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Sample records for safety pedestrian safety

  1. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 14: Pedestrian Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 14 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on pedestrian safety. The purpose and objectives of a pedestrian safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of pedestrian safety and policies regarding a safety program…

  2. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-3. Pedestrian Safety, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains nine lessons on pedestrian safety for use in grade 3. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing communication methods for…

  3. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Pedestrian Safety, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains eight lessons on pedestrian safety for use in grade 2. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing communication methods for…

  4. Pedestrian Safety--A Step in the Right Direction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    This guide contains interdisciplinary teaching materials to help administrators and teachers develop pedestrian safety programs. The materials can be easily integrated with language arts, art, and social studies courses. Objectives of the materials, which can be used in kindergarten through grade nine, include understanding pedestrians' rights and…

  5. Primary Grade Teachers' Perceptions and Practices regarding Pedestrian Safety Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lartey, Grace K.; Price, James H.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Dake, Joseph A.; Yingling, Faith

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pedestrian injury is the third leading cause of unintentional injury and death among children 1-14 years old. The purpose of this study was to examine primary grade teachers' perceived role in pedestrian safety education. Methods: A total of 630 surveys were sent to a national random sample of primary school teachers and 54% responded.…

  6. 17. View of masonry gatehouse, safety gates and pedestrian waiting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View of masonry gatehouse, safety gates and pedestrian waiting shelter with ripped copper roofing and missing columns. (Nov. 30, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  7. Pilot Study: A Pediatric Pedestrian Safety Curriculum for Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Bovis, Stephanie E; Harden, Taijha; Hotz, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate and implement the WalkSafe Pre-Kindergarten Pedestrian Safety Curriculum. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design without a control group was used to measure children's pedestrian safety knowledge. Knowledge assessments consisting of multiple-choice and short-answer questions were administered pre- and post-curriculum implementation by classroom teachers. Knowledge assessments gauged prekindergarten students' knowledge of pedestrian safety activities prior to safety curriculum implementation and, again, after the students received the curriculum. A total of 605 children (aged 3- to 5-year) from 38 prekindergarten classrooms in 16 randomly selected elementary schools participated in the pedestrian safety education pilot program. Subjects were of multiethnic and diverse backgrounds from the Miami-Dade County Public School District. Of the 605 educated subjects, 454 children completed both pre- and posttests. A statistically significant difference was found between pretest knowledge (M = 5.49, SD = 1.54) and posttest knowledge (M = 6.64, SD = 1.35) assessment scores across all 454 subjects, t(452) = -16.22, p < .001, 95% CI [-1.29, -1.01]. Previous studies have shown that classroom-based training of children as young as 4 years old can yield significant improvements in traffic safety knowledge. The statistical findings of the WalkSafe Pre-Kindergarten Pedestrian Safety Curriculum revealed statistically significant improvements in pedestrian safety knowledge of these young children. Future research efforts will focus on longitudinal behavioral changes in these students and an increase in pedestrian safety behaviors (e.g., utilization of crosswalks or sidewalks). PMID:27618373

  8. Multi-level hot zone identification for pedestrian safety.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Choi, Keechoo; Huang, Helai

    2015-03-01

    According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), while fatalities from traffic crashes have decreased, the proportion of pedestrian fatalities has steadily increased from 11% to 14% over the past decade. This study aims at identifying two zonal levels factors. The first is to identify hot zones at which pedestrian crashes occurs, while the second are zones where crash-involved pedestrians came from. Bayesian Poisson lognormal simultaneous equation spatial error model (BPLSESEM) was estimated and revealed significant factors for the two target variables. Then, PSIs (potential for safety improvements) were computed using the model. Subsequently, a novel hot zone identification method was suggested to combine both hot zones from where vulnerable pedestrians originated with hot zones where many pedestrian crashes occur. For the former zones, targeted safety education and awareness campaigns can be provided as countermeasures whereas area-wide engineering treatments and enforcement may be effective safety treatments for the latter ones. Thus, it is expected that practitioners are able to suggest appropriate safety treatments for pedestrian crashes using the method and results from this study.

  9. Evaluation of pedestrian safety at intersections: A theoretical framework based on pedestrian-vehicle interaction patterns.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ying; Wang, Menglong; Sun, Jian; Li, Keping

    2016-11-01

    Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, and pedestrian safety has become a major research focus in recent years. Regarding the quality and quantity issues with collision data, conflict analysis using surrogate safety measures has become a useful method to study pedestrian safety. However, given the inequality between pedestrians and vehicles in encounters and the multiple interactions between pedestrians and vehicles, it is insufficient to simply use the same indicator(s) or the same way to aggregate indicators for all conditions. In addition, behavioral factors cannot be neglected. To better use information extracted from trajectories for safety evaluation and pay more attention on effects of behavioral factors, this paper develops a more sophisticated framework for pedestrian conflict analysis that takes pedestrian-vehicle interactions into consideration. A concept of three interaction patterns has been proposed for the first time, namely "hard interaction," "no interaction," and "soft-interaction." Interactions have been categorized under one of these patterns by analyzing profiles of speed and conflict indicators during the whole interactive processes. In this paper, a support vector machine (SVM) approach has been adopted to classify severity levels for a dataset including 1144 events extracted from three intersections in Shanghai, China, followed by an analysis of variable importance. The results revealed that different conflict indicators have different contributions to indicating the severity level under various interaction patterns. Therefore, it is recommended either to use specific conflict indicators or to use weighted indicator aggregation for each interaction pattern when evaluating pedestrian safety. The implementation has been carried out at the fourth crosswalk, and the results indicate that the proposed method can achieve a higher accuracy and better robustness than conventional methods. Furthermore, the method is helpful for better

  10. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Pedestrian Safety, Grades K-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains thirteen lessons on pedestrian safety for use in kindergarten and grade 1. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing…

  11. California Guide for Pedestrian Safety Education. Volumes I-III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This guide is designed to serve as the basis for a pedestrian safety education program for pupils in kindergarten through grade two. The basic printed materials for use in the program are provided in three volumes, each of which is intended for a different audience. Volume I, directed to school administrators and teachers, contains information for…

  12. PASES: combining radar and video sensing for improved pedestrian safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenault, David B.; Edmondson, Richard P.

    2016-05-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies reports on the development of Pedestrian Automated System for Enforcement and Safety (PASES), a radar and video based system used to monitor vehicle and pedestrian traffic with the intent of improving pedestrian safety. Data is fused from a system of multiple sensors and multiple sensor modalities to identify vehicular violations of pedestrian right of way. A focus was placed on the selection of low cost COTS sensors to make the system more widely available to state and local DOTs with limited budgets. Applications include automated enforcement, adaptive traffic control, and improved intersection and crosswalk design based on high quality data available for traffic engineering. We discuss early results with high fidelity sensors, and the performance trades made in order to make the system affordable. A discussion of the system processing architecture is included which highlights the treatment of each sensor data type, and the means of combining the processed data products into state information related to traffic incidents involving vehicles and pedestrians.

  13. Research of Pedestrian Crossing Safety Facilities Based on the Video Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng-Zhen; Xie, Quan-Long; Zang, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Guo-Jun

    Since that the pedestrian crossing facilities at present is not perfect, pedestrian crossing is in chaos and pedestrians from opposite direction conflict and congest with each other, which severely affects the pedestrian traffic efficiency, obstructs the vehicle and bringing about some potential security problems. To solve these problems, based on video identification, a pedestrian crossing guidance system was researched and designed. It uses the camera to monitor the pedestrians in real time and sums up the number of pedestrians through video detection program, and a group of pedestrian's induction lamp array is installed at the interval of crosswalk, which adjusts color display according to the proportion of pedestrians from both sides to guide pedestrians from both opposite directions processing separately. The emulation analysis result from cellular automaton shows that the system reduces the pedestrian crossing conflict, shortens the time of pedestrian crossing and improves the safety of pedestrians crossing.

  14. An Evaluation of a Parent Implemented In Situ Pedestrian Safety Skills Intervention for Individuals with Autism.

    PubMed

    Harriage, Bethany; Blair, Kwang-Sun Cho; Miltenberger, Raymond

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated an in situ pedestrian safety skills intervention for three individuals with autism , as implemented by their parents. Specifically, this study examined the utility of behavioral skills training (BST) in helping parents implement most-to-least prompting procedures in training their children to use pedestrian safety skills in community settings. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to assess parent implementation of in situ pedestrian safety skills training as well as the correct use of safety skills independently by the participating individuals with autism. Results indicated that parents implemented in situ, most-to-least prompting procedures with high levels of accuracy across street locations during intervention and fading of BST. All child participants significantly improved their pedestrian safety skills during intervention across all natural street settings. For all three participants, the acquired skills were maintained above baseline levels at 1-month follow-up.

  15. Community-based pedestrian safety training in virtual reality: A pragmatic trial.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, David C; Combs, Tabitha; Rodriguez, Daniel; Severson, Joan; Sisiopiku, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Child pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity across the United States and the world. Repeated practice at the cognitive-perceptual task of crossing a street may lead to safer pedestrian behavior. Virtual reality offers a unique opportunity for repeated practice without the risk of actual injury. This study conducted a pre-post within-subjects trial of training children in pedestrian safety using a semi-mobile, semi-immersive virtual pedestrian environment placed at schools and community centers. Pedestrian safety skills among a group of 44 seven- and eight-year-old children were assessed in a laboratory, and then children completed six 15-minute training sessions in the virtual pedestrian environment at their school or community center following pragmatic trial strategies over the course of three weeks. Following training, pedestrian safety skills were re-assessed. Results indicate improvement in delay entering traffic following training. Safe crossings did not demonstrate change. Attention to traffic and time to contact with oncoming vehicles both decreased somewhat, perhaps an indication that training was incomplete and children were in the process of actively learning to be safer pedestrians. The findings suggest virtual reality environments placed in community centers hold promise for teaching children to be safer pedestrians, but future research is needed to determine the optimal training dosage.

  16. Community-based pedestrian safety training in virtual reality: A pragmatic trial.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, David C; Combs, Tabitha; Rodriguez, Daniel; Severson, Joan; Sisiopiku, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Child pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity across the United States and the world. Repeated practice at the cognitive-perceptual task of crossing a street may lead to safer pedestrian behavior. Virtual reality offers a unique opportunity for repeated practice without the risk of actual injury. This study conducted a pre-post within-subjects trial of training children in pedestrian safety using a semi-mobile, semi-immersive virtual pedestrian environment placed at schools and community centers. Pedestrian safety skills among a group of 44 seven- and eight-year-old children were assessed in a laboratory, and then children completed six 15-minute training sessions in the virtual pedestrian environment at their school or community center following pragmatic trial strategies over the course of three weeks. Following training, pedestrian safety skills were re-assessed. Results indicate improvement in delay entering traffic following training. Safe crossings did not demonstrate change. Attention to traffic and time to contact with oncoming vehicles both decreased somewhat, perhaps an indication that training was incomplete and children were in the process of actively learning to be safer pedestrians. The findings suggest virtual reality environments placed in community centers hold promise for teaching children to be safer pedestrians, but future research is needed to determine the optimal training dosage. PMID:26479677

  17. Pedestrian and traffic safety in parking lots at SNL/NM : audit background report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Paul Ernest

    2009-03-01

    This report supplements audit 2008-E-0009, conducted by the ES&H, Quality, Safeguards & Security Audits Department, 12870, during fall and winter of FY 2008. The study evaluates slips, trips and falls, the leading cause of reportable injuries at Sandia. In 2007, almost half of over 100 of such incidents occurred in parking lots. During the course of the audit, over 5000 observations were collected in 10 parking lots across SNL/NM. Based on benchmarks and trends of pedestrian behavior, the report proposes pedestrian-friendly features and attributes to improve pedestrian safety in parking lots. Less safe pedestrian behavior is associated with older parking lots lacking pedestrian-friendly features and attributes, like those for buildings 823, 887 and 811. Conversely, safer pedestrian behavior is associated with newer parking lots that have designated walkways, intra-lot walkways and sidewalks. Observations also revealed that motorists are in widespread noncompliance with parking lot speed limits and stop signs and markers.

  18. Training Children in Pedestrian Safety: Distinguishing Gains in Knowledge from Gains in Safe Behavior

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian injuries contribute greatly to child morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that training within virtual pedestrian environments may improve children’s street crossing skills, but may not convey knowledge about safety in street environments. We hypothesized that (a) children will gain pedestrian safety knowledge via videos/software/internet websites, but not when trained by virtual pedestrian environment or other strategies; (b) pedestrian safety knowledge will be associated with safe pedestrian behavior both before and after training; and (c) increases in knowledge will be associated with increases in safe behavior among children trained individually at streetside locations, but not those trained by means of other strategies. We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating pedestrian safety training. We randomly assigned 240 children ages 7–8 to one of four training conditions: videos/software/internet, virtual reality (VR), individualized streetside instruction, or a no-contact control. Both virtual and field simulations of street crossing at 2-lane bi-directional mid-block locations assessed pedestrian behavior at baseline, post-training, and 6-month follow-up. Pedestrian knowledge was assessed orally on all three occasions. Children trained by videos/software/internet, and those trained individually, showed increased knowledge following training relative to children in the other groups (ps < 0.01). Correlations between pedestrian safety knowledge and pedestrian behavior were mostly non-significant. Correlations between change in knowledge and change in behavior from pre- to post-intervention also were non-significant, both for the full sample and within conditions. Children trained using videos/software/internet gained knowledge but did not change their behavior. Children trained individually gained in both knowledge and safer behavior. Children trained virtually gained in safer behavior but not knowledge. If VR is used

  19. Development of a portable bicycle/pedestrian monitoring system for safety enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, Colin; Daley, W. D. R.

    2015-03-01

    Pedestrians involved in roadway accidents account for nearly 12 percent of all traffic fatalities and 59,000 injuries each year. Most injuries occur when pedestrians attempt to cross roads, and there have been noted differences in accident rates midblock vs. at intersections. Collecting data on pedestrian behavior is a time consuming manual process that is prone to error. This leads to a lack of quality information to guide the proper design of lane markings and traffic signals to enhance pedestrian safety. Researchers at the Georgia Tech Research Institute are developing and testing an automated system that can be rapidly deployed for data collection to support the analysis of pedestrian behavior at intersections and midblock crossings with and without traffic signals. This system will analyze the collected video data to automatically identify and characterize the number of pedestrians and their behavior. It consists of a mobile trailer with four high definition pan-tilt cameras for data collection. The software is custom designed and uses state of the art commercial pedestrian detection algorithms. We will be presenting the system hardware and software design, challenges, and results from the preliminary system testing. Preliminary results indicate the ability to provide representative quantitative data on pedestrian motion data more efficiently than current techniques.

  20. A School-Hospital Partnership Increases Knowledge of Pedestrian and Motor Vehicle Safety.

    PubMed

    Bachman, Shelby L; Arbogast, Helen; Ruiz, Pearl; Farag, Mina; Demeter, Natalie E; Upperman, Jeffrey S; Burke, Rita V

    2015-12-01

    Pedestrian and motor vehicle-related injuries are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Trauma centers have specialized resources to conduct interventions that improve the safety of whole communities. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a school-hospital partnership in increasing knowledge of pedestrian and motor vehicle safety among students and parents in a large, urban community. Staff from a Level I pediatric trauma center conducted educational interventions in an urban public school district. Elementary school students participated in a pedestrian safety program, middle school students completed a community safety program, and high school students learned about the dangers of drunk and distracted driving. Students completed pre- and post-tests. Parents in the neighboring community received child passenger safety education at two child restraint (CR) inspection events. A total of 2203 students participated at a total of nine schools. Post-test scores were significantly higher than pre-test scores for students in all three age groups and within each grade level. At CR inspection events, 67 CRs were inspected, 49 (73 %) of which were replaced with new age- and weight- appropriate CRs. The most common instance of improper CR use was loose CR fit in vehicle seat (33 %). All 120 observed instances of misuse were corrected by a certified Child Passenger Safety Technician. Educational interventions effectively increased knowledge of pedestrian and motor vehicle safety among students and parents. We have demonstrated the utility of a school-hospital partnership for furthering knowledge of safety in an urban community.

  1. Using Theory to Guide Practice in Children's Pedestrian Safety Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Donna; Hall, Margaret; Howat, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Few pedestrian injury prevention programs appear to articulate the theory upon which their design and evaluation are based. This article describes how theory was used to plan, develop, implement, and evaluate the educational component of a comprehensive child pedestrian intervention. Organizational and planning theories were used to guide the…

  2. Classroom Activities in School Bus and Pedestrian Safety Education. Bulletin No. 93138.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Transportation, Madison.

    School bus and related pedestrian safety education is prevention-oriented so that students will learn how to avoid bus-related accidents. This manual provides lesson plans emphasizing the school bus stop, loading and unloading zones, emergency evacuation drills, and appropriate behavior on the school bus. The guide also recognizes demographic…

  3. 49 CFR 571.131 - Standard No. 131; School bus pedestrian safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vehicle safety standard 125, Warning Devices, (49 CFR 571.125), the retroreflective materials shall meet...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the Society of Automotive Engineers, 400... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard No. 131; School bus pedestrian...

  4. 49 CFR 571.131 - Standard No. 131; School bus pedestrian safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicle safety standard 125, Warning Devices, (49 CFR 571.125), the retroreflective materials shall meet...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the Society of Automotive Engineers, 400... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 131; School bus pedestrian...

  5. Predicting the effect of various ISA penetration grades on pedestrian safety by simulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoliang; Andréasson, Ingmar

    2005-11-01

    Intelligent speed adaption (ISA) is one type of vehicle-based intelligent transportation systems (ITS), which warns and regulates driving speed according to the speed limits of the roads. Early field studies showed that ISA could reduce general mean speed levels and their variances in different road environments. This paper studies the effects of various ISA penetration grades on pedestrian safety in a single lane road. A microscopic traffic simulation tool, TPMA, was further developed and used to implement different ISA penetration grades. Momentary spot speed and traffic flow data are first logged in the traffic simulation for later prediction of pedestrian safety. Then a hypothetical vehicle-pedestrian collision model is extended from early researches in order to estimate two safety indicators: probability of collision, and risk of death. Finally, Monte Carlo method is applied iteratively to compute those safety indices. The computational result shows that raising ISA penetration in traffic flow will reduce both the probability of mid-block collision between vehicle and pedestrian and the risk of death in the collision accidents. Furthermore, the decrease of the risk of death will be more prominent than that of the collision probability according to this method.

  6. An Analysis of the Safety Issues Involving Local School Children as Pedestrians. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducote, Kenneth J.

    The New Orleans Public Schools' Department of Planning has been concerned with school children as pedestrians for the past five years. The safety issues include the streets, the drivers, and the children. First, the streets contribute to the hazard because many major streets traverse residential areas; many streets serve as major commuter…

  7. Empirical investigation on safety constraints of merging pedestrian crowd through macroscopic and microscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Ye, Zhirui; Shiwakoti, Nirajan; Tang, Dounan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    A recent crowd stampede during a New Year's Eve celebration in Shanghai, China resulted in 36 fatalities and over 49 serious injuries. Many of such tragic crowd accidents around the world resulted from complex multi-direction crowd movement such as merging behavior. Although there are a few studies on merging crowd behavior, none of them have conducted a systematic analysis considering the impact of both merging angle and flow direction towards the safety of pedestrian crowd movement. In this study, a series of controlled laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the safety constraints of merging pedestrian crowd movements considering merging angle (60°, 90° and 180°) and flow direction under slow running and blocked vision condition. Then, macroscopic and microscopic properties of crowd dynamics are obtained and visualized through the analysis of pedestrian crowd trajectory data derived from video footage. It was found that merging angle had a significant influence on the fluctuations of pedestrian flows, which is important in a critical situation such as emergency evacuation. As the merging angle increased, mean velocity and mean flow at the measuring region in the exit corridors decreased, while mean density increased. A similar trend was observed for the number of weaving and overtaking conflicts, which resulted in the increase of mean headway. Further, flow direction had a significant impact on the outflow of the individuals while blocked vision had an influence on pedestrian crowd interactions and merging process. Finally, this paper discusses safety assessments on crowd merging behaviors along with some recommendations for future research. Findings from this study can assist in the development and validation of pedestrian crowd simulation models as well as organization and control of crowd events.

  8. Age-related differences in street-crossing safety before and after training of older pedestrians.

    PubMed

    Dommes, Aurélie; Cavallo, Viola; Vienne, Fabrice; Aillerie, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    International accident statistics indicate that elderly pedestrians make up an extremely vulnerable road-user group. Past research has shown that older adults make many unsafe street-crossing decisions and adopt insufficient safety margins, especially when vehicles are approaching at high speed. Apart from studies on road design and speed-limit countermeasures, there is surprisingly no road-safety research on behavior-based measures to improve older pedestrians' safety. In this line, the present study was aimed at (i) assessing the effectiveness of a training program for older pedestrians that combined behavioral and educational interventions, and (ii) examining whether and to what extent age-related differences in street-crossing safety could be reduced after training older adults. Twenty seniors were enrolled in a training program. Before, immediately after, and six months after training, street-crossing behavior was assessed using a simulated street-crossing task. Twenty younger participants performed the same simulated task to obtain a baseline measure. The results showed that the training produced significant short- and long-term benefits, due to a shifting of the decision criteria among the older participants towards more conservative judgments. When compared with the younger group, the older participants improved their behavior considerably so that significant differences in the mean safety-related indicators were no longer observed. However, the older participants' ability to take the oncoming car's speed into account did not improve. Even after training, and contrary to younger adults, older participants were found to make more and more unsafe decisions as the car's speed increased, putting them at a higher risk at high speeds. This finding may reflect age-related perceptual and cognitive difficulties that cannot be remedied by a behavioral or educational training method. The present findings underline that high speed is an important risk factor for

  9. Age-related differences in street-crossing safety before and after training of older pedestrians.

    PubMed

    Dommes, Aurélie; Cavallo, Viola; Vienne, Fabrice; Aillerie, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    International accident statistics indicate that elderly pedestrians make up an extremely vulnerable road-user group. Past research has shown that older adults make many unsafe street-crossing decisions and adopt insufficient safety margins, especially when vehicles are approaching at high speed. Apart from studies on road design and speed-limit countermeasures, there is surprisingly no road-safety research on behavior-based measures to improve older pedestrians' safety. In this line, the present study was aimed at (i) assessing the effectiveness of a training program for older pedestrians that combined behavioral and educational interventions, and (ii) examining whether and to what extent age-related differences in street-crossing safety could be reduced after training older adults. Twenty seniors were enrolled in a training program. Before, immediately after, and six months after training, street-crossing behavior was assessed using a simulated street-crossing task. Twenty younger participants performed the same simulated task to obtain a baseline measure. The results showed that the training produced significant short- and long-term benefits, due to a shifting of the decision criteria among the older participants towards more conservative judgments. When compared with the younger group, the older participants improved their behavior considerably so that significant differences in the mean safety-related indicators were no longer observed. However, the older participants' ability to take the oncoming car's speed into account did not improve. Even after training, and contrary to younger adults, older participants were found to make more and more unsafe decisions as the car's speed increased, putting them at a higher risk at high speeds. This finding may reflect age-related perceptual and cognitive difficulties that cannot be remedied by a behavioral or educational training method. The present findings underline that high speed is an important risk factor for

  10. Issues and challenges for pedestrian active safety systems based on real world accidents.

    PubMed

    Hamdane, Hédi; Serre, Thierry; Masson, Catherine; Anderson, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze real crashes involving pedestrians in order to evaluate the potential effectiveness of autonomous emergency braking systems (AEB) in pedestrian protection. A sample of 100 real accident cases were reconstructed providing a comprehensive set of data describing the interaction between the vehicle, the environment and the pedestrian all along the scenario of the accident. A generic AEB system based on a camera sensor for pedestrian detection was modeled in order to identify the functionality of its different attributes in the timeline of each crash scenario. These attributes were assessed to determine their impact on pedestrian safety. The influence of the detection and the activation of the AEB system were explored by varying the field of view (FOV) of the sensor and the level of deceleration. A FOV of 35° was estimated to be required to detect and react to the majority of crash scenarios. For the reaction of a system (from hazard detection to triggering the brakes), between 0.5 and 1s appears necessary.

  11. Issues and challenges for pedestrian active safety systems based on real world accidents.

    PubMed

    Hamdane, Hédi; Serre, Thierry; Masson, Catherine; Anderson, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze real crashes involving pedestrians in order to evaluate the potential effectiveness of autonomous emergency braking systems (AEB) in pedestrian protection. A sample of 100 real accident cases were reconstructed providing a comprehensive set of data describing the interaction between the vehicle, the environment and the pedestrian all along the scenario of the accident. A generic AEB system based on a camera sensor for pedestrian detection was modeled in order to identify the functionality of its different attributes in the timeline of each crash scenario. These attributes were assessed to determine their impact on pedestrian safety. The influence of the detection and the activation of the AEB system were explored by varying the field of view (FOV) of the sensor and the level of deceleration. A FOV of 35° was estimated to be required to detect and react to the majority of crash scenarios. For the reaction of a system (from hazard detection to triggering the brakes), between 0.5 and 1s appears necessary. PMID:26047007

  12. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  13. Distraction and Pedestrian Safety: How Talking on the Phone, Texting, and Listening to Music Impact Crossing the Street

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W.; Davis, Tiffany; O’Neal, Elizabeth E.; de Jong, Desiree

    2011-01-01

    As use of handheld multimedia devices has exploded globally, safety experts have begun to consider the impact of distraction while talking, text-messaging, or listening to music on traffic safety. This study was designed to test how talking on the phone, texting, and listening to music may influence pedestrian safety. 138 college students crossed an interactive, semi-immersive virtual pedestrian street. They were randomly assigned to one of four groups: crossing while talking on the phone, crossing while texting, crossing while listening to a personal music device, or crossing while undistracted. Participants distracted by music or texting were more likely to be hit by a vehicle in the virtual pedestrian environment than were undistracted participants. Participants in all three distracted groups were more likely to look away from the street environment (and look toward other places, such as their telephone or music device) than were undistracted participants. Findings were maintained after controlling for demographics, walking frequency, and media use frequency. Distraction from multimedia devices has a small but meaningful impact on college students’ pedestrian safety. Future research should consider the cognitive demands of pedestrian safety, and how those processes may be impacted by distraction. Policymakers might consider ways to protect distracted pedestrians from harm and to reduce the number of individuals crossing streets while distracted. PMID:22269509

  14. Red light violations by adult pedestrians and other safety-related behaviors at signalized crosswalks.

    PubMed

    Dommes, A; Granié, M-A; Cloutier, M-S; Coquelet, C; Huguenin-Richard, F

    2015-07-01

    To study human factors linked to red light violations, and more generally to safety-related behaviors at signalized crosswalks, the present study combines the collection of observational data with questionnaires answered by 422 French adult pedestrians. Thirteen behavioral indicators were extracted (12 before and while crossing, and red light violation), and the roles of several demographical, contextual and mobility-associated variables were examined. The results of the stepwise logistic regression analyses carried out on each of the 12 behavioral indicators observed before and while crossing revealed that gender had no major impact, but age did, with more cautious behaviors as pedestrians were older. The three contextual variables (group size, parked vehicles, and traffic density), as four mobility-associated variables (driving and walking experiences, self-reported crossing difficulties and falls in the street) were also found to be important factors in safety-related crossing behaviors. A wider logistic regression analysis, made specifically on red light violations with all behavioral indicators observed before and while crossings and the several demographical, contextual and mobility-associated variables put together, showed that red light violations were mostly affected by current situational factors (group size, parked vehicles) and particularly associated with some behavioral patterns (looking toward the traffic, the ground, the light, running and crossing diagonally). The overall results encourage the development of safer pedestrian infrastructures and engineering countermeasures.

  15. Integrated assessment of pedestrian head impact protection in testing secondary safety and autonomous emergency braking.

    PubMed

    Searson, D J; Anderson, R W G; Hutchinson, T P

    2014-02-01

    Pedestrian impact testing is used to provide information to the public about the relative level of protection provided by different vehicles to a struck pedestrian. Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) is a relatively new technology that aims to reduce the impact speed of such crashes. It is expected that vehicles with AEB will pose less harm to pedestrians, and that the benefit will come about through reductions in the number of collisions and a change in the severity of impacts that will still occur. In this paper, an integration of the assessment of AEB performance and impact performance is proposed based on average injury risk. Average injury risk is calculated using the result of an impact test and a previously published distribution of real world crash speeds. A second published speed distribution is used that accounts for the effects of AEB, and reduced average risks are implied. This principle allows the effects of AEB systems and secondary safety performance to be integrated into a single measure of safety. The results are used to examine the effect of AEB on Euro NCAP and ANCAP assessments using previously published results on the likely effect of AEB. The results show that, given certain assumptions about AEB performance, the addition of AEB is approximately the equivalent of increasing Euro NCAP test performance by one band, which corresponds to an increase in the score of 25% of the maximum. PMID:24246294

  16. Red light violations by adult pedestrians and other safety-related behaviors at signalized crosswalks.

    PubMed

    Dommes, A; Granié, M-A; Cloutier, M-S; Coquelet, C; Huguenin-Richard, F

    2015-07-01

    To study human factors linked to red light violations, and more generally to safety-related behaviors at signalized crosswalks, the present study combines the collection of observational data with questionnaires answered by 422 French adult pedestrians. Thirteen behavioral indicators were extracted (12 before and while crossing, and red light violation), and the roles of several demographical, contextual and mobility-associated variables were examined. The results of the stepwise logistic regression analyses carried out on each of the 12 behavioral indicators observed before and while crossing revealed that gender had no major impact, but age did, with more cautious behaviors as pedestrians were older. The three contextual variables (group size, parked vehicles, and traffic density), as four mobility-associated variables (driving and walking experiences, self-reported crossing difficulties and falls in the street) were also found to be important factors in safety-related crossing behaviors. A wider logistic regression analysis, made specifically on red light violations with all behavioral indicators observed before and while crossings and the several demographical, contextual and mobility-associated variables put together, showed that red light violations were mostly affected by current situational factors (group size, parked vehicles) and particularly associated with some behavioral patterns (looking toward the traffic, the ground, the light, running and crossing diagonally). The overall results encourage the development of safer pedestrian infrastructures and engineering countermeasures. PMID:25884542

  17. Integrated assessment of pedestrian head impact protection in testing secondary safety and autonomous emergency braking.

    PubMed

    Searson, D J; Anderson, R W G; Hutchinson, T P

    2014-02-01

    Pedestrian impact testing is used to provide information to the public about the relative level of protection provided by different vehicles to a struck pedestrian. Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) is a relatively new technology that aims to reduce the impact speed of such crashes. It is expected that vehicles with AEB will pose less harm to pedestrians, and that the benefit will come about through reductions in the number of collisions and a change in the severity of impacts that will still occur. In this paper, an integration of the assessment of AEB performance and impact performance is proposed based on average injury risk. Average injury risk is calculated using the result of an impact test and a previously published distribution of real world crash speeds. A second published speed distribution is used that accounts for the effects of AEB, and reduced average risks are implied. This principle allows the effects of AEB systems and secondary safety performance to be integrated into a single measure of safety. The results are used to examine the effect of AEB on Euro NCAP and ANCAP assessments using previously published results on the likely effect of AEB. The results show that, given certain assumptions about AEB performance, the addition of AEB is approximately the equivalent of increasing Euro NCAP test performance by one band, which corresponds to an increase in the score of 25% of the maximum.

  18. Child pedestrian safety: parental supervision, modeling behaviors, and beliefs about child pedestrian competence.

    PubMed

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Barton, Benjamin K

    2009-09-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a significant health risk to children, particularly those 5-9 years of age. Surprisingly, few studies have explored parent-related factors that may moderate this risk. The present study used naturalistic observations of parent-child pairs crossing at uncontrolled intersections and a short interview to examine parental supervision of children during crossings, modeling of safe-crossing behaviors, beliefs about how children come to cross streets safely, and whether child attributes (age, sex) relate to parental practices and beliefs. Results revealed that parents more closely supervised younger than older children, they modeled safer crossing practices for sons more than daughters, particularly younger sons, and although over half the sample believed children need to be explicitly taught how to cross safely, few actually provided any instruction when crossing with their children. Providing parents both with guidelines for how to accurately appraise their child's readiness for crossing independently and with information about best practices for teaching children how to cross safely may facilitate parents' implementing these practices, particularly if this is coupled with public advocacy highlighting the important role they could play to reduce the risk of child pedestrian injury.

  19. Haptic Feedback to Assist Bus Drivers for Pedestrian Safety at Low Speed.

    PubMed

    Girbes, Vicent; Armesto, Leopoldo; Dols, Juan; Tornero, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Buses and coaches are massive Passenger Transportation Systems (PTS), because they represent more than half of land PTS in the European Union. Despite that, bus accident figures are lower than other means of transport, but its size and weight increase the severity of accidents in which buses are involved, even at low speed. In urban scenarios, turnings and maneuvers around bus stops are the main causes of accidents, mostly due to low visibility, blind spots, or driver's distractions. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in developing driving assistance systems to avoid these situations, among others. However, even though there are some solutions on the market, they are not meant to work in urban areas at low speed and with the sole purpose of preventing collisions with pedestrians. In this sense, the paper proposes an active safety system for buses in maneuvers at low speed. The safety system consists of haptic feedback devices together with collision avoidance and risk evaluation systems based on detected people nearby the bus. The performance of the active safety system has been validated in a simulated urban scenario. Our results show that driver's reaction time is reduced and time to collision increased due to the proposed low-speed active safety system. In particular, it is shown that there is a reduction in the number of high risk cases and collisions, which implies a considerable improvement in safety terms. In addition to this, a brief discussion about current regulations for innovative safety systems on real vehicles is carried out.

  20. Safety impacts of platform tram stops on pedestrians in mixed traffic operation: A comparison group before-after crash study.

    PubMed

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Tram stops in mixed traffic environments present a variety of safety, accessibility and transport efficiency challenges. In Melbourne, Australia the hundred year-old electric tram system is progressively being modernized to improve passenger accessibility. Platform stops, incorporating raised platforms for level entry into low floor trams, are being retro-fitted system-wide to replace older design stops. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety impacts of platform stops over older design stops (i.e. Melbourne safety zone tram stops) on pedestrians in the context of mixed traffic tram operation in Melbourne, using an advanced before-after crash analysis approach, the comparison group (CG) method. The CG method evaluates safety impacts by taking into account the general trends in safety and the unobserved factors at treatment and comparison sites that can alter the outcomes of a simple before-after analysis. The results showed that pedestrian-involved all injury crashes reduced by 43% after platform stop installation. This paper also explores a concern that the conventional CG method might underestimate safety impacts as a result of large differences in passenger stop use between treatment and comparison sites, suggesting differences in crash risk exposure. To adjust for this, a modified analysis explored crash rates (crash counts per 10,000 stop passengers) for each site. The adjusted results suggested greater reductions in pedestrian-involved crashes after platform stop installation: an 81% reduction in pedestrian-involved all injury crashes and 86% reduction in pedestrian-involved FSI crashes, both are significant at the 95% level. Overall, the results suggest that platform stops have considerable safety benefits for pedestrians. Implications for policy and areas for future research are explored. PMID:26476596

  1. Optimism about safety and group-serving interpretations of safety among pedestrians and cyclists in relation to road use in general and under low light conditions.

    PubMed

    King, M J; Wood, J M; Lacherez, P F; Marszalek, R P

    2012-01-01

    Drivers are known to be optimistic about their risk of crash involvement, believing that they are less likely to be involved in a crash than other drivers. However, little comparative research has been conducted among other road users. In addition, optimism about crash risk is conceptualised as applying only to an individual's assessment of his or her personal risk of crash involvement. The possibility that the self-serving nature of optimism about safety might be generalised to the group-level as a cyclist or a pedestrian, i.e., becoming group-serving rather than self-serving, has been overlooked in relation to road safety. This study analysed a subset of data collected as part of a larger research project on the visibility of pedestrians, cyclists and road workers, focusing on a set of questionnaire items administered to 406 pedestrians, 838 cyclists and 622 drivers. The items related to safety in various scenarios involving drivers, pedestrians and cyclists, allowing predictions to be derived about group differences in agreement with items based on the assumption that the results would exhibit group-serving bias. Analysis of the responses indicated that specific hypotheses about group-serving interpretations of safety and responsibility were supported in 22 of the 26 comparisons. When the nine comparisons relevant to low lighting conditions were considered separately, seven were found to be supported. The findings of the research have implications for public education and for the likely acceptance of messages which are inconsistent with current assumptions and expectations of pedestrians and cyclists. They also suggest that research into group-serving interpretations of safety, even for temporary roles rather than enduring groups, could be fruitful. Further, there is an implication that gains in safety can be made by better educating road users about the limitations of their visibility and the ramifications of this for their own road safety, particularly in low

  2. The Advocacy for Pedestrian Safety Study: Cluster Randomised Trial Evaluating a Political Advocacy Approach to Reduce Pedestrian Injuries in Deprived Communities

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ronan A.; Kendrick, Denise; Towner, Elizabeth M. L.; Coupland, Carol; Hayes, Mike; Christie, Nicola; Sleney, Judith; Jones, Sarah; Kimberlee, Richard; Rodgers, Sarah E.; Turner, Samantha; Brussoni, Mariana; Vinogradova, Yana; Sarvotham, Tinnu; Macey, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether advocacy targeted at local politicians leads to action to reduce the risk of pedestrian injury in deprived areas. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting 239 electoral wards in 57 local authorities in England and Wales. Participants 617 elected local politicians. Interventions Intervention group politicians were provided with tailored information packs, including maps of casualty sites, numbers injured and a synopsis of effective interventions. Main outcome measures 25–30 months post intervention, primary outcomes included: electoral ward level: percentage of road traffic calmed; proportion with new interventions; school level: percentage with 20 mph zones, Safe Routes to School, pedestrian training or road safety education; politician level: percentage lobbying for safety measures. Secondary outcomes included politicians’ interest and involvement in injury prevention, and facilitators and barriers to implementation. Results Primary outcomes did not significantly differ: % difference in traffic calming (0.07, 95%CI: −0.07 to 0.20); proportion of schools with 20 mph zones (RR 1.47, 95%CI: 0.93 to 2.32), Safe Routes to School (RR 1.34, 95%CI: 0.83 to 2.17), pedestrian training (RR 1.23, 95%CI: 0.95 to 1.61) or other safety education (RR 1.16, 95%CI: 0.97 to 1.39). Intervention group politicians reported greater interest in child injury prevention (RR 1.09, 95%CI 1.03 to 1.16), belief in potential to help prevent injuries (RR 1.36, 95%CI 1.16 to 1.61), particularly pedestrian safety (RR 1.55, 95%CI 1.19 to 2.03). 63% of intervention politicians reported supporting new pedestrian safety schemes. The majority found the advocacy information surprising, interesting, effectively presented, and could identify suitable local interventions. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of an innovative approach to translational public health by targeting local politicians in a randomised controlled trial. The intervention

  3. Older People's Perceptions of Pedestrian Friendliness and Traffic Safety: An Experiment Using Computer-Simulated Walking Environments.

    PubMed

    Kahlert, Daniela; Schlicht, Wolfgang

    2015-08-01

    Traffic safety and pedestrian friendliness are considered to be important conditions for older people's motivation to walk through their environment. This study uses an experimental study design with computer-simulated living environments to investigate the effect of micro-scale environmental factors (parking spaces and green verges with trees) on older people's perceptions of both motivational antecedents (dependent variables). Seventy-four consecutively recruited older people were randomly assigned watching one of two scenarios (independent variable) on a computer screen. The scenarios simulated a stroll on a sidewalk, as it is 'typical' for a German city. In version 'A,' the subjects take a fictive walk on a sidewalk where a number of cars are parked partially on it. In version 'B', cars are in parking spaces separated from the sidewalk by grass verges and trees. Subjects assessed their impressions of both dependent variables. A multivariate analysis of covariance showed that subjects' ratings on perceived traffic safety and pedestrian friendliness were higher for Version 'B' compared to version 'A'. Cohen's d indicates medium (d = 0.73) and large (d = 1.23) effect sizes for traffic safety and pedestrian friendliness, respectively. The study suggests that elements of the built environment might affect motivational antecedents of older people's walking behavior. PMID:26308026

  4. Older People's Perceptions of Pedestrian Friendliness and Traffic Safety: An Experiment Using Computer-Simulated Walking Environments.

    PubMed

    Kahlert, Daniela; Schlicht, Wolfgang

    2015-08-21

    Traffic safety and pedestrian friendliness are considered to be important conditions for older people's motivation to walk through their environment. This study uses an experimental study design with computer-simulated living environments to investigate the effect of micro-scale environmental factors (parking spaces and green verges with trees) on older people's perceptions of both motivational antecedents (dependent variables). Seventy-four consecutively recruited older people were randomly assigned watching one of two scenarios (independent variable) on a computer screen. The scenarios simulated a stroll on a sidewalk, as it is 'typical' for a German city. In version 'A,' the subjects take a fictive walk on a sidewalk where a number of cars are parked partially on it. In version 'B', cars are in parking spaces separated from the sidewalk by grass verges and trees. Subjects assessed their impressions of both dependent variables. A multivariate analysis of covariance showed that subjects' ratings on perceived traffic safety and pedestrian friendliness were higher for Version 'B' compared to version 'A'. Cohen's d indicates medium (d = 0.73) and large (d = 1.23) effect sizes for traffic safety and pedestrian friendliness, respectively. The study suggests that elements of the built environment might affect motivational antecedents of older people's walking behavior.

  5. Safety effects of exclusive and concurrent signal phasing for pedestrian crossing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaohua; Mamun, Sha A; Ivan, John N; Ravishanker, Nalini; Haque, Khademul

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the estimation of pedestrian crash count and vehicle interaction severity prediction models for a sample of signalized intersections in Connecticut with either concurrent or exclusive pedestrian phasing. With concurrent phasing, pedestrians cross at the same time as motor vehicle traffic in the same direction receives a green phase, while with exclusive phasing, pedestrians cross during their own phase when all motor vehicle traffic on all approaches is stopped. Pedestrians crossing at each intersection were observed and classified according to the severity of interactions with motor vehicles. Observation intersections were selected to represent both types of signal phasing while controlling for other physical characteristics. In the nonlinear mixed models for interaction severity, pedestrians crossing on the walk signal at an exclusive signal experienced lower interaction severity compared to those crossing on the green light with concurrent phasing; however, pedestrians crossing on a green light where an exclusive phase was available experienced higher interaction severity. Intersections with concurrent phasing have fewer total pedestrian crashes than those with exclusive phasing but more crashes at higher severity levels. It is recommended that exclusive pedestrian phasing only be used at locations where pedestrians are more likely to comply.

  6. Impact of a Pilot Walking School Bus Intervention on Children’s Pedestrian Safety Behaviors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Nicklas, Theresa A; Uscanga, Doris K; Hanfling, Marcus J

    2011-01-01

    Walking school buses (WSB) increased children’s physical activity, but impact on pedestrian safety behaviors (PSB) is unknown. We tested the feasibility of a protocol evaluating changes to PSB during a WSB program. Outcomes were school-level street crossing PSB prior to (Time 1) and during weeks 4-5 (Time 2) of the WSB. The protocol collected 1252 observations at Time 1 and 2548 at Time 2. Mixed model analyses yielded: intervention schoolchildren had 5-fold higher odds (p<0.01) of crossing at the corner/crosswalk but 5-fold lower odds (p<0.01) of stopping at the curb. The protocol appears feasible for documenting changes to school-level PSB. PMID:22243904

  7. 49 CFR 571.131 - Standard No. 131; School bus pedestrian safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vehicle safety standard 125, Warning Devices, (49 CFR 571.125), the retroreflective materials shall meet..., Moisture, Dust, Corrosion, Photometry, and Warpage Tests. The procedure shall be done in accordance with... the criteria for vibration, moisture, dust, corrosion, photometry, and warpage in SAE...

  8. 49 CFR 571.131 - Standard No. 131; School bus pedestrian safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vehicle safety standard 125, Warning Devices, (49 CFR 571.125), the retroreflective materials shall meet..., Moisture, Dust, Corrosion, Photometry, and Warpage Tests. The procedure shall be done in accordance with... the criteria for vibration, moisture, dust, corrosion, photometry, and warpage in SAE...

  9. 49 CFR 571.131 - Standard No. 131; School bus pedestrian safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vehicle safety standard 125, Warning Devices, (49 CFR 571.125), the retroreflective materials shall meet..., Moisture, Dust, Corrosion, Photometry, and Warpage Tests. The procedure shall be done in accordance with... the criteria for vibration, moisture, dust, corrosion, photometry, and warpage in SAE...

  10. Effects of transverse rumble strips on safety of pedestrian crosswalks on rural roads in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pan; Huang, Jia; Wang, Wei; Xu, Chengcheng

    2011-11-01

    The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of transverse rumble strips in reducing crashes and vehicle speeds at pedestrian crosswalks on rural roads in China. Using crash data reported at 366 sites, the research team conducted an observational before-after study using a comparison group and the Empirical Bayesian (EB) method to evaluate the effectiveness of transverse rumble strips in reducing crashes at pedestrian crosswalks. It was found that transverse rumble strips may reduce expected crash frequency at pedestrian crosswalks by 25%. The research team collected more than 15,000 speed observations at 12 sites. The speed data analysis results show that transverse rumble strips significantly reduce vehicle speeds in vicinity of pedestrian crosswalks on rural roads with posted speed limits of 60 km/h and 80 km/h. On average, the mean speed at pedestrian crosswalks declined 9.2 km/h on roads with a speed limit of 60 km/h; and 11.9 km/h on roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h. The 85th percentile speed declined 9.1 km/h on roads with a speed limit of 60 km/h; and 12.0 km/h on roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h. However, the speed reduction impacts were not found to be statistically significant for the pedestrian crosswalk on the road with a speed limit of 40 km/h. The study also looked extensively at the influence area of transverse rumble strips on rural roads. Speed profiles developed in this study show that the influence area of transverse rumble strips is generally less than 0.3 km.

  11. Blind Pedestrians and the Changing Technology and Geometry of Signalized Intersections: Safety, Orientation, and Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Janet M.; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Bond, Tamara

    2005-01-01

    This study documented that blind pedestrians have considerable difficulty locating crosswalks, aligning to cross, determining the onset of the walk interval, maintaining a straight crossing path, and completing crossings before the onset of perpendicular traffic at complex signalized intersections. Revised techniques and strategies are suggested…

  12. Oxygen safety

    MedlinePlus

    COPD - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive airways disease - oxygen safety; Emphysema - oxygen safety; Heart failure - oxygen-safety; Palliative care - oxygen safety; ...

  13. Safety assessment characteristics of pedestrian legform impactors in vehicle-front impact tests.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of safety assessment results of front-area vehicle impact tests carried out using the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) legform impactor and a flexible legform impactor (FLEX legform impactor). Different types of vehicles (sedan, sport utility vehicle, high-roof K-car, and light cargo van) were examined. The impact locations in the study were the center of the bumper and an extremely stiff structure of the bumper (i.e., in front of the side member) of each tested vehicle. The measured injury criteria were normalized by injury assessment reference values of each legform impactor. The test results for center and side-member impacts indicated that there were no significant differences in ligament injury assessments derived from the normalized knee ligament injury measures between the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor. Evaluations made using the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor are thus similar in the vehicle safety investigation for knee ligament injury. Vehicle-center impact test results revealed that the tibia fracture assessments derived from the normalized tibia fracture measures did not significantly differ between the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor. However, for an impact against an extremely stiff structure, there was a difference in the tibia fracture assessment between the FLEX legform impactor and the TRL legform impactor owing to their different sensor types.

  14. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  15. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ...

  16. Ethnic Minority Children’s Active Commuting to School and Association with Physical Activity and Pedestrian Safety Behaviors*

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Jason A.; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Uscanga, Doris K.; Nguyen, Nga; Hanfling, Marcus J.

    2011-01-01

    -to-vigorous physical activity, active commuting to school was positively associated (std. beta = 0.31, p <0.001). Among the Latino subsample, child acculturation was negatively associated with active commuting to school (std. beta = −0.23, p=0.01). With regard to school-level pedestrian safety observations, 37% of students stopped at the curb and 2.6% looked left-right-left before crossing the street. Conclusion Although still below national goals, the rate of active commuting was relatively high, while the rate of some pedestrian safety behaviors was low among this low-income, ethnic minority population. Programs and policies to encourage safe active commuting to school are warranted and should consider the influence of parents, acculturation, and ethnicity. PMID:21874160

  17. Community variations in population exposure to near-field tsunami hazards as a function of pedestrian travel time to safety

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan J.; Schmidtlein, Mathew C.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to characterize population exposure to near-field tsunami threats typically focus on quantifying the number and type of people in tsunami-hazard zones. To develop and prioritize effective risk-reduction strategies, emergency managers also need information on the potential for successful evacuations and how this evacuation potential varies among communities. To improve efforts to properly characterize and differentiate near-field tsunami threats among multiple communities, we assess community variations in population exposure to tsunamis as a function of pedestrian travel time to safety. We focus our efforts on the multiple coastal communities in Grays Harbor and Pacific Counties (State of Washington, USA), where a substantial resident and visitor population is threatened by near-field tsunamis related to a potential Cascadia subduction zone earthquake. Anisotropic, path-distance modeling is conducted to estimate travel times to safety and results are merged with various population data, including residents, employees, public venues, and dependent-care facilities. Results suggest that there is substantial variability among communities in the number of people that may have insufficient time to evacuate. Successful evacuations may be possible in some communities assuming slow-walking speeds, are plausible in others if travel speeds are increased, and are unlikely in another set of communities given the large distances and short time horizon. Emergency managers can use these results to prioritize the location and determine the most appropriate type of tsunami risk-reduction strategies, such as education and training in areas where evacuations are plausible and vertical-evacuation structures in areas where they are not.

  18. Safety Grooving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Safety grooving, the cutting of grooves in concrete to increase traction and prevent injury, was first developed to reduce aircraft accidents on wet runways. Represented by the International Grooving and Grinding Association (IG&GA), the industry expanded into highway and pedestrian applications. The technique originated at Langley, which assisted in testing the grooving at airports and on highways. Skidding was reduced, stopping distance decreased, and a vehicle's cornering ability on curves was increased. The process has been extended to animal holding pens, steps, parking lots and other potentially slippery surfaces.

  19. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  20. Interdisciplinary Traffic Safety Instructional System: Series III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    Approximately 115 lessons for increasing third grade students' safety knowledge and skills as pedestrians, as auto and school bus passengers, and as operators of bicycles are provided in this traffic safety curriculum. One third of the curriculum focuses on perceptual safety activities for young pedestrians, including lessons on visual and…

  1. The Effects of Advance Stop Lines and Sign Prompts on Pedestrian Safety in a Crosswalk on a Multilane Highway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houten, Ron

    1988-01-01

    Introduction of prompts in the form of specific signs and stop line bars at a crosswalk was designed to influence motorists to stop further back when yielding right-of-way to pedestrians, and resulted in an almost 80 percent reduction in motor vehicle-pedestrian conflicts at the selected location. (JW)

  2. Effects of parallelogram-shaped pavement markings on vehicle speed and safety of pedestrian crosswalks on urban roads in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanyong; Liu, Pan; Liang, Qiyu; Wang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of parallelogram-shaped pavement markings on vehicle speed and crashes in the vicinity of urban pedestrian crosswalks. The research team measured speed data at twelve sites, and crash data at eleven sites. Observational cross-sectional studies were conducted to identify if the effects of parallelogram-shaped pavement markings on vehicle speeds and speed violations were statistically significant. The results showed that parallelogram-shaped pavement markings significantly reduced vehicle speeds and speed violations in the vicinity of pedestrian crosswalks. More specifically, the speed reduction effects varied from 1.89km/h to 4.41km/h with an average of 3.79km/h. The reduction in the 85th percentile speed varied from 0.81km/h to 5.34km/h with an average of 4.19km/h. Odds ratios (OR) showed that the parallelogram-shaped pavement markings had effects of a 7.1% reduction in the mean speed and a 6.9% reduction in the 85th percentile speed at the pedestrian crosswalks. The reduction of proportion of drivers exceeding the speed limit varied from 8.64% to 14.15% with an average of 11.03%. The results of the crash data analysis suggested that the use of parallelogram-shaped pavement markings reduced both the frequency and severity of crashes at pedestrian crosswalks. The parallelogram-shaped pavement markings had a significant effect on reducing the vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Two crash prediction models were developed for vehicle-pedestrian crashes and rear-end crashes. According to the crash models, the presence of parallelogram-shaped pavement markings reduced vehicle-pedestrian crashes at pedestrian crosswalks by 24.87% with a 95% confidence interval of [10.06-30.78%]. However, the model results also showed that the presence of parallelogram-shaped pavement markings increased rear-end crashes at pedestrian crosswalks by 5.4% with a 95% confidence interval of [0-11.2%]. PMID:26164705

  3. Effects of parallelogram-shaped pavement markings on vehicle speed and safety of pedestrian crosswalks on urban roads in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanyong; Liu, Pan; Liang, Qiyu; Wang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of parallelogram-shaped pavement markings on vehicle speed and crashes in the vicinity of urban pedestrian crosswalks. The research team measured speed data at twelve sites, and crash data at eleven sites. Observational cross-sectional studies were conducted to identify if the effects of parallelogram-shaped pavement markings on vehicle speeds and speed violations were statistically significant. The results showed that parallelogram-shaped pavement markings significantly reduced vehicle speeds and speed violations in the vicinity of pedestrian crosswalks. More specifically, the speed reduction effects varied from 1.89km/h to 4.41km/h with an average of 3.79km/h. The reduction in the 85th percentile speed varied from 0.81km/h to 5.34km/h with an average of 4.19km/h. Odds ratios (OR) showed that the parallelogram-shaped pavement markings had effects of a 7.1% reduction in the mean speed and a 6.9% reduction in the 85th percentile speed at the pedestrian crosswalks. The reduction of proportion of drivers exceeding the speed limit varied from 8.64% to 14.15% with an average of 11.03%. The results of the crash data analysis suggested that the use of parallelogram-shaped pavement markings reduced both the frequency and severity of crashes at pedestrian crosswalks. The parallelogram-shaped pavement markings had a significant effect on reducing the vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Two crash prediction models were developed for vehicle-pedestrian crashes and rear-end crashes. According to the crash models, the presence of parallelogram-shaped pavement markings reduced vehicle-pedestrian crashes at pedestrian crosswalks by 24.87% with a 95% confidence interval of [10.06-30.78%]. However, the model results also showed that the presence of parallelogram-shaped pavement markings increased rear-end crashes at pedestrian crosswalks by 5.4% with a 95% confidence interval of [0-11.2%].

  4. Motor Vehicle Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... vehicle is safe and in working order Use car seats for children Wear your seat belt Don't speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the road with bicycles and motorcycles, and watch for pedestrians.

  5. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  6. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  7. Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  8. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bicycle Safety Pedestrian Safety Home and Recreational Safety Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Youth Violence Prevention Burn Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... help them live to their full potential. Knowing how to prevent leading causes of child injury, like burns, is a step toward this ...

  9. 45 CFR 1310.21 - Safety education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety education. 1310.21 Section 1310.21 Public... PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Special Requirements § 1310.21 Safety education. (a) Each agency must... children. The required transportation and pedestrian safety education of children and parents, except...

  10. 45 CFR 1310.21 - Safety education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety education. 1310.21 Section 1310.21 Public... PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Special Requirements § 1310.21 Safety education. (a) Each agency must... children. The required transportation and pedestrian safety education of children and parents, except...

  11. 45 CFR 1310.21 - Safety education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety education. 1310.21 Section 1310.21 Public... PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Special Requirements § 1310.21 Safety education. (a) Each agency must... children. The required transportation and pedestrian safety education of children and parents, except...

  12. 45 CFR 1310.21 - Safety education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety education. 1310.21 Section 1310.21 Public... PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Special Requirements § 1310.21 Safety education. (a) Each agency must... children. The required transportation and pedestrian safety education of children and parents, except...

  13. National Safety Council

    MedlinePlus

    ... Introduction Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ... Safety Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ...

  14. Skateboard Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Giustina, Daniel

    1979-01-01

    The growing number of skateboard injuries clearly indicates a need for both recreational facilities designed exclusively for skateboarders, and for accident- prevention-oriented safety education programs. (LH)

  15. Medication safety.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W

    2008-03-01

    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  16. Lab Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sandra S.

    1991-01-01

    In response to the Texas Hazardous Communication Act (THCA) of 1986 which raised many new health and liability issues regarding students in science laboratories, a laboratory safety survey was generated for use in evaluating laboratory safety. This article contains the easy-to-use survey. (ZWH)

  17. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  18. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  19. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  20. Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Miriam C., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a cooperative effort in Iowa to eliminate dangerous or unwanted chemicals from school science storerooms. Also reviews the Council of State Science Supervisor's safety program and discusses how to prevent cuts and punctures from jagged glass tubing. (JN)

  1. Interdisciplinary Traffic Safety Instructional System: Series IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    Directions and materials for approximately 110 fourth grade level trafic safety learning activities, intended to develop the perceptual skills of young pedestrians and to train fourth grade students in safe conduct on the school bus, on bicycles, in an auto and in the school environment, are provided. Safety concepts and skills are taught through…

  2. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  3. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  4. Online Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Describes provisions of Children's Internet Protection Act, which school districts are required to implement on or before October 31, 2001, involving the development and public dissemination of federally mandated Internet-safety policy to prevent minors from accessing inappropriate and harmful material. Provides suggestions to protect children…

  5. Playground Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, James L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the issues of risk, liability, and fun when landscaping playgrounds with safety in mind. The importance of playground surfaces and several preventive measures landscapers can use to reduce the risk of injury are discussed. Concluding comments address playground design features and liability. (GR)

  6. School Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The articles in this issue dealing with school safety discusses what rural and small urban settings are doing to prevent violence and to educate young people about prosocial alternatives to violence. The research is quite clear that female, minority, and gay students are the targets of a disproportionate amount of harassment and violence, both in…

  7. Safety First!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longfield, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…

  8. Art Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and Kilns Safely in the Classroom"…

  9. Safety harness

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment, which safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

  10. Safety valve

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Ulf C.

    1984-01-01

    The safety valve contains a resilient gland to be held between a valve seat and a valve member and is secured to the valve member by a sleeve surrounding the end of the valve member adjacent to the valve seat. The sleeve is movable relative to the valve member through a limited axial distance and a gap exists between said valve member and said sleeve.

  11. Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthelot, Ronald J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This series of five articles highlights Pensacola Junior College's occupational safety course, involving simulated emergencies, Florida's standards for teacher liability, electrical safety in the classroom and laboratory, color coding for machine safety, and Florida industrial arts safety instructional materials. (SK)

  12. A Product Safety Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mary Anne Symons

    1975-01-01

    The article offers an overview of the product safety issue and offers ideas for helping students develop product safety awareness. The role of the Consumer Product Safety Commission and safety legislation are discussed. (MW)

  13. Effects of Pedestrian Prompts on Motorist Yielding at Crosswalks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley-Koch, Brian J.; Van Houten, Ron; Lim, Eunyoung

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrian safety is a serious concern at busy intersections and pedestrian campuses across the nation. Although crosswalks and signs inform pedestrians where to cross, there is no standard protocol for pedestrians to signal drivers that they wish to use the crosswalks, except to stand in or at the crosswalk. We examined the effects of two…

  14. Designing with Traffic Safety in Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John

    1998-01-01

    Provides an example of how one county public school system was able to minimize traffic accidents and increase safety around its schools. Illustrations are provided of safer bus loading zones, pedestrian walkways and sidewalks, staff parking, and acceptable methods for staging buses. A checklist for school driveway design concludes the article.…

  15. Fleet Safety

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Brian S.; Pratt, Stephanie G.; Ross, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Millions of U.S. workers are at risk for a work-related motor vehicle crash. Fatality data show that across all industries, motor vehicle crashes are consistently the leading cause of work-related fatalities. Of 43,025 work-related fatalities reported by BLS between 2003 and 2010, 10,202 were the result of single- or multiple-vehicle crashes of workers driving or riding in a vehicle on a public roadway, and 2,707 were pedestrian workers struck by a motor vehicle. During the same period, an additional 2,487 workers died in crashes that occurred off a public roadway or on industrial premises (BLS, 2013). PMID:26251557

  16. Safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    1995-01-01

    We are engaged in a research program in safety-critical computing that is based on two case studies. We use these case studies to provide application-specific details of the various research issues, and as targets for evaluation of research ideas. The first case study is the Magnetic Stereotaxis System (MSS), an investigational device for performing human neurosurgery being developed in a joint effort between the Department of Physics at the University of Virginia and the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Iowa. The system operates by manipulating a small permanent magnet (known as a 'seed') within the brain using an externally applied magnetic field. By varying the magnitude and gradient of the external magnetic field, the seed can be moved along a non-linear path and positioned at a site requiring therapy, e.g., a tumor. The magnetic field required for movement through brain tissue is extremely high, and is generated by a set of six superconducting magnets located in a housing surrounding the patient's head. The system uses two X-ray cameras positioned at right angles to detect in real time the locations of the seed and of X-ray opaque markers affixed to the patient's skull. the X-ray images are used to locate the objects of interest in a canonical frame of reference. the second case study is the University of Virginia Research Nuclear Reactor (UVAR). It is a 2 MW thermal, concrete-walled pool reactor. The system operates using 20 to 25 plate-type fuel assemblies placed on a rectangular grid plate. There are three scramable safety rods, and one non-scramable regulating rod that can be put in automatic mode. It was originally constructed in 1959 as a 1 MW system, and it was upgraded to 2 MW in 1973. Though only a research reactor rather than a power reactor, the issues raised are significant and can be related to the problems faced by full-scale reactor systems.

  17. Rebuilding a safety culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodney, George A.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

  18. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  19. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  20. Attentional bias toward safety predicts safety behaviors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Guangxi; Yuan, Xiao; Ding, Weidong; Shen, Zhongxiang

    2014-10-01

    Safety studies have primarily focused on how explicit processes and measures affect safety behavior and subsequent accidents and injuries. Recently, safety researchers have paid greater attention to the role of implicit processes. Our research focuses on the role of attentional bias toward safety (ABS) in workplace safety. ABS is a basic, early-stage cognitive process involving the automatic and selective allocation of attentional resources toward safety cues, which reflect the implicit motivational state of employees regarding safety goal. In this study, we used two reaction time-based paradigms to measure the ABS of employees in three studies: two modified Stroop tasks (Studies 1 and 2) and a visual dot-probe task (Study 3). Results revealed that employees with better safety behavior showed significant ABS (Study 2), and greater ABS than employees with poorer safety behavior (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, ABS was positively associated with the perceived safety climate and safety motivation of employees, both of which mediate the effect of ABS on safety behavior (Study 3). These results contributed to a deeper understanding of how early-stage automatic perceptual processing affects safety behavior. The practical implications of these results were also discussed. PMID:24922613

  1. Attentional bias toward safety predicts safety behaviors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Guangxi; Yuan, Xiao; Ding, Weidong; Shen, Zhongxiang

    2014-10-01

    Safety studies have primarily focused on how explicit processes and measures affect safety behavior and subsequent accidents and injuries. Recently, safety researchers have paid greater attention to the role of implicit processes. Our research focuses on the role of attentional bias toward safety (ABS) in workplace safety. ABS is a basic, early-stage cognitive process involving the automatic and selective allocation of attentional resources toward safety cues, which reflect the implicit motivational state of employees regarding safety goal. In this study, we used two reaction time-based paradigms to measure the ABS of employees in three studies: two modified Stroop tasks (Studies 1 and 2) and a visual dot-probe task (Study 3). Results revealed that employees with better safety behavior showed significant ABS (Study 2), and greater ABS than employees with poorer safety behavior (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, ABS was positively associated with the perceived safety climate and safety motivation of employees, both of which mediate the effect of ABS on safety behavior (Study 3). These results contributed to a deeper understanding of how early-stage automatic perceptual processing affects safety behavior. The practical implications of these results were also discussed.

  2. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Workplace Safety and Health Topics Industries & Occupations Hazards & Exposures Diseases & ... Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH ...

  3. Food safety.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  4. Bromine Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, B

    2001-04-09

    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  5. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  6. Medical Device Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Home Medical Devices Medical Device Safety Medical Device Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ...

  7. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Powerplant systems and procedures that ensure the day-to-day health and safety of people in and around the plant is referred to as operational safety. This safety is the result of careful planning, good engineering and design, strict licensing and regulation, and environmental monitoring. Procedures that assure operational safety at nuclear…

  8. TWRS safety program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, L.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    Management of Nuclear Safety, Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, and Fire Protection programs, functions, and field support resources for Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) has, until recently, been centralized in TWRS Safety, under the Emergency, Safety, and Quality organization. Industrial hygiene technician services were also provided to support operational needs related to safety basis compliance. Due to WHC decentralization of safety and reengineering efforts in West Tank Farms, staffing and safety responsibilities have been transferred to the facilities. Under the new structure, safety personnel for TWRS are assigned directly to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and a core Safety Group in TWRS Engineering. The Characterization Project Operations (CPO) safety organization will remain in tact as it currently exists. Personnel assigned to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and CPO will perform facility-specific or project-specific duties and provide field implementation of programs. Those assigned to the core group will focus on activities having a TWRS-wide or programmatic focus. Hanford-wide activities will be the responsibility of the Safety Center of Expertise. In order to ensure an effective and consistent safety program for TWRS under the new organization program functions, goals, organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and path forward must be clearly established. The purpose of the TWRS Safety Program Plan is to define the overall safety program, responsibilities, relationships, and communication linkages for safety personnel under the new structure. In addition, issues associated with reorganization transition are addressed, including training, project ownership, records management, and dissemination of equipment. For the purpose of this document ``TWRS Safety`` refers to all safety professionals and technicians (Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, Fire Protection, and Nuclear Safety) within the TWRS organization, regardless of their

  9. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system was designed to initiate control procedures to minimize damage to the engine or vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. The features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems are discussed, as well as the specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given, based on recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, the general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  10. Vocational Education Safety Instruction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropley, Russell, Ed.; Doherty, Susan Sloan, Ed.

    This manual describes four program areas in vocational education safety instruction: (1) introduction to a safety program; (2) resources to ensure laboratory safety; (3) safety program implementation; and (4) safety rules and safety tests. The safety rules and tests included in section four are for the most common tools and machines used in…

  11. Water safety and drowning

    MedlinePlus

    ... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR Never swim alone Never dive into water unless ...

  12. Safety in Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents 12 amendments to the second edition of Safety in Science Laboratories. Covers topics such as regular inspection of equipment, wearing safety glasses, dating stock chemicals, and safe use of chemicals. (MA)

  13. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  14. Facility safety study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The safety of NASA's in house microelectronics facility is addressed. Industrial health standards, facility emission control requirements, operation and safety checklists, and the disposal of epitaxial vent gas are considered.

  15. Consumer Product Safety Commission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lumber Liquidators Agrees To Not Resume Sales of Inventory of Chinese-Made Laminate Flooring, Continue Comprehensive Testing ... Safety Report an Unsafe Product Join Neighborhood Safety Network View Injury Statistics Put CPSC Recalls on Your ...

  16. Security vs. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Provides administrative advice on how some safety experts have made college campuses safer and friendlier without breaking the budget. Tips on security and advice on safety management that encompasses the whole environment are highlighted. (GR)

  17. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  18. Safety analysts training

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, P.

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this task was to support ESH-3 in providing Airborne Release Fraction and Respirable Fraction training to safety analysts at LANL who perform accident analysis, hazard analysis, safety analysis, and/or risk assessments at nuclear facilities. The task included preparation of materials for and the conduct of two 3-day training courses covering the following topics: safety analysis process; calculation model; aerosol physic concepts for safety analysis; and overview of empirically derived airborne release fractions and respirable fractions.

  19. Electrical safety guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  20. Generic safety documentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  1. DOE handbook electrical safety

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  2. SNTP environmental, safety, and health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Charles D.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space nuclear thermal propulsion (SNTP) environmental, safety, and health are presented. Topics covered include: program safety policy; program safety policies; and DEIS public hearing comments.

  3. Safety in the Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settles, Mimi

    Guidelines for safety in the cooperative preschool are outlined, emphasizing control of the physical environment to insure maximum freedom for the children compatible with maximum safety. Building standards are set for stairways, rooms, lavatories, parking lots, harmful supplies, and wading pools. Orientation for safety is discussed in regard to…

  4. School Safety Audit Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMary, Jo Lynne; Owens, Marsha; Ramnarain, A. K. Vijay

    The 1997 Virginia General Assembly passed legislation directing school boards to require all schools to conduct safety audits. This audit is designed to assess the safety conditions in each public school to: (1) identify and, if necessary, develop solutions for physical safety concerns, including building security issues; and (2) identify and…

  5. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future Agenda for Nuclear…

  6. School Bus Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroup, Karen Bruner; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Equipment to allow safe transportation of disabled children is reviewed. Such equipment includes infant car seats, child safety seats, safety vests, and accommodations for children in casts and/or braces. Five principles for evaluation and selection of safe seating options are given as are safety rules and information on standards and resources.…

  7. Virtual Safety Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Scott; Davis, Jason

    2003-01-01

    The Multimedia Tool Box Talk is a web-based quick reference safety guide and training tool for construction personnel. An intended outcome of this effort was to provide an efficient and effective way to locate and interpret crucial safety information while at the job site. The tool includes information from the Occupational Safety and Health…

  8. Parents as Advocates for Child Pedestrian Injury Prevention: What Do They Believe about the Efficacy of Prevention Strategies and about How to Create Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFrancesco, Susan; Gielen, Andrea Carlson; Bishai, David; Mahoney, Patricia; Ho, Shiu; Guyer, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the support of parents and other community members for child pedestrian safety measures, their willingness to pay in terms of volunteer time and money for efforts to make child pedestrian safety improvements in their neighborhood, and their views on how to affect child pedestrian safety improvements in their communities. In…

  9. Safety and IVHM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    When we address safety in a book on the business case for IVHM, the question arises whether safety isn t inherently in conflict with the need of operators to run their systems as efficiently (and as cost effectively) as possible. The answer may be that the system needs to be just as safe as needed, but not significantly more. That begs the next question: How safe is safe enough? Several regulatory bodies provide guidelines for operational safety, but irrespective of that, operators do not want their systems to be known as lacking safety. We illuminate the role of safety within the context of IVHM.

  10. NASA Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Linda

    1997-01-01

    If software is a critical element in a safety critical system, it is imperative to implement a systematic approach to software safety as an integral part of the overall system safety programs. The NASA-STD-8719.13A, "NASA Software Safety Standard", describes the activities necessary to ensure that safety is designed into software that is acquired or developed by NASA, and that safety is maintained throughout the software life cycle. A PDF version, is available on the WWW from Lewis. A Guidebook that will assist in the implementation of the requirements in the Safety Standard is under development at the Lewis Research Center (LeRC). After completion, it will also be available on the WWW from Lewis.

  11. Pedestrian and motorists' actions at pedestrian hybrid beacon sites: findings from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Self, Debbie R

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on an analysis of pedestrian and motorists' actions at sites with pedestrian hybrid beacons and assesses their effectiveness in improving the safety of pedestrians. Descriptive and statistical analyses (one-tail two-sample T-test and two-proportion Z-test) were conducted using field data collected during morning and evening peak hours at three study sites in the city of Charlotte, NC, before and after the installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons. Further, an analysis was conducted to assess the change in pedestrian and motorists' actions over time (before the installation; 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the installation). Results showed an increase in average traffic speed at one of the pedestrian hybrid beacon sites while no specific trends were observed at the other two pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. A decrease in the number of motorists not yielding to pedestrians, pedestrians trapped in the middle of the street, and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts were observed at all the three pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. The installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons did not have a negative effect on pedestrian actions at two out of the three sites. Improvements seem to be relatively more consistent 3 months after the installation of the pedestrian hybrid beacon.

  12. Missouri Elementary Science Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Judith L.

    The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. Information on general laboratory safety, science equipment safety, safety with plants, safety with animals, safety with chemicals, field…

  13. Safety and the Human Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann

    1982-01-01

    Discusses four elements of safety programs: (1) safety training; (2) safety inspections; (3) accident investigations; and (4) protective safety equipment. Also discusses safety considerations in water/wastewater treatment facilities focusing on falls, drowning hazards, trickling filters, confined space entry, collection/distribution system safety,…

  14. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Slider, J.E. ); Patterson, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of [open quotes]safety culture.[close quotes] This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to [open quotes]do the right thing[close quotes] even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants.

  15. [Patient safety in Sweden].

    PubMed

    Rutberg, H; Eckhardt, M; Biermann, O

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the patient safety work in Sweden and the cooperation between the Nordic countries in the area of patient safety. It depicts the national infrastructure, methods and partners in patient safety work as well as the development in key areas. Since 2000, the interest in patient safety and quality issues has significantly increased. A national study (2009) showed that more than 100,000 patients (8.6 %) experienced preventable harm in hospitals. Since 2007, all Swedish counties and regions work on the "National commitment for increased patient safety" to systematically minimize adverse events in the healthcare system. Also, a national strategy for patient safety has been proposed based on a new law regulating the responsibility for patient safety (2011) and a zero vision in terms of preventable harm and adverse events. The Nordic collaboration in this field currently focuses on the development of indicators and quality measurement with respect to nosocomial infections, harm in inpatient somatic care, patient safety culture, hospital mortality and polypharmacy in the elderly. The Nordic collaboration is driven by the development, exchange and documentation of experiences and evidence on patient safety indicators. The work presented in this article is only a part of the Swedish and the Nordic efforts related to patient safety and provides an interesting insight into how this work can be carried out.

  16. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  17. [Safety nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs].

    PubMed

    Oscanoa-Espinoza, Teodoro Julio

    2015-01-01

    The choice of a specific medication belonging to a drug class is under the criteria of efficacy, safety, cost and suitability. NSAIDs currently constitute one of the most consumed drug in the world, so it is very important review of the safety aspects of this drug class. This review has the objective of analyze the safety of NSAIDs on 3 main criteria: gastrolesivity, cardiotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  18. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  19. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkin, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  20. Technical Seminar: "Crash Safety"""

    NASA Video Gallery

    This seminar addresses the history and successful progress in predicting and improving the crash safety characteristics of vehicles, with particular emphasis on rotary wing aircraft and composite s...

  1. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The results of the Panel's activities are presented in a set of findings and recommendations. Highlighted here are both improvements in NASA's safety and reliability activities and specific areas where additional gains might be realized. One area of particular concern involves the curtailment or elimination of Space Shuttle safety and reliability enhancements. Several findings and recommendations address this area of concern, reflecting the opinion that safety and reliability enhancements are essential to the continued successful operation of the Space Shuttle. It is recommended that a comprehensive and continuing program of safety and reliability improvements in all areas of Space Shuttle hardware/software be considered an inherent component of ongoing Space Shuttle operations.

  2. Lift truck safety review

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  3. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Huang, Hsieh-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully.

  4. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Huang, Hsieh-Chu

    2015-01-22

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully.

  5. A Silent Safety Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodin, James Ronald

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) referred 8 times to the NASA "Silent Safety Program." This term, "Silent Safety Program" was not an original observation but first appeared in the Rogers Commission's Investigation of the Challenger Mishap. The CAIB on page 183 of its report in the paragraph titled 'Encouraging Minority Opinion,' stated "The Naval Reactor Program encourages minority opinions and "bad news." Leaders continually emphasize that when no minority opinions are present, the responsibility for a thorough and critical examination falls to management. . . Board interviews revealed that it is difficult for minority and dissenting opinions to percolate up through the agency's hierarchy. . ." The first question and perhaps the only question is - what is a silent safety program? Well, a silent safety program may be the same as the dog that didn't bark in Sherlock Holmes' "Adventure of the Silver Blaze" because system safety should behave as a devil's advocate for the program barking on every occasion to insure a critical review inclusion. This paper evaluates the NASA safety program and provides suggestions to prevent the recurrence of the silent safety program alluded to in the Challenger Mishap Investigation. Specifically targeted in the CAM report, "The checks and balances the safety system was meant to provide were not working." A silent system safety program is not unique to NASA but could emerge in any and every organization. Principles developed by Irving Janis in his book, Groupthink, listed criteria used to evaluate an organization's cultural attributes that allows a silent safety program to evolve. If evidence validates Jams's criteria, then Jams's recommendations for preventing groupthink can also be used to improve a critical evaluation and thus prevent the development of a silent safety program.

  6. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 3: Motorcycle Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 3 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on aspects of motorcycle safety. The purpose and specific objectives of a State motorcycle safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the highway safety area and general policies…

  7. Safety and Excellence. Safety in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrow, John

    2004-01-01

    As far as schools are concerned, there are three kinds of safety: physical, emotional, and intellectual. Excellence demands all three, while "good enough" schools are simply physically safe. How can parents and others determine whether a school is physically safe? It's always good to find out how many students were suspended at a particular…

  8. Safety for Older Consumers. Home Safety Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    A home safety checklist geared to the needs of older adults is presented in this document. The beginning of the checklist highlights potential hazards which may need to be checked in more than one area of the home, such as electric cords, smoke detectors, rugs, telephone areas, and emergency exit plans. The rest of the checklist is organized…

  9. Introducing Laboratory Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLorenzo, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simple, 10-item quiz designed to make students aware that they must learn laboratory safety. The items include questions on acid/base accidents, several types of fire extinguishers, and safety glassses. Answers and some explanations are included. (DH)

  10. Bicycle Safety in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Safety Education, Washington, DC.

    This material was designed to assist schools in teaching bicycle safety. As the population grows and competition for road space increases, it is more imperative than ever that we concentrate attention on the need for caution among pupil cyclists. The pamphlet: (1) discusses the role of bicycle safety in classroom instruction and in student…

  11. Safety Precautions for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folks, John; And Others

    Safety information is discussed and outlined in this guide. Areas include: (1) general laboratory safety rules; (2) general rules and guidelines for animals in the elementary classroom; (3) general guidelines for the physical sciences; (4) general rules for using animals in investigations, with specifics on the care and handling of mammals,…

  12. Implementing Hearing Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliffe, Roger

    1978-01-01

    Hearing damage from noise exposure and approaches to implementing hearing safety in school industrial laboratories through noise reduction and protective equipment are discussed. Although all states have not adopted the Occupational Safety and Health Act, teachers should be aware of noise hazards and act to protect hearing. (MF)

  13. School Safety and Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document offers additional guidelines for school facilities in California in the areas of safety and security, lighting, and cleanliness. It also offers a description of technology resources available on the World Wide Web. On the topic of safety and security, the document offers guidelines in the areas of entrances, doors, and controlled…

  14. Child Transportation Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents nine tips regarding safe infant and child transportation, each tip explained in one to two pages. The tips are as follows: (1) quick safety seat checkup; (2) where should your child ride? (3) how to protect your new baby in the car; (4) what safety seat to use for a big baby or toddler? (5) how should preschool and school…

  15. Safety in Aquaculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durborow, Robert M.; Myers, Melvin L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, occupational safety interventions for agriculture-related jobs, specifically in aquaculture, are reviewed. Maintaining quality of life and avoiding economic loss are two areas in which aquaculturists can benefit by incorporating safety protocols and interventions on their farms. The information in this article is based on farm…

  16. Radiological Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    Written to be used concurrently with the U.S. Army's Radiological Safety Course, this publication discusses the causes, sources, and detection of nuclear radiation. In addition, the transportation and disposal of radioactive materials are covered. The report also deals with the safety precautions to be observed when working with lasers, microwave…

  17. Serving Up Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Patricia L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes what principals can do to protect children from food-related illness in school: Forming of food-safe school teams, developing food-safety procedures, including food safety in crises-management plans, educating staff on plans and procedures, encouraging hand washing, making sure the cafeteria works properly, and encouraging the hiring of…

  18. Biology Laboratory Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Christine L.

    The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends that schools prepare or adapt a biosafety manual, and that instructors develop a list of safety procedures applicable to their own lab and distribute it to each student. In this way, safety issues will be brought to each student's attention. This document is an example of such a manual. It contains…

  19. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  20. Workplace Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. It is a short guide to workplace health and safety issues, laws, and regulations, especially in Massachusetts. Topics covered include the following: (1) safety issues--workplace ergonomics, the…

  1. Ensuring patient safety.

    PubMed

    Novo, Ahmed; Masic, Izet

    2007-01-01

    Patient safety is key factor in the process of health care improvement. World Health Organization (WHO) as coordinating authority for health within the United Nations launched a World Alliance for Patient Safety dedicated to bringing significant benefits to patients. Patients for Patient Safety, one of ten action areas of the World Alliance, is designed to ensure that the perspective of patients and families, consumers and citizens, is a central reference point in shaping this important work. This action area is led by the patient safety consumer movement. In Bosnia and Herzegovina has not State Law to regulate patient safety, but Law on the System of Quality and Safety Improvement, and Accreditation in Healthcare in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FB&H) established Agency for Quality and Accreditation in the Health Care System of the FB&H as a competent entity in the field of improvement of quality and safety, and accreditation in healthcare. Beside the Agency, all service providers need to promote a culture of openness, fairness, accountability and transparency. Also, stakeholders involved in health care should recognize that patients can actively contribute to strengthening thũality and safety of health servicesthrough active participation and to insist on open dialogue, transparency and appropriate information on the potential risks that the health service incurs, as part of enhancing patient health literacy and involvement.

  2. Querying Safety Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Naylor, Dwight; Pai, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Querying a safety case to show how the various stakeholders' concerns about system safety are addressed has been put forth as one of the benefits of argument-based assurance (in a recent study by the Health Foundation, UK, which reviewed the use of safety cases in safety-critical industries). However, neither the literature nor current practice offer much guidance on querying mechanisms appropriate for, or available within, a safety case paradigm. This paper presents a preliminary approach that uses a formal basis for querying safety cases, specifically Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) argument structures. Our approach semantically enriches GSN arguments with domain-specific metadata that the query language leverages, along with its inherent structure, to produce views. We have implemented the approach in our toolset AdvoCATE, and illustrate it by application to a fragment of the safety argument for an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) being developed at NASA Ames. We also discuss the potential practical utility of our query mechanism within the context of the existing framework for UAS safety assurance.

  3. Safety Relies on Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Patti

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important challenges of a principal's day is that of building and maintaining a school culture that promotes safety and supports learning. So it should come as no surprise to experienced educators that school safety and positive school climate directly affect academic achievement. This article discusses how principals can build an…

  4. Understanding Clinical Alarm Safety.

    PubMed

    Lukasewicz, Carol L; Mattox, Elizabeth Andersson

    2015-08-01

    Patient safety organizations and health care accreditation agencies recognize the significance of clinical alarm hazards. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, a nonprofit organization focused on development and use of safe and effective medical equipment, identifies alarm management as a major issue for health care organizations. ECRI Institute, a nonprofit organization that researches approaches for improving patient safety and quality of care, identifies alarm hazards as the most significant of the "Top Ten Health Technology Hazards" for 2014. A new Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal focusing on clinical alarm safety contains new requirements for accredited hospitals to be fully implemented by 2016. Through a fictional unfolding case study, this article reviews selected contributing factors to clinical alarm hazards present in inpatient, high-acuity settings. Understanding these factors improves contributions by nurses to clinical alarm safety practice.

  5. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  6. Pedestrian signalization and the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Quistberg, D Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J Jaime; Johnston, Brian D; Ebel, Beth E

    2014-09-01

    Safe walking environments are essential for protecting pedestrians and promoting physical activity. In Peru, pedestrians comprise over three-quarters of road fatality victims. Pedestrian signalization plays an important role managing pedestrian and vehicle traffic and may help improve pedestrian safety. We examined the relationship between pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and the presence of visible traffic signals, pedestrian signals, and signal timing to determine whether these countermeasures improved pedestrian safety. A matched case-control design was used where the units of study were crossing locations. We randomly sampled 97 control-matched collisions (weighted N=1134) at intersections occurring from October, 2010 to January, 2011 in Lima. Each case-control pair was matched on proximity, street classification, and number of lanes. Sites were visited between February, 2011 and September, 2011. Each analysis accounted for sampling weight and matching and was adjusted for vehicle and pedestrian traffic flow, crossing width, and mean vehicle speed. Collisions were more common where a phased pedestrian signal (green or red-light signal) was present compared to no signalization (odds ratio [OR] 8.88, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.32-59.6). A longer pedestrian-specific signal duration was associated with collision risk (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.02-9.60 per 15-s interval). Collisions occurred more commonly in the presence of any signalization visible to pedestrians or pedestrian-specific signalization, though these associations were not statistically significant. Signalization efforts were not associated with lower risk for pedestrians; rather, they were associated with an increased risk of pedestrian-vehicle collisions.

  7. Pedestrian signalization and the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J. Jaime; Johnston, Brian D.; Ebel, Beth E.

    2014-01-01

    Safe walking environments are essential for protecting pedestrians and promoting physical activity. In Peru, pedestrians comprise of over three-quarters of road fatality victims. Pedestrian signalization plays an important role managing pedestrian and vehicle traffic and may help improve pedestrian safety. We examined the relationship between pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and the presence of visible traffic signals, pedestrian signals, and signal timing to determine whether these countermeasures improved pedestrian safety. A matched case-control design was used where the units of study were crossing locations. We randomly sampled 97 control-matched collisions (weighted N=1134) at intersections occurring from October, 2010 to January, 2011 in Lima. Each case-control pair was matched on proximity, street classification, and number of lanes. Sites were visited between February, 2011 and September, 2011. Each analysis accounted for sampling weight and matching and was adjusted for vehicle and pedestrian traffic flow, crossing width, and mean vehicle speed. Collisions were more common where a phased pedestrian signal (green or red-lit signal) was present compared to no signalization (odds ratio [OR] 8.88, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.32–59.6). A longer pedestrian-specific signal duration was associated with collision risk (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.02–9.60 per 15-second interval). Collisions occurred more commonly in the presence of any signalization visible to pedestrians or pedestrian-specific signalization, though these associations were not statistically significant. Signalization efforts were not associated with lower risk for pedestrians; rather, they were associated with an increased risk of pedestrian-vehicle collisions. PMID:24821630

  8. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2005-01-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft (manned or unmanned) launched that did not have a computer on board that provided vital command and control services. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Led by the NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard (STD-18l9.13B) has recently undergone a significant update in an attempt to provide that consistency. This paper will discuss the key features of the new NASA Software Safety Standard. It will start with a brief history of the use and development of software in safety critical applications at NASA. It will then give a brief overview of the NASA Software Working Group and the approach it took to revise the software engineering process across the Agency.

  9. Safety management practices and safety behaviour: assessing the mediating role of safety knowledge and motivation.

    PubMed

    Vinodkumar, M N; Bhasi, M

    2010-11-01

    Safety management practices not only improve working conditions but also positively influence employees' attitudes and behaviours with regard to safety, thereby reducing accidents in workplace. This study measured employees' perceptions on six safety management practices and self-reported safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation by conducting a survey using questionnaire among 1566 employees belonging to eight major accident hazard process industrial units in Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The reliability and unidimesionality of all the scales were found acceptable. Path analysis using AMOS-4 software showed that some of the safety management practices have direct and indirect relations with the safety performance components, namely, safety compliance and safety participation. Safety knowledge and safety motivation were found to be the key mediators in explaining these relationships. Safety training was identified as the most important safety management practice that predicts safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation. These findings provide valuable guidance for researchers and practitioners for identifying the mechanisms by which they can improve safety of workplace.

  10. Smoking and Home Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... training and education. More resources on smoking and fire safety Medical oxygen safety NFPA Educational Messages Desk Reference – these messages provide fire and life safety educators with accurate and consistent ...

  11. Safety Panel Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore what resources are potentially available to safety panels and to provide some guidance on how to utilize those resources. While the examples used in this paper will concentrate on the Flight Equipment and Reliability Review Panel (FESRRP) and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) hardware that have come through that panel, as well as resources at Johnson Space Center, the paper will address how this applies to safety panels in general, and where possible cite examples for other safety panels.

  12. Culture of safety.

    PubMed

    Hershey, Kristen

    2015-03-01

    In this article, the principles behind high-reliability organizations and a culture of safety are explored. Three areas in which health care has the greatest potential for improvement in safety culture are also discussed: a nonpunitive response to error; handoffs and transitions; and safe staffing. Tools for frontline nurses to help improve their organization's culture of safety in these areas are reviewed. Information is also given for nurses responding to error, including participating in root-cause analysis and supporting health care workers involved in adverse events.

  13. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  14. Safety shutdown separators

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  15. Aerostructural safety factor criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1992-01-01

    The present modification of the conventional safety factor method for aircraft structures evaluation involves the expression of deterministic safety factors in probabilistic tolerance limit ratios; these are found to involve a total of three factors that control the interference of applied and resistive stress distributions. The deterministic expression is extended so that it may furnish a 'relative ultimate safety' index that encompasses all three distribution factors. Operational reliability is developed on the basis of the applied and the yield stress distribution interferences. Industry standards are suggested to be derivable from factor selections that are based on the consequences of failure.

  16. Nuclear regulation and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulation and safety are discussed from the standpoint of a hypothetical country that is in the process of introducing a nuclear power industry and setting up a regulatory system. The national policy is assumed to be in favor of nuclear power. The regulators will have responsibility for economic, reliable electric production as well as for safety. Reactor safety is divided into three parts: shut it down, keep it covered, take out the afterheat. Emergency plans also have to be provided. Ways of keeping the core covered with water are discussed. (DLC)

  17. Carlsbad Area Office vehicle safety program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Vehicle Safety Program (VSP) establishes the minimum requirements for CAO personnel to safely operate government vehicles and provides direction to effectively reduce the number of vehicle accidents, reduce the severity of vehicle accidents, and minimize vehicular property damage. This Program covers the operations of Government Services Administration (GSA) vehicles, rental or leased vehicles, and special purpose vehicles used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the performance of work. Additionally, this Program encourages CAO employees to use safe driving habits while operating their privately owned vehicles, motorcycles, or bicycles, or, as pedestrians, to be aware of the hazards associated with traffic in and around CAO facilities. Vehicle safety is a shared responsibility in this organization. At anytime a CAO employee witnesses an unsafe act relating to the operation of a motor vehicle, it is their responsibility to notify their Team Leader (TL) or Assistant Manager (AM), or contact the CAO Safety and Occupational Health Manager (SOHM). Employees are encouraged to participate in the Carlsbad Area Office Federal Employees Safety Committee (FESC) activities and goals in order to address vehicle safety concerns. The FESC is designed to be a forum for all federal employees to improve the health and safety of the organization. The VSP is an effective method of ensuring the health and safety of CAO employees during the operation of government vehicles. The human resources of the CAO are the most valuable assets of this organization and any lost manhours are difficult to replace. Safe driving habits and defensive driving methods should always be practiced to preserve the health and safety of all employees.

  18. Archetypes for Organisational Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marais, Karen; Leveson, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a framework using system dynamics to model the dynamic behavior of organizations in accident analysis. Most current accident analysis techniques are event-based and do not adequately capture the dynamic complexity and non-linear interactions that characterize accidents in complex systems. In this paper we propose a set of system safety archetypes that model common safety culture flaws in organizations, i.e., the dynamic behaviour of organizations that often leads to accidents. As accident analysis and investigation tools, the archetypes can be used to develop dynamic models that describe the systemic and organizational factors contributing to the accident. The archetypes help clarify why safety-related decisions do not always result in the desired behavior, and how independent decisions in different parts of the organization can combine to impact safety.

  19. Focusing on dam safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lagassa, G.

    1993-01-01

    With increased relicensing activity and a federal emphasis on safety, dam repair and refurbishment is a growing business. Providers of goods and services are gearing up to meet the dam repair and rehabilitation needs that result.

  20. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft launched that does not have a computer on board that will provide command and control services. There have been recent incidents where software has played a role in high-profile mission failures and hazardous incidents. For example, the Mars Orbiter, Mars Polar Lander, the DART (Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology), and MER (Mars Exploration Rover) Spirit anomalies were all caused or contributed to by software. The Mission Control Centers for the Shuttle, ISS, and unmanned programs are highly dependant on software for data displays, analysis, and mission planning. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been little to no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Meanwhile, academia and private industry have been stepping forward with procedures and standards for safety critical systems and software, for example Dr. Nancy Leveson's book Safeware: System Safety and Computers. The NASA Software Safety Standard, originally published in 1997, was widely ignored due to its complexity and poor organization. It also focused on concepts rather than definite procedural requirements organized around a software project lifecycle. Led by NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard has recently undergone a significant update. This new standard provides the procedures and guidelines for evaluating a project for safety criticality and then lays out the minimum project lifecycle requirements to assure the software is created, operated, and maintained in the safest possible manner. This update of the standard clearly delineates the minimum set of software safety requirements for a project without detailing the implementation for those

  1. Vaccine Safety Datalink

    Cancer.gov

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

  2. Farm Safety (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... wheels or blind spots. Because adults who are operating machinery may be unable to see or hear ... a tractor and farm vehicle safety course before operating farm vehicles. Finally, teach older kids how to ...

  3. Chemical Safety Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need to enhance understanding of chemical safety in educational facilities that includes adequate staff training and drilling requirements. The question of what is considered proper training is addressed. (GR)

  4. Bathroom safety - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000154.htm Bathroom safety - children To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. To prevent accidents in the bathroom, never leave your child alone in the bathroom. ...

  5. Updated Lightning Safety Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, R. James; Holle, Ronald L.; Lopez, Raul E.

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the recommendations of the Lightning Safety Group (LSG), which was first convened during the 1998 American Meteorological Society Conference. Findings outline appropriate actions under various circumstances when lightning threatens. (WRM)

  6. The Hermes safety strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, R.

    The Hermes space vehicle currently in project for the European Space Agency will open the road to European autonomous manned space missions at the beginning of the 21st century. The safety objectives are very ambitious and will require the implementation of a comprehensive safety assurance program, aimed at reducing the risks to an acceptable level. The risk acceptance is based on identification, ranking and minimization of Critical Items including all potential departures from the safety requirements. Prime contractors shall prepare a Critical Item List for their elements, and submit it to the Hermes Program Directorate for review; approval of the residual open critical items shall be obtained before launch. An independent committee (HESAC) has been set up by the ESA and the French National Space Center (CNES) Directors General to assess the adequacy of the Safety Control Program.

  7. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    An assessment of NASA's safety performance for 1983 affirms that NASA Headquarters and Center management teams continue to hold the safety of manned flight to be their prime concern, and that essential effort and resources are allocated for maintaining safety in all of the development and operational programs. Those conclusions most worthy of NASA management concentration are given along with recommendations for action concerning; product quality and utility; space shuttle main engine; landing gear; logistics and management; orbiter structural loads, landing speed, and pitch control; the shuttle processing contractor; and the safety of flight operations. It appears that much needs to be done before the Space Transportation System can achieve the reliability necessary for safe, high rate, low cost operations.

  8. Water Safety Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drive About Donating Blood Host a Blood Drive Training & Certification Find Classes First Aid CPR AED BLS Babysitting & Child Care Swimming Lifeguarding & Water Safety EMT CNA Train My Employees ...

  9. Chemistry Laboratory Safety Check

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patnoe, Richard L.

    1976-01-01

    An accident prevention/safety check list for chemistry laboratories is printed. Included are checks of equipment, facilities, storage and handling of chemicals, laboratory procedures, instruction procedures, and items to be excluded from chemical laboratories. (SL)

  10. School Bus Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2001-01-01

    Explains why fewer school students are injured are killed while being transported in school buses than any other mode of transportation. Political and community action in school bus transportation safety is addressed. (GR)

  11. Safety at the Summit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Explores how risk-management strategies can make the difference in climbing wall safety. Wall design, adhering to wall construction standards, limiting wall access, and climber evaluation are discussed. (GR)

  12. Organizational Culture and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.

    2003-01-01

    '..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

  13. National Patient Safety Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Safety Curriculum CPPS Review Course Patient Blood Management ... = null; var autoPlayDelaySeconds = 4; $navLeft.click(function() { currPanel--; $('#full-slider-nav-left').hide(); $('#full-slider- ...

  14. Medical Oxygen Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... near the oxygen. Post No Smoking and No Open Flames signs in and outside the home to remind people not to smoke. Your Source for SAFETY Information NFPA Public Education Division • 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169 Name ...

  15. Governors Highway Safety Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... 12) GHSA comments on the Interim Final Rule (IFR) for FAST Act implementation (Sept. 20) Online forum on proposed changes to MMUCC (Sept. 16) Directions in Highway Safety Newsletter (Sept. 2016) Member ...

  16. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  17. Parents' Self-Reported Behaviors Related to Health and Safety of Very Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Charlotte M.; Reichert, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Reports a survey that documented the health and safety behaviors of parents of children in Head Start programs. Nearly all parents reported using car seats, teaching handwashing and pedestrian safety, and locking away medicine and alcohol. Sixty percent reported storing guns and bullets safely, possessing working fire extinguishers, and having…

  18. Thirty Year Review of Safety Skill Instruction for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.

    2008-01-01

    This review synthesizes the empirical literature (1976-2006) focusing on teaching personal safety skills to persons with intellectual disabilities. Thirty-six investigations were identified which provided information on six areas of instruction: (a) pedestrian/street crossing safety; (b) home accident prevention; (c) application of first aid…

  19. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report from the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) contains findings, recommendations, and supporting material concerning safety issues with the space station program, the space shuttle program, aeronautics research, and other NASA programs. Section two presents findings and recommendations, section three presents supporting information, and appendices contain data about the panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1993 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the past year.

  20. Software system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uber, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Software itself is not hazardous, but since software and hardware share common interfaces there is an opportunity for software to create hazards. Further, these software systems are complex, and proven methods for the design, analysis, and measurement of software safety are not yet available. Some past software failures, future NASA software trends, software engineering methods, and tools and techniques for various software safety analyses are reviewed. Recommendations to NASA are made based on this review.

  1. Contractor safety training reciprocity

    SciTech Connect

    Melancon, R.

    1996-08-01

    In June, 1995, the National Petroleum Refiners Association (NPRA) adhoc committee on Contractor Safety Training, turned over the task of developing reciprocity agreements with all Contractor Safety Training Councils to the Executive Directors of each of the Council`s. The Council representatives were to develop these agreements based on the NPRA adhoc committee training objectives that were developed jointly by representatives of the petroleum industry, chemical industry, contractors and the Council`s.

  2. Safety Auditing and Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodin, James Ronald (Ronnie)

    2005-01-01

    Safety professionals typically do not engage in audits and independent assessments with the vigor as do our quality brethren. Taking advantage of industry and government experience conducting value added Independent Assessments or Audits benefits a safety program. Most other organizations simply call this process "internal audits." Sources of audit training are presented and compared. A relation of logic between audit techniques and mishap investigation is discussed. An example of an audit process is offered. Shortcomings and pitfalls of auditing are covered.

  3. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  4. Criticality safety training

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, S.K.

    1997-06-01

    Criticality safety training is an important element of the Plutonium Facility safety program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Training consists of student self-study handbooks and hands-on performance-based training in a mock-up laboratory containing gloveboxes, trolley conveyor system, and self-monitoring instruments. A 10-minute video tape and lecture was presented to describe how training in this area is conducted.

  5. Bear Spray Safety Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

  6. Safety Basis Report

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-14

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities.

  7. Magnetic resonance safety.

    PubMed

    Sammet, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a superior soft-tissue contrast compared to other radiological imaging modalities and its physiological and functional applications have led to a significant increase in MRI scans worldwide. A comprehensive MRI safety training to protect patients and other healthcare workers from potential bio-effects and risks of the magnetic fields in an MRI suite is therefore essential. The knowledge of the purpose of safety zones in an MRI suite as well as MRI appropriateness criteria is important for all healthcare professionals who will work in the MRI environment or refer patients for MRI scans. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of current magnetic resonance safety guidelines and discuss the safety risks of magnetic fields in an MRI suite including forces and torque of ferromagnetic objects, tissue heating, peripheral nerve stimulation, and hearing damages. MRI safety and compatibility of implanted devices, MRI scans during pregnancy, and the potential risks of MRI contrast agents will also be discussed, and a comprehensive MRI safety training to avoid fatal accidents in an MRI suite will be presented. PMID:26940331

  8. Safety system status monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  9. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  10. The procedure safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Maureen E.

    1990-01-01

    Telerobotic operations, whether under autonomous or teleoperated control, require a much more sophisticated safety system than that needed for most industrial applications. Industrial robots generally perform very repetitive tasks in a controlled, static environment. The safety system in that case can be as simple as shutting down the robot if a human enters the work area, or even simply building a cage around the work space. Telerobotic operations, however, will take place in a dynamic, sometimes unpredictable environment, and will involve complicated and perhaps unrehearsed manipulations. This creates a much greater potential for damage to the robot or objects in its vicinity. The Procedural Safety System (PSS) collects data from external sensors and the robot, then processes it through an expert system shell to determine whether an unsafe condition or potential unsafe condition exists. Unsafe conditions could include exceeding velocity, acceleration, torque, or joint limits, imminent collision, exceeding temperature limits, and robot or sensor component failure. If a threat to safety exists, the operator is warned. If the threat is serious enough, the robot is halted. The PSS, therefore, uses expert system technology to enhance safety thus reducing operator work load, allowing him/her to focus on performing the task at hand without the distraction of worrying about violating safety criteria.

  11. The development of an automatic method of safety monitoring at Pelican crossings.

    PubMed

    Malkhamah, Siti; Tight, Miles; Montgomery, Frank

    2005-09-01

    This paper reports on the development of a method for automatic monitoring of safety at Pelican crossings. Historically, safety monitoring has typically been carried out using accident data, though given the rarity of such events it is difficult to quickly detect change in accident risk at a particular site. An alternative indicator sometimes used is traffic conflicts, though this data can be time consuming and expensive to collect. The method developed in this paper uses vehicle speeds and decelerations collected using standard in situ loops and tubes, to determine conflicts using vehicle decelerations and to assess the possibility of automatic safety monitoring at Pelican crossings. Information on signal settings, driver crossing behaviour, pedestrian crossing behaviour and delays, and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts was collected synchronously through a combination of direct observation, video analysis, and analysis of output from tube and loop detectors. Models were developed to predict safety, i.e. pedestrian-vehicle conflicts using vehicle speeds and decelerations. PMID:15919048

  12. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 17: Pupil Transportation Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 17 of the 10-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on pupil transportation safety. The purpose and objectives of a pupil transportation safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of pupil transportation and policies…

  13. Safety Learning, Organizational Contradictions and the Dynamics of Safety Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripamonti, Silvio Carlo; Scaratti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the enactment of safety routines in a transshipment port. Research on work safety and reliability has largely neglected the role of the workers' knowledge in practice in the enactment of organisational safety. The workers' lack of compliance with safety regulations represents an enduring problem…

  14. Labor unions and safety climate: perceived union safety values and retail employee safety outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Robert R; Martin, James E; Sears, Lindsay E

    2010-09-01

    Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones' immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research focuses on management and supervisors as key stakeholders, but has not considered whether employee perceptions about the priority their union places on safety contributes contribute to safety outcomes. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating unionized retail employee (N=535) perceptions about the extent to which their top management, immediate supervisors, and union valued safety. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that perceived union safety values could be distinguished from measures of safety training, workplace hazards, top management safety values, and supervisor values. Structural equation analyses indicated that union safety values influenced safety outcomes through its association with higher safety motivation, showing a similar effect as that of supervisor safety values. These findings highlight the need for further attention to union-focused measures related to workplace safety as well as further study of retail employees in general. We discuss the practical implications of our findings and identify several directions for future safety research.

  15. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety Standards contain technical and process-oriented safety requirements. Technical requirements are those such as "must work" and "must not work" functions in the system. Process-Oriented requirements are software engineering and safety management process requirements. Address the system perspective and some cover just software in the system > NASA-STD-8719.13B Software Safety Standard is the current standard of interest. NASA programs/projects will have their own set of safety requirements derived from the standard. Safety Cases: a) Documented demonstration that a system complies with the specified safety requirements. b) Evidence is gathered on the integrity of the system and put forward as an argued case. [Gardener (ed.)] c) Problems occur when trying to meet safety standards, and thus make retrospective safety cases, in legacy safety-critical computer systems.

  16. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Safety criteria for ferrocyanide watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, A.K.; Meacham, J.E.; Barney, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides a technical basis for closing the ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) at the Hanford Site. Three work efforts were performed in developing this technical basis. The efforts described herein are: 1. The formulation of criteria for ranking the relative safety of waste in each ferrocyanide tank. 2. The current classification of tanks into safety categories by comparing available information on tank contents with the safety criteria; 3. The identification of additional information required to resolve the ferrocyanide safety issue.

  17. Safety Control and Safety Education at Technical Institutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Hiroshi

    The importance of safety education for students at technical institutes is emphasized on three grounds including safety of all working members and students in their education, research and other activities. The Kanazawa Institute of Technology re-organized the safety organization into a line structure and improved safety minds of all their members and now has a chemical materials control system and a set of compulsory safety education programs for their students, although many problems still remain.

  18. PHOTOVOICE: Reducing pedestrian injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Van Oss, Tracy; Quinn, Danielle; Viscosi, Pauline; Bretscher, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian injury is the second leading cause of injury related death for children. The purpose of this research project was to determine the effectiveness of pedestrian and road traffic safety education with children, as part of the Walk This Way program through Safe Kids USA. Through the implementation of PHOTOVOICE, a project that captured children's narratives coinciding with a photograph, children engaged in community exploration to identify pedestrian hazards in their communities and explore possible solutions utilizing their photography and narrations. Children participated in an engaging educational session, a community fieldtrip, and reflection. Results concluded that, despite a small increase in post test scores, an increase in awareness of hazards in the community and successful identification of community hazards was achieved. The goal of this research project was determine the effectiveness of a hands-on pedestrian and road traffic safety educational program with children. The results of this research project will be integrated with similar projects completed across the country through the program Walk This Way with Safe Kids USA. Both this research project and the Walk This Way program aim to promote behavior change in children and create safer communities to reduce pedestrian related injury. The overall goal of this research project andthe Walk This Way program is to increase education on a national level in regards to pedestrian safety for children and provide a basis for lobbying for public policy changes pertaining to road and pedestrian safety. PMID:23241696

  19. NSTA Portal to Science Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The National Science Teachers Association's (NSTA) Science Safety Advisory Board recently launched the Safety in the Science Classroom portal. This portal serves as a gateway to safety resources for teachers, supervisors, and administrators. It also contains an evolving list of safety resources for elementary, middle, and high schools. The list…

  20. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) presents results of activities during calendar year 2001. The year was marked by significant achievements in the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) programs and encouraging accomplishments by the Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Unfortunately, there were also disquieting mishaps with the X-43, a LearJet, and a wind tunnel. Each mishap was analyzed in an orderly process to ascertain causes and derive lessons learned. Both these accomplishments and the responses to the mishaps led the Panel to conclude that safety and risk management is currently being well served within NASA. NASA's operations evidence high levels of safety consciousness and sincere efforts to place safety foremost. Nevertheless, the Panel's safety concerns have never been greater. This dichotomy has arisen because the focus of most NASA programs has been directed toward program survival rather than effective life cycle planning. Last year's Annual Report focused on the need for NASA to adopt a realistically long planning horizon for the aging Space Shuttle so that safety would not erode. NASA's response to the report concurred with this finding. Nevertheless, there has been a greater emphasis on current operations to the apparent detriment of long-term planning. Budget cutbacks and shifts in priorities have severely limited the resources available to the Space Shuttle and ISS for application to risk-reduction and life-extension efforts. As a result, funds originally intended for long-term safety-related activities have been used for operations. Thus, while safety continues to be well served at present, the basis for future safety has eroded. Section II of this report develops this theme in more detail and presents several important, overarching findings and recommendations that apply to many if not all of NASA's programs. Section III of the report presents other significant findings, recommendations and supporting

  1. Shared safety management

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, L.; Stumpf, C.

    1995-11-01

    In the past 18 months, American Ref-Fuel, a Houston-based waste-to-energy company, has had three of its plants designated as Star facilities under the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) administered by OSHA. The VPP Star participants are a select group of facilities that have designed and implemented exemplary health and safety programs. They must show performance consistent with the VPP goal of aligning labor, management and OSHA into a cooperative relationship. Having a safe work environment has always been one of the core culture issues at American Ref-Fuel. They have learned the best way to maintain excellence is to listen to how each employee is affected in daily activities by safety issues and take actions to constantly reinforce the message that safety concerns never fall on deaf ears. The VPP process encourages identification of potential safety problems before they occur. The program promotes ongoing integration of safety into all facility activities, with the overall objective of eliminating employee injuries and improving plant performance; two important considerations for plant owners and facility managers searching for new tools to improve their overall bottom line.

  2. Aspartame: review of safety.

    PubMed

    Butchko, Harriett H; Stargel, W Wayne; Comer, C Phil; Mayhew, Dale A; Benninger, Christian; Blackburn, George L; de Sonneville, Leo M J; Geha, Raif S; Hertelendy, Zsolt; Koestner, Adalbert; Leon, Arthur S; Liepa, George U; McMartin, Kenneth E; Mendenhall, Charles L; Munro, Ian C; Novotny, Edward J; Renwick, Andrew G; Schiffman, Susan S; Schomer, Donald L; Shaywitz, Bennett A; Spiers, Paul A; Tephly, Thomas R; Thomas, John A; Trefz, Friedrich K

    2002-04-01

    Over 20 years have elapsed since aspartame was approved by regulatory agencies as a sweetener and flavor enhancer. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic constituents was established through extensive toxicology studies in laboratory animals, using much greater doses than people could possibly consume. Its safety was further confirmed through studies in several human subpopulations, including healthy infants, children, adolescents, and adults; obese individuals; diabetics; lactating women; and individuals heterozygous (PKUH) for the genetic disease phenylketonuria (PKU) who have a decreased ability to metabolize the essential amino acid, phenylalanine. Several scientific issues continued to be raised after approval, largely as a concern for theoretical toxicity from its metabolic components--the amino acids, aspartate and phenylalanine, and methanol--even though dietary exposure to these components is much greater than from aspartame. Nonetheless, additional research, including evaluations of possible associations between aspartame and headaches, seizures, behavior, cognition, and mood as well as allergic-type reactions and use by potentially sensitive subpopulations, has continued after approval. These findings are reviewed here. The safety testing of aspartame has gone well beyond that required to evaluate the safety of a food additive. When all the research on aspartame, including evaluations in both the premarketing and postmarketing periods, is examined as a whole, it is clear that aspartame is safe, and there are no unresolved questions regarding its safety under conditions of intended use.

  3. Safety of obesity drugs.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Frank L; Caruso, Mary K

    2005-11-01

    The safety of obesity drugs has historically been poor. This and the stigmatisation of obesity in society ensured that a higher standard of safety for obesity drugs must be met. The authors review the safety disasters of obesity drugs that were withdrawn. The authors then review the safety of presently available drugs--benzphetamine, phendimetrazine, diethylpropion, phentermine, sibutramine and orlistat. The safety of rimonabant, a drug with a pending new drug application that has an independent effect on metabolic syndrome, is also reviewed. The authors compare the stage of obesity drug development to that of hypertension in the 1950s. As new and safer drugs with more downstream mechanisms are developed that have independent effects on the cardiovascular risks associated with obesity, third party reimbursement for obesity medicine is likely to improve. This may lead to obesity being treated like hypertension and other chronic diseases with long-term medication. With improved technological tools, the authors believe this process will be more rapid for obesity than it was for hypertension.

  4. Developing safety-critical software.

    PubMed

    Garnsworthy, J

    1996-05-01

    The role of safety-critical software in the development of medical devices is becoming increasingly important and ever more exacting demands are being made of software developers. This article considers safety issues and a software development life-cycle based on the safety life-cycle described in IEC 1508, "Safety-Related Systems: Functional Safety." It identifies relevant standards, both emerging and published, and provides guidance on methods that could be used to meet those standards.

  5. The Effects of Safety Discrimination Training and Frequent Safety Observations on Safety-Related Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    The intent of the present study was to assess the effects of discrimination training only and in combination with frequent safety observations on five participants' safety-related behavior in a simulated office setting. The study used a multiple-baseline design across safety-related behaviors. Across all participants and behavior, safety improved…

  6. Biological safety cabinetry.

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, R H; Puckett, W H; Richardson, J H

    1991-01-01

    The biological safety cabinet is the one piece of laboratory and pharmacy equipment that provides protection for personnel, the product, and the environment. Through the history of laboratory-acquired infections from the earliest published case to the emergence of hepatitis B and AIDS, the need for health care worker protection is described. A brief description with design, construction, function, and production capabilities is provided for class I and class III safety cabinets. The development of the high-efficiency particulate air filter provided the impetus for clean room technology, from which evolved the class II laminar flow biological safety cabinet. The clean room concept was advanced when the horizontal airflow clean bench was manufactured; it became popular in pharmacies for preparing intravenous solutions because the product was protected. However, as with infectious microorganisms and laboratory workers, individual sensitization to antibiotics and the advent of hazardous antineoplastic agents changed the thinking of pharmacists and nurses, and they began to use the class II safety cabinet to prevent adverse personnel reactions to the drugs. How the class II safety cabinet became the mainstay in laboratories and pharmacies is described, and insight is provided into the formulation of National Sanitation Foundation standard number 49 and its revisions. The working operations of a class II cabinet are described, as are the variations of the four types with regard to design, function, air velocity profiles, and the use of toxins. The main certification procedures are explained, with examples of improper or incorrect certifications. The required levels of containment for microorganisms are given. Instructions for decontaminating the class II biological safety cabinet of infectious agents are provided; unfortunately, there is no method for decontaminating the cabinet of antineoplastic agents. Images PMID:2070345

  7. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a 5-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASAs safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are "one deep." The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting "brain drain" could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has little flexibility to begin long lead-time items for upgrades or contingency planning.

  8. Quo Vadis Payload Safety?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodroci, Michael P.; Schwartz, MaryBeth

    2008-01-01

    As we complete the preparations for the fourth Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission, we note an anniversary approaching: it was 30 years ago in July that the first HST payload safety review panel meeting was held. This, in turn, was just over a year after the very first payload safety review, a Phase 0 review for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite and its Inertial Upper Stage, held in June of 1977. In adapting a process that had been used in the review and certification of earlier Skylab payloads, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engineers sought to preserve the lessons learned in the development of technical payload safety requirements, while creating a new process that would serve the very different needs of the new space shuttle program. Their success in this undertaking is substantiated by the fact that this process and these requirements have proven to be remarkably robust, flexible, and adaptable. Furthermore, the payload safety process has, to date, served us well in the critical mission of safeguarding our astronauts, cosmonauts, and spaceflight participants. Both the technical requirements and their interpretation, as well as the associated process requirements have grown, evolved, been streamlined, and have been adapted to fit multiple programs, including the International Space Station (ISS) program, the Shuttle/Mir program, and most recently the United States Constellation program. From its earliest days, it was anticipated that the payload safety process would be international in scope, and so it has been. European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), German Space Agency (DLR), Canadian Space Agency (CSA), Russian Space Agency (RSA), and many additional countries have flown payloads on both the space shuttle and on the ISS. Our close cooperation and long-term working relationships have culminated in the franchising of the payload safety review process itself to our partners in ESA, which in

  9. SSC Safety Review Document

    SciTech Connect

    Toohig, T.E.

    1988-11-01

    The safety strategy of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Central Design Group (CDG) is to mitigate potential hazards to personnel, as far as possible, through appropriate measures in the design and engineering of the facility. The Safety Review Document identifies, on the basis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) and related studies, potential hazards inherent in the SSC project independent of its site. Mitigative measures in the design of facilities and in the structuring of laboratory operations are described for each of the hazards identified.

  10. Seismic Safety Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Eagling, D.G.

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls.

  11. [Safety of folic acid].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Improving dietary folate intake is a central public health goal. However, critical voices have become louder warning of too high intake of folic acid. Safety concerns of a high folic acid exposure are usually limited to synthetic folic acid contained in drugs and food supplements. Against this background, the present article focuses on two matters: (a) How do the absorption and metabolism of synthetic folic acid differ from that of other folates? (b) How has the longterm safety of folic acid to be judged, especially regarding the risk of colorectal cancer, autism, asthma, impaired immune defence, masking vitamin B12 deficiency and interactions with the methotrexate metabolism?

  12. Operational safety reliability research

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.E.; Boccio, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Operating reactor events such as the TMI accident and the Salem automatic-trip failures raised the concern that during a plant's operating lifetime the reliability of systems could degrade from the design level that was considered in the licensing process. To address this concern, NRC is sponsoring the Operational Safety Reliability Research project. The objectives of this project are to identify the essential tasks of a reliability program and to evaluate the effectiveness and attributes of such a reliability program applicable to maintaining an acceptable level of safety during the operating lifetime at the plant.

  13. Aviation Safety Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houser, Scott; Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Simulation Model is a software tool that enables users to configure a terrain, a flight path, and an aircraft and simulate the aircraft's flight along the path. The simulation monitors the aircraft's proximity to terrain obstructions, and reports when the aircraft violates accepted minimum distances from an obstruction. This model design facilitates future enhancements to address other flight safety issues, particularly air and runway traffic scenarios. This report shows the user how to build a simulation scenario and run it. It also explains the model's output.

  14. Reactor safety method

    DOEpatents

    Vachon, Lawrence J.

    1980-03-11

    This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature.

  15. School Safety Legal Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Ronald D., Ed.; And Others

    This legal anthology presents contemporary thoughts covering a broad range of topics in education and school safety from a national perspective. It covers four major areas: (1) an overview of schools in U.S. society from historical and legal perspectives; (2) an exploration of some aspects of school crime; (3) restitution, parental liability,…

  16. School Fire Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. General Education Div.

    This manual provides the background information necessary for the planning of school fire safety programs by local school officials, particularly in Arkansas. The manual first discusses the need for such programs and cites the Arkansas state law regarding them. Policies established by the Arkansas State Board of Education to implement the legal…

  17. The Safety of Crowds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dron, Jon

    2007-01-01

    If we assume that learning is best achieved in a social setting, then a vital aspect of any learning environment is its ability to support the development of trust. Trust takes many forms, from helping to identify the validity or the effectiveness of a learning resource to feelings of safety and reliance on support from fellow learners and…

  18. Airline Safety and Economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and economy in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.

  19. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Data acquired on the actual flight experience with the various subsystems are assessed. These subsystems include: flight control and performance, structural integrity, orbiter landing gear, lithium batteries, EVA and prebreathing, and main engines. Improvements for routine operations are recommended. Policy issues for operations and flight safety for aircraft operations are discussed.

  20. Laboratory safety handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, E.L.; Watterson, C.A.; Chemerys, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Safety, defined as 'freedom from danger, risk, or injury,' is difficult to achieve in a laboratory environment. Inherent dangers, associated with water analysis and research laboratories where hazardous samples, materials, and equipment are used, must be minimized to protect workers, buildings, and equipment. Managers, supervisors, analysts, and laboratory support personnel each have specific responsibilities to reduce hazards by maintaining a safe work environment. General rules of conduct and safety practices that involve personal protection, laboratory practices, chemical handling, compressed gases handling, use of equipment, and overall security must be practiced by everyone at all levels. Routine and extensive inspections of all laboratories must be made regularly by qualified people. Personnel should be trained thoroughly and repetitively. Special hazards that may involve exposure to carcinogens, cryogenics, or radiation must be given special attention, and specific rules and operational procedures must be established to deal with them. Safety data, reference materials, and texts must be kept available if prudent safety is to be practiced and accidents prevented or minimized.

  1. Planning for Campus Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    From natural disasters to criminal violence, facilities officers are often called on to address campus safety and security issues beyond their usual responsibilities. Their experiences in coping with unanticipated events have produced a catalogue of lessons learned that can help them and their peers at other institutions who might face the same…

  2. Strengthening the safety net.

    PubMed

    May, Ellen Lanser

    2004-01-01

    If you've ever built a house of cards or played a game of Jenga, you know how quickly an ill-timed move can destroy your goal of maintaining equilibrium. The consequence of upsetting one piece of the whole is a common metaphor many safety net providers use to help other healthcare organizations understand their role in the system. The fiscal and physical pressure on just one safety net provider can create a dangerous ripple effect in a community, threatening the stability of other area providers and access to care for the patients they serve. "We have created a complicated tension within our healthcare system," says Stuart H. Altman, Ph.D., HFACHE, professor, National Health Policy, at Brandeis University in Waltham, MA. "If any single major sector of the system is out of balance, the others will be affected in a very negative way." Depending (in part) on geography as well as local and state politics, the fate of "non"-safety net providers can hinge on the success of those organizations whose primary mission is to provide indigent care. "If the safety net fails, the whole healthcare system could potentially collapse because the remaining providers simply cannot handle all of the demand," says C. Duane Dauner, FACHE, president of the California Healthcare Association in Sacramento. The current situations in Washington, D.C., Dallas, and several California counties illustrate this domino effect Dauner describes. PMID:14716922

  3. Safety Assessment of Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

    Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

  4. Obstacles to Laser Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-04-25

    The growth of laser development & technology has been remarkable. Unfortunately, a number of traps or obstacles to laser safety have also developed with that growth. The goal of this article is to highlight those traps, in the hope that an aware laser user will avoid them. These traps have been the cause or contributing factor of many a preventable laser accident.

  5. Communicating for Safety's Sake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiesner, Robert

    2005-01-01

    No community is safe until every member takes responsibility for the community's collective safety. College communities are no different from families, towns and businesses in that respect. Getting everyone to accept responsibility is a challenge and skilled communication is an important component of the solution. As part of the front line,…

  6. Fire Safety Training Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Dept. of Fire and Rescue Services, Rockville, MD. Div. of Fire Prevention.

    Designed for a community fire education effort, particularly in which local volunteers present general information on fire safety to their fellow citizens, this workbook contains nine lessons. Included are an overview of the household fire problem; instruction in basic chemistry and physics of fire, flammable liquids, portable fire extinguishers,…

  7. Safety and Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond. Div. of Sciences and Elementary Administration.

    This 10-chapter handbook (designed for science teachers and school administrators) describes known hazards associated with science teaching and provides information to develop a framework for local safety programs specifically designed to avoid or neutralize the effects of such hazards. Major areas addressed in the chapters include: (1) the nature…

  8. Laboratory Ventilation and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1965-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of both safety and economy, laboratory ventilation systems must effectively remove air-borne toxic and flammable materials and at the same time exhaust a minimum volume of air. Laboratory hoods are the most commonly used means of removing gases, dusts, mists, vapors, and fumed from laboratory operations. To be effective,…

  9. Safety Picks up "STEAM"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This column shares safety information for the classroom. STEAM subjects--science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics--are essential for fostering students' 21st-century skills. STEAM promotes critical-thinking skills, including analysis, assessment, categorization, classification, interpretation, justification, and prediction, and are…

  10. Module Safety Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2012-02-01

    Description of how to make PV modules so that they are less likely to turn into safety hazards. Making modules inherently safer with minimum additional cost is the preferred approach for PV. Safety starts with module design to ensure redundancy within the electrical circuitry to minimize open circuits and proper mounting instructions to prevent installation related ground faults. Module manufacturers must control the raw materials and processes to ensure that that every module is built like those qualified through the safety tests. This is the reason behind the QA task force effort to develop a 'Guideline for PV Module Manufacturing QA'. Periodic accelerated stress testing of production products is critical to validate the safety of the product. Combining safer PV modules with better systems designs is the ultimate goal. This should be especially true for PV arrays on buildings. Use of lower voltage dc circuits - AC modules, DC-DC converters. Use of arc detectors and interrupters to detect arcs and open the circuits to extinguish the arcs.

  11. Safety Awareness & Communications Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferson, Zanani

    2015-01-01

    The projects that I have worked on during my internships were updating the JSC Safety & Health Action Team JSAT Employee Guidebook, conducting a JSC mishap case study, preparing for JSC Today Close Call success stories, and assisting with event planning and awareness.

  12. Boating Safety Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coast Guard, Washington, DC.

    The training manual serves as the text for the Coast Guard's boating safety 32-hour course and for the D-8 Qualification Code Recertification Course. The manual is designed for self-study or for use with an instructor-led course. Each chapter concludes with a quiz to be used as a review of chaper content. Opening chapters review the use of the…

  13. Atomic Power Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogerton, John F.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: What is Atomic Power?; What Does Safety Depend On?; Control of Radioactive Material During Operation; Accident Prevention; Containment in the Event of an Accident; Licensing and…

  14. Toxicology and Chemical Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Stephen K.

    1983-01-01

    Topics addressed in this discussion of toxicology and chemical safety include routes of exposure, dose/response relationships, action of toxic substances, and effects of exposure to chemicals. Specific examples are used to illustrate the principles discussed. Suggests prudence in handling any chemicals, whether or not toxicity is known. (JN)

  15. Industrial Education Safety Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    California is one of the few states in which school districts have a legal responsibility for accidents involving students while they are participating in assigned school activities. This guide was prepared to help school administrators and teachers evaluate their safety instruction programs and industrial education facilities in accordance with…

  16. Nanodrugs: pharmacokinetics and safety

    PubMed Central

    Onoue, Satomi; Yamada, Shizuo; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2014-01-01

    To date, various nanodrug systems have been developed for different routes of administration, which include dendrimers, nanocrystals, emulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, micelles, and polymeric nanoparticles. Nanodrug systems have been employed to improve the efficacy, safety, physicochemical properties, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of pharmaceutical substances. In particular, functionalized nanodrug systems can offer enhanced bioavailability of orally taken drugs, prolonged half-life of injected drugs (by reducing immunogenicity), and targeted delivery to specific tissues. Thus, nanodrug systems might lower the frequency of administration while providing maximized pharmacological effects and minimized systemic side effects, possibly leading to better therapeutic compliance and clinical outcomes. In spite of these attractive pharmacokinetic advantages, recent attention has been drawn to the toxic potential of nanodrugs since they often exhibit in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and genotoxicity. A better understanding of the pharmacokinetic and safety characteristics of nanodrugs and the limitations of each delivery option is necessary for the further development of efficacious nanodrugs with high therapeutic potential and a wide safety margin. This review highlights the recent progress in nanodrug system development, with a focus on the pharmacokinetic advantages and safety challenges. PMID:24591825

  17. School Safety Review Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The School Safety Review Checklist is an important component of the broader school crisis resources that have been developed by the Vermont School Crisis Planning Team. The Team is comprised of members from the law enforcement, emergency management, health, and education organizations who have worked throughout the year to update school and…

  18. Consumer Product Safety Bills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    This legislative analysis of the actions of the 92nd Congress concerning consumer product safety bills, current as of March 20, 1972, presents briefly the background of Congressional investigations in this area. Describing in detail four major bills which focus on the establishment of an independent government agency regulating consumer products…

  19. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) monitored NASA's activities and provided feedback to the NASA Administrator, other NASA officials and Congress throughout the year. Particular attention was paid to the Space Shuttle, its launch processing and planned and potential safety improvements. The Panel monitored Space Shuttle processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and will continue to follow it as personnel reductions are implemented. There is particular concern that upgrades in hardware, software, and operations with the potential for significant risk reduction not be overlooked due to the extraordinary budget pressures facing the agency. The authorization of all of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Block II components portends future Space Shuttle operations at lower risk levels and with greater margins for handling unplanned ascent events. Throughout the year, the Panel attempted to monitor the safety activities related to the Russian involvement in both space and aeronautics programs. This proved difficult as the working relationships between NASA and the Russians were still being defined as the year unfolded. NASA's concern for the unique safety problems inherent in a multi-national endeavor appears appropriate. Actions are underway or contemplated which should be capable of identifying and rectifying problem areas. The balance of this report presents 'Findings and Recommendations' (Section 2), 'Information in Support of Findings and Recommendations' (Section 3) and Appendices describing Panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1994 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period (Section 4).

  20. Child Safety Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Malibu, CA.

    This document presents a set of child safety curriculum guidelines intended to help prevent child victimization and to promote safer living and learning environments for children and adolescents across America. These guidelines were developed to help educators, law enforcement personnel, and members of other youth-serving agencies teach children…

  1. Auditing Schools for Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Eric,

    2000-01-01

    Explores the issues involved in conducting effective safety audits for educational facilities. Areas covered include auditing for site characteristics, access control, lighting, building exterior, door types and locking mechanisms, key control, alarm system controls, security monitors, and vision panels in the doors. (GR)

  2. Traffic Safety Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    This guide, intended for administrators, curriculum developers, and teachers, provides outlines and suggestions for strategies and materials needed to achieve the goals and objectives of the safety education program. The guide covers the following topics: a broad examination of the highway system; the responsibilities highway users have toward…

  3. Safety Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fido, A. T.; Wood, D. O.

    This document discusses the issues that need to be considered by the education and training system as it responds to the changing needs of industry in Great Britain. Following a general introduction, the development of quality management ideas is traced. The underlying principles of safety and risk management are clarified and the implications of…

  4. Toys and safety.

    PubMed

    Scowen, Pat

    2006-01-01

    Christmas is coming and with it the purchase of toys for the children. But toys are also given all year round, and educating each new generation of parents about toy and play safety is part of the public health role for health professionals working with families.

  5. Software Safety Progress in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radley, Charles F.

    1995-01-01

    NASA has developed guidelines for development and analysis of safety-critical software. These guidelines have been documented in a Guidebook for Safety Critical Software Development and Analysis. The guidelines represent a practical 'how to' approach, to assist software developers and safety analysts in cost effective methods for software safety. They provide guidance in the implementation of the recent NASA Software Safety Standard NSS-1740.13 which was released as 'Interim' version in June 1994, scheduled for formal adoption late 1995. This paper is a survey of the methods in general use, resulting in the NASA guidelines for safety critical software development and analysis.

  6. Automobile safety regulations and death reductions in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, L S

    1981-01-01

    The effectiveness of federal automobile safety standards was examined using detailed data on 236,000 vehicles in fatal crashes in the United States during 1975-1978. Controlling statistically for type of regulation, types of vehicles, and ages of vehicles, the federal motor vehicle safety standards were associated with substantial reductions in car occupant death per 100 million vehicle miles travelled, and some reductions in fatal collisions of the federally regulated vehicles with pedestrians, motorcyclists, and bicyclists. Some 37,000 fewer deaths occurred in 1975-1978 than would have been expected without the federal standards. PMID:7258443

  7. Dynamic Safety Cases for Through-Life Safety Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh; Habli, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    We describe dynamic safety cases, a novel operationalization of the concept of through-life safety assurance, whose goal is to enable proactive safety management. Using an example from the aviation systems domain, we motivate our approach, its underlying principles, and a lifecycle. We then identify the key elements required to move towards a formalization of the associated framework.

  8. Safety Teams: An Approach to Engage Students in Laboratory Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaimo, Peter J.; Langenhan, Joseph M.; Tanner, Martha J.; Ferrenberg, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    We developed and implemented a yearlong safety program into our organic chemistry lab courses that aims to enhance student attitudes toward safety and to ensure students learn to recognize, demonstrate, and assess safe laboratory practices. This active, collaborative program involves the use of student "safety teams" and includes hands-on safety…

  9. 76 FR 53086 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... pipeline operators. In 2003, similar IM regulations were enacted for gas pipelines (68 FR 69778; 12/15/2003...: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...). SUMMARY: PHMSA is considering whether changes are needed to the regulations governing the safety of...

  10. The Strategy for Safety: Preventing Crises through Safety Audits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sara Goldsmith

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author demonstrates the importance of school safety audits and describes what schools should focus on in a safety audit. Ultimately, each school should determine its own safety audit strategy based on its unique circumstances, including the type of community within which it is located, the age of the students it serves, and the…

  11. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Developing Departmental Safety Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.; Palladino, George F.

    1980-01-01

    Presents rationale and guidelines for development of Safety Standard Operating Procedures (Safety SOP) specific for local conditions. Includes an outline of a Safety SOP developed for a department primarily focused on undergraduate education with a wide variety of expertise from common laborer to PhD with 20 years experience. (Author/JN)

  12. Agribusiness Safety. Module SH-15. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on agribusiness safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. Following the introduction, 11 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is expected to accomplish are listed (e.g., List at least two reasons for agribusiness safety standards). Then each objective is taught in detail, sometimes…

  13. [Agricultural biotechnology safety assessment].

    PubMed

    McClain, Scott; Jones, Wendelyn; He, Xiaoyun; Ladics, Gregory; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Raybould, Alan; Lutter, Petra; Xu, Haibin; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first introduced to farmers in 1995 with the intent to provide better crop yield and meet the increasing demand for food and feed. GM crops have evolved to include a thorough safety evaluation for their use in human food and animal feed. Safety considerations begin at the level of DNA whereby the inserted GM DNA is evaluated for its content, position and stability once placed into the crop genome. The safety of the proteins coded by the inserted DNA and potential effects on the crop are considered, and the purpose is to ensure that the transgenic novel proteins are safe from a toxicity, allergy, and environmental perspective. In addition, the grain that provides the processed food or animal feed is also tested to evaluate its nutritional content and identify unintended effects to the plant composition when warranted. To provide a platform for the safety assessment, the GM crop is compared to non-GM comparators in what is typically referred to as composition equivalence testing. New technologies, such as mass spectrometry and well-designed antibody-based methods, allow better analytical measurements of crop composition, including endogenous allergens. Many of the analytical methods and their intended uses are based on regulatory guidance documents, some of which are outlined in globally recognized documents such as Codex Alimentarius. In certain cases, animal models are recommended by some regulatory agencies in specific countries, but there is typically no hypothesis or justification of their use in testing the safety of GM crops. The quality and standardization of testing methods can be supported, in some cases, by employing good laboratory practices (GLP) and is recognized in China as important to ensure quality data. Although the number of recommended, in some cases, required methods for safety testing are increasing in some regulatory agencies, it should be noted that GM crops registered to date have been shown to be

  14. Globalisation and blood safety.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a naïve ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to

  15. Globalisation and blood safety.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a naïve ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to

  16. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) continued its safety reviews of NASA's human space flight and aeronautics programs. Efforts were focused on those areas that the Panel believed held the greatest potential to impact safety. Continuing safe Space Shuttle operations and progress in the manufacture and testing of primary components for the International Space Station (ISS) were noteworthy. The Panel has continued to monitor the safety implications of the transition of Space Shuttle operations to the United Space Alliance (USA). One area being watched closely relates to the staffing levels and skill mix in both NASA and USA. Therefore, a section of this report is devoted to personnel and other related issues that are a result of this change in NASA's way of doing business for the Space Shuttle. Attention will continue to be paid to this important topic in subsequent reports. Even though the Panel's activities for 1997 were extensive, fewer specific recommendations were formulated than has been the case in recent years. This is indicative of the current generally good state of safety of NASA programs. The Panel does, however, have several longer term concerns that have yet to develop to the level of a specific recommendation. These are covered in the introductory material for each topic area in Section 11. In another departure from past submissions, this report does not contain individual findings and recommendations for the aeronautics programs. While the Panel devoted its usual efforts to examining NASA's aeronautic centers and programs, no specific recommendations were identified for inclusion in this report. In lieu of recommendations, a summary of the Panel's observations of NASA's safety efforts in aeronautics and future Panel areas of emphasis is provided. With profound sadness the Panel notes the passing of our Chairman, Paul M. Johnstone, on December 17, 1997, and our Staff Assistant, Ms. Patricia M. Harman, on October 5, 1997. Other

  17. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) activities during 2002. The format of the report has been modified to capture a long-term perspective. Section II is new and highlights the Panel's view of NASA's safety progress during the year. Section III contains the pivotal safety issues facing NASA in the coming year. Section IV includes the program area findings and recommendations. The Panel has been asked by the Administrator to perform several special studies this year, and the resulting white papers appear in Appendix C. The year has been filled with significant achievements for NASA in both successful Space Shuttle operations and International Space Station (ISS) construction. Throughout the year, safety has been first and foremost in spite of many changes throughout the Agency. The relocation of the Orbiter Major Modifications (OMMs) from California to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) appears very successful. The transition of responsibilities for program management of the Space Shuttle and ISS programs from Johnson Space Center (JSC) to NASA Headquarters went smoothly. The decision to extend the life of the Space Shuttle as the primary NASA vehicle for access to space is viewed by the Panel as a prudent one. With the appropriate investments in safety improvements, in maintenance, in preserving appropriate inventories of spare parts, and in infrastructure, the Space Shuttle can provide safe and reliable support for the ISS for the foreseeable future. Indications of an aging Space Shuttle fleet occurred on more than one occasion this year. Several flaws went undetected in the early prelaunch tests and inspections. In all but one case, the problems were found prior to launch. These incidents were all handled properly and with safety as the guiding principle. Indeed, launches were postponed until the problems were fully understood and mitigating action could be taken. These incidents do, however, indicate the need to analyze the

  18. [Agricultural biotechnology safety assessment].

    PubMed

    McClain, Scott; Jones, Wendelyn; He, Xiaoyun; Ladics, Gregory; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Raybould, Alan; Lutter, Petra; Xu, Haibin; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first introduced to farmers in 1995 with the intent to provide better crop yield and meet the increasing demand for food and feed. GM crops have evolved to include a thorough safety evaluation for their use in human food and animal feed. Safety considerations begin at the level of DNA whereby the inserted GM DNA is evaluated for its content, position and stability once placed into the crop genome. The safety of the proteins coded by the inserted DNA and potential effects on the crop are considered, and the purpose is to ensure that the transgenic novel proteins are safe from a toxicity, allergy, and environmental perspective. In addition, the grain that provides the processed food or animal feed is also tested to evaluate its nutritional content and identify unintended effects to the plant composition when warranted. To provide a platform for the safety assessment, the GM crop is compared to non-GM comparators in what is typically referred to as composition equivalence testing. New technologies, such as mass spectrometry and well-designed antibody-based methods, allow better analytical measurements of crop composition, including endogenous allergens. Many of the analytical methods and their intended uses are based on regulatory guidance documents, some of which are outlined in globally recognized documents such as Codex Alimentarius. In certain cases, animal models are recommended by some regulatory agencies in specific countries, but there is typically no hypothesis or justification of their use in testing the safety of GM crops. The quality and standardization of testing methods can be supported, in some cases, by employing good laboratory practices (GLP) and is recognized in China as important to ensure quality data. Although the number of recommended, in some cases, required methods for safety testing are increasing in some regulatory agencies, it should be noted that GM crops registered to date have been shown to be

  19. FLUOR HANFORD SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS

    SciTech Connect

    GARVIN, L. J.; JENSEN, M. A.

    2004-04-13

    This document summarizes safety management programs used within the scope of the ''Project Hanford Management Contract''. The document has been developed to meet the format and content requirements of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses''. This document provides summary descriptions of Fluor Hanford safety management programs, which Fluor Hanford nuclear facilities may reference and incorporate into their safety basis when producing facility- or activity-specific documented safety analyses (DSA). Facility- or activity-specific DSAs will identify any variances to the safety management programs described in this document and any specific attributes of these safety management programs that are important for controlling potentially hazardous conditions. In addition, facility- or activity-specific DSAs may identify unique additions to the safety management programs that are needed to control potentially hazardous conditions.

  20. Safety through Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, S.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses the need for safety education as a continuous process through elementary and secondary phases of education in the context of human risk within modern society. Discusses the teaching of safety subjects in civil engineering curriculum. (YP)

  1. Medicine safety: Filling your prescription

    MedlinePlus

    Institute for Safe Medication Practices. Purchasing medications. ConsumerMedSafety.org. www.consumermedsafety.org/medication-safety-articles/purchasing-medications . Accessed June 28, 2016. American Academy of Family Medicine. How ...

  2. MedlinePlus: Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... reached its expiration date. United States Department of Agriculture Start Here 4 Basic Steps to Food Safety ... Spanish Basics for Handling Food Safely (Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service) - PDF Be Food ...

  3. Workplace Safety: Indoor Environmental Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Workplace Safety & Health Topics Indoor Environmental Quality Health Hazard Evaluation ... Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH ...

  4. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Modernization Act Food Safety and Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... THIS: Real Stories About the Dangers of Raw Milk “My daughter turned into a completely different person ...

  5. Safety Training in Reed International

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, J.

    1974-01-01

    The safety training provided within Reed International Limited and its relationship to production operations are outlined, demonstrating that safety works when management is committed to it on both humanitarian and economic grounds. (MW)

  6. Safety in the Physics Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullen, Brother T. G.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly defines the legal aspects of safety. Presents prominent safety hazards and procedures that should be followed when dealing with electricity, radioactive materials, lasers, poisons, and vacuum apparatus. (GS)

  7. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, Ernest

    1986-01-01

    A safety device is disclosed for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of an upward thermal excursion. Such safety device comprises a laminated helical ribbon configured as a tube-like helical coil having contiguous helical turns with slidably abutting edges. The helical coil is disclosed as a portion of a drive member connected axially to the control rod. The laminated ribbon is formed of outer and inner laminae. The material of the outer lamina has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material of the inner lamina. In the event of an upward thermal excursion, the laminated helical coil curls inwardly to a smaller diameter. Such inward curling causes the total length of the helical coil to increase by a substantial increment, so that the control rod is axially repositioned by a corresponding amount to reduce the power output of the reactor.

  8. Cells need safety valves.

    PubMed

    Danchin, Antoine

    2009-07-01

    In Escherichia coli, the role of lacA, the third gene of the lactose operon, has remained an enigma. I suggest that its role is the consequence of the need for cells to have safety valves that protect them from the osmotic effect created by their permeases. Safety valves allow them to cope with the buildup of osmotic pressure under accidental transient conditions. Multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux, thus named because of our anthropocentrism, is ubiquitous. Yet, the formation of simple leaks would result in futile influx/efflux cycles. Versatile modification enzymes with low sensitivity solve the problem if the modified metabolite is the one exported by MDR permeases. This may account for the pervasive presence of acetyltransferases, such as LacA, associated to acetyl-metabolite exporters. This scenario of constraints imposed by efficient influx of metabolites provides us with a model that should be followed when constructing synthetic cells. PMID:19472369

  9. Software safety hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

  10. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a five-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASA's safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are 'one deep.' The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting 'brain drain' could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. The major NASA programs are also limited in their ability to plan property for the future. This is of particular concern for the Space Shuttle and ISS because these programs are scheduled to operate well into the next century. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has

  11. Safety Intervention Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    ZIMMERMAN, R.O.

    2001-10-16

    Judging safety intervention effectiveness is often left up to the eye of the beholder. Safety and Health Professionals must increase skills and increase their body of knowledge, based on scientific evidence, that can be applied confidently in the workplace. Evidence must be collected and analyzed to separate the interventions of the month with those that stand the test of time. The book Guide to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Work injuries DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-119, April 2001, serves as a primary reference. An example study related to biorhythms, popular in the late 1970s, is used to illustrate the separating of scientific evidence and pseudo-science hype. The cited biorhythm study focuses on the relationship of the accident dates and the three biorhythmic cycles (physical, emotional, and intelligence).

  12. Firearms safety program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The USGS provides appropriate firearms safety training for any employee or USGS volunteer who uses, handles, carries, or stores a firearm as part of his or her official duties. An employee or volunteer can be authorized to carry a firearm while on official duty once he or she has completed specified training requirements and a certificate of need and qualification inquiry. Knowledge of details for firearms storage, security, and transport is also necessary.

  13. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.

  14. [Food safety of GMOs].

    PubMed

    Joudrier, P

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, we review the complexity of the different biological events which occur during life cell cycles. Indeed transgenesis is not an unknown event for cells. In the second part of this article, the complex and complete evaluation process destined to assure the food safety of GMOs, before they are released on the market, is describd. Some ansers to questions frequently asked about the GMOs are given. It is concludedthat GMOs are probably more safe than their conventional non-GM counterpart.

  15. Health and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, K. )

    1990-05-01

    This article discusses health and safety in coal mines and the primary issues in this area during 1989. Particular attention is given to the employment figures as well as the fatality statistics. According to this article, employment was up during 1989 to approximately 164,000 workers as compared to 136,000 in 1969. Attention is also given to dealing with coal mining regulations as well as a crackdown on illegal operators in the industry.

  16. Lightning safety of animals.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  17. Organizational culture, safety culture, and safety performance at research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William S.

    2000-07-30

    Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

  18. Safety and Health Training Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Safety Advisory Council, Washington, DC.

    Information obtained from a survey of safety and health training activities undertaken by Federal agencies is provided in the document which serves as a resource guide and directory of agency safety programs. The document, intended to help Federal managers meet their safety training needs with available government resources, is divided into four…

  19. Missouri Secondary Science Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Judith L.

    The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. This manual contains information on standards, legal aspects, and responsibilities for science safety; general laboratory safety for…

  20. Annual Safety Education Review 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet presents articles completed in 1970 by the Division of Safety Education of the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation. The 11 articles deal with the following topics: a) the problem of apathy in safety education, b) the safety aspects of archery and riflery, c) weight training for high school girls, d)…

  1. School Safety Study: Phase I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Alka

    This report summarizes findings from a study concerned with Arizona school safety. The survey component highlights safety-related policy information across 300 schools; the interview component highlights school-safety perceptions of 64 staff across 16 schools. Various policies and programs that respond to internal and external threats to school…

  2. Safety Audit/Inspection Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This guide provides guidelines and procedures for safety audits and inspections in work environments. Contents include: (1) Administrative Concepts, (2) Physical Concepts, (3) Protecting Your Audits, (4) Safety Inspections, and (5) Safety Inspection Checklist. The appendix features federal laws and regulations affecting laboratories. (YDS)

  3. Pupil Transportation Safety Program Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delahanty, Joseph F.; And Others

    This study has been undertaken to assess the magnitude of the school bus safety problem and to develop a plan to improve pupil transportation safety. The resulting report provides estimates of school bus population and daily usage, gives an account of injuries and fatalities that occur annually, and compares the safety records of school buses to…

  4. Safety for Teen-Agers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pounds, Elenore T.; And Others

    This booklet is designed for teenage students and discusses safety and first aid. The first part of the booklet covers safety instruction, causes of accidents, what it means to be safety-minded, and discusses experimental safe-car design and testing programs. The second part presents basic descriptions for first aid treatment of common injuries…

  5. Handbook for Public Playground Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    Playgrounds, being a fundamental part of the childhood experience, should be safe havens for children. This handbook includes technical safety guidelines for designing, constructing, operating, and maintaining public playgrounds. It also includes a "Public Playground Safety Checklist" to highlight some of the most important safety issues for…

  6. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1969-01-01

    Presents the Safety Guide used in the Research Center at Monsanto Chemical Company (St. Louis). Topics include: general safety practices, safety glasses and shoes, respiratory protection, electrical wiring, solvent handling and waste disposal. Procedures are given for evacuating, "tagging out, and "locking out. Special mention is given to…

  7. School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundage, Patricia; Palassis, John

    2006-01-01

    The guide presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. The guide also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as Material…

  8. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-03-01

    This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.

  9. AFR-100 safety analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Sumner, T.; Moisseytsev, A.; Wei, T. Y. C.

    2012-07-01

    The Advanced Fast Reactor-100 (AFR-100) is Argonne National Laboratory's 250 MWth metal-fueled modular sodium-cooled pool-type fast reactor concept. [1] A series of accident sequences that focused on the AFR-100's ability to provide protection against reactor damage during low probability accident sequences resulting from multiple equipment failures were examined. Protected and Unprotected Loss of Flow (PLOF and ULOF) and Unprotected Transient Over-Power (UTOP) accidents were simulated using the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 safety analysis code. The large heat capacity of the sodium in the pool-type reactor allows the AFR-100 to absorb large amounts of energy during a PLOF with relatively small temperature increases throughout the system. During a ULOF with a 25-second flow halving time, coolant and cladding temperatures peak around 720 deg. C within the first minute before reactivity feedback effects decrease power to match the flow. Core radial expansion and fuel Doppler provide the necessary feedback during the UTOP to bring the system back to critical before system temperatures exceed allowable limits. Simulation results indicate that adequate ULOF safety margins exist for the AFR-100 design with flow halving times of twenty-five seconds. Significant safety margins are maintained for PLOF accidents as well as UTOP accidents if a rod stop is used. (authors)

  10. CONVEYOR SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salem

    1995-06-23

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) surface and subsurface conveyor system (for a list of conveyor subsystems see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the conveyor structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the hazards related to the design of conveyor structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) that occur during normal operation. Hazards occurring during assembly, test and maintenance or ''off normal'' operations have not been included in this analysis. Construction related work activities are specifically excluded per DOE Order 5481.1B section 4. c.

  11. [Safety of intensive sweeteners].

    PubMed

    Lugasi, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays low calorie or intesive sweeteners are getting more and more popular. These sweeteners can be placed to the market and used as food additives according to the recent EU legislation. In the meantime news are coming out one after the other stating that many of these artificial intensive sweeteners can cause cancer - the highest risk has been attributed to aspartam. Low calorie sweeteners, just like all the other additives can be authorized after strickt risk assessment procedure according to the recent food law. Only after the additive has gone through these procedure can be placed to the list of food additives, which contains not only the range of food these additives can be used, but also the recommended highest amount of daily consumption. European Food Safety Authority considering the latest scientific examination results, evaluates regularly the safety of sweeteners authorized earlier. Until now there is no evidence found to question the safety of the authorized intensive sweeteners. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(Suppl. 1), 14-28. PMID:27088715

  12. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.

  13. Safety of Gadobutrol

    PubMed Central

    Endrikat, Jan; Vogtlaender, Kai; Dohanish, Susan; Balzer, Thomas; Breuer, Josy

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to provide a systematic safety analysis of gadobutrol after more than 29 million applications in clinical routine. Materials and Methods Forty-two clinical development phase II to IV studies on gadobutrol or comparator and the postmarketing safety surveillance database for gadobutrol (1998–2015) were analyzed. Adverse events (AEs) and drug-related AEs were evaluated in the clinical development database and spontaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the postmarketing database. Subgroup analyses were run on patients with special medical history and on patients of different age groups. Results In the clinical development studies, 6809 and 2184 patients received gadobutrol or comparators, respectively. The incidence of drug-related AEs was 3.5% for both groups. With the exception of nausea (0.7% related cases in both groups), all other drug-related AEs were 0.3% or less in both groups. Hypersensitivity reactions were sporadic (<0.1%). Patients with history of allergies to contrast agents experienced slightly more drug-related AEs. No differences were seen between age groups. The overall reporting rate of ADRs from postmarketing surveillance was 0.05%. The most frequent ADRs were anaphylactoid/hypersensitivity reactions, nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. For 3 single-agent reports of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, using a conservative approach, association with gadobutrol could not be excluded. Conclusions Gadobutrol is well tolerated and has a favorable safety profile for patients of all age groups. PMID:26964075

  14. Safety of antiobesity drugs.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Bernard Man Yung; Cheung, Tommy Tsang; Samaranayake, Nithushi Rajitha

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is a major health problem worldwide. Although diet and physical activity are crucial in the management of obesity, the long-term success rate is low. Therefore antiobesity drugs are of great interest, especially when lifestyle modification has failed. As obesity is not an immediate life-threatening disease, these drugs are required to be safe. Antiobesity drugs that have been developed so far have limited efficacies and considerable adverse effects affecting tolerability and safety. Therefore, most antiobesity drugs have been withdrawn. Fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine were withdrawn because of the potential damage to heart valves. Sibutramine was associated with an increase in major adverse cardiovascular events in the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcomes (SCOUT) trial and it was withdrawn from the market in 2010. Rimonabant was withdrawn because of significant psychiatric adverse effects. Orlistat was approved in Europe and the United States for long-term treatment of obesity, but many patients cannot tolerate its gastrointestinal side effects. Phentermine and diethylpropion can only be used for less than 12 weeks because the long-term safety of these drugs is unknown. Ephedrine and caffeine are natural substances but the effects on weight reduction are modest. As a result there is a huge unmet need for effective and safe antiobesity drugs. Recently lorcaserin and topiramate plus phentermine have been approved for the treatment of obesity but long-term safety data are lacking. PMID:25114779

  15. The safety of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Snydman, David R

    2008-02-01

    Probiotics are generally defined as microorganisms that, when consumed, generally confer a health benefit on humans. There is considerable interest in probiotics for a variety of medical conditions, and millions of people around the world consume probiotics daily for perceived health benefits. Lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and lactococci have generally been regarded as safe. There are 3 theoretical concerns regarding the safety of probiotics: (1) the occurrence of disease, such as bacteremia or endocarditis; (2) toxic or metabolic effects on the gastrointestinal tract; and (3) the transfer of antibiotic resistance in the gastrointestinal flora. In this review, the evidence for safety of the use of or the study of probiotics is examined. Although there are rare cases of bacteremia or fungemia related to the use of probiotics, epidemiologic evidence suggests no population increase in risk on the basis of usage data. There have been many controlled clinical trials on the use of probiotics that demonstrate safe use. The use of probiotics in clinical trials should be accompanied by the use of a data-safety monitoring board and by knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the organism used. PMID:18181712

  16. Overview of safety pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Goineau, Sonia; Lemaire, Martine; Froget, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Safety pharmacology entails the assessment of the potential risks of novel pharmaceuticals for human use. As detailed in the ICH S7A guidelines, safety pharmacology for drug discovery involves a core battery of studies on three vital systems: central nervous (CNS), cardiovascular (CV), and respiratory. Primary CNS studies are aimed at defining compound effects on general behavior, locomotion, neuromuscular coordination, seizure threshold, and vigilance. The primary CV test battery includes an evaluation of proarrhythmic risk using in vitro tests (hERG channel and Purkinje fiber assays) and in vivo measurements in conscious animals via telemetry. Comprehensive cardiac risk assessment also includes full hemodynamic evaluation in a large, anesthetized animal. Basic respiratory function can be examined in conscious animals using whole-body plethysmography. This allows for an assessment of whether the sensitivity to respiratory-depressant effects can be enhanced by exposure to increased CO2 . Other safety pharmacology topics detailed in this unit are the timing of such studies, ethical and animal welfare issues, and statistical evaluation. PMID:24510755

  17. Total safety management: An approach to improving safety culture

    SciTech Connect

    Blush, S.M. )

    1993-01-01

    A little over 4 yr ago, Admiral James D. Watkins became Secretary of Energy. President Bush, who had appointed him, informed Watkins that his principal task would be to clean up the nuclear weapons complex and put the US Department of Energy (DOE) back in the business of producing tritium for the nation's nuclear deterrent. Watkins recognized that in order to achieve these objectives, he would have to substantially improve the DOE's safety culture. Safety culture is a relatively new term. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) used it in a 1986 report on the root causes of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. In 1990, the IAEA's International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group issued a document focusing directly on safety culture. It provides guidelines to the international nuclear community for measuring the effectiveness of safety culture in nuclear organizations. Safety culture has two principal aspects: an organizational framework conducive to safety and the necessary organizational and individual attitudes that promote safety. These obviously go hand in hand. An organization must create the right framework to foster the right attitudes, but individuals must have the right attitudes to create the organizational framework that will support a good safety culture. The difficulty in developing such a synergistic relationship suggests that achieving and sustaining a strong safety culture is not easy, particularly in an organization whose safety culture is in serious disrepair.

  18. Distance between speed humps and pedestrian crossings: does it matter?

    PubMed

    Johansson, Charlotta; Rosander, Peter; Leden, Lars

    2011-09-01

    Speed humps are a common physical measure installed at pedestrian crossings to reduce vehicle speeds therefore improve the safety and mobility of pedestrians at the crossing. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in distance between speed humps and pedestrian crossings contribute differently to the safety and mobility of pedestrians and cyclists, especially children and the elderly, and if so, how. Three sites in Sweden were studied, where vehicle speed measurements and video filming at the site resulted in manually coded, road user behaviour of 1972 pedestrians and cyclists. Road user behaviour at three test sites and two comparison sites equipped with speed cushion at distances of about 5m and 10 m from the pedestrian crossing, i.e. about one or two car lengths, were studied. As vehicle speeds were somewhat lower at the pedestrian crossing when the distance between the speed cushion to the pedestrian crossing was greater, and there were positive aspects regarding the mobility of the pedestrians and cyclists, a greater distance of about 10 m or two car lengths between the hump and the pedestrian crossing is suggested. The present study only covers speed cushions, but the same distance is also regarded as important when installing other types of physical measures to reduce vehicle speed.

  19. Fall protection characteristics of safety belts and human impact tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt, which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness, which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  20. Model-Based Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Anjali; Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Miller, Steven P.; Whalen, Mike W.

    2006-01-01

    System safety analysis techniques are well established and are used extensively during the design of safety-critical systems. Despite this, most of the techniques are highly subjective and dependent on the skill of the practitioner. Since these analyses are usually based on an informal system model, it is unlikely that they will be complete, consistent, and error free. In fact, the lack of precise models of the system architecture and its failure modes often forces the safety analysts to devote much of their effort to gathering architectural details about the system behavior from several sources and embedding this information in the safety artifacts such as the fault trees. This report describes Model-Based Safety Analysis, an approach in which the system and safety engineers share a common system model created using a model-based development process. By extending the system model with a fault model as well as relevant portions of the physical system to be controlled, automated support can be provided for much of the safety analysis. We believe that by using a common model for both system and safety engineering and automating parts of the safety analysis, we can both reduce the cost and improve the quality of the safety analysis. Here we present our vision of model-based safety analysis and discuss the advantages and challenges in making this approach practical.

  1. Leadership for safety: industrial experience

    PubMed Central

    Flin, R; Yule, S

    2004-01-01

    The importance of leadership for effective safety management has been the focus of research attention in industry for a number of years, especially in energy and manufacturing sectors. In contrast, very little research into leadership and safety has been carried out in medical settings. A selective review of the industrial safety literature for leadership research with possible application in health care was undertaken. Emerging findings show the importance of participative, transformational styles for safety performance at all levels of management. Transactional styles with attention to monitoring and reinforcement of workers' safety behaviours have been shown to be effective at the supervisory level. Middle managers need to be involved in safety and foster open communication, while ensuring compliance with safety systems. They should allow supervisors a degree of autonomy for safety initiatives. Senior managers have a prime influence on the organisation's safety culture. They need to continuously demonstrate a visible commitment to safety, best indicated by the time they devote to safety matters. PMID:15576692

  2. N Reactor operational safety summary

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, G.R.; Quapp, W.J.; Ogden, D.M.

    1988-08-01

    This report is a safety summary of the N Reactor. Beginning with its conceptual design in the mid-1950`s, and throughout its 23 years of operation, continuous efforts have been made to ensure safe N Reactor operation and protection of the public health and safety. The N Reactor Updated Safety Analysis Report, completed in 1978(UNC1978), and its subsequent amendments document the safety bases of N Reactor. Following the April 1986 Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union, a major effort to confirm N Reactor safety and further increase its safety margin was initiated. This effort, called the Safety Enhancement Program, reassessed the N Reactor using the latest accepted analysis techniques and commercial light-water reactor guidelines, where applicable. 122 refs., 38 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. DIPS Space Exploration Initiative safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dix, Terry E.

    The Dynamic Isotope Power Subsystem has been identified for potential applications for the Space Exploration Initiative. A qualitative safety assessment has been performed to demonstrate the overall safety adequacy of the Dynamic Isotope Power Subsystem for these applications. Mission profiles were defined for reference lunar and Martian flights. Accident scenarios were qualitatively defined for all mission phases. Safety issue were then identified. The safety issues included radiation exposure, fuel containment, criticality, diversion, toxic materials, heat flux to the extravehicular mobility unit, and disposal. The design was reviewed for areas where safety might be further improved. Safety would be improved by launching the fuel separate from the rest of the subsystem on expendable launch vehicles, using a fuel handling tool during unloading of the hot fuel canister, and constructing a cage-like structure around the reversible heat removal system lithium heat pipes. The results of the safety assessment indicate that the DIPS design with minor modifications will produce a low risk concept.

  4. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety-critical computer systems must be engineered to meet system and software safety requirements. For legacy safety-critical computer systems, software safety requirements may not have been formally specified during development. When process-oriented software safety requirements are levied on a legacy system after the fact, where software development artifacts don't exist or are incomplete, the question becomes 'how can this be done?' The risks associated with only meeting certain software safety requirements in a legacy safety-critical computer system must be addressed should such systems be selected as candidates for reuse. This paper proposes a method for ascertaining formally, a software safety risk assessment, that provides measurements for software safety for legacy systems which may or may not have a suite of software engineering documentation that is now normally required. It relies upon the NASA Software Safety Standard, risk assessment methods based upon the Taxonomy-Based Questionnaire, and the application of reverse engineering CASE tools to produce original design documents for legacy systems.

  5. Safety study application guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Included are analyses of existing facilities done under the aegis of the Safety Analysis Report Upgrade Program, and analyses of new and modified facilities. A graded approach is used wherein the level of analysis and documentation for each facility is commensurate with the magnitude of the hazard(s), the complexity of the facility and the stage of the facility life cycle. Safety analysis reports (SARs) for hazard Category 1 and 2 facilities are usually detailed and extensive because these categories are associated with public health and safety risk. SARs for Category 3 are normally much less extensive because the risk to public health and safety is slight. At Energy Systems, safety studies are the name given to SARs for Category 3 (formerly {open_quotes}low{close_quotes}) facilities. Safety studies are the appropriate instrument when on-site risks are limited to irreversible consequences to a few people, and off-site consequences are limited to reversible consequences to a few people. This application guide provides detailed instructions for performing safety studies that meet the requirements of DOE Orders 5480.22, {open_quotes}Technical Safety Requirements,{close_quotes} and 5480.23, {open_quotes}Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.{close_quotes} A seven-chapter format has been adopted for safety studies. This format allows for discussion of all the items required by DOE Order 5480.23 and for the discussions to be readily traceable to the listing in the order. The chapter titles are: (1) Introduction and Summary, (2) Site, (3) Facility Description, (4) Safety Basis, (5) Hazardous Material Management, (6) Management, Organization, and Institutional Safety Provisions, and (7) Accident Analysis.

  6. Quality and Safety Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manha, William D.

    2010-09-01

    One to the expressions for the most demanding quality was made by a well-known rocket scientist, for which this center was named, Dr. Wernher Von Braun in the Foreword of a book about the design of rocket engines that was first published by NASA in 1967: “Success in space demands perfection. Many of the brilliant achievements made in this vast, austere environment seem almost miraculous. Behind each apparent miracle, however, stands the flawless performance of numerous highly complex systems. All are important. The failure of only one portion of a launch vehicle or spacecraft may cause failure of an entire mission. But the first to feel this awesome imperative for perfection are the propulsion systems, especially the engines. Unless they operate flawlessly first, none of the other systems will get a chance to perform in space. Perfection begins in the design of space hardware. This book emphasizes quality and reliability in the design of propulsion and engine systems. It draws deeply from the vast know-how and experience which have been the essence of several well-designed, reliable systems of the past and present. And, with a thoroughness and completeness not previously available, it tells how the present high state of reliability, gained through years of research and testing, can be maintained, and perhaps improved, in engines of the future. As man ventures deeper into space to explore the planets, the search for perfection in the design of propulsion systems will continue.” Some catastrophes with losses of life will be compared to show lapses in quality and safety and contrasted with a catastrophe without loss of life because of compliance with safety requirements. 1. October 24, 1960,(USSR) Nedelin Catastrophe, Death on the Steppes, 124 deaths 2. October 25, 1966,(USA) North American Rockwell, Apollo Block I Service Module Service(SM) Propulsion System fuel tank explosion/fire and destruction of SM and test cell, test engineer/conductor/author, Bill Manha

  7. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report is based on the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in calendar year 2000. During this year, the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) moved into high gear. The launch of the Russian Service Module was followed by three Space Shuttle construction and logistics flights and the deployment of the Expedition One crew. Continuous habitation of the ISS has begun. To date, both the ISS and Space Shuttle programs have met or exceeded most of their flight objectives. In spite of the intensity of these efforts, it is clear that safety was always placed ahead of cost and schedule. This safety consciousness permitted the Panel to devote more of its efforts to examining the long-term picture. With ISS construction accelerating, demands on the Space Shuttle will increase. While Russian Soyuz and Progress spacecraft will make some flights, the Space Shuttle remains the primary vehicle to sustain the ISS and all other U.S. activities that require humans in space. Development of a next generation, human-rated vehicle has slowed due to a variety of technological problems and the absence of an approach that can accomplish the task significantly better than the Space Shuttle. Moreover, even if a viable design were currently available, the realities of funding and development cycles suggest that it would take many years to bring it to fruition. Thus, it is inescapable that for the foreseeable future the Space Shuttle will be the only human-rated vehicle available to the U.S. space program for support of the ISS and other missions requiring humans. Use of the Space Shuttle will extend well beyond current planning, and is likely to continue for the life of the ISS.

  8. Investigation of pedestrian crashes on two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tulu, Getu Segni; Washington, Simon; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    Understanding pedestrian crash causes and contributing factors in developing countries is critically important as they account for about 55% of all traffic crashes. Not surprisingly, considerable attention in the literature has been paid to road traffic crash prediction models and methodologies in developing countries of late. Despite this interest, there are significant challenges confronting safety managers in developing countries. For example, in spite of the prominence of pedestrian crashes occurring on two-way two-lane rural roads, it has proven difficult to develop pedestrian crash prediction models due to a lack of both traffic and pedestrian exposure data. This general lack of available data has further hampered identification of pedestrian crash causes and subsequent estimation of pedestrian safety performance functions. The challenges are similar across developing nations, where little is known about the relationship between pedestrian crashes, traffic flow, and road environment variables on rural two-way roads, and where unique predictor variables may be needed to capture the unique crash risk circumstances. This paper describes pedestrian crash safety performance functions for two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia as a function of traffic flow, pedestrian flows, and road geometry characteristics. In particular, random parameter negative binomial model was used to investigate pedestrian crashes. The models and their interpretations make important contributions to road crash analysis and prevention in developing countries. They also assist in the identification of the contributing factors to pedestrian crashes, with the intent to identify potential design and operational improvements.

  9. Integrated Safety Analysis Tiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Carla; McNairy, Lisa; Wetherholt, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Commercial partnerships and organizational constraints, combined with complex systems, may lead to division of hazard analysis across organizations. This division could cause important hazards to be overlooked, causes to be missed, controls for a hazard to be incomplete, or verifications to be inefficient. Each organization s team must understand at least one level beyond the interface sufficiently enough to comprehend integrated hazards. This paper will discuss various ways to properly divide analysis among organizations. The Ares I launch vehicle integrated safety analyses effort will be utilized to illustrate an approach that addresses the key issues and concerns arising from multiple analysis responsibilities.

  10. Safety profile of bevantolol.

    PubMed

    Bray, J S

    1986-03-01

    Double-blind and long-term open-label studies have demonstrated a remarkably favorable safety profile for bevantolol. The drug was associated with a low incidence of adverse experiences similar to that observed with placebo. The adverse experiences were mostly mild to moderate and of the types found previously for other beta-blocking drugs. Very few patients withdrew from clinical studies because of adverse effects. Some patients continued on study for over four years. Bevantolol offers safe beta-blocking activity for the long-term treatment of angina and hypertension.

  11. Perspectives on reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Camp, A.L.

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  12. Lightning safety of animals.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed. PMID:22215021

  13. The Psychology of Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brenda Lindley

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of mishaps show that human error is a factor in a significant majority of accidents. Trying to decide how to change human behavior to be safer is generally the biggest challenge of any safety program. However, understanding the human psyche is the first step to changing behavior. Many studies focus on the before and after of an accident, but what about the thoughts of a person in the commission of an unsafe act? This is a less understood area. Examining it reveals why it is not well comprehended. This paper attempts to examine a part of the thought process, with an eye to helping influence people to less hurtful actions.

  14. The Vaccine Safety Datalink: successes and challenges monitoring vaccine safety.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Michael M; Gee, Julianne; Weintraub, Eric S; Belongia, Edward A; Lee, Grace M; Glanz, Jason M; Nordin, James D; Klein, Nicola P; Baxter, Roger; Naleway, Allison L; Jackson, Lisa A; Omer, Saad B; Jacobsen, Steven J; DeStefano, Frank

    2014-09-22

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) is a collaborative project between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 9 health care organizations. Established in 1990, VSD is a vital resource informing policy makers and the public about the safety of vaccines used in the United States. Large linked databases are used to identify and evaluate adverse events in over 9 million individuals annually. VSD generates rapid, important safety assessments for both routine vaccinations and emergency vaccination campaigns. VSD monitors safety of seasonal influenza vaccines in near-real time, and provided essential information on the safety of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine during the recent pandemic. VSD investigators have published important studies demonstrating that childhood vaccines are not associated with autism or other developmental disabilities. VSD prioritizes evaluation of new vaccines; searches for possible unusual health events after vaccination; monitors vaccine safety in pregnant women; and has pioneered development of biostatistical research methods. PMID:25108215

  15. The Vaccine Safety Datalink: successes and challenges monitoring vaccine safety.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Michael M; Gee, Julianne; Weintraub, Eric S; Belongia, Edward A; Lee, Grace M; Glanz, Jason M; Nordin, James D; Klein, Nicola P; Baxter, Roger; Naleway, Allison L; Jackson, Lisa A; Omer, Saad B; Jacobsen, Steven J; DeStefano, Frank

    2014-09-22

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) is a collaborative project between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 9 health care organizations. Established in 1990, VSD is a vital resource informing policy makers and the public about the safety of vaccines used in the United States. Large linked databases are used to identify and evaluate adverse events in over 9 million individuals annually. VSD generates rapid, important safety assessments for both routine vaccinations and emergency vaccination campaigns. VSD monitors safety of seasonal influenza vaccines in near-real time, and provided essential information on the safety of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine during the recent pandemic. VSD investigators have published important studies demonstrating that childhood vaccines are not associated with autism or other developmental disabilities. VSD prioritizes evaluation of new vaccines; searches for possible unusual health events after vaccination; monitors vaccine safety in pregnant women; and has pioneered development of biostatistical research methods.

  16. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  17. 14 CFR 417.109 - Ground safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground safety. 417.109 Section 417.109... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Launch Safety Responsibilities § 417.109 Ground safety. (a) Ground safety... 417.115(c), and subpart E of this part provide launch operator ground safety requirements....

  18. 14 CFR 417.109 - Ground safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground safety. 417.109 Section 417.109... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Launch Safety Responsibilities § 417.109 Ground safety. (a) Ground safety... 417.115(c), and subpart E of this part provide launch operator ground safety requirements....

  19. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  20. 14 CFR 417.109 - Ground safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground safety. 417.109 Section 417.109... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Launch Safety Responsibilities § 417.109 Ground safety. (a) Ground safety... 417.115(c), and subpart E of this part provide launch operator ground safety requirements....

  1. 14 CFR 1274.934 - Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety. 1274.934 Section 1274.934... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.934 Safety. Safety July 2002 NASA's safety priority... shall act responsibly in matters of safety and shall take all reasonable safety measures in...

  2. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  3. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  4. 14 CFR § 1274.934 - Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety. § 1274.934 Section § 1274.934... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.934 Safety. Safety July 2002 NASA's safety priority... shall act responsibly in matters of safety and shall take all reasonable safety measures in...

  5. 14 CFR 1274.934 - Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Safety. 1274.934 Section 1274.934... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.934 Safety. Safety July 2002 NASA's safety priority... shall act responsibly in matters of safety and shall take all reasonable safety measures in...

  6. 14 CFR 417.109 - Ground safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground safety. 417.109 Section 417.109... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Launch Safety Responsibilities § 417.109 Ground safety. (a) Ground safety... 417.115(c), and subpart E of this part provide launch operator ground safety requirements....

  7. 14 CFR 417.109 - Ground safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground safety. 417.109 Section 417.109... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Launch Safety Responsibilities § 417.109 Ground safety. (a) Ground safety... 417.115(c), and subpart E of this part provide launch operator ground safety requirements....

  8. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  9. 14 CFR 1274.934 - Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety. 1274.934 Section 1274.934... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.934 Safety. Safety July 2002 NASA's safety priority... shall act responsibly in matters of safety and shall take all reasonable safety measures in...

  10. 14 CFR 1274.934 - Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety. 1274.934 Section 1274.934... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.934 Safety. Safety July 2002 NASA's safety priority... shall act responsibly in matters of safety and shall take all reasonable safety measures in...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.105 - Safety nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety nets. 1926.105 Section 1926.105 Labor Regulations... Safety nets. (a) Safety nets shall be provided when workplaces are more than 25 feet above the ground or..., safety lines, or safety belts is impractical. (b) Where safety net protection is required by this...

  12. Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using Management Safety Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chien-tsug; Wetmore, Michael; Przetak, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of conducting an accident investigation is to prevent similar accidents from happening again and to make operations safer system-wide. Based on the findings extracted from the investigation, the "lesson learned" becomes a genuine part of the safety database making risk management available to safety analysts. The airline industry is no exception. In the US, the FAA has advocated the usage of the System Safety concept in enhancing safety since 2000. Yet, in today s usage of System Safety, the airline industry mainly focuses on risk management, which is a reactive process of the System Safety discipline. In order to extend the merit of System Safety and to prevent accidents beforehand, a specific System Safety tool needs to be applied; so a model of hazard prediction can be formed. To do so, the authors initiated this study by reviewing 189 final accident reports from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) covering FAR Part 121 scheduled operations. The discovered accident causes (direct hazards) were categorized into 10 groups Flight Operations, Ground Crew, Turbulence, Maintenance, Foreign Object Damage (FOD), Flight Attendant, Air Traffic Control, Manufacturer, Passenger, and Federal Aviation Administration. These direct hazards were associated with 36 root factors prepared for an error-elimination model using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), a leading tool for System Safety experts. An FTA block-diagram model was created, followed by a probability simulation of accidents. Five case studies and reports were provided in order to fully demonstrate the usefulness of System Safety tools in promoting airline safety.

  13. Safety Critical Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brandan

    2008-01-01

    Spaceflight mechanisms have a reputation for being difficult to develop and operate successfully. This reputation is well earned. Many circumstances conspire to make this so: the environments in which the mechanisms are used are extremely severe, there is usually limited or no maintenance opportunity available during operation due to this environment, the environments are difficult to replicate accurately on the ground, the expense of the mechanism development makes it impractical to build and test many units for long periods of time before use, mechanisms tend to be highly specialized and not prone to interchangeability or off-the-shelf use, they can generate and store a lot of energy, and the nature of mechanisms themselves, as a combination of structures, electronics, etc. designed to accomplish specific dynamic performance, makes them very complex and subject to many unpredictable interactions of many types. In addition to their complexities, mechanism are often counted upon to provide critical vehicle functions that can result in catastrophic events should the functions not be performed. It is for this reason that mechanisms are frequently subjected to special scrutiny in safety processes. However, a failure tolerant approach, along with good design and development practices and detailed design reviews, can be developed to allow such notoriously troublesome mechanisms to be utilized confidently in safety-critical applications.

  14. Spa, springs and safety.

    PubMed

    Sukthana, Yaowalark; Lekkla, Amorn; Sutthikornchai, Chantira; Wanapongse, Paitoon; Vejjajiva, Athasit; Bovornkitti, Somchai

    2005-01-01

    Natural mineral water has long been used worldwide for bathing and health purposes. At present, Thailand is famous for health spas and natural hot springs among local people and tourists. Due to possible risks of exposure to harmful agents, we studied hazardous pollutants at 57 natural hot springs from 11 provinces in northern, central, eastern and southern Thailand. Pathogenic, free-living amebae of the genera Naegleria and Acanthamoeba, which can cause central nervous system infection, were found in 26.3% (15/57) and 15.8% (9/ 57), respectively. Dissolved radon, a soil gas with carcinogenic properties, was present in nearly all hot springs sites, with concentration ranging from 0.87-76,527 Becquerels/m3. There were 5 water samples in which radon concentration exceeded the safety limit for drinking. Legionella pneumoniphila (serogroups 1, 3, 5, 6, 7 10 and 13) were found in samples from 71.9% (41/57) of studied sites. Because spas and natural springs are popular tourist attractions, health authorities should be aware of possible hazards and provide tactful measures and guidelines to ensure safety without causing undue alarm to foreign and Thai tourists.

  15. Cockpit emergency safety system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Leo

    2000-06-01

    A comprehensive safety concept is proposed for aircraft's experiencing an incident to the development of fire and smoke in the cockpit. Fire or excessive heat development caused by malfunctioning electrical appliance may produce toxic smoke, may reduce the clear vision to the instrument panel and may cause health-critical respiration conditions. Immediate reaction of the crew, safe respiration conditions and a clear undisturbed view to critical flight information data can be assumed to be the prerequisites for a safe emergency landing. The personal safety equipment of the aircraft has to be effective in supporting the crew to divert the aircraft to an alternate airport in the shortest possible amount of time. Many other elements in the cause-and-effect context of the emergence of fire, such as fire prevention, fire detection, the fire extinguishing concept, systematic redundancy, the wiring concept, the design of the power supplying system and concise emergency checklist procedures are briefly reviewed, because only a comprehensive and complete approach will avoid fatal accidents of complex aircraft in the future.

  16. Is the relationship between the built environment and physical activity moderated by perceptions of crime and safety?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Direct relationships between safety concerns and physical activity have been inconsistently patterned in the literature. To tease out these relationships, crime, pedestrian, and traffic safety were examined as moderators of built environment associations with physical activity. Methods Exploratory analyses used two cross-sectional studies of 2068 adults ages 20–65 and 718 seniors ages 66+ with similar designs and measures. The studies were conducted in the Baltimore, Maryland-Washington, DC and Seattle-King County, Washington regions during 2001–2005 (adults) and 2005–2008 (seniors). Participants were recruited from areas selected to sample high- and low- income and walkability. Independent variables perceived crime, traffic, and pedestrian safety were measured using scales from validated instruments. A GIS-based walkability index was calculated for a street-network buffer around each participant’s home address. Outcomes were total physical activity measured using accelerometers and transportation and leisure walking measured with validated self-reports (IPAQ-long). Mixed effects regression models were conducted separately for each sample. Results Of 36 interactions evaluated across both studies, only 5 were significant (p < .05). Significant interactions did not consistently support a pattern of highest physical activity when safety was rated high and environments were favorable. There was not consistent evidence that safety concerns reduced the beneficial effects of favorable environments on physical activity. Only pedestrian safety showed evidence of a consistent main effect with physical activity outcomes, possibly because pedestrian safety items (e.g., crosswalks, sidewalks) were not as subjective as those on the crime and traffic safety scales. Conclusions Clear relationships between crime, pedestrian, and traffic safety with physical activity levels remain elusive. The development of more precise safety variables and the use of

  17. Seismic Safety Study

    SciTech Connect

    Tokarz, F J; Coats, D W

    2006-05-16

    During the past three decades, the Laboratory has been proactive in providing a seismically safe working environment for its employees and the general public. Completed seismic upgrades during this period have exceeded $30M with over 24 buildings structurally upgraded. Nevertheless, seismic questions still frequently arise regarding the safety of existing buildings. To address these issues, a comprehensive study was undertaken to develop an improved understanding of the seismic integrity of the Laboratory's entire building inventory at the Livermore Main Site and Site 300. The completed study of February 2005 extended the results from the 1998 seismic safety study per Presidential Executive Order 12941, which required each federal agency to develop an inventory of its buildings and to estimate the cost of mitigating unacceptable seismic risks. Degenkolb Engineers, who performed the first study, was recontracted to perform structural evaluations, rank order the buildings based on their level of seismic deficiencies, and to develop conceptual rehabilitation schemes for the most seriously deficient buildings. Their evaluation is based on screening procedures and guidelines as established by the Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction (ICSSC). Currently, there is an inventory of 635 buildings in the Laboratory's Facility Information Management System's (FIMS's) database, out of which 58 buildings were identified by Degenkolb Engineers that require seismic rehabilitation. The remaining 577 buildings were judged to be adequate from a seismic safety viewpoint. The basis for these evaluations followed the seismic safety performance objectives of DOE standard (DOE STD 1020) Performance Category 1 (PC1). The 58 buildings were ranked according to three risk-based priority classifications (A, B, and C) as shown in Figure 1-1 (all 58 buildings have structural deficiencies). Table 1-1 provides a brief description of their expected performance and damage state

  18. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  19. Developing a patient safety plan.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rosanne; Ip, Ivan; Christoffersen, Emily; Shaver, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Many healthcare organizations are focused on the development of a strategic plan to enhance patient safety. The challenge is creating a plan that focuses on patient safety outcomes, integrating the multitude of internal and external drivers of patient safety, aligning improvement initiatives to create synergy and providing a framework for meaningful measurement of intermediate and long-term results while remaining consistent with an organizational mission, vision and strategic goals. This strategy-focused approach recognizes that patient safety initiatives completed in isolation will not provide consistent progress toward a goal, and that a balanced approach is required that includes the development and systematic execution of bundles of related initiatives. This article outlines the process used by Hamilton Health Sciences in adopting Kaplan and Norton's strategy map methodology underpinned by their balanced scorecard framework to create a comprehensive multi-year plan for patient safety that integrates best practice literature from patient safety, quality and organizational development. PMID:18382157

  20. Perceptions of safety at work: a framework for linking safety climate to safety performance, knowledge, and motivation.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M A; Neal, A

    2000-07-01

    Research in the areas of organizational climate and work performance was used to develop a framework for measuring perceptions of safety at work. The framework distinguished perceptions of the work environment from perceptions of performance related to safety. Two studies supported application of the framework to employee perceptions of safety in the workplace. Safety compliance and safety participation were distinguished as separate components of safety-related performance. Perceptions of knowledge about safety and motivation to perform safely influenced individual reports of safety performance and also mediated the link between safety climate and safety performance. Specific dimensions of safety climate were identified and constituted a higher order safety climate factor. The results support conceptualizing safety climate as an antecedent to safety performance in organizations. PMID:10912498

  1. Overcoming barriers to patient safety.

    PubMed

    Kalisch, Beatrice J; Aebersold, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Creating a culture of patient safety is a critical goal of all patient care unit staff. An analysis of the key barriers to patient safety on a typical inpatient unit in an acute care hospital (unclear unit values), the fear of punishment for errors, the lack of systematic analysis of mistakes, the complexity of the nurses' work, and inadequate teamwork are presented. Nine practices to overcome these barriers and achieve patient safety are discussed.

  2. Prospects for nuclear safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a paper presented by Eric S. Beckjord (Director, Nuclear Regulatory Research/NRC) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting in Bethesda, MD in October 1994. The following topics are briefly reviewed: (1) Reactor vessel research, (2) Probabilistic risk assessment, (3) Direct containment heating, (4) Advanced LWR research, (5) Nuclear energy prospects in the US, and (6) Future nuclear safety research. Subtopics within the last category include economics, waste disposal, and health and safety.

  3. Task D: Hydrogen safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, M.R.; Sievert, B.G.; Swain, M.N.

    1996-10-01

    This report covers two topics. The first is a review of codes, standards, regulations, recommendations, certifications, and pamphlets which address safety of gaseous fuels. The second is an experimental investigation of hydrogen flame impingement. Four areas of concern in the conversion of natural gas safety publications to hydrogen safety publications are delineated. Two suggested design criteria for hydrogen vehicle fuel systems are proposed. It is concluded from the experimental work that light weight, low cost, firewalls to resist hydrogen flame impingement are feasible.

  4. Overcoming barriers to patient safety.

    PubMed

    Kalisch, Beatrice J; Aebersold, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Creating a culture of patient safety is a critical goal of all patient care unit staff. An analysis of the key barriers to patient safety on a typical inpatient unit in an acute care hospital (unclear unit values), the fear of punishment for errors, the lack of systematic analysis of mistakes, the complexity of the nurses' work, and inadequate teamwork are presented. Nine practices to overcome these barriers and achieve patient safety are discussed. PMID:16786829

  5. Fire Safety in Extraterrestrial Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Despite rigorous fire-safety policies and practices, fire incidents are possible during lunar and Martian missions. Fire behavior and hence preventive and responsive safety actions in the missions are strongly influenced by the low-gravity environments in flight and on the planetary surfaces. This paper reviews the understanding and key issues of fire safety in the missions, stressing flame spread, fire detection, suppression, and combustion performance of propellants produced from Martian resources.

  6. System Safety Analysis Application Guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Safety analyses are performed to identify hazards and potential accidents; to analyze the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate hazards; and to evaluate potential accidents and determine associated risks. Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) are prepared to document the safety analysis to ensure facilities can be operated safely and in accordance with regulations. SARs include Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), which are specific technical and administrative requirements that prescribe limits and controls to ensure safe operation of DOE facilities. These documented descriptions and analyses contribute to the authorization basis for facility operation. Energy Systems has established a process to perform Unreviewed Safety Question Determinations (USQDs) for planned changes and as-found conditions that are not described and analyzed in existing safety analyses. The process evaluates changes and as-found conditions to determine whether revisions to the authorization basis must be reviewed and approved by DOE. There is an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) if a change introduces conditions not bounded by the facility authorization basis. When it is necessary to request DOE approval to revise the authorization basis, preparation of a System Safety Analysis (SSA) is recommended. This application guide describes the process of preparing an SSA and the desired contents of an SSA. Guidance is provided on how to identify items and practices which are important to safety; how to determine the credibility and significance of consequences of proposed accident scenarios; how to evaluate accident prevention and mitigation features of the planned change; and how to establish special requirements to ensure that a change can be implemented with adequate safety.

  7. European perspectives of food safety.

    PubMed

    Bánáti, Diána

    2014-08-01

    Food safety has been a growing concern among European Union (EU) citizens over the last decades. Despite the fact that food has never been safer, consumers are considerably uncertain and increasingly critical about the safety of their food. The introduction of new principles, such as the primary responsibility of producers, traceability, risk analysis, the separation of risk assessment and risk management provided a more transparent, science-based system in Europe, which can help to restore consumers' lost confidence. The present EU integrated approach to food safety 'from farm to fork' aims to assure a high level of food safety within the EU. PMID:24515443

  8. Gardening Health and Safety Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health History Parent Information Vaccines & Immunizations Healthy Living Gardening Health and Safety Tips Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gardening can be a great way to enjoy the ...

  9. A Laboratory Safety Trivia Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gublo, Kristin I.

    2003-04-01

    At the start of each semester, our department begins our chemistry seminar series with a presentation on laboratory safety. All chemistry faculty, staff, graduate students, undergraduate research students, and student laboratory assistants are required to attend. Many of these individuals have sat through these seminars for several years; they feel the seminars are boring and repetitive. In order to enliven these safety presentations, I have created a cooperative online trivia game. It has been my experience that the lab safety trivia game is an effective and entertaining way to teach lab safety.

  10. Triclosan: applications and safety.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, H N; Leonard, P A

    1996-06-01

    Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) is a nonionic, broad spectrum, antimicrobial agent that, because of its favorable safety profile, has been incorporated into a variety of many personal care products, including deodorant soaps, underarm deodorants, shower gels, and health care personnel handwashes. Triclosan exhibits a moderate degree of substantivity to the skin, and, in many products, it imparts a remnant antimicrobial effect. Although direct contact with the material under exaggerated exposure conditions causes dermal irritation in laboratory animals, it has only rarely been associated with skin irritation or sensitization in human being in formulated products. Acute, subacute/subchronic, and chronic toxicity profiles have been established to determine that triclosan is neither an acute oral toxicant nor that it acts as a carcinogen, mutagen, or teratogen. A new application for triclosan is in oral dentifrices for plaque control. Currently under investigation in the United States, it is approved for oral care application in Canada and many European countries.

  11. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1983-08-15

    A safety device is described for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of a thermal excursion. It comprises a laminated strip helically configured to form a tube, said tube being in operative relation to said control rod. The laminated strip is formed of at least two materials having different thermal coefficients of expansion, and is helically configured such that the material forming the outer lamina of the tube has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material forming the inner lamina of said tube. In the event of a thermal excursion the laminated strip will tend to curl inwardly so that said tube will increase in length, whereby as said tube increases in length it exerts a force on said control rod to axially reposition said control rod with respect to said core.

  12. Microbiological safety of water.

    PubMed

    Dawson, D J; Sartory, D P

    2000-01-01

    Significant advances in water treatment over the last century have resulted in massive improvements in the microbiological safety of public drinking water supplies in the UK and the developed countries. Incidences of illness due to poor treatment or post-treatment contamination are rare, but when they occur tend to attract considerable media attention. A well managed water treatment works and supply system can provide high quality drinking water wherever in the world it is located. As a rule, throughout the world, private supplies tend to be of a poorer quality than public supplies, but poorly managed public supplies have the potential to make a large number of people ill and continued effort is needed to maintain and improve drinking water quality world-wide.

  13. [Safety in brachytherapy].

    PubMed

    Marcié, S; Marinello, G; Peiffert, D; Lartigau, É

    2013-04-01

    No technique can now be used without previously considering the safety of patients, staff and public and risk management. This is the case for brachytherapy. The various aspects of brachytherapy are discussed for both the patient and the staff. For all, the risks must be minimized while achieving a treatment of quality. It is therefore necessary to establish a list as comprehensive as possible regardless of the type of brachytherapy (low, high, pulsed dose-rate). Then, their importance must be assessed with the help of their criticality. Radiation protection of personnel and public must take into account the many existing regulation texts. Four axes have been defined for the risk management for patients: organization, preparation, planning and implementation of treatment. For each axis, a review of risks is presented, as well as administrative, technical and medical dispositions for staff and the public. PMID:23465784

  14. Transportation safety training

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Section at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, have developed and implemented a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Electrical safety device

    DOEpatents

    White, David B.

    1991-01-01

    An electrical safety device for use in power tools that is designed to automatically discontinue operation of the power tool upon physical contact of the tool with a concealed conductive material. A step down transformer is used to supply the operating power for a disconnect relay and a reset relay. When physical contact is made between the power tool and the conductive material, an electrical circuit through the disconnect relay is completed and the operation of the power tool is automatically interrupted. Once the contact between the tool and conductive material is broken, the power tool can be quickly and easily reactivated by a reset push button activating the reset relay. A remote reset is provided for convenience and efficiency of operation.

  16. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY... Safety Unit Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is...-0263 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0263 Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN....

  17. Urban planning and traffic safety at night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ispas, N.; Trusca, D.

    2016-08-01

    Urban planning including traffic signs serve vital functions, providing road users with regulatory, warning and guidance information about the roadway and surrounding environment. There are a large number of signs and even more guidelines on how these signs should be designed, installed, and maintained in concordance with on road surface traffic signs. More requirements for signs are made for night urban traffic, including appearance (size, shape, colour), placement (height, lateral, and longitudinal), maintenance (visibility, position, damage) and signs light and retroreflective. In the night, traffic signs visibility can interact by on pedestrian visibility and diminish urban traffic safety. The main aim of this paper are the scientific determination of an urban specific zone visibility for evaluate at night real conditions in case of a traffic accident in the Braşov city area. The night visibility study was made using PC-Rect version 4.2. Other goal of the paper was to modify some urban planning solution in order to increase the urban safety in Brașov.

  18. 76 FR 11418 - Rear Visibility; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... vehicle safety standard on rearview mirrors to improve the ability of a driver of a vehicle to detect... weight. Specifically, NHTSA proposed to specify an area immediately behind each vehicle that the driver... driver to detect pedestrians in the area immediately behind his or her vehicle and thereby minimize...

  19. 49 CFR 1.95 - Delegations to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Exercise the authority vested in the Secretary under chapters 301, 303, 321, 323, 325, 327, 329, and 331, of Title 49, U.S.C., except for 49 U.S.C. 32916(b). (b) Exercise the authority vested in the...-related aspects of pedestrian and bicycle safety. (e) Carry out the functions and exercise the...

  20. 49 CFR 1.95 - Delegations to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Exercise the authority vested in the Secretary under chapters 301, 303, 321, 323, 325, 327, 329, and 331, of Title 49, U.S.C., except for 49 U.S.C. 32916(b). (b) Exercise the authority vested in the...-related aspects of pedestrian and bicycle safety. (e) Carry out the functions and exercise the...

  1. [Safety profile of dolutegravir].

    PubMed

    Rivero, Antonio; Domingo, Pere

    2015-03-01

    Integrase inhibitors are the latest drug family to be added to the therapeutic arsenal against human immunodeficiency virus infection. Drugs in this family that do not require pharmacological boosting are characterized by a very good safety profile. The latest integrase inhibitor to be approved for use is dolutegravir. In clinical trials, dolutegravir has shown an excellent tolerability profile, both in antiretroviral-naïve and previously treated patients. Discontinuation rates due to adverse effects were 2% and 3%, respectively. The most frequent adverse effects were nausea, headache, diarrhea and sleep disturbance. A severe hypersensitivity reaction has been reported in only one patient. In patients coinfected with hepatropic viruses, the safety profile is similar to that in patients without coinfection. The lipid profile of dolutegravir is similar to that of raltegravir and superior to those of Atripla® and darunavir/ritonavir. Dolutegravir induces an early, predictable and non-progressive increase in serum creatinine of around 10% of baseline values in treatment-naïve patients and of 14% in treatment-experienced patients. This increase is due to inhibition of tubular creatinine secretion through the OCT2 receptor and does not lead to a real decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate with algorithms that include serum creatinine. The effect of the combination of dolutegravir plus Kivexa(®) on biomarkers of bone remodeling is lower than that of Atripla(®). Dolutegravir has an excellent tolerability profile with no current evidence of long-term adverse effects. Its use is accompanied by an early and non-progressive increase in serum creatinine due to OCT2 receptor inhibition. In combination with abacavir/lamivudine, dolutegravir has a lower impact than enofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz on bone remodelling markers. PMID:25858606

  2. Safety in Aquatic Activities. Sports Safety Series. Monograph No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    The prevention of injuries and control of hazards in aquatic activities is outlined. Discussions include the causes and prevention of aquatic accidents, aquatic safety in the basic instructional program, the design of public swimming facilities, and safety considerations in pool operation and administration. A chapter is devoted to each of the…

  3. 76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... August 25, 2011, (76 FR 53086) PHMSA published in the Federal Register an Advance Notice of Proposed... by email at mike.israni@dot.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 25, 2011, (76 FR 53086), PHMSA...: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  4. INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SAFETY CULTURE IMPROVEMENT INITIATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD JA JR

    2009-01-16

    In 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) identified safety culture as one of their top Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) related priorities. A team was formed to address this issue. The team identified a consensus set of safety culture principles, along with implementation practices that could be used by DOE, NNSA, and their contractors. Documented improvement tools were identified and communicated to contractors participating in a year long pilot project. After a year, lessons learned will be collected and a path forward determined. The goal of this effort was to achieve improved safety and mission performance through ISMS continuous improvement. The focus of ISMS improvement was safety culture improvement building on operating experience from similar industries such as the domestic and international commercial nuclear and chemical industry.

  5. Impact of e-safety applications on cyclists' safety.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, Antonino; Persia, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In years to come, urban areas face the challenge of making transport sustainable in terms of environment and competitiveness. Cycling is a perfect transport means in urban areas. Cyclists have a high casualty rate and should be given special attention in road safety policy. Actions to promote cycling in cities should go together with improving road safety. ICT can be used to develop intelligent applications assisting cyclists to avoid, prevent or mitigate accidents. This paper presents the results of activities focused on the assessment of impacts of ICT on the safety of cyclists, realised in the framework of the EU project SAFECYCLE ( www.safecycle.eu ). E-safety applications were identified that can enhance the safety of cyclists in Europe. Eleven applications were analysed in term of benefits and costs. The results highlighted important differences between European countries in term of awareness about cycling, knowledge about ICT applications and also impacts of these applications. PMID:25363736

  6. Impact of e-safety applications on cyclists' safety.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, Antonino; Persia, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In years to come, urban areas face the challenge of making transport sustainable in terms of environment and competitiveness. Cycling is a perfect transport means in urban areas. Cyclists have a high casualty rate and should be given special attention in road safety policy. Actions to promote cycling in cities should go together with improving road safety. ICT can be used to develop intelligent applications assisting cyclists to avoid, prevent or mitigate accidents. This paper presents the results of activities focused on the assessment of impacts of ICT on the safety of cyclists, realised in the framework of the EU project SAFECYCLE ( www.safecycle.eu ). E-safety applications were identified that can enhance the safety of cyclists in Europe. Eleven applications were analysed in term of benefits and costs. The results highlighted important differences between European countries in term of awareness about cycling, knowledge about ICT applications and also impacts of these applications.

  7. Pedestrian injuries due to mobile phone use in public places.

    PubMed

    Nasar, Jack L; Troyer, Derek

    2013-08-01

    Research shows that pedestrians, similar to drivers, experience reduced situation awareness, distracted attention and unsafe behavior when talking or texting on their mobile phones. The present study centered on injuries related to mobile phone use among pedestrians. It used data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission on injuries in hospital emergency rooms from 2004 through 2010. It found that mobile-phone related injuries among pedestrians increased relative to total pedestrian injuries, and paralleled the increase in injuries for drivers, and in 2010 exceeded those for drivers. Pedestrian injuries related to mobile-phone use were higher for males and for people under 31 years old. Using a mobile phone while walking puts pedestrians at risk of accident, injury or death.

  8. Severity of road crashes involving pedestrians in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Verzosa, Nina; Miles, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    Pedestrians are considered as one of the most vulnerable road users in less developed countries (LDCs). Yet, pedestrian safety remains poorly addressed in both urban and rural transportation plans in most LDCs. Since most pedestrian injury severity studies are conducted in developed countries, this study fills the gap with an inquiry focused on a highly urbanized region of an LDC that faces a rapid increase in car ownership and increasing pedestrian-related traffic injuries, documenting specific pedestrian safety issues and providing guidance for injury prevention measures in such places. Using the Metro Manila Accident Reporting and Analysis System (MMARAS) data from 2008 to 2011, this study combines binomial logistic regression and street level analysis that further explores the statistical results and examines other factors that contribute to collisions and increase the potential for serious injury or death in three cities in Metro Manila: Makati, Manila, and Quezon. The results of the binomial regression analysis show that traffic crashes that involve heavy and multiple vehicles, and an elderly pedestrian (60 years old and above), as well as those that occurred during the evening (7 pm to midnight) and late at night (1 am to 5 am) have significantly higher odds of resulting in a fatal outcome; when the crash involves a female pedestrian and when the road surface is wet the odds of a fatal outcome are lower. Moreover, by closely examining the environment of these roadways, the study finds that most pedestrian fatalities occur on high-speed, high-traffic-volume, multilane roadways, that are surrounded by land uses that generate a particularly problematic mix of heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The street level analysis also finds that fatal pedestrian crashes occur close to different types of transit stations. The results of this study of three cities in Metro Manila, reflect the twofold challenge to pedestrian safety in rapidly urbanizing areas in

  9. Severity of road crashes involving pedestrians in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Verzosa, Nina; Miles, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    Pedestrians are considered as one of the most vulnerable road users in less developed countries (LDCs). Yet, pedestrian safety remains poorly addressed in both urban and rural transportation plans in most LDCs. Since most pedestrian injury severity studies are conducted in developed countries, this study fills the gap with an inquiry focused on a highly urbanized region of an LDC that faces a rapid increase in car ownership and increasing pedestrian-related traffic injuries, documenting specific pedestrian safety issues and providing guidance for injury prevention measures in such places. Using the Metro Manila Accident Reporting and Analysis System (MMARAS) data from 2008 to 2011, this study combines binomial logistic regression and street level analysis that further explores the statistical results and examines other factors that contribute to collisions and increase the potential for serious injury or death in three cities in Metro Manila: Makati, Manila, and Quezon. The results of the binomial regression analysis show that traffic crashes that involve heavy and multiple vehicles, and an elderly pedestrian (60 years old and above), as well as those that occurred during the evening (7 pm to midnight) and late at night (1 am to 5 am) have significantly higher odds of resulting in a fatal outcome; when the crash involves a female pedestrian and when the road surface is wet the odds of a fatal outcome are lower. Moreover, by closely examining the environment of these roadways, the study finds that most pedestrian fatalities occur on high-speed, high-traffic-volume, multilane roadways, that are surrounded by land uses that generate a particularly problematic mix of heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The street level analysis also finds that fatal pedestrian crashes occur close to different types of transit stations. The results of this study of three cities in Metro Manila, reflect the twofold challenge to pedestrian safety in rapidly urbanizing areas in

  10. Exploring the impacts of safety culture on immigrants' vulnerability in non-motorized crashes: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cynthia; Lin, Haiyun; Loo, Becky P Y

    2012-02-01

    Pedestrians and cyclists are a vulnerable group of road users. Immigrants are disproportionally represented in pedestrian and cyclist crashes. We postulate that the mismatch in safety culture between countries of their origin and the U.S.A. contribute to their vulnerability in pedestrian and cyclist crashes. Over time, the differences may disappear and immigrants' traffic behavior gravitates toward those of native-borns. We describe this process as safety assimilation. Using the pedestrian and cyclist crash database in New York City between 2001 and 2003, we examined the effects of foreign-born population, their countries of origin, and time of entry into the USA on census tract-level pedestrian and cyclist crashes. We find that neighborhoods with a higher concentration of immigrants, especially those from Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Asia, have more crashes. Our results also exhibit a pattern of the hypothesized safety assimilation process. The study suggests a higher level of vulnerability of immigrants to pedestrian and cyclist crashes. We propose that targeted policies and programs need to be developed for immigrants of different countries of origin. PMID:22173474

  11. Balancing Safety and Free Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, David L., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    According to Jay Worona, general counsel for the New York State School Board Association, "Balancing safety and student constitutional rights is not easy. It has to be a careful balance. School officials must be prudent and not overreact. But one part of the equation has to be paramount. And safety should be the primary concern" (personal…

  12. Chemistry laboratory safety manual available

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsbrock, R. G.

    1968-01-01

    Chemistry laboratory safety manual outlines safe practices for handling hazardous chemicals and chemistry laboratory equipment. Included are discussions of chemical hazards relating to fire, health, explosion, safety equipment and procedures for certain laboratory techniques and manipulations involving glassware, vacuum equipment, acids, bases, and volatile solvents.

  13. Safety in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this K-12 science safety resource is to bring together information needed by administrators, planners, teachers and support staff to help them make sound decisions regarding science safety. The document identifies areas for decision making and action at a variety of levels. It supports planning and action by providing information on…

  14. Vaccine Safety Resources for Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Shimabukuro, Tom T.; Hibbs, Beth F.; Moro, Pedro L.; Broder, Karen R.; Vellozzi, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Overview Nurses are on the front lines of health care delivery, and many of them routinely administer immunizations. The authors describe the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) vaccine safety monitoring systems, explaining how nurses can access inquiry channels and other immunization information resources. Examples of recent vaccine safety inquiries are also provided. PMID:26222474

  15. Railroad safety program, task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Aspects of railroad safety and the preparation of a National Inspection Plan (NIP) for rail safety improvement are examined. Methodology for the allocation of inspection resources, preparation of a NIP instruction manual, and recommendations for future NIP, are described. A statistical analysis of regional rail accidents is presented with causes and suggested preventive measures included.

  16. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    Bibliography, assembled from computer search of NASA Aerospace Safety Data Bank, including title of report, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and key words or subject terms. Publication is indexed by key subjects and by authors. Items are relevant to design engineers and safety specialists.

  17. System safety engineering analysis handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ijams, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    The basic requirements and guidelines for the preparation of System Safety Engineering Analysis are presented. The philosophy of System Safety and the various analytic methods available to the engineering profession are discussed. A text-book description of each of the methods is included.

  18. SAFETY IN THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEERE, NORMAN V.

    MONTHLY ARTICLES ON LABORATORY SAFETY THAT APPEARED IN THE "JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION" BETWEEN JANUARY 1964, AND JANUARY 1967, ARE COMBINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE CHEMISTRY TEACHERS. A GENERAL SECTION DEALS WITH (1) RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION, (2) SAFETY CONSIDERATION IN RESEARCH PROPOSALS, (3) A SAFETY…

  19. An Education in Electrical Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, John W.; Chiappetta, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses teaching electrical safety guidelines in the process of teaching the concepts related to electricity. Discusses household current; electrical insulation; and examples of electrical safety in the home related to appliances, the bathroom, the yard and the neighborhood. (10 references) (MDH)

  20. Guide for Science Laboratory Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, John J.

    General and specific safety procedures and recommendations for secondary school science laboratories are provided in this guide. Areas of concern include: (1) chemicals (storage, disposal, toxicity, unstable and incompatible chemicals); (2) microorganisms; (3) plants; (4) animals; (5) electricity; (6) lasers; (7) rockets; (8) eye safety and…

  1. Evolution of space reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Wetch, J.R. )

    1993-01-10

    This paper summarizes some of the major safety issues and proposed and developed solutions to real and perceived problems. Safety of the public, operating personnel, facilities and the environment has always been a driving concern of the public, government agencies, system designers and users of nuclear power and propulsion systems.

  2. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The human factors frequency considered a cause of or contributor to hazardous events onboard air carriers are examined with emphasis on distractions. Safety reports that have been analyzed, processed, and entered into the aviation safety reporting system data base are discussed. A sampling of alert bulletins and responses to them is also presented.

  3. Critical Areas in Sports Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehouse, C. A., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Four articles examine important aspects of sport safety. Topics include: (1) risks of eye injuries in racquet sports and preventive measures; (2) ways to reduce gymnastics injuries; (3) safety in training areas; and (4) risk-management strategies to avoid legal liability. Guidelines for teachers are given. (PP)

  4. OSHA and Experimental Safety Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichak, Stephen, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that a governmental agency, most likely Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) be considered in the safety design stage of any experiment. Focusing on OSHA's role, discusses such topics as occupational health hazards of toxic chemicals in laboratories, occupational exposure to benzene, and role/regulations of other agencies.…

  5. Pennsylvania Industrial Arts Safety Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoudt, John Y., Ed.; And Others

    Safety education information is provided in this guide designed for Pennsylvania industrial arts teachers. Twelve sections and section topics include the following: introduction (policy statement on safety); responsibility (school board and superintendent, principal and/or department head, the teacher); emergency action (primary concerns,…

  6. Physics and Automobile Safety Belts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortman, Peter; Witt, C. Edwin

    This collection of problems and experiments related to automobile safety belt usage is intended to serve as a supplement to a standard physics course. Its purpose is to convince the students that the use of safety belts to prevent injury or death is firmly supported by the considerations of physical quantities and laws which apply in a collision…

  7. IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Spitalnik, J.

    2004-10-06

    Safety Management has lately been considered by some Nuclear Regulatory agencies as the tool on which to concentrate their efforts to implement modern regulation structures, because Safety Culture was said to be difficult to monitor. However, Safety Culture can be assessed and monitored even if it is problematical to make Safety Culture the object of regulation. This paper stresses the feasibility and importance of Safety Culture Assessment based on self-assessment applications performed in several nuclear organizations in Latin America. Reasons and ownership for assessing Safety Culture are discussed, and relevant aspects considered for setting up and programming such an assessment are shown. Basic principles that were taken into account, as well as financial and human resources used in actual self-assessments are reviewed, including the importance of adequate statistical analyses and the necessity of proper feed-back of results. The setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture is the final step of the assessment program that once implemented will enable to establish a Safety Culture monitoring process within the organization.

  8. Microbial safety of fresh produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book entitled “Microbial Safety of Fresh Produce” with 23 chapters is divided into following six sections: Microbial contamination of fresh produce, Pre-harvest strategies, post-harvest interventions, Produce safety during processing and handling, Public, legal, and economic Perspectives, and Re...

  9. Safety Education Handbook. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    This is the third of three volumes of a safety guide developed to assist Kansas administrators and teachers in organizing, evaluating, and maintaining safety programs. It provides information to help them identify, assess, and correct unsafe conditions relating to equipment and facilities and ensure a safe and healthy environment for themselves…

  10. Fusion blanket inherent safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.; Jung, J.; Cheng, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    The inherent safety aspect of TPSS reactor blankets has been investigated. The idea is to design the blanket so safe that cost savings can be realized such as through non-nuclear grading construction. If the blanket materials are carefully selected, inherent safety is feasible for fusion reactor blankets up to 5 to 10 MW/m/sup 2/ neutron wall loading.

  11. Safety Training for the Supervisor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, James E.

    Emphasizing causation and motivation, this guide to safety training for foremen and supervisors in industry provides a method for correcting an employee, whether after an accident or after detection of an unsafe act, through an interview designed to find the reasons behind the act. Supervisory responsibility for safety is indicated, together with…

  12. Science & Safety: Making the Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Science Supervisors, VA.

    This document provides information on the most commonly asked science safety questions by science teachers primarily at the secondary school level. Topics include the legal responsibilities of a science teacher, a general safety checklist, proper labeling and storing of chemicals, purchasing of new chemicals and disposing of old chemicals, a…

  13. Tractor Safety. Unit A-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Vernon D.; Backlund, Paul

    This document is a teacher's guide for a unit in tractor and machinery safety for college freshmen. It is intended to be used for 10 hours of instruction for freshmen who are intending to work on or around machinery. Safety hazards directly and indirectly related to many types of machinery are covered in addition to tractors. The objectives of the…

  14. Effectiveness of Enhanced Safety Management

    SciTech Connect

    Waterfall, K.W. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an Enhanced Safety Management (ESM) campaign to improve safety and reduce risk in oil and gas exploration. The essentials of ESM are summarized by the author. The paper addresses the method developed to implement ESM and how the control of process designs to control operations minimizes the risk of a major accident.

  15. Safety Education Handbook. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    This is the second of three volumes of a safety guide developed to assist Kansas administrators and teachers in organizing, evaluating, and maintaining safety programs. It provides information to help them identify, assess, and correct unsafe conditions relating to equipment and facilities and ensure a safe and healthy environment for themselves…

  16. Multiple pedestrian detection using IR LED stereo camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Bo; Zeifman, Michael I.; Gibson, David R. P.

    2007-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Transportations Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) program, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is conducting R&D in vehicle safety and driver information systems. There is an increasing number of applications where pedestrian monitoring is of high importance. Visionbased pedestrian detection in outdoor scenes is still an open challenge. People dress in very different colors that sometimes blend with the background, wear hats or carry bags, and stand, walk and change directions unpredictably. The background is various, containing buildings, moving or parked cars, bicycles, street signs, signals, etc. Furthermore, existing pedestrian detection systems perform only during daytime, making it impossible to detect pedestrians at night. Under FHWA funding, we are developing a multi-pedestrian detection system using IR LED stereo camera. This system, without using any templates, detects the pedestrians through statistical pattern recognition utilizing 3D features extracted from the disparity map. A new IR LED stereo camera is being developed, which can help detect pedestrians during daytime and night time. Using the image differencing and denoising, we have also developed new methods to estimate the disparity map of pedestrians in near real time. Our system will have a hardware interface with the traffic controller through wireless communication. Once pedestrians are detected, traffic signals at the street intersections will change phases to alert the drivers of approaching vehicles. The initial test results using images collected at a street intersection show that our system can detect pedestrians in near real time.

  17. Fire safety applications for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Olson, Sandra L.

    1989-01-01

    Fire safety for spacecraft is reviewed by first describing current practices, many of which are adapted directly from aircraft. Then, current analyses and experimental knowledge in low-gravity combustion, with implications for fire safety are discussed. In orbiting spacecraft, the detection and suppression of flames are strongly affected by the large reduction in buoyant flows under low gravity. Generally, combustion intensity is reduced in low gravity. There are some notable exceptions, however, one example being the strong enhancement of flames by low-velocity ventilation flows in space. Finally, the future requirements in fire safety, particularly the needs of long-duration space stations in fire prevention, detection, extinguishment, and atmospheric control are examined. The goal of spacecraft fire-safety investigations is the establishment of trade-offs that promote maximum safety without hampering the useful human and scientific activities in space.

  18. Health, Safety, and Environment Division

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, C

    1992-01-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environmental (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Meeting these responsibilities requires expertise in many disciplines, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science and engineering, analytical chemistry, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health, safety, and environmental problems occasionally arise from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory, and research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed, to study specific problems for the Department of Energy. The results of these programs help develop better practices in occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and environmental science.

  19. Air Safety Spinoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Weight saving-even a matter of a few pounds-is an important consideration in airplane design and . construction. Boeing saved 200 pounds simply by substituting a new type of compressed gas cylinder on their 747 commercial airliners. For quickly evacuating passengers in the event of a ground emergency the 747 escape chutes allow ' passengers to slide to safety from the two-story height of the cabin deck. The chutes pop out of exitways and are automatically inflated in seconds by compressed air stored in pressure vessels. Boeing's weight saving resulted from a recent changeover to a new type of pressure vessel built by Structural Composites Industries Inc. of Azusa, Cal. The company employs technology originally developed for rocket motor casings; the cylinders are constructed by winding fibers around an aluminum liner. This technique offers high strength for very low weight-in this case 60 percent less than the pressure vessels earlier used on the 747. Another contribution to improved air safety is an underwater locator device. Called the "Pinger," it uses sonar techniques to locate aircraft crashed in water-or, more specifically, to recover the flight recorder aboard the airplane. Its recovery provides clues as to what caused the accident and suggests measures to prevent similar future occurrences. Until recently, there was no way to recover flight recorders aboard aircraft lost in water crashes. The Pinger, now serving 95 percent of the airline industry, provides an answer. Key element of the Pinger system is a small, battery-powered transmitter, or homing beacon, included as part of the recorder package. For as long as 30 days, the transmitter sends out an acoustic signal from water depths up to 20,000 feet. The other element of the system is a receiver, used by search crews to home in on the transmitter's signal. Originating as a U.S. Navy project, this device was refined and further developed by NASA's Langley Research Center to retrieve submerged nose cones

  20. Driver perceptions of the safety implications of quiet electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cocron, Peter; Krems, Josef F

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on the safety implications of quiet electric vehicles (EVs) has mostly focused on pedestrians' acoustic perception of EVs, and suggests that EVs are more difficult for pedestrians to hear and, therefore, compromise traffic safety. The two German field studies presented here examine the experiences of 70 drivers with low noise emissions of EVs and the drivers' long-term evaluation of the issue. Participants were surveyed via interviews and questionnaires before driving an EV for the first time, after 3 months of driving, and in the first study, again after 6 months. Based on participants' reports, a catalogue of safety-relevant incidents was composed in Study 1. The catalogue revealed that low noise-related critical incidents only rarely occur, and mostly take place in low-speed environments. The degree of hazard related to these incidents was rated as low to medium. In Study 1, driver concern for vulnerable road users as a result of low noise diminished with increasing driving experience, while perceived comfort due to this feature increased. These results were replicated in Study 2. In the second study, it was additionally examined, if drivers adjust their perceived risk of harming other road users over time. Results show that the affective assessment of risk also decreased with increased driving experience. Based on individual experience, drivers adjust their evaluation of noise-related hazards, suggesting that dangers associated with low noise emissions might be less significant than previously expected.

  1. Using Hydrogen Safety Best Practices and Learning from Safety Events

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Steven C.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Quick, Kathleen A.

    2011-02-28

    A best practice is a technique or methodology that has reliably led to a desired result. A wealth of experience regarding the safe use and handling of hydrogen exists as a result of an extensive history in a wide variety of industrial and aerospace settings. Hydrogen Safety Best Practices (www.h2bestpractices.org) captures this vast knowledge base and makes it publically available to those working with hydrogen and related systems, including those just starting to work with hydrogen. This online manual is organized under a number of hierarchical technical content categories. References, including publications and other online links, that deal with the safety aspects of hydrogen are compiled for easy access. This paper discusses the development of Hydrogen Safety Best Practices as a safety knowledge tool, the nature of its technical content, and the steps taken to enhance its value and usefulness. Specific safety event examples are provided to illustrate the link between technical content in the online best practices manual and a companion safety knowledge tool, Hydrogen Incident Reporting and Lessons Learned (www.h2incidents.org), which encourages the sharing of lessons learned and other safety event information.

  2. Using Hydrogen Safety Best Practices and Learning from Safety Events

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Steven C.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Quick, Kathleen A.

    2009-09-16

    A best practice is a technique or methodology that has reliably led to a desired result. A wealth of experience regarding the safe use and handling of hydrogen exists as a result of an extensive history in a wide variety of industrial and aerospace settings. Hydrogen Safety Best Practices (www.h2bestpractices.org) captures this vast knowledge base and makes it publically available to those working with hydrogen and related systems, including those just starting to work with hydrogen. This online manual is organized under a number of hierarchical technical content categories. References, including publications and other online links, that deal with the safety aspects of hydrogen are compiled for easy access. This paper discusses the development of Hydrogen Safety Best Practices as a safety knowledge tool, the nature of its technical content, and the steps taken to enhance its value and usefulness. Specific safety event examples are provided to illustrate the link between technical content in the online best practices manual and a companion safety knowledge tool, Hydrogen Incident Reporting and Lessons Learned (www.h2incidents.org), which encourages the sharing of lessons learned and other safety event information.

  3. A Comprehensive School Safety Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Lonnie; Gilliland, Lillian

    This report discusses various facets of a school safety education program. It discusses (1) the scope of a school safety education curriculum, (2) the methods of including safety education instruction in a school curriculum, (3) some student safety organizations, (4) the provision of a systemwide program, and (5) the development of safety policies…

  4. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety...

  5. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety...

  6. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety...

  7. 14 CFR § 1260.37 - Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety. § 1260.37 Section § 1260.37... Provisions § 1260.37 Safety. Safety October 2000 (a) The Recipient shall act responsibly in matters of safety and shall take all reasonable safety measures in performing under this grant or cooperative...

  8. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety...

  9. 14 CFR 1260.37 - Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety. 1260.37 Section 1260.37 Aeronautics... Provisions § 1260.37 Safety. Safety October 2000 (a) The Recipient shall act responsibly in matters of safety and shall take all reasonable safety measures in performing under this grant or cooperative...

  10. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety...

  11. 14 CFR 1260.37 - Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety. 1260.37 Section 1260.37 Aeronautics... Provisions § 1260.37 Safety. Safety October 2000 (a) The Recipient shall act responsibly in matters of safety and shall take all reasonable safety measures in performing under this grant or cooperative...

  12. 14 CFR 1260.37 - Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Safety. 1260.37 Section 1260.37 Aeronautics... Provisions § 1260.37 Safety. Safety October 2000 (a) The Recipient shall act responsibly in matters of safety and shall take all reasonable safety measures in performing under this grant or cooperative...

  13. 14 CFR 1260.37 - Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety. 1260.37 Section 1260.37 Aeronautics... Provisions § 1260.37 Safety. Safety October 2000 (a) The Recipient shall act responsibly in matters of safety and shall take all reasonable safety measures in performing under this grant or cooperative...

  14. Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This booklet provides guidelines for safety in the chemical laboratory. Part I, "Guides for Instructors and Administrators," includes safety rules, safety practices and facilities, preparation for emergencies, safety committees, accident reporting, fire insurance, and listings of some hazardous chemicals. Part II, "Student Guide to Safety,"…

  15. 14 CFR 417.107 - Flight safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety. 417.107 Section 417.107... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Launch Safety Responsibilities § 417.107 Flight safety. (a) Flight safety system. For each launch vehicle, vehicle component, and payload, a launch operator must use a...

  16. 14 CFR 415.115 - Flight safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety. 415.115 Section 415.115... From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.115 Flight safety. (a) Flight safety analysis. An applicant's safety review document must describe each analysis method employed to meet the flight safety...

  17. Triclosan: a safety profile.

    PubMed

    DeSalva, S J; Kong, B M; Lin, Y J

    1989-09-01

    Triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether), an antimicrobial agent, has been used extensively for 20 years in consumer products, principally in deodorants, soaps and other dermatological preparations. Recently, the use of triclosan has been extended to oral health care products such as dentifrices. This paper reviews safety information, both pre-clinical and clinical studies, from the literature, data submitted to the Antimicrobial I OTC Review Panel and unpublished work from the Pharmacology and Toxicology Department of the Colgate-Palmolive Company. The data spans acute, subacute, subchronic and chronic toxicity; mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, reproduction/teratology and pharmacokinetics. Results of these studies show that triclosan is well tolerated by a variety of species including man. In clinical studies with triclosan in solutions and dentifrices, a steady state was reached by day 7 with blood levels in the parts per billion (ppb) range and urine as the main route of excretion. Based on these studies, triclosan can be considered safe for use in dentifrice and mouthrinse products.

  18. Integrated Safety Analysis Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jonathan C.

    2008-01-01

    Today's complex systems require understanding beyond one person s capability to comprehend. Each system requires a team to divide the system into understandable subsystems which can then be analyzed with an Integrated Hazard Analysis. The team must have both specific experiences and diversity of experience. Safety experience and system understanding are not always manifested in one individual. Group dynamics make the difference between success and failure as well as the difference between a difficult task and a rewarding experience. There are examples in the news which demonstrate the need to connect the pieces of a system into a complete picture. The Columbia disaster is now a standard example of a low consequence hazard in one part of the system; the External Tank is a catastrophic hazard cause for a companion subsystem, the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The interaction between the hardware, the manufacturing process, the handling, and the operations contributed to the problem. Each of these had analysis performed, but who constituted the team which integrated this analysis together? This paper will explore some of the methods used for dividing up a complex system; and how one integration team has analyzed the parts. How this analysis has been documented in one particular launch space vehicle case will also be discussed.

  19. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, CW

    1980-08-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest laboratory from October 1 through December 31, 1979, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Evaluation of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibilty of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibilty of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include the loss-of-coolant accident simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; the fuel rod deformation and post-accident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, lspra, Italy; the blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and the experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  20. Campaigning for Safety

    PubMed Central

    Merry, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: There are four challenges to practicing evidence-based medicine: obtaining the evidence; evaluating the evidence; promulgating the evidence; and persuading practitioners to adopt the evidence and practice according to the evidence. The Perfusion Down Under (PDU) Collaboration addresses the first three. The fourth is more difficult, and it typically takes many years for new evidence to be adopted into widespread practice. In the case of innovations related to patient safety, evidence from randomized controlled trials is often very expensive to obtain. Other methods of evaluation may be more appropriate, but these do need to be robust and to take account of the constructs underlying the innovations and the context in which they are to be implemented. In the United States, The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) aims (among other things) to promote the adoption of best practices and effective innovations. The IHI has articulated a useful framework for doing this. Measurement is fundamental to quality improvement, and sustainable change is likely to be more readily achieved if claims are supported by credible, measurable, and clinically relevant outcome data. The PDU is well placed to support quality improvement in perfusion by providing such data. PMID:22730867

  1. Safety check valve

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, H.L.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a safety check valve, for use with a pumping unit for petroleum fluids, the pumping unit including a polished rod and a stuffing box. It comprises: a valve housing having upper and lower ends and a central bore extending between the upper and lower ends and adapted to have the polished rod pass through the central bore; a ball seating surface associated with the central bore; a non-spring bias ball; a ball housing for the ball and associated with the valve housing; and means for moving the ball from the ball housing into the central bore upon the polished rod not being disposed in the central bore, including a ball receiving cavity associated with the ball housing, the ball hoising having first and second ends, the first end of the ball housing being in communication with the central bore of the valve housing, the second end being closed; the ball receiving cavity having a ball support surface upon which the ball may rest, when the ball is disposed in the ball receiving cavity, the ball support surface sloping downwardly toward the first end of the ball housing, whereby if the polished rod is not disposed within the central bore of the valve housing, the ball moves down the ball support surface, under the force of gravity, from the ball receiving cavity into the central bore and seats on the ball seating surface.

  2. Campaigning for safety.

    PubMed

    Merry, Alan F

    2012-03-01

    There are four challenges to practicing evidence-based medicine: obtaining the evidence; evaluating the evidence; promulgating the evidence; and persuading practitioners to adopt the evidence and practice according to the evidence. The Perfusion Down Under (PDU) Collaboration addresses the first three. The fourth is more difficult, and it typically takes many years for new evidence to be adopted into widespread practice. In the case of innovations related to patient safety, evidence from randomized controlled trials is often very expensive to obtain. Other methods of evaluation may be more appropriate, but these do need to be robust and to take account of the constructs underlying the innovations and the context in which they are to be implemented. In the United States, The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) aims (among other things) to promote the adoption of best practices and effective innovations. The IHI has articulated a useful framework for doing this. Measurement is fundamental to quality improvement, and sustainable change is likely to be more readily achieved if claims are supported by credible, measurable, and clinically relevant outcome data. The PDU is well placed to support quality improvement in perfusion by providing such data. PMID:22730867

  3. NGSLR Safety Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGarry, Jan

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Satellite Laser Ranging (NGSLR) station is the prototype for NASA's Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) systems which will be deployed around the world in the coming decade. The NGSLR system will be an autonomous, photon-counting SLR station with an expected absolute range accuracy of better than one centimeter and a normal point (time-averaged) range precision better than one millimeter. The system provides continuous (weather permitting), 24 hour tracking coverage to an existing constellation of approximately two dozen artificial satellites equipped with passive retroreflector arrays, using pulsed, 532 nm, class IV laser systems. Current details on the approved laser systems can be found in the Appendix 1 of this document. This safety plan addresses the potential hazards to emitted laser radiation, which can occur both inside and outside the shelter. Hazards within the shelter are mitigated through posted warning signs, activated warning lights, procedural controls, personal protective equipment (PPE), laser curtains, beam blocking systems, interlock controls, pre-configured laser control settings, and other controls discussed in this document. Since the NGSLR is a satellite tracking system, laser hazards exist outside the shelter to personnel on the shelter roof and to passing aircraft. Potential exposure to personnel outside the system is mitigated through the use of posted warning signs, access control, procedural controls, a stairwell interlock, beam attenuation/blocking devices, and a radar based aircraft detection system.

  4. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S. K.

    1981-07-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from January 1 through March 31, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipeto- pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  5. Assuring the quality of safety analyses and safety analysis documentation

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. Johnson

    2000-05-03

    Planning, preparation, and submittal of safety analysis reports might be pursued in a manner similar to a quality-related procurement, where customer needs, expectations and acceptance criteria are established in advance. Then the product/service provider, the contractor, should apply various quality control processes to assure the desired characteristics of the product safety analysis documents. Improving the quality and acceptability to DOE of safety documents at first submittal should result in a more expeditious DOE review and approval process, thereby reducing costs of network and recycle through reviews.

  6. Assuring the Quality of Safety Analyses and Safety Analysis Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, John Edwin

    2000-05-01

    Planning, preparation, and submittal of safety analysis reports might be pursued in a manner similar to a quality-related procurement, where customer needs, expectations and acceptance criteria are established in advance. Then the product/service provider, the contractor, should apply various quality control processes to assure the desired characteristics of the product safety analysis documents. Improving the quality and acceptability to DOE of safety documents at first submittal should result in a more expeditious DOE review and approval process, thereby reducing costs of network and recycle through reviews.

  7. Quality of Care is Similar for Safety-Net and Non-Safety-Net Hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Organization (PSO) Program Quality Measure Tools & Resources Tools & Resources Value Surveys on Patient Safety Culture Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture Nursing Home Survey ...

  8. 77 FR 69586 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers,...

  9. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 23 CFR Parts 1200 and 1300 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses,...

  10. Patient safety: the doctor's perspective.

    PubMed

    Shemesh, David; Olsha, Oded; Goldin, Ilya; Danin, Sigalit

    2015-01-01

    Medical errors can be defined as the failure of a planned action to be completed as intended or the use of a wrong plan to achieve an aim. Beyond their economic cost and their cost in human lives, errors cause loss of trust in the healthcare system by patients and diminished satisfaction by both patients and health professionals. There are many evidence-based safety-oriented behaviours and interventions that are easily implemented, such as ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion, prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection and more. In vascular access, the development of research in patient safety has raised a variety of issues requiring study in order to provide the optimal patient safety approach. Patients are major contributors to their own safety, and as such, physicians should develop a new approach to involve them in the cycle of decision making through every step of their treatment. There are many opportunities along this path for the patient to be engaged in safety behaviours and for the access team to ensure such behaviours by employing simple strategies. The advent of the access centre, based on multidisciplinary teamwork, has enhanced the potential to improve patient safety by prevention of errors in planning and performing access surgery, avoiding delay in treatment of access malfunction and improving communication between the team members. However, a significant effort in research is still needed in order to implement intervention by evidence-based data focused on patient safety. PMID:25751565

  11. Patient safety: the doctor's perspective.

    PubMed

    Shemesh, David; Olsha, Oded; Goldin, Ilya; Danin, Sigalit

    2015-01-01

    Medical errors can be defined as the failure of a planned action to be completed as intended or the use of a wrong plan to achieve an aim. Beyond their economic cost and their cost in human lives, errors cause loss of trust in the healthcare system by patients and diminished satisfaction by both patients and health professionals. There are many evidence-based safety-oriented behaviours and interventions that are easily implemented, such as ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion, prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection and more. In vascular access, the development of research in patient safety has raised a variety of issues requiring study in order to provide the optimal patient safety approach. Patients are major contributors to their own safety, and as such, physicians should develop a new approach to involve them in the cycle of decision making through every step of their treatment. There are many opportunities along this path for the patient to be engaged in safety behaviours and for the access team to ensure such behaviours by employing simple strategies. The advent of the access centre, based on multidisciplinary teamwork, has enhanced the potential to improve patient safety by prevention of errors in planning and performing access surgery, avoiding delay in treatment of access malfunction and improving communication between the team members. However, a significant effort in research is still needed in order to implement intervention by evidence-based data focused on patient safety.

  12. Economic Issues on Food Safety

    PubMed Central

    Adinolfi, Felice; Capitanio, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    A globalised food trade, with a huge increase of the exchanged volume, extensive production and complex supply chains are contributing towards an increased number of microbiological food safety outbreaks. All of these factors are putting pressure on the stakeholders, either public or private, in terms of rule and control. In fact, this scenario could force manufacturers to be lenient towards food safety control intentionally, or unintentionally, and result in a major foodborne outbreak that causes health problems and economic loss. As a response to emerging calls for the adoption of a systemic approach to food safety, we try to identify and discuss the several related economics issue in this field. Based on an extensive analysis of academic and policy literatures on the economic effects of global environmental change at different stages of the food system, we highlight the main issues involving economists in the field of food safety. In the first part, we assessed the several approaches and problems related to the evaluation of food safety improvements, followed by an overview of drivers of food safety demand in the second part. The third section is devoted to discussing changes occurred at the institutional level in building and managing food safety policies. The last section summarises the main considerations aroused from the work. PMID:27800432

  13. Walking the line: Understanding pedestrian behaviour and risk at rail level crossings with cognitive work analysis.

    PubMed

    Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Pedestrian fatalities at rail level crossings (RLXs) are a public safety concern for governments worldwide. There is little literature examining pedestrian behaviour at RLXs and no previous studies have adopted a formative approach to understanding behaviour in this context. In this article, cognitive work analysis is applied to understand the constraints that shape pedestrian behaviour at RLXs in Melbourne, Australia. The five phases of cognitive work analysis were developed using data gathered via document analysis, behavioural observation, walk-throughs and critical decision method interviews. The analysis demonstrates the complex nature of pedestrian decision making at RLXs and the findings are synthesised to provide a model illustrating the influences on pedestrian decision making in this context (i.e. time, effort and social pressures). Further, the CWA outputs are used to inform an analysis of the risks to safety associated with pedestrian behaviour at RLXs and the identification of potential interventions to reduce risk.

  14. Safety study - oversight of rail rapid-transit safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-23

    Annually, about 1.8 billion passengers ride on the rail rapid transit systems operating in the United States. Although this form of transportation is generally safe, the potential exists for a substantial loss of life in the event of a collision, derailment, fire, or other emergency. The safety study examines the adequacy of current oversight of rail rapid transit safety. The safety issues discussed are the effectiveness of current oversight activities exercised by the States in which rail rapid transit systems are operating; the preciseness of rail rapid transit accident/injury data; and the Federal Government's role in the oversight of rail rapid transit safety. Recommendations concerning these issues were made to the Department of Transportation, the Urban Mass Transportation Administration, the District of Columbia, and States in which rail rapid transit systems are currently operating.

  15. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Safety Showers and Eyewash Fountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronaugh, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews safety and emergency equipment in their application to chemical laboratories. Discusses American National Standards (ANSI) for equipment. Presents practical considerations for the placement and purchase of equipment. (MVL)

  16. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety in the Analytical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Galen W.

    1990-01-01

    Safety issues specifically related to the analytical laboratory are discussed including hazardous reagents, transferring samples, cleaning apparatus, eye protection, and equipment damage. Special attention is given to techniques which not only endanger the technician but also endanger expensive equipment. (CW)

  17. Patient Safety: Guide to Safe Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Consumer Information > Patient Safety Guide to Safe Plastic Surgery Patient Safety More Resources Choose a surgeon ... Important facts about the safety and risks of plastic surgery Questions to ask my plastic surgeon Choose ...

  18. Medication safety during your hospital stay

    MedlinePlus

    Five-rights - medication; Medication administration - hospital; Medical errors - medication; Patient safety - medication safety ... Medication safety means you get the right medicine, the right dose, at ... stay, your health care team needs to follow many steps to ...

  19. Nuclear Reactor Safety: a current awareness bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, D.C.

    1985-01-15

    Nuclear Reactor Safety announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on all safety-related aspects of fission reactors, including: accident analysis, safety systems, radiation protection, decommissioning and dismantling, and security measures.

  20. [Supervising road safety in Peru].

    PubMed

    Sagástegui, Freddy

    2010-06-01

    In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan.

  1. [Manufactured baby food: safety expectations].

    PubMed

    Davin, L; Van Egroo, L-D; Galesne, N

    2010-12-01

    Food safety is a concern for parents of infants, and healthcare professionals are often questioned by them about this topic. Baby food European regulation ensures high levels of safety and is more rigorous than common food regulation. Maximal limit for pesticides in baby food demonstrates the high level of requirements. This limit must be below the 10 ppb detection threshold, whatever the chemical used. Other contaminants such as nitrates are also the subject of greater expectations in baby food. Food safety risks control needs a specific know-how that baby food manufacturers have acquired and experienced, more particularly by working with producers of high quality raw material.

  2. A review of clozapine safety.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, Joanna; Berk, Michael; Lambert, Timothy; Bourin, Michel; Dodd, Seetal

    2005-07-01

    Clozapine is a distinctive antipsychotic agent, having a unique clinical profile and an idiosyncratic safety profile. More so than with other agents, the weighting of its adverse event profile is critical, in order to counterbalance its clear clinical advantages. The safety issues with clozapine are in a number of areas, some of which are considered medical emergencies and potentially life-threatening. These include haematological (neutropenia and agranulocytosis), CNS (seizures), cardiovascular (myocarditis and cardiomyopathy), metabolic (diabetes), gastrointestinal and neuromuscular. Understanding the safety profile of clozapine allows an informed use of the agent that can maximise its clear clinical benefit and minimise the known risks.

  3. [The safety of blood donors].

    PubMed

    Courchelle, J; Baudry, C; Bourboul, M-C; Coudurier, N

    2011-04-01

    For a long time, safety has been patient-centred and taken for granted. Indeed, it needed a dramatic accident and the study of post-donation information for the question to be looked into again. However, under various statutory, organizational aspects and the professionalization of the staffs, safety has always accompanied the donor throughout its course of donation. Self-sufficiency is, certainly, the first mission of the Établissement Français du Sang: while we have to supply patients with sufficient blood products complying with quality criteria, we must not however forget the essential respect for the safety of the donor.

  4. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety program and integrated safety analysis. 70.62... Nuclear Material § 70.62 Safety program and integrated safety analysis. (a) Safety program. (1) Each licensee or applicant shall establish and maintain a safety program that demonstrates compliance with...

  5. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety program and integrated safety analysis. 70.62... Nuclear Material § 70.62 Safety program and integrated safety analysis. (a) Safety program. (1) Each licensee or applicant shall establish and maintain a safety program that demonstrates compliance with...

  6. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety program and integrated safety analysis. 70.62... Nuclear Material § 70.62 Safety program and integrated safety analysis. (a) Safety program. (1) Each licensee or applicant shall establish and maintain a safety program that demonstrates compliance with...

  7. 49 CFR 385.11 - Notification of safety rating and safety fitness determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of safety rating and safety fitness... REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.11 Notification of safety rating and safety fitness... notice of remedial directive will constitute the notice of safety fitness determination. If FMCSA has...

  8. 49 CFR 385.11 - Notification of safety rating and safety fitness determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of safety rating and safety fitness... REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.11 Notification of safety rating and safety fitness... notice of remedial directive will constitute the notice of safety fitness determination. If FMCSA has...

  9. Pedestrian injuries in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Hefny, Ashraf F; Eid, Hani O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to study the anatomical distribution, severity, and outcome of hospitalised trauma pedestrian patients in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE), so as to improve preventive measures. All pedestrian trauma patients who were involved with a road traffic collision and admitted to Al Ain Hospital for more than 24 hours or who died in the hospital were included in the study. Data were prospectively collected during March 2003-October 2007. Three hundred and eighteen patients were studied, 279 (87.7%) were males. Median (range) age was 31 (1-75) years. UAE nationals were significantly younger than non-nationals (median (range) age of 14 (2-75) years compared with 33 (1-75) years, p = 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test). The lower limb (57.2%) was the most common injured region followed by the head (46.9%). The median (range) Injury Severity Score of patients was 5 (1-45). The median (range) total hospital stay was 11.3 (1-130) days. Thirty patients died (overall mortality 9.4%). In conclusion, mortality of pedestrian injured patients in the UAE is high. Severe head injury was the main cause of death. Measures to improve pedestrian safety should be adopted so as to reduce morbidity and mortality. These include educating drivers and pedestrians on road safety and enforcement of traffic safety laws.

  10. The conspicuity of pedestrians at night: a review.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Richard A; Wood, Joanne M; Owens, D Alfred; Whetsel Borzendowski, Stephanie; Stafford Sewall, Ashley

    2016-09-01

    Drivers' visual limitations are a leading contributor to night-time traffic crashes involving pedestrians. This paper reviews the basic changes in vision that occur at night for young and old visually healthy drivers, as well as those with common ocular pathology. To maximise their safety at night, pedestrians should be conspicuous. That is, beyond being simply visible (detectable as an ambiguous object), they should attract the attention of drivers and be readily perceivable as pedestrians. Research has established that the conspicuity of pedestrians can be optimised by attaching retroreflective markings to the pedestrian's extremities. Doing so highlights the pedestrian's 'biological motion,' which facilitates the accurate perception of a person; however, retroreflective markings on the torso (for example, vests) are less effective. Importantly, behavioural evidence indicates that most road users - drivers and pedestrians alike - are not aware of the limitations of night vision. For example, drivers typically 'overdrive' the useful range of their headlight beams and under-use their high beam headlight setting. Further, pedestrians overestimate their own conspicuity at night and fail to appreciate the extent to which their own conspicuity depends on their clothing. The widespread misunderstanding of the challenges associated with night driving reflects a lack of awareness of the fundamental limitations of night vision. Educational interventions are needed to ameliorate these dangerous misunderstandings and to improve the safety of all road users at night. PMID:27523959

  11. The conspicuity of pedestrians at night: a review.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Richard A; Wood, Joanne M; Owens, D Alfred; Whetsel Borzendowski, Stephanie; Stafford Sewall, Ashley

    2016-09-01

    Drivers' visual limitations are a leading contributor to night-time traffic crashes involving pedestrians. This paper reviews the basic changes in vision that occur at night for young and old visually healthy drivers, as well as those with common ocular pathology. To maximise their safety at night, pedestrians should be conspicuous. That is, beyond being simply visible (detectable as an ambiguous object), they should attract the attention of drivers and be readily perceivable as pedestrians. Research has established that the conspicuity of pedestrians can be optimised by attaching retroreflective markings to the pedestrian's extremities. Doing so highlights the pedestrian's 'biological motion,' which facilitates the accurate perception of a person; however, retroreflective markings on the torso (for example, vests) are less effective. Importantly, behavioural evidence indicates that most road users - drivers and pedestrians alike - are not aware of the limitations of night vision. For example, drivers typically 'overdrive' the useful range of their headlight beams and under-use their high beam headlight setting. Further, pedestrians overestimate their own conspicuity at night and fail to appreciate the extent to which their own conspicuity depends on their clothing. The widespread misunderstanding of the challenges associated with night driving reflects a lack of awareness of the fundamental limitations of night vision. Educational interventions are needed to ameliorate these dangerous misunderstandings and to improve the safety of all road users at night.

  12. Effects of vehicle-pedestrian interaction and speed limit on traffic performance of intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-10-01

    The intersection model consisting of vehicle model, pedestrian model, pedestrian-vehicle interaction model and intersection rules has been presented in this paper. The well-established vehicle and pedestrian movement models in the literature are combined and applied to the intersection system with additional rules. Extensive numerical simulations with different scenarios are carried out. The effects of road speed limit, vehicle arrival rate, pedestrian regularity rate and vehicle rational rate on the intersection performance are quantitatively investigated. Three measures of the traffic performance are studied including transportation efficiency, energy economy and traffic safety. We have found that the energy economy can be achieved with the high transportation efficiency, and that the traffic safety is in conflict with the efficiency. Furthermore, we have found that the pedestrian interference makes the intersection performance worse, resulting in lower transportation efficiency, more energy consumptions and higher safety risk.

  13. Significance of Adult Pedestrian Torso Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, B. Johan; Henary, Basem; Crandall, Jeff R.; Longhitano, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The current paper uses data from two trauma registries to evaluate the significance of adult pedestrian torso injury relative to head and lower extremity injuries and to determine the relative importance of injuries to individual torso organs/structures. Analyses are conducted with and without adjusting for striking vehicle body type (car versus LTV). Although the incidence of torso injury is approximately 50% higher in pedestrians struck by LTVs than in those struck by cars, torso injury appears to be as an important contributor to the overall cost of pedestrian morbidity as is lower extremity injury. The most frequently injured torso organs/structures include the rib cage, lung & pleura, and liver. The results indicate a need for an increased focus on the prevention of torso injury in the design of pedestrian safety countermeasures. PMID:16179153

  14. Safety and Health: Whose Job Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fountain, Melvin

    1991-01-01

    Describes occupations involved with safety and health including safety professionals, industrial hygienists, health and regulatory inspectors, public health microbiologists, ecologists, pollution control engineers, health physicists, and ergonomists. (JOW)

  15. Analyzing fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun

    2014-12-01

    The number of pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents and pedestrian deaths in China surged in recent years. However, a large scale empirical research on pedestrian traffic crashes in China is lacking. In this study, we identify significant risk factors associated with fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents. Risk factors in several different dimensions, including pedestrian, driver, vehicle, road and environmental factors, are considered. We analyze 6967 pedestrian traffic accident reports for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, obtained from the Guangdong Provincial Security Department, are extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report. Pedestrian traffic crashes have a unique inevitability and particular high risk, due to pedestrians' fragility, slow movement and lack of lighting equipment. The empirical analysis of the present study has the following policy implications. First, traffic crashes in which pedestrians are at fault are more likely to cause serious injuries or death, suggesting that relevant agencies should pay attention to measures that prevent pedestrians from violating traffic rules. Second, both the attention to elderly pedestrians, male and experienced drivers, the penalty to drunk driving, speeding, driving without a driver's license and other violation behaviors should be strengthened. Third, vehicle safety inspections and safety training sessions for truck drivers should be reinforced. Fourth, improving the road conditions and road lighting at night are important measures in reducing the probability of accident casualties. Fifth, specific road safety campaigns in rural areas, and education programs especially for young children and teens should be developed and promoted. Moreover, we reveal a country-specific factor, hukou, which has significant effect on the severity in pedestrian accidents due to the discrepancy in the level of social insurance/security, suggesting

  16. Analyzing fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun

    2014-12-01

    The number of pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents and pedestrian deaths in China surged in recent years. However, a large scale empirical research on pedestrian traffic crashes in China is lacking. In this study, we identify significant risk factors associated with fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents. Risk factors in several different dimensions, including pedestrian, driver, vehicle, road and environmental factors, are considered. We analyze 6967 pedestrian traffic accident reports for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, obtained from the Guangdong Provincial Security Department, are extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report. Pedestrian traffic crashes have a unique inevitability and particular high risk, due to pedestrians' fragility, slow movement and lack of lighting equipment. The empirical analysis of the present study has the following policy implications. First, traffic crashes in which pedestrians are at fault are more likely to cause serious injuries or death, suggesting that relevant agencies should pay attention to measures that prevent pedestrians from violating traffic rules. Second, both the attention to elderly pedestrians, male and experienced drivers, the penalty to drunk driving, speeding, driving without a driver's license and other violation behaviors should be strengthened. Third, vehicle safety inspections and safety training sessions for truck drivers should be reinforced. Fourth, improving the road conditions and road lighting at night are important measures in reducing the probability of accident casualties. Fifth, specific road safety campaigns in rural areas, and education programs especially for young children and teens should be developed and promoted. Moreover, we reveal a country-specific factor, hukou, which has significant effect on the severity in pedestrian accidents due to the discrepancy in the level of social insurance/security, suggesting

  17. Safety and Health Topics: Asbestos

    MedlinePlus

    ... OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 800-321-6742 (OSHA) TTY www.OSHA.gov FEDERAL GOVERNMENT White House Affordable Care Act Disaster Recovery ...

  18. Food Safety for Warmer Weather

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fight Off Food Poisoning Food Safety for Warmer Weather In warm-weather months, who doesn’t love to get outside ... to keep foods safe to eat during warmer weather. If you’re eating or preparing foods outside, ...

  19. [Patient safety in management contracts].

    PubMed

    Campillo-Artero, C

    2012-01-01

    Patient safety is becoming commonplace in management contracts. Since our experience in patient safety still falls short of other clinical areas, it is advisable to review some of its characteristics in order to improve its inclusion in these contracts. In this paper opinions and recommendations concerning the design and review of contractual clauses on safety are given, as well as reflections drawn from methodological papers and informal opinions of clinicians, who are most familiar with the nuances of safe and unsafe practices. After reviewing some features of these contracts, criteria for prioritizing and including safety objectives and activities in them, and key points for their evaluation are described. The need to replace isolated activities by systemic and multifaceted ones is emphasized. Errors, limitations and improvement opportunities observed when contracts are linked to indicators, information and adverse event reporting systems are analysed. Finally, the influence of the rules of the game, and clinicians behaviour are emphasised.

  20. Fluor Hanford Safety Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIAMS, J.D.

    2003-02-06

    This document summarizes safety management programs used within the scope of the project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC). The document had been developed to meet the format & content requirements of DOE-STD-3009-94, CH-2.

  1. Strong-back safety latch

    SciTech Connect

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  2. Science and Safety: 'Acceptable' Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Stresses ways to answer questions related to widespread publicity - are nuclear reactors safe, will dangerous research in genetic manipulation be banned? - with emphasis on true meaning of safety as related to risks. (EB)

  3. CDC Vital Signs: Trucker Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clips Trucker Safety Using a seat belt matters Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do ...

  4. Scare Up Some Halloween Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... staying safe on Halloween, safety experts say. Decorate costumes and bags with reflective tape or stickers. It's best if children wear light-colored costumes and face paint or make-up instead of ...

  5. Safety considerations in clinical engineering.

    PubMed

    Scott, R N; Paasche, P E

    1986-01-01

    Clinical engineering is a professional specialty which emerged in the 1960s primarily in response to concern about the hazard of electrocution in hospitals. It has already developed to encompass a much broader range of topics affecting the safe and effective use of technology in health care. However, safety remains as one major focus of clinical engineering. In this paper, issues arising in relation to electrical safety and treated in considerable detail. The next major safety area of concern involves medical gases. This area is newer and, consequently, the issues are less well resolved and therefore it is treated in less detail. Other safety issues, which are numerous, await review at some time in the future.

  6. Safety Rises to New Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafo, Joseph; Robillard, Marc

    2001-01-01

    Explains how high-rise residence halls can provide high-level safety and security at colleges and universities. Boston University is used to illustrate high-rise security and fire protection issues. (GR)

  7. Flywheel containment and safety considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppa, A. P.

    1984-01-01

    Flywheel safety and containment design technology are discussed. The effects of axial loading resulting from composite rotor burst tests are considered. Analysis of the radial burst problem is also included.

  8. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  9. Lithium battery safety and reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Samuel C.

    Lithium batteries have been used in a variety of applications for a number of years. As their use continues to grow, particularly in the consumer market, a greater emphasis needs to be placed on safety and reliability. There is a useful technique which can help to design cells and batteries having a greater degree of safety and higher reliability. This technique, known as fault tree analysis, can also be useful in determining the cause of unsafe behavior and poor reliability in existing designs.

  10. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2003-06-01

    A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

  11. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2003-05-07

    A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

  12. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  13. Older Adults and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Safety / Older Adults and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  14. Urban construction and safety project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogarth, P. T.

    1976-01-01

    Technology utilization projects in the area of urban construction and safety included the following: development of undercarpet and baseboard flat conductor cables, flood insurance studies, tornado safety engineering, the Project TECH house at the Langley Research Center, assistance to the City of Atlanta in their environmental habitability and resource allocation program, and market assessment of a solid state diesel engine controller. The flat conductor cable and the flood insurance studies are given particular attention.

  15. Space Flight Safety - Discussing perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, N. N.

    2016-09-01

    The present section accumulates selected papers from the Second IAA Space Flight Safety Symposium - the international action consolidating the international efforts on safety of space flights at new scientific and technological level. It was held in St. Petersburg in the period since June 29 till July 3, 2015. Venue - the congress-hall and Proving ground of «Special Materials Corp»- Scientific and production association of special materials (St. Petersburg, Sampsonievsky pr. 28a) (Figs. 1 and 2).

  16. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  17. [Team Care and Patient Safety].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Michio

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of patient safety management is to nurture an environment which provides optimal care for each patient through the cooperation of each healthcare staff member based on the idea of team care. This is based on the safety culture of an organization that places value on sharing information. Laboratory medicine is expected to become more important in the areas of staff, patient, and community education.

  18. Reactor operation safety information document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  19. Transportation Safety Excellence in Operations Through Improved Transportation Safety Document

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Michael A. Lehto; MAL

    2007-05-01

    A recent accomplishment of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Nuclear Safety analysis group was to obtain DOE-ID approval for the inter-facility transfer of greater-than-Hazard-Category-3 quantity radioactive/fissionable waste in Department of Transportation (DOT) Type A drums at MFC. This accomplishment supported excellence in operations through safety analysis by better integrating nuclear safety requirements with waste requirements in the Transportation Safety Document (TSD); reducing container and transport costs; and making facility operations more efficient. The MFC TSD governs and controls the inter-facility transfer of greater-than-Hazard-Category-3 radioactive and/or fissionable materials in non-DOT approved containers. Previously, the TSD did not include the capability to transfer payloads of greater-than-Hazard-Category-3 radioactive and/or fissionable materials using DOT Type A drums. Previous practice was to package the waste materials to less-than-Hazard-Category-3 quantities when loading DOT Type A drums for transfer out of facilities to reduce facility waste accumulations. This practice allowed operations to proceed, but resulted in drums being loaded to less than the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance criteria (WAC) waste limits, which was not cost effective or operations friendly. An improved and revised safety analysis was used to gain DOE-ID approval for adding this container configuration to the MFC TSD safety basis. In the process of obtaining approval of the revised safety basis, safety analysis practices were used effectively to directly support excellence in operations. Several factors contributed to the success of MFC’s effort to obtain approval for the use of DOT Type A drums, including two practices that could help in future safety basis changes at other facilities. 1) The process of incorporating the DOT Type A drums into the TSD at MFC helped to better integrate nuclear safety

  20. Safety and environmental health handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1989-01-01

    This Safety Handbook (445-1-H.) supplements the Geological Survey Safety Management Program objectives set forth in Survey Manual 445.1. Specifically, it provides a compact source of basic information to assist management and employees in preventing motor vehicle accidents, personal injuries, occupational diseases, fire, and other property damage or loss. All work situations incidental to the Geological Survey cannot be discussed in a handbook, and such complete coverage is not intended in this document. However, a wide range of subjects are covered in which a "common sense" approach to safety has been expressed. These subjects have been organized such that Chapters 1-5 address administrative issues, Chapters 6-12 address activities usually conducted within a facility, and Chapters 13-20 address field activities. No information contained in the Handbook is intended to alter any provision of any Federal law or executive order, Department of the Interior or Survey directive, or collective bargaining agreement. Questions or suggestions regarding the content of the Safety Handbook may be directed to the Survey Safety Manager, Administrative Division, Office of Facilities and Management Services, National Center, Reston, Virginia, Mail Stop 246. The previous edition of the Safety Handbook is superseded.