vertical load and the horizontal displacement on angle under the condition of 0-12 N·m torsional load were compared among the 3 groups by using the biological material test system. Finally, the simulated application test was performed on 1 adult male cadaveric specimen to observe soft tissue injury and the position of the locking plate and screw by X-ray films. According to the anatomic data of the sacrum and ilium, the polyaxial locking plate screw system of the sacroiliac joint was designed. The biomechanical results showed that the vertical displacement of the sacroiliac joint under the condition of 0-700 N vertical load in group A was significantly bigger than that in group B and group C (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between group B and group C (P > 0.05). The horizontal displacement on angle under the condition of 0-12 N·m torsional load in group A was significantly less than that in group B and group C (P < 0.05). The horizontal displacement on angle under the condition of 0-6 N·m torsional load in group B was bigger than that in group C, and the horizontal displacement on angle under the condition of 6-12 N·m torsional load in group B was less than

  6. Diskitis, Osteomyelitis, Spinal Epidural Abscess, Meningitis, and Endocarditis Following Sacroiliac Joint Injection for the Treatment of Low-Back Pain in a Patient on Therapy for Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Geeta; Flaherty, John P; Benzon, Honorio T

    Sacroiliac joint injections are frequently performed procedures in the management of acute and chronic low-back pain, including patients with various immunocompromised states. Infectious complications following these procedures along with other spinal injections are rarely reported, but the true incidence is unknown. The purpose of this report is to highlight the devastating neurologic sequela that can occur, and to discuss potential future management strategies. We present a patient who developed diskitis, osteomyelitis, spinal epidural abscess, meningitis, and endocarditis from Staphylococcus aureus, all of which developed shortly after a sacroiliac joint injection. The patient was on treatment for hepatitis C virus, and the resulting immunocompromised state likely contributed to the outcome. Immunocompromised patients should be identified prior to treatment, and the small possibility of devastating complications should be thoughtfully weighed against the potential benefit of the procedure. Conservative management should be maximized initially, and if a procedure is done, strict asepsis must be maintained. Prophylaxis for S. aureus should be considered for immunocompromised patients undergoing interventional spine procedures.

  7. Minimally invasive arthrodesis for chronic sacroiliac joint dysfunction using the SImmetry SI Joint Fusion system.

    PubMed

    Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic sacroiliac (SI) joint-related low back pain (LBP) is a common, yet under-diagnosed and undertreated condition due to difficulties in accurate diagnosis and highly variable treatment practices. In patients with debilitating SI-related LBP for at least 6 months duration who have failed conservative management, arthrodesis is a viable option. The SImmetry(®) SI Joint Fusion System is a novel therapy for SI joint fusion, not just fixation, which utilizes a minimally invasive surgical approach, instrumented fixation for immediate stability, and joint preparation with bone grafting for a secure construct in the long term. The purpose of this report is to describe the minimally invasive SI Joint Fusion System, including patient selection criteria, implant characteristics, surgical technique, postoperative recovery, and biomechanical testing results. Advantages and limitations of this system will be discussed.

  8. Minimally invasive arthrodesis for chronic sacroiliac joint dysfunction using the SImmetry SI Joint Fusion system

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic sacroiliac (SI) joint-related low back pain (LBP) is a common, yet under-diagnosed and undertreated condition due to difficulties in accurate diagnosis and highly variable treatment practices. In patients with debilitating SI-related LBP for at least 6 months duration who have failed conservative management, arthrodesis is a viable option. The SImmetry® SI Joint Fusion System is a novel therapy for SI joint fusion, not just fixation, which utilizes a minimally invasive surgical approach, instrumented fixation for immediate stability, and joint preparation with bone grafting for a secure construct in the long term. The purpose of this report is to describe the minimally invasive SI Joint Fusion System, including patient selection criteria, implant characteristics, surgical technique, postoperative recovery, and biomechanical testing results. Advantages and limitations of this system will be discussed. PMID:24851059

  9. Analysis of postmarket complaints database for the iFuse SI Joint Fusion System®: a minimally invasive treatment for degenerative sacroiliitis and sacroiliac joint disruption.

    PubMed

    Miller, Larry E; Reckling, W Carlton; Block, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint is a common but under-recognized source of low back and gluteal pain. Patients with degenerative sacroiliitis or sacroiliac joint disruption resistant to nonsurgical treatments may undergo open surgery with sacroiliac joint arthrodesis, although outcomes are mixed and risks are significant. Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint arthrodesis was developed to minimize the risk of iatrogenic injury and to improve patient outcomes compared with open surgery. Between April 2009 and January 2013, 5319 patients were treated with the iFuse SI Joint Fusion System® for conditions including sacroiliac joint disruption and degenerative sacroiliitis. A database was prospectively developed to record all complaints reported to the manufacturer in patients treated with the iFuse device. Complaints were collected through spontaneous reporting mechanisms in support of ongoing mandatory postmarket surveillance efforts. Complaints were reported in 204 (3.8%) patients treated with the iFuse system. Pain was the most commonly reported clinical complaint (n = 119, 2.2%), with nerve impingement (n = 48, 0.9%) and recurrent sacroiliac joint pain (n = 43, 0.8%) most frequently cited. All other clinical complaints were rare (≤0.2%). Ninety-six revision surgeries were performed in 94 (1.8%) patients at a median follow-up of four (range 0-30) months. Revisions were typically performed in the early postoperative period for treatment of a symptomatic malpositioned implant (n = 46, 0.9%) or to correct an improperly sized implant in an asymptomatic patient (n = 10, 0.2%). Revisions in the late postoperative period were performed to treat symptom recurrence (n = 34, 0.6%) or for continued pain of undetermined etiology (n = 6, 0.1%). Analysis of a postmarket product complaints database demonstrates an overall low risk of complaints with the iFuse SI Joint Fusion System in patients with degenerative sacroiliitis or sacroiliac joint disruption.

  10. Analysis of postmarket complaints database for the iFuse SI Joint Fusion System®: a minimally invasive treatment for degenerative sacroiliitis and sacroiliac joint disruption

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Reckling, W Carlton; Block, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    Background The sacroiliac joint is a common but under-recognized source of low back and gluteal pain. Patients with degenerative sacroiliitis or sacroiliac joint disruption resistant to nonsurgical treatments may undergo open surgery with sacroiliac joint arthrodesis, although outcomes are mixed and risks are significant. Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint arthrodesis was developed to minimize the risk of iatrogenic injury and to improve patient outcomes compared with open surgery. Methods Between April 2009 and January 2013, 5319 patients were treated with the iFuse SI Joint Fusion System® for conditions including sacroiliac joint disruption and degenerative sacroiliitis. A database was prospectively developed to record all complaints reported to the manufacturer in patients treated with the iFuse device. Complaints were collected through spontaneous reporting mechanisms in support of ongoing mandatory postmarket surveillance efforts. Results Complaints were reported in 204 (3.8%) patients treated with the iFuse system. Pain was the most commonly reported clinical complaint (n = 119, 2.2%), with nerve impingement (n = 48, 0.9%) and recurrent sacroiliac joint pain (n = 43, 0.8%) most frequently cited. All other clinical complaints were rare (≤0.2%). Ninety-six revision surgeries were performed in 94 (1.8%) patients at a median follow-up of four (range 0–30) months. Revisions were typically performed in the early postoperative period for treatment of a symptomatic malpositioned implant (n = 46, 0.9%) or to correct an improperly sized implant in an asymptomatic patient (n = 10, 0.2%). Revisions in the late postoperative period were performed to treat symptom recurrence (n = 34, 0.6%) or for continued pain of undetermined etiology (n = 6, 0.1%). Conclusion Analysis of a postmarket product complaints database demonstrates an overall low risk of complaints with the iFuse SI Joint Fusion System in patients with degenerative sacroiliitis or sacroiliac joint

  11. Comparative effectiveness of open versus minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion.

    PubMed

    Ledonio, Charles Gt; Polly, David W; Swiontkowski, Marc F; Cummings, John T

    2014-01-01

    The mainstay of sacroiliac joint disruption/degenerative sacroiliitis therapy has been nonoperative management. This nonoperative management often includes a regimen of physical therapy, chiropractic treatment, therapeutic injections, and possibly radiofrequency ablation at the discretion of the treating physician. When these clinical treatments fail, sacroiliac joint fusion has been recommended as the standard treatment. Open and minimally invasive (MIS) surgical techniques are typical procedures. This study aims to compare the perioperative measures and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) outcomes associated with each of these techniques. A comparative retrospective chart review of patients with sacroiliac joint fusion and a minimum of 1 year of follow-up was performed. Perioperative measures and ODI scores were compared using the Fisher's exact test and two nonparametric tests, ie, the Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The results are presented as percent or median with range, as appropriate. Forty-nine patients from two institutions underwent sacroiliac joint fusion between 2006 and 2012. Ten patients were excluded because of incomplete data, leaving 39 evaluable patients, of whom 22 underwent open and 17 underwent MIS sacroiliac joint fusion. The MIS group was significantly older (median age 66 [39-82] years) than the open group (median age 51 [34-74] years). Surgical time and hospital stay were significantly shorter in the MIS group than in the open group. Preoperative ODI was significantly greater in the open group (median 64 [44-78]) than in the MIS group (median 53 [14-84]). Postoperative improvement in ODI was statistically significant within and between groups, with MIS resulting in greater improvement. The open and MIS sacroiliac joint fusion techniques resulted in statistically and clinically significant improvement for patients with degenerative sacroiliitis refractory to nonoperative management. However, the number of patients

  12. Comparative effectiveness of open versus minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion

    PubMed Central

    Ledonio, Charles GT; Polly, David W; Swiontkowski, Marc F; Cummings, John T

    2014-01-01

    Background The mainstay of sacroiliac joint disruption/degenerative sacroiliitis therapy has been nonoperative management. This nonoperative management often includes a regimen of physical therapy, chiropractic treatment, therapeutic injections, and possibly radiofrequency ablation at the discretion of the treating physician. When these clinical treatments fail, sacroiliac joint fusion has been recommended as the standard treatment. Open and minimally invasive (MIS) surgical techniques are typical procedures. This study aims to compare the perioperative measures and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) outcomes associated with each of these techniques. Methods A comparative retrospective chart review of patients with sacroiliac joint fusion and a minimum of 1 year of follow-up was performed. Perioperative measures and ODI scores were compared using the Fisher’s exact test and two nonparametric tests, ie, the Mann–Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The results are presented as percent or median with range, as appropriate. Results Forty-nine patients from two institutions underwent sacroiliac joint fusion between 2006 and 2012. Ten patients were excluded because of incomplete data, leaving 39 evaluable patients, of whom 22 underwent open and 17 underwent MIS sacroiliac joint fusion. The MIS group was significantly older (median age 66 [39–82] years) than the open group (median age 51 [34–74] years). Surgical time and hospital stay were significantly shorter in the MIS group than in the open group. Preoperative ODI was significantly greater in the open group (median 64 [44–78]) than in the MIS group (median 53 [14–84]). Postoperative improvement in ODI was statistically significant within and between groups, with MIS resulting in greater improvement. Conclusion The open and MIS sacroiliac joint fusion techniques resulted in statistically and clinically significant improvement for patients with degenerative sacroiliitis refractory to nonoperative

  13. Joint pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... both rest and exercise are important. Warm baths, massage, and stretching exercises should be used as often ... Does keeping the joint elevated help? Do medicines, massage, or applying heat reduce the pain? What other ...

  14. Biplanar x-ray fluoroscopy for sacroiliac joint fusion.

    PubMed

    Vanaclocha-Vanaclocha, Vicente; Verdú-López, Francisco; Sáiz-Sapena, Nieves; Herrera, Juan Manuel; Rivera-Paz, Marlon

    2016-07-01

    Chronic pain originating from the sacroiliac joint (SI) can cause severe dysfunction. Although many patients respond to conservative management with NSAIDs, some do need further treatment in the form of SI joint fusion (SIJF). To achieve safe and successful SIJF, intraoperative x-ray fluoroscopy is mandatory to avoid serious damages to nearby vascular and neural structures. Each step of the procedure has to be confirmed by anteroposterior (AP) and lateral projections. With a single-arm x-ray, the arch has to be moved back and forth for the AP and lateral projections, and this lengthens the procedure. To achieve the same results in less time, the authors introduced simultaneous biplanar fluoroscopy with 2 x-ray arches. After the patient is positioned prone with the legs spread apart in the so-called Da Vinci position, one x-ray arch for the lateral projection is placed at a right angle to the patient, and a second x-ray machine is placed with its arch between the legs of the patient. This allows simultaneous AP and lateral x-ray projections and, in the authors' hands, markedly speeds up the procedure. Biplanar fluoroscopy allows excellent AP and lateral projections to be made quickly at any time during the surgical procedure. This is particularly useful in cases of bilateral SI joint fusion if both sides are done at the same time. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/TX5gz8c765M .

  15. Anatomical evidence for the anterior plate fixation of sacroiliac joint.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhibiao; Gao, Shichang; Liu, Jia; Liang, Anlin; Yu, Weihua

    2018-01-01

    The iatrogenic injuries to the lumbar nerves during the fixation the sacroiliac (SI) joint fractures with anterior plates were often reported. No specific method had been reported to avoid it. This study was done to find a safer way of placing the anterior plates and screws for treating the sacroiliac (SI) joint fracture and/or dislocation. The research was performed using 8 male and 7 female normal corpse pelvic specimens preserved by 10% formalin solution. Try by measuring the horizontal distance from L4, L5 nerve roots to the sacroiliac joint and perpendicular distance from L4, L5 nerve roots to the ala sacralis, the length of L4, L5 nerve roots from intervertebral foramen to the edge of true pelvis, the diameter of L4, L5 nerve roots. The angles between the sacroiliac joint and sagittal plane were measured on the CT images. The horizontal distance between the lateral side of the anterior branches of L4, L5 nerve roots and the sacroiliac joint decreased gradually from the top to the bottom. The widest distances for L4,5 were 2.1 cm (range, 1.74-2.40) and 2.7 cm (range, 2.34-3.02 cm), respectively. The smallest distances for L4, 5 were 1.2 cm (range, 0.82-1.48 cm) and 1.5 cm (range, 1.08-1.74 cm), respectively. On CT images, the angle between the sacroiliac joint and sagittal plane was about 30°. If we use two anterior plates to fix the sacroiliac joint, It is recommended to place one plate on the superior one third part of the joint, with exposing medially no more than 2.5 cm and the other in the middle one third part of the joint, with elevating periosteum medially no more than 1.5 cm. The screws in the sacrum are advised to incline medially about 30° directing to the true pelvis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. ISASS Policy 2016 Update – Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lorio, Morgan P.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale The index 2014 ISASS Policy Statement - Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion was generated out of necessity to provide an ICD9-based background and emphasize tools to ensure correct diagnosis. A timely ICD10-based 2016 Update provides a granular threshold selection with improved level of evidence and a more robust, relevant database. PMID:27652197

  17. The use of prolotherapy in the sacroiliac joint.

    PubMed

    Cusi, M; Saunders, J; Hungerford, B; Wisbey-Roth, T; Lucas, P; Wilson, S

    2010-02-01

    In this study the effectiveness of prolotherapy in the treatment of deficient load transfer of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was determined. A prospective descriptive study. Authors' private practice. 25 patients who consented to treatment and attended for at least one follow-up visit and assessment. From April 2004 to July 2007. Three injections of hypertonic dextrose solution into the dorsal interosseous ligament of the affected SIJ, under CT control, 6 weeks apart. Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale, Roland-Morris 24, Roland-Morris 24 Multiform questionnaires and clinical examination by two authors independently. All patients included in this study attended at least one follow-up visit at 3, 12 or 24 months.. The number of patients at follow-up decreased at 12 and 24 months. Functional questionnaires demonstrated significant improvements for those followed-up at 3, 12 and 24 months (p<0.05). Clinical scores showed significant improvement from commencement to 3, 12 and 24 months (p<0.001). This descriptive study of prolotherapy in private practice has shown positive clinical outcomes for the 76% of patients who attended the 3-month follow-up visit (76% at 12 months and 32% at 24 months). Similar results were found in the questionnaires (Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale, Roland-Morris 24 and Roland-Morris 24 Multiform questionnaires) at 3, 12 and 24 months.

  18. An algorithm for the evaluation and treatment of sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Samuel W; Magee, Sean; Carlson, Walter O

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 90 percent of adults experience an episode of low back pain in their lifetime. Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction has been shown to cause approximately 13-30 percent of LBP in the adult population. SIJ fusion is becoming an increasingly popular treatment alternative for SIJ dysfunction. This paper presents a literature-based algorithm to assist the clinician in the evaluation and treatment of patients with suspected SIJ dysfunction.

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial of Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Using Triangular Titanium Implants vs Nonsurgical Management for Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction: 12-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Polly, David W.; Wine, Kathryn D.; Whang, Peter G.; Frank, Clay J.; Harvey, Charles F.; Lockstadt, Harry; Glaser, John A.; Limoni, Robert P.; Sembrano, Jonathan N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is a prevalent cause of chronic, unremitting lower back pain. OBJECTIVE: To concurrently compare outcomes after surgical and nonsurgical treatment for chronic SIJ dysfunction. METHODS: A total of 148 subjects with SIJ dysfunction were randomly assigned to minimally invasive SIJ fusion with triangular titanium implants (n = 102) or nonsurgical management (n = 46). Pain, disability, and quality-of-life scores were collected at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Success rates were compared using Bayesian methods. Crossover from nonsurgical to surgical care was allowed after the 6-month study visit was complete. RESULTS: Six-month success rates were higher in the surgical group (81.4% vs 26.1%; posterior probability of superiority > 0.9999). Clinically important (≥ 15 point) Oswestry Disability Index improvement at 6 months occurred in 73.3% of the SIJ fusion group vs 13.6% of the nonsurgical management group (P < .001). At 12 months, improvements in SIJ pain and Oswestry Disability Index were sustained in the surgical group. Subjects who crossed over had improvements in pain, disability, and quality of life similar to those in the original surgical group. Adverse events were slightly more common in the surgical group (1.3 vs 1.1 events per subject; P = .31). CONCLUSION: This Level 1 study showed that minimally invasive SIJ fusion using triangular titanium implants was more effective than nonsurgical management at 1 year in relieving pain, improving function, and improving quality of life in patients with SIJ dysfunction caused by degenerative sacroiliitis or SIJ disruptions. Pain, disability, and quality of life also improved after crossover from nonsurgical to surgical treatment. ABBREVIATIONS: EQ-5D, EuroQoL-5D INSITE, Investigation of Sacroiliac Fusion Treatment MCS, mental component summary NSM, nonsurgical management ODI, Oswestry Disability Index PCS, physical component summary RFA, radiofrequency ablation SF

  20. Spine epidural and sacroiliac joints injections--when and how to perform.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, Federico; Gregori, Lorenzo Maria; Gallucci, Massimo

    2015-05-01

    To review the state-of-the-art of image-guided techniques used to treat painful syndromes of the lower back, their indications, how they should be performed, their related risks and the expected results. We describe the actual standards about image-guided infiltrative therapies both on spine and on sacroiliac joints. Both spinal epidural and sacroiliac injections appear useful in a large percentage of treated patients to get control of the perceived pain. Performing these therapies under CT or fluoroscopic guidance is the best and safest way to obtain satisfactory results because it is possible to target the use of drugs directly to the involved painful structures. Image-guided injections of the epidural space and of the sacroiliac joints are effective techniques for the treatment of pain; their effectiveness is sometimes not lasting for long periods of time but considering the low associated risk when performed by trained personnel, they can be easily repeated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Sacroiliac Joints Indicating Sacroiliitis According to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society Definition in Healthy Individuals, Runners, and Women With Postpartum Back Pain.

    PubMed

    de Winter, Janneke; de Hooge, Manouk; van de Sande, Marleen; de Jong, Henriëtte; van Hoeven, Lonneke; de Koning, Anoek; Berg, Inger Jorid; Ramonda, Roberta; Baeten, Dominique; van der Heijde, Désirée; Weel, Angelique; Landewé, Robert

    2018-03-07

    To compare magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the sacroiliac (SI) joints of healthy subjects and individuals with known mechanical strain acting upon the SI joints to those of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and patients with chronic back pain. Three readers who had received standardized training and were blinded with regard to study group randomly scored MRIs of the SI joints of 172 subjects, including 47 healthy individuals without current or past back pain, 47 axial SpA patients from the Spondyloarthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort (with a previous MRI confirmed positive for sacroiliitis), 47 controls with chronic back pain (irrespective of MRI results) from the SPACE cohort, 7 women with postpartum back pain, and 24 frequent runners. MRIs were scored according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) definition and Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) index. Of the 47 healthy volunteers, 11 (23.4%) had an MRI positive for sacroiliitis, compared to 43 (91.5%) of 47 axial SpA patients and 3 (6.4%) of 47 patients with chronic back pain. Three (12.5%) of the 24 runners and 4 (57.1%) of the 7 women with postpartum back pain had a positive MRI. Using a SPARCC cutoff of ≥2 for positivity, 12 (25.5%) of 47 healthy volunteers, 46 (97.9%) of 47 positive axial SpA patients, 5 (10.6%) of 47 controls with chronic back pain, 4 (16.7%) of 24 runners, and 4 (57.1%) of 7 women with postpartum back pain had positive MRIs. Deep bone marrow edema (BME) lesions were not found in healthy volunteers, patients with chronic back pain, or runners, but were found in 42 (89.4%) of 47 positive axial SpA patients and in 1 (14.3%) of 7 women with postpartum back pain. A substantial proportion of healthy individuals without current or past back pain has an MRI positive for sacroiliitis according to the ASAS definition. Deep (extensive) BME lesions are almost exclusively found in axial SpA patients. © 2018 The Authors. Arthritis

  2. Percutaneous sacroiliac screw versus anterior plating for sacroiliac joint disruption: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruipeng; Yin, Yingchao; Li, Shilun; Hou, Zhiyong; Jin, Lin; Zhang, Yingze

    2018-02-01

    Sacroiliac joint disruption (SJD) is a common cause of pelvic ring instability. Clinically, percutaneous unilateral S1 sacroiliac screw and anterior plating are always applied to manage SJD. The objective of this study is to elaborate their respective therapeutic traits. Patients with SJD fixed with unilateral S1 sacroiliac screw or anterior plating from June 2011 to June 2015 were recruited into this study and were divided into two groups: group A (unilateral sacroiliac screw) and group B (anterior plating). Surgical time, blood loss, frequency of intraoperative fluoroscopy and complications were reviewed. Postoperative radiograph and CT were conducted to assess the reduction quality. Fracture healing was evaluated by radiograph performed at each follow-up. Majeed score was recorded at the final follow-up to assess the functional outcome. Thirty-eight patients were included in group A and thirty-two patients in group B in this study. There was no significant difference in the demographic data of the two groups. A significant difference existed in the results for average operation time (P = .022) and blood loss (P = .000) between group A and group B. The mean frequency of intraoperative fluoroscopy was 15.82 in group A and 3.94 in group B (P = .000). All the fractures healed in this study. The rates of satisfactory reduction quality and functional outcome showed no significant difference between the two groups (P > .05). The complication rate was 15.79% (6/38) in group A and 9.38% (3/32) in group B (P = .660). Compared with anterior plating, percutaneous unilateral S1 sacroiliac screw usage is less invasive; however, more intraoperative X-ray exposure and permanent neurologic damage may accompany this procedure. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sacroiliac Pain: A Clinical Approach for the Neurosurgeon

    PubMed Central

    Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael; Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Joaquim, Andrei Fernandes; Amaya-Quintero, Jessica; Padilla-Zambrano, Huber S.; Agrawal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Pain originating from sacroiliac joint may also cause pain in the lumbar and gluteal region in 15% of the population. The clinical manifestation represents a public health problem due to the great implications on the quality of life and health-related costs. However, this is a diagnosis that is usually ignored in the general clinical practice; probably because of the unknown etiology, making harder to rule out the potential etiologies of this pathology, or maybe because the clinical criteria that support this pathology are unknown. By describing several diagnostic techniques, many authors have studied the prevalence of this pathology, finding more positive data than expected; coming to the conclusion that even though there is no diagnostic gold standard yet, an important amount of cases might be detected by properly applying several tests at the physical examination. Thus, it is necessary to have knowledge of the physiopathology and clinical presentation so that diagnosis can be made to those patients that manifest this problem. We present a clinical approach for the neurosurgeon. PMID:29204025

  4. Computed tomographic method for measurement of inclination angles and motion of the sacroiliac joints in German Shepherd Dogs and Greyhounds.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Fritha C; Cave, Nick J; Hartman, Karl M; Gee, Erica K; Worth, Andrew J; Bridges, Janis P; Hartman, Angela C

    2013-09-01

    To develop an in vivo CT method to measure inclination angles and motion of the sacroiliac joints in dogs of performance breeds. 10 German Shepherd Dogs and 12 Greyhounds without signs of lumbosacral region pain or neurologic problems. CT of the ilium and sacrum was performed in flexed, neutral, and extended hind limb positions. Lines were drawn on volume-rendered images acquired in the flexed and extended positions to measure motion of the ilia relative to the sacra. Inclination angles of the synovial and ligamentous components of the sacroiliac joints were measured on transverse-plane CT images acquired at cranial and caudal locations. Coefficients of variance of measurements were calculated to determine intraobserver variability. Coefficients of variance of measurements ranged from 0.17% to 2.45%. A significantly higher amount of sacroiliac joint rotational motion was detected for German Shepherd Dogs versus Greyhounds. The cranial synovial joint component had a significantly more sagittal orientation in German Shepherd Dogs versus Greyhounds. No significant differences were detected between breeds for x- or y-axis translational motion or caudal synovial or ligamentous joint component inclination angles. The small amounts of sacroiliac joint motion detected in this study may buffer high-frequency vibrations during movement of dogs. Differences detected between breeds may be associated with the predisposition of German Shepherd Dogs to develop lumbosacral region signs of pain, although the biological importance of this finding was not determined. Future studies are warranted to compare sacroiliac joint variables between German Shepherd Dogs with and without lumbosacral region signs of pain.

  5. Case series of ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injections for sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ko, Gordon D; Mindra, Sean; Lawson, Gordon E; Whitmore, Scott; Arseneau, Leigh

    2017-01-01

    Two-thirds of adults worldwide will experience low back pain at some point in their life. In the following case series, we present four patients with sacroiliac (SI) joint instability and severe chronic low back pain, which was refractory to other treatment modalities. We investigated the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections, a novel orthobiologic therapy, for reducing SI joint pain, improving quality of life, and maintaining a clinical effect. Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SFM), Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), and Oswestry Low Back Pain and Disability Index were used for evaluation of treatment at pretreatment, 12-months and 48-months after treatment. At follow-up 12-months post-treatment, pooled data from all patients reported a marked improvement in joint stability, a statistically significant reduction in pain, and improvement in quality of life. The clinical benefits of PRP were still significant at 4-years post-treatment. Platelet-rich plasma therapy exhibits clinical usefulness in both pain reduction and for functional improvement in patients with chronic SI joint pain. The improvement in joint stability and low back pain was maintained at 1- and 4-years post-treatment.

  6. Modified fluoroscopy-guided sacroiliac joint injection: a technical report.

    PubMed

    Liliang, Po-Chou; Liang, Cheng-Loong; Lu, Kang; Weng, Hui-Ching; Syu, Fei-Kai

    2014-09-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injection can occasionally be challenging. We describe our experience in using conventional technique, and we developed an adjustment to overcome difficulties incurred. Conventional technique required superimposition of the posterior and anterior SIJ lines. If this technique failed to provide entry into the joint, fluoroscopy was slightly adjusted to obtain an oblique view. Of 50 SIJ injections, 29 (58%; 44-72%) were successfully performed using conventional technique. In another 21 procedures, 18 (85.7%; 64-99%) were subsequently completed using oblique view technique. The medial joint line, viewed from this angle, corresponded to the posterior joint line in 17 cases. The lateral joint line corresponded to the posterior joint line in one case. Oblique view technique can improve the success rate of SIJ injection. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Bilateral sacroiliac joint dislocation (anterior and posterior) with triradiate cartilage injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Jeong, Woong-Kyo; Inna, Prashanth; Noh, Won; Lee, Dong-Ki; Lee, Soon-Hyuck

    2011-12-01

    Pediatric sacroiliac joint injuries are uncommon. Significant pelvis ring disruptions in children are rare, and their management is complicated by patient size, differences in bony architecture, and future growth and remodeling potential. We present a rare case of anterior sacroiliac joint dislocation associated with triradiate cartilage injury with a posterior sacroiliac dislocation on the contralateral side. This appears to be the first such case reported in the literature.

  8. Double needle technique: an alternative method for performing difficult sacroiliac joint injections.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjeeva

    2011-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a common source of low back pain. The most appropriate method of confirming SIJ pain is to inject local anesthesia into the joint to find out if the pain decreases. Unfortunately, although the SIJ is a large joint, it can be difficult to enter due to the complex nature of the joint and variations in anatomy. In my experience a double needle technique for sacroiliac joint injection can increase the chances of accurate injection into the SIJ in difficult cases. After obtaining appropriate fluoroscopic images, the tip of the needle is advanced into the SIJ. Once the tip of the needle is correctly placed, its position is checked under continuous fluoroscopy while moving the C-arm in the right and left oblique directions (dynamic fluoroscopy). On dynamic fluoroscopy the tip of the needle should remain within the joint line and not appear to be on the bone. If the tip of the needle appears to be on the bone a new joint line will need to be identified (the most translucent area through the joint) by dynamic fluoroscopy and another needle advanced into the newly identified joint line. Dynamic fluoroscopy is repeated again to confirm that the tip of the second needle remains within the joint line. Once both needles are in place contrast dye is injected through the needle that is most likely to be in the SIJ. If the contrast dye spread is not satisfactory then it is injected through the other needle. I have used this technique in 10 patients and found it very helpful in accurately performing SIJ injection which can at times be challenging.

  9. Fluoroscopically Guided Diagnostic and Therapeutic Intra-Articular Sacroiliac Joint Injections: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David J; Engel, Andrew; Kreiner, D Scott; Nampiaparampil, Devi; Duszynski, Belinda; MacVicar, John

    2015-08-01

    To assess the validity of fluoroscopically guided diagnostic intra-articular injections of local anesthetic and effectiveness of intra-articular steroid injections in treating sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain. Systematic review. Ten reviewers independently assessed 45 publications on diagnostic validity or effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided intra-articular SIJ injections. For diagnostic injections, the primary outcome was validity; for therapeutic injections, analgesia. Secondary outcomes were also described. Of 45 articles reviewed, 39 yielded diagnostic data on physical exam findings, provocation tests, and SIJ injections for diagnosing SIJ pain, and 15 addressed therapeutic effectiveness. When confirmed by comparative local anesthetic blocks with a high degree of pain relief, no single physical exam maneuver predicts response to diagnostic injections. When at least three physical exam findings are present, sensitivity, and specificity increases significantly. The prevalence of SIJ pain is likely 20-30% among patients that have suspected SIJ pain based on history and physical examination. This estimate may be higher in certain subgroups such as the elderly and fusion patients. Two randomized controlled trials and multiple observational studies supported the effectiveness of therapeutic sacroiliac joint injections. Based on this literature, it is unclear whether image-guided intra-articular diagnostic injections of local anesthetic predict positive responses to therapeutic agents. The overall quality of evidence is moderate for the effectiveness of therapeutic SIJ injections. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The relationship between hamstring length and gluteal muscle strength in individuals with sacroiliac joint dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Massoud Arab, Amir; Reza Nourbakhsh, Mohammad; Mohammadifar, Ali

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that tight hamstring muscle, due to its anatomical connections, could be a compensatory mechanism for providing sacroiliac (SI) joint stability in patients with gluteal muscle weakness and SIJ dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength in subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. A total of 159 subjects with and without low back pain (LBP) between the ages of 20 and 65 years participate in the study. Subjects were categorized into three groups: LBP without SIJ involvement (n = 53); back pain with SIJ dysfunction (n = 53); and no low back pain (n = 53). Hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength were measured in all subjects. The number of individuals with gluteal weakness was significantly (P = 0.02) higher in subjects with SI joint dysfunction (66%) compared to those with LBP without SI joint dysfunctions (34%). In pooled data, there was no significant difference (P = 0.31) in hamstring muscle length between subjects with SI joint dysfunction and those with back pain without SI involvement. In subjects with SI joint dysfunction, however, those with gluteal muscle weakness had significantly (P = 0.02) shorter hamstring muscle length (mean = 158±11°) compared to individuals without gluteal weakness (mean = 165±10°). There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in hamstring muscle length between individuals with and without gluteal muscle weakness in other groups. In conclusion, hamstring tightness in subjects with SI joint dysfunction could be related to gluteal muscle weakness. The slight difference in hamstring muscle length found in this study, although statistically significant, was not sufficient for making any definite conclusions. Further studies are needed to establish the role of hamstring muscle in SI joint stability. PMID:22294848

  11. The relationship between hamstring length and gluteal muscle strength in individuals with sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Massoud Arab, Amir; Reza Nourbakhsh, Mohammad; Mohammadifar, Ali

    2011-02-01

    It has been suggested that tight hamstring muscle, due to its anatomical connections, could be a compensatory mechanism for providing sacroiliac (SI) joint stability in patients with gluteal muscle weakness and SIJ dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength in subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. A total of 159 subjects with and without low back pain (LBP) between the ages of 20 and 65 years participate in the study. Subjects were categorized into three groups: LBP without SIJ involvement (n = 53); back pain with SIJ dysfunction (n = 53); and no low back pain (n = 53). Hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength were measured in all subjects. The number of individuals with gluteal weakness was significantly (P = 0.02) higher in subjects with SI joint dysfunction (66%) compared to those with LBP without SI joint dysfunctions (34%). In pooled data, there was no significant difference (P = 0.31) in hamstring muscle length between subjects with SI joint dysfunction and those with back pain without SI involvement. In subjects with SI joint dysfunction, however, those with gluteal muscle weakness had significantly (P = 0.02) shorter hamstring muscle length (mean = 158±11°) compared to individuals without gluteal weakness (mean = 165±10°). There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in hamstring muscle length between individuals with and without gluteal muscle weakness in other groups. In conclusion, hamstring tightness in subjects with SI joint dysfunction could be related to gluteal muscle weakness. The slight difference in hamstring muscle length found in this study, although statistically significant, was not sufficient for making any definite conclusions. Further studies are needed to establish the role of hamstring muscle in SI joint stability.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion

    PubMed Central

    Cher, Daniel J; Frasco, Melissa A; Arnold, Renée JG; Polly, David W

    2016-01-01

    Background Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) disorders are common in patients with chronic lower back pain. Minimally invasive surgical options have been shown to be effective for the treatment of chronic SIJ dysfunction. Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive SIJ fusion. Methods Data from two prospective, multicenter, clinical trials were used to inform a Markov process cost-utility model to evaluate cumulative 5-year health quality and costs after minimally invasive SIJ fusion using triangular titanium implants or non-surgical treatment. The analysis was performed from a third-party perspective. The model specifically incorporated variation in resource utilization observed in the randomized trial. Multiple one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results SIJ fusion was associated with a gain of approximately 0.74 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) at a cost of US$13,313 per QALY gained. In multiple one-way sensitivity analyses all scenarios resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) <$26,000/QALY. Probabilistic analyses showed a high degree of certainty that the maximum ICER for SIJ fusion was less than commonly selected thresholds for acceptability (mean ICER =$13,687, 95% confidence interval $5,162–$28,085). SIJ fusion provided potential cost savings per QALY gained compared to non-surgical treatment after a treatment horizon of greater than 13 years. Conclusion Compared to traditional non-surgical treatments, SIJ fusion is a cost-effective, and, in the long term, cost-saving strategy for the treatment of SIJ dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis or SIJ disruption. PMID:26719717

  13. Cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion.

    PubMed

    Cher, Daniel J; Frasco, Melissa A; Arnold, Renée Jg; Polly, David W

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) disorders are common in patients with chronic lower back pain. Minimally invasive surgical options have been shown to be effective for the treatment of chronic SIJ dysfunction. To determine the cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive SIJ fusion. Data from two prospective, multicenter, clinical trials were used to inform a Markov process cost-utility model to evaluate cumulative 5-year health quality and costs after minimally invasive SIJ fusion using triangular titanium implants or non-surgical treatment. The analysis was performed from a third-party perspective. The model specifically incorporated variation in resource utilization observed in the randomized trial. Multiple one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. SIJ fusion was associated with a gain of approximately 0.74 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) at a cost of US$13,313 per QALY gained. In multiple one-way sensitivity analyses all scenarios resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) <$26,000/QALY. Probabilistic analyses showed a high degree of certainty that the maximum ICER for SIJ fusion was less than commonly selected thresholds for acceptability (mean ICER =$13,687, 95% confidence interval $5,162-$28,085). SIJ fusion provided potential cost savings per QALY gained compared to non-surgical treatment after a treatment horizon of greater than 13 years. Compared to traditional non-surgical treatments, SIJ fusion is a cost-effective, and, in the long term, cost-saving strategy for the treatment of SIJ dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis or SIJ disruption.

  14. Demonstration of movement in the sacroiliac joint using ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Brooks, William J.; Lund, Pamela J.

    1995-05-01

    The goal of this study was to demonstrate quantitatively, using ultrasound (US) recording techniques, the extent of motion of the sacroiliac joint achieved using manual medicine techniques. Initial judgements of perceived (i.e., felt) SI mobility during manual examination were made on 22 subjects. Baseline no movement ultrasound images (static) were obtained of the left and right SI joints at two levels-- posterior-superior-iliac-spine and inferior (PSIS, INF)--and two projections (AP and LAT). Manual medicine spring testing of the SI joint was then performed while ultrasound recordings (on video) were made. The differences between baseline separation of the SI joint and displacement distance during spring testing were measured by six radiologists who typically read US images. Significant movement of at least one SI joint was demonstrated in 91% of the subjects using ultrasound recordings. The extent of movement appeared to corroborate the experience of manual medicine practitioners.

  15. Fluoroscopy-Guided Sacroiliac Intraarticular Injection via the Middle Portion of the Joint.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Daisuke; Murakami, Eiichi; Aizawa, Toshimi

    2017-09-01

    Sacroiliac intraarticular injection is necessary to confirm sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain and is usually performed via the caudal one-third portion of the joint. However, this is occasionally impossible for anatomical reasons, and the success rate is low in clinical settings. We describe a technique via the middle portion of the joint. Observational study. Enrolled were 69 consecutive patients (27 men and 42 women, with an average age of 53 years) in whom the middle portion of 100 joints was targeted. With the patient lying prone-oblique with the painful side down, a spinal needle was inserted into the middle portion of the joint. Subsequently, the fluoroscopy tube was angled at a caudal tilt of 25-30° to clearly detect the recess between the ilium and sacrum and the needle depth and direction. When the needle reached the posterior joint line, 2% lidocaine was injected after the contrast medium outlined the joint. The success rate of the injection method was 80% (80/100). Among 80 successful cases, four were previously unsuccessful when the conventional method was used. Intraarticular injection using the new technique was unsuccessful in 20 joints; in three of these cases, the conventional method proved successful, and no techniques were successful in the other 17 cases. The injection technique via the middle portion of the joint can overcome some of the difficulties of the conventional injection method and can improve the chances of successful intraarticular injection. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Radiologic Analysis and Clinical Study of the Upper One-third Joint Technique for Fluoroscopically Guided Sacroiliac Joint Injection.

    PubMed

    Park, Junghyun; Park, Hue Jung; Moon, Dong Eon; Sa, Gye Jeol; Kim, Young Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Sacroiliac intraarticular injection by the traditional technique can be challenging to perform when the joint is covered with osteophytes or is extremely narrow. To examine whether there is enough space for the needle to be advanced from the L5-S1 interspinous space to the upper one-third sacroiliac joint (SIJ) by magnetic resonance image (MRI) analysis as an alternative to fluoroscopically guided SIJ injection with the lower one-third joint technique, and to determine the feasibility of this novel technique in clinical practice. MRI analysis and observational study. An interventional pain management practice at a university hospital. We analyzed 200 axial T2-weighted MRIs between the L5 and S1 vertebrae of 100 consecutive patients. The following measurements were obtained on both sides: 1) the thickness of fat in the midline; 2) the distance between the midline (Point C) and the junction (Point A) of the skin and the imaginary line that connects the SIJ and the most medial cortex of the ilium; 3) the distance between the midline (Point C) and the junction (Point B) of the skin and the imaginary line that connects the SIJ and the L5 spinous process; 4) the distance between the SIJ and midline (Point C) on the skin, or between the SIJ and the midpoint (Point C') of the line from Point A to Point B; and 5) the angle between the sagittal line and the imaginary line that connects the SIJ and the midline on the skin. The upper one-third joint technique was performed to establish the feasibility of the alternative technique in 20 patients who had unsuccessful sacroiliac intraarticular injections using the lower one-third joint technique. The mean distances from the midline to Point A and to Point B were 21.9 ± 13.7 mm and 27.8 ± 13.6 mm, respectively. The mean distance between the SIJ and Point C (or Point C') was 81.0 ± 13.3 mm. The angle between the sagittal line and the imaginary line that connects the SIJ and the midline on the skin was 42.8 ± 5.1°. The success

  17. Diagnostic and interventional MRI of the sacroiliac joints using a 1.5-T open-bore magnet: a one-stop-shopping approach.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Jan; Henes, Jörg C; Thomas, Christoph; Clasen, Stephan; Fenchel, Michael; Claussen, Claus D; Lewin, Jonathan S; Pereira, Philippe L

    2008-12-01

    The objective of our study was to prospectively test the hypothesis that combined diagnostic and interventional MRI of the sacroiliac joints can be performed efficiently and effectively. Over a 12-month period, 60 patients (32 women and 28 men; median age, 28 years; age range, 18-49 years) with chronic lower back pain suspected to originate from the sacroiliac joints were enrolled in the study. Based on diagnostic MRI findings, MR fluoroscopy-guided sacroiliac joint injections were performed in 57 (95%) patients. Diagnostic injections (35, 58.3%) were performed if nonspecific or degenerative MRI findings were present. Therapeutic injections (22, 36.7%) were performed in patients with inflammatory arthropathy. In three (5%) patients, no injections were performed. Technical effectiveness was assessed by analyzing, first, the rate of intraarticular injection; second, the time required for the procedure; third, image quality; and, fourth, occurrence of complications and clinical outcome by analyzing pain intensity changes and volume and signal intensity of sacroiliac inflammatory changes. The rate of intraarticular injection was 90.4% (103/114). The mean length of time for the procedure was 50 minutes (range, 34-103 minutes), with exponential shortening over time (p < or = 0.001). The contrast-to-noise ratios of the needle and tissues were sufficiently different for excellent delineation of the needle. No complications occurred. Diagnostic injections identified the sacroiliac joints as generating significant pain in 46.9% (15/32) of the patients. Three months after therapeutic injections, pain intensity had decreased by 62.5% (p < or = 0.001) and the volume and relative signal intensity of inflammatory changes had decreased by 37.5% (p = 0.003) and 47.6% (p < or = 0.001), respectively. We accept the hypothesis that combined diagnostic and interventional MRI of the sacroiliac joints can be performed efficiently and effectively for comprehensive diagnosis and therapy of

  18. Sacroiliac joint luxation after pedicle subtraction osteotomy: report of two cases and analysis of failure mechanism.

    PubMed

    Charles, Yann Philippe; Yu, Bo; Steib, Jean-Paul

    2016-05-01

    Sagittal decompensation after pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) is considered as late onset complication. Several mechanisms have been suggested, but little attention has been paid to the caudal end of lumbar instrumented fusion, especially sacral iliac joint (SIJ) deterioration. Clinical histories and radiographic sagittal parameters of two patients with SIJ luxation after PSO are presented. The biomechanical failure mechanism and risk factors are analysed. Two patients underwent correction of fixed anterior sagittal imbalance by PSO, followed by pseudarthrosis revision surgery. Both of them sustained persistent sacroiliac pain, progressive recurrence of anterior imbalance and progressive pelvic incidence (PI) increase around 10°. An acute bilateral SIJ luxation occurred in both patients leading to sharp increase or PI around 20°. One patient was treated by SIJ fusion and the other patient was placed on non-weight-bearing crutch ambulation for 1 year. Both patients had a high preoperative PI (95° and 78°). A theoretical match between lumbar lordosis (LL) and PI was not achieved by PSO. Osteopenia was present in both patients. Computed tomography evidenced L5-S1 pseudarthrosis and sacroiliac joint violation by pelvic or sacral ala screws. Patients with high PI might seek for further compensation at their SIJ when lacking LL after PSO. Chronic anterior imbalance might lead to progressive weakening of sacroiliac ligaments. Initial circumferential lumbosacral fusion and accurate iliac screw fixation might reduce stress on implants, risk for pseudarthrosis, implant failure and finally SIJ deterioration. Bone mineral density should further be investigated preoperatively.

  19. Comparison of two ultrasound-guided injection techniques targeting the sacroiliac joint region in equine cadavers.

    PubMed

    Stack, John David; Bergamino, Chiara; Sanders, Ruth; Fogarty, Ursula; Puggioni, Antonella; Kearney, Clodagh; David, Florent

    2016-09-20

    To compare the accuracy and distribution of injectate for cranial (CR) and caudomedial (CM) ultrasound-guided injections of equine sacroiliac joints. Both sacroiliac joints from 10 lumbosacropelvic specimens were injected using cranial parasagittal (CR; curved 18 gauge, 25 cm spinal needles) and caudomedial (CM; straight 18 gauge, 15 cm spinal needles) ultrasound-guided approaches. Injectate consisted of 4 ml iodinated contrast and 2 ml methylene blue. Computed tomographical (CT) scans were performed before and after injections. Time for needle guidance and repositioning attempts were recorded. The CT sequences were analysed for accuracy and distribution of contrast. Intra-articular contrast was detected in sacroiliac joints following 15/40 injections. The CR and CM approaches deposited injectate ≤2 cm from sacroiliac joint margins following 17/20 and 20/20 injections, respectively. Median distance of closest contrast to the sacroiliac joint was 0.4 cm (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.5 cm) for CR approaches and 0.6 cm (IQR: 0.95 cm) for CM approaches. Cranial injections resulted in injectate contacting lumbosacral intertransverse joints 15/20 times. Caudomedial injections were perivascular 16/20 times. Safety and efficacy could not be established. Cranial and CM ultrasound-guided injections targeting sacroiliac joints were very accurate for periarticular injection, but accuracy was poor for intra-articular injection. Injectate was frequently found in contact with interosseous sacroiliac ligaments, as well as neurovascular and synovial structures in close vicinity of sacroiliac joints.

  20. Anterior fracture dislocation of the sacroiliac joint: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianlin; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Minglei; Jiang, Rui; Zhu, Tongtong; Liu, Guangyao; Zuo, Jianlin

    2017-08-09

    Publications describing the diagnosis and treatment of anterior dislocation of the sacroiliac joint are scarce. We report the case a 19-year-old female at 8 weeks' gestation who presented with anterior fracture dislocation of the right sacroiliac joint, posterior fracture dislocation of the left sacroiliac joint (crescent fracture), and incomplete abortion resulting from high energy trauma. Orthopedic surgery involved standard anterior sacroiliac joint plating using an ilioinguinal approach combined with a modified Stoppa approach. Three attempts at complete abortion failed. Complete abortion was eventually achieved by dilatation and curettage two weeks after orthopedic surgery. Our findings reveal a need to improve techniques for diagnosis and treatment of anterior fracture dislocation of the sacroiliac joint, so greater attention can be paid to the rapid and effective management of associated comorbidities, and those resulting from the initial trauma.

  1. Ultrasound-guided versus fluoroscopy-guided sacroiliac joint intra-articular injections in the noninflammatory sacroiliac joint dysfunction: a prospective, randomized, single-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Jee, Haemi; Lee, Ji-Hae; Park, Ki Deok; Ahn, Jaeki; Park, Yongbum

    2014-02-01

    To compare the short-term effects and safety of ultrasound (US)-guided sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injections with fluoroscopy (FL)-guided SIJ injections in patients with noninflammatory SIJ dysfunction. Prospective, randomized controlled trial. University hospital. Patients (N=120) with noninflammatory sacroiliac arthritis were enrolled. All procedures were performed using an FL or US apparatus. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the FL or US group. Immediately after the SIJ injections, fluoroscopy was applied to verify the correct placement of the injected medication and intravascular injections. Treatment effects and functional improvement were compared at 2 and 12 weeks after the procedures. The verbal numeric pain scale and Oswestry Disability Index improved at 2 and 12 weeks after the injections without statistical significances between groups. Of 55 US-guided injections, 48 (87.3%) were successful and 7 (12.7%) were missed. The FL-guided SIJ approach exhibited a greater accuracy (98.2%) than the US-guided approach. Vascularization around the SIJ was seen in 34 of 55 patients. Among the 34 patients, 7 had vascularization inside the joint, 23 had vascularization around the joint, and 4 had vascularization both inside and around the joint. Three cases of intravascular injections occurred in the FL group. The US-guided approach may facilitate the identification and avoidance of the critical vessels around or within the SIJ. Function and pain relief significantly improved in both groups without significant differences between groups. The US-guided approach was shown to be as effective as the FL-guided approach in treatment effects. However, diagnostic application in the SIJ may be limited because of the significantly lower accuracy rate (87.3%). Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The cost-effectiveness of CT-guided sacroiliac joint injections: a measure of QALY gained.

    PubMed

    Bydon, Mohamad; Macki, Mohamed; De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Youssef, Mina; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Meleka, Sherif; Bydon, Ali

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the total cost and the quality of life years (QALY) gained for computer tomography (CT)-guided sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injections. The cost per QALY gained for the procedure is the primary end-point of this study. In our 1-year prospective institutional study, we gathered 30 patients undergoing CT-guided SIJ injections for degenerative changes at the SIJ space. Patient-reported outcomes included both the US population-based EQ-5D (EuroQol) index score and the EQ-visual analog scale (VAS). The EQ-5D is based on mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety depression. Utility expenditures were based on hospital charges at our institution. All 30 patients had one pre-injection physician visit followed by 43 initial injections (13 bilateral). Each patient underwent one CT scan, and three patients required additional plain films. In the 1 year following the injections, 26 physician visits were documented. Five patients required repeat CT-guided injections. Total 1-year cost for all 30 patients was $34 874·00. Mean decrease in EQ-VAS was 0·60 (P  =  0·187). The mean 1-year gain of 0·58 EQ-5D QALY reached statistical significance (P < 0·001). The cost per QALY gained by CT-guided sacroiliac injections was $2004·29. In one of the first cost analyses of CT-guided sacroiliac injections, we found that the procedure improves pain and activities of daily living. The cost per QALY gained by CT-guided sacroiliac injections falls well below the threshold cost of 1 QALY, suggesting that the procedure is strongly cost-effective.

  3. Chronic sacroiliac joint and pelvic girdle dysfunction in a 35-year-old nulliparous woman successfully managed with multimodal and multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Jonely, Holly; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Desai, Mehul J; Reoli, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    Sacroiliac joint pain and dysfunction affect 15-25% of patients reporting low back pain, including reports of spontaneous, idiopathic, traumatic, and non-traumatic onsets. The poor reliability and validity associated with diagnostic clinical and imaging techniques leads to challenges in diagnosing and managing sacroiliac joint dysfunction. A 35-year-old nulliparous female with a 14-year history of right sacroiliac joint dysfunction was managed using a multimodal and multidisciplinary approach when symptoms failed to resolve after 2 months of physical therapy. The plan of care included four prolotherapy injections, sacroiliac joint manipulation into nutation, pelvic girdle belting, and specific stabilization exercises. The patient completed 20 physical therapy sessions over a 12-month period. At 6 months, the patient's Oswestry Disability Questionnaire score was reduced from 34% to 14%. At 1-year follow-up, her score was 0%. The patient's rating of pain on a numeric rating scale decreased to an average of 4/10 at 6 months and 0/10 at 1-year follow-up. A multidisciplinary and multimodal approach for the management of chronic sacroiliac joint dysfunction appeared successful in a single-case design at 1-year follow-up.

  4. Chronic sacroiliac joint and pelvic girdle dysfunction in a 35-year-old nulliparous woman successfully managed with multimodal and multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Jonely, Holly; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Desai, Mehul J; Reoli, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Sacroiliac joint pain and dysfunction affect 15–25% of patients reporting low back pain, including reports of spontaneous, idiopathic, traumatic, and non-traumatic onsets. The poor reliability and validity associated with diagnostic clinical and imaging techniques leads to challenges in diagnosing and managing sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Case description: A 35-year-old nulliparous female with a 14-year history of right sacroiliac joint dysfunction was managed using a multimodal and multidisciplinary approach when symptoms failed to resolve after 2 months of physical therapy. The plan of care included four prolotherapy injections, sacroiliac joint manipulation into nutation, pelvic girdle belting, and specific stabilization exercises. Outcomes: The patient completed 20 physical therapy sessions over a 12-month period. At 6 months, the patient’s Oswestry Disability Questionnaire score was reduced from 34% to 14%. At 1-year follow-up, her score was 0%. The patient’s rating of pain on a numeric rating scale decreased to an average of 4/10 at 6 months and 0/10 at 1-year follow-up. Discussion: A multidisciplinary and multimodal approach for the management of chronic sacroiliac joint dysfunction appeared successful in a single-case design at 1-year follow-up. PMID:26309378

  5. The association of sacroiliac joint bridging with other enthesopathies in the human body.

    PubMed

    Dar, Gali; Peleg, Smadar; Masharawi, Youssef; Steinberg, Nili; Rothschild, Bruce M; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2007-05-01

    A descriptive study of the association between sacroiliac joint (extra-articular) bridging and other enthesopathies. To examine the relationship between sacroiliac joint bridging with other entheseal reaction sites in the skeleton, and its prognostic value in spinal diseases. Sacroiliac joint bridging is considered a hallmark of spinal diseases (e.g., ankylosing spondylitis). Nevertheless, its association with other enthesopathies has never been quantified and analyzed. A total of 289 human male skeletons with sacroiliac joint bridging and 127 without (of similar demographic structure) were evaluated for the presence of entheseal ossification, cartilaginous calcification, and other axial skeleton joint fusion (a total of 18 anatomic sites). The presence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis and spondyloarthropathy was also recorded. Sacroiliac joint bridging was strongly associated with entheseal reactions in other parts of the body. Of the sacroiliac joint bridging group, 24.91% had diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, and 8.05% had spondyloarthropathy. The presence of sacroiliac joint bridging indicates an intensive general entheseal process in the skeleton.

  6. Triangular Titanium Implants for Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Duhon, Bradley S; Cher, Daniel J; Wine, Kathryn D; Kovalsky, Don A; Lockstadt, Harry

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Prospective multicenter single-arm interventional clinical trial. Objective To determine the degree of improvement in sacroiliac (SI) joint pain, disability related to SI joint pain, and quality of life in patients with SI joint dysfunction who undergo minimally invasive SI joint fusion using triangular-shaped titanium implants. Methods Subjects (n = 172) underwent minimally invasive SI joint fusion between August 2012 and January 2014 and completed structured assessments preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, including a 100-mm SI joint and back pain visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQOL-5D. Patient satisfaction with surgery was assessed at 6 and 12 months. Results Mean SI joint pain improved from 79.8 at baseline to 30.0 and 30.4 at 6 and 12 months, respectively (mean improvements of 49.9 and 49.1 points, p < 0.0001 each). Mean ODI improved from 55.2 at baseline to 32.5 and 31.4 at 6 and 12 months (improvements of 22.7 and 23.9 points, p < 0.0001 each). SF-36 physical component summary improved from 31.7 at baseline to 40.2 and 40.3 at 6 and 12 months (p < 0.0001). At 6 and 12 months, 93 and 87% of subjects, respectively, were somewhat or very satisfied and 92 and 91%, respectively, would have the procedure again. Conclusions Minimally invasive SI joint fusion resulted in improvement of pain, disability, and quality of life in patients with SI joint dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis and SI joint disruption.

  7. Triangular Titanium Implants for Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Duhon, Bradley S.; Cher, Daniel J.; Wine, Kathryn D.; Kovalsky, Don A.; Lockstadt, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective multicenter single-arm interventional clinical trial. Objective To determine the degree of improvement in sacroiliac (SI) joint pain, disability related to SI joint pain, and quality of life in patients with SI joint dysfunction who undergo minimally invasive SI joint fusion using triangular-shaped titanium implants. Methods Subjects (n = 172) underwent minimally invasive SI joint fusion between August 2012 and January 2014 and completed structured assessments preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, including a 100-mm SI joint and back pain visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQOL-5D. Patient satisfaction with surgery was assessed at 6 and 12 months. Results Mean SI joint pain improved from 79.8 at baseline to 30.0 and 30.4 at 6 and 12 months, respectively (mean improvements of 49.9 and 49.1 points, p < 0.0001 each). Mean ODI improved from 55.2 at baseline to 32.5 and 31.4 at 6 and 12 months (improvements of 22.7 and 23.9 points, p < 0.0001 each). SF-36 physical component summary improved from 31.7 at baseline to 40.2 and 40.3 at 6 and 12 months (p < 0.0001). At 6 and 12 months, 93 and 87% of subjects, respectively, were somewhat or very satisfied and 92 and 91%, respectively, would have the procedure again. Conclusions Minimally invasive SI joint fusion resulted in improvement of pain, disability, and quality of life in patients with SI joint dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis and SI joint disruption. PMID:27099817

  8. Percutaneous CT-Guided Treatment of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Sacroiliac Joint

    SciTech Connect

    Becce, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.becce@chuv.ch; Mouhsine, Elyazid; Mosimann, Pascal John

    2012-08-15

    Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a joint disorder that affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone, most commonly at the knee. OCD of the sacroiliac joint is extremely rare. Management of OCD remains controversial, and surgery is often needed, especially when conservative treatment fails. We present a rare case of OCD involving the left sacroiliac joint successfully treated by percutaneous computed tomography-guided retrograde drilling and debridement.

  9. Quantitative scintigraphy of sacroiliac joints: effects of age, gender, and laterality

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, K.; Eklem, M.; Seto, H.

    The effects of age, gender, and laterality on sacroiliac/sacral ratios obtained during quantitative joint imaging were assessed in 97 nonarthritic control subjects. For the entire group, the right sacroiliac-to-sacral mean ratio of 1.27 in 54 males was significantly higher than the right mean ratio of 1.18 in 53 females. In both genders the right joint ratio tended to be higher than the left in all age groups. The difference in mean ratio between the two joints was wider for males than for females. The age did not afect the joint ratio in either gender. It is concluded that the rangemore » of normal sacroiliac-to-sacral ratios are different for males and females and should be taken into account during a quantitative sacroiliac joint imaging examination.« less

  10. Biomechanics of unilateral and bilateral sacroiliac joint stabilization: laboratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Derek P; Parrish, Robin; Gundanna, Mukund; Leasure, Jeremi; Yerby, Scott A; Kondrashov, Dimitriy

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Bilateral symptoms have been reported in 8%-35% of patients with sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction. Stabilization of a single SI joint may significantly alter the stresses on the contralateral SI joint. If the contralateral SI joint stresses are significantly increased, degeneration may occur; alternatively, if the stresses are significantly reduced, bilateral stabilization may be unnecessary for patients with bilateral symptoms. The biomechanical effects of 1) unilateral stabilization on the contralateral SI joint and 2) bilateral stabilization on both SI joints are currently unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterize bilateral SI joint range of motion (ROM) and evaluate and compare the biomechanical effects of unilateral and bilateral implant placement for SI joint fusion. METHODS A lumbopelvic model (L5-pelvis) was used to test the ROM of both SI joints in 8 cadavers. A single-leg stance setup was used to load the lumbar spine and measure the ROM of each SI joint in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Both joints were tested 1) while intact, 2) after unilateral stabilization, and 3) after bilateral stabilization. Stabilization consisted of lateral transiliac placement of 3 triangular titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS) implants. RESULTS Intact testing showed that during single-leg stance the contralateral SI joint had less ROM in flexion-extension (27%), lateral bending (32%), and axial rotation (69%) than the loaded joint. Unilateral stabilization resulted in significant reduction of flexion-extension ROM (46%) on the treated side; no significant ROM changes were observed for the nontreated side. Bilateral stabilization resulted in significant reduction of flexion-extension ROM of the primary (45%) and secondary (75%) SI joints. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated that during single-leg loading the ROMs for the stance (loaded) and swing (unloaded) SI joints are significantly different. Unilateral stabilization for SI

  11. Sciatica-like symptoms and the sacroiliac joint: clinical features and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Visser, L H; Nijssen, P G N; Tijssen, C C; van Middendorp, J J; Schieving, J

    2013-07-01

    To compare the clinical features of patients with sacroiliac joint (SIJ)-related sciatica-like symptoms to those with sciatica from nerve root compression and to investigate the necessity to perform radiological imaging in patients with sciatica-like symptoms derived from the SIJ. Patients with pain radiating below the buttocks with a duration of 4 weeks to 1 year were included. After physical and radiological examinations, a diagnosis of SI joint-related pain, pain due to disk herniation, or a combination of these two causes was made. Patients with SIJ-related leg pain (n = 77/186) were significantly more often female, had shorter statue, a shorter duration of symptoms, and had more often pain radiating to the groin and a history of a fall on the buttocks. Muscle weakness, corkscrew phenomenon, finger-floor distance ≥25 cm, lumbar scoliosis, positive Bragard or Kemp sign, and positive leg raising test were more often present when radiologic nerve root compression was present. Although these investigations may help, MRI of the spine is necessary to discriminate between the groups. Sciatica-like symptoms derived from the SIJ can clinically mimic a radiculopathy. We suggest to perform a thorough physical examination of the spine, SI joints, and hips with additional radiological tests to exclude other causes.

  12. [Epidemiology investigation and biomechanics analyses for the correlation between sacroiliac joint disorder and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ning-Ning; Shen, Guo-Quan; He, Shui-Yong; Guo, Ru-Bao

    2014-07-01

    To study the correlation between lumber disc degeneration and sacroiliac joint disorder, in order to provides a new understanding concepts and therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of chronic intractable low back pain. From August 2009 to October 2010,129 cases with lumbar disc herniation were studied with epidemiological methods. Among them, 61 patients with L4, disc herniation included 37 males and 24 females, ranging in aged from 20 to 75 years old, duration of the disease ranged from 1 to 144 months; The other 68 patients with L5S1 disc herniation included 32 males and 36 females,ranging in aged froml8 to 76 years old,duration of the disease ranged from 0.5 to 240 months. The clinical data, symptoms and signs,X-ray characteristics of lumbar spine and pelvis of the patients were investigated by epidemiological. The risk of lumbar disc herniation was calculated with case-control study; independent variables were screened with single factor analysis; the risk factors for lumbar disc herniation were determined with logistic regression analysis, and biomechanics analyses were taken. Among 129 patients with lumbar disc herniation, 88 cases associated with sacroiliac joint disorders, sacroiliac joint disorder was a risk factor of lumbar disc herniation (OR = 4.61, P = 0.00); 47 cases associated with sacroiliac joint disorders in 61 patients with L4,5 disc herniation, iliac crest uneven caused by iliac rotational displacement was a high risk factor of L4,5 disc herniation (OR = 11.27, P = 0.00); 41 cases associated with sacroiliac joint disorders in 68 patients with L5S1 disc herniation, lumbar sacral angle abnormalities caused by sacral tilt shift was a high risk factor L5S1 disc herniation (OR = 2.31, P = 0.03). Lumbar disc herniation and sacroiliac joint disorder are two of fallot, the two factors affect each other and there is a causal relationship. They are common exists in low back pain.

  13. Anatomy of the interosseous region of the sacroiliac joint.

    PubMed

    Rosatelli, Alessandro L; Agur, Anne M; Chhaya, Sam

    2006-04-01

    Anatomical study of the interosseous region of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) complex. To document and quantify the surface topography of the interosseous region of the SIJ. A review of the literature reveals that little consideration has been given to the interosseous region of the SIJ anatomically, biomechanically, and clinically. The interosseous region of 11 cadaveric specimens (9 formalin embalmed and 2 fresh frozen) were studied. Ten specimens were 55 years of age or older and 1 was 20 years old. To view the interosseous surfaces of the sacrum and ilium the specimens were either axially sectioned (1-cm slices) or disarticulated. One fresh-frozen and 6 embalmed specimens were disarticulated and the remainder axially sectioned. The topography (surface ridging and areas of ossification) of the interosseous region was documented in all specimens and in 2 specimens the surfaces were 3-dimensionally reconstructed using modeling and animation software (MAYA; Autodesk, Inc, San Rafael, CA). Surface characteristics of the SIJ complex observed in specimens 55 years of age or older included moderate to extensive ridging of the interosseous region of the sacrum and ilium in 100% of specimens and ossification of the central interosseous region of the sacroiliac (SI) ligament in 60% of specimens. Central region ossification of the interosseous SI ligament and the presence of ridges and depressions over the opposing interosseous surfaces of the sacrum and ilium are features common to specimens that are in or beyond their sixth decade. These findings further support the contention that there is little to no movement available at this joint in older individuals.

  14. [Sacroiliac joint injury treated with oblique insertion at anatomical points: a randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Kuang, Jiayi; Li, Yuxuan; He, Yufeng; Gan, Lin; Wang, Aiming; Chen, Yanhua; Li, Xiaoting; Guo, Lin; Tang, Rongjun

    2016-04-01

    To compare the effects of oblique insertion at anatomical points and conventional acupuncture for sacroiliac joint injury. Eighty patients were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 40 cases in each one. In the observation group, oblique insertion therapy at anatomical points was used, and the 9 points of equal division (anatomical points) marked by palpating the anatomical symbol were treated as the insertion acupoints. In the control group, conventional acupuncture was applied, and perpendicular insertion was adopted at Huantiao (GB 30), Zhibian (BL 54) and Weizhong (BL 40), etc. In the two groups, the! treatment was given once a day and 5 times per week. Ten treatments were made into one course and two courses were required. The clinical effects, the changes of visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry dysfunctional index. (ODI) before and after treatment were observed in the two groups. The total effective rate of the observation group was 90.0% (36/40), which was better than 72.5% (29/40) of the control group (P < 0.05). After treatment, the results of the VAS and ODI of the two groups were apparently declined (both P < 0.01), and those in the observation group were decreased more obviously (both P < 0.01). The effect of oblique inser-tion at anatomical points for sacroiliac joint injury is superior to that of conventional acupuncture, which can effectively relieve pain and improve the disfunction.

  15. A new technical contribution for ultrasound-guided injections of sacro-iliac joints.

    PubMed

    Migliore, A; Bizzi, E; Massafra, U; Vacca, F; Martin-Martin, L S; Granata, M; Tormenta, S

    2010-05-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) represents a difficult location for local therapies, as intra-articular injections may be hard to execute, especially in particular conditions such as chronic inflammatory diseases. However, in selected patients, local therapies may be considered. Some recent studies demonstrated the feasibility of ultrasound (US)-guided injection of SIJ, but still a complete explanation and definition of the technique is needed. Seven patients, four males and 3 females, affected by mono or bilateral sacroiliitis entered the study. Each patient received 40 mg of acetonide triamcinolone for each SIJ, intra articular (IA) US-guided injection. The technical originality proposed in this study consists in the spinal needle insertion in the middle of the cranial long side of the linear transducer with an orientation of about 10 degrees, determining shorter needle insertion for reaching joint space and consequently probably granting lesser pain and traumatism for patients. A total of 22 injections was performed. The longer follow-up time obtained was 18 months in 3 patients. All patients reached at least a 6 month follow-up. All patients reported an amelioration in pain that lasted for at least 6 months. No systemic adverse events were reported or observed. Complete visualization of SIJ and of needle placement was performed by US imaging, while compound proper injection was also visualized by Color-Doppler US imaging. Actually, sacroiliac joint intraarticular injections are often performed under fluoroscopy or Computerized Tomography guidance. Such techniques present several limitations, especially for repeated injections, such as the use of ionizing radiations, the need of a contrast agent and the direct and indirect costs connected. US guidance in IA SIJ injections may represent an easily repeatable imaging technique for needle placement and a precious tool for detecting inflammatory activity of the joint.

  16. Utility of Intraoperative Neuromonitoring during Minimally Invasive Fusion of the Sacroiliac Joint.

    PubMed

    Woods, Michael; Birkholz, Denise; MacBarb, Regina; Capobianco, Robyn; Woods, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. Retrospective case series. Objective. To document the clinical utility of intraoperative neuromonitoring during minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion for patients diagnosed with sacroiliac joint dysfunction (as a direct result of sacroiliac joint disruptions or degenerative sacroiliitis) and determine stimulated electromyography thresholds reflective of favorable implant position. Summary of Background Data. Intraoperative neuromonitoring is a well-accepted adjunct to minimally invasive pedicle screw placement. The utility of intraoperative neuromonitoring during minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion using a series of triangular, titanium porous plasma coated implants has not been evaluated. Methods. A medical chart review of consecutive patients treated with minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion was undertaken at a single center. Baseline patient demographics and medical history, intraoperative electromyography thresholds, and perioperative adverse events were collected after obtaining IRB approval. Results. 111 implants were placed in 37 patients. Sensitivity of EMG was 80% and specificity was 97%. Intraoperative neuromonitoring potentially avoided neurologic sequelae as a result of improper positioning in 7% of implants. Conclusions. The results of this study suggest that intraoperative neuromonitoring may be a useful adjunct to minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion in avoiding nerve injury during implant placement.

  17. A novel diagnostic method (spectral computed tomography of sacroiliac joints) for axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Yu, Kai Hu; Guo, Rui Min; Ran, Jun; Liu, Yao; Morelli, John; Runge, Val M; Li, Xiao Ming

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of spectral computed tomography (CT) of sacroiliac joints for axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). We retrospectively analyzed the records of 125 patients with low back pain (LBP) suspected of having SpA. Each patient underwent sacroiliac joint spectral CT examination. Water- and calcium-based material decomposition images were reconstructed. After 3-6 months of follow-up, 76 were diagnosed with SpA, and the remaining 49 patients were diagnosed with nonspecific LBP (nLBP). The slope of sacroiliac bone marrow HU (Hounsfield unit) curve (λHU), CT value, and bone marrow to normal muscle ratios of water and calcium concentrations in the ilium and sacrum were calculated and compared between nLBP and SpA patients. The iliac λHU was 8.26 ± 3.91 for nLBP and 9.81 ± 4.92 for SpA. The mean iliac ratios of water and calcium concentrations were 1.04 ± 0.03 and 21.67 ± 4.40, respectively, for nLBP, and 1.07 ± 0.04 and 111.5 ± 358.98, respectively, for SpA. The mean iliac CT values were 311.12 ± 86.52 HU for nLBP and 423.97 ± 127.51 HU for SpA. There were statistically significant differences in iliac ratios of water and calcium concentrations, CT value, and λHU between nLBP and SpA patients (p < 0.05). The sensitivity of iliac λHU was the highest. The diagnostic odds ratio of ratio of iliac calcium concentration was the highest, and its negative likelihood ratio was the lowest. Spectral CT not only shows bone erosion and sclerosis, but also shows and quantitatively measures bone marrow edema in the sacroiliac joints of SpA patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Vascular risk reduction during anterior surgical approach sacroiliac joint plating.

    PubMed

    Alla, Sreenivasa R; Roberts, Craig S; Ojike, Nwakile I

    2013-02-01

    Open reduction and internal fixation of sacroiliac (SI) joint is often performed through an anterior approach. However, there were no studies to our knowledge which described the "at risk area" for injury to the nutrient artery as it relates to open reduction and internal fixation of the SI joint. The purpose of this study was to determine the "at risk area" for the nutrient artery during anterior surgical approaches to the SI joint and to define the safe location of the plate for SI joint fixation. Six right and five left hemipelvises (three male and three female cadavers) were dissected with a mean age of 72 years (range, 51-90 years). Three bony landmarks including the pelvic brim, anterior SI joint line, and the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) were identified to quantify the measurements. Three different measurements were taken: from the nutrient foramen to the anterior SI joint line; from the nutrient foramen to the nearest point on the pelvic brim; from the nutrient foramen to ASIS using a flexible ruler with a 1mm base. The nutrient artery courses across the SI joint to enter into the nutrient foramen. Whilst exposing the internal surface of the SI joint, the nutrient foramen was identified at a mean distance of 88.1mm medial to ASIS, 20.1mm above the pelvic brim, and 20.1mm lateral to SI joint. The variability of the location of the nutrient foramen was identified and was located from 80mm to 95mm medial to the ASIS, 12mm to 25mm lateral to the SI joint, and 16mm to 30mm above the pelvic brim. Familiarity of the vasculature of the internal pelvis is of utmost importance for the surgeon when considering operative fixation of the anterior SI joint. We were able to identify the relation of the nutrient artery to the anatomic landmarks of the internal pelvis and to define the "at risk area" for the nutrient artery. We believe increased understanding of the anatomy of the nutrient artery will aid in the avoidance of vascular complications during internal

  19. A systematic review of minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion utilizing a lateral transarticular technique

    PubMed Central

    Heiney, Jake; Cher, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background A number of studies have been published regarding minimally invasive surgical (MIS) fusion of the sacroiliac (SI) joint using a lateral transarticular approach. Herein we report a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize operative measures and clinical outcomes reported in published studies of MIS SI joint fusion. Methods The systematic review was done according to PRISMA standards. PubMed and EMBASE were searched using the terms sacroiliac joint AND fusion. Original peer-reviewed articles in the English language that reported clinical outcomes on at least 5 cases of MIS SI joint fusion using a lateral transarticular approach were included. Random effects meta-analysis (RMA) was performed on selected variables using the DerSimonian and Laird method, including operative measures, VAS SI joint pain ratings (0-10 scale) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Mean and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and heterogeneity was assessed. Other findings were summarized qualitatively. Results A total of 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. After accounting for overlapping cohorts, 12 unique cohorts from 4 countries were extracted for a total of 432 subjects. The RMA mean (range) was 59 minutes (27-78) for procedure time, 36.9cc (10-70) for estimated blood loss and 1.7 days (range 0-7) for length of stay (LOS). The RMA mean [95% CI] pain score dropped by 5.2 points at 6 months and 5.3 points at 12 months (baseline score of 8.1 [7.8-8.4], 12-month score of 2.7 [2.1-3.3]), and a 24-month score of 2.0(1.4-2.5). ODI decreased by 31 points at 12 months (baseline score of 56.2 [51.0-61.5], 6-month score of 30.7 [21.8-39.6], and 12-month score of 25.1 [12.3-37.9]). Some estimates showed significant variation across studies and between the types of implants used. Other reported outcomes were supportive of the positive effects of SI joint fusion. Conclusion Published studies of MIS SI joint fusion using a lateral transarticular approach confirm its

  20. A systematic review of minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion utilizing a lateral transarticular technique.

    PubMed

    Heiney, Jake; Capobianco, Robyn; Cher, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have been published regarding minimally invasive surgical (MIS) fusion of the sacroiliac (SI) joint using a lateral transarticular approach. Herein we report a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize operative measures and clinical outcomes reported in published studies of MIS SI joint fusion. The systematic review was done according to PRISMA standards. PubMed and EMBASE were searched using the terms sacroiliac joint AND fusion. Original peer-reviewed articles in the English language that reported clinical outcomes on at least 5 cases of MIS SI joint fusion using a lateral transarticular approach were included. Random effects meta-analysis (RMA) was performed on selected variables using the DerSimonian and Laird method, including operative measures, VAS SI joint pain ratings (0-10 scale) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Mean and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and heterogeneity was assessed. Other findings were summarized qualitatively. A total of 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. After accounting for overlapping cohorts, 12 unique cohorts from 4 countries were extracted for a total of 432 subjects. The RMA mean (range) was 59 minutes (27-78) for procedure time, 36.9cc (10-70) for estimated blood loss and 1.7 days (range 0-7) for length of stay (LOS). The RMA mean [95% CI] pain score dropped by 5.2 points at 6 months and 5.3 points at 12 months (baseline score of 8.1 [7.8-8.4], 12-month score of 2.7 [2.1-3.3]), and a 24-month score of 2.0(1.4-2.5). ODI decreased by 31 points at 12 months (baseline score of 56.2 [51.0-61.5], 6-month score of 30.7 [21.8-39.6], and 12-month score of 25.1 [12.3-37.9]). Some estimates showed significant variation across studies and between the types of implants used. Other reported outcomes were supportive of the positive effects of SI joint fusion. Published studies of MIS SI joint fusion using a lateral transarticular approach confirm its minimally invasive characteristics with

  1. Effect of Sacroiliac Joint Manipulation on Selected Gait Parameters in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Sebastian; Sajko, Igor; Hadamus, Anna; Mosiołek, Anna; Białoszewski, Dariusz

    2017-08-31

    The sacroiliac joints have complicated biomechanics. While the movements in the joints are small, they exert a significant effect on gait. This study aimed to assess how sacroiliac joint manipulation influences selected gait parameters. The study enrolled 57 healthy subjects. The experimental group consisted of 26 participants diagnosed with dysfunction of one sacroiliac joint. The control group was composed of 31 persons. All subjects from the experimental group underwent sacroiliac joint manipulation. The experimental group showed significant lengthening of the step on both sides and the stride length in this group increased as well. Moreover, the duration of the stride increased (p=0.000826). The maximum midfoot pressure was higher and maximum heel pressure decreased. The differences were statistically significant. 1. Subclinical dysfunctions of the sacroiliac joints may cause functional gait disturbance. 2. Manipulation of the iliosacral joint exerts a significant effect on gait parameters, which may lead to improved gait economy and effec-tiveness. 3. Following manipulation of one iliosacral joint, altered gait parameters are noted on both the manipulated side and the contralateral side, which may translate into improved quality of locomotion.

  2. Is the Oswestry Disability Index a valid measure of response to sacroiliac joint treatment?

    PubMed

    Copay, Anne G; Cher, Daniel J

    2016-02-01

    Disease-specific measures of the impact of sacroiliac (SI) joint pain on back/pelvis function are not available. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is a validated functional measure for lower back pain, but its responsiveness to SI joint treatment has yet to be established. We sought to assess the validity of ODI to capture disability caused by SI joint pain and the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) after SI joint treatment. Patients (n = 155) participating in a prospective clinical trial of minimally invasive SI joint fusion underwent baseline and follow-up assessments using ODI, visual analog scale (VAS) pain assessment, Short Form 36 (SF-36), EuroQoL-5D, and questions (at follow-up only) regarding satisfaction with the SI joint fusion and whether the patient would have the fusion surgery again. All outcomes were compared from baseline to 12 months postsurgery. The health transition item of the SF-36 and the satisfaction scale were used as external anchors to calculate MCID. MCID was estimated for ODI using four calculation methods: (1) minimum detectable change, (2) average ODI change of patients' subsets, (3) change difference between patients' subsets, and (4) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. After SI fusion, patients improved significantly (p < .0001) on all measures: SI joint pain (48.8 points), ODI (23.8 points), EQ-5D (0.29 points), EQ-5D VAS (11.7 points), PCS (8.9 points), and MCS (9.2 points). The improvement in ODI was significantly correlated (p < .0001) with SI joint pain improvement (r = .48) and with the two external anchors: SF-36 health transition item (r = .49) and satisfaction level (r = .34). The MCID values calculated for ODI using the various methods ranged from 3.5 to 19.5 points. The ODI minimum detectable change was 15.5 with the health transition item as the anchor and 13.5 with the satisfaction scale as the anchor. ODI is a valid measure of change in SI joint health. Hence, researchers and

  3. A narrative review of evidence-based recommendations for the physical examination of the lumbar spine, sacroiliac and hip joint complex.

    PubMed

    Wong, C K; Johnson, E K

    2012-09-01

    Non-specific low back pain is a frequent complaint in primary care, but the differential diagnosis for low back pain can be complex. Despite advances in diagnostic imaging, a specific pathoanatomical source of low back pain can remain elusive in up to 85% of individuals. Best practice guidelines recommend that clinicians conduct a focused physical examination to help to identify patients with non-specific low back pain and an evidence-based course of clinical management. The use of sensitive and specific clinical methods to assess the lumbar spine, sacroiliac and hip joints is critical for effective physical examination. Psychosocial factors also play an important role in the evaluation of individuals with low back pain, but are not included in this narrative review of physical examination methods. Physical examination of the lumbar spine, sacroiliac and hip joints is presented, organized around patient position for efficient and effective clinical assessment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Randomized Controlled Trial of Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Using Triangular Titanium Implants vs Nonsurgical Management for Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction: 12-Month Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Polly, David W; Cher, Daniel J; Wine, Kathryn D; Whang, Peter G; Frank, Clay J; Harvey, Charles F; Lockstadt, Harry; Glaser, John A; Limoni, Robert P; Sembrano, Jonathan N

    2015-11-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is a prevalent cause of chronic, unremitting lower back pain. To concurrently compare outcomes after surgical and nonsurgical treatment for chronic SIJ dysfunction. A total of 148 subjects with SIJ dysfunction were randomly assigned to minimally invasive SIJ fusion with triangular titanium implants (n = 102) or nonsurgical management (n = 46). Pain, disability, and quality-of-life scores were collected at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Success rates were compared using Bayesian methods. Crossover from nonsurgical to surgical care was allowed after the 6-month study visit was complete. Six-month success rates were higher in the surgical group (81.4% vs 26.1%; posterior probability of superiority > 0.9999). Clinically important (≥ 15 point) Oswestry Disability Index improvement at 6 months occurred in 73.3% of the SIJ fusion group vs 13.6% of the nonsurgical management group (P < .001). At 12 months, improvements in SIJ pain and Oswestry Disability Index were sustained in the surgical group. Subjects who crossed over had improvements in pain, disability, and quality of life similar to those in the original surgical group. Adverse events were slightly more common in the surgical group (1.3 vs 1.1 events per subject; P = .31). This Level 1 study showed that minimally invasive SIJ fusion using triangular titanium implants was more effective than nonsurgical management at 1 year in relieving pain, improving function, and improving quality of life in patients with SIJ dysfunction caused by degenerative sacroiliitis or SIJ disruptions. Pain, disability, and quality of life also improved after crossover from nonsurgical to surgical treatment.

  5. Value of Examination Under Fluoroscopy for the Assessment of Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Eskander, Jonathan P; Ripoll, Juan G; Calixto, Frank; Beakley, Burton D; Baker, Jeffrey T; Healy, Patrick J; Gunduz, O H; Shi, Lizheng; Clodfelter, Jamie A; Liu, Jinan; Kaye, Alan D; Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Pain emanating from the sacroiliac (SI) joint can have variable radiation patterns. Single physical examination tests for SI joint pain are inconsistent with multiple tests increasing both sensitivity and specificity. To evaluate the use of fluoroscopy in the diagnosis of SI joint pain. Prospective double blind comparison study. Pain clinic and radiology setting in urban Veterans Administration (VA) in New Orleans, Louisiana. Twenty-two adult men, patients at a southeastern United States VA interventional pain clinic, presented with unilateral low back pain of more than 2 months' duration. Patients with previous back surgery were excluded from the study. Each patient was given a Gapping test, Patrick (FABERE) test, and Gaenslen test. A second blinded physician placed each patient prone under fluoroscopic guidance, asking each patient to point to the most painful area. Pain was provoked by applying pressure with the heel of the palm in that area to determine the point of maximum tenderness. The area was marked with a radio-opaque object and was placed on the mark with a fluoroscopic imgage. A site within 1 cm of the SI joint was considered as a positive test. This was followed by a diagnostic injection under fluoroscopy with 1 mL 2% lidocaine. A positive result was considered as more than 2 hours of greater than 75% reduction in pain. Then, in 2-3 days this was followed by a therapeutic injection under fluoroscopy with 1 mL 0.5% bupivacaine and 40 mg methylprednisolone. Each patient was reassessed after 6 weeks. The sensitivity and specificity in addition to the positive and negative predictive values were determined for both the conventional examinations, as well as the examination under fluoroscopy. Finally, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to evaluate test performance. The sensitivity and specificity of the fluoroscopic examination were 0.82 and 0.80 respectively; Positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 0.93 and

  6. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction as a reason for the development of acetabular retroversion: a new theory.

    PubMed

    Cibulka, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Acetabular retroversion has been recently implicated as an important factor in the development of femoral acetabular impingement and hip osteoarthritis. The proper function of the hip joint requires that the anatomic features of the acetabulum and femoral head complement one another. In acetabular retroversion, the alignment of the acetabulum is altered where it opens in a posterolaterally instead of anterior direction. Changes in acetabular orientation can occur with alterations in pelvic tilt (anterior/posterior), and pelvic rotation (left/right). An overlooked problem that alters pelvic tilt and rotation, often seen by physical therapists, is sacroiliac joint dysfunction. A unique feature that develops in patients with sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD) is asymmetry between the left and right innominate bones that can alter pelvic tilt and rotation. This article puts forth a theory suggesting that acetabular retroversion may be produced by sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

  7. Sacroiliac joint motion in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorders.

    PubMed

    Nagamoto, Yukitaka; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sakaura, Hironobu; Sugiura, Tsuyoshi; Fujimori, Takahito; Matsuo, Yohei; Kashii, Masafumi; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugamoto, Kazuomi

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Usually additional anchors into the ilium are necessary in long fusion to the sacrum for degenerative lumbar spine disorders (DLSDs), especially for adult spine deformity. Although the use of anchors is becoming quite common, surgeons must always keep in mind that the sacroiliac (SI) joint is mobile and they should be aware of the kinematic properties of the SI joint in patients with DLSDs, including adult spinal deformity. No previous study has clarified in vivo kinematic changes in the SI joint with respect to patient age, sex, or parturition status or the presence of DLSDs. The authors conducted a study to clarify the mobility and kinematic characteristics of the SI joint in patients with DLSDs in comparison with healthy volunteers by using in vivo 3D motion analysis with voxel-based registration, a highly accurate, noninvasive method. METHODS Thirteen healthy volunteers (the control group) and 20 patients with DLSDs (the DLSD group) underwent low-dose 3D CT of the lumbar spine and pelvis in 3 positions (neutral, maximal trunk flexion, and maximal trunk extension). SI joint motion was calculated by computer processing of the CT images (voxel-based registration). 3D motion of the SI joint was expressed as both 6 df by Euler angles and translations on the coordinate system and a helical axis of rotation. The correlation between joint motion and the cross-sectional area of the trunk muscles was also investigated. RESULTS SI joint motion during trunk flexion-extension was minute in healthy volunteers. The mean rotation angles during trunk flexion were 0.07° around the x axis, -0.02° around the y axis, and 0.16° around the z axis. The mean rotation angles during trunk extension were 0.38° around the x axis, -0.08° around the y axis, and 0.08° around the z axis. During trunk flexion-extension, the largest amount of motion occurred around the x axis. In patients with DLSDs, the mean rotation angles during trunk flexion were 0.57° around the x axis, 0.01

  8. The effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions for sacroiliac joint dysfunction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Al-Subahi, Moayad; Alayat, Mohamed; Alshehri, Mansour Abdullah; Helal, Omar; Alhasan, Hammad; Alalawi, Ahmed; Takrouni, Abdullah; Alfaqeh, Ali

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of physical therapy interventions in the treatment of sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD). [Subjects and Methods] MEDLINE, PUBMED, CINAHL, AMED, PEDro, and CIRRIE databases were searched and only relevant data from studies that matched the inclusion criteria were included. CASP tools for critical appraisal were used to assess the quality of studies included. [Results] Nine articles met the inclusion criteria, of which, three examined the effect of exercise on SIJD, three used kinesio tape and four studies examined the effect of manipulation. Various outcomes were used including the visual analogue pain scale (VAS), Oswestry disability questionnaire (ODQ), numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) and pelvic position measurement (PALM, pelvimeter and photogrammetry). The quality of included studies ranged from low to average as the CASP tools revealed several limitations that affect the validity of the studies. The results showed that physiotherapy interventions are effective in reducing pain and disability associated with SIJD, with manipulation being the most effective approach and most commonly used within physical therapy clinics. [Conclusion] Manipulation, exercise and kinesio tape are effective in the treatment of pain, disability and pelvic asymmetry in SIJD.

  9. A Quantitative Exposure Planning Tool for Surgical Approaches to the Sacroiliac Joint.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Kevin D; Ming, Bryan W; Fox, Wade E; Bellamy, Nelly; Sims, Stephen H; Karunakar, Madhav A; Hsu, Joseph R

    2016-06-01

    To aid in surgical planning by quantifying and comparing the osseous exposure between the anterior and posterior approaches to the sacroiliac joint. Anterior and posterior approaches were performed on 12 sacroiliac joints in 6 fresh-frozen torsos. Visual and palpable access to relevant surgical landmarks was recorded. Calibrated digital photographs were taken of each approach and analyzed using Image J. The average surface areas of exposed bone were 44 and 33 cm for the anterior and posterior approaches, respectively. The anterior iliolumbar ligament footprint could be visualized in all anterior approaches, whereas the posterior aspect could be visualized in all but one posterior approach. The anterior approach provided visual and palpable access to the anterior superior edge of the sacroiliac joint in all specimens, the posterior superior edge in 75% of specimens, and the inferior margin in 25% and 50% of specimens, respectively. The inferior sacroiliac joint was easily visualized and palpated in all posterior approaches, although access to the anterior and posterior superior edges was more limited. The anterior S1 neuroforamen was not visualized with either approach and was more consistently palpated when going posterior (33% vs. 92%). Both anterior and posterior approaches can be used for open reduction of pure sacroiliac dislocations, each with specific areas for assessing reduction. In light of current plate dimensions, fractures more than 2.5 cm lateral to the anterior iliolumbar ligament footprint are amenable to anterior plate fixation, whereas those more medial may be better addressed through a posterior approach.

  10. Is There a Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Fluoroscopy Time During Sacroiliac Joint Injection? A Multicenter Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Zachary L; Cushman, Daniel; Lee, David T; Scholten, Paul; Chu, Samuel K; Babu, Ashwin N; Caldwell, Mary; Ziegler, Craig; Ashraf, Humaira; Sundar, Bindu; Clark, Ryan; Gross, Claire; Cara, Jeffrey; McCormick, Kristen; Ross, Brendon; Smith, Clark C; Press, Joel; Smuck, Matthew; Walega, David R

    2016-07-01

    To determine the relationship between BMI and fluoroscopy time during intra-articular sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injections performed for a pain indication. Multicenter retrospective cohort study. Three academic, outpatient pain treatment centers. Patients who underwent fluoroscopy guided SIJ injection with encounter data regarding fluoroscopy time during the procedure and body mass index (BMI). Median and 25-75% Interquartile Range (IQR) fluoroscopy time. 459 SIJ injections (350 patients) were included in this study. Patients had a median age of 57 (IQR 44, 70) years, and 72% were female. The median BMI in the normal weight, overweight, and obese groups were 23 (IQR 21, 24), 27 (IQR 26, 29), and 35 (IQR 32, 40), respectively. There was no significant difference in the median fluoroscopy time recorded between these BMI classes (p = 0.45). First-time SIJ injection (p = 0.53), bilateral injection (p = 0.30), trainee involvement (p = 0.47), and new trainee involvement (trainee participation during the first 2 months of the academic year) (p = 0.85) were not associated with increased fluoroscopy time for any of the three BMI categories. Fluoroscopy time during sacroiliac joint injection is not increased in patients who are overweight or obese, regardless of whether a first-time sacroiliac joint injection was performed, bilateral injections were performed, a trainee was involved, or a new trainee was involved. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [The reference of normal values of the sacroiliac joint index in bone scintigraphy].

    PubMed

    Sebastjanowicz, Przemysław; Iwanowski, Jacek; Piwowarska-Bilska, Hanna; Elbl, Bogumiła; Birkenfeld, Bożena

    Scintigraphy of sacroiliac joints as functional imaging provides unique information on the existing disease process. By using radiopharmaceuticals that allow imaging of the metabolic activity within the joint, it is possible to assess the stage of the disease, even when there are no lesions in radiological images. Quantitative analysis of scintigrams of sacroiliac joints is performed by comparing the uptake in both of them in relation to the uptake in the sacral bone area. The values of sacroiliac (SI/S) indices are influenced by the age of the patient, sex, state of health, and a range of individual biological features. Therefore, reference values of SI/S ratios are very important for medical specialists who describe and diagnose locomotor system diseases. The aim of this paper is to develop a reference range of sacroiliac ratios. The innovativeness of this paper involves examining sacroiliac ratios for various age groups, in children and adult patients, taking their sex into consideration. The study comprised a group of 335 people with proper bone scintigraphy. These people were divided into children and patients aged ≥21. Children were divided into 4 age groups (1–5; 6–10; 11–15; 16–20) and adults into 6 age groups (21–30; 31–40; 41–50; 51–60; 61–70; ≥71). Sacroiliac ratios were calculated using the method of three rectangular region of interests located on the left and right sacroiliac joint and on the sacral bone. The sacroiliac ratio was calculated for both joints by dividing the average number of counts within a selected sacroiliac joint by the average number of counts within the sacral bone. SI/S borderline reference values covered the range of 1.18÷2.28 that was obtained for children aged ≤5 and for the group of 11–15-year-olds. Considerable discrepancies in the values of the coefficient for women and men were seen among 31–50-year-olds. Borderline reference results for the entire control group cover the range of 1.18 ±2

  12. Two-Year Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial of Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion vs. Non-Surgical Management for Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Polly, David W; Swofford, John; Whang, Peter G; Frank, Clay J; Glaser, John A; Limoni, Robert P; Cher, Daniel J; Wine, Kathryn D; Sembrano, Jonathan N

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is an important and underappreciated cause of chronic low back pain. To prospectively and concurrently compare outcomes after surgical and non-surgical treatment for chronic SIJ dysfunction. One hundred and forty-eight subjects with SIJ dysfunction were randomly assigned to minimally invasive SIJ fusion with triangular titanium implants (SIJF, n = 102) or non-surgical management (NSM, n = 46). SIJ pain (measured with a 100-point visual analog scale, VAS), disability (measured with Oswestry Disability Index, ODI) and quality of life scores were collected at baseline and at scheduled visits to 24 months. Crossover from non-surgical to surgical care was allowed after the 6-month study visit was complete. Improvements in continuous measures were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. The proportions of subjects with clinical improvement (SIJ pain improvement ≥20 points, ODI ≥15 points) and substantial clinical benefit (SIJ pain improvement ≥25 points or SIJ pain rating ≤35, ODI ≥18.8 points) were compared. In the SIJF group, mean SIJ pain improved rapidly and was sustained (mean improvement of 55.4 points) at month 24. The 6-month mean change in the NSM group (12.2 points) was substantially smaller than that in the SIJF group (by 38.3 points, p<.0001 for superiority). By month 24, 83.1% and 82.0% received either clinical improvement or substantial clinical benefit in VAS SIJ pain score. Similarly, 68.2% and 65.9% had received clinical improvement or substantial clinical benefit in ODI score at month 24. In the NSM group, these proportions were <10% with non-surgical treatment only. Parallel changes were seen for EQ-5D and SF-36, with larger changes in the surgery group at 6 months compared to NSM. The rate of adverse events related to SIJF was low and only 3 subjects assigned to SIJF underwent revision surgery within the 24-month follow-up period. In this Level 1 multicenter prospective randomized controlled

  13. Two-Year Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial of Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion vs. Non-Surgical Management for Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Swofford, John; Whang, Peter G.; Frank, Clay J.; Glaser, John A.; Limoni, Robert P.; Cher, Daniel J.; Wine, Kathryn D.; Sembrano, Jonathan N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is an important and underappreciated cause of chronic low back pain. Objective To prospectively and concurrently compare outcomes after surgical and non-surgical treatment for chronic SIJ dysfunction. Methods One hundred and forty-eight subjects with SIJ dysfunction were randomly assigned to minimally invasive SIJ fusion with triangular titanium implants (SIJF, n = 102) or non-surgical management (NSM, n = 46). SIJ pain (measured with a 100-point visual analog scale, VAS), disability (measured with Oswestry Disability Index, ODI) and quality of life scores were collected at baseline and at scheduled visits to 24 months. Crossover from non-surgical to surgical care was allowed after the 6-month study visit was complete. Improvements in continuous measures were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. The proportions of subjects with clinical improvement (SIJ pain improvement ≥20 points, ODI ≥15 points) and substantial clinical benefit (SIJ pain improvement ≥25 points or SIJ pain rating ≤35, ODI ≥18.8 points) were compared. Results In the SIJF group, mean SIJ pain improved rapidly and was sustained (mean improvement of 55.4 points) at month 24. The 6-month mean change in the NSM group (12.2 points) was substantially smaller than that in the SIJF group (by 38.3 points, p<.0001 for superiority). By month 24, 83.1% and 82.0% received either clinical improvement or substantial clinical benefit in VAS SIJ pain score. Similarly, 68.2% and 65.9% had received clinical improvement or substantial clinical benefit in ODI score at month 24. In the NSM group, these proportions were <10% with non-surgical treatment only. Parallel changes were seen for EQ-5D and SF-36, with larger changes in the surgery group at 6 months compared to NSM. The rate of adverse events related to SIJF was low and only 3 subjects assigned to SIJF underwent revision surgery within the 24-month follow-up period. Conclusions In this Level

  14. Sacroiliac tuberculosis – A neglected differential in refractory low back pain – Our series of 35 patients

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jatin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Osteo-articular tuberculosis accounts for 1–3% of which 5–8% involves sacro-illiac joint. Isolated sacroiliac involvement is very rare. It usually presents as vague back pain. Plain radiographs are often inconclusive. Due to rarity of lesion, vague symptoms and non-conclusive X-rays the diagnosis is further delayed. We present a series of 35 patients presented with sacroiliac tuberculosis. Methods 35 patients were diagnosed of sacroiliac tuberculosis from January 2008 to December 2011. After a thorough history and clinical examination, patients were taken up for X-rays and MRI scans. Ultrasound guided needle aspiration was done from suspected area. After histological confirmation of the diagnosis, patients were treated with anti tubercular therapy. Results Persistent low back pain and difficulty with walking were noted in all patients. There were 21 males (60%) and 14 females and the age ranged from 22 to 55 years (mean: 27 years). Most of the patients (91.4%) had unilateral disease (32 patients). Results of conservative management were good. 21 (60%) of our patients achieved bony ankylosis at the end of study. 9 patients did not respond to conservative management where surgical debridement was done. 4 of these cases had MDR tuberculosis. Conclusion Sacroiliac tuberculosis must be kept as a differential in all refractory low back pain particularly in endemic areas. MRI is very helpful in early diagnosis of disease. In the early stages of the infection aspiration using a closed needle biopsy is recommended. An open biopsy is essential when the aspirate yields no growth. Open debridement should be done in those not responding to conservative management. PMID:25983488

  15. Reproducibility of manual pressure force on provocation of the sacroiliac joint.

    PubMed

    Levin, U; Nilsson-Wikmar, L; Stenström, C H; Lundeberg, T

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies of pain-provocation sacroiliac (SI) joint tests have revealed conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intra- and inter-test reliability of pressure force applied during distraction test, compression test and pressure on the apex sacralis. Seventeen physiotherapists (PTs), median age 43 years and median clinical experience 11 years, all experienced in musculoskeletal evaluation and therapy, participated in the study. Each PT performed each test on the same healthy volunteer for 20 s, on three separate occasions, at intervals of one week using a specially constructed examination table which registered pressure force. The PTs were capable of maintaining a relatively constant pressure force for 20 s. The intra-test reliability was acceptable even though there were individual differences on different occasions between those PTs who used the SI joint tests often and those who seldom or never used them. The inter-test reliability was insufficient. The findings indicate the advantage of registering pressure force as a complement for standardized methods for pain-provoking tests and when learning provocation tests, since individual variability was considerable.

  16. Biomechanical effects of transverse partial sacrectomy on the sacroiliac joints: an in vitro human cadaveric investigation of the borderline of sacroiliac joint instability.

    PubMed

    Yu, Binsheng; Zheng, Zhaomin; Zhuang, Xinming; Chen, Hui; Xie, Denghui; Luk, K D K; Lu, W W

    2009-06-01

    In vitro laboratory study. To measure the effects of transverse partial sacrectomies on the compressive and torsional stiffness of the sacroiliac joints. Surgical treatment for sacral tumor of different location and nature includes partial or complete sacrectomy. Though the biomechanical investigations about the local destructive force of residual sacrum after partial sacrectomy have been reported, biomechanical properties of the residual sacroiliac joints after different transverse partial sacrectomies remain unknown. Seven fresh human cadaveric L5-pelves with normal bone mineral density were used in this study. Each specimen was tested in intact condition first, followed by a series of segmental transverse partial sacrectomies: under S2 partial sacrectomy (U-S2); U-(1/2)S2; U-S1; U-(1/2)S1; and right side sacroiliac joint resection (one-side). A material testing machine was used to apply 800 N compression and 7 Nm torsion loads through the L5/S1 joint. The resected dimensional area of sacroiliac joints and structural stiffness of the residual sacroiliac joints were analyzed. Average percentages of the resected area of sacroiliac joints were 8.4% in U-S2, 15.1% in U-(1/2)S2, 24.8% in U-S1, and 72.3% in U-(1/2)S1, respectively. In compression U-S2 approximately one-side preserved 98.7%, 97.1%, 94.4%, 82.9%, and 55.2% of the initial stiffness of the sacroiliac joint, respectively. No significant differences were detected among intact, U-S2, U-(1/2)S2, and U-S1 (P > 0.05). However, compressive stiffness of U-(1/2)S1 and one-side was markedly less than that of intact, U-S2, and U-(1/2)S2 (P < 0.05). In Torsion U-S2 approximately one-side preserved 90.7%, 88.5%, 81.9%, 71.9%, and 44.5% of the initial sacroiliac joint stiffness, respectively. No significant differences were demonstrated among intact, U-S2, and U-(1/2)S2 (P > 0.05); However, U-S1, U-(1/2)S1 and one-side exhibited significantly less torsional stiffness than intact and U-S2 (P < 0.05). In surgical

  17. Clostridium Sacroiliitis (Gas Gangrene) Following Sacroiliac Joint Injection--Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kurnutala, Lakshmi N; Ghatol, Dipti; Upadhyay, Aman

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old woman presented with chronic lumbosacral pain since her laminectomy and instrumentation 10 years ago. Examination was consistent with left sacroiliitis, and the patient underwent an elective left sacroiliac joint injection. Two days following her procedure she fell and landed on her left hip and on the next day, she presented to the emergency room with acutely worsening left gluteal pain. On evaluation in the emergency department, she was found to be suffering from a fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and dysuria. A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed and this showed extensive foci of gas throughout the posterior aspect of the left iliopsoas muscle, sacrum, and ileum surrounding the left sacroiliac joint. The patient underwent emergent surgical debridement. The microbiology report of blood culture revealed clostridium perfringens, while her pathology showed necrosis and acute inflammation of fibroadipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and fat. The patient's hospital course resulted in multi-organ failure and the family elected for comfort care measures only. Unfortunately, she passed away 36 hours later. Septic arthritis is a potential catastrophic complication following intra-articular steroid therapy. The cause of the septic joint can be multifactorial but is likely caused by one of the following processes: direct inoculation of bacteria by the injection, hematogenous seeding of the percutaneous injection tract, or due to activation of a quiescent infection by the injected steroid. Clostridial spores are very resistant to standard aseptic skin preparations, including chlorhexidine and betadine solutions. The only effective methods to eliminate the spores is to heat them at a temperature greater than 100 degrees Celsius for 10 minutes or with use of a 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution. We hypothesize that clostridium spores were present on the patient's skin from previous stool soiling, and that these were introduced directly into the soft

  18. Fluoroscopy-Guided Sacroiliac Joint Injection: Description of a Modified Technique.

    PubMed

    Kasliwal, Prasad Jaychand; Kasliwal, Sapana

    2016-02-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pathology is a common etiologic cause for 10 - 27% of cases of mechanical low back pain (LBP) below the L5 level. In the absence of definite clinical or radiologic diagnostic criteria, controlled blocks of the SIJ have become the choice assessment method for making the diagnosis of SIJ pain. The SI joint is most often characterized as a large, auricular-shaped, diarthrodial synovial joint. In reality, its synovial characteristic is limited only to the distal third and anterior third. In SIJ interventions, the lateral view has been underutilized. In our technique, we used the lateral view to create a three-dimensional view of the SIJ to aid in gauging the accurateness of the contrast spread and to obtain a precise block. After obtaining appropriate fluoroscopic images, a curved tip spinal needle was directed into the inferior aspect of the SIJ using a posterior approach. As the needle contacts firm tissues on the posterior aspect of the joint, position of the needle tip is checked using lateral fluoroscopy. In the lateral view, the needle tip position is manipulated to keep it in the anterior third of the SIJ and contrast is injected. Our criteria for accurate SIJ block, in posteroanterior (PA) view, is the injection of the contrast medium should outline the joint space and the contrast medium should be seen to travel cephalad along the joint line. In the lateral view, the contrast medium most densely outlines the parameter of the joint. We have utilized this method with good effect in approximately 30 cases over one year. Out of 30 cases, needle position and contrast spread was satisfactory in 28 and 27 cases, respectively. So satisfactory needle placement and contrast spread was in 93% and 87% cases. Pain relief of 80% or more after intra-articular injection of local anesthetic was seen in 50% (15 of 30) patients; pain relief of 50 - 79% was witnessed in 30% (9 of 30) patients. Thus, pain decreased 50% or more in 80% (24 of 30) of the joints

  19. Long-term prospective outcomes after minimally invasive trans-iliac sacroiliac joint fusion using triangular titanium implants.

    PubMed

    Darr, Emily; Meyer, S Craig; Whang, Peter G; Kovalsky, Don; Frank, Clay; Lockstadt, Harry; Limoni, Robert; Redmond, Andy; Ploska, Philip; Oh, Michael Y; Cher, Daniel; Chowdhary, Abhineet

    2018-01-01

    Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion (SIJF) has become an increasingly accepted surgical option for chronic sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction, a prevalent cause of unremitting low back/buttock pain. The objective of this study was to report clinical and functional outcomes of SIJF using triangular titanium implants (TTI) in the treatment of chronic SI joint dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis or sacroiliac joint (SIJ) disruption at 3 years postoperatively. A total of 103 subjects with SIJ dysfunction at 12 centers were treated with TTI in two prospective clinical trials (NCT01640353 and NCT01681004) and enrolled in this long-term follow-up study (NCT02270203). Subjects were evaluated in study clinics at study start and again at 3, 4, and 5 years. Mean (SD) preoperative SIJ pain score was 81.5, and mean preoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was 56.3. At 3 years, mean pain SIJ pain score decreased to 26.2 (a 55-point improvement from baseline, p <0.0001). At 3 years, mean ODI was 28.2 (a 28-point improvement from baseline, p <0.0001). In all, 82% of subjects were very satisfied with the procedure at 3 years. EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) time trade-off index improved by 0.30 points ( p <0.0001). No adverse events definitely related to the study device or procedure were reported; one subject underwent revision surgery at year 3.7. SIJ pain contralateral to the originally treated side occurred in 15 subjects of whom four underwent contralateral SIJF. The proportion of subjects who were employed outside the home full- or part-time at 3 years decreased somewhat from baseline ( p =0.1814), and the proportion of subjects who would have the procedure again was lower at 3 years compared to earlier time points. In long-term (3-year) follow-up, minimally invasive trans-iliac SIJF with TTI was associated with improved pain, disability, and quality of life with relatively high satisfaction rates. Level II. SIJF with TTI.

  20. Long-term prospective outcomes after minimally invasive trans-iliac sacroiliac joint fusion using triangular titanium implants

    PubMed Central

    Darr, Emily; Meyer, S Craig; Whang, Peter G; Kovalsky, Don; Frank, Clay; Lockstadt, Harry; Limoni, Robert; Redmond, Andy; Ploska, Philip; Oh, Michael Y; Cher, Daniel; Chowdhary, Abhineet

    2018-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion (SIJF) has become an increasingly accepted surgical option for chronic sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction, a prevalent cause of unremitting low back/buttock pain. Objective The objective of this study was to report clinical and functional outcomes of SIJF using triangular titanium implants (TTI) in the treatment of chronic SI joint dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis or sacroiliac joint (SIJ) disruption at 3 years postoperatively. Methods A total of 103 subjects with SIJ dysfunction at 12 centers were treated with TTI in two prospective clinical trials (NCT01640353 and NCT01681004) and enrolled in this long-term follow-up study (NCT02270203). Subjects were evaluated in study clinics at study start and again at 3, 4, and 5 years. Results Mean (SD) preoperative SIJ pain score was 81.5, and mean preoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was 56.3. At 3 years, mean pain SIJ pain score decreased to 26.2 (a 55-point improvement from baseline, p<0.0001). At 3 years, mean ODI was 28.2 (a 28-point improvement from baseline, p<0.0001). In all, 82% of subjects were very satisfied with the procedure at 3 years. EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) time trade-off index improved by 0.30 points (p<0.0001). No adverse events definitely related to the study device or procedure were reported; one subject underwent revision surgery at year 3.7. SIJ pain contralateral to the originally treated side occurred in 15 subjects of whom four underwent contralateral SIJF. The proportion of subjects who were employed outside the home full- or part-time at 3 years decreased somewhat from baseline (p=0.1814), and the proportion of subjects who would have the procedure again was lower at 3 years compared to earlier time points. Conclusion In long-term (3-year) follow-up, minimally invasive trans-iliac SIJF with TTI was associated with improved pain, disability, and quality of life with relatively high satisfaction rates. Level of evidence Level II

  1. Functional aspects of cross-legged sitting with special attention to piriformis muscles and sacroiliac joints.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Chris J; Hermans, Paul F G; Kleinrensink, Gerrit Jan

    2006-02-01

    Transversely oriented pelvic muscles such as the internal abdominal oblique, transversus abdominis, piriformis and pelvic floor muscles may contribute to sacroiliac joint stability by pressing the sacrum between the hipbones. Surface electromyographic measurements showed that leg crossing lowers the activity of the internal oblique abdominal muscle significantly. This suggests that leg crossing is a substitute for abdominal muscle activity. No previous studies addressed piriformis muscle and related pelvic structures in cross-legged sitting. Angles of pelvis and femur were measured in healthy subjects in standing, normal sitting and cross-legged sitting, and were used to simulate these postures on embalmed pelvises and measure piriformis muscle elongation. Deformations of pelvic ring and iliolumbar ligament caused by piriformis muscle force were measured on embalmed pelvises. Cross-legged sitting resulted in a relative elongation of the piriformis muscle of 11.7% compared to normal sitting and even 21.4% compared to standing. Application of piriformis muscle force resulted in inward deformation of the pelvic ring and compression of the sacroiliac joints and the dorsal side of the pubic symphysis. Cross-legged sitting is common. We believe that it contributes to sacroiliac joint stability. This study demonstrates the influence of the piriformis muscle on sacroiliac joint compression. The elongation of the piriformis muscle bilaterally by crossing the legs may be functional in the build-up of active or passive tension between sacrum and femur.

  2. Work intensity in sacroiliac joint fusion and lumbar microdiscectomy

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Clay; Kondrashov, Dimitriy; Meyer, S Craig; Dix, Gary; Lorio, Morgan; Kovalsky, Don; Cher, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence base supporting minimally invasive sacroiliac (SI) joint fusion (SIJF) surgery is increasing. The work relative value units (RVUs) associated with minimally invasive SIJF are seemingly low. To date, only one published study describes the relative work intensity associated with minimally invasive SIJF. No study has compared work intensity vs other commonly performed spine surgery procedures. Methods Charts of 192 patients at five sites who underwent either minimally invasive SIJF (American Medical Association [AMA] CPT® code 27279) or lumbar microdiscectomy (AMA CPT® code 63030) were reviewed. Abstracted were preoperative times associated with diagnosis and patient care, intraoperative parameters including operating room (OR) in/out times and procedure start/stop times, and postoperative care requirements. Additionally, using a visual analog scale, surgeons estimated the intensity of intraoperative care, including mental, temporal, and physical demands and effort and frustration. Work was defined as operative time multiplied by task intensity. Results Patients who underwent minimally invasive SIJF were more likely female. Mean procedure times were lower in SIJF by about 27.8 minutes (P<0.0001) and mean total OR times were lower by 27.9 minutes (P<0.0001), but there was substantial overlap across procedures. Mean preservice and post-service total labor times were longer in minimally invasive SIJF (preservice times longer by 63.5 minutes [P<0.0001] and post-service labor times longer by 20.2 minutes [P<0.0001]). The number of postoperative visits was higher in minimally invasive SIJF. Mean total service time (preoperative + OR time + postoperative) was higher in the minimally invasive SIJF group (261.5 vs 211.9 minutes, P<0.0001). Intraoperative intensity levels were higher for mental, physical, effort, and frustration domains (P<0.0001 each). After taking into account intensity, intraoperative workloads showed substantial overlap. Conclusion

  3. [Efficacy of Sacroiliac Joint Anterior Approach with Double Reconstruction Plate and Computer Assisted Navigation Percutaneous Sacroiliac Screw for Treating Tile C1 Pelvic Fractures].

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhen; Fang, Yue; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Lei; Xiang, Zhou; Zhong, Gang; Huang, Fu-Guo; Wang, Guang-Lin

    2017-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of sacroiliac joint anterior approach with double reconstruction plate and computer assisted navigation percutaneous sacroiliac screw for treating Tile C1 pelvic fractures. Fifty patients with pelvic Tile C1 fractures were randomly divided into two groups ( n =25 for each) in the orthopedic department of West China Hospital of Sichuan University from December 2012 to November 2014. Patients in group A were treated by sacroiliac joint dislocation with anterior plate fixation. Patients in group B were treated with computerized navigation for percutaneous sacroiliac screw. The operation duration,intraoperative blood loss,incision length,and postoperative complications (nausea,vomiting,pulmonary infection,wound complications,etc.) were compared between the two groups. The postoperative fracture healing time,postoperative patient satisfaction,and postoperative fractures MATTA scores (to evaluate fracture reduction),postoperative MAJEED function scores,and SF36 scores of the patients were also recorded and compared. No significant differences in baseline characteristics were found between the two groups of patients. All of the patients in both groups had their operations successfully completed. Patients in group B had significantly shorter operations and lower intraoperative blood loss,incision length and postoperative complications than those in group A ( P <0.05). Patients in group B also had higher levels of satisfaction than those in group A ( P <0.05). No significant differences were found between the two groups in postoperative followup time,fracture healing time,postoperative MATTA scores,postoperative MAJEED function scores and SF36 scores ( P >0.05). Sacroiliac joint anterior approach with double reconstruction plate and computer assisted navigation percutaneous sacroiliac screws are both effective for treating Tile C1type pelvic fractures,with similar longterm efficacies. However,computer assisted navigation percutaneous sacroiliac screw

  4. Safety and 6-month effectiveness of minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Duhon, Bradley S; Cher, Daniel J; Wine, Kathryn D; Lockstadt, Harry; Kovalsky, Don; Soo, Cheng-Lun

    2013-01-01

    Background Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is an often overlooked cause of low back pain. SI joint arthrodesis has been reported to relieve pain and improve quality of life in patients suffering from degeneration or disruption of the SI joint who have failed non-surgical care. We report herein early results of a multicenter prospective single-arm cohort of patients with SI joint degeneration or disruption who underwent minimally invasive fusion using the iFuse Implant System®. Methods The safety cohort includes 94 subjects at 23 sites with chronic SI joint pain who met study eligibility criteria and underwent minimally invasive SI joint fusion with the iFuse Implant System® between August 2012 and September 2013. Subjects underwent structured assessments preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively, including SI joint and back pain visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D). Patient satisfaction with surgery was assessed at 6 months. The effectiveness cohort includes the 32 subjects who have had 6-month follow-up to date. Results Mean subject age was 51 years (n=94, safety cohort) and 66% of patients were women. Subjects were highly debilitated at baseline (mean VAS pain score 78, mean ODI score 54). Three implants were used in 80% of patients; two patients underwent staged bilateral implants. Twenty-three adverse events occurred within 1 month of surgery and 29 additional events occurred between 30 days and latest follow-up. Six adverse events were severe but none were device-related. Complete 6-month postoperative follow-up was available in 26 subjects. In the effectiveness cohort, mean (± standard deviation) SI joint pain improved from a baseline score of 76 (±16.2) to a 6-month score of 29.3 (±23.3, an improvement of 49 points, P<0.0001), mean ODI improved from 55.3 (±10.7) to 38.9 (±18.5, an improvement of 15.8 points, P<0.0001) and SF-36 PCS improved

  5. Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Using Triangular Titanium Implants vs. Non-Surgical Management: Six-Month Outcomes from a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Whang, Peter; Cher, Daniel; Polly, David; Frank, Clay; Lockstadt, Harry; Glaser, John; Limoni, Robert; Sembrano, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a prevalent, underdiagnosed cause of lower back pain. SI joint fusion can relieve pain and improve quality of life in patients who have failed nonoperative care. To date, no study has concurrently compared surgical and non-surgical treatments for chronic SI joint dysfunction. We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial of 148 subjects with SI joint dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis or sacroiliac joint disruptions who were assigned to either minimally invasive SI joint fusion with triangular titanium implants (N=102) or non-surgical management (NSM, n=46). SI joint pain scores, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short-Form 36 (SF-36) and EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) were collected at baseline and at 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment commencement. Six-month success rates, defined as the proportion of treated subjects with a 20-mm improvement in SI joint pain in the absence of severe device-related or neurologic SI joint-related adverse events or surgical revision, were compared using Bayesian methods. Subjects (mean age 51, 70% women) were highly debilitated at baseline (mean SI joint VAS pain score 82, mean ODI score 62). Six-month follow-up was obtained in 97.3%. By 6 months, success rates were 81.4% in the surgical group vs. 23.9% in the NSM group (difference of 56.6%, 95% posterior credible interval 41.4-70.0%, posterior probability of superiority >0.999). Clinically important (≥15 point) ODI improvement at 6 months occurred in 75% of surgery subjects vs. 27.3% of NSM subjects. At six months, quality of life improved more in the surgery group and satisfaction rates were high. The mean number of adverse events in the first six months was slightly higher in the surgical group compared to the non-surgical group (1.3 vs. 1.0 events per subject, p=0.1857). Six-month follow-up from this level 1 study showed that minimally invasive SI joint fusion using triangular titanium implants was more effective than non-surgical management

  6. Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Using Triangular Titanium Implants vs. Non-Surgical Management: Six-Month Outcomes from a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Whang, Peter; Polly, David; Frank, Clay; Lockstadt, Harry; Glaser, John; Limoni, Robert; Sembrano, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a prevalent, underdiagnosed cause of lower back pain. SI joint fusion can relieve pain and improve quality of life in patients who have failed nonoperative care. To date, no study has concurrently compared surgical and non-surgical treatments for chronic SI joint dysfunction. Methods We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial of 148 subjects with SI joint dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis or sacroiliac joint disruptions who were assigned to either minimally invasive SI joint fusion with triangular titanium implants (N=102) or non-surgical management (NSM, n=46). SI joint pain scores, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short-Form 36 (SF-36) and EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) were collected at baseline and at 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment commencement. Six-month success rates, defined as the proportion of treated subjects with a 20-mm improvement in SI joint pain in the absence of severe device-related or neurologic SI joint-related adverse events or surgical revision, were compared using Bayesian methods. Results Subjects (mean age 51, 70% women) were highly debilitated at baseline (mean SI joint VAS pain score 82, mean ODI score 62). Six-month follow-up was obtained in 97.3%. By 6 months, success rates were 81.4% in the surgical group vs. 23.9% in the NSM group (difference of 56.6%, 95% posterior credible interval 41.4-70.0%, posterior probability of superiority >0.999). Clinically important (≥15 point) ODI improvement at 6 months occurred in 75% of surgery subjects vs. 27.3% of NSM subjects. At six months, quality of life improved more in the surgery group and satisfaction rates were high. The mean number of adverse events in the first six months was slightly higher in the surgical group compared to the non-surgical group (1.3 vs. 1.0 events per subject, p=0.1857). Conclusions Six-month follow-up from this level 1 study showed that minimally invasive SI joint fusion using triangular titanium implants was more

  7. Surgical and clinical efficacy of sacroiliac joint fusion: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Hasan A; Montoure, Andrew J; Dickman, Curtis A

    2015-07-01

    The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) and surgical intervention for treating SIJ pain or dysfunction has been a topic of much debate in recent years. There has been a resurgence in the implication of this joint as the pain generator for many patients experiencing low-back pain, and new surgical methods are gaining popularity within both the orthopedic and neurosurgical fields. There is no universally accepted gold standard for diagnosing or surgically treating SIJ pain. The authors systematically reviewed studies on SIJ fusion in the neurosurgical and orthopedic literature to investigate whether sufficient evidence exists to support its use. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and OvidSP-Wolters Kluwer Health for all articles regarding SIJ fusion published from 2000 to 2014. Original, peer-reviewed, prospective or retrospective scientific papers with at least 2 patients were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included follow-up shorter than 1-year, nonsurgical treatment, inadequate clinical data as determined by 2 independent reviewers, non-English manuscripts, and nonhuman subjects. A total of 16 peer-reviewed journal articles met the inclusion criteria: 5 consecutive case series, 8 retrospective studies, and 3 prospective cohort studies. A total of 430 patients were included, of whom 131 underwent open surgery and 299 underwent minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for SIJ fusion. The mean duration of follow-up was 60 months for open surgery and 21 months for MIS. SIJ degeneration/arthrosis was the most common pathology among patients undergoing surgical intervention (present in 257 patients [59.8%]), followed by SIJ dysfunction (79 [18.4%]), postpartum instability (31 [7.2%]), posttraumatic (28 [6.5%]), idiopathic (25 [5.8%]), pathological fractures (6 [1.4%]), and HLA-B27+/rheumatoid arthritis (4 [0.9%]). Radiographically confirmed fusion rates were 20%-90% for open surgery and 13%-100% for MIS. Rates of excellent satisfaction, determined by

  8. The effect of sacroiliac joint mobilization on pelvic deformation and the static balance ability of female university students with si joint dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Son, Jeong-Hyun; Park, Gi Duck; Park, Hoo Sung

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to determine the effect of an 8-week program of joint mobilization on changes in pelvic obliquity and pain level in seventeen female university students aged in their 20's with sacroiliac joint dysfunction by dividing them into two groups: a joint mobilization group (MWM) and a control group. [Subjects] Seventeen subjects were selected from female university students aged in their 20's attending N University in Cheon-An City, Korea, The subjects had sacroiliac joint syndrome, but experienced no problems with daily living and had no previous experience of joint mobilization exercise. The subjects were randomly assigned to a joint mobilization group of eight and a control group of nine who performed joint mobilization exercise. [Methods] Body fat and lean body mass were measured using InBody 7.0 (Biospace, Korea). The Direct Segmental Multi-frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Method (DSM-BIA) was used for body composition measurement. A pressure footstool (Pedoscan, DIERS, Germany) and a trunk measurement system (Formetric 4D, DIERS, Germany), a 3D image processing apparatus with high resolution for vertebrae, were used to measure 3D trunk images of the vertebrae and pelvis obliquity, as well as static balance ability. [Result] The MWM group showed a significantly better Balance than the control group. In addition, the results of the left/right and the front/rear balance abilities were significantly better than those of the control group. [Conclusion] This study proved that a combination of mobilization with movement and functional training was effective in reducing pelvis malposition and pain, and improving static stability control.

  9. Discordant inflammatory changes in the apophyseal and sacroiliac joints: serial observations in enthesitis-related arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bray, Timothy J P; Amies, Thomas; Vendhan, Kanimozhi; Humphries, Paul; Sen, Debajit; Ioannou, Yiannis; Hall-Craggs, Margaret A

    2016-09-01

    To determine the extent to which inflammation of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) and apophyseal joints (AJs) changes concordantly after treatment in enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA). A retrospective study was performed with institutional review board approval. 31 young patients with ERA who had been scanned between March 2009 and November 2014 were included. All patients had post-contrast imaging of the SIJs and lumbar spine and short tau inversion-recovery (STIR) images of the SIJs. The severity of sacroiliitis was scored using a modification of an established technique, and inflammation of the AJs was evaluated using a recently described grading system. The changes in SIJ and AJ scores after treatment were classified as either concordant or discordant, and the proportion of scan pairs in these groups was recorded. In addition, the correlation between change in SIJ STIR score (Δnfla) and change in AJ score (ΔAJ) was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Of a total of 43 scan pairs, the changes in inflammation were concordant in 16 scan pairs and discordant in 27 scan pairs. There was no significant correlation between Δnfla and ΔAJ (R = 0.14, p = 0.37). Inflammatory changes in the SIJs and AJs are often discordant. This may be a reason why patients experience ongoing back pain despite apparent improvement in one or the other site. Inflammation may behave differently at different anatomical sites. The SIJs and AJs should both be imaged in patients with ERA with back pain.

  10. Discordant inflammatory changes in the apophyseal and sacroiliac joints: serial observations in enthesitis-related arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Amies, Thomas; Vendhan, Kanimozhi; Humphries, Paul; Sen, Debajit; Ioannou, Yiannis; Hall-Craggs, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which inflammation of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) and apophyseal joints (AJs) changes concordantly after treatment in enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA). Methods: A retrospective study was performed with institutional review board approval. 31 young patients with ERA who had been scanned between March 2009 and November 2014 were included. All patients had post-contrast imaging of the SIJs and lumbar spine and short tau inversion-recovery (STIR) images of the SIJs. The severity of sacroiliitis was scored using a modification of an established technique, and inflammation of the AJs was evaluated using a recently described grading system. The changes in SIJ and AJ scores after treatment were classified as either concordant or discordant, and the proportion of scan pairs in these groups was recorded. In addition, the correlation between change in SIJ STIR score (Δnfla) and change in AJ score (ΔAJ) was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results: Of a total of 43 scan pairs, the changes in inflammation were concordant in 16 scan pairs and discordant in 27 scan pairs. There was no significant correlation between Δnfla and ΔAJ (R = 0.14, p = 0.37). Conclusion: Inflammatory changes in the SIJs and AJs are often discordant. This may be a reason why patients experience ongoing back pain despite apparent improvement in one or the other site. Advances in knowledge: Inflammation may behave differently at different anatomical sites. The SIJs and AJs should both be imaged in patients with ERA with back pain. PMID:27376529

  11. Tomography-guided palisade sacroiliac joint radiofrequency neurotomy versus celecoxib for ankylosing spondylitis: a open-label, randomized, and controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yongjun; Gu, Minghong; Shi, Dongping; Li, Mingli; Ye, Le; Wang, Xiangrui

    2014-09-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain is a common symptom in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Palisade sacroiliac joint radiofrequency neurotomy (PSRN) is a novel treatment for the SIJ pain. In the current clinical trial, we treated AS patients with significant SIJ pain using PSRN under computed tomography guidance and compared the results with the celecoxib treatment. The current study included 155 AS patients. Patients were randomly assigned to receive PSRN or celecoxib treatment (400 mg/day for 24 weeks). The primary endpoint was global pain intensity in visual analog scale, at week 12. Secondary endpoints included pain intensity at week 24, disease activity, functional and mobility capacities, and adverse events at week 24. In comparison with the baseline collected immediately prior to the interventions, global pain intensity was significantly lower at both 12 and 24 weeks after the treatment in both arms. Pain reduction was more robust in the PSRN arm (by more than 1.9 and 2.2 cm at 12 and 24 weeks in comparison with the celecoxib arm, P < 0.0001 for both). The PSRN was also more effective in improving physical function and spinal mobility (P < 0.05 vs. celecoxib for both). Gastrointestional irritation was more frequent in the celecoxib arm than in the PSRN arm (P < 0.05). No severe complications were noted in either arm. PSRN is both efficacious and safe in managing SIJ pain in patients with AS.

  12. Short-term efficacy of sacroiliac joint corticosteroid injection based on arthrographic contrast patterns.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Paul M; Patel, Shounuck I; Christos, Paul J; Singh, Jaspal R

    2015-04-01

    To determine the relationship between sacroiliac joint (SIJ) contrast dispersal patterns during SIJ corticosteroid injection and pain relief at 2 and 8 weeks after the procedure. The association between the number of positive provocative SIJ physical examination maneuvers (minimum of one in all patients undergoing SIJ injection) and the patient's response to the intervention was also assessed. Retrospective chart review. Academic outpatient musculoskeletal practice. Fifty-four subjects who underwent therapeutic SIJ corticosteroid injection were screened for inclusion; 49 subjects were included in the final analysis. A retrospective review of electronic medical records identified patients who underwent SIJ corticosteroid injection. Fluoroscopic contrast flow patterns were categorized as type I (intra-articular injection with cephalad extension within the SIJ) or type II (intra-articular injection with poor cephalad extension). Self-reported numeric pain rating scale (NPRS) values at the time of injection and 2 and 8 weeks after the procedure were recorded. The number of positive provocative SIJ physical examination maneuvers at the time of the initial evaluation was also recorded. The primary outcome measure was the effect of contrast patterns (type I or type II) on change in NPRS values at 2 weeks and 8 weeks after the injection. The secondary outcome measure was the association between the number of positive provocative SIJ physical examination maneuvers and decrease in the level of pain after the procedure. At 2 weeks after the procedure, type I subjects demonstrated a significantly lower mean NPRS value compared with type II subjects (2.8 ± 1.4 versus 3.8 ± 1.6, respectively, P = .02). No statistically significant difference was observed at 8 weeks after the procedure. NPRS values were significantly reduced both at 2 weeks and 8 weeks, compared with baseline, in both subjects identified as having type I flow and those with type II flow (P < .0001 for all

  13. Diagnostic imaging of sacroiliac joints and the spine in the course of spondyloarthropathies

    PubMed Central

    Sudoł-Szopinska, Iwona; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Summary Spondyloarthropathies belong to a group of rheumatic diseases, in which inflammatory changes affect mainly the sacroiliac joints, spine, peripheral joints, tendon, ligaments and capsule attachments (entheses). This group includes 6 entities: ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, psoriatic arthritis and juvenile spondyloarthropathy. In 2009, ASAS (Assessment in SpondyloArthritis international Society) association, published classification criteria for spondyloarthropathies, which propose standardization of clinical-diagnostic approach in the case of sacroiliitis, spondylitis and arthritis. Radiological diagnosis of inflammatory changes of sacroiliac joints is based on a 4 step radiographic grading method from 1966. According to modified New York criteria, the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is made based on the presence of advanced lesions, sacroiliitis of at least 2 grade bilaterally or 3–4 unilaterally. In case of other types of spondyloarthropathies diagnosis is made based on presence of at least grade 1 changes. In MRI, active inflammation of sacroiliac joints is indicated by the presence of subchondral bone marrow edema, synovitis, bursitis, or enthesitis. ASAS discusses only the classic form of axial spondyloarthropathies, which is ankylosing spondylitis. To quantify radiological inflammatory changes in the course of the disease, Stoke Ankylosing spondylitis classification Spinal Score (SASSS) is recommended. The signs of inflammation and scarrying of the spinal cord in the course of ankylosing spondylitis, present in MRI include: bone marrow edema, sclerosis, fat metaplasia, formation of syndesmophytes, and ankylosis. PMID:23807884

  14. [X-ray characteristics of sacroiliac joint disorders and its clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ning-Ning; Shen, Guo-Quan; He, Shui-Yong; Guo, Ru-bao

    2013-02-01

    To study the X-ray characteristics of sacroiliac joint disorders and its clinical significance,so as to provide clinical diagnosis basis for Tuina treatment of sacroiliac joint disorder. From July 2009 to March 2011,104 patients with sacroiliac joint disorder were reviewed,including 64 males and 40 females,ranging in age from 18 to 81 years, with an average of (45.39 +/- 1.30) years. The duration of the disease ranged from 1 to 144 months,with an average of (12.64 +/- 2.19) months. One hundred and four pelvic plain films and 97 lumbar spine lateral films of the patients with sacroiliac joint disorder were taken. On the lateral X-ray of lumbar,the sacral horizontal angles (lumbosacral angle) were measured; and on the X-ray of pelvis,the vertical distance of two side iliac crest (iliac crest difference), the distance from lateral border to medial margin of two hips (hip width),the clip angle between sacral spin connection and vertical axis were measured,and then the data were analyzed. The mean difference of iliac crest was (10.34+/-0.73) mm; the mean width difference of hip'was (6.73+/-1.01) mm; and the mean difference of the iliac crest was larger than that of mean difference of hip (P<0.01). The occurrence rate of inequal width of hip was higher(P<0.01). The mean abnormal lumbosacral angle was (7.29 +/- 1.86) degrees,and the mean angle of sacral crest tilting to left or right was (3.18 +/- 0.47) degrees; the mean abnormal lumbosacral angle was larger than that of angle of sacral crest tilting to left or right (P<0.01), and the occurrence rate of sacral crest tilting to left or right was higher

  15. Relationship of HS CRP and Sacroiliac Joint Inflammation in Undifferentiated Spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Te-Jung; Chang, Cheng-Chiang; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chu, Heng-Yi; Hsu, Chun-Sheng; Chang, Shin-Tsu

    2018-01-01

    Elevation of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level has been demonstrated as a risk factor for varying diseases, as well as a biomarker for predicting recovery after operation of lumber disc herniation. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between serum hs-CRP and sacroiliac (SI) joint inflammation in patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (uSpA). In this retrospective study, we enrolled patients with uSpA who underwent hs-CRP testing between January 2007 and September 2013. Serum hs-CRP was analyzed at our central laboratory. All enrolled patients underwent skeletal scintigraphic scan with quantitative sacroiliac measurement. A total of 29 patients were enrolled with mean age 32.27 years and female:male ratio of 6:23. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a significant difference between hs-CRP in serum and SI/S ratio in uSpA, particularly the middle part of the sacroiliac joint, either right side or left side. The significantly high concentration of serum hs-CRP might indicate a systemic inflammatory response to flare-up of the SI joint and might be an indicator of SI inflammation in uSpA.

  16. T2 Mapping of the Sacroiliac Joints With 3-T MRI: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Guillaume; Bergère, Antonin; Rafei, Mazen El; Duhamel, Alain; Teixeira, Pedro; Cotten, Anne

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of T2 relaxation time measurements of the sacroiliac joints. The sacroiliac joints of 40 patients were imaged by 3-T MRI using an oblique axial multislice multiecho spin-echo T2-weighted sequence. Manual plotting and automatic subdivision of ROIs allowed us to obtain T2 values for up to 48 different areas per patient (posterior and anterior parts, sacral, intermediate, and iliac parts). Intraand interobserver reproducibility of T2 values were calculated after independent assessment by two musculoskeletal radiologists. A total of 1656 measurement sites could be analyzed. Mean (± SD) T2 values were 40.6 ± 6.7 ms and 41.2 ± 6.3 ms for observer 1 and 39.9 ± 6.6 ms for observer 2. The intraobserver intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.70-0.74), and the interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.68-0.72). Our study shows the feasibility of T2 relaxation time measurements at the sacroiliac joints.

  17. Minimally invasive treatment for pubic ramus fractures combined with a sacroiliac joint complex injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaowei; Tang, Mingjie; Zhou, Zubin; Peng, Xiaochun; Wu, Tianyi; Sun, Yuqiang

    2013-08-01

    Fractures of the pubic rami due to low energy trauma are common in the elderly, with an incidence of 26 per 100,000 people per year in those aged more than 60 years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical application of this minimally invasive technique in patients with pubic ramus fractures combined with a sacroiliac joint complex injury, including its feasibility, merits, and limitations. Fifteen patients with pubic ramus fractures combined with sacroiliac joint injury were treated with the minimally invasive technique from June 2008 until April 2012. The quality of fracture reduction was evaluated according to the Matta standard. Fourteen cases were excellent (93.3 %), and one case was good (6.7 %). The fracture lines were healed 12 weeks after the surgery. The 15 patients had follow-up visits between four to 50 months (mean, 22.47 months). All patients returned to their pre-injury jobs and lifestyles. One patient suffered a deep vein thrombosis during the peri-operative period. A filter was placed in the patient before the surgery and was removed six weeks later. There was no thrombus found at the follow-up visits of this patient. The minimally invasive technique in patients with pubic ramus fractures combined with a sacroiliac joint complex injury provided satisfactory efficacy.

  18. Relationship of HS CRP and Sacroiliac Joint Inflammation in Undifferentiated Spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Te-Jung; Chang, Cheng-Chiang; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chu, Heng-Yi; Hsu, Chun-Sheng; Chang, Shin-Tsu

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective Elevation of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level has been demonstrated as a risk factor for varying diseases, as well as a biomarker for predicting recovery after operation of lumber disc herniation. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between serum hs-CRP and sacroiliac (SI) joint inflammation in patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (uSpA). Methods In this retrospective study, we enrolled patients with uSpA who underwent hs-CRP testing between January 2007 and September 2013. Serum hs-CRP was analyzed at our central laboratory. All enrolled patients underwent skeletal scintigraphic scan with quantitative sacroiliac measurement. Results A total of 29 patients were enrolled with mean age 32.27 years and female:male ratio of 6:23. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a significant difference between hs-CRP in serum and SI/S ratio in uSpA, particularly the middle part of the sacroiliac joint, either right side or left side. The significantly high concentration of serum hs-CRP might indicate a systemic inflammatory response to flare-up of the SI joint and might be an indicator of SI inflammation in uSpA. PMID:29785410

  19. Percutaneous CT-guided sacroiliac joint sampling for infection: aspiration, biopsy, and technique.

    PubMed

    Knipp, David; Simeone, F Joseph; Nelson, Sandra B; Huang, Ambrose J; Chang, Connie Y

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate methods of CT-guided sacroiliac joint sampling in patients with suspected infection. All CT-guided sacroiliac joint sampling procedures for suspected infection were reviewed for sampling type (aspiration, lavage aspiration, biopsy), microbiology results, and clinical and imaging follow-up. The primary gold standard was anatomic pathology. If pathology was not available, then positive blood culture with the same organism as SIJ sampling, imaging and clinical follow-up, or clinical follow-up only were used. Anterior and posterior joint distention was evaluated by MRI within 7 days of the procedure. A total of 34 patients (age 39 ± 20 (range, 6-75) years; 21 F, 13 M) were included. Aspiration samples only were obtained in 13/34 (38%) cases, biopsy samples only in 9/34 (26%) cases, and both samples in 12/34 (35%) cases. There was an overall 54% sensitivity and 86% specificity. For the aspiration samples, sensitivity and specificity were 60 and 81%, respectively, compared to 45 and 90% for the biopsy samples. In cases with both samples, biopsy did not add additional microbial information. Seventeen (17/34, 50%) patients had an MRI. The anterior joint was more distended than the posterior joint in 15/17 (88%) of patients, and this difference was significant (P = 0.0003). All of these 17 patients had an attempted aspiration by a posterior approach; 6/17 (35%) resulted in a successful aspiration. Aspiration of the sacroiliac joint has a higher sensitivity than biopsy and should always be attempted first. MRI may be helpful for procedure planning.

  20. The sacroiliac joint: an overview of its anatomy, function and potential clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Vleeming, A; Schuenke, M D; Masi, A T; Carreiro, J E; Danneels, L; Willard, F H

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on the (functional) anatomy and biomechanics of the pelvic girdle and specifically the sacroiliac joints (SIJs). The SIJs are essential for effective load transfer between the spine and legs. The sacrum, pelvis and spine, and the connections to the arms, legs and head, are functionally interrelated through muscular, fascial and ligamentous interconnections. A historical overview is presented on pelvic and especially SIJ research, followed by a general functional anatomical overview of the pelvis. In specific sections, the development and maturation of the SIJ is discussed, and a description of the bony anatomy and sexual morphism of the pelvis and SIJ is debated. The literature on the SIJ ligaments and innervation is discussed, followed by a section on the pathology of the SIJ. Pelvic movement studies are investigated and biomechanical models for SIJ stability analyzed, including examples of insufficient versus excessive sacroiliac force closure. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  1. The sacroiliac joint: an overview of its anatomy, function and potential clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Vleeming, A; Schuenke, M D; Masi, A T; Carreiro, J E; Danneels, L; Willard, F H

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the (functional) anatomy and biomechanics of the pelvic girdle and specifically the sacroiliac joints (SIJs). The SIJs are essential for effective load transfer between the spine and legs. The sacrum, pelvis and spine, and the connections to the arms, legs and head, are functionally interrelated through muscular, fascial and ligamentous interconnections. A historical overview is presented on pelvic and especially SIJ research, followed by a general functional anatomical overview of the pelvis. In specific sections, the development and maturation of the SIJ is discussed, and a description of the bony anatomy and sexual morphism of the pelvis and SIJ is debated. The literature on the SIJ ligaments and innervation is discussed, followed by a section on the pathology of the SIJ. Pelvic movement studies are investigated and biomechanical models for SIJ stability analyzed, including examples of insufficient versus excessive sacroiliac force closure. PMID:22994881

  2. Feasibility of ultrasound-guided sacroiliac joint injection considering sonoanatomic landmarks at two different levels in cadavers and patients.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Andrea; De Zordo, Tobias; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Sögner, Peter; Schirmer, Michael; Gruber, Johann; Sepp, Norbert; Moriggl, Bernhard

    2008-11-15

    Sacroiliitis is often caused by rheumatic diseases, and besides other therapeutic options, treatment consists of intraarticular injection of corticosteroids. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of ultrasound (US)-guided sacroiliac joint (SI joint) injection at 2 different puncture levels in cadavers and patients when defined sonoanatomic landmarks were considered. After defining sonoanatomic landmarks, US-guided needle insertion was performed in 10 human cadavers (20 SI joints) at 2 different puncture sites. Upper level was defined at the level of the posterior sacral foramen 1 and lower level at the level of the posterior sacral foramen 2. In 10 patients with unilateral sacroiliitis, injection at the most feasible level was attempted. Computed tomography confirmed correct intraarticular needle placement in cadavers by showing the tip of the needle in the joint and intraarticular diffusion of contrast media in 16 (80%) of 20 SI joints (upper level 7 [70%] of 10; lower level 9 [90%] of 10). In all 4 cases in which needle insertion failed, intraarticular SI joint injection at the other level was successful. In patients, 100% of US-guided injections were successful (8 lower level, 2 upper level), with a mean pain relief of 8.6 after 3 months. US guidance of needle insertion into SI joints was feasible at both levels when defined sonoanatomic landmarks were used. If SI joint alterations do not allow for direct visualization of the dorsal joint space of the lower level, which is easier to access, the upper level might offer an appropriate alternative.

  3. Pelvic belt effects on pelvic morphometry, muscle activity and body balance in patients with sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Soisson, Odette; Lube, Juliane; Germano, Andresa; Hammer, Karl-Heinz; Josten, Christoph; Sichting, Freddy; Winkler, Dirk; Milani, Thomas L; Hammer, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is frequently involved in low back and pelvic girdle pain. However, morphometrical and functional characteristics related to SIJ pain are poorly defined. Pelvic belts represent one treatment option, but evidence still lacks as to their pain-reducing effects and the mechanisms involved. Addressing these two issues, this case-controlled study compares morphometric, functional and clinical data in SIJ patients and healthy controls and evaluates the effects of short-term pelvic belt application. Morphometric and functional data pertaining to pelvic belt effects were compared in 17 SIJ patients and 17 controls. Lumbar spine and pelvis morphometries were obtained from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Functional electromyography data of pelvis and leg muscles and center of pressure excursions were measured in one-leg stance. The numerical rating scale was used to evaluate immediate pain-reducing effects. Pelvic morphometry was largely unaltered in SIJ patients and also by pelvic belt application. The angle of lumbar lateral flexion was significantly larger in SIJ patients without belt application. Muscle activity and center of pressure were unaffected by SIJ pain or by belt application in one-leg stance. Nine of 17 patients reported decreased pain intensities under moderate belt application, four reported no change and four reported increased pain intensity. For the entire population investigated here, this qualitative description was not confirmed on a statistical significant level. Minute changes were observed in the alignment of the lumbar spine in the frontal plane in SIJ patients. The potential pain-decreasing effects of pelvic belts could not be attributed to altered muscle activity, pelvic morphometry or body balance in a static short-term application. Long-term belt effects will therefore be of prospective interest.

  4. Pelvic Belt Effects on Pelvic Morphometry, Muscle Activity and Body Balance in Patients with Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Soisson, Odette; Lube, Juliane; Germano, Andresa; Hammer, Karl-Heinz; Josten, Christoph; Sichting, Freddy; Winkler, Dirk; Milani, Thomas L.; Hammer, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is frequently involved in low back and pelvic girdle pain. However, morphometrical and functional characteristics related to SIJ pain are poorly defined. Pelvic belts represent one treatment option, but evidence still lacks as to their pain-reducing effects and the mechanisms involved. Addressing these two issues, this case-controlled study compares morphometric, functional and clinical data in SIJ patients and healthy controls and evaluates the effects of short-term pelvic belt application. Methods Morphometric and functional data pertaining to pelvic belt effects were compared in 17 SIJ patients and 17 controls. Lumbar spine and pelvis morphometries were obtained from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Functional electromyography data of pelvis and leg muscles and center of pressure excursions were measured in one-leg stance. The numerical rating scale was used to evaluate immediate pain-reducing effects. Results Pelvic morphometry was largely unaltered in SIJ patients and also by pelvic belt application. The angle of lumbar lateral flexion was significantly larger in SIJ patients without belt application. Muscle activity and center of pressure were unaffected by SIJ pain or by belt application in one-leg stance. Nine of 17 patients reported decreased pain intensities under moderate belt application, four reported no change and four reported increased pain intensity. For the entire population investigated here, this qualitative description was not confirmed on a statistical significant level. Discussion Minute changes were observed in the alignment of the lumbar spine in the frontal plane in SIJ patients. The potential pain-decreasing effects of pelvic belts could not be attributed to altered muscle activity, pelvic morphometry or body balance in a static short-term application. Long-term belt effects will therefore be of prospective interest. PMID:25781325

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of posterior sacroiliac complex pain: a systematic review with comprehensive analysis of the published data.

    PubMed

    King, Wade; Ahmed, Shihab U; Baisden, Jamie; Patel, Nileshkumar; Kennedy, David J; Duszynski, Belinda; MacVicar, John

    2015-02-01

    To assess the evidence on the validity of sacral lateral branch blocks and the effectiveness of sacral lateral branch thermal radiofrequency neurotomy in managing sacroiliac complex pain. Systematic review with comprehensive analysis of all published data. Six reviewers searched the literature on sacral lateral branch interventions. Each assessed the methodologies of studies found and the quality of the evidence presented. The outcomes assessed were diagnostic validity and effectiveness of treatment for sacroiliac complex pain. The evidence found was appraised in accordance with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system of evaluating scientific evidence. The searches yielded two primary publications on sacral lateral branch blocks and 15 studies of the effectiveness of sacral lateral branch thermal radiofrequency neurotomy. One study showed multisite, multidepth sacral lateral branch blocks can anesthetize the posterior sacroiliac ligaments. Therapeutic studies show sacral lateral branch thermal radiofrequency neurotomy can relieve sacroiliac complex pain to some extent. The evidence of the validity of these blocks and the effectiveness of this treatment were rated as moderate in accordance with the GRADE system. The literature on sacral lateral branch interventions is sparse. One study demonstrates the face validity of multisite, multidepth sacral lateral branch blocks for diagnosis of posterior sacroiliac complex pain. Some evidence of moderate quality exists on therapeutic procedures, but it is insufficient to determine the indications and effectiveness of sacral lateral branch thermal radiofrequency neurotomy, and more research is required. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sandwich Hologram Interferometry For Determination Of Sacroiliac Joint Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukicevic, S.; Vinter, I.; Vukicevic, D.

    1983-12-01

    Investigations were carried out on embalmed and fresh specimens of human pelvisis with preserved lumbar spines, hip joints and all the ligaments. Specimens were tested under static vertical loading by pulsed laser interferometry. The deformations and behaviour of particular pelvic parts were interpreted by providing computer interferogram models. Results indicate rotation and tilting of the sacrum in the dorso-ventral direction and small but significant movements in the cranio-caudal direction. Sandwich holography proved to be the only applicable method when there is a combination of translation and tilt in the range of 200 μm to 1.5 mm.

  7. The influence of simulated transversus abdominis muscle force on sacroiliac joint flexibility during asymmetric moment application to the pelvis.

    PubMed

    Gnat, Rafael; Spoor, Kees; Pool-Goudzwaard, Annelies

    2015-10-01

    The role of so-called local muscle system in motor control of the lower back and pelvis is a subject of ongoing debate. Prevailing beliefs in stabilizing function of this system were recently challenged. This study investigated the impact of in vitro simulated force of transversely oriented fibres of the transversus abdominis muscle (a part of the local system) on flexibility of the sacroiliac joint during asymmetric moment application to the pelvis. In 8 embalmed specimens an incremental moment was applied in the sagittal plane to one innominate with respect to the fixed contralateral innominate. Ranges of motion of the sacroiliac joint were recorded using the Vicon Motion Capture System. Load-deformation curves were plotted and flexibility of the sacroiliac joint was calculated separately for anterior and posterior rotations of the innominate, with and without simulated muscle force. Flexibility of the sacroiliac joint was significantly bigger during anterior rotation of the innominate, as compared to posterior rotation (Anova P<0.05). After application of simulated force of transversus abdominis, flexibility of the joint did not change both during anterior and posterior rotations of the innominate. A lack of a stiffening effect of simulated transversus abdominis force on the sacroiliac joint was demonstrated. Earlier hypotheses suggesting a stiffening influence of this muscle on the pelvis cannot be confirmed. Consistent with previous findings smaller flexibility of the joint recorded during posterior rotation of the innominate may be of clinical importance for physio- and manual therapists. However, major limitations of the study should be acknowledged: in vitro conditions and simulation of only solitary muscle force. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Triangular Titanium Implants for Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion: 2-Year Follow-Up from a Prospective Multicenter Trial.

    PubMed

    Duhon, Bradley S; Bitan, Fabien; Lockstadt, Harry; Kovalsky, Don; Cher, Daniel; Hillen, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is an underdiagnosed condition. Several published cohorts have reported favorable mid-term outcomes after SIJ fusion using titanium implants placed across the SIJ. Herein we report long-term (24-month) results from a prospective multicenter clinical trial. One hundred and seventy-two subjects at 26 US sites with SI joint dysfunction were enrolled and underwent minimally invasive SI joint fusion with triangular titanium implants. Subjects underwent structured assessments preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months postoperatively, including SIJ pain ratings (0-100 visual analog scale), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 (SF-36), EuroQOL-5D (EQ-5D), and patient satisfaction. Adverse events were collected throughout follow-up. All participating patients underwent a high-resolution pelvic CT scan at 1 year. Mean subject age was 50.9 years and 69.8% were women. SIJ pain was present for an average of 5.1 years prior to surgical treatment. SIJ pain decreased from 79.8 at baseline to 30.4 at 12 months and remained low at 26.0 at 24 months (p<.0001 for change from baseline). ODI decreased from 55.2 at baseline to 31.5 at 12 months and remained low at 30.9 at 24 months (p<.0001 for change from baseline). Quality of life (SF-36 and EQ-5D) improvements seen at 12 months were sustained at 24 months. The proportion of subjects taking opioids for SIJ or low back pain decreased from 76.2% at baseline to 55.0% at 24 months (p <.0001). To date, 8 subjects (4.7%) have undergone one or more revision SIJ surgeries. 7 device-related adverse events occurred. CT scan at one year showed a high rate (97%) of bone adherence to at least 2 implants on both the iliac and sacral sides with modest rates of bone growth across the SIJ. In this study of patients with SIJ dysfunction, minimally invasive SI joint fusion using triangular titanium implants showed marked improvements in pain, disability and quality of life at 2 years. Imaging showed

  9. Triangular Titanium Implants for Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion: 2-Year Follow-Up from a Prospective Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bitan, Fabien; Lockstadt, Harry; Kovalsky, Don; Cher, Daniel; Hillen, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Background Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is an underdiagnosed condition. Several published cohorts have reported favorable mid-term outcomes after SIJ fusion using titanium implants placed across the SIJ. Herein we report long-term (24-month) results from a prospective multicenter clinical trial. Methods One hundred and seventy-two subjects at 26 US sites with SI joint dysfunction were enrolled and underwent minimally invasive SI joint fusion with triangular titanium implants. Subjects underwent structured assessments preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months postoperatively, including SIJ pain ratings (0-100 visual analog scale), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 (SF-36), EuroQOL-5D (EQ-5D), and patient satisfaction. Adverse events were collected throughout follow-up. All participating patients underwent a high-resolution pelvic CT scan at 1 year. Results Mean subject age was 50.9 years and 69.8% were women. SIJ pain was present for an average of 5.1 years prior to surgical treatment. SIJ pain decreased from 79.8 at baseline to 30.4 at 12 months and remained low at 26.0 at 24 months (p<.0001 for change from baseline). ODI decreased from 55.2 at baseline to 31.5 at 12 months and remained low at 30.9 at 24 months (p<.0001 for change from baseline). Quality of life (SF-36 and EQ-5D) improvements seen at 12 months were sustained at 24 months. The proportion of subjects taking opioids for SIJ or low back pain decreased from 76.2% at baseline to 55.0% at 24 months (p <.0001). To date, 8 subjects (4.7%) have undergone one or more revision SIJ surgeries. 7 device-related adverse events occurred. CT scan at one year showed a high rate (97%) of bone adherence to at least 2 implants on both the iliac and sacral sides with modest rates of bone growth across the SIJ. Conclusions In this study of patients with SIJ dysfunction, minimally invasive SI joint fusion using triangular titanium implants showed marked improvements in pain, disability and

  10. The ability of multi-site, multi-depth sacral lateral branch blocks to anesthetize the sacroiliac joint complex.

    PubMed

    Dreyfuss, Paul; Henning, Troy; Malladi, Niriksha; Goldstein, Barry; Bogduk, Nikolai

    2009-01-01

    To determine the physiologic effectiveness of multi-site, multi-depth sacral lateral branch injections. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Outpatient pain management center. Twenty asymptomatic volunteers. The dorsal innervation to the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is from the L5 dorsal ramus and the S1-3 lateral branches. Multi-site, multi-depth lateral branch blocks were developed to compensate for the complex regional anatomy that limited the effectiveness of single-site, single-depth lateral branch injections. Bilateral multi-site, multi-depth lateral branch green dye injections and subsequent dissection on two cadavers revealed a 91% accuracy with this technique. Session 1: 20 asymptomatic subjects had a 25-g spinal needle probe their interosseous (IO) and dorsal sacroiliac (DSI) ligaments. The inferior dorsal SIJ was entered and capsular distension with contrast medium was performed. Discomfort had to occur with each provocation maneuver and a contained arthrogram was necessary to continue in the study. Session 2: 1 week later; computer randomized, double-blind multi-site, multi-depth lateral branch blocks injections were performed. Ten subjects received active (bupivicaine 0.75%) and 10 subjects received sham (normal saline) multi-site, multi-depth lateral branch injections. Thirty minutes later, provocation testing was repeated with identical methodology used in session 1. Presence or absence of pain for ligamentous probing and SIJ capsular distension. Seventy percent of the active group had an insensate IO and DSI ligaments, and inferior dorsal SIJ vs 0-10% of the sham group. Twenty percent of the active vs 10% of the sham group did not feel repeat capsular distension. Six of seven subjects (86%) retained the ability to feel repeat capsular distension despite an insensate dorsal SIJ complex. Multi-site, multi-depth lateral branch blocks are physiologically effective at a rate of 70%. Multi-site, multi-depth lateral branch blocks do not

  11. Monosodium urate crystal deposition associated with the progress of radiographic grade at the sacroiliac joint in axial SpA: a dual-energy CT study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junqing; Li, Aiwu; Jia, Ertao; Zhou, Yi; Xu, Juan; Chen, Shixian; Huang, Yinger; Xiao, Xiang; Li, Juan

    2017-05-02

    Previous studies have revealed that ankylosing spondylitis (AS), as the progenitor of axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA), has been characterized by the insidiously progressive nature of sacroiliitis and spondylitis. Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has recently been used to analyse the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals with higher sensitivity and specificity. However, it remains unclear whether the existence of the MSU crystal deposition detected by DECT at the sacroiliac joint in patients with AxSpA also is associated with the existing structural damage. Here, we performed this study to show the DECT MSU crystal deposits in AxSpA patients without coexisting gout and to ascertain the relationship between the MSU crystal deposition and the structural joint damage of sacroiliac joints. One hundred and eighty-six AxSpA patients without coexisting gout were recruited. The plain radiographs of the sacroiliac joint were obtained, along with the DECT scans at the pelvis and the clinical variables. All statistics based on the left or right sacroiliac joint damage grading (0-4) were calculated independently. Bivariate analysis and ordinal logistic regression was performed between the clinical features and radiographic grades at the sacroiliac joint. At the pelvis, large quantities of MSU crystal deposition were found in patients with AxSpA. The average MSU crystal volume at the left sacroiliac joint, the right sacroiliac joint, and the pelvis were 0.902 ± 1.345, 1.074 ± 1.878, and 5.272 ± 9.044 cm 3 , values which were correlated with serum uric acid concentrations (r = 0.727, 0.740, 0.896; p < 0.001). In bivariate analysis, wide clinical variables were associated with the changes in sacroiliac joint damage. Further, the AxSpA duration, BASFI score, and the volume of MSU crystal at both sides of sacroiliac joint were associated with the progress of radiographic grade at the sacroiliac joints in the ordinal logistic models (left AOR

  12. Quality of life in preoperative patients with sacroiliac joint dysfunction is at least as depressed as in other lumbar spinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Cher, Daniel Joseph; Reckling, W Carlton

    2015-01-01

    Pain from the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is an under-recognized cause of low back pain. The degree to which SIJ pain decreases quality of life has not been directly compared to other more familiar conditions of the lumbar spine. Multivariate regression analysis of individual patient data from two prospective multicenter clinical trials of SIJ fusion and three prospective multicenter clinical trials of surgical treatments for degenerative lumbar spine conditions. Controlling for baseline demographic parameters as well as a validated disability score, quality of life scores (EuroQOL 5-D and SF-36) were, in most cases, lower in the SIJ cohorts compared to the three other spine surgery cohorts. Patients with SIJ dysfunction considering surgery have decrements in quality of life as or more severe compared to patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis, spinal stenosis, and intervertebral disc herniation.

  13. MRI of the sacroiliac joints in spondyloarthritis: the added value of intra-articular signal changes for a 'positive MRI'.

    PubMed

    Laloo, Frederiek; Herregods, N; Jaremko, J L; Verstraete, K; Jans, L

    2018-05-01

    To determine if intra-articular signal changes at the sacroiliac joint space on MRI have added diagnostic value for spondyloarthritis, when compared to bone marrow edema (BME). A retrospective study was performed on the MRIs of sacroiliac joints of 363 patients, aged 16-45 years, clinically suspected of sacroiliitis. BME of the sacroiliac joints was correlated to intra-articular sacroiliac joint MR signal changes: high T1 signal, fluid signal, ankylosis and vacuum phenomenon (VP). These MRI findings were correlated with final clinical diagnosis. Sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), likelihood ratios (LR), predictive values and post-test probabilities were calculated. BME had SN of 68.9%, SP of 74.0% and LR+ of 2.6 for diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. BME in absence of intra-articular signal changes had a lower SN and LR+ for spondyloarthritis (SN = 20.5%, LR+ 1.4). Concomitant BME and high T1 signal (SP = 97.2%, LR + = 10.5), BME and fluid signal (SP = 98.6%, LR + = 10.3) or BME and ankylosis (SP = 100%) had higher SP and LR+ for spondyloarthritis. Concomitant BME and VP had low LR+ for spondyloarthritis (SP = 91%, LR + =0.9). When BME was absent, intra-articular signal changes were less prevalent, but remained highly specific for spondyloarthritis. Our results suggest that both periarticular and intra-articular MR signal of the sacroiliac joint should be examined to determine whether an MRI is 'positive' or 'not positive' for sacroiliitis associated with spondyloarthritis.

  14. Anatomy and biomechanics of gluteus maximus and the thoracolumbar fascia at the sacroiliac joint.

    PubMed

    Barker, P J; Hapuarachchi, K S; Ross, J A; Sambaiew, E; Ranger, T A; Briggs, C A

    2014-03-01

    Biomechanical models predict that recruitment of gluteus maximus (GMax) will exert a compressive force across the sacroiliac joint (SIJ), yet this muscle requires morphologic assessment. The aims of this study were to document GMax's proximal attachments and assess their capacity to generate forces including compressive force at the SIJ. In 11 embalmed cadaver limbs, attachments of GMax crossing the SIJ were dissected and their fascicle orientation, length and attachment volume documented. The physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of each attachment was calculated along with its estimated maximum force at the SIJ and lumbar spine. GMax fascicles originated from the gluteus medius fascia, ilium, thoracolumbar fascia, erector spinae aponeurosis, sacrum, coccyx, dorsal sacroiliac and sacrotuberous ligaments in all specimens. Their mean fascicle orientation ranged from 32 to 45° below horizontal and mean length from 11 to 18 cm. The mean total PCSA of GMax was 26 cm(2) (range 16-36), of which 70% crossed the SIJ. The average maximum force predicted to be generated by GMax's total attachments crossing each SIJ was 891 N (range 572-1,215), of which 70% (702 N: range 450-1,009) could act perpendicular to the plane of the SIJ. The capacity of GMax to generate an extensor moment at lower lumbar segments was estimated at 4 Nm (range 2-9.5). GMax may generate compressive forces at the SIJ through its bony and fibrous attachments. These may assist effective load transfer between lower limbs and trunk. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Durable intermediate-to long-term outcomes after minimally invasive transiliac sacroiliac joint fusion using triangular titanium implants

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Donald; Kovalsky, Don; Redmond, Andy; Limoni, Robert; Meyer, S Craig; Harvey, Charles; Kondrashov, Dimitriy

    2016-01-01

    Background Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion (SIJF), first performed 95 years ago, has become an increasingly accepted surgical option for chronic SIJ dysfunction. Few studies have reported intermediate- or long-term outcomes after SIJF. Objective The objective of this study is to determine patient-based outcomes after SIJF for chronic SIJ dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis or SIJ disruption at ≥3 years of follow-up. Methods Consecutive patients who underwent SIJF prior to December 2012 were contacted over phone or through email. Participants completed questionnaires in clinic, over phone or by email, regarding SIJ pain, activities related to SIJ dysfunction, and the Oswestry Disability Index. Charts were reviewed to extract baseline parameters and the clinical course of follow-up. Results One hundred seven patients were eligible and participated in this study. Mean (standard deviation) preoperative SIJ pain score was 7.5 (1.7). At mean follow-up of 3.7 years, the mean SIJ pain score was 2.6 (representing a 4.8-point improvement from baseline, P<0.0001) and the mean Oswestry Disability Index was 28.2. The ability to perform activities commonly impaired by SIJ dysfunction showed positive improvements in most patients. SIJ revision surgery was uncommon (five patients, 4.7%). Fourteen patients (13.1%) underwent contralateral SIJF during follow-up, 25.2% of patients had additional non-SIJ-related lumbar spine or hip surgeries during follow-up. Conclusion In intermediate- to long-term follow-up, minimally invasive transiliac SIJF was associated with improved pain, low disability scores, and improved ability to perform activities of daily living. PMID:27471413

  16. Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Using a Novel Hydroxyapatite-Coated Screw: Preliminary 1-Year Clinical and Radiographic Results of a 2-Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Rappoport, Louis H; Luna, Ingrid Y; Joshua, Gita

    2017-05-01

    Proper diagnosis and treatment of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain remains a clinical challenge. Dysfunction of the SIJ can produce pain in the lower back, buttocks, and extremities. Triangular titanium implants for minimally invasive surgical arthrodesis have been available for several years, with reputed high levels of success and patient satisfaction. This study reports on a novel hydroxyapatite-coated screw for surgical treatment of SIJ pain. Data were prospectively collected on 32 consecutive patients who underwent minimally invasive SIJ fusion with a novel hydroxyapatite-coated screw. Clinical assessments and radiographs were collected and evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Mean (standard deviation) patient age was 55.2 ± 10.7 years, and 62.5% were female. More patients (53.1%) underwent left versus right SIJ treatment, mean operative time was 42.6 ± 20.4 minutes, and estimated blood loss did not exceed 50 mL. Overnight hospital stay was required for 84% of patients, and the remaining patients needed a 2-day stay (16%). Mean preoperative visual analog scale back and leg pain scores decreased significantly by 12 months postoperatively (P < 0.01). Mechanical stability was achieved in 93.3% (28/30) of patients, and all patients who were employed preoperatively returned to work within 3 months. Two patients who required revision surgery reported symptom improvement within 3 weeks and did not require subsequent surgery. Positive clinical outcomes are reported 1 year postoperatively after implantation of a novel implant to treat sacroiliac joint pain. Future clinical studies with larger samples are warranted to assess long-term patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ureteric entrapment in sacroiliac joint causing hydroureter and ipsilateral kidney hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Otsuru, Yurie; Kondo, Chuichi; Hara, Shohei; Takahashi, Hideo; Matsuno, Kenjiro

    2018-06-01

    A unilateral megaureter was found in an elderly female cadaver during routine dissection. The left proximal ureter, which was thick and convolute, descended and entered into the pelvic cavity, where the distal ureter was attached to the posterior pelvic wall at the inlet level. Removal of connective tissue surrounding the attached region revealed ureteric entrapment in the sacroiliac joint. The ipsilateral kidney, from which the megaureter originated, showed no pelvicalyceal dilatation. In contrast, the left kidney was enlarged, weighing 24% more than the right kidney. Differences in the upper urinary system between the obstructed and normal sides were examined in terms of gross anatomy, measurements, and histology. Although ureteric obstruction frequently causes hydroureter and hydronephrosis, the present case is very rare as the incomplete obstruction may have stimulated ipsilateral kidney growth, instead of contralateral compensatory augmentation.

  18. Scintigraphy of sacroiliac joints in acute anterior uveitis. A study of thirty patients.

    PubMed

    Russell, A S; Lentle, B C; Percy, J S; Jackson, F I

    1976-11-01

    HLA-B27 is a transplantation antigen found in a high proportion of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Recently, an association has been shown to exist between HLA-B27 and acute uveitis, even in the absence of ankylosing spondylitis. We have examined the HLA antigen profile of 45 patients with acute nongranulomatous anterior uveitis and have confirmed this relation. In addition, using 90mtechnetium stannous pyrophosphate we have been able to demonstrate abnormal bone scan in 19 of 30 patients studied. Such abnormalities are limited to the sacroiliac joints but are otherwise the same as those seen in overt ankylosing spondylitis. Seven of the 19 patients did not have HLA-B27. These factors suggest that acute anterior uveitis may often represent a manifestation of a spondylitic diathesis even in the complete absence of any suggestive symptomatic or radiologic change and, in some cases, even though the antigenic marker HLA-B27 may be absent.

  19. Clinical Outcome Following Radiofrequency Denervation for Refractory Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction Using the Simplicity III Probe: A 12-Month Retrospective Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint syndrome (SIJ) is diagnosed in 10% to 25% of cases of lower back pain. The response to traditional radiofrequency (RF) denervation of the SIJ has being inconsistent. The Simplicity III RF probe (Neruotherm. Inc.) offers a novel treatment option. To evaluate the long-term clinical outcome (12 months) refractory SIJ syndrome in terms of pain intensity and functional improvement. A 50% reduction in intensity pain intensity (VAS) at 12 months was deemed clinically significant. A 12-month retrospective observational evaluation all of adults treated with RF for refractory SIJ. Chronic pain management center. The medical records of all adults treated with this technique was retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was pain intensity scores (VAS) over a 12 months period; Secondary outcomes included Roland-Morris Functional scores (RMF), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), general health assessment (Sf12), and patient satisfaction scores (GPI), which were recorded pre and post denervation. Pain Intensity improved by 4.7 points compared to pre-treatment representing a 61% reduction in pain at 12 months (n=11, P < 0.001). Significant improvements in (a) RMF (P < 0.01, W2 = 0.63 (large effect size); (b) BPI (P < 0.001, W2 = 0.72 (strong effect size); and (c) Sf12 (P < 0.01) were noted. Overall patients were satisfied with the outcome (GPI = 77.7%). The retrospective in nature of the study and the small sample size are limitations. As it was our policy to monitor the progress of the individuals since the introduction of this technique a reliable method of recording the baseline and outcome variables at each point of contact was in place. Access to a complete set of variables in all individuals over a 12-month period was therefore possible, which we feel contributes to the quality of the dataset. By creating a consistent radiofrequency lesion between the sacral foramen and the SIJ will reliably capture the innervation to the SIJ with significant long-term clinical

  20. [Clinical Trial to Test the iFuse Implant System® in Patients with Sacroiliac Joint Syndrome: One Year Results].

    PubMed

    Bornemann, R; Pflugmacher, R; Webler, M; Koch, E M W; Dengler, J; Wirtz, D C; Frey, S P

    2016-12-01

    Background: This study reports one year post-operative monitoring of the efficacy and safety of iFuse Implant System® in patients with sacroiliac joint syndrome. Material and Methods: After 6 months of inadequate conservative treatment, patients with properly proven ISG syndrome were selected for surgery. The iFuse implants had a triangular profile and coating of porous titanium plasma spray and were used in the minimally invasive procedures. The procedure was performed under general anaesthesia and fluoroscopic control. In each case, three implants were placed. Results: 24 patients (22 f; 92 %; 54.9 ± 14 years) participated in the study. The operations were performed in 11 patients (46 %) on the left and in 13 patients (54 %) on the right. The mean operative time was 42.4 minutes (95 % CI: 35.6-49.3). The reduction in pain intensity on the VAS scale was 58 ± 11 mm (68 ± 7 %). The Oswestry score showed a median decrease of 44 percentage points (57 %). After 12 months, 15 patients (63 %) reported that they were taking no more painkillers. Conclusion: The minimally invasive treatment of patients with sacroiliac joint syndrome using the iFuse Implant System leads to significant analgesic effects over the period of one year; it also contributes significantly to improving the functioning of the patient. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. The Use of Informative Priors in Bayesian Modeling Age-at-death; a Quick Look at Chronological and Biological Age Changes in the Sacroiliac Joint in American Males.

    PubMed

    Godde, Kanya

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine how well different informative priors model age-at-death in Bayesian statistics, which will shed light on how the skeleton ages, particularly at the sacroiliac joint. Data from four samples were compared for their performance as informative priors for auricular surface age-at-death estimation: (1) American population from US Census data; (2) county data from the US Census data; (3) a local cemetery; and (4) a skeletal collection. The skeletal collection and cemetery are located within the county that was sampled. A Gompertz model was applied to compare survivorship across the four samples. Transition analysis parameters, coupled with the generated Gompertz parameters, were input into Bayes' theorem to generate highest posterior density ranges from posterior density functions. Transition analysis describes the age at which an individual transitions from one age phase to another. The result is age ranges that should describe the chronological age of 90% of the individuals who fall in a particular phase. Cumulative binomial tests indicate the method performed lower than 90% at capturing chronological age as assigned to a biological phase, despite wide age ranges at older ages. The samples performed similarly overall, despite small differences in survivorship. Collectively, these results show that as we age, the senescence pattern becomes more variable. More local samples performed better at describing the aging process than more general samples, which implies practitioners need to consider sample selection when using the literature to diagnose and work with patients with sacroiliac joint pain.

  2. The Use of Informative Priors in Bayesian Modeling Age-at-death; a Quick Look at Chronological and Biological Age Changes in the Sacroiliac Joint in American Males

    PubMed Central

    Godde, Kanya

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine how well different informative priors model age-at-death in Bayesian statistics, which will shed light on how the skeleton ages, particularly at the sacroiliac joint. Data from four samples were compared for their performance as informative priors for auricular surface age-at-death estimation: (1) American population from US Census data; (2) county data from the US Census data; (3) a local cemetery; and (4) a skeletal collection. The skeletal collection and cemetery are located within the county that was sampled. A Gompertz model was applied to compare survivorship across the four samples. Transition analysis parameters, coupled with the generated Gompertz parameters, were input into Bayes' theorem to generate highest posterior density ranges from posterior density functions. Transition analysis describes the age at which an individual transitions from one age phase to another. The result is age ranges that should describe the chronological age of 90% of the individuals who fall in a particular phase. Cumulative binomial tests indicate the method performed lower than 90% at capturing chronological age as assigned to a biological phase, despite wide age ranges at older ages. The samples performed similarly overall, despite small differences in survivorship. Collectively, these results show that as we age, the senescence pattern becomes more variable. More local samples performed better at describing the aging process than more general samples, which implies practitioners need to consider sample selection when using the literature to diagnose and work with patients with sacroiliac joint pain. PMID:29546217

  3. T2-mapping of the sacroiliac joints at 1.5 Tesla: a feasibility and reproducibility study.

    PubMed

    Albano, Domenico; Chianca, Vito; Cuocolo, Renato; Bignone, Rodolfo; Ciccia, Francesco; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Midiri, Massimo; Brunetti, Arturo; Lagalla, Roberto; Galia, Massimo

    2018-04-20

    To evaluate the reproducibility of T2 relaxation time measurements of the sacroiliac joints at 1.5 T. Healthy volunteers underwent an oblique axial multislice multiecho spin-echo sequence of the sacroiliac joints at 1.5 T. Regions of interest were manually drawn using a dedicated software by two musculoskeletal radiologists to include the cartilaginous part of the sacroiliac joints. A senior radiologist performed the measurement twice, while a resident measured once. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was tested using the Bland-Altman method. Association between sex and T2 relaxation times was tested using the Mann-Whitney U test. Correlation between T2 relaxation times and body mass index (BMI) was tested using the Spearman's rho. Eighty sacroiliac joints of 40 subjects (mean age: 28 ± 4.8 years, range: 20-43; mean BMI: 23.3 ± 3.1, range: 18.9-30) were imaged. The mean T2 values obtained by the senior radiologist in the first series of measurements were 42 ± 4.4 ms, whereas in the second series were 40.7 ± 4.5 ms. The mean T2 values obtained by the radiology resident were 41.1 ± 4.2 ms. Intra-observer reproducibility was 88% (coefficient of repeatability = 3.8; bias = 1.28; p < .001), while inter-observer reproducibility was 86% (4.7; -.88; p < .001). There was significant association between sex and T2 relaxation times (p = .024) and significant inverse correlation between T2 relaxation times and BMI (r = -.340, p = .002). The assessment of T2 relaxation time measurements of sacroiliac joints seems to be highly reproducible at 1.5 T. Further studies could investigate the potential clinical application of this tool in the sacroiliac joints.

  4. The efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy in treating sacroiliac joint tuberculosis with a chronic sinus tract: a case series.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaobo; Tang, Xiangyu; Ma, Yuanzheng; Zhang, Yonggang; Fang, Shuzhi

    2015-08-06

    Tuberculous sacroiliitis with abscess accounts for approximately 50 % of all sacroiliac joint tuberculosis cases. Tuberculous abscesses spread into the sacroiliac joint capsule, subcutaneous tissue, and the skin, and finally becomes a skin sinus. As there are no previous reports about sacroiliac joint tuberculosis with a chronic sinus, we evaluated its clinical characteristics and management by negative pressure wound therapy. A retrospective analysis of 12 patients with sacroiliac joint tuberculosis with chronic sinuses treated between January 2005 and January 2010 was conducted. Patients were treated with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Treatment was divided into three phases: control phase, standard dressing changes daily for 4 weeks; interphase washout period, dressing changes every 3 days for 1 week; and intervention phase, no dressing changes until minimal sinus tract drainage (<5 ml per 24 h). Outcomes including the sinus healing time and the drainage volume were evaluated. The mean follow-up was 37.1 months. Sinus healing was observed at an average of 25.25 ± 7.23 (range, 20-42) days after initial treatment. The mean volume of drainage did not change during the control phase, but decreased from 29.17 ± 16.63 to 0.25 ± 0.87 ml in the intervention phase. The mean daily reduction of wound volume, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the intervention phase was greater than in the control phase (P < 0.05). Anti-tubercular therapy was administered an average of 14.00 ± 2.95 (range, 12-18) months. ESR and CRP returned to normal within 3 months after the sinus closure. Bony fusion was observed in 5 (41.7 %) patients, and fibrous ankylosis in the other patients at last follow-up. All patients healed uneventfully. Early diagnosis of sacroiliac joint tuberculosis with a chronic sinus can be difficult. NPWT provides better healing of sacroiliac joint tuberculosis with a chronic sinus than

  5. Two-year clinical results of patients with sacroiliac joint syndrome treated by arthrodesis using a triangular implant system.

    PubMed

    Bornemann, Rahel; Roessler, Philip P; Strauss, Andreas C; Sander, Kirsten; Rommelspacher, Yorck; Wirtz, Dieter C; Pflugmacher, Robert; Frey, Sönke P

    2017-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) syndrome can cause various symptoms and may also be one reason for persistent low back pain, especially in patients with prior spinal fusions. If conservative treatments fail to improve symptoms, arthrodesis surgery can be considered. Minimally invasive approaches have emerged recently providing a good alternative to conventional methods. A novel triangular implant system (iFuse) can achieve an arthrodesis of the SIJ without the use of additional screws or bone material. Aim of the present study was an evaluation of short-term safety and efficacy of the implant system. Twenty-four patients were included in the study and treated with the iFuse system. In addition to demographic data, pain intensity (visual analogue scale) and functional impairment (Oswestry-disability index) were assessed prior to surgery and 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months thereafter. During surgery and the follow up period all adverse events were documented and the correct implant position was controlled via plain radiographs. VAS scores and ODI improved significantly directly after surgery from 84.3 ± 9.2 mm to 40.7 ± 9.2 mm and from 76.8 ± 9.2% to 40.7 ± 9.2 % (p < 0.001). The ODI improved further to 31 ± 5.4% after 24 months whereas the VAS improved until the 3 months examination and ten stayed constant between 27.7 mm and 26.5 mm to 27 ± 6.6 mm at 24 months. No adverse events, intraoperative complications, implant malpositioning or loosening could be recorded at any time. The iFuse system is an effective and safe treatment for minimally invasive surgical arthrodesis of the SIJ. Pain and functional impairment can be significantly improved. However, in addition to this case series, further controlled studies are necessary, particularly in terms of a previous spinal fusion history.

  6. Sacroiliac joint stability: Finite element analysis of implant number, orientation, and superior implant length.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Derek P; Kiapour, Ali; Yerby, Scott A; Goel, Vijay K

    2018-03-18

    To analyze how various implants placement variables affect sacroiliac (SI) joint range of motion. An experimentally validated finite element model of the lumbar spine and pelvis was used to simulate a fusion of the SI joint using various placement configurations of triangular implants (iFuse Implant System ® ). Placement configurations were varied by changing implant orientation, superior implant length, and number of implants. The range of motion of the SI joint was calculated using a constant moment of 10 N-m with a follower load of 400 N. The changes in motion were compared between the treatment groups to assess how the different variables affected the overall motion of the SI joint. Transarticular placement of 3 implants with superior implants that end in the middle of the sacrum resulted in the greatest reduction in range of motion (flexion/extension = 73%, lateral bending = 42%, axial rotation = 72%). The range of motions of the SI joints were reduced with use of transarticular orientation (9%-18%) when compared with an inline orientation. The use of a superior implant that ended mid-sacrum resulted in median reductions of (8%-14%) when compared with a superior implant that ended in the middle of the ala. Reducing the number of implants, resulted in increased SI joint range of motions for the 1 and 2 implant models of 29%-133% and 2%-39%, respectively, when compared with the 3 implant model. Using a validated finite element model we demonstrated that placement of 3 implants across the SI joint using a transarticular orientation with superior implant reaching the sacral midline resulted in the most stable construct. Additional clinical studies may be required to confirm these results.

  7. Sacroiliac joint stability: Finite element analysis of implant number, orientation, and superior implant length

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Derek P; Kiapour, Ali; Yerby, Scott A; Goel, Vijay K

    2018-01-01

    AIM To analyze how various implants placement variables affect sacroiliac (SI) joint range of motion. METHODS An experimentally validated finite element model of the lumbar spine and pelvis was used to simulate a fusion of the SI joint using various placement configurations of triangular implants (iFuse Implant System®). Placement configurations were varied by changing implant orientation, superior implant length, and number of implants. The range of motion of the SI joint was calculated using a constant moment of 10 N-m with a follower load of 400 N. The changes in motion were compared between the treatment groups to assess how the different variables affected the overall motion of the SI joint. RESULTS Transarticular placement of 3 implants with superior implants that end in the middle of the sacrum resulted in the greatest reduction in range of motion (flexion/extension = 73%, lateral bending = 42%, axial rotation = 72%). The range of motions of the SI joints were reduced with use of transarticular orientation (9%-18%) when compared with an inline orientation. The use of a superior implant that ended mid-sacrum resulted in median reductions of (8%-14%) when compared with a superior implant that ended in the middle of the ala. Reducing the number of implants, resulted in increased SI joint range of motions for the 1 and 2 implant models of 29%-133% and 2%-39%, respectively, when compared with the 3 implant model. CONCLUSION Using a validated finite element model we demonstrated that placement of 3 implants across the SI joint using a transarticular orientation with superior implant reaching the sacral midline resulted in the most stable construct. Additional clinical studies may be required to confirm these results. PMID:29564210

  8. Making Better Lives: Patient-Focused Care for Low Back Pain (LBP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-26

    Chronic Low Back Pain; Hip Ostearthritis; Myofascial Pain Syndrome; Fibromyalgia; Depression; Maladaptive Coping; Lumbar Spinal Stenosis; Insomnia; Sacroiliac Joint Pain; Lateral Hip and Thigh Pain; Anxiety; Dementia; Recent Leg Length Discrepancy

  9. Radiological evaluation of the posterior pelvic ring in paediatric patients: Results of a retrospective study developing age- and gender-related non-osseous baseline characteristics in paediatric pelvic computed tomography - References for suspected sacroiliac joint injury.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Jörg; Neubauer, Jakob; Saueressig, Ulrich; Südkamp, Norbert Paul; Reising, Kilian

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of paediatric pelvic injury is low, yet they are often indicative of accompanying injuries, and an instable pelvis at presentation is related to long-term poor outcome. Judging diastasis of the sacroiliac joint in paediatric pelvic computed tomography is challenging, as information on their normal appearance is scarce. We therefore sought to generate age- and gender-related standard width measurements of the sacroiliac joint in children for comparison. A total of 427 pelvic computed tomography scans in paediatric patients (<18 years old) were retrospectively evaluated. After applying exclusion criteria, 350 scans remained for measurements. Taking a standard approach we measured the sacroiliac joint width bilaterally in axial and coronal planes. We illustrate age- and gender-related measurements of the sacroiliac joint width as a designated continuous 3rd, 15th, 50th, 85th and 97th centile graph, respectively. Means and standard deviations in the joint width are reported for four age groups. There are distinct changes in the sacroiliac joint's appearance during growth. In general, male children exhibit broader sacroiliac joints than females at the same age, although this difference is significant only in the 11 to 15-year-old age group. The sacroiliac joint width in children as measured in coronal and axial CT scans differs in association with age and gender. When the sacroiliac joint width is broader than the 97th centile published in our study, we strongly encourage considering a sacroiliac joint injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypothyroidism: Does It Cause Joint Pain?

    MedlinePlus

    Hypothyroidism: Does it cause joint pain? Can hypothyroidism cause joint pain? I have hypothyroidism and have been experiencing severe arthritis-like pain in my shoulders and hips. Answers from Todd B. ...

  11. [Operative treatment of sacroiliac joint fracture and dislocation in Tile C pelvic fracture with Colorado 2 system].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuping; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Yuehong; Chen, Xi; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Desheng; Fang, Zhi; Xu, Wei

    2011-12-01

    To explore the effectiveness of Colorado 2 system in the stability reconstruction of sacroiliac joint fracture and dislocation in Tile C pelvic fracture. Between February 2009 and January 2011, 8 cases of Tile C pelvic fracture were treated with Colorado 2 system. There were 3 males and 5 females with an average age of 34.4 years (range, 22-52 years). Fractures were caused by traffic accident in 3 cases, by falling from height in 3 cases, and by crash of heavy object in 2 cases. According to Tile classification, 5 cases were classified as C1-2, 2 cases as C1-3, and 1 case as C2. The time between injury and operation was 5-10 days (mean, 7 days). After skeletal traction reduction, Colorado 2 system was used to fix sacroiliac joint, and reconstruction plate or external fixation was selectively adopted. The postoperative X-ray films showed that the reduction of vertical and rotatory dislocation was satisfactory, posterior pelvic ring achieved effective stability. All the incisions healed by first intention, and no blood vessel or nerve injury occurred. Eight patients were followed up 6-24 months (mean, 12 months). No loosening or breakage of internal fixation was observed and no re-dislocation of sacroiliac joint occurred. The bone healing time was 6-12 months (mean, 9 months). According to Majeed's functional criterion, the results were excellent in 5 cases, good in 2 cases, and fair in 1 case at last follow-up. Colorado 2 system could provide immediate stability of pelvic posterior ring and good maintenance of reduction effect, which is an effective method in the therapy of sacroiliac joint fracture and dislocation in Tile C pelvic fracture.

  12. The pedicle screw-rod system is an acceptable method of reconstructive surgery after resection of sacroiliac joint tumours

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi-Jun; Yunus, Akbar; Tian, Zheng; Chen, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Chong; Xu, Lei-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Hemipelvic resections for primary bone tumours require reconstruction to restore weight bearing along anatomic axes. However, reconstruction of the pelvic arch remains a major surgical challenge because of the high rate of associated complications. We used the pedicle screw-rod system to reconstruct the pelvis, and the purpose of this investigation was to assess the oncology, functional outcome and complication rate following this procedure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the operative indications and technique of the pedicle screw-rod system in reconstruction of the stability of the sacroiliac joint after resection of sacroiliac joint tumours. The average MSTS (Musculoskeletal Tumour Society) score was 26.5 at either three months after surgery or at the latest follow-up. Seven patients had surgery-related complications, including wound dehiscence in one, infection in two, local necrosis in four (including infection in two), sciatic nerve palsy in one and pubic symphysis subluxation in one. There was no screw loosening or deep vein thrombosis occurring in this series. Using a pedicle screw-rod after resection of a sacroiliac joint tumour is an acceptable method of pelvic reconstruction because of its reduced risk of complications and satisfactory functional outcome, as well as its feasibility of reconstruction for type IV pelvis tumour resection without elaborate preoperative customisation. Level of evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. PMID:27095944

  13. Evaluation of a minimally invasive procedure for sacroiliac joint fusion – an in vitro biomechanical analysis of initial and cycled properties

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Derek P; Perez-Orribo, Luis; Rodriguez-Martinez, Nestor; Reyes, Phillip M; Newcomb, Anna; Cable, Alexandria; Hickam, Grace; Yerby, Scott A; Crawford, Neil R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain has become a recognized factor in low back pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a minimally invasive surgical SI joint fusion procedure on the in vitro biomechanics of the SI joint before and after cyclic loading. Methods Seven cadaveric specimens were tested under the following conditions: intact, posterior ligaments (PL) and pubic symphysis (PS) cut, treated (three implants placed), and after 5,000 cycles of flexion–extension. The range of motion (ROM) in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation was determined with an applied 7.5 N · m moment using an optoelectronic system. Results for each ROM were compared using a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a Holm–Šidák post-hoc test. Results Placement of three fusion devices decreased the flexion–extension ROM. Lateral bending and axial rotation were not significantly altered. All PL/PS cut and post-cyclic ROMs were larger than in the intact condition. The 5,000 cycles of flexion–extension did not lead to a significant increase in any ROMs. Discussion In the current model, placement of three 7.0 mm iFuse Implants significantly decreased the flexion–extension ROM. Joint ROM was not increased by 5,000 flexion–extension cycles. PMID:24868175

  14. Evaluation of symphysis pubis and sacroiliac joint distances in skeletally immature patients: A computerized tomography study of 1020 individuals.

    PubMed

    Kalenderer, Önder; Turgut, Ali; Bacaksız, Tayfun; Bilgin, Emre; Kumbaracı, Mert; Akkan, Hasan Ali

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to create a reference about normal pubic symphysis and sacroiliac joint widths of children and adolescents. A total of 1020 computerized tomography axial scans of patients without pelvic injury between 2 and 18 year-old were studied. The narrowest width of pubic symphysis and bilateral sacroiliac joints were measured. The average pubic symphyseal width at 2 years old boys was 6.35 ± 1.06 mm (4.88-9.13 mm). The average of right and left sacroiliac joints' widths at 2 years old boys was 4.56 ± 0.65 mm (3.59-6.07 mm) and 4.58 ± 0.66 mm (3.44-5.74 mm), respectively. The average pubic symphyseal width of 2 years old girls was 5.85 ± 1.14 mm (4.06-8.20 mm). The average of right and left sacroiliac joints' widths at 2 years old girls was found 4.36 ± 0.56 mm (3.50-5.37 mm) and 4.42 ± 0.59 mm (3.58-5.73 mm), respectively. The average pubic symphyseal width at 18 years old boys was found 3.68 ± 1.30 mm (1.90-5.79 mm). The average of right and left sacroiliac joints' widths at 18 years old boys was found 1.97 ± 0.21 mm (1.73-2.41 mm) and 2.04 ± 0.30 mm (1.70-2.65 mm), respectively. The average pubic symphyseal width at 18 years old girls was 3.92 ± 0.52 mm (2.97-4.76 mm). The average of right and left sacroiliac joints' widths at 18 years old girls was found 2.34 ± 0.40 mm (1.58-3.34 mm) and 2.33 ± 0.37 mm (1.58-3.10 mm), respectively. Our results suggest that one should be suspicious about pelvic injury if the width of pubic symphysis is over 10 mm and width of sacroiliac joint is over 8 mm especially in patients younger than 10 years-old. Level III Diagnostic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pilot study of the impact sacroiliac joint manipulation has on walking kinematics using motion analysis technology

    PubMed Central

    Ward, John S.; Coats, Jesse; Sorrels, Kenneth; Walters, Mathew; Williams, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of engaging in a series of larger studies measuring the effect of sacroiliac joint manipulation on walking kinematics using motion analysis technology. Methods Twelve college students engaged in a baseline 90-second gait analysis at 1.5 mph using infrared VICON cameras. Following this, they underwent a prone heel comparison test for functional leg length inequality. Upon examination, participants were then classified as follows: left short leg, right short leg, or no short leg. Participants in each of the 2 short leg branches of this study were then randomized to receive either chiropractic manipulative therapy to the posterior superior iliac spine on the short limb side or no manipulation. Recruitment was ongoing for this pilot study until 1 participant was recruited in each of the following 5 comparative study groups: left short leg—manipulation, left short leg—no manipulation (control 1), right short leg—manipulation, right short leg—no manipulation (control 2), and no short leg (control 3). All participants then underwent another 90-second gait analysis. Data were then grouped and submitted to a blinded biomechanist to determine if there were any unique biomechanical differences between the groups. Results No statistically significant differences were measured because of this being a pilot study with a small sample size. Conclusions The data from this study indicate that a series of larger studies with this design is feasible. PMID:24396314

  16. Productivity benefits of minimally invasive surgery in patients with chronic sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Saavoss, Josh D; Koenig, Lane; Cher, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is associated with a marked decrease in quality of life. Increasing evidence supports minimally invasive SIJ fusion as a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of chronic SIJ dysfunction. The impact of SIJ fusion on worker productivity is not known. Regression modeling using data from the National Health Interview Survey was applied to determine the relationship between responses to selected interview questions related to function and economic outcomes. Regression coefficients were then applied to prospectively collected, individual patient data in a randomized trial of SIJ fusion (INSITE, NCT01681004) to estimate expected differences in economic outcomes across treatments. Patients who receive SIJ fusion using iFuse Implant System(®) have an expected increase in the probability of working of 16% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11%-21%) relative to nonsurgical patients. The expected change in earnings across groups was US $3,128 (not statistically significant). Combining the two metrics, the annual increase in worker productivity given surgical vs nonsurgical care was $6,924 (95% CI $1,890-$11,945). For employees with chronic, severe SIJ dysfunction, minimally invasive SIJ fusion may improve worker productivity compared to nonsurgical treatment.

  17. Biomechanical study of three kinds of internal fixation for the treatment of sacroiliac joint disruption using biomechanical test and finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Ren, Xuejiao; Cui, Yunwei; Cheng, Xiaodong; Peng, Shuo; Hou, Zhiyong; Han, Yongtai

    2018-06-19

    To compare the stability of sacroiliac joint disruption fixed with three kinds of internal fixation using both biomechanical test and finite element analysis. Five embalmed specimens of an adult were used. The symphysis pubis rupture and left sacroiliac joint disruption were created. The symphysis pubis was stabilized with a five-hole plate. The sacroiliac joint disruption was fixed with three kinds of internal fixation in a randomized design. Displacements of the whole specimen and shifts in the gap were recorded. Three-dimensional finite element models of the pelvis, the pelvis with symphysis pubis rupture and left sacroiliac joint disruption, and three kinds of internal fixation techniques were created and analyzed. Under the vertical load, the displacements and shifts in the gap of the pelvis fixed with minimally invasive adjustable plate (MIAP) combined with one iliosacral (IS) screw were the smallest, and the average displacements of the pelvis fixed with an anterior plate were the largest one. The differences among them were significant. In finite element analysis and MIAP combined with one IS screw fixation showed relatively best fixation stability and lowest risks of implant failure than two IS screws fixation and anterior plate fixation. The stability of sacroiliac joint disruption fixed with MIAP combined with one IS screw is better than that fixed with two IS screws and anterior plate under vertical load.

  18. Spinopelvic Fixation of Sacroiliac Joint Fractures and Fracture-Dislocations: A Clinical 8 Years Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Sobhan, Mohammad R; Abrisham, Seyed Mohammad J; Vakili, Mahmood; Shirdel, Saeed

    2016-10-01

    Pelvic ring injuries and sacroiliac dislocations have significant impacts on patient's quality of life. Several techniques have been described for posterior pelvic fixation. The current study has been designed to evaluate the spinopelvic method of fixation for sacroiliac fractures and fracture-dislocations. Between January 2006 and December 2014, 14 patients with sacroiliac joint fractures, dislocation and fracture-dislocation were treated by Spinopelvic fixation at Shahid Sadoughi Training Hospital, Yazd, Iran. Patients were seen in follow up, on average, out to 32 months after surgery. Computed tomographic (CT) scans of patients with sacral fractures were reviewed to determine the presence of injuries. A functional assessment of the patients was performed using Majeed's score. Patient demographics, reduction quality, loss of fixation, outcomes and complications, return to activity, and screw hardware characteristics are described. The injury was unilateral in 11 (78.5%) patients and bilateral in 3 (21.5%). Associated injuries were present in all patients, including fractures, dislocation and abdominal injuries. Lower limb length discrepancy was less than 10 mm in all patients except two. Displacement, as a measure of quality of reduction was less than 5 mm in 13 patients. The mean Majeed score was 78/100. Wound infection and hardware failure were observed in 3 (21.4%) and 1 (7.1%) cases, respectively. In this study most patients (85%) return to work postoperatively. According to the findings, spinopelvic fixation is a safe and effective technique for treatment of sacroiliac injuries. This method can obtain early partial to full weight bearing and possibly reduce the complications.

  19. Characterization of Individuals with Sacroiliac Joint Bridging in a Skeletal Population: Analysis of Degenerative Changes in Spinal Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Takeshi; Saiki, Kazunobu; Okamoto, Keishi; Maeda, Junichiro; Matsuo, Hiroaki; Wakebe, Tetsuaki; Ogami, Keiko; Tomita, Masato; Tagami, Atsushi; Shindo, Hiroyuki; Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the individuals with sacroiliac joint bridging (SIB) by analyzing the degenerative changes in their whole vertebral column and comparing them with the controls. A total of 291 modern Japanese male skeletons, with an average age at death of 60.8 years, were examined macroscopically. They were divided into two groups: individuals with SIB and those without bridging (Non-SIB). The degenerative changes in their whole vertebral column were evaluated, and marginal osteophyte scores (MOS) of the vertebral bodies and degenerative joint scores in zygapophyseal joints were calculated. SIB was recognized in 30 individuals from a total of 291 males (10.3%). The average of age at death in SIB group was significantly higher than that in Non-SIB group. The values of MOS in the thoracic spines, particularly in the anterior part of the vertebral bodies, were consecutively higher in SIB group than in Non-SIB group. Incidence of fused vertebral bodies intervertebral levels was obviously higher in SIB group than in Non-SIB group. SIB and marginal osteophyte formation in vertebral bodies could coexist in a skeletal population of men. Some systemic factors might act on these degenerative changes simultaneously both in sacroiliac joint and in vertebral column. PMID:25276825

  20. Distraction arthrodesis of the sacroiliac joint: 2-year results of a descriptive prospective multi-center cohort study in 171 patients.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Volker; Ruhl, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the given study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of patients undergoing sacroiliac joint (SIJ) distraction arthrodesis to treat SIJ-related pain. Descriptive prospective multi-center cohort study involving 20 hospitals in Germany. Between January 2011 and June 2012, 171 patients with chronic SIJ pain underwent indirect arthrodesis of the SIJ using a distraction implant. The patients were questioned prior to surgery, 6-weeks, and 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-months postoperatively. Overall patient satisfaction was surveyed along with pain medication intake, the Million Visual Analogue Scale (MVAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and a pain drawing. Bony fusion of the SIJ was evaluated using X-ray and computed tomography (CT). A majority of patients (73%) reported to feel better or much better 24 months post-surgery, 49% of the patients reduced their pain medication intake. The MVAS dropped from 63 to 36%, the ODI improved from 51 to 33%, the SF-MPQ decreased from 50 to 31%, the SF-12 physical component summary rose from 22 to 41%, the mental component summary increased from 40 to 55%, and pain as measured by the VAS decreased from 74 to 37 points (all comparisons p < 0.001). In the follow-up CT scans 31% of the patients showed SIJ fusion. SIJ distraction arthrodesis has shown satisfactory outcomes in patients with SIJ-related pain for all scores reported in the surveys, accompanied by increased functionality.

  1. Biomechanical study of different fixation techniques for the treatment of sacroiliac joint injuries using finite element analyses and biomechanical tests.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chian-Her; Hsu, Ching-Chi; Huang, Po-Yuang

    2017-08-01

    The pelvis is one of the most stressed areas of the human musculoskeletal system due to the transfer of truncal loads to the lower extremities. Sacroiliac joint injury may lead to abnormal joint mechanics and an unstable pelvis. Various fixation techniques have been evaluated and discussed. However, it may be difficult to investigate each technique due to variations in bone quality, bone anatomy, fracture pattern, and fixation location. Additionally, the finite element method is one useful technology that avoids these variations. Unfortunately, most previous studies neglected the effects of the lumbar spine and femurs when they investigated the biomechanics of pelvises. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical performance of intact, injured, and treated pelvises using numerical and experimental approaches. Three-dimensional finite element models of the spine-pelvis-femur complex with and without muscles and ligaments were developed. The intact pelvis, the pelvis with sacroiliac joint injury, and three types of pelvic fixation techniques were analyzed. Concurrently, biomechanical tests were conducted to validate the numerical outcomes using artificial pelvises. Posterior iliosacral screw fixation showed relatively better fixation stability and lower risks of implant failure and pelvic breakage than sacral bar fixation and a locking compression plate fixation. The present study can help surgeons and engineers understand the biomechanics of intact, injured, and treated pelvises. Both the simulation technique and the experimental setup can be applied to investigate different pelvic injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Analysis of clinical and imaging characteristics of infectious sacroiliac arthritis and review of literatures].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Yanyan; Zhu, Jian; Jin, Jingyu; Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, Jianglin; Huang, Feng

    2015-05-01

    To study the clinical and imaging characteristics of patients with infectious sacroiliac arthritis. Twenty-one patients diagnosed with infectious sacroiliac arthritis were analyzed retrospectively between 2000 and 2014. The chief complaint was pain in hip and lumbosacral area. Their clinical features, laboratory tests and pathological examination results as well as CT/MRI/PET-CT images were evaluated. There were nine males and thirteen females eighteen (85.7%) patients had unilateral sacroiliac joint involvement. Among these patients, three were diagnosed with brucellosis sacroiliac arthritis (BSI), eight patients with tuberculosis sacroiliac arthritis (TSI), and ten patients with non-brucellosis and non-tuberculosis infectious sacroiliac arthritis (ISI). For those patients with non-brucellosis and non-tuberculosis infectious sacroiliac arthritis, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were dramatically increased. Twelve patients were diagnosed pathologically including 6 ISI, 2 BSI and 4 TSI. Twelve patients and seventeen patients were scanned by CT and MRI respectively. Two patients undertook PET-CT examination. Antibiotic therapy showed significant therapeutic effects in all patients. Infectious sacroiliac arthritis patients with hip or lumbosacral pain as the chief complaint can be easily misdiagnosed as spondyloarthritis. Comprehensive analysis of clinical features, imaging and laboratory findings is essential for accurate diagnosis.

  3. [Assessing the treatment for sacroiliac joint dysfunction, piriformis syndrome and tarsal tunnel syndrome associated with lumbar degenerative disease].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Daijiro; Isu, Toyohiko; Shimoda, Yuusuke; Hamauchi, Shuuji; Sasamori, Tooru; Sugawara, Atsushi; Kim, Kyongsong; Matsumoto, Ryouji; Isobe, Masanori

    2009-09-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction, piriformis syndrome (PFS) and tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) produce symptoms similar to lumbar degenerative disease (LDD). Patients who have these diseases plus LDD sometimes experience residual symptoms after surgery for LDD. We therefore assessed the results of treatment of SIJ dysfunction, PFS and TTS associated with LDD. We assessed 25 patients who underwent surgery for LDD and were affected with SIJ dysfunction (12 patients), PFS (7 patients) or TTS (6 patients). SIJ dysfunction was treated with rest, drugs, pelvic band and sacroiliac joint block. PFS was treated with rest, drugs, physical exercise, injection of local anesthetic into the piriformis muscle, and surgical resection of the piriformis muscle. TTS was treated with drugs and tarsal tunnel opening. We analyzed the improvement score and recovery rate (JOA score) for both LDD surgery and the treatment of SIJ dysfunction, PFS and TTS. Symptom improvement was observed in all patients with SIJ dysfunction and PFS and in 4 patients with TTS. The improvement score and recovery rate of treatments for SIJ dysfunction, PFS and TTS were lower than those of surgery for LDD. The improvement score and recovery rate of treatment for SIJ dysfunction, PFS and TTS were not as high as those for LDD. To enhance patient satisfaction, it is important to consider these complicating diseases when designing treatments for LDD.

  4. Management of sacroiliac joint disruption and degenerative sacroiliitis with nonoperative care is medical resource-intensive and costly in a United States commercial payer population

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Stacey J; Polly, David W; Knight, Tyler; Holt, Tim; Cummings, John

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain is common and originates in the sacroiliac (SI) joint in 15%–30% of cases. Traditional SI joint disruption/degenerative sacroiliitis treatments include nonoperative care or open SI joint fusion. To evaluate the usefulness of newly developed minimally-invasive technologies, the costs of traditional treatments must be better understood. We assessed the costs of nonoperative care for SI joint disruption to commercial payers in the United States (US). Methods A retrospective study of claim-level medical resource use and associated costs used the MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters as well as Medicare Supplemental Databases of Truven Healthcare. Patients with a primary ICD-9-CM diagnosis code for SI joint disruption (720.2, 724.6, 739.4, 846.9, or 847.3), an initial date of diagnosis from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 (index date), and continuous enrollment for ≥1 year before and 3 years after the index date were included. Claims attributable to SI joint disruption with a primary or secondary ICD-9-CM diagnosis code of 71x.xx, 72x.xx, 73x.xx, or 84x.xx were identified; the 3-year medical resource use-associated reimbursement and outpatient pain medication costs (measured in 2011 US dollars) were tabulated across practice settings. A subgroup analysis was performed among patients with lumbar spinal fusion. Results The mean 3-year direct, attributable medical costs were $16,196 (standard deviation [SD] $28,592) per privately-insured patient (N=78,533). Among patients with lumbar spinal fusion (N=434), attributable 3-year mean costs were $91,720 (SD $75,502) per patient compared to $15,776 (SD $27,542) per patient among patients without lumbar spinal fusion (N=78,099). Overall, inpatient hospitalizations (19.4%), hospital outpatient visits and procedures (14.0%), and outpatient pain medications (9.6%) accounted for the largest proportion of costs. The estimated 3-year insurance payments attributable to SI joint disruption

  5. The role of prism glass and postural restoration in managing a collegiate baseball player with bilateral sacroiliac joint dysfunction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Robey, Jason H; Boyle, Kyndall

    2013-10-01

    Sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD) is a condition affecting 15-30% of patients with low back pain seen in outpatient clinics. Currently there is no well-defined standard of care. The purpose of this case report is to discuss the multidisciplinary management between an athletic trainer and an optometrist for an athlete with bilateral SIJ dysfunction and a visual midline shift syndrome. A 21-year-old collegiate baseball player reported to the athletic training room, presenting with low back pain of three day duration, with tenderness over both posterior superior iliac spines (PSIS) (left > right). His pain at its worse was a 7/10 on the Numeric Pain Scale (NPS). The pain increased to the point that it limited his activities of daily living (ADLs) including getting dressed, putting on his shoes, sleeping, and getting in and out of a car. The athlete was initially treated using traditional muscle energy techniques (MET) based intervention to correct SIJD, and lumbar stabilization exercises directed by a licensed athletic trainer, as well as manipulation by a chiropractor. Three weeks of treatment did not prove to be beneficial with only a minimal (1 point on the NPRS) decrease in pain. The athlete was then referred to the head athletic trainer for consultation who prescribed orthotics, for bilateral rear-foot valgus, and Postural Restoration (PR) therapeutic exercises. After two weeks of orthotic use and PR exercises the athlete's pain decreased one additional point on the NPRS. Due to lack of progress, an optometrist was then consulted. The neuro-optometrist prescribed 2 diopter base-down prisms to be worn two hours a day, for four weeks. After four weeks of prisms and new exercises, the athlete was asymptomatic and returned to full pain-free baseball participation without further complications. The Oswestry Disability Index Questionnaire (ODI) was 48% at initial (severe disability), 40% at five weeks and 0% at discharge. The Numeric Pain Scale (NPS) score went from

  6. Improving joint pain and function in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Owens, Claire; Conaghan, Philip G

    2016-12-01

    Osteoarthritis has become a major chronic pain condition. It affects more than 10% of adults and accounts for almost 10% of health service resources. The impact of osteoarthritis is amplified by underuse of effective muscle strengthening exercises and a focus on often less effective and poorly tolerated analgesic therapies. Although traditionally considered to be primarily a disease of cartilage, there is now ample evidence that typical clinical osteoarthritis involves multiple tissue pathologies. Increased BMI is associated with a higher incidence of knee osteoarthritis. Anatomical abnormalities such as valgus alignment or previous joint trauma including meniscectomy, anterior cruciate ligament rupture and fracture through the joint are also associated with increased incidence of osteoarthritis. Pain is the main presenting symptom. However, we still have a poor understanding of the causes of pain in osteoarthritis. In patients aged 45 or over the diagnosis should be made clinically without investigations if the patient has activity-related joint pain in addition to early morning joint stiffness lasting less than 30 minutes. Muscle strengthening and aerobic exercise have been shown to improve joint pain and function. Weight loss not only improves joint pain and function but has a myriad of other health benefits, reducing the incidence of lifestyle associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and mechanical stress on the joints.

  7. Controlling joint pain in older people.

    PubMed

    Paisley, Peter; Serpell, Mick

    2016-01-01

    Jont pain in oldder people The prevalence of chronic pain in older people in the community ranges from 25 to 76% and for those in residential care, it is even higher at 83 to 93%. The most common sites affected are the back, hip, or knee, and other joints. There is increased reporting of pain in women (79%) compared with men (53%). Common conditions include osteoarthritis and, to a lesser extent, the inflammatory arthropathies such as rheumatoid arthritis. The differential diagnosis includes non-articular pain such as vascular limb pain and nocturnal cramp, some neuropathic pain conditions (such as compressive neuropathies and postherpetic neuralgia), soft tissue disorders such as fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndromes. In addition to an assessment of pain intensity, a biopsychosocial model should be adopted to ascertain the effect of the pain on the patient's degree of background pain at rest. The disease is often localised to the large load-bearing joints, predominantly the hips and knees. In contrast to osteoarthritis, the inflammatory arthritides typically present with symmetrical swollen, stiff, and painful small joints of the hands and feet, usually worse in the morning.

  8. MRI assessment of bone marrow oedema in the sacroiliac joints of patients with spondyloarthritis: is the SPAIR T2w technique comparable to STIR?

    PubMed

    Dalto, Vitor Faeda; Assad, Rodrigo Luppino; Crema, Michel Daoud; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2017-09-01

    To compare short tau inversion-recovery (STIR) with another fat saturation method in the assessment of sacroiliac joint inflammation. This prospective cross-sectional study comprised 76 spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the sacroiliac joints in a 1.5-T scanner, using STIR, spectral attenuated inversion recovery (SPAIR) T2w and spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (SPIR) T1w post-contrast sequences. Two independent readers (R1 and R2) assessed the images using the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) score. We assessed agreement of the SPARCC scores for SPAIR T2w and STIR with that for T1 SPIR post-contrast (reference standard) using the St. Laurent coefficient. We evaluated each sequence using the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). We observed a strong agreement between STIR and SPAIR T2w sequences. Lin's CCC was 0.94 for R1 and 0.84 for R2 for STIR and 0.94 for R1 and 0.84 for R2 for SPAIR. The interobserver evaluation revealed a good CCC of 0.79 for SPAIR and 0.78 for STIR. STIR technique and SPAIR T2w sequence showed high agreement in the evaluation of sacroiliac joint subchondral bone marrow oedema in patients with SpA. SPAIR T2w may be an alternative to the STIR sequence for this purpose. • There are no studies evaluating which fat saturation technique should be used. • SPAIR T2w may be an alternative to STIR for sacroiliac joint evaluation. • The study will lead to changes in guidelines for spondyloarthritis.

  9. Vitamin K, osteoarthritis, and joint pain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of joint pain and lower extremity disability in older adults and there is no known cure. Vitamin K has been implicated on osteoarthritis because vitamin K dependent proteins are present in joint tissues, such as cartilage and bone. In order to function, vitamin K ...

  10. Comparison of the costs of nonoperative care to minimally invasive surgery for sacroiliac joint disruption and degenerative sacroiliitis in a United States commercial payer population: potential economic implications of a new minimally invasive technology

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Stacey J; Polly, David W; Knight, Tyler; Schneider, Karen; Holt, Tim; Cummings, John

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain is common and treatment costly with substantial lost productivity and lost wages in the working-age population. Chronic low back pain originating in the sacroiliac (SI) joint (15%–30% of cases) is commonly treated with nonoperative care, but new minimally invasive surgery (MIS) options are also effective in treating SI joint disruption. We assessed whether the higher initial MIS SI joint fusion procedure costs were offset by decreased nonoperative care costs from a US commercial payer perspective. Methods An economic model compared the costs of treating SI joint disruption with either MIS SI joint fusion or continued nonoperative care. Nonoperative care costs (diagnostic testing, treatment, follow-up, and retail pharmacy pain medication) were from a retrospective study of Truven Health MarketScan® data. MIS fusion costs were based on the Premier’s Perspective™ Comparative Database and professional fees on 2012 Medicare payment for Current Procedural Terminology code 27280. Results The cumulative 3-year (base-case analysis) and 5-year (sensitivity analysis) differentials in commercial insurance payments (cost of nonoperative care minus cost of MIS) were $14,545 and $6,137 per patient, respectively (2012 US dollars). Cost neutrality was achieved at 6 years; MIS costs accrued largely in year 1 whereas nonoperative care costs accrued over time with 92% of up front MIS procedure costs offset by year 5. For patients with lumbar spinal fusion, cost neutrality was achieved in year 1. Conclusion Cost offsets from new interventions for chronic conditions such as MIS SI joint fusion accrue over time. Higher initial procedure costs for MIS were largely offset by decreased nonoperative care costs over a 5-year time horizon. Optimizing effective resource use in both nonoperative and operative patients will facilitate cost-effective health care delivery. The impact of SI joint disruption on direct and indirect costs to commercial insurers, health

  11. Rheumatoid Arthritis Pain: Tips for Protecting Your Joints

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis pain: Tips for protecting your joints Use these joint protection techniques to help you stay in control of your rheumatoid arthritis pain. By Mayo Clinic Staff Joint protection is ...

  12. Fat metaplasia and backfill are key intermediaries in the development of sacroiliac joint ankylosis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Maksymowych, Walter P; Wichuk, Stephanie; Chiowchanwisawakit, Praveena; Lambert, Robert G; Pedersen, Susanne J

    2014-11-01

    Fat metaplasia in bone marrow on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans may develop after resolution of inflammation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and may predict new bone formation in the spine. Similar tissue, termed backfill, may also fill areas of excavated bone in the sacroiliac (SI) joints and may reflect resolution of inflammation and tissue repair at sites of erosions. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that SI joint ankylosis develops following repair of erosions and that tissue characterized by fat metaplasia is a key intermediary step in this pathway. We used the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) SI structural lesion score (SSS) method to assess fat metaplasia, erosions, backfill, and ankylosis on MRIs of the SI joints in 147 patients with AS monitored for 2 years. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses focused first on identifying significant MRI predictors of new backfill and fat metaplasia. We then assessed the role of backfill and fat metaplasia in the development of new ankylosis. All analyses were adjusted for demographic features, treatment, and baseline and 2-year change in SSS values for parameters of inflammation and MRI structural lesions. Resolution of inflammation and reduction of erosions were each independently associated with the development of new backfill and fat metaplasia at 2 years on multivariate analyses. Multivariate regression analysis that included demographic features, baseline and 2-year change in parameters of inflammation and MRI structural lesion showed that reduction in erosions (P = 0.0005) and increase in fat metaplasia (P = 0.002) at 2 years was each independently associated with the development of new ankylosis. Our data support a disease model whereby ankylosis develops following repair of erosions, and fat metaplasia and backfill are key intermediary steps in this pathway. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. Severe bone marrow edema on sacroiliac joint MRI increases the risk of low BMD in patients with axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Neul; Jung, Joon-Yong; Hong, Yeon Sik; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kang, Kwi Young

    2016-03-02

    To determine the association between inflammatory and structural lesions on sacroiliac joint (SIJ) MRI and BMD and to identify risk factors for low BMD in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Seventy-six patients who fulfilled the ASAS axSpA criteria were enrolled. All underwent SIJ MRI and BMD measurement at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. Inflammatory and structural lesions on SIJ MRI were scored. Laboratory tests and assessment of radiographic and disease activity were performed at the time of MRI. The association between SIJ MRI findings and BMD was evaluated. Among the 76 patients, 14 (18%) had low BMD. Patients with low BMD showed significantly higher bone marrow edema (BME) and deep BME scores on MRI than those with normal BMD (p < 0.047 and 0.007, respectively). Inflammatory lesions on SIJ MRI correlated with BMD at the femoral neck and total hip. Multivariate analysis identified the presence of deep BME on SIJ MRI, increased CRP, and sacroiliitis on X-ray as risk factors for low BMD (OR = 5.6, 14.6, and 2.5, respectively). The presence of deep BME on SIJ MRI, increased CRP levels, and severity of sacroiliitis on X-ray were independent risk factors for low BMD.

  14. The diagnostic value of single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography for severe sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tofuku, Katsuhiro; Koga, Hiroaki; Komiya, Setsuro

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the value of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) for the diagnosis of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction. SPECT/CT was performed in 32 patients with severe SIJ dysfunction, who did not respond to 1-year conservative treatment and had a score of >4 points on a 10-cm visual analog scale. We investigated the relationship between the presence of severe SIJ dysfunction and tracer accumulation, as confirmed by SPECT/CT. In cases of bilateral SIJ dysfunction, we also compared the intensity of tracer accumulation on each side. Moreover, we examined the relationship between the intensity of tracer accumulation and the different treatments the patients subsequently received. All 32 patients with severe SIJ dysfunction had tracer accumulation with a standardized uptake value (SUV) of >2.2 (mean SUV 4.7). In the 19 patients with lateralized symptom intensity, mean SUVs of the dominant side were significantly higher than those of the nondominant side. In 10 patients with no lateralization, the difference in the SUVs between sides was <0.6. Patients exhibiting higher levels of tracer accumulation required more advanced treatment. Patients with higher levels of tracer accumulation had greater symptom severity and also required more advanced treatment. Thus, we believe that SPECT/CT may be a suitable supplementary diagnostic modality for SIJ dysfunction as well as a useful technique for predicting the prognosis of this condition.

  15. Intraarticular Sacroiliac Joint Injection Under Computed Tomography Fluoroscopic Guidance: A Technical Note to Reduce Procedural Time and Radiation Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Paik, Nam Chull, E-mail: pncspine@gmail.com

    2016-07-15

    PurposeA technique for computed tomography fluoroscopy (CTF)-guided intraarticular (IA) sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injection was devised to limit procedural time and radiation dose.MethodsOur Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective analysis and waived the requirement for informed consent. Overall, 36 consecutive diagnostic or therapeutic IA SIJ injections (unilateral, 20; bilateral, 16) performed in 34 patients (female, 18; male, 16) with a mean age of 45.5 years (range 20–76 years) under CTF guidance were analyzed, assessing technical success (i.e., IA contrast spread), procedural time, and radiation dose.ResultsAll injections were successful from a technical perspective and were free of serious complications. Respective median proceduralmore » times and effective doses of SIJ injection were as follows: unilateral, 5.28 min (range 3.58–8.00 min) and 0.11 millisievert (mSv; range 0.07–0.24 mSv); and bilateral, 6.72 min (range 4.17–21.17 min) and 0.11 mSv (range 0.09–0.51 mSv).ConclusionsGiven the high rate of technical success achieved in limited time duration and with little radiation exposure, CTF-guided IA SIJ injection is a practical and low-risk procedure.« less

  16. Fluoroscopic caudal epidural injections in managing chronic axial low back pain without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; McManus, Carla D; Pampati, Vidyasagar

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain without disc herniation is common. Various modalities of treatments are utilized in managing this condition, including epidural injections. However, there is continued debate on the effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity of any treatment modality utilized for managing axial or discogenic pain, including epidural injections. Methods A randomized, double-blind, actively controlled trial was conducted. The objective was to evaluate the ability to assess the effectiveness of caudal epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for managing chronic low back pain not caused by disc herniation, radiculitis, facet joints, or sacroiliac joints. A total of 120 patients were randomized to two groups; one group did not receive steroids (group 1) and the other group did (group 2). There were 60 patients in each group. The primary outcome measure was at least 50% improvement in Numeric Rating Scale and Oswestry Disability Index. Secondary outcome measures were employment status and opioid intake. These measures were assessed at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Results Significant pain relief and functional status improvement (primary outcome) defined as a 50% or more reduction in scores from baseline, were observed in 54% of patients in group 1 and 60% of patients in group 2 at 24 months. In contrast, 84% of patients in group 1 and 73% in group 2 saw significant pain relief and functional status improvement in the successful groups at 24 months. Conclusion Caudal epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids are effective in patients with chronic axial low back pain of discogenic origin without facet joint pain, disc herniation, and/or radiculitis. PMID:23091395

  17. A novel combined hemipelvic endoprosthesis for peri-acetabular tumours involving sacroiliac joint: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Sun, Peidong; Xie, Xianbiao; Wu, Weidong; Tu, Jian; Ouyang, Jun; Shen, Jingnan

    2015-11-01

    Our aim was to introduce a novel combined hemipelvic endoprosthesis for pelvic reconstruction after Enneking type I/II/IV resection and to evaluate the biomechanical properties of the endoprosthesis using finite element analysis. A three-dimensional finite element model of the postoperative pelvis was developed based on computed tomography (CT) images of the patient with the best post-operative limb function. A force of 400 N was applied along the longitudinal axis of the normal and post-operative pelvis for two positions: standing on two feet and sitting. Stress-distribution analysis was performed in both positions, and results were compared. Prosthesis improvements were simulated by intervertebral fusion and extra screw fixation. In the normal pelvis, stress distributions were mostly concentrated on the superior area of the acetabulum, arcuate line, sacroiliac joint and sacral midline in both static conditions, and peak stresses of 1.52 MPa and 4.53 MPa were observed at the superior area of the greater sciatic notch and ischial tuberosity, respectively. For the reconstructed hemipelvis, stress distributions were concentrated on the connecting rods of the acetabular component and the proximal segment of the pedicle rods, and peak stresses of 252 MPa and 213 MPa were observed on the proximal pedicle rods of the fourth lumbar vertebra for standing and sitting, respectively. Interbody fusion of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae and extra screw fixation to the sacrum decreased the peak stresses by 33.0 % and 18.3 % while standing and by 10.8 % and 6.6 % while sitting. Reconstruction with combined hemipelvic endoprosthesis after types I/II/IV resection of the pelvis fulfilled physiological and biomechanical demands of the hemipelvis and yielded good biomechanical characteristics.

  18. Patients with sacroiliac joint dysfunction exhibit altered movement strategies when performing a sit-to-stand task.

    PubMed

    Capobianco, Robyn A; Feeney, Daniel F; Jeffers, Jana R; Nelson-Wong, Erika; Morreale, Joseph; Grabowski, Alena M; Enoka, Roger M

    2018-04-03

    The ability to rise from a chair is a basic functional task that is frequently compromised in individuals diagnosed with orthopedic disorders in the low back and hip. There is no published literature that describes how this task is altered by sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD). The objective of this study was to compare lower extremity biomechanics and the onset of muscle activity when rising from a chair in subjects with SIJD and in healthy persons. Six women with unilateral SIJD and six age-matched healthy controls performed a sit-to-stand task while we measured kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity. Subjects stood up at a preferred speed from a seated position on an armless and backless adjustable stool. We measured kinematics with a 10-camera motion capture system, ground reaction forces for each leg with force plates, and muscle activity with surface electromyography. Joint angles and torques were calculated using inverse dynamics. Leg-loading rate was quantified as the average slope of vertical ground reaction (VGRF) force during the 500-millisecond interval preceding maximal knee extension. Between-leg differences in loading rates and peak VGRFs were significantly greater for the SIJD group than for the control group. Maximal hip angles were significantly less for the SIJD group (p=.001). Peak hip moment in the SIJD group was significantly greater in the unaffected leg (0.75±0.22 N⋅m/kg) than in the affected leg (0.47±0.29 N⋅m/kg, p=.005). There were no between-leg or between-group differences for peak knee or ankle moments. The onset of activity in the latissimus dorsi muscle on the affected side was delayed and the erector spinae muscles were activated earlier in the SIJD group than in the control group. Subjects with SIJD have a greater VGRF on the unaffected leg, generate a greater peak hip moment in the unaffected leg, use a smaller range of motion at the hip joint of the affected leg, and delay the onset of a key muscle on the affected

  19. Management of lumbar zygapophysial (facet) joint pain

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A; Falco, Frank JE; Boswell, Mark V

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic validity and therapeutic value of lumbar facet joint interventions in managing chronic low back pain. METHODS: The review process applied systematic evidence-based assessment methodology of controlled trials of diagnostic validity and randomized controlled trials of therapeutic efficacy. Inclusion criteria encompassed all facet joint interventions performed in a controlled fashion. The pain relief of greater than 50% was the outcome measure for diagnostic accuracy assessment of the controlled studies with ability to perform previously painful movements, whereas, for randomized controlled therapeutic efficacy studies, the primary outcome was significant pain relief and the secondary outcome was a positive change in functional status. For the inclusion of the diagnostic controlled studies, all studies must have utilized either placebo controlled facet joint blocks or comparative local anesthetic blocks. In assessing therapeutic interventions, short-term and long-term reliefs were defined as either up to 6 mo or greater than 6 mo of relief. The literature search was extensive utilizing various types of electronic search media including PubMed from 1966 onwards, Cochrane library, National Guideline Clearinghouse, clinicaltrials.gov, along with other sources including previous systematic reviews, non-indexed journals, and abstracts until March 2015. Each manuscript included in the assessment was assessed for methodologic quality or risk of bias assessment utilizing the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies checklist for diagnostic interventions, and Cochrane review criteria and the Interventional Pain Management Techniques - Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment tool for therapeutic interventions. Evidence based on the review of the systematic assessment of controlled studies was graded utilizing a modified schema of qualitative evidence with best evidence synthesis, variable from level I to level V

  20. Protocol optimization of sacroiliac joint MR Imaging at 3 Tesla: Impact of coil design and motion resistant sequences on image quality.

    PubMed

    Gondim Teixeira, P A; Bravetti, M; Hossu, G; Lecocq, S; Petit, D; Loeuille, D; Blum, A

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of coil design and motion-resistant sequences on the quality of sacroiliac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination in patients with spondyloarthropathy. One hundred and twenty-one patients with suspected sacroiliitis and referred for MRI of the sacroiliac joints were retrospectively evaluated with MRI at 3-Tesla. There were 78 women and 43 men with a mean age of 36.7±11.5 (SD) years (range: 15.8-78.4 years). Conventional and motion-resistant fat-saturated fast-spin echo T2-weighted sequences were performed with two different coils. Image quality was subjectively evaluated by two independent readers (R1 and R2) using a four-point scale. Confidence in the identification of bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) was also evaluated subjectively using a three-point scale. Phased array body coil yielded improved image quality compared to surface coil (14.1 to 30.4% for R1 and 14.6 to 25.7% for R2; P<0.0001). The impact of the sequence type on quality was also statistically significant (P=0.0046). BMEP was identified in 40 patients and best inter-reader agreement was obtained using the combination of phased-array body coil with motion-resistant T2-weighted sequence (kappa 0.990). The smallest number of indeterminate BMEP zones was seen on MRI set acquired with the phased-array body coil and motion-resistant T2-weighted sequence. Phased array body coil and motion-resistant T2-weighted sequences perform better than surface coil and conventional T2-weighted sequences for the evaluation of sacroiliac joints, increasing confidence in the identification of BMEP. Copyright © 2017 Editions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Lumbopelvic muscle activation patterns in three stances under graded loading conditions: Proposing a tensegrity model for load transfer through the sacroiliac joints.

    PubMed

    Pardehshenas, Hamed; Maroufi, Nader; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Levin, Stephen M

    2014-10-01

    According to the conventional arch model of the pelvis, stability of the sacroiliac joints may require a predominance of form and force closure mechanisms: the greater the vertical shear force at the sacroiliac joints, the greater the reliance on self-bracing by horizontally or obliquely oriented muscles (such as the internal oblique). But what happens to the arch model when a person stands on one leg? In such cases, the pelvis no longer has imposts, leaving both the arch, and the arch model theory, without support. Do lumbopelvic muscle activation patterns in one-legged stances under load suggest compatibility with a different model? This study compares lumbopelvic muscle activation patterns in two-legged and one-legged stances in response to four levels of graded trunk loading in order to further our understanding the stabilization of the sacroiliac joints. Thirty male subjects experienced four levels of trunk loading (0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of body weight) by holding a bucket at one side, at three conditions: 1) two-legged standing with the bucket in the dominant hand, 2) ipsilateral loading: one-legged standing with the bucket in the dominant hand while using the same-side leg, and 3) contralateral loading: one-legged standing using the same leg used in condition 2, but with the bucket in the non-dominant hand. During these tasks, EMG signals from eight lumbopelvic muscles were collected. ANOVA with repeated design was performed on normalized EMG's to test the main effect of load and condition, and interaction effects of load by condition. Latissimus dorsi and erector spinae muscles showed an antagonistic pattern of activity toward the direction of load which may suggest these muscles as lateral trunk stabilizers. Internal oblique muscles showed a co-activation pattern with increasing task demand, which may function to increase lumbopelvic stability (P < 0.05). No unilateral pattern of the internal obliques was observed during all trials. Our results suggest that

  2. The scintigraphic investigation of sacroiliac disease.

    PubMed

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Jackson, F I

    1977-06-01

    Bone scintigraphs obtained with both Technetium-99m polyphosphate and Technetium-99m pyrophosphate have been abnormal at the sacroiliac joints of 44 patients with definite ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Because of the normal registration of the sacroiliac joints on bone scintigraphy, it has been necessary to develop a profile-scan technique to quantify the abnormality that proves to be significantly different from the normal finding. In 17 patients with a strong clinical suspicion of AS but normal radiographs, the sacroiliac joints have frequently been abnormal. This finding is meaningful because there is a common occurence in this group of the histocompatibility antigen HL A-B27, known to be a marker of AS. We also note the frequency of abnormal sacroiliac scinitigrams in 26 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in a group of other diseases-Crohn's disease, uveitis, psoriasis, ulcerative colitis, and Reiter's disease-all of which share some of the manifestations of AS.

  3. Thoracic costotransverse joint pain patterns: a study in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Young, Brian A; Gill, Howard E; Wainner, Robert S; Flynn, Timothy W

    2008-10-15

    Pain referral patterns of asymptomatic costotransverse joints have not been established. The objective of this study was to determine the pain referral patterns of asymptomatic costotransverse joints via provocative intra-articular injection. Eight asymptomatic male volunteers received a combined total of 21 intra-articular costotransverse joint injections. Fluoroscopic imaging was used to identify and isolate each costotransverse joint and guide placement of a 25 gauge, 2.5 inch spinal needle into the costotransverse joint. Following contrast medium injection, the quality, intensity, and distribution of the resultant pain produced were recorded. Of the 21 costotransverse joint injections, 16 (76%) were classified as being intra-articular via arthrograms taken at the time of injection, and 14 of these injections produced a pain sensation distinctly different from that of needle placement. Average pain produced was 3.3/10 on a 0-10 verbal pain scale. Pain was described generally as a deep, dull ache, and pressure sensation. Pain patterns were located superficial to the injected joint, with only the right T2 injections showing referred pain 2 segments cranially and caudally. No chest wall, upper extremity or pseudovisceral pains were reported. This study provides preliminary data of the pain referral patterns of costotransverse joints. Further research is needed to compare these findings with those elicited from symptomatic subjects.

  4. Grading of inflammatory disease activity in the sacroiliac joints with magnetic resonance imaging: comparison between short-tau inversion recovery and gadolinium contrast-enhanced sequences.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Karen Berenth; Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the potential concordance of 2 different magnetic resonance (MR) sequences - short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) and fat-saturated T1-weighted spin-echo after application of gadolinium (Gd) contrast medium to detect active bone marrow abnormalities at the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Blinded and using the Danish scoring method, we evaluated transaxial MR images of the 2 sequences in 40 patients with SpA with disease duration of 3-14 years. Both the cartilaginous and ligamentous portions of the SIJ were analyzed. There was a significant positive correlation between the activity scores obtained by STIR and Gd-enhanced sequences (p < 0.0001). Agreement in the detection of bone marrow abnormalities occurred in 60 of the 80 joints, 35 with and 25 without signs of active disease. Discordance with STIR-positive marrow activity scores occurred in only 11 joints; Gd-enhanced positive scores in 9 joints. The STIR sequence detected remnants of marrow activity in the periphery of chronic fatty replacement not seen or partly obscured on the Gd sequence. Small subchondral enhancing lesions may not be scored on the STIR sequence, mostly because of reduced image resolution. Active bone marrow abnormalities were detected nearly equally well with STIR and Gd-enhanced fat-suppressed T1 sequences in patients with SpA, with STIR being most sensitive to visualize active abnormalities in the periphery of chronic changes.

  5. Effect of Radiofrequency Denervation on Pain Intensity Among Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Juch, Johan N. S.; Ostelo, Raymond W. J. G.; Groeneweg, J. George; Kallewaard, Jan-Willem; Koes, Bart W.; Verhagen, Arianne P.; van Dongen, Johanna M.; Huygen, Frank J. P. M.; van Tulder, Maurits W.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Radiofrequency denervation is a commonly used treatment for chronic low back pain, but high-quality evidence for its effectiveness is lacking. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of radiofrequency denervation added to a standardized exercise program for patients with chronic low back pain. Design, Setting, and Participants Three pragmatic multicenter, nonblinded randomized clinical trials on the effectiveness of minimal interventional treatments for participants with chronic low back pain (Mint study) were conducted in 16 multidisciplinary pain clinics in the Netherlands. Eligible participants were included between January 1, 2013, and October 24, 2014, and had chronic low back pain, a positive diagnostic block at the facet joints (facet joint trial, 251 participants), sacroiliac joints (sacroiliac joint trial, 228 participants), or a combination of facet joints, sacroiliac joints, or intervertebral disks (combination trial, 202 participants) and were unresponsive to conservative care. Interventions All participants received a 3-month standardized exercise program and psychological support if needed. Participants in the intervention group received radiofrequency denervation as well. This is usually a 1-time procedure, but the maximum number of treatments in the trial was 3. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was pain intensity (numeric rating scale, 0-10; whereby 0 indicated no pain and 10 indicated worst pain imaginable) measured 3 months after the intervention. The prespecified minimal clinically important difference was defined as 2 points or more. Final follow-up was at 12 months, ending October 2015. Results Among 681 participants who were randomized (mean age, 52.2 years; 421 women [61.8%], mean baseline pain intensity, 7.1), 599 (88%) completed the 3-month follow-up, and 521 (77%) completed the 12-month follow-up. The mean difference in pain intensity between the radiofrequency denervation and control groups at 3 months was −0

  6. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitor therapy but not standard therapy is associated with resolution of erosion in the sacroiliac joints of patients with axial spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Radiography is an unreliable and insensitive tool for the assessment of structural lesions in the sacroiliac joints (SIJ). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detects a wider spectrum of structural lesions but has undergone minimal validation in prospective studies. The Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) MRI Sacroiliac Joint (SIJ) Structural Score (SSS) assesses a spectrum of structural lesions (erosion, fat metaplasia, backfill, ankylosis) and its potential to discriminate between therapies requires evaluation. Methods The SSS score assesses five consecutive coronal slices through the cartilaginous portion of the joint on T1-weighted sequences starting from the transitional slice between cartilaginous and ligamentous portions of the joint. Lesions are scored dichotomously (present/absent) in SIJ quadrants (fat metaplasia, erosion) or halves (backfill, ankylosis). Two readers independently scored 147 pairs (baseline, 2 years) of scans from a prospective cohort of patients with SpA who received either standard (n = 69) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor (n = 78) therapy. Smallest detectable change (SDC) was calculated using analysis of variance (ANOVA), discrimination was assessed using Guyatt’s effect size, and treatment group differences were assessed using t-tests and the Mann–Whitney test. We identified baseline demographic and structural damage variables associated with change in SSS score by univariate analysis and analyzed the effect of treatment by multivariate stepwise regression adjusted for severity of baseline structural damage and demographic variables. Results A significant increase in mean SSS score for fat metaplasia (P = 0.017) and decrease in mean SSS score for erosion (P = 0.017) was noted in anti-TNFα treated patients compared to those on standard therapy. Effect size for this change in SSS fat metaplasia and erosion score was moderate (0.5 and 0.6, respectively). Treatment and

  7. Percutaneous cannulated screw fixation of sacral fractures and sacroiliac joint disruptions with CT-controlled guidewires performed by interventionalists: single center experience in treating posterior pelvic instability.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sebastian; Vogl, Thomas J; Marzi, Ingo; Zangos, Stephan; Wichmann, Julian L; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Mack, Martin G; Schmidt, Sven; Eichler, Katrin

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate minimally invasive sacroiliac screw fixation for treatment of posterior pelvic instability with the help of CT controlled guidewires, assess its accuracy, safety and effectiveness, and discuss potential pitfalls. 100 guidewires and hollow titan screws were inserted in 38 patients (49.6±19.5 years) suffering from 35 sacral fractures and/or 16 sacroiliac joint disruptions due to 33 (poly-)traumatic, 2 osteoporotic and 1 post-infectious conditions. The guidewire and screw positions were analyzed in multiplanar reconstructions. The mean minimal distance between guidewire and adjacent neural foramina was 4.5±2.01mm, with a distinctly higher precision in S1 than S2. Eight guidewires showed cortical contacts, resulting in a total of 2% mismatched screws with subsequent wall violation. The fracture gaps were reduced from 3.6±0.53mm to 1.2±0.54mm. During follow-up 3 cases of minor iatrogenic sacral impaction (<5mm) due to the bolting and 2 cases of screw loosening were observed. Interventional time was 84.0min with a mean of 2.63 screws per patient whilst acquiring a mean of 93.7 interventional CT-images (DLP 336.7mGycm). The treatment of posterior pelvic instability with a guidewire-based screw insertion technique under CT-imaging results in a very high accuracy and efficacy with a low complication rate. Careful attention should be drawn to radiation levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple Nonspecific Sites of Joint Pain Outside the Knees Develop in Persons With Knee Pain.

    PubMed

    Felson, David T; Niu, Jingbo; Quinn, Emily K; Neogi, Tuhina; Lewis, Cara L; Lewis, Cora E; Frey Law, Laura; McCulloch, Chuck; Nevitt, Michael; LaValley, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Many persons with knee pain have joint pain outside the knee, but despite the impact and high frequency of this pain, its distribution and causes have not been studied. We undertook this study to test the hypothesis of those studying gait abnormalities who have suggested that knee pain causes pain in adjacent joints but that pain adaptation strategies are highly individualized. We studied persons ages 50-79 years with or at high risk of knee osteoarthritis who were recruited from 2 community-based cohorts, the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study and the Osteoarthritis Initiative, and we followed them up for 5-7 years. We excluded those with knee pain at baseline and compared those who had developed knee pain at the first follow-up examination (the index visit) with those who had not. We examined pain on most days at joint regions outside the knee in examinations after the index visit. Logistic regression analyses examined the risk of joint-specific pain adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and symptoms of depression, and we performed sensitivity analyses excluding those with widespread pain. In the combined cohorts, 693 persons had knee pain at the index visit and 2,793 did not. A total of 79.6% of those with bilateral knee pain and 63.8% of those with unilateral knee pain had pain during follow-up in a joint region outside the knee, compared with 49.9% of those without knee pain. There was an increased risk of pain at most extremity joint sites, without a predilection for specific sites. Results were unchanged when those with widespread pain were excluded. Persons with chronic knee pain are at increased risk of pain in multiple joints in no specific pattern. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  9. MULTIPLE NONSPECIFIC SITES OF JOINT PAIN OUTSIDE THE KNEES DEVELOP IN PERSONS WITH KNEE PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Felson, David T.; Niu, Jingbo; Quinn, Emily K; Neogi, Tuhina; Lewis, Cara; Lewis, Cora E.; Law, Laura Frey; McCulloch, Chuck; Nevitt, Michael; LaValley, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Objective Many persons with knee pain have joint pain outside the knee but despite the impact and high frequency of this pain, its distribution and causes have not been studied. Those studying gait abnormalities have suggested that knee pain causes pain in adjacent joints but pain adaptation strategies are highly individualized. Methods We studied persons age 50-79 years with or at high risk of knee osteoarthritis drawn from two community-based cohorts, the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study and the Osteoarthritis Initiative and followed for 5-7 years. We excluded those with knee pain at baseline and compared those who developed and did not develop knee pain at the first follow-up examination (the index visit). We examined pain on most days at joint regions outside the knee in examinations after the index visit. Logistic regression analyses examined the risk of joint specific pain adjusted for age, sex, BMI, depression with sensitivity analyses excluding those with widespread pain. Results In the combined cohorts, there were 693 persons with index visit knee pain vs. 2793 without it. 79.6% of those with bilateral and 63.8% of those with unilateral knee pain had pain during follow-up in a joint region outside the knee vs. 49.9% of those without knee pain. An increased risk of pain was present in most extremity joint sites without a predilection for specific sites. Results were unchanged when those with widespread pain were excluded. Conclusions Persons with chronic knee pain are at increased risk of pain in multiple joints in no specific pattern. PMID:27589036

  10. STRENGTHENING THE GLUTEUS MAXIMUS IN SUBJECTS WITH SACROILIAC DYSFUNCTION.

    PubMed

    Added, Marco Aurélio N; de Freitas, Diego G; Kasawara, Karina T; Martin, Robroy L; Fukuda, Thiago Y

    2018-02-01

    Case series. The literature has emphasized the use of exercise as an intervention for individuals with lumbopelvic pain. However, there is limited information to guide clinicians in exercise selection for those with sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction. Altered function of the gluteus maximus has been found in those with SI joint dysfunction. The objective of this case series was to assess the effectiveness of an exercise program directed at increasing gluteus maximus strength in those with clinical tests positive for SI joint dysfunction. The eight subjects in this series presented with lumbopelvic pain and clinical evidence of SI joint dysfunction. Each subject underwent 10 treatments over five weeks consisting of five exercises directed at strengthening the gluteus maximus. Radiological assessment and clinical examination were performed to rule out potential concurrent pathologies. Visual analog pain scale, the Oswestry Disability Index, and strength assessed via hand held dynamometry were measured pre- and post-intervention. A significant (p<0.001) weakness in gluteus maximus was noted when comparing the uninvolved and involved sides pre-intervention. After completing the strengthening exercise program over 10 visits, statistically significant (p<0.002) increases in gluteus maximus strength and function were found, as well as a decrease in pain. All subjects were discharged from physical therapy and able to return to their normal daily activities. The results of this case series support the use of gluteus maximus strengthening exercises in those with persistent lumbopelvic pain and clinical tests positive for SI joint dysfunction.

  11. Comparison of the costs of nonoperative care to minimally invasive surgery for sacroiliac joint disruption and degenerative sacroiliitis in a United States Medicare population: potential economic implications of a new minimally-invasive technology

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Stacey J; Polly, David W; Knight, Tyler; Schneider, Karen; Holt, Tim; Cummings, John

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The economic burden associated with the treatment of low back pain (LBP) in the United States is significant. LBP caused by sacroiliac (SI) joint disruption/degenerative sacroiliitis is most commonly treated with nonoperative care and/or open SI joint surgery. New and effective minimally invasive surgery (MIS) options may offer potential cost savings to Medicare. Methods An economic model was developed to compare the costs of MIS treatment to nonoperative care for the treatment of SI joint disruption in the hospital inpatient setting in the US Medicare population. Lifetime cost savings (2012 US dollars) were estimated from the published literature and claims data. Costs included treatment, follow-up, diagnostic testing, and retail pharmacy pain medication. Costs of SI joint disruption patients managed with nonoperative care were estimated from the 2005–2010 Medicare 5% Standard Analytic Files using primary International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes 720.2, 724.6, 739.4, 846.9, or 847.3. MIS fusion hospitalization cost was based on Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) payments of $46,700 (with major complications - DRG 459) and $27,800 (without major complications - DRG 460), weighted assuming 3.8% of patients have complications. MIS fusion professional fee was determined from the 2012 Medicare payment for Current Procedural Terminology code 27280, with an 82% fusion success rate and 1.8% revision rate. Outcomes were discounted by 3.0% per annum. Results The extrapolated lifetime cost of treating Medicare patients with MIS fusion was $48,185/patient compared to $51,543/patient for nonoperative care, resulting in a $660 million savings to Medicare (196,452 beneficiaries at $3,358 in savings/patient). Including those with ICD-9-CM code 721.3 (lumbosacral spondylosis) increased lifetime cost estimates (up to 478,764 beneficiaries at $8,692 in savings/patient). Conclusion Treating Medicare

  12. Pelvic joint fusion in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain – a prospective single-subject research design study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The fusion of the pelvic joints in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a controversial and insufficiently studied procedure. The aims of this study were to evaluate physical function and pain after sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion. Methods A single-subject research design study with repeated measurements was conducted; pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months post-operatively. The outcome measures considered were the Oswestry disability index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS), and SF-36. Eight patients with severe PGP received open-accessed unilateral anterior SIJ fusion and fusion of the pubic symphysis. Results Seven patients reported positive results from the surgery. At 1 year post-operation, significant (p < 0.001) reductions in ODI (54 to 37) and VAS (82 to 57) were reported. The physical functioning, bodily pain, and social functioning scores in the SF-36 were also improved. Conclusion Positive and significant changes in disability and pain at 1 year after SIJ fusion were observed. Despite these positive results, open accessed anterior fusion of the SIJ was associated with adverse events and complications such as infection and nerve damage. PMID:24629145

  13. Pelvic joint fusion in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain - a prospective single-subject research design study.

    PubMed

    Kibsgård, Thomas J; Røise, Olav; Stuge, Britt

    2014-03-15

    The fusion of the pelvic joints in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a controversial and insufficiently studied procedure. The aims of this study were to evaluate physical function and pain after sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion. A single-subject research design study with repeated measurements was conducted; pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months post-operatively. The outcome measures considered were the Oswestry disability index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS), and SF-36. Eight patients with severe PGP received open-accessed unilateral anterior SIJ fusion and fusion of the pubic symphysis. Seven patients reported positive results from the surgery. At 1 year post-operation, significant (p < 0.001) reductions in ODI (54 to 37) and VAS (82 to 57) were reported. The physical functioning, bodily pain, and social functioning scores in the SF-36 were also improved. Positive and significant changes in disability and pain at 1 year after SIJ fusion were observed. Despite these positive results, open accessed anterior fusion of the SIJ was associated with adverse events and complications such as infection and nerve damage.

  14. Pilot study of the impact that bilateral sacroiliac joint manipulation using a drop table technique has on gait parameters in asymptomatic individuals with a leg length inequality.

    PubMed

    Ward, John; Sorrels, Ken; Coats, Jesse; Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Deleon, Carlos; Daigneault, Paige

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot test our study procedures and estimate parameters for sample size calculations for a randomized controlled trial to determine if bilateral sacroiliac (SI) joint manipulation affects specific gait parameters in asymptomatic individuals with a leg length inequality (LLI). Twenty-one asymptomatic chiropractic students engaged in a baseline 90-second walking kinematic analysis using infrared Vicon® cameras. Following this, participants underwent a functional LLI test. Upon examination participants were classified as: left short leg, right short leg, or no short leg. Half of the participants in each short leg group were then randomized to receive bilateral corrective SI joint chiropractic manipulative therapy (CMT). All participants then underwent another 90-second gait analysis. Pre- versus post-intervention gait data were then analyzed within treatment groups by an individual who was blinded to participant group status. For the primary analysis, all p-values were corrected for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method. Within groups, no differences in measured gait parameters were statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. The protocol of this study was acceptable to all subjects who were invited to participate. No participants refused randomization. Based on the data collected, we estimated that a larger main study would require 34 participants in each comparison group to detect a moderate effect size.

  15. Bone alterations are associated with ankle osteoarthritis joint pain

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yukio; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Kamimura, Mikio; Komatsu, Masatoshi; Ikegami, Shota; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of ankle osteoarthritis (OA) is largely unknown. We analyzed 24 ankle OA of 21 patients diagnosed by plain radiographs using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ankle joint pain disappeared in 22 out of 24 joints by conservative treatment. MRI bone signal changes in and around the ankle joints were observed in 22 of 24 joints. Bone signal changes along the joint line were seen in 10 of 11 joints as a Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade of II to IV. Such signal changes were witnessed in only 4 of 13 joints with KL grade 0 or I. In the talocrural joint, bone alterations occurred in both tibia and talus bones through the joint line in cases of KL grade III or IV, while focal bone alterations were present in the talus only in KL grade I or II cases. Sixteen of 24 joints exhibited intraosseous bone signal changes, which tended to correspond to joint pain of any ankle OA stage. Our results suggest that bone alterations around the ankle joint might be one of the etiologies of OA and associated with ankle joint pain. PMID:26776564

  16. Bone alterations are associated with ankle osteoarthritis joint pain.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yukio; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Kamimura, Mikio; Komatsu, Masatoshi; Ikegami, Shota; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-18

    The etiology of ankle osteoarthritis (OA) is largely unknown. We analyzed 24 ankle OA of 21 patients diagnosed by plain radiographs using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ankle joint pain disappeared in 22 out of 24 joints by conservative treatment. MRI bone signal changes in and around the ankle joints were observed in 22 of 24 joints. Bone signal changes along the joint line were seen in 10 of 11 joints as a Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade of II to IV. Such signal changes were witnessed in only 4 of 13 joints with KL grade 0 or I. In the talocrural joint, bone alterations occurred in both tibia and talus bones through the joint line in cases of KL grade III or IV, while focal bone alterations were present in the talus only in KL grade I or II cases. Sixteen of 24 joints exhibited intraosseous bone signal changes, which tended to correspond to joint pain of any ankle OA stage. Our results suggest that bone alterations around the ankle joint might be one of the etiologies of OA and associated with ankle joint pain.

  17. Gynecological Surgery and Low Back Pain in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Ericksen, Jeffery; Pidcoe, Peter E.; Ketchum-McKinney, Jessica M.; Burnet, Evie N.; Huang, Emily; Wilson, James C.; Hoogstad, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine sacroiliac joint compliance characteristics and pelvic floor movements in older women relative to gynecological surgery history and back pain complaints. Design: Single-visit laboratory measurement. Setting: University clinical research center. Participants: Twenty-five women aged 65 years or older. Outcome Measures: Sacroiliac joint compliance measured by Doppler imaging of vibrations and ultrasound measures of pelvic floor motion during the active straight leg raise test. Results: Doppler imaging of vibrations demonstrated test reliability ranging from 0.701 to 0.898 for detecting vibration on the ilium and sacrum sides of the sacroiliac joint. The presence of low-back pain or prior gynecological surgery was not significantly associated with a difference in the compliance or laxity symmetry of the sacroiliac joints. No significant difference in pelvic floor movement was found during the active straight leg raise test between subject groups. All P values were ≥.4159. Conclusions: Prior gynecological surgery and low-back pain were not significantly associated with side-to-side differences in the compliance of the sacroiliac joints or in significant changes in pelvic floor movement during a loading maneuver in a group of older women. PMID:23569659

  18. Effect of Radiofrequency Denervation on Pain Intensity Among Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain: The Mint Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Juch, Johan N S; Maas, Esther T; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; Groeneweg, J George; Kallewaard, Jan-Willem; Koes, Bart W; Verhagen, Arianne P; van Dongen, Johanna M; Huygen, Frank J P M; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2017-07-04

    Radiofrequency denervation is a commonly used treatment for chronic low back pain, but high-quality evidence for its effectiveness is lacking. To evaluate the effectiveness of radiofrequency denervation added to a standardized exercise program for patients with chronic low back pain. Three pragmatic multicenter, nonblinded randomized clinical trials on the effectiveness of minimal interventional treatments for participants with chronic low back pain (Mint study) were conducted in 16 multidisciplinary pain clinics in the Netherlands. Eligible participants were included between January 1, 2013, and October 24, 2014, and had chronic low back pain, a positive diagnostic block at the facet joints (facet joint trial, 251 participants), sacroiliac joints (sacroiliac joint trial, 228 participants), or a combination of facet joints, sacroiliac joints, or intervertebral disks (combination trial, 202 participants) and were unresponsive to conservative care. All participants received a 3-month standardized exercise program and psychological support if needed. Participants in the intervention group received radiofrequency denervation as well. This is usually a 1-time procedure, but the maximum number of treatments in the trial was 3. The primary outcome was pain intensity (numeric rating scale, 0-10; whereby 0 indicated no pain and 10 indicated worst pain imaginable) measured 3 months after the intervention. The prespecified minimal clinically important difference was defined as 2 points or more. Final follow-up was at 12 months, ending October 2015. Among 681 participants who were randomized (mean age, 52.2 years; 421 women [61.8%], mean baseline pain intensity, 7.1), 599 (88%) completed the 3-month follow-up, and 521 (77%) completed the 12-month follow-up. The mean difference in pain intensity between the radiofrequency denervation and control groups at 3 months was -0.18 (95% CI, -0.76 to 0.40) in the facet joint trial; -0.71 (95% CI, -1.35 to -0.06) in the sacroiliac joint

  19. Comparing diffusion weighted imaging with clinical and blood parameters, and with short tau inversion recovery sequence in detecting spinal and sacroiliac joint inflammation in axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ho Yin; Xu, Xiaopei; Lau, Vince Wing Hang; Ho, Grace; Lee, Ka Lai; Li, Philip Hei; Tsang, Helen Hoi Lun; Kwok, Suet Kei; Lau, Chak Sing; Wong, Chun Sing

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) by comparing with clinical features, blood parameters and traditional short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequence in detecting spinal and sacroiliac (SI) joint inflammation in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients. One hundred and ten axSpA patients were recruited. Clinical, radiological and blood parameters were recorded. DWI and STIR MRI were performed simultaneously and results were scored according to the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) for comparison. Apparent diffusion coef cient (ADC) values were also calculated. DWI did not correlate with clinical parameters or blood parameters. It also had lowered sensitivity. When compared with STIR sequence, it correlated well with STIR sequence at the SI joint level (CC 0.76, p<0.001), but weakly at the spinal level (CC 0.23, p=0.02). At the SI joint level, the presence of inflammation on both STIR sequence and DWI was associated with an increase in maximum (B=0.24, p=0.02 in STIR; B=0.37, p<0.001 in DWI) and mean ADC values (B=0.17, p=0.003 in STIR; B=0.15, p=0.01 in DWI). Maximum (B=0.19, p=0.04) and mean spinal ADC values (B=0.18, p=0.01) were also positively associated with DWI detected spinal inflammation. Presence of Modic lesions showed positive correlation with STIR sequence (B=7.12, p=0.01) but not spinal ADC values. Despite DWI correlates with STIR sequence, it has lower sensitivity. However, ADC values appear to be independent of Modic lesions and may supplement STIR sequence to differentiate degeneration.

  20. Acupuncture Reduces Breast Cancer Joint Pain | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    In the largest, most rigorous study of its kind, acupuncture was found to significantly reduce the debilitating joint pain experienced by tens of thousands of women each year while being treated for early stage breast cancer with aromatase inhibitors (AIs). |

  1. Drug Reduces Cancer Treatment-Related Joint Pain

    Cancer.gov

    A Cancer Currents blog post about a clinical trial demonstrating that duloxetine (Cymbalta®) may reduce joint pain caused by aromatase inhibitors in women being treated for early-stage breast cancer.

  2. Correlation of clinical examination characteristics with three sources of chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Young, Sharon; Aprill, Charles; Laslett, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Research has demonstrated some progress in using a clinical examination to predict discogenic or sacroiliac (SI) joint sources of pain. No clear predictors of symptomatic lumbar zygapophysial joints have yet been demonstrated. To identify significant components of a clinical examination that are associated with symptomatic lumbar discs, zygapophysial joints and SI joints. A prospective, criterion-related concurrent validity study performed at a private radiology practice specializing in spinal diagnostics. The sample consisted of 81 patients with chronic lumbopelvic pain referred for diagnostic injections. Contingency tables were constructed for nine features of the clinical evaluation compared with the results of diagnostic injections. Statistical analysis included chi-squared test for independence, phi and odds ratios with confidence intervals. Patients received blinded clinical examinations by physical therapists, and diagnostic injections were used as the criterion standard. Significant relationships were found between discogenic pain and centralization of pain during repeated movement testing, and pain when rising from sitting. Lumbar zygapophysial joint pain was associated with absence of pain when rising from sitting. Sacroiliac joint pain was related to three or more positive pain provocation tests, pain when rising from sitting, unilateral pain and absence of lumbar pain. Significant correlations exist between clinical examination findings and symptomatic lumbar discs, zygapophysial and SI joints. The strongest relationships were seen between SI joint pain and three or more positive pain provocation tests, centralization of pain for symptomatic discs and absence of pain when rising from sitting for symptomatic lumbar zygapophysial joints.

  3. Socioeconomic variation in back and joint pain in Finland.

    PubMed

    Leino-Arjas, P; Hänninen, K; Puska, P

    1998-01-01

    Differences in the prevalence of back and joint pain by occupational class and education were studied in surveys representative of adult Finns. The effects of lifestyle factors and mental distress on these differences were also analysed. The material comprised 3915 women and 3629 men, all occupationally active. Occupational class and level of education were associated with back and joint pain; the associations were more obvious in men than in women. Among men, the age-adjusted odds ratio of joint pain in farmers was 3.2 (95% CI: 2.1-5.0), in manual workers 2.6 (1.9-3.6), in entrepreneurs 2.4 (1.5-3.7) and in lower white-collar workers 1.7 (1.1-2.4) as compared with upper white-collar employees. Similar odds ratios of back pain were 2.1 (1.6-2.9) in farmers, 1.8 (1.5-2.3) in manual workers, 1.7 (1.2-2.4) in entrepreneurs and 1.4 (1.1-1.7) in lower white-collar workers. Most of the associations persisted in multivariate analyses, in which height, marital status, lifestyle (smoking, leisure-time physical activity and body mass index (BMI)) and mental distress were considered; in these models, mental distress was consistently associated with pain. Back pain was associated with smoking in men and with BMI in women; BMI was also associated with joint pain in both sexes. In women, height showed an association with back pain for which a doctor had been consulted. Marital status, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activity and the urbanization level of the community were not important as determinants of pain. Obvious differences occurred in back and joint pain by indicators of social class that were not due to socioeconomic differences in lifestyle, height or mental distress.

  4. Interventional Management for Pelvic Pain.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Ameet S; Moody, Erika L

    2017-08-01

    Interventional procedures can be applied for diagnostic evaluation and treatment of the patient with pelvic pain, often once more conservative measures have failed to provide relief. This article reviews interventional management strategies for pelvic pain. We review superior and inferior hypogastric plexus blocks, ganglion impar blocks, transversus abdominis plane blocks, ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric and genitofemoral blocks, pudendal nerve blocks, and selective nerve root blocks. Additionally, we discuss trigger point injections, sacroiliac joint injections, and neuromodulation approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporomandibular joint and muscle disorder-type pain and comorbid pains in a national US sample.

    PubMed

    Plesh, Octavia; Adams, Sally H; Gansky, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    To compare prevalences of self-reported comorbid headache, neck, back, and joint pains in respondents with temporomandibular joint and muscle disorder (TMJMD)-type pain in the 2000-2005 US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and to analyze these self-reported pains by gender and age for Non-Hispanic (NH) Whites (Caucasians), Hispanics, and NH Blacks (African Americans). Data from the 2000-2005 NHIS included information on gender, age, race, ethnicity, education, different common types of pain (specifically TMJMD-type, severe headache/migraine, neck, and low back pains), changes in health status, and health care utilization. Estimates and test statistics (ie, Pearson correlations, regressions, and logistic models) were conducted using SAS survey analysis and SUDAAN software that take into account the complex sample design. A total of 189,977 people (52% female and 48% males, 73% NH Whites, 12% Hispanic, 11% NH Blacks, and 4% "Other") were included. A total of 4.6% reported TMJMD-type pain, and only 0.77% overall reported it without any comorbid headache/migraine, neck, or low back pains; also 59% of the TMJMD-type pain (n = 8,964) reported ⋝ two comorbid pains. Females reported more comorbid pain than males (odds ratio [OR] = 1.41, P < .001); Hispanic and NH Blacks reported more than NH Whites (OR = 1.56, P <.001; OR= 1.38, P <.001, respectively). In addition, 53% of those with TMJMD-type pain had severe headache/migraines, 54% had neck pain, 64% low back pain, and 62% joint pain. Differences in gender and race by age patterns were detected. For females, headache/migraine pain with TMJMD-type pain peaked around age 40 and decreased thereafter regardless of race/ethnicity. Neck pain continued to increase up to about age 60, with a higher prevalence for Hispanic women at younger ages, and more pronounced in males, being the highest in the non-Whites. Low back pain was higher in Black and Hispanic females across the age span, and higher among non-White males

  6. Intraarticular Pulsed Radiofrequency to Treat Refractory Lumbar Facet Joint Pain in Patients with Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Chang, Min Cheol; Cho, Yun-Woo; Ahn, Da Hyun; Do, Kyung Hee

    2018-04-01

    Many treatment techniques have been used for refractory lumbar facet joint pain; however, their efficacy has been controversial. In this study, we investigated the clinical efficacy and safety of intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency for the treatment of refractory lumbar facet joint pain in patients with low back pain. Twenty patients with refractory lumbar facet joint pain were recruited, and each patient was treated via intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency. The treatment effects were measured with a numerical rating scale, and the technical accuracy of intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency treatment was evaluated independently by 2 radiologists. Any adverse events or complications also were checked. We performed intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency treatment at 48 levels of the lumbar facet joints in 20 patients (5 men and 15 women; mean age, 64.50 ± 10.65 years) with refractory lumbar facet joint pain. Pain scores were significantly reduced at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment (P < 0.05). The face validity revealed good intraarticular pulsed radiofrequency results in all 20 patients, without any serious adverse effects. Treatment using intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency is an alternative to other techniques in patients with refractory lumbar facet joint pain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pain management for joint arthroplasty: preemptive analgesia.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Thomas H; Lombardi, Adolph V; Fada, Robert A; Dodds, Kathleen L; Adams, Joanne B

    2002-06-01

    Scheduled preoperative and postoperative analgesia should be offered in a multimodal management model. By a combined drug synergy effect, the central nervous system, afferent pathways, and peripheral wound site are modified collectively. In an ongoing effort to improve perioperative pain management, we retrospectively compared the results of a previously reported pain management protocol with 2 more recent groups of patients managed with modified pain protocols. In the earlier control protocol, epidural anesthesia was discontinued on arrival to the postanesthesia care unit, and regularly scheduled oral opioids and intravenous hydromorphone for breakthrough pain were initiated. The first more recent group used epidural anesthesia, and the second group used spinal anesthesia. Both protocols featured the use of cyclooxygenase-2-inhibiting anti-inflammatory medication administered for 2 weeks preoperatively and continued for 10 days postoperatively and patient-controlled analgesia for 24 hours followed by scheduled oral opioids. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA).

  8. Biomechanical study of four kinds of percutaneous screw fixation in two types of unilateral sacroiliac joint dislocation: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihai; Peng, Ye; Du, Chengfei; Tang, Peifu

    2014-12-01

    To compare the biomechanical stability of four different kinds of percutaneous screw fixation in two types of unilateral sacroiliac joint dislocation. Finite element models of unstable Tile type B and type C pelvic ring injuries were created in this study. Modelling was based on fixation with a single S1 screw (S1-1), single S2 screw (S2-1), two S1 screws (S1-2) and a combination of a single S1 and a single S2 screw (S1–S2). The biomechanical test of two types of pelvic instability (rotational or vertical) with four types of percutaneous fixation were compared. Displacement, flexion and lateral bend (in bilateral stance) were recorded and analyzed. Maximal inferior translation (displacement) was found in the S2-1 group in type B and C dislocations which were 1.58 mm and 1.90 mm, respectively. Maximal flexion was found in the S2-1 group in type B and C dislocations which were 1.55° and 1.95°, respectively. The results show that the flexion from most significant angulation to least is S2-1, S1-1, S1-2, and S1–S2 in type B and C dislocations. All the fixations have minimal lateral bend. Our findings suggest single screw S1 fixation should be adequate fixation for a type B dislocation. For type C dislocations, one might consider a two screw construct (S1–S2) to give added biomechanical stability if clinically indicated.

  9. Low Level Laser Therapy for chronic knee joint pain patients.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Ebihara, Satoru; Ohkuni, Ikuko; Izukura, Hideaki; Harada, Takashi; Ushigome, Nobuyuki; Ohshiro, Toshio; Musha, Yoshiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Kubota, Ayako

    2014-12-27

    Chronic knee joint pain is one of the most frequent complaints which is seen in the outpatient clinic in our medical institute. In previous studies we have reported the benefits of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for chronic pain in the shoulder joints, elbow, hand, finger and the lower back. The present study is a report on the effects of LLLT for chronic knee joint pain. Over the past 5 years, 35 subjects visited the outpatient clinic with complaints of chronic knee joint pain caused by the knee osteoarthritis-induced degenerative meniscal tear. They received low level laser therapy. A 1000 mW semi-conductor laser device was used to deliver 20.1 J/cm(2) per point in continuous wave at 830nm, and four points were irradiated per session (1 treatment) twice a week for 4 weeks. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine the effects of LLLT for the chronic pain and after the end of the treatment regimen a significant improvement was observed (p<0.001). After treatment, no significant differences were observed in the knee joint range of motion. Discussions with the patients revealed that it was important for them to learn how to avoid postures that would cause them knee pain in everyday life in order to have continuous benefits from the treatment. The present study demonstrated that 830 nm LLLT was an effective form of treatment for chronic knee pain caused by knee osteoarthritis. Patients were advised to undertake training involving gentle flexion and extension of the knee.

  10. Costovertebral joint dysfunction: another misdiagnosed cause of atypical chest pain.

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, J. F.; Jolliet, P.; Junod, A. F.

    1992-01-01

    The diagnostic work-up of atypical chest pain frequently leads to invasive procedures. However, this painful symptomatology can sometimes be of benign origin and respond to simple therapeutic manoeuvres. A number of musculoskeletal conditions such as costovertebral joint dysfunctions should be carefully considered. We report five cases in which patient discomfort and high costs could have been avoided if awareness of these conditions had led to a correct diagnosis upon initial physical examination. PMID:1448407

  11. Painful Joints? Early Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis Is Key

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print this issue Painful Joints? Early Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis Is Key En español Send us your comments ... type of arthritis. It’s far more common than rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis is caused by wear and tear on ...

  12. Bilateral sacroiliac luxation fixation using a single transiliosacral pin: surgical technique and clinical outcomes in eight cats.

    PubMed

    Parslow, A; Simpson, D J

    2017-06-01

    A very limited safe anatomical window for transiliosacral implant placement exists in cats (<0·5 cm 2 ). Lag screw fixation requires multiple bilateral implants thus increasing the risk of iatrogenic trauma and implant interference. We describe a safe and effective method for bilateral sacroiliac fixation in cats using a single implant to minimise inadvertent iatrogenic damage to local structures and restore pelvic canal diameter. Eight cats underwent surgical fixation for traumatic bilateral sacroiliac luxation using a single smooth intramedullary pin. The pin spanned both ilial wings and sacrum. Implants were applied using a Universal C-guide. Pre- and postsurgery pelvic canal diameter ratios were calculated. Short-term follow-up was performed at 10 to 14 days postoperatively. Long-term follow-up was performed using the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index Questionnaire. Long-term radiographic assessment was available in two cases. The technique achieved safe and accurate implant position with precise sacroiliac joint reduction. Pelvic canal diameter ratios were restored to normal in all cases. Rapid return to normal hind leg function and excellent long-term clinical outcomes were achieved. This technique offers a simple, safe, repeatable and affordable technique for treating bilateral sacroiliac luxations in the cat without the aid of fluoroscopy. The procedure can be performed using surgical tools and inventory readily available in general small animal practices. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  13. Patient expectations predict greater pain relief with joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Rajiv; Davey, John Roderick; Mahomed, Nizar

    2009-08-01

    We examined the relationship between patient expectations of total joint arthroplasty and functional outcomes. We surveyed 1799 patients undergoing primary hip or knee arthroplasty for demographic data and Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index scores at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year of follow-up. Patient expectations were determined with 3 survey questions. The patients with the greatest expectations of surgery were younger, male, and had a lower body mass index. Linear regression modeling showed that a greater expectation of pain relief with surgery independently predicted greater reported pain relief at 1 year of follow-up, adjusted for all relevant covariates (P < .05). Patient expectation of pain relief after joint arthroplasty is an important predictor of outcomes at 1 year.

  14. Is cannabis an effective treatment for joint pain?

    PubMed

    Miller, Richard J; Miller, Rachel E

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis has been used to treat pain for thousands of years. However, since the early part of the 20th century, laws restricting cannabis use have limited its evaluation using modern scientific criteria. Over the last decade, the situation has started to change because of the increased availability of cannabis in the United States for either medical or recreational purposes, making it important to provide the public with accurate information as to the effectiveness of the drug for joint pain among other indications. The major psychotropic component of cannabis is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), one of some 120 naturally occurring phytocannabinoids. Cannabidiol (CBD) is another molecule found in herbal cannabis in large amounts. Although CBD does not produce psychotropic effects, it has been shown to produce a variety of pharmacological effects. Hence, the overall effects of herbal cannabis represent the collective activity of THC, CBD and a number of minor components. The action of THC is mediated by two major G-protein coupled receptors, cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and CB2, and recent work has suggested that other targets may also exist. Arachidonic acid derived endocannabinoids are the normal physiological activators of the two cannabinoid receptors. Natural phytocannabinoids and synthetic derivatives have produced clear activity in a variety of models of joint pain in animals. These effects are the result of both inhibition of pain pathway signalling (mostly CB1) and anti-inflammatory effects (mostly CB2). There are also numerous anecdotal reports of the effectiveness of smoking cannabis for joint pain. Indeed, it is the largest medical request for the use of the drug. However, these reports generally do not extend to regulated clinical trials for rheumatic diseases. Nevertheless, the preclinical and human data that do exist indicate that the use of cannabis should be taken seriously as a potential treatment of joint pain.

  15. MRI evidence of structural changes in the sacroiliac joints of patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis even in the absence of MRI inflammation.

    PubMed

    Maksymowych, Walter P; Wichuk, Stephanie; Dougados, Maxime; Jones, Heather; Szumski, Annette; Bukowski, Jack F; Marshall, Lisa; Lambert, Robert G

    2017-06-06

    Studies have shown that structural lesions may be present in patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA). However, the relevance of structural lesions in these patients is unclear, particularly without signs of inflammation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We assessed the presence of structural lesions at baseline on MRI in the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) of patients with nr-axSpA with and without SIJ inflammation on MRI. Bone marrow edema (BME) was assessed on short tau inversion recovery (STIR) scans from 185 patients with nr-axSpA, by two independent readers at baseline using the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) score. Structural lesions were evaluated on T1 weighted spin echo scans, with readers blinded to STIR scans, using the SPARCC MRI SIJ structural score. Disease characteristics and structural lesions were compared in patients with SIJ BME (score ≥2) and without SIJ BME (score <2). Both SIJ BME and structural lesions scores were available for 183 patients; 128/183 (69.9%) patients had SIJ BME scores ≥2 and 55/183 (30.1%) had scores <2. Frequencies of MRI structural lesions in patients with vs without SIJ BME were: erosions (45.3% vs 10.9%, P < 0.001), backfill (20.3% vs 0%, P < 0.001), fat metaplasia (10.9% vs 1.8%, P = 0.04), and ankylosis (2.3% vs 1.8%, P = ns). Significantly more patients with both SIJ BME and structural lesions were male and/or HLA-B27 positive than patients with only SIJ BME. Mean (SD) spinal scores (23 discovertebral units) were significantly higher in patients with SIJ structural lesions than without: 6.5 (11.5) vs 3.3 (5.1), respectively, P = 0.01. In patients with nr-axSpA, SIJ structural lesions, particularly erosions, may be present on MRI when radiographs are normal or inconclusive, even in patients negative for MRI SIJ inflammation. They may reflect more severe disease with greater spinal inflammation. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01258738 . Registered on 9

  16. Sternoclavicular joint palpation pain: the shoulder's Waddell sign?

    PubMed

    Ponce, Brent A; Archie, Adam T; Watson, Shawna L; Hudson, Parke W; Menendez, Mariano E; McGwin, Gerald; Brabston, Eugene W

    2018-07-01

    Pain is a complex and subjective reality and can be magnified by nonorganic or nonanatomic sources. Multiple studies have demonstrated a correlation between psychological factors and patients' perceptions of musculoskeletal pain and disability. In addition, nonorganic findings as part of the physical examination are well and long recognized. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between a shoulder examination test, palpation of the sternoclavicular joint (SCJ), and psychosocial conditions including chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. From June until October 2016, all new patients of 2 sports/shoulder fellowship-trained surgeons at an academic practice were screened for study enrollment. After their consent was obtained, patients were given a set of 5 surveys (Pain Catastrophizing Scale; Patient-Health Questionnaire 2; Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire; shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire; and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index) to complete. The physician then completed a comprehensive standardized physical examination, with the examining physician being blinded to the patient's survey responses. Palpation of the SCJ was done with the examiner's thumbs and was accompanied by the question "Does this hurt?" If a positive pain response was given, clarification as to the correct side of the pain was made. A total of 132 patients were enrolled and completed the surveys and physical examination. Of the patients, 26 (19.7%) reported SCJ pain with SCJ palpation. Patients with and without confirmed pain on SCJ palpation had significantly different (P < .001) mean scores for all 5 surveys. A review of the medical histories between the 2 groups identified a significantly increased prevalence of chronic pain and mental health disorders, such as anxiety and depression, in SCJ palpation-positive patients. Patients who confirmed pain on SCJ palpation had significantly higher scores on various psychological surveys than those

  17. The predictive value of the sacral base pressure test in detecting specific types of sacroiliac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Travis D.; Urli, Kristina E.; Breitenbach, Jacques; Yelverton, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the sacral base pressure test in diagnosing sacroiliac joint dysfunction. It also determined the predictive powers of the test in determining which type of sacroiliac joint dysfunction was present. Methods This was a double-blind experimental study with 62 participants. The results from the sacral base pressure test were compared against a cluster of previously validated tests of sacroiliac joint dysfunction to determine its validity and predictive powers. The external rotation of the feet, occurring during the sacral base pressure test, was measured using a digital inclinometer. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the results of the sacral base pressure test between the types of sacroiliac joint dysfunction. In terms of the results of validity, the sacral base pressure test was useful in identifying positive values of sacroiliac joint dysfunction. It was fairly helpful in correctly diagnosing patients with negative test results; however, it had only a “slight” agreement with the diagnosis for κ interpretation. Conclusions In this study, the sacral base pressure test was not a valid test for determining the presence of sacroiliac joint dysfunction or the type of dysfunction present. Further research comparing the agreement of the sacral base pressure test or other sacroiliac joint dysfunction tests with a criterion standard of diagnosis is necessary. PMID:19674694

  18. Appropriate Use Criteria for Fluoroscopically Guided Diagnostic and Therapeutic Sacroiliac Interventions: Results from the Spine Intervention Society Convened Multispecialty Collaborative.

    PubMed

    MacVicar, John; Kreiner, D Scott; Duszynski, Belinda; Kennedy, David J

    2017-11-01

    To provide an overview of a multisociety effort to formulate appropriate use criteria for image-guided injections and radiofrequency procedures in the diagnosis and treatment of sacroiliac joint and posterior sacroiliac complex pain. The Spine Intervention Society convened a multisociety effort to guide physicians and define for payers the appropriate use of image-guided injections and radiofrequency procedures. An evidence panel was established to write systematic reviews, define key terms and assumptions, and develop clinical scenarios to be addressed. The rating panel considered the evidence presented in the systematic reviews, carefully reviewed the definitions and assumptions, and rated the clinical scenarios. Final median ratings, in combination with the level of agreement, determined the final ratings for the appropriate use of sacroiliac injections and radiofrequency neurotomy. More than 10,000 scenarios were addressed in the appropriate use criteria and are housed within five modules in the portal, available on the Spine Intervention Society website: Module 1: Clinical Indications and Imaging; Module 2: Anticoagulants; Module 3: Timing of Injections; Module 4: Number of Injections; and Module 5: Lateral Branch Radiofrequency Neurotomy. Within several of these modules, several issues of interest are identified and discussed. Physicians and payers can access the appropriate use criteria portal on the Spine Intervention Society's website and select specific clinical indications for a particular patient in order to learn more about the appropriateness of the intervention(s) under consideration. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Relationship between lower limb dynamics and knee joint pain.

    PubMed

    Radin, E L; Yang, K H; Riegger, C; Kish, V L; O'Connor, J J

    1991-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that appropriate and timely neuromuscular control of limb motions plays an important role in the preservation of joint health, we kinematically and kinetically examined the behavior of the legs of young adult subjects at heel strike during natural walking. We compared a group of 18 volunteers, who, we presumed, were preosteoarthrotic because of mild, intermittent, activity-related knee joint pain, with 14 age-matched asymptomatic normal subjects. The two groups of subjects exhibited similar gait patterns with equivalent cadences, walking speeds, terminal stance phase knee flexion, maximum (peak) swing angular velocity, and overall shape of the vertical ground reaction. However, our instrumentation detected statistically significant differences between the two groups within a few milliseconds of heel strike. In the knee pain group, the heel hit the floor with a stronger impact in this brief interval. Just before heel strike, there was a faster downward velocity of the ankle with a larger angular velocity of the shank. The follow-through of the leg immediately after heel strike was more violent with larger peak axial and angular accelerations of the leg echoed by a more rapid rise of the ground reaction force. This sequence of events represents repetitive impulsive loading, which consistently provoked osteoarthrosis in animal experiments. We refer to this micro-incoordination of neuromuscular control not visible to the naked eye as "microklutziness."

  20. Temporomandibular Joint and Muscle Disorder (TMJMD) - type pain and Co-morbid Pains in a National US Sample

    PubMed Central

    Plesh, O; Adams, SH; Gansky, SA

    2013-01-01

    Aims To compare prevalences of self-reported comorbid headaches, neck, back, and joint pains in respondents with temporomandibular joint and muscle disorder (TMJMD)-type pain in the 2000–2005 US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and to analyze these self-reported pains by gender and age for Non-Hispanic (NH) Whites (Caucasians), Hispanics and NH Blacks (African Americans). Methods Data from the 2000–2005 NHIS included information on gender, age, race, ethnicity, education, different common types of pain (specifically: TMJMD-type, severe headache/migraine, neck, and low back pains), changes in health status; and health care utilization. Estimates and test statistics (i.e. Pearson correlations, regressions and logistic models) were conducted using SAS survey analysis and SUDAAN software that take into account the complex sample design. Results A total of 189,977 people: 52% female and 48% males; 73% NH Whites, 12% Hispanic, 11% NH Blacks and 4% “Other” were included. A total of 4.6% reported TMJMD-type pain and only 0.77% overall reported it without any comorbid headache/migraine, neck, or low back pains; also 59% of the TMJMD-type pain (N = 8,964) reported ≥two comorbid pain. Females reported more comorbid pain than males (odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, p <0.001), Hispanic and NH Blacks reported more than NH Whites (OR = 1.56, p <0.001; OR = 1.38, p <0.001, respectively). In addition, 53% of those with TMJMD-type pain had severe headache/migraines; 54% had neck pain, 64% low back pain and 62% joint pain. Differences in gender, race by age patterns were detected. For females, headache/migraine pain with TMJMD-type pain peaked around age 40 and decreased thereafter regardless of race/ethnicity. Neck pain continued to increase up to about age 60, with higher prevalence for Hispanic women at younger ages, and more pronounced in males, being the highest in the non-Whites. Low back pain was higher in Black and Hispanic females across the age span and higher

  1. Influence of BMI, gender, and sports on pain decrease and medication usage after facet-medial branch neurotomy or SI joint lateral branch cooled RF-neurotomy in case of low back pain: original research in the Austrian population.

    PubMed

    Stelzer, Wolfgang; Stelzer, Valentin; Stelzer, Dominik; Braune, Monika; Duller, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This retrospective original research was designed to illustrate the general outcome after radiofrequency (RF) neurotomy of lumbar medial branch (MB) and posterior ramus of the sacroiliac joint of 160 patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) 1, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) 0-10 pain scores, quality of life, body mass index (BMI), medication usage, and frequency of physical exercise/sports participation (none, 1-3×/week, more) were collected before the procedure, at 1 month post procedure (n=160), and again at 6 (n=73) and 12 months (n=89) post procedure. A VAS decrease of 4 points on a 10-point scale (from 8 to 4) in the overall group was seen after 6 months and of 4.5 after 12 months. Lower medication usage was reported, with opioids decreased by 40% and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by 60%. Decreased pain lasted for 12 months. Significantly better outcomes were reported by patients with BMIs <30. No gender-specific differences occurred in the reported decrease in VAS. Analysis of the "no-sports" group versus the more active (1-3 times weekly sports) group showed a better pain decrease after 1 year in the active group. The data suggest RF treatment for chronic LBP that can lead to long-term improvement. Patients with a BMI >30 are less likely to report decreased pain. The better long-term pain relief in the sports participating group is a motivation for the authors to keep the patients in motion.

  2. Tiagabine May Reduce Bruxism and Associated Temporomandibular Joint Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kast, R. E.

    2005-01-01

    Tiagabine is an anticonvulsant gamma-aminobutyric acid reuptake inhibitor commonly used as an add-on treatment of refractory partial seizures in persons over 12 years old. Four of the 5 cases reported here indicate that tiagabine might also be remarkably effective in suppressing nocturnal bruxism, trismus, and consequent morning pain in the teeth, masticatory musculature, jaw, and temporomandibular joint areas. Tiagabine has a benign adverse-effect profile, is easily tolerated, and retains effectiveness over time. Bed partners of these patients report that grinding noises have stopped; therefore, the tiagabine effect is probably not simply antinociceptive. The doses used to suppress nocturnal bruxism at bedtime (4–8 mg) are lower than those used to treat seizures. PMID:16252740

  3. Volar denervation and osteophyte resection to relieve volar CMC joint pain.

    PubMed

    Dellon, A Lee

    2017-01-01

    At mean 125.6 months, pain was reduced from mean of 8.7 to 0.67, p  < .001. Each of three patients, two of whom were musicians, returned to full professional ability. It is concluded that volar CMC joint denervation is a useful procedure, preserving joint function and relieving pain long-term.

  4. Effect of mechanical stress on magnetic resonance imaging of the sacroiliac joints: assessment of military recruits by magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Varkas, Gaëlle; de Hooge, Manouk; Renson, Thomas; De Mits, Sophie; Carron, Philippe; Jacques, Peggy; Moris, Muriel; Souverijns, Geert; Jans, Lennart; Elewaut, Dirk; Van den Bosch, Filip

    2018-03-01

    To assess the baseline condition of the SI joints (SIJs) in healthy individuals without symptoms of back pain and to study the effect of mechanical stress caused by intense physical training on MRI of the SIJs. Twenty-two military recruits underwent an MRI of the SIJs before and after 6 weeks of intense standardized physical training. Bone marrow oedema and structural lesions were scored based on the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) method, by three trained readers blinded for time sequence and clinical findings. Additionally, fulfilment of the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) definition of a positive MRI was evaluated. At baseline, 9/22 recruits (40.9%) already presented a SPARCC score ⩾1; this number increased to 11/22 (50.0%) at week 6 (P = 0.625). In these patients, the mean (SD) SPARCC score was 2.4 (0.4) at baseline, compared to 3.7 (1.3) at week 6. Overall, the mean (SD) change in SPARCC score over time in all 22 patients was 0.9 (0.6) (P = 0.109). A positive MRI according to the ASAS definition was present in 5/22 recruits (22.7%) at baseline, which increased to 8/22 (36.4%) at follow-up (P = 0.375). Structural lesions were present in 6/22 subjects (27.3%), both at baseline and after 6 weeks of training. A substantial proportion of healthy active individuals without any symptoms of back pain displayed bone marrow oedema lesions on MRI at baseline. However, MRI lesions did not increase significantly after 6 weeks of intensive physical training. Our study underscores the necessity to interpret MRI findings of the SIJs in the appropriate clinical context, even in a young active population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Chronic Pain in Children and Adolescents: Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Pain Disorders in Head, Abdomen, Muscles and Joints

    PubMed Central

    Friedrichsdorf, Stefan J.; Giordano, James; Desai Dakoji, Kavita; Warmuth, Andrew; Daughtry, Cyndee; Schulz, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Primary pain disorders (formerly “functional pain syndromes”) are common, under-diagnosed and under-treated in children and teenagers. This manuscript reviews key aspects which support understanding the development of pediatric chronic pain, points to the current pediatric chronic pain terminology, addresses effective treatment strategies, and discusses the evidence-based use of pharmacology. Common symptoms of an underlying pain vulnerability present in the three most common chronic pain disorders in pediatrics: primary headaches, centrally mediated abdominal pain syndromes, and/or chronic/recurrent musculoskeletal and joint pain. A significant number of children with repeated acute nociceptive pain episodes develop chronic pain in addition to or as a result of their underlying medical condition “chronic-on-acute pain.” We provide description of the structure and process of our interdisciplinary, rehabilitative pain clinic in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA with accompanying data in the treatment of chronic pain symptoms that persist beyond the expected time of healing. An interdisciplinary approach combining (1) rehabilitation; (2) integrative medicine/active mind-body techniques; (3) psychology; and (4) normalizing daily school attendance, sports, social life and sleep will be presented. As a result of restored function, pain improves and commonly resolves. Opioids are not indicated for primary pain disorders, and other medications, with few exceptions, are usually not first-line therapy. PMID:27973405

  6. Chronic Pain in Children and Adolescents: Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Pain Disorders in Head, Abdomen, Muscles and Joints.

    PubMed

    Friedrichsdorf, Stefan J; Giordano, James; Desai Dakoji, Kavita; Warmuth, Andrew; Daughtry, Cyndee; Schulz, Craig A

    2016-12-10

    Primary pain disorders (formerly "functional pain syndromes") are common, under-diagnosed and under-treated in children and teenagers. This manuscript reviews key aspects which support understanding the development of pediatric chronic pain, points to the current pediatric chronic pain terminology, addresses effective treatment strategies, and discusses the evidence-based use of pharmacology. Common symptoms of an underlying pain vulnerability present in the three most common chronic pain disorders in pediatrics: primary headaches, centrally mediated abdominal pain syndromes, and/or chronic/recurrent musculoskeletal and joint pain. A significant number of children with repeated acute nociceptive pain episodes develop chronic pain in addition to or as a result of their underlying medical condition "chronic-on-acute pain." We provide description of the structure and process of our interdisciplinary, rehabilitative pain clinic in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA with accompanying data in the treatment of chronic pain symptoms that persist beyond the expected time of healing. An interdisciplinary approach combining (1) rehabilitation; (2) integrative medicine/active mind-body techniques; (3) psychology; and (4) normalizing daily school attendance, sports, social life and sleep will be presented. As a result of restored function, pain improves and commonly resolves. Opioids are not indicated for primary pain disorders, and other medications, with few exceptions, are usually not first-line therapy.

  7. Pain from intra-articular NGF or joint injury in the rat requires contributions from peptidergic joint afferents.

    PubMed

    Kras, Jeffrey V; Weisshaar, Christine L; Pall, Parul S; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2015-09-14

    Non-physiological stretch of the cervical facet joint's capsular ligament induces persistent behavioral hypersensitivity and spinal neuronal hyperexcitability via an intra-articular NGF-dependent mechanism. Although that ligament is innervated by nociceptors, it is unknown if a subpopulation is exclusively responsible for the behavioral and spinal neuronal responses to intra-articular NGF and/or facet joint injury. This study ablated joint afferents using the neurotoxin saporin targeted to neurons involved in either peptidergic ([Sar(9),Met (O2)(11)]-substance P-saporin (SSP-Sap)) or non-peptidergic (isolectin B4-saporin (IB4-Sap)) signaling to investigate the contributions of those neuronal populations to facet-mediated pain. SSP-Sap, but not IB4-Sap, injected into the bilateral C6/C7 facet joints 14 days prior to an intra- articular NGF injection prevents NGF-induced mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in the forepaws. Similarly, only SSP- Sap prevents the increase in mechanical forepaw stimulation- induced firing of spinal neurons after intra-articular NGF. In addition, intra-articular SSP-Sap prevents both behavioral hypersensitivity and upregulation of NGF in the dorsal root ganglion after a facet joint distraction that normally induces pain. These findings collectively suggest that disruption of peptidergic signaling within the joint may be a potential treatment for facet pain, as well as other painful joint conditions associated with elevated NGF, such as osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Strategies Aimed at Preventing Chronic Post-surgical Pain: Comprehensive Perioperative Pain Management after Total Joint Replacement Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Linda J.; Kennedy, Deborah; Stratford, Paul; Katz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) is a frequent outcome of musculoskeletal surgery. Physiotherapists often treat patients with pain before and after musculoskeletal surgery. The purposes of this paper are (1) to raise awareness of the nature, mechanisms, and significance of CPSP; and (2) to highlight the necessity for an inter-professional team to understand and address its complexity. Using total joint replacement surgeries as a model, we provide a review of pain mechanisms and pain management strategies. Summary of Key Points: By understanding the mechanisms by which pain alters the body's normal physiological responses to surgery, clinicians selectively target pain in post-surgical patients through the use of multi-modal management strategies. Clinicians should not assume that patients receiving multiple medications have a problem with pain. Rather, the modern-day approach is to manage pain using preventive strategies, with the aims of reducing the intensity of acute postoperative pain and minimizing the development of CPSP. Conclusions: The roles of biological, surgical, psychosocial, and patient-related risk factors in the transition to pain chronicity require further investigation if we are to better understand their relationships with pain. Measuring pain intensity and analgesic use is not sufficient. Proper evaluation and management of risk factors for CPSP require inter-professional teams to characterize a patient's experience of postoperative pain and to examine pain arising during functional activities. PMID:22654235

  9. The Treatment of Joint Pain with Intra-articular Pulsed Radiofrequency.

    PubMed

    Schianchi, Pietro M; Sluijter, Menno E; Balogh, Susan E

    2013-09-01

    The intra-articular (IA) application of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) for pain in small and large joints represents a recent development that has proven to be effective in many cases. We performed a retrospective study of 89 such procedures in 57 consecutive patients with chronic articular pain. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the effectiveness of intraarticular PRF in a group of 57 consecutive patients with chronic joint pain. Patients with intractable joint pain for more than 6 months were treated with IA PRF 40-45V for 10-15 min in small joints and 60V for 15 min in large joints using fluoroscopic confirmation of correct needle position. A total of 28 shoulders, 40 knees, 10 trapezio-metacarpal, and 11 first metatarso-phalangeal joints were treated. Results were evaluated at 1, 2, and 5 months. The procedure was repeated after 1 month in 10 patients with initial suboptimal results. Success was defined as a reduction of pain score by at least 50%. All groups showed significant reductions in pain scores at all three follow-up visits. Success rates were higher in small joints (90% and 82%, respectively) than large ones (64% and 60%, respectively). Interestingly, IA PRF was successful in 6 out of 10 patients who had undergone previous surgery, including 3 with prosthetic joint replacement and in 6 of the 10 repeated procedures. There were no significant adverse effects or complications. IA PRF induced significant pain relief of long duration in a majority of our patients with joint pain. The exact mechanism is unclear, but may be related to the exposure of immune cells to low-strength RF fields, inducing an anti-inflammatory effect. The success rate appears to be highest in small joints. We recommend additional research including control groups to further investigate and clarify this method; our data suggest that it may represent a useful modality in the treatment of arthrogenic pain.

  10. Joint awareness after total knee arthroplasty is affected by pain and quadriceps strength.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Y; Wada, O; Nakakita, S; Mizuno, K

    2016-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of patient-reported outcomes to provide a more patient-centered view on treatment. Forgetting the artificial joint can be regarded as the goal in joint arthroplasty. The goals of the study were to describe changes in joint awareness in the artificial joint after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and to determine which factors among pain, knee range of motion (ROM), quadriceps strength, and functional ability affect joint awareness after TKA. Patients undergoing TKA demonstrate changes in joint awareness and joint awareness is associated with pain, knee ROM, quadriceps strength, and functional ability. This prospective cohort study comprised 63 individuals undergoing TKA, evaluated at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Outcomes included joint awareness assessed using the Forgotten Joint Score (FJS), pain score, knee ROM, quadriceps strength, and functional ability. Fifty-eight individuals completed all postoperative assessments. All measures except for knee extension ROM improved from 1 to 6 months. However, there were no differences in any measures from 6 to 12 months. FJS was affected most greatly by pain at 1 month and by quadriceps strength at 6 and 12 months. Patients following TKA demonstrate improvements in joint awareness and function within 6 months after surgery, but reach a plateau from 6 to 12 months. Quadriceps strength could contribute to this plateau of joint awareness. Prospective cohort study, IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiofrequency Denervation Improves Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Thoracic Zygapophyseal Joint Pain.

    PubMed

    Hambraeus, Johan; Hambraeus, Kjerstin S; Persson, Jan

    2018-05-01

    To describe a practical approach for the diagnosis and treatment of thoracic zygapophyseal joint pain and to present preliminary clinical data on the effects of this treatment approach on health-related quality of life. An observational study. Specialist outpatient pain clinic in northern Sweden. Patients with long-term thoracic pain. We describe a method of radiofrequency denervation of thoracic zygapophyseal joints. We compared health-related quality of life between patients who underwent radiofrequency denervation of thoracic zygapophyseal joints and patients who underwent radiofrequency denervation for lumbar and cervical zygapophyseal joint pain. Treatment according to the Spine Intervention Society Guidelines was performed on the lumbar region in 178 patients and in the cervical region in 55 patients. Another 82 patients were treated in the thoracic region with our proposed technique. A survival plot of improvements in health-related quality of life revealed that all three treatments were effective in 65% or more of patients. The improvement in health-related quality of life was maintained for 12 or more months after treatment in 47% to 51% of patients. Our results suggest that radiofrequency denervation of thoracic zygapophyseal joint pain is as effective as radiofrequency denervation, the standard treatment, for lumbar and cervical zygapophyseal joint pain. If these results can be confirmed by other centers, radiofrequency denervation is likely to become more widely available for the treatment of thoracic zygapophyseal joint pain.

  12. [The effects of hand acupuncture therapy on pain, ROM, ADL and depression among elders with low back pain and knee joint pain].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Hyang

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of hand acupuncture therapy on pain, ROM, ADL, and depression among older people with low back pain and knee joint pain. The research was a quasi-experimental design using a non-equivalent control group pre-post test. The participants were 40 patients, 18 in the experimental group and 22 in the control group. A pretest and 2 posttest were conducted to measure the main variables. For the experimental group, hand acupuncture therapy, consisting of hand acupuncture and press-pellets based on corresponding points, was given. There were statistically significant differences in pain, ROM in knee joint, and ADL in the experimental group but not in depression compared to the control group over two different times. The hand acupuncture therapy was effective for low back pain, knee joint pain, ROM in knee joint and ADL among the elders in this study. Therefore, the hand acupuncture therapy can be utilized in the field of geriatric nursing as a nursing intervention for older people with low back pain and knee joint pain.

  13. PAIN FROM INTRA-ARTICULAR NGF OR JOINT INJURY IN THE RAT REQUIRES CONTRIBUTIONS FROM PEPTIDERGIC JOINT AFFERENTS

    PubMed Central

    Kras, Jeffrey V.; Weisshaar, Christine L.; Pall, Parul S.; Winkelstein, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-physiological stretch of the cervical facet joint’s capsular ligament induces persistent behavioral hypersensitivity and spinal neuronal hyperexcitability via an intra-articular NGF-dependent mechanism. Although that ligament is innervated by nociceptors, it is unknown if a subpopulation is exclusively responsible for the behavioral and spinal neuronal responses to intra-articular NGF and/or facet joint injury. This study ablated joint afferents using the neurotoxin saporin targeted to neurons involved in either peptidergic ([Sar9,Met(O2)11]-substance P-saporin (SSP-Sap)) or non-peptidergic (isolectin B4-saporin (IB4-Sap)) signaling to investigate the contributions of those neuronal populations to facet-mediated pain. SSP-Sap, but not IB4-Sap, injected into the bilateral C6/C7 facet joints 14 days prior to an intra-articular NGF injection prevents NGF-induced mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in the forepaws. Similarly, only SSP-Sap prevents the increase in mechanical forepaw stimulation-induced firing of spinal neurons after intra-articular NGF. In addition, intra-articular SSP-Sap prevents both behavioral hypersensitivity and upregulation of NGF in the dorsal root ganglion after a facet joint distraction that normally induces pain. These findings collectively suggest that disruption of peptidergic signaling within the joint may be a potential treatment for facet pain, as well as other painful joint conditions associated with elevated NGF, such as osteoarthritis. PMID:26240991

  14. Joint Mobilization Enhances Mechanisms of Conditioned Pain Modulation in Individuals With Osteoarthritis of the Knee.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Carol A; Steffen, Alana D; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Kim, John; Chmell, Samuel J

    2016-03-01

    An experimental laboratory study with a repeated-measures crossover design. Treatment effects of joint mobilization may occur in part by decreasing excitability of central nociceptive pathways. Impaired conditioned pain modulation (CPM) has been found experimentally in persons with knee and hip osteoarthritis, indicating impaired inhibition of central nociceptive pathways. We hypothesized increased effectiveness of CPM following application of joint mobilization, determined via measures of deep tissue hyperalgesia. To examine the effect of joint mobilization on impaired CPM. An examination of 40 individuals with moderate/severe knee osteoarthritis identified 29 (73%) with impaired CPM. The subjects were randomized to receive 6 minutes of knee joint mobilization (intervention) or manual cutaneous input only, 1 week apart. Deep tissue hyperalgesia was examined via pressure pain thresholds bilaterally at the knee medial joint line and the hand at baseline, postintervention, and post-CPM testing. Further, vibration perception threshold was measured at the medial knee epicondyle at baseline and post-CPM testing. Joint mobilization, but not cutaneous input intervention, resulted in a global increase in pressure pain threshold, indicated by diminished hyperalgesic responses to pressure stimulus. Further, CPM was significantly enhanced following joint mobilization. Diminished baseline vibration perception threshold acuity was enhanced following joint mobilization at the knee that received intervention, but not at the contralateral knee. Resting pain was also significantly lower following the joint intervention. Conditioned pain modulation was enhanced following joint mobilization, demonstrated by a global decrease in deep tissue pressure sensitivity. Joint mobilization may act via enhancement of descending pain mechanisms in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis.

  15. Navigation-aided visualization of lumbosacral nerves for anterior sacroiliac plate fixation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Takao, Masaki; Nishii, Takashi; Sakai, Takashi; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2014-06-01

    Anterior sacroiliac joint plate fixation for unstable pelvic ring fractures avoids soft tissue problems in the buttocks; however, the lumbosacral nerves lie in close proximity to the sacroiliac joint and may be injured during the procedure. A 49 year-old woman with a type C pelvic ring fracture was treated with an anterior sacroiliac plate using a computed tomography (CT)-three-dimensional (3D)-fluoroscopy matching navigation system, which visualized the lumbosacral nerves as well as the iliac and sacral bones. We used a flat panel detector 3D C-arm, which made it possible to superimpose our preoperative CT-based plan on the intra-operative 3D-fluoroscopic images. No postoperative complications were noted. Intra-operative lumbosacral nerve visualization using computer navigation was useful to recognize the 'at-risk' area for nerve injury during anterior sacroiliac plate fixation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Elevated sacroilac joint uptake ratios in systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.; Mahmood, T.; Robinson, R.G.

    1984-08-01

    Sacroiliac joint radiographs and radionuclide sacroiliac joint uptake ratios were obtained on 14 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Elevated joint ratios were found unilaterally in two patients and bilaterally in seven patients when their lupus was active. In patients whose disease became quiescent, the uptake ratios returned to normal. Two patients had persistently elevated ratios with continued clinical and laboratory evidence of active lupus. Mild sacroiliac joint sclerosis and erosions were detected on pelvic radiographs in these same two patients. Elevated quantitative sacroiliac joint uptake ratios may occur as a manifestation of active systemic lupus erythematosus.

  17. Dutch Multidisciplinary Guideline for Invasive Treatment of Pain Syndromes of the Lumbosacral Spine.

    PubMed

    Itz, Coen J; Willems, Paul C; Zeilstra, Dick J; Huygen, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    When conservative therapies such as pain medication or exercise therapy fail, invasive treatment may be indicated for patients with lumbosacral spinal pain. The Dutch Society of Anesthesiologists, in collaboration with the Dutch Orthopedic Association and the Dutch Neurosurgical Society, has taken the initiative to develop the guideline "Spinal low back pain," which describes the evidence regarding diagnostics and invasive treatment of the most common spinal low back pain syndromes, that is, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, coccygodynia, pain originating from the intervertebral disk, and failed back surgery syndrome. The aim of the guideline is to determine which invasive treatment intervention is preferred for each included pain syndrome when conservative treatment has failed. Diagnostic studies were evaluated using the EBRO criteria, and studies on therapies were evaluated with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. For the evaluation of invasive treatment options, the guideline committee decided that the outcome measures of pain, function, and quality of life were most important. The definition, epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanism, diagnostics, and recommendations for invasive therapy for each of the spinal back pain syndromes are reported. The guideline committee concluded that the categorization of low back pain into merely specific or nonspecific gives insufficient insight into the low back pain problem and does not adequately reflect which therapy is effective for the underlying disorder of a pain syndrome. Based on the guideline "Spinal low back pain," facet joint pain, pain of the sacroiliac joint, and disk pain will be part of a planned nationwide cost-effectiveness study. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  18. Biofeedback and Relaxation Therapy for Chronic Temporomandibular Joint Pain: Predicting Successful Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funch, Donna P.; Gale, Elliot N.

    1984-01-01

    Randomly assigned 57 patients with chronic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain to receive either relaxation or biofeedback therapy. Successful patients in the relaxation condition tended to be younger and had experienced TMJ pain for a shorter period of time than the successful biofeedback patients. (BH)

  19. Positive correlation between inflammation on sacroiliac joint MRI and serum C-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen in ankylosing spondylitis but not in non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kwi Young; Jung, Joon-Yong; Hong, Yeon Sik; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Park, Sung-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    To identify the clinical disease activity scores and laboratory markers that best reflect magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-determined sacroiliac joint (SIJ) inflammation in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA). This cross-sectional study included all consecutive patients who presented with axial spondyloarthritis in 2013-2015. All underwent SIJ MRI. The bone marrow oedema in the inflammatory lesions on MRI was scored using the SPondyloArthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) method. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), serum C-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (sCTX-I), and inflammatory markers were measured. Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) were assessed. The correlations between the MRI-determined SIJ inflammation scores and disease activity scores and laboratory variables were evaluated. Of the 81 patients with axSpA, 45 had AS and 36 had nr-axSpA. The AS and nr-axSpA groups did not differ in terms of disease activity scores, physical functional index, or MRI-determined SIJ inflammation. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and ASDAS correlated with MRI inflammatory scores in nr-axSpA but not in AS. sCTX-I correlated with MRI-determined SIJ inflammatory scores in AS only. BASDAI and BALP levels did not associate with MRI inflammatory scores in either group. Multivariate analysis showed that sCTX-I associated independently with MRI inflammatory score in AS (β=17.047, p=0.038). Inflammatory markers and ASDAS correlated with active sacroiliitis on MRI in nr-axSpA only. In AS, only sCTX-I correlated with active inflammation on SIJ MRI. sCTX-I may be useful as a marker of objective inflammation in AS.

  20. Evaluation of Serum Cytokines in Cats with and without Degenerative Joint Disease and Associated Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Margaret E.; Messenger, Kristen M.; Thomson, Andrea E.; Griffith, Emily H.; Aldrich, Lauren A.; Vaden, Shelly; Lascelles, BDX

    2017-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease is common in cats, with signs of pain frequently found on orthopedic examination and radiographs often showing evidence of disease. However, understanding of the pathophysiology of degenerative joint disease and associated pain remains limited. Several cytokines have been identified as having a role in pain in humans, but this has not been investigated in cats. The present study was performed to use a multiplex platform to evaluate the concentration of 19 cytokines and chemokines in serum samples obtained from cats with and without degenerative joint disease and associated pain. Samples from a total of 186 cats were analyzed, with cats representing a range of severity on radiographic and orthopedic evaluations and categorized by degenerative joint disease scores and pain scores. Results showed that cats with higher radiographic degenerative joint disease scores have higher serum concentrations of IL-4 and IL-8, while cats with higher orthopedic exam pain scores have higher concentrations of IL-8, IL-2, and TNF-α increased concentration of IL-8 in degenerative joint disease and pain may be confounded by the association with age. Discriminant analysis was unable to identify one or more cytokines that distinguish between groups of cats classified based on degenerative joint disease score category or pain score category. Finally, cluster analysis driven by analyte concentrations show separation of groups of cats, but features defining the groups remain unknown. Further studies are warranted to investigate any changes in cytokine concentrations in response to analgesic therapies, and further evaluate the elevations in cytokine concentrations found here, particularly focused on studies of local cytokines present in synovial fluid. PMID:28063477

  1. Preoperative Pain Neuroscience Education Combined With Knee Joint Mobilization for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lluch, Enrique; Dueñas, Lirios; Falla, Deborah; Baert, Isabel; Meeus, Mira; Sánchez-Frutos, José; Nijs, Jo

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to first compare the effects of a preoperative treatment combining pain neuroscience education (PNE) with knee joint mobilization versus biomedical education with knee joint mobilization on central sensitization (CS) in patients with knee osteoarthritis, both before and after surgery. Second, we wanted to compare the effects of both interventions on knee pain, disability, and psychosocial variables. Forty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis were allocated to receive 4 sessions of either PNE combined with knee joint mobilization or biomedical education with knee joint mobilization before surgery. All participants completed self-administered questionnaires and quantitative sensory testing was performed at baseline, after treatment and at a 1 month follow-up (all before surgery), and at 3 months after surgery. Significant and clinically relevant differences before and after surgery were found after treatments for both knee pain and disability, and some measures of CS (ie, widespread hyperalgesia, CS inventory), with no significant between-group differences. Other indicators of CS (ie, conditioned pain modulation, temporal summation) did not change over time following either treatment, and in some occasions the observed changes were not in the expected direction. Patients receiving PNE with knee joint mobilization achieved greater improvements in psychosocial variables (pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia) both before and after surgery. Preoperative PNE combined with knee joint mobilization did not produce any additional benefits over time for knee pain and disability, and CS measures compared with biomedical education with knee joint mobilization. Superior effects in the PNE with knee joint mobilization group were only observed for psychosocial variables related to pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia.

  2. Differential Diagnostics of Pain in the Course of Trigeminal Neuralgia and Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Pihut, M.; Szuta, M.; Ferendiuk, E.; Zeńczak-Więckiewicz, D.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic oral and facial pain syndromes are an indication for intervention of physicians of numerous medical specialties, while the complex nature of these complaints warrants interdisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach. Oftentimes, lack of proper differentiation of pain associated with pathological changes of the surrounding tissues, neurogenic pain, vascular pain, or radiating pain from idiopathic facial pain leads to improper treatment. The objective of the paper is to provide detailed characterization of pain developing in the natural history of trigeminal neuralgia and temporomandibular joint dysfunction, with particular focus on similarities accounting for the difficulties in diagnosis and treatment as well as on differences between both types of pain. It might seem that trigeminal neuralgia can be easily differentiated from temporomandibular joint dysfunction due to the acute, piercing, and stabbing nature of neuralgic pain occurring at a single facial location to spread along the course of the nerve on one side, sometimes a dozen or so times a day, without forewarning periods. Both forms differ significantly in the character and intensity of pain. The exact analysis of the nature, intensity, and duration of pain may be crucial for the differential diagnostics of the disorders of our interest. PMID:24995309

  3. Joint hypermobility, growing pain and obesity are mutually exclusive as causes of musculoskeletal pain in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Sperotto, Francesca; Balzarin, Marta; Parolin, Mattia; Monteforte, Nadia; Vittadello, Fabio; Zulian, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is common in children and can be due to several non-inflammatory conditions such as the benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS), and growing pains (GP). We evaluated frequency, risk factors and causes of MSP in a large cohort of healthy schoolchildren. We conducted a cross sectional study in a cohort of healthy schoolchildren, aged 8-13 years, by collecting information and performing a physical examination. The anamnesis was focused on family history for MSP, presence and sites of MSP interfering with the regular daily activities during the previous 6 months and presence of GP. Physical examination included body mass index, pubertal stage and musculoskeletal examination focused on the presence of hypermobility according to the Beighton criteria. Two hundred and eighty-nine schoolchildren, 143 females and 146 males, participated in the study. Chronic MSP occurred in 30.4% of subjects, BJHS occurred in 13.2%. GJH was more frequent in symptomatic subjects than in asymptomatic ones (p=0.054). Symptomatic subjects were more frequently pre-pubertal than pubertal (p=0.006). In general, GP, BJHS and obesity (OB) were mutually exclusive as causes of MSP as, among 88 symptomatic subjects, 52.3% had GP, 40.9% presented BJHS, 4.5% were OB and only two (2.3%) presented both BJHS and OB. After puberty, GP persisted in 66.7%, BJHS in 26.7% and in association with OB in 6.7%. Approximately one third of schoolchildren suffer from MSP. BJHS, GP and OB are mutually exclusive as causes of MSP in schoolchildren. Pubertal stage plays an important role in the physiopathology of this condition.

  4. Effect of Footwear on Joint Pain and Function in Older Adults With Lower Extremity Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Amy; Luna, Sarah

    Lower extremity osteoarthritis (OA) is a common condition among older adults; given the risks of surgical and pharmaceutical interventions, conservative, lower-cost management options such as footwear warrant further investigation. This systematic review investigated the effects of footwear, including shoe inserts, in reducing lower extremity joint pain and improving gait, mobility, and quality of life in older adults with OA. The CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PubMed, RECAL, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched for publications from January 1990 to September 2014, using the terms "footwear," "shoes," "gait," "pain," and "older adult." Participants who were 50 years or older and those who had OA in at least one lower extremity joint narrowed the results. Outcomes of interest included measures of pain, comfort, function, gait, or quality of life. Exclusion criteria applied to participants with rheumatoid arthritis, amputation, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, use of modified footwear or custom orthotics, purely biomechanical studies, and outcomes of balance or falls only. Single-case studies, qualitative narrative descriptions, and expert opinions were also excluded. The initial search resulted in a total of 417 citations. Eleven articles met inclusion criteria. Two randomized controlled trials and 3 quasiexperimental studies reported lateral wedge insoles may have at least some pain-relieving effects and improved functional mobility in older adults at 4 weeks to 2 years' follow-up, particularly when used with subtalar and ankle strapping. Three randomized controlled trials with large sample sizes reported that lateral wedges provided no knee pain relief compared with flat insoles. Hardness of shoe soles did not significantly affect joint comfort in the foot in a quasiexperimental study. A quasiexperimental designed study investigating shock-absorbing insoles showed reduction in knee joint pain with 1 month of wear. Finally, a cross-sectional prognostic study indicated

  5. The influence of cadence and shoes on patellofemoral joint kinetics in runners with patellofemoral pain.

    PubMed

    Bonacci, Jason; Hall, Michelle; Fox, Aaron; Saunders, Natalie; Shipsides, Tristan; Vicenzino, Bill

    2018-06-01

    To determine the effect of a combination of a minimalist shoe and increased cadence on measures of patellofemoral joint loading during running in individuals with patellofemoral pain. Within-participant repeated measures with four conditions presented in random order: (1) control shoe at preferred cadence; (2) control shoe with +10% cadence; (3) minimalist shoe at preferred cadence; (4) minimalist shoe with +10% cadence. Fifteen recreational runners with patellofemoral pain ran on an instrumented treadmill while three-dimensional motion capture data were acquired. Peak patellofemoral joint stress, joint reaction force, knee extensor moment and knee joint angle during the stance phase of running were calculated. One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the control condition (1) to the three experimental conditions (2-4). Running in a minimalist shoe at an increased cadence reduced patellofemoral stress and joint reaction force on average by approximately 29% (p<0.001) compared to the control condition. Running in a minimalist shoe at preferred cadence reduced patellofemoral joint stress by 15% and joint reaction force by 17% (p<0.001), compared to the control condition. Running in control shoes at an increased cadence reduced patellofemoral joint stress and joint reaction force by 16% and 19% (p<0.001), respectively, compared to the control condition. In individuals with patellofemoral pain, running in a minimalist shoe at an increased cadence had the greatest reduction in patellofemoral joint loading compared to a control shoe at preferred cadence. This may be an effective intervention to modulate biomechanical factors related to patellofemoral pain. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lower extremity thrust and non-thrust joint mobilization for patellofemoral pain syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Brad G; Simon, Corey B

    2014-05-01

    A 40-year old female presented to physical therapy with a one-year history of insidious right anteromedial and anterolateral knee pain. Additionally, the patient had a history of multiple lateral ankle sprains bilaterally, the last sprain occurring on the right ankle 1 year prior to the onset of knee pain. The patient was evaluated and given a physical therapy diagnosis of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), with associated talocrural and tibiofemoral joint hypomobility limiting ankle dorsiflexion and knee extension, respectively. Treatment included a high-velocity low amplitude thrust manipulation to the talocrural joint, which helped restore normal ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. The patient also received tibiofemoral joint non-thrust manual therapy to regain normal knee extension mobility prior to implementing further functional progression exercises to her home program (HEP). This case report highlights the importance of a detailed evaluation of knee and ankle joint mobility in patients presenting with anterior knee pain. Further, manual physical therapy to the lower extremity was found to be successful in restoring normal movement patterns and pain-free function in a patient with chronic anterior knee pain.

  7. Lower extremity thrust and non-thrust joint mobilization for patellofemoral pain syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Brad G; Simon, Corey B

    2014-01-01

    A 40-year old female presented to physical therapy with a one-year history of insidious right anteromedial and anterolateral knee pain. Additionally, the patient had a history of multiple lateral ankle sprains bilaterally, the last sprain occurring on the right ankle 1 year prior to the onset of knee pain. The patient was evaluated and given a physical therapy diagnosis of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), with associated talocrural and tibiofemoral joint hypomobility limiting ankle dorsiflexion and knee extension, respectively. Treatment included a high-velocity low amplitude thrust manipulation to the talocrural joint, which helped restore normal ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. The patient also received tibiofemoral joint non-thrust manual therapy to regain normal knee extension mobility prior to implementing further functional progression exercises to her home program (HEP). This case report highlights the importance of a detailed evaluation of knee and ankle joint mobility in patients presenting with anterior knee pain. Further, manual physical therapy to the lower extremity was found to be successful in restoring normal movement patterns and pain-free function in a patient with chronic anterior knee pain. PMID:24976753

  8. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound treatment of facet joint pain: summary of preclinical phase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Study design A phantom experiment, two thermocouple experiments, three in vivo pig experiments, and a simulated treatment on a healthy human volunteer were conducted to test the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) for treating facet joint pain. Objective The goal of the current study was to develop a novel method for accurate and safe noninvasive facet joint ablation using MRgFUS. Summary of background data Facet joints are a common source of chronic back pain. Direct facet joint interventions include medial branch nerve ablation and intra-articular injections, which are widely used, but limited in the short and long term. MRgFUS is a breakthrough technology that enables accurate delivery of high-intensity focused ultrasound energy to create a localized temperature rise for tissue ablation, using MR guidance for treatment planning and real-time feedback. Methods We validated the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of MRgFUS for facet joint ablation using the ExAblate 2000® System (InSightec Ltd., Tirat Carmel, Israel) and confirmed the system's ability to ablate the edge of the facet joint and all terminal nerves innervating the joint. A phantom experiment, two thermocouple experiments, three in vivo pig experiments, and a simulated treatment on a healthy human volunteer were conducted. Results The experiments showed that targeting the facet joint with energies of 150–450 J provides controlled and accurate heating at the facet joint edge without penetration to the vertebral body, spinal canal, or root foramina. Treating with reduced diameter of the acoustic beam is recommended since a narrower beam improves access to the targeted areas. Conclusions MRgFUS can safely and effectively target and ablate the facet joint. These results are highly significant, given that this is the first study to demonstrate the potential of MRgFUS to treat facet joint pain. PMID:24921048

  9. Joint pain undergoes a transition in accordance with signal changes of bones detected by MRI in hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Mikio; Nakamura, Yukio; Ikegami, Shota; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate whether joint pain is derived from cartilage or bone alterations. We reviewed 23 hip joints of 21 patients with primary hip osteoarthritis (OA), which were classified into Kellgren-Laurence (KL) grading I to IV. Plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained from all of the 23 joints. Two of the 21 patients had bilateral hip OA. Pain was assessed based on the pain scale of Denis. A Welch t test was performed for age, height, weight, body mass index, bone mineral density, and a Mann-Whitney U test was performed for KL grading. Four of 8 hip joints with pain and OA showed broad signal changes detected by MRI. Fourteen hip joints without pain, but with OA did not show broad signal changes by MRI. Collectively, MRI analyses showed that broad signal changes in OA cases without joint pain or with a slight degree of joint pain were not observed, while broad signal changes were observed in OA cases with deteriorated joint pain. Our findings suggest that hip joint pain might be associated with bone signal alterations in the hips of OA patients.

  10. A new technique to treat facet joint pain with pulsed radiofrequency.

    PubMed

    Schianchi, Pietro Martino

    2015-02-01

    Facet joint pain affects 5% to 15% of the population with low back pain and the prevalence increases with age due to progression of arthritis. While conservative treatments are often unsuccessful, the scientific evidence on minimally invasive therapies such as intra-articular steroid infiltration and continuous and pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) of the medial branches is contradictory. Since PRF has recently been reported to successfully treat joint pain, a new application of this method is proposed for facetogenic lumbar pain via an intra-articular subcapsular approach. Here we reported two cases with successful treatment. A 71-year-old patient presented because of persisting pain in the left gluteal region radiating to the lateral thigh and calf when standing. Anti-inflammatory drugs produced only short-lasting insufficient relief. A 52-year-old employee was admitted in June 2012 because of axial lower lumbar pain with intermittent diffuse radiation to the right lower extremity that worsened during walking and lying down despite receiving analgesics and physiotherapy. A new approach to treat lumbar facet joint pain with PRF is simple to perform and without serious complications. In view of the good long-lasting results obtained with the two reported cases, randomized control trials are necessary to validate this new approach.

  11. Effect of sacroiliac manipulation on postural sway in quiet standing: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Farazdaghi, Mohammad Reza; Motealleh, Alireza; Abtahi, Forough; Panjan, Andrej; Šarabon, Nejc; Ghaffarinejad, Farahnaz

    Sacroiliac joint manipulation can alter joint and muscle control mechanisms through local and remote effects. Postural balance is controlled by supraspinal (rambling) and spinal-peripheral (trembling) mechanisms. A manipulation may interfere with postural control in quiet standing. To evaluate the immediate effects of sacroiliac joint manipulation on postural control in patients with (1) sacroiliac dysfunction and (2) to determine whether rambling and trembling are affected by sacroiliac joint manipulation. 32 patients aged between 20 and 50 years old were selected by convenience after confirmation of sacroiliac joint dysfunction by clinical examination. These patients were randomly allocated either to manipulation or sham manipulation group. Displacement, velocity and frequency of the center of pressure, rambling and trembling in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions were our primary outcomes and analyzed immediately before and after the intervention in quiet standing. The physical therapists who performed the physical, biomechanical and statistical examinations, were all blinded to the patients' grouping. No differences were found between the two groups but trembling velocity (0.14 and -0.11 for intervention and sham group, respectively) and frequency (0.17 and 0.11 for intervention and sham group respectively) increased after intervention in the treatment group in the anterior-posterior direction. Generally, sacroiliac joint manipulation had no superiority than sham treatment regarding postural control as measured by rambling-trembling analysis of center of pressure. Manipulation may increase muscle activation in the treatment group due to increased trembling parameters. Trial number: IRCT2014072715932N8 - http://www.irct.ir/searchresult.php?keyword=%D8%B3%D9%88%DB%8C%D9%87&id=15932&field=&number=8&prt=13&total=10&m=1. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the sacroiliac joints in the early detection of spondyloarthritis: no added value of gadolinium compared with short tau inversion recovery sequence.

    PubMed

    de Hooge, Manouk; van den Berg, Rosaline; Navarro-Compán, Victoria; van Gaalen, Floris; van der Heijde, Désirée; Huizinga, Tom; Reijnierse, Monique

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the additional value of T1 fat-saturated after gadolinium (T1/Gd) compared with T1 and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequence in detecting active lesions of the SI joints typical of axial SpA (axSpA) in a prospective cohort study, the SpondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort, and to assess its influence on final MRI diagnosis of the SI joint (MRI-SIJ) based on the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) definition of active sacroiliitis. Patients in the SPACE cohort received baseline and 3-month follow-up MRI-SIJ with coronal oblique T1, STIR and T1/Gd sequences. Bone marrow oedema (BME), capsulitis/enthesitis and synovitis and active sacroiliitis according to the ASAS definition were evaluated by three blinded readers. A total of 127 patients received an MRI-SIJ at baseline and 67 patients also received an MRI-SIJ at 3 months follow-up since the Gd protocol was added some months after the start of the SPACE project. Twenty-five of the 127 patients (19.7%) with a baseline MRI-SIJ and 14 of 67 patients (20.6%) with a follow-up MRI-SIJ presented BME on the STIR sequence sufficient to fulfill the ASAS definition for a positive MRI-SIJ. In eight patients, additional synovitis and/or capsulitis/enthesitis was observed; however, no additional BME was visualized on T1/Gd. One patient, without clinical diagnosis of axSpA, showed synovitis as an isolated finding. Synovitis and capsulitis/enthesitis are detectable with the administration of Gd. However, they are always observed in the presence of BME. Therefore T1 and STIR sequence alone are sufficient in the MRI assessment that, among others, is used for diagnosing patients with early axSpA.

  13. Pain sensation in human osteoarthritic knee joints is strongly enhanced by diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Eitner, Annett; Pester, Julia; Vogel, Franziska; Marintschev, Ivan; Lehmann, Thomas; Hofmann, Gunther O; Schaible, Hans-Georg

    2017-09-01

    The major burden of knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) is pain. Since in elder patients diabetes mellitus is an important comorbidity of OA, we explored whether the presence of diabetes mellitus has a significant influence on pain intensity at the end stage of knee OA, and we aimed to identify factors possibly related to changes of pain intensity in diabetic patients. In 23 diabetic and 47 nondiabetic patients with OA undergoing total knee arthroplasty, we assessed the pain intensity before the operation using the "Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score". Furthermore, synovial tissue, synovial fluid (SF), cartilage, and blood were obtained. We determined the synovitis score, the concentrations of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the SF and serum, and of C-reactive protein and HbA1c and other metabolic parameters in the serum. We performed multivariate regression analyses to study the association of pain with several parameters. Diabetic patients had on average a higher Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score pain score than nondiabetic patients (P < 0.001). Knee joints from diabetic patients exhibited on average higher synovitis scores (P = 0.024) and higher concentrations of IL-6 in the SF (P = 0.003) than knee joints from nondiabetic patients. Multivariate regression analysis showed that patients with higher synovitis scores had more intense pain independent of all investigated confounders, and that the positive association between pain intensities and IL-6 levels was dependent on diabetes mellitus and/or synovitis. These data suggest that diabetes mellitus significantly increases pain intensity of knee OA, and that in diabetic patients higher pain intensities were determined by stronger synovitis.

  14. Evaluation of the change in structural radiographic sacroiliac joint damage after 2 years of etanercept therapy (EMBARK trial) in comparison to a contemporary control cohort (DESIR cohort) in recent onset axial spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Dougados, Maxime; Maksymowych, Walter P; Landewé, Robert B M; Moltó, Anna; Claudepierre, Pascal; de Hooge, Manouk; Lambert, Robert G; Bonin, Randi; Bukowski, Jack F; Jones, Heather E; Logeart, Isabelle; Pedersen, Ron; Szumski, Annette; Vlahos, Bonnie

    2018-01-01

    Objective To compare 2 years of radiographic sacroiliac joint (SIJ) changes in patients with recent onset axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) receiving etanercept in a clinical trial (EMBARK) to similar patients not receiving biologics in a cohort study (DESIR). Methods Endpoints were changes at week 104 per the modified New York (mNY) grading system in total SIJ score (primary endpoint) and net percentage of patients with progression defined three ways. Treatment effect was analysed with and without adjustment for baseline covariates. Results At 104 weeks, total SIJ score improved in the etanercept group (n=154, adjusted least-squares mean change: –0.14) and worsened in the control group (n=182, change: 0.08). The adjusted difference between groups (etanercept minus control) was –0.22 (95% CI –0.38 to –0.06), p=0.008. The net percentage of patients with progression was significantly lower in the etanercept versus the control group for two of three binary endpoints: –1.9% versus 1.6% (adjusted difference for etanercept minus control: –4.7%,95% CI –9.9 to 0.5, p=0.07) for change in mNY criteria; –1.9% versus 7.8% (adjusted difference: –18.2%,95% CI –30.9 to –5.6, p=0.005) for change ≥1 grade in ≥1 SIJ; and –0.6% versus 6.7% (adjusted difference: –16.4%,95% CI –27.9 to –5.0, p=0.005) for change ≥1 grade in ≥1 SIJ, with shift from 0 to 1 or 1 to 0 considered no change. Conclusion Despite the slow radiographic SIJ progression rate over 2 years in axSpA, this study suggests a lower rate of progression in the SIJ with etanercept than without anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy. Trial registration numbers NCT01258738, NCT01648907; Post-results. PMID:28970213

  15. Evaluation of the change in structural radiographic sacroiliac joint damage after 2 years of etanercept therapy (EMBARK trial) in comparison to a contemporary control cohort (DESIR cohort) in recent onset axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Dougados, Maxime; Maksymowych, Walter P; Landewé, Robert B M; Moltó, Anna; Claudepierre, Pascal; de Hooge, Manouk; Lambert, Robert G; Bonin, Randi; Bukowski, Jack F; Jones, Heather E; Logeart, Isabelle; Pedersen, Ron; Szumski, Annette; Vlahos, Bonnie; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2018-02-01

    To compare 2 years of radiographic sacroiliac joint (SIJ) changes in patients with recent onset axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) receiving etanercept in a clinical trial (EMBARK) to similar patients not receiving biologics in a cohort study (DESIR). Endpoints were changes at week 104 per the modified New York (mNY) grading system in total SIJ score (primary endpoint) and net percentage of patients with progression defined three ways. Treatment effect was analysed with and without adjustment for baseline covariates. At 104 weeks, total SIJ score improved in the etanercept group (n=154, adjusted least-squares mean change: -0.14) and worsened in the control group (n=182, change: 0.08). The adjusted difference between groups (etanercept minus control) was -0.22 (95% CI -0.38 to -0.06), p=0.008. The net percentage of patients with progression was significantly lower in the etanercept versus the control group for two of three binary endpoints: -1.9% versus 1.6% (adjusted difference for etanercept minus control: -4.7%,95% CI -9.9 to 0.5, p=0.07) for change in mNY criteria; -1.9% versus 7.8% (adjusted difference: -18.2%,95% CI -30.9 to -5.6, p=0.005) for change ≥1 grade in ≥1 SIJ; and -0.6% versus 6.7% (adjusted difference: -16.4%,95% CI -27.9 to -5.0, p=0.005) for change ≥1 grade in ≥1 SIJ, with shift from 0 to 1 or 1 to 0 considered no change. Despite the slow radiographic SIJ progression rate over 2 years in axSpA, this study suggests a lower rate of progression in the SIJ with etanercept than without anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy. NCT01258738, NCT01648907; Post-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. A multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of tempromandibular joint pain associated with qat chewing.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Mansoor; Al-Moaleem, Mohammed M; Al-Ahmari, Nasser M

    2013-01-01

    Pain of the tempro-mandibular joint (TMJ) has a direct bearing to missing teeth and excessive physical activity. Consumption of qat requires chewing on the leaves to extract their juice for long hours. A 65-year-old male Yemeni patient, a Qat chewer, reported to the university dental hospital at King Khalid University complaining of pain in left temporomandibular joint with missing mandibular anterior teeth. A multidisciplinary approach for the overall treatment of the patient was decided. Initial treatment was the relief of patient's pain with the help of a night guard. This was followed by a fabrication of anterior FPD. The case was under maintenance and follow-up protocol for a period of 8 months with no complaint of pain discomfort.

  17. A Multidisciplinary Approach in the Treatment of Tempromandibular Joint Pain Associated with Qat Chewing

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, Mansoor; Al-Moaleem, Mohammed M.; Al-Ahmari, Nasser M.

    2013-01-01

    Pain of the tempro-mandibular joint (TMJ) has a direct bearing to missing teeth and excessive physical activity. Consumption of qat requires chewing on the leaves to extract their juice for long hours. A 65-year-old male Yemeni patient, a Qat chewer, reported to the university dental hospital at King Khalid University complaining of pain in left temporomandibular joint with missing mandibular anterior teeth. A multidisciplinary approach for the overall treatment of the patient was decided. Initial treatment was the relief of patient's pain with the help of a night guard. This was followed by a fabrication of anterior FPD. The case was under maintenance and follow-up protocol for a period of 8 months with no complaint of pain discomfort. PMID:23573427

  18. Knee joint pain potentially due to bone alterations in a knee osteoarthritis patient.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Yukio; Kamimura, Mikio; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Ikegami, Shota; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of musculoskeletal pain and functional disability worldwide. However, the etiology of this condition is still largely unknown. We report the clinical course of an elderly man with knee OA. Plain radiographs and MRI examinations performed during follow-up suggested that the pathophysiology of the patient's knee OA and joint pain may have been primarily due to bone alterations.

  19. Joint space narrowing, body mass index, and knee pain: the ROAD study (OAC1839R1).

    PubMed

    Muraki, S; Akune, T; En-Yo, Y; Yoshida, M; Suzuki, T; Yoshida, H; Ishibashi, H; Tokimura, F; Yamamoto, S; Tanaka, S; Nakamura, K; Kawaguchi, H; Oka, H; Yoshimura, N

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to clarify the association of joint space narrowing with knee pain in Japanese men and women using a large-scale population-based cohort of the Research on Osteoarthritis/osteoporosis Against Disability (ROAD) study. This study examined the association between minimum joint space width (mJSW) in the medial compartment and pain at the knee. mJSW was measured in the medial and lateral compartments of the knee using a knee osteoarthritis (OA) computer-aided diagnosis system. From the 3040 participants in the ROAD study, the present study analyzed 2733 participants who completed the radiographic examinations and questionnaires regarding knee pain (975 men and 1758 women; mean age, 69.9 ± 11.2 years). Subjects with lateral knee OA were excluded. After adjustment for age and Body mass index (BMI), medial mJSW, as well as medial mJSW/lateral mJSW, was significantly associated with knee pain. Sex and BMI affected the association of medial mJSW with knee pain. The threshold of medial mJSW was approximately 3 mm in men and 2 mm in women, while that of medial mJSW/lateral mJSW was approximately 60% in both men and women. BMI was found to have a distinct effect on the association of mJSW with pain. The present cross-sectional study using a large-scale population from the ROAD study showed that joint space narrowing had a significant association with knee pain. The thresholds of joint space narrowing for knee pain were also established. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gait analysis and weight bearing in pre-clinical joint pain research.

    PubMed

    Ängeby Möller, Kristina; Svärd, Heta; Suominen, Anni; Immonen, Jarmo; Holappa, Johanna; Stenfors, Carina

    2018-04-15

    There is a need for better joint pain treatment, but development of new medication has not been successful. Pre-clinical models with readouts that better reflect the clinical situation are needed. In patients with joint pain, pain at rest and pain at walking are two major complaints. We describe a new way of calculating results from gait analysis using the CatWalk™ setup. Rats with monoarthritis induced by injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) intra-articularly into the ankle joint of one hind limb were used to assess gait and dynamic weight bearing. The results show that dynamic weight bearing was markedly reduced for the injected paw. Gait parameters such as amount of normal step sequences, walking speed and duration of step placement were also affected. Treatment with naproxen (an NSAID commonly used for inflammatory pain) attenuated the CFA-induced effects. Pregabalin, which is used for neuropathic pain, had no effect. Reduced dynamic weight bearing during locomotion, assessed and calculated in the way we present here, showed a dose-dependent and lasting normalization after naproxen treatment. In contrast, static weight bearing while standing (Incapacitance tester) showed a significant effect for a limited time only. Mechanical sensitivity (von Frey Optihairs) was completely normalized by naproxen, and the window for testing pharmacological effect disappeared. Objective and reproducible effects, with an endpoint showing face validity compared to pain while walking in patients with joint pain, are achieved by a new way of calculating dynamic weight bearing in monoarthritic rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluoroscopic lumbar interlaminar epidural injections in managing chronic lumbar axial or discogenic pain

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; McManus, Carla D; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Benyamin, Ramsin

    2012-01-01

    Among the multiple causes of chronic low back pain, axial and discogenic pain are common. Various modalities of treatments are utilized in managing discogenic and axial low back pain including epidural injections. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity of any treatment modality utilized for managing axial or discogenic pain, including epidural injections. In an interventional pain management practice in the US, a randomized, double-blind, active control trial was conducted. The objective was to assess the effectiveness of lumbar interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for managing chronic low back pain of discogenic origin. However, disc herniation, radiculitis, facet joint pain, or sacroiliac joint pain were excluded. Two groups of patients were studied, with 60 patients in each group receiving either local anesthetic only or local anesthetic mixed with non-particulate betamethasone. Primary outcome measures included the pain relief-assessed by numeric rating scale of pain and functional status assessed by the, Oswestry Disability Index, Secondary outcome measurements included employment status, and opioid intake. Significant improvement or success was defined as at least a 50% decrease in pain and disability. Significant improvement was seen in 77% of the patients in Group I and 67% of the patients in Group II. In the successful groups (those with at least 3 weeks of relief with the first two procedures), the improvement was 84% in Group I and 71% in Group II. For those with chronic function-limiting low back pain refractory to conservative management, it is concluded that lumbar interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids may be an effective modality for managing chronic axial or discogenic pain. This treatment appears to be effective for those who have had facet joints as well as sacroiliac joints eliminated as the pain source

  2. Autoantibodies to citrullinated proteins induce joint pain independent of inflammation via a chemokine-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wigerblad, Gustaf; Bas, Duygu B; Fernades-Cerqueira, Cátia; Krishnamurthy, Akilan; Nandakumar, Kutty Selva; Rogoz, Katarzyna; Kato, Jungo; Sandor, Katalin; Su, Jie; Jimenez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Finn, Anja; Bersellini Farinotti, Alex; Amara, Khaled; Lundberg, Karin; Holmdahl, Rikard; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Malmström, Vivianne; Catrina, Anca I; Klareskog, Lars; Svensson, Camilla I

    2016-04-01

    An interesting and so far unexplained feature of chronic pain in autoimmune disease is the frequent disconnect between pain and inflammation. This is illustrated well in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) where pain in joints (arthralgia) may precede joint inflammation and persist even after successful anti-inflammatory treatment. In the present study, we have addressed the possibility that autoantibodies against citrullinated proteins (ACPA), present in RA, may be directly responsible for the induction of pain, independent of inflammation. Antibodies purified from human patients with RA, healthy donors and murinised monoclonal ACPA were injected into mice. Pain-like behaviour was monitored for up to 28 days, and tissues were analysed for signs of pathology. Mouse osteoclasts were cultured and stimulated with antibodies, and supernatants analysed for release of factors. Mice were treated with CXCR1/2 (interleukin (IL) 8 receptor) antagonist reparixin. Mice injected with either human or murinised ACPA developed long-lasting pronounced pain-like behaviour in the absence of inflammation, while non-ACPA IgG from patients with RA or control monoclonal IgG were without pronociceptive effect. This effect was coupled to ACPA-mediated activation of osteoclasts and release of the nociceptive chemokine CXCL1 (analogue to human IL-8). ACPA-induced pain-like behaviour was reversed with reparixin. The data suggest that CXCL1/IL-8, released from osteoclasts in an autoantibody-dependent manner, produces pain by activating sensory neurons. The identification of this new pain pathway may open new avenues for pain treatment in RA and also in other painful diseases associated with autoantibody production and/or osteoclast activation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Autoantibodies to citrullinated proteins induce joint pain independent of inflammation via a chemokine-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wigerblad, Gustaf; Bas, Duygu B; Fernades-Cerqueira, Cátia; Krishnamurthy, Akilan; Rogoz, Katarzyna; Kato, Jungo; Sandor, Katalin; Su, Jie; Jimenez–Andrade, Juan Miguel; Finn, Anja; Bersellini Farinotti, Alex; Amara, Khaled; Lundberg, Karin; Holmdahl, Rikard; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Malmström, Vivianne; Catrina, Anca I; Klareskog, Lars; Svensson, Camilla I

    2016-01-01

    Objective An interesting and so far unexplained feature of chronic pain in autoimmune disease is the frequent disconnect between pain and inflammation. This is illustrated well in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) where pain in joints (arthralgia) may precede joint inflammation and persist even after successful anti-inflammatory treatment. In the present study, we have addressed the possibility that autoantibodies against citrullinated proteins (ACPA), present in RA, may be directly responsible for the induction of pain, independent of inflammation. Methods Antibodies purified from human patients with RA, healthy donors and murinised monoclonal ACPA were injected into mice. Pain-like behaviour was monitored for up to 28 days, and tissues were analysed for signs of pathology. Mouse osteoclasts were cultured and stimulated with antibodies, and supernatants analysed for release of factors. Mice were treated with CXCR1/2 (interleukin (IL) 8 receptor) antagonist reparixin. Results Mice injected with either human or murinised ACPA developed long-lasting pronounced pain-like behaviour in the absence of inflammation, while non-ACPA IgG from patients with RA or control monoclonal IgG were without pronociceptive effect. This effect was coupled to ACPA-mediated activation of osteoclasts and release of the nociceptive chemokine CXCL1 (analogue to human IL-8). ACPA-induced pain-like behaviour was reversed with reparixin. Conclusions The data suggest that CXCL1/IL-8, released from osteoclasts in an autoantibody-dependent manner, produces pain by activating sensory neurons. The identification of this new pain pathway may open new avenues for pain treatment in RA and also in other painful diseases associated with autoantibody production and/or osteoclast activation. PMID:26613766

  4. Imaging of Hip Pain: From Radiography to Cross-Sectional Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando; Santiago Chinchilla, Alicia; Ansari, Afshin; Guzmán Álvarez, Luis; Castellano García, Maria del Mar; Martínez Martínez, Alberto; Tercedor Sánchez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Hip pain can have multiple causes, including intra-articular, juxta-articular, and referred pain, mainly from spine or sacroiliac joints. In this review, we discuss the causes of intra-articular hip pain from childhood to adulthood and the role of the appropriate imaging techniques according to clinical suspicion and age of the patient. Stress is put on the findings of radiographs, currently considered the first imaging technique, not only in older people with degenerative disease but also in young people without osteoarthritis. In this case plain radiography allows categorization of the hip as normal or dysplastic or with impingement signs, pincer, cam, or a combination of both. PMID:26885391

  5. Clinical examination and physical assessment of hip joint-related pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Reiman, Michael P; Thorborg, Kristian

    2014-11-01

    Evidence-based clinical examination and assessment of the athlete with hip joint related pain is complex. It requires a systematic approach to properly differentially diagnose competing potential causes of athletic pain generation. An approach with an initial broad focus (and hence use of highly sensitive tests/measures) that then is followed by utilizing more specific tests/measures to pare down this imprecise differential diagnosis list is suggested. Physical assessment measures are then suggested to discern impairments, activity and participation restrictions for athletes with hip-join related pain, hence guiding the proper treatment approach. 5.

  6. Public priorities for joint pain research: results from a general population survey

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Pam; Ong, Bie Nio; Bedson, John; Jordan, Kelvin P.; Jinks, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to identify the priorities for joint pain research from a large general population survey and identify characteristics associated with these priorities. Methods. A question about research priorities was developed in collaboration with the Arthritis Research UK Primary Care Centre’s Research Users’ Group. The question was embedded in a postal survey to an existing cohort of adults with self-reported joint pain, aged ≥56 years, in North Staffordshire. Respondents were asked to rank their top three priorities for research. Factor mixture modelling was used to determine subgroups of priorities. Results. In all, 1756 (88%) people responded to the survey. Of these, 1356 (77%) gave three priorities for research. Keeping active was rated the top priority by 38%, followed by research around joint replacement (9%) and diet/weight loss (9%). Two clusters of people were identified: 62% preferred lifestyle/self-management topics (e.g. keeping active, weight loss) and 38% preferred medical intervention topics (e.g. joint replacement, tablets). Those who preferred the medical options tended to be older and have hip or foot pain. Conclusion. This study has provided population data on priorities for joint pain research expressed by a large cohort of older people who report joint pain. The most popular topics for research were linked to lifestyle and self-management opportunities. Pharmaceutical and invasive interventions, despite being common topics of research, are of less importance to these respondents than non-medical topics. Specific research questions will be generated from this study with collaboration of the patient’s group. PMID:22886341

  7. Effect of facet joint injection versus systemic steroids in low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luiza Helena; Furtado, Rita Nely Vilar; Konai, Monique Sayuri; Andreo, Ana Beatriz; Rosenfeld, Andre; Natour, Jamil

    2013-11-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To compare the effectiveness of facet joint injection versus systemic steroid in patients with a diagnosis of facet joint syndrome. The term facet joint syndrome has been used to define back pain originating from the facet joints. Treatment is mainly conservative, although interventions, including intra-articular injections and medial branch nerve blocks are used to manage facet-mediated pain. Several studies have evaluated the effectiveness of these interventions. Results of facet joint injection, however, are conflicting. Sixty subjects with a diagnosis of facet joint syndrome were enrolled in the study. They were randomized into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was administered with intra-articular injection of 6 lumbar facet joints with triamcinolone hexacetonide; the control group was administered with triamcinolone acetonide intramuscular injection of 6 lumbar paravertebral points. Visits were taken at baseline and at 1, 4, 12, and 24 weeks after interventions. Outcome measures were used: pain visual analogue scale, pain visual analogue scale during extension of the spine, Likert scale, improvement percentage scale, Roland-Morris, 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and accountability of medications taken.Homogeneity was tested using the Student t, Pearson χ, and Mann-Whitney tests. Analysis of variance was used to analyze differences in the groups over time and the Student t test to analyze differences between groups at each time evaluation. The groups were similar at baseline. Comparisons between the groups showed, in analysis of variance analysis, an improvement in the experimental group regarding diclofenac intake and quality of life, in the "role physical" profile, assessed by 36-Item Short Form Health Survey.In the analysis at each time point, an improvement in the experimental group was also found in the Roland-Morris questionnaire, in the improvement percentage scale and in the response to treatment

  8. Sleep Disorders and their Association with Laboratory Pain Sensitivity in Temporomandibular Joint Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael T.; Wickwire, Emerson M.; Grace, Edward G.; Edwards, Robert R.; Buenaver, Luis F.; Peterson, Stephen; Klick, Brendan; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: We characterized sleep disorder rates in temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and evaluated possible associations between sleep disorders and laboratory measures of pain sensitivity. Design: Research diagnostic examinations were conducted, followed by two consecutive overnight polysomnographic studies with morning and evening assessments of pain threshold. Setting: Orofacial pain clinic and inpatient sleep research facility Participants: Fifty-three patients meeting research diagnostic criteria for myofascial TMD. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: We determined sleep disorder diagnostic rates and conducted algometric measures of pressure pain threshold on the masseter and forearm. Heat pain threshold was measured on the forearm; 75% met self-report criteria for sleep bruxism, but only 17% met PSG criteria for active sleep bruxism. Two or more sleep disorders were diagnosed in 43% of patients. Insomnia disorder (36%) and sleep apnea (28.4%) demonstrated the highest frequencies. Primary insomnia (PI) (26%) comprised the largest subcategory of insomnia. Even after controlling for multiple potential confounds, PI was associated with reduced mechanical and thermal pain thresholds at all sites (P < 0.05). Conversely, the respiratory disturbance index was associated with increased mechanical pain thresholds on the forearm (P < 0.05). Conclusions: High rates of PI and sleep apnea highlight the need to refer TMD patients complaining of sleep disturbance for polysomnographic evaluation. The association of PI and hyperalgesia at a non-orofacial site suggests that PI may be linked with central sensitivity and could play an etiologic role in idiopathic pain disorders. The association between sleep disordered breathing and hypoalgesia requires further study and may provide novel insight into the complex interactions between sleep and pain-regulatory processes. Citation: Smith MT; Wickwire EM; Grace EG; Edwards RR; Buenaver LF; Peterson S; Klick B

  9. Radiofrequency denervation of the hip joint for pain management: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Gaurav; Radhakrishna, Mohan; Etheridge, Paul; Besemann, Markus; Finlayson, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    A 55-year-old male presented with severe pain and functional limitations as a result of left hip osteoarthritis. He had failed multiple treatments while waiting for a hip arthroplasty, including physical therapy, medications, and various intra-articular injections. Thermal radiofrequency lesioning of the obturator and femoral articular branches to the hip joint was offered in the interim. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe an inferior-lateral approach for lesioning the obturator branch, the clinical application of successive lesions to increase denervation area, and outcomes in a patient receiving a second treatment with previously good results. To discuss relevant and technical factors for this specific case, we reviewed previous literature on hip joint radiofrequency and critically evaluated previous anatomic studies in the context of radiofrequency. The first treatment provided significant benefit for a period of 6 months. A second treatment was employed providing only mild to moderate benefit until his joint replacement surgery 4 months later. Literature review revealed studies of low quality secondary to small sample sizes, patient selection methodology, inclusion of patients with heterogenous etiologies for pain, variable needle placement techniques, and lack of measurement of functional outcomes. Case report and low quality studies in existing literature. Hip joint radiofrequency denervation is a promising avenue for adjunctive treatment of hip pain. Further cadaveric studies are required to clarify a multitude of technical parameters. Once these are well defined, future clinical studies should consider pain, functional, and economic outcomes in their design.

  10. Normalized patellofemoral joint reaction force is greater in individuals with patellofemoral pain.

    PubMed

    Thomeer, Lucas T; Sheehan, Frances T; Jackson, Jennifer N

    2017-07-26

    Patellofemoral pain is a disabling, highly prevalent pathology. Altered patellofemoral contact forces are theorized to contribute to this pain. Musculoskeletal modeling has been employed to better understand the etiology of patellofemoral pain. Currently, there are no data on the effective quadriceps moment arm for individuals with patellofemoral pain, forcing researchers to apply normative values when modeling such individuals. In addition, the ratio of patellofemoral reaction force to quadriceps force is often used as a surrogate for patellofemoral joint contact force, ignoring the fact that the quadriceps efficiency can vary with pathology and intervention. Thus, the purposes of this study were to: (1) quantify the effective quadriceps moment arm in individuals with patellofemoral pain and compare this value to a control cohort and (2) develop a novel methodology for quantifying the normalized patellofemoral joint reaction force in vivo during dynamic activities. Dynamic MR data were captured as subjects with patellofemoral pain (30F/3M) cyclically flexed their knee from 10° to 40°. Data for control subjects (29F/9M) were taken from a previous study. The moment arm data acquired across a large cohort of individuals with patellofemoral pain should help advance musculoskeletal modeling. The primary finding of this study was an increased mean normalized patellofemoral reaction force of 14.9% (maximum values at a knee angle of 10°) in individuals with patellofemoral pain. Understanding changes in the normalized patellofemoral reaction force with pathology may lead to improvements in clinical decision making, and consequently treatments, by providing a more direct measure of altered patellofemoral joint forces. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Diagnosis of retrodiscal tissue in painful temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Migiwa; Otonari-Yamamoto, Mika; Sano, Tsukasa; Fujikura, Mamiko; Wakoh, Mamoru

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity of the retrodiscal tissue in a painful temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and to develop a diagnostic system based on FLAIR data. The study was based on 33 joints of 17 patients referred for MR imaging of the TMJ. Regions of interest were placed over retrodiscal tissue and gray matter (GM) on FLAIR images. Using signal intensities of GM as reference points, signal intensity ratios (SIR) of retrodiscal tissue were calculated. SIRs in painful TMJ were compared with those in painless TMJ. Wilcoxon's Rank Sum Test was used to analyze the difference in SIRs between the painful and painless groups (P<0·05). The SIRs of retrodiscal tissue were significantly higher in painful joints than in painless joints. FLAIR sequences provide a high signal in patients having painful TMJ, and it suggests that retrodiscal tissue in painful TMJ contains elements such as protein.

  12. [Effect of External Applying Compound Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. on Joint Pain of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Juan; Tang, Xiao-po; Yuan, Jing; Liu, Xu; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Chun-yan; Wang, Li-ying; Jiang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    To observe the effectiveness and safety of external applying Compound Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. (TwHF) in relieving joint pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In this double-blinded, randomized multicenter trial, a total of 174 moderately active RA patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the treatment group (treated with Compound TwHF, 87 cases) and the placebo control group (87 cases). Compound TwHF or placebo was externally applied in painful joints, 20 g each time, once per day for 8 weeks. Self-reported joint pain relief was taken as a primary effective indicator. Visual analogue scale for pain (VAS), disease activity score of 28 joints (DAS28), VAS for general health (GH) were evaluated before treatment, at week 4 and after treatment. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and hypersensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) were tested before and after treatment. Menstrual changes in females were observed during treatment. Skin irritation occurred during the recording process was assessed using skin irritation strength. Intention to treat (ITT) was statistically analyzed. The joint pain relief rate in the treatment group was 90.8% (79/87 cases), higher than that in the placebo control group (69.0%, 60/87 cases; P = 0.001). VAS pain score, DAS28, VAS for GH score were significantly improved in the two groups at week 4 of treatment and after treatment, as compared with before treatment (P < 0.01). ESR and hs-CRP levels significantly decreased in the treatment group after treatment (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). No difference was found in post-treatment VAS pain score, DAS28, VAS for GH score, ESR, or hs-CRP between the two groups (P > 0.05). Eight adverse events occurred in the treatment group (5 skin allergy, 1 intolerance of medical odor, and 2 mild liver injury), while 3 adverse events occurred in the placebo control group (2 skin allergy, 1 mild liver injury). There was no statistical difference in adverse event between the two groups (P > 0.05). No

  13. The effects of music on pain perception of stroke patients during upper extremity joint exercises.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Ji; Koh, Iljoo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of music therapy on pain perception of stroke patients during upper extremity joint exercises. Ten stroke patients (1 male and 9 females) ranging in age from 61 to 73 participated in the study. Music conditions used in the study consisted of: (a) song, (b) karaoke accompaniment (same music to condition A except singers' voices), and (c) no music. Exercise movements in this study included hand, wrist, and shoulder joints. During the 8-week period music therapy sessions, subjects repeated 3 conditions according to the randomized orders and subjects rated their perceived pain on a scale immediately after each condition. The General Linear Model (GLM) Repeated Measures ANOVA revealed that there were no significant differences in pain rating across the three music conditions. However, positive affects and verbal responses, while performing upper extremity exercises with both music and karaoke accompaniment music, were observed using video observations.

  14. Osteoprotegerin reduces the development of pain behaviour and joint pathology in a model of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Devi Rani; Ashraf, Sadaf; Xu, Luting; Burston, James J; Menhinick, Matthew R; Poulter, Caroline L; Bennett, Andrew J; Walsh, David A; Chapman, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased subchondral bone turnover may contribute to pain in osteoarthritis (OA). Objectives To investigate the analgesic potential of a modified version of osteoprotegerin (osteoprotegerin-Fc (OPG-Fc)) in the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) model of OA pain. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats (140–260 g) were treated with either OPG-Fc (3 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) between days 1 and 27 (pre-emptive treatment) or days 21 and 27 (therapeutic treatment) after an intra-articular injection of MIA (1 mg/50 µl) or saline. A separate cohort of rats received the bisphosphonate zoledronate (100 µg/kg, subcutaneously) between days 1 and 25 post-MIA injection. Incapacitance testing and von Frey (1–15 g) hind paw withdrawal thresholds were used to assess pain behaviour. At the end of the study, rats were killed and the knee joints and spinal cord removed for analysis. Immunohistochemical studies using Iba-1 and GFAP quantified levels of activation of spinal microglia and astrocytes, respectively. Joint sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or Safranin-O fast green and scored for matrix proteoglycan and overall joint morphology. The numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts were quantified. N=10 rats/group. Results Pre-emptive treatment with OPG-Fc significantly attenuated the development of MIA-induced changes in weightbearing, but not allodynia. OPG-Fc decreased osteoclast number, inhibited the formation of osteophytes and improved structural pathology within the joint similarly to the decrease seen after pretreatment with the bisphosphonate, zoledronate. Therapeutic treatment with OPG-Fc decreased pain behaviour, but did not improve pathology in rats with established joint damage. Conclusions Our data suggest that early targeting of osteoclasts may reduce pain associated with OA. PMID:23723320

  15. Analysis of pain and painless symptoms in temporomandibular joints dysfunction in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Górecka, Małgorzata; Pihut, Małgorzata; Kulesa-Mrowiecka, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have shown an increase in the number of patients reporting for treatment of pain due to musculoskeletal joint, associated with temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Therefore, studies were undertaken, aimed at analyzing the symptoms of the dysfunction, because of which patients come to the prosthetic treatment. Aim of the thesis: The aim of the study was a retrospective analysis of symptoms of temporomandibular joint dysfunction reported by patients diagnosed with this problem. The research material was a retrospective medical records of 120 patients, aged 19 to 45 years who have taken prosthetic treatment due to temporomandibular joint dysfunction in the Consulting Room in Prosthetics Department in Kraków, from June 2015 to December 2016. During the test patients, in addition to interviewing a physician, completed a personal survey in their own study. The material has been divided into I group of patients who reported pain form of dysfunction and II group, who had no symptoms of pain within the stomatognatic system. The analysis covered type of symptoms, the share of local factors (para-functions) and systemic, as well as the time a er which the patients reported for the treatment of functional disorders since the appearance of the first symptoms. Analysis of the research material showed that the main reason for reporting patients was pain in one or both temporal joints of significant intensity (5 to 8 in VAS scale,) accompanied by acoustic symptoms. A large group of questioners reported problems with the range of jaw movement and head and face pain, as well as subjective symptoms from the auditory, sight, neck, neck and shoulder areas.

  16. Management of pain secondary to temporomandibular joint syndrome with peripheral nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Lopez, Manuel J; Fernandez-Baena, Mariano; Aldaya-Valverde, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint syndrome, or Costen syndrome, is a clinically diagnosed disorder whose most common symptoms include joint pain and clicking, difficulty opening the mouth, and temporomandibular joint discomfort. The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is supplied by the auriculotemporal nerve, a collateral branch of the mandibular nerve (the V3 branch of the trigeminal nerve). The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and safety of permanent peripheral nerve stimulation to relieve TMJ pain. This case series is a prospective study. Pain Unit of a regional universitary hospital. The study included 6 female patients with temporomandibular pain lasting from 2 to 8 years that did not respond to intraarticular local anesthetic and corticoid injections. After a positive diagnostic block test, the patients were implanted with quadripolar or octapolar leads in the affected preauricular region for a 2-week stimulation test phase, after which the leads were connected to a permanent implanted pulse generator. Results of the visual analog scale, SF-12 Health Survey, Brief Pain Inventory, and drug intake were recorded at baseline and at 4, 12, and 24 weeks after the permanent implant. Five out of 6 patients experienced pain relief exceeding 80% (average 72%) and received a permanent implant. The SF-12 Health Survey results were very positive for all specific questions, especially items concerning the physical component. Patients reported returning to normal physical activity and rest at night. Four patients discontinued their analgesic medication and 1 patient reduced their gabapentin dose by 50%. Sample size; impossibility of placebo control. Patients affected with TMJ syndrome who do not respond to conservative treatments may find a solution in peripheral nerve stimulation, a simple technique with a relatively low level of complications.

  17. The effects of spinal support device on pain and extensibility of the hamstrings in patients with non-specific low back pain.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Eun Tae; Jung, Jin-Hwa; Moon, Jong Hoon; Jung, Kyoung-Sim; Won, Young Sik; Kim, Sung-Jin; Hahm, Suk-Chan; Cho, Hwi-Young

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of spinal support device (SSD) on pain and hamstring extensibility in patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP). [Subjects and Methods] 20 patients with NSLBP were recruited and randomly assigned to either the SSD group or the control group. In the SSD group, SSD was applied; in the control group, bed rest in supine position was performed. Both groups underwent treatment 20 min/day, 3 times a week, for a duration of 4 weeks. To assess the hamstring extensibility, sit and reach test (SRT) was performed. To assess pain pressure threshold (PPT) of the sacroiliac joint, a pressure algometer was used. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used to quantify pain. [Results] The SSD group showed a significant improvement in sacroiliac joint pain with increased VAS, and the control group showed a significantly increased VAS after intervention. In the SSD group, VAS was significantly increased, but SRT was not changed compared with the control group. [Conclusion] These results demonstrated that an application of SSD effectively attenuates low back pain. Therefore, SSD may be a suitable intervention for pain control in patients with NSLBP.

  18. 38 CFR 4.66 - Sacroiliac joint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accompanied by limitation of flexion and extension of the hip. Traumatism is a rare cause of disability in... paralysis attributable to disease affecting the lumbar vertebrae and the intervertebral disc. ...

  19. 38 CFR 4.66 - Sacroiliac joint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accompanied by limitation of flexion and extension of the hip. Traumatism is a rare cause of disability in... paralysis attributable to disease affecting the lumbar vertebrae and the intervertebral disc. ...

  20. 38 CFR 4.66 - Sacroiliac joint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accompanied by limitation of flexion and extension of the hip. Traumatism is a rare cause of disability in... paralysis attributable to disease affecting the lumbar vertebrae and the intervertebral disc. ...

  1. 38 CFR 4.66 - Sacroiliac joint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accompanied by limitation of flexion and extension of the hip. Traumatism is a rare cause of disability in... paralysis attributable to disease affecting the lumbar vertebrae and the intervertebral disc. ...

  2. 38 CFR 4.66 - Sacroiliac joint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accompanied by limitation of flexion and extension of the hip. Traumatism is a rare cause of disability in... paralysis attributable to disease affecting the lumbar vertebrae and the intervertebral disc. ...

  3. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, H; Hodges, P W; Bliddal, H; Henriksen, M

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals. Twenty-seven healthy untrained volunteers participated in a randomized controlled trial of quadriceps strengthening (3 times per week for 8 weeks). Participants were randomized to perform resistance training either during pain induced by injections of painful hypertonic saline (pain group, n = 13) or during a nonpainful control condition with injection of isotonic saline (control group, n = 14) into the infrapatellar fat pad. The primary outcome measure was change in maximal isokinetic muscle strength in knee extension/flexion (60, 120, and 180 degrees/second). The group who exercised with pain had a significantly larger improvement in isokinetic muscle strength at all angular velocities of knee extension compared to the control group. In knee flexion there were improvements in isokinetic muscle strength in both groups with no between-group differences. Experimental knee joint pain improved the training-induced gain in muscle strength following 8 weeks of quadriceps training. It remains to be studied whether knee joint pain has a positive effect on strength gain in patients with knee pathology. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  4. Rheumatoid arthritis-affected temporomandibular joint pain analgesia by linear polarized near infrared irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, K; Oku, T

    1999-07-01

    To describe a new short-term treatment for pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-affected temporomandibular joint (TMJ). We investigated four female patients (age 42.8+/-26.0 yr) with chronic rheumatoid arthritis affecting a single TMJ. Patients had received antirheumatic drugs such as sodium aurothiomalate, and as a result showed no symptoms in other body joints. Linear polarized near infrared radiation using Super Lizer was applied weekly with and/or without jaw movement to the unilateral skin areas overlying the mandibular fossa, anterior articular tubercle, masseter muscle and posterior margin of the ramus of the mandible. The duration of irradiation to each point was two seconds on and ten seconds off per cycle and the intensity at each point was approximately 138 J x cm(-2) at a wavelength of 830 nm. Interincisal distance was measured with maximal mouth opening in the absence and presence of pain before and after each treatment. Additionally, subjective TMJ pain scores assessed using a visual analog scale were performed for painful maximal mouth opening before and after each irradiation. TMJ pain disappeared after only four treatments. Moreover, painless maximal mouth opening without pain after irradiation in three patients was on average improved to 5.3+/-2.1 mm. However, one case was observed where the opening length prior to irradiation did not improve, despite the fact that the RA-affected TMJ pain had disappeared. Application of linear polarized near infrared irradiation to patients with RA-affected TMJ pain is an effective and non-invasive short-term treatment.

  5. Masticatory muscle and temporomandibular joint pain in Croatian war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Uhac, Ivone; Tariba, Petra; Kovac, Zoran; Simonić-Kocijan, Suncana; Lajnert, Vlatka; Mesić, Vesna Fugosić; Kuis, Davor; Braut, Vedrana

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and intensity of masticatory muscle and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain in Croatian war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The examined group consisted of 100 Croatian war veterans, in whom PTSD had previously been diagnosed. Patients were compared with 92 subjects who had not taken part in the war and in whom PTSD was excluded by psychiatric examination. The clinical examination consisted of palpation of the masticatory muscles, the prominent neck musculature, and TMJ. The examination technique used and the definition of items were previously tested for reliability and validity. 93% of the subjects with PTSD had masticatory muscle tenderness compared to 45.65% of the subjects in the control group (chi2 = 51.46, p < 0.0001). The most frequent painful location in the subjects with PTSD was the left lateral pterygoid site in 88%, and in subjects of the control group the right lateral pterygoid site in 28.26% of cases. The most painful location in the PTSD group was the left lateral pterygoid site in 72%, and in the control group the left posterior digastric in 4.35% of cases. 58% of the subjects with PTSD had TMJ tenderness compared to 3.26% of subjects in the control group (chi2 = 66.23, p < 0.0001). The most frequent painful location of TMJ in both groups was the left posterior capsule; in the PTSD group 38% and in subjects in the control group 2.17% of cases. The most painful location was the left posterior capsule in 28% of subjects with PTSD, while not one subject in the control group reported severe painful sensitivity. The very high frequency and intensity of pain in subjects with PTSD confirms the effect of stress on muscle and joint sensitivity, i.e. perception of pain.

  6. Self-perceived care needs in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Hermsen, Lotte A H; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Smalbrugge, Martin; Leone, Stephanie S; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; Dekker, Joost

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore self-perceived care needs and determinants of identified needs in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity. This is a cross-sectional study using baseline data from a cohort study of older adults in the Netherlands (≥65 years) with joint pain and comorbidity (n = 407). We used the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) to assess self-perceived care needs. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between needs and sociodemographic factors (age, gender, partner status and educational level), physical factors (pain intensity, comorbidity, frailty and physical functioning) and psychosocial factors (anxiety, depression and social support). Older adults with joint pain and comorbidity reported on average 4.0 care needs out of 13 CANE items, of which 0.3 were unmet. High levels of environmental and physical needs were reported, such as needs with regard to physical illness (91%), household (61%) and mobility/falls (53%). However, most of these needs were met. Only few people reported psychosocial needs, but a large proportion of these needs was unmet, especially regarding company (66.7%) and daytime activities (37%). Psychosocial needs were more often present in frail participants (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.25-4.61), and those with less perceived social support (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.08) and more depressive symptoms (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.26). Unmet needs are mainly present in the psychosocial domain. Specific attention targeted at these unmet needs may improve psychosocial well-being of older adults with joint pain and comorbidity.

  7. Evaluation of posture and pain in persons with benign joint hypermobility syndrome.

    PubMed

    Booshanam, Divya S; Cherian, Binu; Joseph, Charles Premkumar A R; Mathew, John; Thomas, Raji

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to compare and quantify the postural differences and joint pain distribution between subjects with benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS) and the normal population. This observational, non-randomized, and controlled study was conducted at Rheumatology and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Medicine Departments of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Subjects comprise 35 persons with diagnosis of BJHS, and the control group was matched for age and sex. Reedco's Posture score (RPS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) were the outcome measures. The subjects were assessed for pain in ten major joints and rated on a VAS. A standard posture assessment was conducted using the Reedco's Posture score. The same procedure was executed for an age- and sex-matched control group. Mean RPS for the BJHS group was 55.29 ± 8.15 and for the normal group it was 67 ± 11.94. The most common postural deviances in subjects with BJHS were identified in the following areas of head, hip (Sagittal plane), upper back, trunk, and lower back (Coronal plane). Intensity of pain was found to be more in BJHS persons than that of the normal persons, and the knee joints were the most affected. The present study compared and quantified the postural abnormalities and the pain in BJHS persons. The need for postural re-education and specific assessment and training for the most affected joints are discussed. There is a significant difference in posture between subjects with BJHS and the normal population. BJHS persons need special attention to their posture re-education during physiotherapy sessions to reduce long-term detrimental effects on the musculoskeletal system.

  8. Preemptive Analgesia in Thumb Basal Joint Arthroplasty: Immediate Postoperative Pain with Preincision versus Postincision Local Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Labrum, Joseph T; Ilyas, Asif M

    2017-08-01

    Purpose  Currently no guidelines exist for the timing of the injection of anesthetics in surgeries performed under general anesthesia to minimize postoperative pain. To better understand the role of timing of the injection of local anesthesia in hand surgery performed under general anesthesia, we evaluated the effect of pre- versus postincisional local analgesic injection on immediate postoperative pain experience. We hypothesize that the preincisional (preemptive) injection will result in decreased immediate postoperative pain experience and analgesic use when compared with postincisional injection. Methods  Consecutive cases of thumb basal joint arthroplasty performed over a 4-year period were retrospectively reviewed. During the first half of the study period, the surgical site was infiltrated with 0.5% bupivacaine at the completion of surgery following closure. During the second half of the study period, the surgical site was infiltrated with 0.5% bupivacaine prior to skin incision. Data collected included patient demographics, immediate postoperative recovery room (PACU) pain scores, and postoperative opioid consumption in morphine equivalents. Results  Two-tailed t -test identified no significant difference between the pre- and postincision cohorts relative to PACU entrance pain scores and time spent in the PACU. PACU exit pain scores were significantly lower in the preincision cohort. The mean PACU pain score was also significantly lower in the preincision cohort. PACU opioid consumption, converted into morphine equivalents, was found to be 211 mg in the preincision versus 299 mg in the postincision cohort. Conclusion  The preincisional (preemptive) injection of local anesthesia was found to result in lower pain scores during and upon exit of the PACU as compared with the postclosure group. In addition, the preincision cohort also trended toward lower opioid consumption while in the PACU. Consideration should be given to the routine use of

  9. [Structure of pain management facilities in Germany : Classification of medical and psychological pain treatment services-Consensus of the Joint Commission of the Professional Societies and Organizations for Quality in Pain Medicine].

    PubMed

    Müller-Schwefe, G H H; Nadstawek, J; Tölle, T; Nilges, P; Überall, M A; Laubenthal, H J; Bock, F; Arnold, B; Casser, H R; Cegla, T H; Emrich, O M D; Graf-Baumann, T; Henning, J; Horlemann, J; Kayser, H; Kletzko, H; Koppert, W; Längler, K H; Locher, H; Ludwig, J; Maurer, S; Pfingsten, M; Schäfer, M; Schenk, M; Willweber-Strumpf, A

    2016-06-01

    On behalf of the Medical/Psychological Pain Associations, Pain Patients Alliance and the Professional Association of Pain Physicians and Psychologists, the Joint Commission of Professional Societies and Organizations for Quality in Pain Medicine, working in close collaboration with the respective presidents, has developed verifiable structural and process-related criteria for the classification of medical and psychological pain treatment facilities in Germany. Based on the established system of graded care in Germany and on existing qualifications, these criteria also argue for the introduction of a basic qualification in pain medicine. In addition to the first-ever comprehensive description of psychological pain facilities, the criteria presented can be used to classify five different levels of pain facilities, from basic pain management facilities, to specialized institutions, to the Centre for Interdisciplinary Pain Medicine. The recommendations offer binding and verifiable criteria for quality assurance in pain medicine and improved pain treatment.

  10. Anatomy of the pelvic joints--a review.

    PubMed

    Dietrichs, E

    1991-01-01

    In adults, after the os ilium, os ischii and os pubis have joined together by ossification to form the os coxae, there is usually one joint between the hip bones ventrally (the pubic symphysis) and several more complex joints between the hip bones and os sacrum dorsally (sacroiliac, "axial sacroiliac" and accessory sacroiliac joints). These joints carry the weight of the upper part of the body, but they shall also enable pelvic distention during labour. Pathological conditions in these joints are common, and increased knowledge concerning their normal antomy is important for better understanding of these conditions.

  11. Shoulder pain in primary care: diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination tests for non-traumatic acromioclavicular joint pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite numerous methodological flaws in previous study designs and the lack of validation in primary care populations, clinical tests for identifying acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) pain are widely utilised without concern for such issues. The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of traditional ACJ tests and to compare their accuracy with other clinical examination features for identifying a predominant ACJ pain source in a primary care cohort. Methods Consecutive patients with shoulder pain were recruited prospectively from primary health care clinics. Following a standardised clinical examination and diagnostic injection into the subacromial bursa, all participants received a fluoroscopically guided diagnostic block of 1% lidocaine hydrochloride (XylocaineTM) into the ACJ. Diagnostic accuracy statistics including sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-) were calculated for traditional ACJ tests (Active Compression/O’Brien’s test, cross-body adduction, localised ACJ tenderness and Hawkins-Kennedy test), and for individual and combinations of clinical examination variables that were associated with a positive anaesthetic response (PAR) (P≤0.05) defined as 80% or more reduction in post-injection pain intensity during provocative clinical tests. Results Twenty two of 153 participants (14%) reported an 80% PAR. None of the traditional ACJ tests were associated with an 80% PAR (P<0.05) and combinations of traditional tests were not able to discriminate between a PAR and a negative anaesthetic response (AUC 0.507; 95% CI: 0.366, 0.647; P>0.05). Five clinical examination variables (repetitive mechanism of pain onset, no referred pain below the elbow, thickened or swollen ACJ, no symptom provocation during passive glenohumeral abduction and external rotation) were associated with an 80% PAR (P<0.05) and demonstrated an ability to accurately discriminate between an PAR and NAR

  12. A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 8-weeks ingestion of a commercialized joint pain dietary supplement (InstaflexTM Joint Support, Direct Digital, Charlotte, NC) compared to placebo on joint pain, stiffness, and function in adults with self-reported joint pain. InstaflexTM is a joint pain supplement containing glucosamine sulfate, methylsufonlylmethane (MSM), white willow bark extract (15% salicin), ginger root concentrate, boswella serrata extract (65% boswellic acid), turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid. Methods Subjects included 100 men and women, ages 50-75 years, with a history (>3 months) of joint pain, and were randomized to Instaflex™ or placebo (3 colored gel capsules per day for 8 weeks, double-blind administration). Subjects agreed to avoid the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and all other medications and supplements targeted for joint pain. Primary outcome measures were obtained pre- and post-study and included joint pain severity, stiffness, and function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities [WOMAC]), and secondary outcome measures included health-related quality of life (Short Form 36 or SF-36), systemic inflammation (serum C-reactive protein and 9 plasma cytokines), and physical function (6-minute walk test). Joint pain symptom severity was assessed bi-weekly using a 12-point Likert visual scale (12-VS). Results Joint pain severity was significantly reduced in Instaflex™ compared to placebo (8-week WOMAC, ↓37% versus ↓16%, respectively, interaction effect P = 0.025), with group differences using the 12-VS emerging by week 4 of the study (interaction effect, P = 0.0125). Improvements in ability to perform daily activities and stiffness scores in Instaflex™ compared to placebo were most evident for the 74% of subjects reporting knee pain (8-week WOMAC function score, ↓39% versus ↓14%, respectively, interaction effect P = 0.027; stiffness score, ↓30

  13. A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Shanely, R Andrew; Luo, Beibei; Dew, Dustin; Meaney, Mary Pat; Sha, Wei

    2013-11-25

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 8-weeks ingestion of a commercialized joint pain dietary supplement (Instaflex™ Joint Support, Direct Digital, Charlotte, NC) compared to placebo on joint pain, stiffness, and function in adults with self-reported joint pain. Instaflex™ is a joint pain supplement containing glucosamine sulfate, methylsufonlylmethane (MSM), white willow bark extract (15% salicin), ginger root concentrate, boswella serrata extract (65% boswellic acid), turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid. Subjects included 100 men and women, ages 50-75 years, with a history (>3 months) of joint pain, and were randomized to Instaflex™ or placebo (3 colored gel capsules per day for 8 weeks, double-blind administration). Subjects agreed to avoid the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and all other medications and supplements targeted for joint pain. Primary outcome measures were obtained pre- and post-study and included joint pain severity, stiffness, and function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities [WOMAC]), and secondary outcome measures included health-related quality of life (Short Form 36 or SF-36), systemic inflammation (serum C-reactive protein and 9 plasma cytokines), and physical function (6-minute walk test). Joint pain symptom severity was assessed bi-weekly using a 12-point Likert visual scale (12-VS). Joint pain severity was significantly reduced in Instaflex™ compared to placebo (8-week WOMAC, ↓37% versus ↓16%, respectively, interaction effect P = 0.025), with group differences using the 12-VS emerging by week 4 of the study (interaction effect, P = 0.0125). Improvements in ability to perform daily activities and stiffness scores in Instaflex™ compared to placebo were most evident for the 74% of subjects reporting knee pain (8-week WOMAC function score, ↓39% versus ↓14%, respectively, interaction effect P = 0.027; stiffness score, ↓30% versus ↓12%, respectively

  14. Six degree-of-freedom knee joint kinematics in obese individuals with knee pain during gait.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Sheng; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Felson, David T; Li, Guoan; Lewis, Cara L

    2017-01-01

    Knee joint pain is a common symptom in obese individuals and walking is often prescribed as part of management programs. Past studies in obese individuals have focused on standing alignment and kinematics in the sagittal and coronal planes. Investigation of 6 degree-of-freedom (6DOF) knee joint kinematics during standing and gait is important to thoroughly understand knee function in obese individuals with knee pain. This study aimed to investigate the 6DOF knee joint kinematics in standing and during gait in obese patients using a validated fluoroscopic imaging system. Ten individuals with obesity and knee pain were recruited. While standing, the knee was in 7.4±6.3°of hyperextension, 2.8±3.3° of abduction and 5.6±7.3° of external rotation. The femoral center was located 0.7±3.1mm anterior and 5.1±1.5mm medial to the tibial center. During treadmill gait, the sagittal plane motion, i.e., flexion/extension and anterior-posterior translation, showed a clear pattern. Specifically, obese individuals with knee pain maintained the knee in more flexion and more anterior tibial translation during most of the stance phase of the gait cycle and had a reduced total range of knee flexion when compared to a healthy non-obese group. In conclusion, obese individuals with knee pain used hyperextension knee posture while standing, but maintained the knee in more flexion during gait with reduced overall range of motion in the 6DOF analysis.

  15. Six degree-of-freedom knee joint kinematics in obese individuals with knee pain during gait

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing-Sheng; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Felson, David T.; Li, Guoan; Lewis, Cara L.

    2017-01-01

    Knee joint pain is a common symptom in obese individuals and walking is often prescribed as part of management programs. Past studies in obese individuals have focused on standing alignment and kinematics in the sagittal and coronal planes. Investigation of 6 degree-of-freedom (6DOF) knee joint kinematics during standing and gait is important to thoroughly understand knee function in obese individuals with knee pain. This study aimed to investigate the 6DOF knee joint kinematics in standing and during gait in obese patients using a validated fluoroscopic imaging system. Ten individuals with obesity and knee pain were recruited. While standing, the knee was in 7.4±6.3°of hyperextension, 2.8±3.3° of abduction and 5.6±7.3° of external rotation. The femoral center was located 0.7±3.1mm anterior and 5.1±1.5mm medial to the tibial center. During treadmill gait, the sagittal plane motion, i.e., flexion/extension and anterior-posterior translation, showed a clear pattern. Specifically, obese individuals with knee pain maintained the knee in more flexion and more anterior tibial translation during most of the stance phase of the gait cycle and had a reduced total range of knee flexion when compared to a healthy non-obese group. In conclusion, obese individuals with knee pain used hyperextension knee posture while standing, but maintained the knee in more flexion during gait with reduced overall range of motion in the 6DOF analysis. PMID:28339477

  16. Exploring the role of negative cognitions in the relationship between ethnicity, sleep and pain in women with temporomandibular joint disorder.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Sheera F; Campbell, Claudia M; Buenaver, Luis F; Medak, Mary; Phillips, Jane; Polley, Michelle; Smith, Michael T; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2018-06-08

    Negative cognitions are central to the perpetuation of chronic pain and sleep disturbances. Patients with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD), a chronic pain condition characterized by pain and limitation in the jaw area, have a high comorbidity of sleep disturbances that possibly exacerbate their condition. Ethnic group differences are documented in pain, sleep and coping, yet the mechanisms driving these differences are still unclear, especially in clinical pain populations. 156 women (79% white, 21% African American (AA)) diagnosed with TMJD were recruited as part of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting sleep and pain catastrophizing on pain in TMJD. Analysis of baseline data demonstrated that relative to white participants, AA exhibited higher levels of clinical pain, insomnia severity and pain catastrophizing, yet there was no ethnic group difference in negative sleep-related cognitions. Mediation models revealed pain catastrophizing, but not sleep-related cognitions or insomnia severity, to be a significant single mediator of the relationship between ethnicity and clinical pain. Only the helplessness component of catastrophizing together with insomnia severity sequentially mediated the ethnicity-pain relationship. These findings identify pain catastrophizing as a potentially important link between ethnicity and clinical pain and suggest that interventions targeting pain-related helplessness could improve both sleep and pain especially for AA patients. Pain related helplessness and insomnia severity contribute to ethnic differences found in clinical pain among woman with temporomandibular joint disorder. Findings can potentially inform interventions that target insomnia and catastrophizing to assist in reducing ethnic disparities in clinical pain. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Management of chronic ankle pain using joint mobilization and ASTYM® treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Slaven, Emily J; Mathers, Jessie

    2011-05-01

    Treatment of ankle sprains predominately focuses on the acute management of this condition; less emphasis is placed on the treatment of ankle sprains in the chronic phase of recovery. Manual therapy, in the form of joint mobilization and manipulation, has been shown to be effective in the management of this condition, but the combination of joint mobilization and manipulation in tandem with ASTYM® treatment has not been explored. The purpose of this case report is to chronicle the management of a patient with chronic ankle pain who was treated with manual therapy including manipulation and ASTYM treatment. As a result of a fall down stairs 6 months previously, the patient sustained a severe ankle sprain. The soft tissue damage was accompanied by bony disruptions which warranted the patient spending 3 weeks in a walking boot. At the initial evaluation, the patient reported difficulty with descending stairs reciprocally and not being able to run more than 4 minutes on the treadmill before the pain escalated to the level that she had to stop running. After five sessions of therapy consisting of joint mobilization, manipulation and ASTYM, the patient was able to descend stairs and run 40 minutes without pain.

  18. Effects of proprioceptive circuit exercise on knee joint pain and muscle function in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ju, Sung-Bum; Park, Gi Duck; Kim, Sang-Soo

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study applied proprioceptive circuit exercise to patients with degenerative knee osteoarthritis and examined its effects on knee joint muscle function and the level of pain. [Subjects] In this study, 14 patients with knee osteoarthritis in two groups, a proprioceptive circuit exercise group (n = 7) and control group (n = 7), were examined. [Methods] IsoMed 2000 (D&R Ferstl GmbH, Hemau, Germany) was used to assess knee joint muscle function, and a Visual Analog Scale was used to measure pain level. [Results] In the proprioceptive circuit exercise group, knee joint muscle function and pain levels improved significantly, whereas in the control group, no significant improvement was observed. [Conclusion] A proprioceptive circuit exercise may be an effective way to strengthen knee joint muscle function and reduce pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  19. Joint pain and Doppler-detectable bubbles in altitude (Hypobaric) decompression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    The observation that altitude decompression sickness (DCS) is associated with pain in the lower extremities is not new, although it is not a consistent finding. DCS in divers is generally in the upper body, an effect often attributed to non-loading of the body while immersed. In caisson workers, DCS is reported more in the lower extremities. Surprisingly, many researchers do not mention the location of DCS joint pain, apparently considering it to be random. This is not the case for the tissue ratios encountered in studying decompression associated with simulated EVA. In NASA/JSC tests, altitude DCS generally presented first in either the ankle, knee, or hip (83 percent = 73/88). There was a definite statistical relation between the maximum Spencer precordial Doppler Grade and the incidence of DCS in the extremity, although this is not meant to imply a casual relation between circulating gas bubbles and joint pain. The risk of DCS with Grade 4 was considerably higher than that of Grades 0 to 3. The DCS risk was independent of the 'tissue ratio.' There was a predominance of lower extremity DCS even when exercise was performed with the upper body. The reason for these locations we hypothesize to be attributed to the formation of tissue gas micronuclei from kinetic and tensile forces (stress-assisted nucleation) and are the result of the individuals ambulating in a 1g environment. Additionally, since these showers of Doppler bubbles can persist for hours, it is difficult to imagine that they are emanating solely from tendons and ligaments, the supposed site of joint pain. This follows from Henry's law linking the volume of joint tissue (the solvent) and the solubility coefficient of inert gas; there is volumetrically insufficient connective tissue to produce the prolonged release of gas bubbles. If gas bubbles are spawned and released from connective tissue, their volume is increased by those from muscle tissue. Therefore, the nexus between Doppler-detectable gas

  20. Osteoprotegerin reduces the development of pain behaviour and joint pathology in a model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Devi Rani; Ashraf, Sadaf; Xu, Luting; Burston, James J; Menhinick, Matthew R; Poulter, Caroline L; Bennett, Andrew J; Walsh, David A; Chapman, Victoria

    2014-08-01

    Increased subchondral bone turnover may contribute to pain in osteoarthritis (OA). To investigate the analgesic potential of a modified version of osteoprotegerin (osteoprotegerin-Fc (OPG-Fc)) in the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) model of OA pain. Male Sprague Dawley rats (140-260 g) were treated with either OPG-Fc (3 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) between days 1 and 27 (pre-emptive treatment) or days 21 and 27 (therapeutic treatment) after an intra-articular injection of MIA (1 mg/50 µl) or saline. A separate cohort of rats received the bisphosphonate zoledronate (100 µg/kg, subcutaneously) between days 1 and 25 post-MIA injection. Incapacitance testing and von Frey (1-15 g) hind paw withdrawal thresholds were used to assess pain behaviour. At the end of the study, rats were killed and the knee joints and spinal cord removed for analysis. Immunohistochemical studies using Iba-1 and GFAP quantified levels of activation of spinal microglia and astrocytes, respectively. Joint sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or Safranin-O fast green and scored for matrix proteoglycan and overall joint morphology. The numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts were quantified. N=10 rats/group. Pre-emptive treatment with OPG-Fc significantly attenuated the development of MIA-induced changes in weightbearing, but not allodynia. OPG-Fc decreased osteoclast number, inhibited the formation of osteophytes and improved structural pathology within the joint similarly to the decrease seen after pretreatment with the bisphosphonate, zoledronate. Therapeutic treatment with OPG-Fc decreased pain behaviour, but did not improve pathology in rats with established joint damage. Our data suggest that early targeting of osteoclasts may reduce pain associated with OA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Factors associated with primary care prescription of opioids for joint pain.

    PubMed

    Green, D J; Bedson, J; Blagojevic-Burwell, M; Jordan, K P; van der Windt, D

    2013-02-01

    Opioids are commonly prescribed in primary care and can offer pain relief but may also have adverse effects. Little is known about the characteristics of people likely to receive an opioid prescription in primary care. The aim is to identify what factors are associated with primary care prescribing of high-strength analgesics in a community sample of older people with joint pain. A prospective two-stage postal survey completed at baseline and 3-year follow-up in a population aged 50 and over registered with eight general practitioner (GP) practices in North Staffordshire (North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project cohorts) linked with data from medical records. Participants were selected who reported joint pain in one or more joints at baseline. Outcome measures were the number of prescriptions for high-strength pain medication (opioids) in the following 3 years. Socio-demographic and health status factors associated with prescription were assessed using a zero-inflated Poisson model. 873 (19%) people were prescribed opioids (out of 4652 providing complete data) ranging from 1 to 76 prescriptions over 3 years. Baseline factors significantly associated with increased rates of prescription were younger age group [65-74 group: incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.26 (1.18-1.35)], male gender [IRR = 1.17 (1.12-1.23)], severe joint pain [IRR = 1.19 (1.12-1.26)] poor physical function [IRR = 0.99 (0.99-0.99)] and lower frequency of alcohol consumption [once/twice a year: IRR = 1.13 (1.06-1.21), never: IRR = 1.14 (1.06-1.22)]. Restricting the analysis to those without prior prescriptions for strong opioids showed similar results. Poor physical function and participation restrictions were strongly associated with prescriptions of stronger opioids in addition to several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Given the uncertainties over the effectiveness and risks of opioid use, future research could investigate decision making of GPs, exploring reasons for prescribing them.

  2. An ultrasonographic study of metatarsophalangeal joint pain: synovitis, structural pathology and their relationship to symptoms and function.

    PubMed

    Keen, Helen I; Redmond, Anthony; Wakefield, Richard J; Freeston, Jane; Grainger, Andrew J; Hensor, Elizabeth M A; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G

    2011-12-01

    Pain in the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) is common, though the link between pathology and symptoms is poorly understood. To examine the relationship between pain, function and ultrasound (US)-detected pathology in the first MTPJ. 33 subjects with first MTPJ pain and 20 asymptomatic controls completed questionnaires about pain and function, then underwent clinical examination, US examination and objective assessment of function using a motion tracking system. Low-level grey scale synovitis and osteophytes were common in patients and controls. Osteophytes were more prevalent in symptomatic first MTPJ [24/33 (73%) vs. 7/20 (35%), p=0.007], and greater osteophyte numbers were weakly associated with higher levels of pain [increase in pain VAS per osteophyte (95% CI)=13.78mm (0.12mm-27.43mm), p=0.048]. A power Doppler (PD) signal was present in a fifth of painful first MTPJs and absent in controls. A PD signal was associated with osteophytes and joint space narrowing but was not independently related to target joint pain. For all first MTPJs, osteophytes and the presence of a PD signal was associated with worse patient-reported function. US features did not predict objective function. Osteophytes, representing subchondral bone remodelling, were associated with the presence of first MTPJ pain and, together with more severe (PD) synovitis, also contributed to poorer function. Detailed imaging of bone may provide more information on peripheral pain associations.

  3. Percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy for cervical zygapophyseal joint mediated neck pain: A retrospective review of outcomes in forty-four cases.

    PubMed

    Duff, Patricia; Das, Basabjit; McCrory, Connail

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) rhizotomy of the medial branches of the dorsal rami from the spinal nerves is the standard treatment for cervical zygapophyseal joint mediated pain. There is a paucity of data regarding the longevity of analgesia following this procedure. To determine the duration of complete pain relief, analgesic consumption and any adverse events following percutaneous cervical RF rhizotomy. Retrospective chart review of patients who had undergone percutaneous cervical RF rhizotomy for zygapophyseal joint mediated neck pain. Patient reviews were undertaken by the pain consultant at 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year following the procedure. Where follow-up was incomplete, the patient was assumed only to have had pain relief until their last review where complete pain relief had been documented. Analgesic consumption and any adverse events were recorded. The data was analysed using Microsoft Excel®. At 12 months 63.64% of patients were pain free. Median duration of complete pain relief was 52 weeks. Patients who experienced pain relief had ceased using prescription analgesia by their 6 week review. There were no repeat cervical RF rhizotomies, procedure related infections or unplanned hospital admissions. Percutaneous cervical RF rhizotomy is an effective treatment for cervical zygapophyseal joint mediated neck pain.

  4. A Comparison of Sacroiliac and Pubic Rami Fracture Occurrences in Oblique Side Impact Tests on Nine Post Mortem Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Lebarbé, Mathieu; Baudrit, Pascal; Potier, Pascal; Compigne, Sabine; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Yamaoka, Akira; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi; Douard, Richard

    2015-11-01

    The WorldSID dummy can be equipped with both a pubic and a sacroiliac joint (S-I joint) loadcell. Although a pubic force criterion and the associated injury risk curve are currently available and used in regulation (ECE95, FMVSS214), as of today injury mechanisms, injury criteria, and injury assessment reference values are not available for the sacroiliac joint itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Three configurations were identified from full-scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th percentile male where the force passing through the pubis in all three tests was approximately 1500 N while the sacroiliac Fy/Mx peak values were 4500 N/50 Nm, 2400 N/130 Nm, and 5300 N/150 Nm, respectively. These tests were reproduced using a 150 kg guided probe impacting Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) at 8 m/s, 5.4 m/s and 7.5 m/s. The shape and the orientation of the impacting face of the probe were selected to match the WorldSID pubic Fy and sacroiliac Fy/Mx loads of the three vehicle test configurations. Three PMHS were tested in each of the three configurations (nine PMHS in total). In the first PMHS configuration, one specimen sustained an AIS 3 injury and one sustained an AIS 4 injury (an unstable pelvis with complete disruption of the posterior arch, a sacroiliac joint disruption associated with an iliac fracture, and a pubic symphysis separation). In the second configuration, all specimens sustained a fracture of the superior lateral iliac wing (AIS 2). In the third configuration, one specimen sustained a partial disruption of the anterior arch (AIS 2). Based on the data from strain gauges located on the pubic rami and near the sacroiliac joint, the pubic rami fractures were identified as occurring prior to the sacroiliac fractures. Out of nine impactor tests performed, the PMHS S-I joint injuries were observed to consistently be associated with pelvic anterior arch fractures. In addition, from the injury

  5. [Relationship between perineal characteristics and symptoms and pelvic girdle pain: A literature review].

    PubMed

    Rejano-Campo, M; Desvergée, A; Pizzoferrato, A C

    2018-03-01

    Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is characterized by the presence of pain in the posterior pelvic area, distally and laterally to the fifth lumbar vertebra, and/or at the pubic symphysis. PGP is a very common pain condition in women, especially during pregnancy and postpartum. After delivery, pain prevalence decreases to 7 % in the first three months. The current literature describes an association between pelvic girdle pain and different perineal characteristics and symptoms. A better understanding of perineal structures influence on PGP could assist towards the management of this condition. The aim of this review is to describe the peer-reviewed literature about perineal function in patients with PGP. A bibliographic search on PubMed was conducted. The key words used were: pelvic girdle pain, pregnacy-related low back pain, lumbopelvic pain, posterior pelvic pain, peripartum pelvic pain, pelvic girdle relaxation, pelvic joint instability, peripartum pelvic pain, sacroiliac joint pain, sacroiliac joint dysfunction, sacroiliac-joint related pelvic pain and pelvic floor. Two hundred and twenty-one (221) articles were identified. Out of them, a total of nine articles were selected. The level of evidence was determined using Oxford's scale. Patients with PGP showed increased activity of the pelvic floor muscles (P=0.05) (LE3), decreased urogenital hiatus area (PGP 12.4 cm 2 ±2.7, control 13.7 cm 2 ±2.8, P=0.015) (LE3), shorter endurance time (PGP 17.8 s; control 54.0 s, P=0.00) (LE3), significantly later onset time during affected side leg elevation (PGP 25ms, control -129ms, P=0.01) (LE3), levator ani and obturator internus tenderness (PGP 25/26; control 5/25, P<0.001) (LE3) and a higher prevalence of vesico-sphincteric disorders compared to asymptomatic subjects (LE3). This review confirms that subjects suffering PGP present particular perineal characteristics regarding morphology and biomechanics. It would be interesting to develop clinical research concerning

  6. Automated discovery of safety and efficacy concerns for joint & muscle pain relief treatments from online reviews.

    PubMed

    Adams, David Z; Gruss, Richard; Abrahams, Alan S

    2017-04-01

    Product issues can cost companies millions in lawsuits and have devastating effects on a firm's sales, image and goodwill, especially in the era of social media. The ability for a system to detect the presence of safety and efficacy (S&E) concerns early on could not only protect consumers from injuries due to safety hazards, but could also mitigate financial damage to the manufacturer. Prior studies in the field of automated defect discovery have found industry-specific techniques appropriate to the automotive, consumer electronics, home appliance, and toy industries, but have not investigated pain relief medicines and medical devices. In this study, we focus specifically on automated discovery of S&E concerns in over-the-counter (OTC) joint and muscle pain relief remedies and devices. We select a dataset of over 32,000 records for three categories of Joint & Muscle Pain Relief treatments from Amazon's online product reviews, and train "smoke word" dictionaries which we use to score holdout reviews, for the presence of safety and efficacy issues. We also score using conventional sentiment analysis techniques. Compared to traditional sentiment analysis techniques, we found that smoke term dictionaries were better suited to detect product concerns from online consumer reviews, and significantly outperformed the sentiment analysis techniques in uncovering both efficacy and safety concerns, across all product subcategories. Our research can be applied to the healthcare and pharmaceutical industry in order to detect safety and efficacy concerns, reducing risks that consumers face using these products. These findings can be highly beneficial to improving quality assurance and management in joint and muscle pain relief. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. THE PROSTAGLANDIN E2 RECEPTOR, EP2, IS UPREGULATED IN THE DRG AFTER PAINFUL CERVICAL FACET JOINT INJURY IN THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    Kras, Jeffrey V.; Dong, Ling; Winkelstein, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design This study implemented immunohistochemistry to assay prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor EP2 expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rats after painful cervical facet joint injury. Objective The objective of this study was to identify if inflammatory cascades are induced in association with cervical facet joint distraction-induced pain by investigating the time course of EP2 expression in the DRG. Summary of Background Data The cervical facet joint is a common source of neck pain and non-physiological stretch of the facet capsular ligament can initiate pain from the facet joint via mechanical injury. PGE2 levels are elevated in painful inflamed and arthritic joints, and PGE2 sensitizes joint afferents to mechanical stimulation. Although in vitro studies suggest the EP2 receptor subtype contributes to painful joint disease the EP2 response has not been investigated for any association with painful mechanical joint injury. Methods Separate groups of male Holtzman rats underwent either a painful cervical facet joint distraction injury or sham procedure. Bilateral forepaw mechanical allodynia was assessed, and immunohistochemical techniques were used to quantify EP2 expression in the DRG at days 1 and 7. Results Facet joint distraction induced mechanical allodynia that was significant (p<0.024) at all time points. Painful joint injury also significantly elevated total EP2 expression in the DRG at day 1 (p=0.009), which was maintained also at day 7 (p<0.001). Neuronal expression of EP2 in the DRG was only increased over sham levels at day 1 (p=0.013). Conclusions Painful cervical facet joint distraction induces an immediate and sustained increase of EP2 expression in the DRG, implicating peripheral inflammation in the initiation and maintenance of facet joint pain. The transient increase in neuronal EP2 suggests, as in other painful joint conditions, that after joint injury non-neuronal cells may migrate to the DRG, some of which likely express EP2

  8. Managing Knee Osteoarthritis: The Effects of Body Weight Supported Physical Activity on Joint Pain, Function, and Thigh Muscle Strength.

    PubMed

    Peeler, Jason; Christian, Mathew; Cooper, Juliette; Leiter, Jeffrey; MacDonald, Peter

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effect of a 12-week lower body positive pressure (LBPP)-supported low-load treadmill walking program on knee joint pain, function, and thigh muscle strength in overweight patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective, observational, repeated measures investigation. Community-based, multidisciplinary sports medicine clinic. Thirty-one patients aged between 55 and 75 years, with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m and mild-to-moderate knee OA. Twelve-week LBPP-supported low-load treadmill walking regimen. Acute knee joint pain (visual analog scale) during full weight bearing treadmill walking, chronic knee pain, and joint function [Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire] during normal activities of daily living, and thigh muscle strength (isokinetic testing). Appropriate methods of statistical analysis were used to compare data from baseline and follow-up evaluation. Participants reported significant improvements in knee joint pain and function and demonstrated significant increases in thigh muscle strength about the degenerative knee. Participants also experienced significant reductions in acute knee pain during full weight bearing treadmill walking and required dramatically less LBPP support to walk pain free on the treadmill. Data suggest that an LBPP-supported low-load exercise regimen can be used to significantly diminish knee pain, enhance joint function, and increase thigh muscle strength, while safely promoting pain-free walking exercise in overweight patients with knee OA. These findings have important implications for the development of nonoperative treatment strategies that can be used in the management of joint symptoms associated with progressive knee OA in at-risk patient populations. This research suggests that LBPP-supported low-load walking is a safe user-friendly mode of exercise that can be successfully used in the management of day-to-day joint symptoms associated with knee OA, helping to improve the

  9. Dissecting the contribution of knee joint NGF to spinal nociceptive sensitization in a model of OA pain in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, D.R.; Nwosu, L.; Walsh, D.A.; Chapman, V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective Although analgesic approaches targeting nerve growth factor (NGF) for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) pain remain of clinical interest, neurophysiological mechanisms by which NGF contribute to OA pain remain unclear. We investigated the impact of local elevation of knee joint NGF on knee joint, vs remote (hindpaw), evoked responses of spinal neurones in a rodent model of OA pain. Design In vivo spinal electrophysiology was carried out in anaesthetised rats with established pain behaviour and joint pathology following intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA), vs injection of saline. Neuronal responses to knee joint extension and flexion, mechanical punctate stimulation of the peripheral receptive fields over the knee and at a remote site (ipsilateral hind paw) were studied before, and following, intra-articular injection of NGF (10 μg/50 μl) or saline. Results MIA-injected rats exhibited significant local (knee joint) and remote (lowered hindpaw withdrawal thresholds) changes in pain behaviour, and joint pathology. Intra-articular injection of NGF significantly (P < 0.05) increased knee extension-evoked firing of spinal neurones and the size of the peripheral receptive fields of spinal neurones (100% increase) over the knee joint in MIA rats, compared to controls. Intra-articular NGF injection did not significantly alter responses of spinal neurones following noxious stimulation of the ipsilateral hind paw in MIA-injected rats. Conclusion The facilitatory effects of intra-articular injection of NGF on spinal neurones receiving input from the knee joint provide a mechanistic basis for NGF mediated augmentation of OA knee pain, however additional mechanisms may contribute to the spread of pain to remote sites. PMID:25623624

  10. Dissecting the contribution of knee joint NGF to spinal nociceptive sensitization in a model of OA pain in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sagar, D R; Nwosu, L; Walsh, D A; Chapman, V

    2015-06-01

    Although analgesic approaches targeting nerve growth factor (NGF) for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) pain remain of clinical interest, neurophysiological mechanisms by which NGF contribute to OA pain remain unclear. We investigated the impact of local elevation of knee joint NGF on knee joint, vs remote (hindpaw), evoked responses of spinal neurones in a rodent model of OA pain. In vivo spinal electrophysiology was carried out in anaesthetised rats with established pain behaviour and joint pathology following intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA), vs injection of saline. Neuronal responses to knee joint extension and flexion, mechanical punctate stimulation of the peripheral receptive fields over the knee and at a remote site (ipsilateral hind paw) were studied before, and following, intra-articular injection of NGF (10 μg/50 μl) or saline. MIA-injected rats exhibited significant local (knee joint) and remote (lowered hindpaw withdrawal thresholds) changes in pain behaviour, and joint pathology. Intra-articular injection of NGF significantly (P < 0.05) increased knee extension-evoked firing of spinal neurones and the size of the peripheral receptive fields of spinal neurones (100% increase) over the knee joint in MIA rats, compared to controls. Intra-articular NGF injection did not significantly alter responses of spinal neurones following noxious stimulation of the ipsilateral hind paw in MIA-injected rats. The facilitatory effects of intra-articular injection of NGF on spinal neurones receiving input from the knee joint provide a mechanistic basis for NGF mediated augmentation of OA knee pain, however additional mechanisms may contribute to the spread of pain to remote sites. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of joint-related pain in the extremities and spine in five groups of top athletes.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Pall; Halldin, Klas; Karlsson, Jon; Thoreson, Olof; Hvannberg, Jonas; Swärd, Leif; Baranto, Adad

    2011-09-01

    Joint-related pain conditions from the spine and extremities are common among top athletes. The frequency of back pain has, however, been studied in more detail, and the frequency of low-back pain in top athletes in different high-load sports has been reported to be as high as 85%. Sport-related pain from different joints in the extremities is, however, infrequently reported on in the literature. Seventy-five male athletes, i.e. divers, weight-lifters, wrestlers, orienteers and ice-hockey players and 12 non-athletes (control group) were included in the study. A specific self-assessed pain-oriented questionnaire related to the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, as well as the various joints, i.e. shoulders, elbows, wrists, hips, knees and ankles, was filled out by the athletes and the non-athletes. The overall frequency of pain reported by the athletes during the last week/last year was as follows; cervical spine 35/55%; thoracic spine 22/33%; lumbar spine 50/68%; shoulder 10/21%; elbow 7/7%; wrist 7/8%; hip 15/23%; knee 22/44%; and ankle 11/25%. The corresponding values for non-athletes were cervical spine 9/36%; thoracic spine 17/33%; lumbar spine 36/50%; shoulder 0/9%; elbow 9/0%; wrist 0/0%; hip 9/16%; knee 10/9%; and ankle 0/0%. A higher percentage of athletes reported pain in almost all joint regions, but there were no statistically significant differences (n.s.), with the exception of the knees (P = 0.05). Over the last year, athletes reporting the highest pain frequency in the lumbar spine were ice-hockey players and, in the cervical spine, wrestlers and ice-hockey players. The highest levels of knee pain were found among wrestlers and ice-hockey players, whereas the highest levels for wrist pain were found among divers, hip pain among weight-lifters, orienteers and divers and ankle pain among orienteers. For the thoracic spine, shoulder and elbow regions, only minor differences were found. There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence of

  12. Incidence of tempero-mandibular joint pain dysfunction syndrome in rural population.

    PubMed

    Rao, M B; Rao, C B

    1981-08-01

    The incidence and clinical course of the tempero-mandibular joint dysfunction syndrome was studied among 1187 subjects over the age of 16, who attended the rural dental consultations held at various places in the State of Karnataka, India. The study revealed an incidence of 20.3%. Contracy to earlier reports, the incidence was higher in males than in females and more married females were affected than unmarried. Clicking appeared to be the predominant symptom in all age groups. The incidence of pain increased with age. Of all patients 43.75% were not aware of a clicking joint; 53.7% persons with clicking and 14% with pain were not disturbed by their symptoms. The findings of the study failed to establish any relationship between unilateral missing teeth and the occurrence of the pain dysfunction syndrome (PDS). The chewing habits (betel leaf, tobacco, betel nut) which are prevalent in India appeared to have no effect on the incidence of PDS. It is suggested that more epidemiological studies should be carried out in different parts of the world with varying social, political and economic systems to enable better understanding of the global incidence of PDS.

  13. Influence of chronic neck pain on cervical joint position error (JPE): Comparison between young and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Alahmari, Khalid A; Reddy, Ravi Shankar; Silvian, Paul; Ahmad, Irshad; Nagaraj, Venkat; Mahtab, Mohammad

    2017-11-06

    Evaluation of cervical joint position sense in subjects with chronic neck pain has gained importance in recent times. Different authors have established increased joint position error (JPE) in subjects with acute neck pain. However, there is a paucity of studies to establish the influence of chronic neck pain on cervical JPE. The objective of the study was to understand the influence of chronic neck pain on cervical JPE, and to examine the differences in cervical JPE between young and elderly subjects with chronic neck pain. Forty-two chronic neck pain patients (mean age 47.4) were compared for cervical JPE with 42 age-matched healthy subjects (mean age 47.8), using a digital inclinometer. The cervical JPE were measured in flexion, extension, and rotation in right and left movement directions. The comparison of JPE showed significantly larger errors in subjects with chronic neck pain when compared to healthy subjects (p< 0.001). The errors were larger in all of the movement directions tested. Comparison between young and older subjects with chronic neck pain revealed no significant differences (P> 0.05) in cervical JPE. Cervical joint position sense is impaired in subjects with chronic neck pain.

  14. Cervical joint position sense in neck pain. Immediate effects of muscle vibration versus mental training interventions: a RCT.

    PubMed

    Beinert, K; Preiss, S; Huber, M; Taube, W

    2015-12-01

    Impaired cervical joint position sense is a feature of chronic neck pain and is commonly argued to rely on abnormal cervical input. If true, muscle vibration, altering afferent input, but not mental interventions, should have an effect on head repositioning acuity and neck pain perception. The aim of the present study was to determine the short-term effects of neck muscle vibration, motor imagery, and action observation on cervical joint position sense and pressure pain threshold in people with chronic neck pain. Forty-five blinded participants with neck pain received concealed allocation and were randomized in three treatment groups. A blinded assessor performed pre- and post-test measurement. Patients were recruited from secondary outpatient clinics in the southwest of Germany. Chronic, non specific neck pain patients without arm pain were recruited for this study. A single intervention session of 5 minutes was delivered to each blinded participant. Patients were either allocated to one of the following three interventions: (1) neck muscle vibration; (2) motor imagery; (3) action observation. Primary outcomes were cervical joint position sense acuity and pressure pain threshold. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to evaluate differences between groups and subjects. Repositioning acuity displayed significant time effects for vibration, motor imagery, and action observation (all P<0.05), but revealed no time*group effect. Pressure pain threshold demonstrated a time*group effect (P=0.042) as only vibration significantly increased pressure pain threshold (P=0.01). Although motor imagery and action observation did not modulate proprioceptive, afferent input, they nevertheless improved cervical joint position sense acuity. This indicates that, against the common opinion, changes in proprioceptive input are not prerequisite to improve joint repositioning performance. However, the short-term applications of these cognitive treatments had no effect on pressure pain

  15. The impact of arthritis and joint pain on individual healthcare expenditures: findings from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), 2011.

    PubMed

    Williams, Edith M; Walker, Rebekah J; Faith, Trevor; Egede, Leonard E

    2017-02-28

    Joint pain, including back pain, and arthritis are common conditions in the United States, affecting more than 100 million individuals and costing upwards of $200 billion each year. Although activity limitations associated with these disorders impose a substantial economic burden, this relationship has not been explored in a large U.S. cohort. In this study, we used the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey to investigate whether functional limitations explain the difference in medical expenditures between patients with arthritis and joint pain and those without. We used sequential explanatory linear models to investigate this relationship and accounted for various covariates. Unadjusted mean expenditures were $10,587 for those with joint pain or arthritis, compared with $3813 for those without. In a fully adjusted model accounting also for functional limitations, those with joint pain or arthritis paid $1638 more than those without, a statistically significant difference. The growing economic and public health burden of arthritis and joint pain, as well as the corresponding complications of functional, activity, and sensory limitations, calls for an interdisciplinary approach and heightened awareness among providers to identify strategies that meet the needs of high-risk patients in order to prevent and delay disease progression.

  16. Central sensitization as the mechanism underlying pain in joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, G; Celletti, C; Baron, R; Castori, M; Di Franco, M; La Cesa, S; Leone, C; Pepe, A; Cruccu, G; Truini, A; Camerota, F

    2016-09-01

    Patients with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) commonly suffer from pain. How this hereditary connective tissue disorder causes pain remains unclear although previous studies suggested it shares similar mechanisms with neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. In this prospective study seeking information on the mechanisms underlying pain in patients with JHS/EDS-HT, we enrolled 27 consecutive patients with this connective tissue disorder. Patients underwent a detailed clinical examination, including the neuropathic pain questionnaire DN4 and the fibromyalgia rapid screening tool. As quantitative sensory testing methods, we included thermal-pain perceptive thresholds and the wind-up ratio and recorded a standard nerve conduction study to assess non-nociceptive fibres and laser-evoked potentials, assessing nociceptive fibres. Clinical examination and diagnostic tests disclosed no somatosensory nervous system damage. Conversely, most patients suffered from widespread pain, the fibromyalgia rapid screening tool elicited positive findings, and quantitative sensory testing showed lowered cold and heat pain thresholds and an increased wind-up ratio. While the lack of somatosensory nervous system damage is incompatible with neuropathic pain as the mechanism underlying pain in JHS/EDS-HT, the lowered cold and heat pain thresholds and increased wind-up ratio imply that pain in JHS/EDS-HT might arise through central sensitization. Hence, this connective tissue disorder and fibromyalgia share similar pain mechanisms. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: In patients with JHS/EDS-HT, the persistent nociceptive input due to joint abnormalities probably triggers central sensitization in the dorsal horn neurons and causes widespread pain. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  17. Dental attrition models predicting temporomandibular joint disease or masticatory muscle pain versus asymptomatic controls.

    PubMed

    Seligman, D A; Pullinger, A G

    2006-11-01

    To determine whether patients with temporomandibular joint disease or masticatory muscle pain can be usefully di