Science.gov

Sample records for sagebrush mitigation project

  1. L-325 Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: FY2009 Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2009-09-29

    Annual monitoring in support of the Fluor Daniel Hanford Company (Fluor) Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project L-325, Electrical Utility Upgrades was conducted in June 2009. MAP guidelines defined mitigation success for this project as 3000 established sagebrush transplants on a 4.5 ha mitigation site after five monitoring years. Annual monitoring results suggest that an estimated 2130 sagebrush transplants currently grow on the site. Additional activities in support of this project included gathering sagebrush seed and securing a local grower to produce between 2250 and 2500 10-in3 tublings for outplanting during the early winter months of FY2010. If the minimum number of seedlings grown for this planting meets quality specifications, and planting conditions are favorable, conservative survival estimates indicate the habitat mitigation goals outlined in the MAP will be met in FY2014.

  2. L-325 Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: Final Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, Robin E.; Becker, James M.

    2013-09-26

    This document provides a review and status of activities conducted in support of the Fluor Daniel Hanford Company (Fluor), now Mission Support Alliance (MSA), Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project L-325, Electrical Utility Upgrades (2007). Three plantings have been installed on a 4.5-hectare mitigation area to date. This review provides a description and chronology of events, monitoring results, and mitigative actions through fiscal year (FY) 2012. Also provided is a review of the monitoring methods, transect layout, and FY 2012 monitoring activities and results for all planting years. Planting densities and performance criteria stipulated in the MAP were aimed at a desired future condition (DFC) of 10 percent mature sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp wyomingensis) cover. Current recommendations for yielding this DFC are based upon a conceptual model planting of 1000 plants/ha (400/ac) exhibiting a 60-percent survival rate after 5 monitoring years (DOE 2003). Accordingly, a DFC after 5 monitoring years would not be less than 600 plants/ha (240/ac). To date, about 8700 sagebrush plants have been grown and transplanted onto the mitigation site. Harsh site conditions and low seedling survival have resulted in an estimated 489 transplants/ha on the mitigation site, which is 111 plants/ha short of the target DFC. Despite this apparent shortcoming, 71, 91, and 24 percent of the surviving seedlings planted in FY 2007 and FY 2008 and FY 2010, respectively, showed signs of blooming in FY 2012. Blooming status may be a positive indication of future sagebrush recruitment, and is therefore a potential source for reaching the target DFC of 600 plants/ha on this mitigation site over time. Because of the difficulty establishing small transplants on this site, we propose that no additional plantings be considered for this mitigation area and to rely upon the potential recruitment by established seedlings to achieve the mitigation commitment set forth in the MAP of 600 plants/ha.

  3. Integrated disposal Facility Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: FY2007 Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2007-09-01

    This report summarizes the first year survival of sagebrush seedlings planted as compensatory mitigation for the Integrated Disposal Facility Project. Approximately 42,600 bare root seedlings and 26,000 pluglings were planted at a mitigation site along Army Loop Road in February 2007. Initial baseline monitoring occurred in March 2007, and first summer survival was assessed in September 2007. Overall survival was 19%, with bare root survival being marginally better than pluglings (21% versus 14%). Likely major factors contributing to low survival were late season planting and insufficient soil moisture during seedling establishment.

  4. W-519 Sagebrush Mitigation Project FY-2004 Final Review and Status

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes activities conducted as mitigation for loss of sagebrush-steppe habitats due to Project W-519, the construction of the infrastructure for the Tank Waste Remediation System Vitrification Plant. The focus of this report is to provide a review and final status of mitigation actions performed through FY2004. Data collected since FY1999 have been included where appropriate. The Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project W-519 prescribed three general actions to be performed as mitigation for the disturbance of approximately 40 ha (100 acres) of mature sagebrush-steppe habitat. These actions included: (1) transplanting approximately 130,000 sagebrush seedlings on the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE); (2) rectification of the new transmission line corridor via seeding with native grasses and sagebrush; and (3) research on native plant species with a goal of increasing species diversity in future mitigation or restoration actions. Nearly 130,000 Wyoming big sagebrush seedlings where planted on ALE during FY2000 and FY2001. About 39,000 of those seedlings were burned during the 24-Command Fire of June 2000. The surviving and subsequent replanting has resulted in about 91,000 seedlings that were planted across four general areas on ALE. A 50% survival rate at any monitoring period was defined as the performance standard in the MAP for this project. Data collected in 2004 indicate that of the over 5000 monitored plants, 51.1% are still alive, and of those the majority are thriving and blooming. These results support the potential for natural recruitment and the ultimate goal of wildlife habitat replacement. Thus, the basic performance standard for sagebrush survival within the habitat compensation planting has been met. Monitoring activities conducted in 2004 indicate considerable variation in seedling survival depending on the type of plant material, site conditions, and to a lesser extent, treatments performed at the time of planting

  5. L-325 Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: FY2008 Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2008-09-30

    This document provides a review and status of activities conducted in support of the Fluor Daniel Hanford Company (Fluor) Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project L-325, Electrical Utility Upgrades. It includes time-zero monitoring results for planting activities conducted in January 2008, annual survival monitoring for all planting years (2007 and 2008), and recommendations for the successful completion of DOE habitat mitigation commitments for this project.

  6. IDF Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: FY2008 Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2008-09-01

    This document provides a review and status of activities conducted in support of the CH2MHill Hanford Group (CHG) Compensatory Mitigation Implementation Plan (MIP) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). It includes time-zero monitoring results for planting activities conducted in December 2007, annual survival monitoring for all planting years, a summary of artificial burrow observations, and recommendations for the successful completion of DOE mitigation commitments for this project.

  7. A synopsis of short-term response to alternative restoration treatments in Sagebrush-Steppe: The SageSTEP Project

    Treesearch

    James McIver; Mark Brunson; Steve Bunting; Jeanne Chambers; Paul Doescher; James Grace; April Hulet; Dale Johnson; Steve Knick; Richard Miller; Mike Pellant; Fred Pierson; David Pyke; Benjamin Rau; Kim Rollins; Bruce Roundy; Eugene Schupp; Robin Tausch; Jason Williams

    2014-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is an integrated long-term study that evaluates ecological effects of alternative treatments designed to reduce woody fuels and to stimulate the herbaceous understory of sagebrush steppe communities of the Intermountain West. This synopsis summarizes results through 3 yr posttreatment. Woody vegetation...

  8. The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP): a test of state-and-transition theory

    Treesearch

    James D. McIver; Mark Brunson; Steve C. Bunting; Jeanne Chambers; Nora Devoe; Paul Doescher; James Grace; Dale Johnson; Steve Knick; Richard Miller; Mike Pellant; Fred Pierson; David Pyke; Kim Rollins; Bruce Roundy; Eugene Schupp; Robin Tausch; David Turner

    2010-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is a comprehensive, integrated, long-term study that evaluates the ecological effects of fire and fire surrogate treatments designed to reduce fuel and to restore sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities of the Great Basin and surrounding areas. SageSTEP has several features that make it ideal for testing...

  9. Sagebrush Steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sagebrush steppe of California is unique with its proximity to the Pinus/Juniperus woodlands. The sagebrush steppe of the Intermountain Area of North America is often completely treeless. The sagebrush steppe of California consists of a series of generally treeless, shrub dominated communities ...

  10. A synopsis of short-term response to alternative restoration treatments in sagebrush-steppe: the SageSTEP project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIver, James; Brunson, Mark; Bunting, Steve; Chambers, Jeanne; Doescher, Paul; Grace, James; Hulet, April; Johnson, Dale; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard; Pellant, Mike; Pierson, Fred; Pyke, David; Rau, Benjamin; Rollins, Kim; Roundy, Bruce; Schupp, Eugene; Tausch, Robin; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is an integrated long-term study that evaluates ecological effects of alternative treatments designed to reduce woody fuels and to stimulate the herbaceous understory of sagebrush steppe communities of the Intermountain West. This synopsis summarizes results through 3 yr posttreatment. Woody vegetation reduction by prescribed fire, mechanical treatments, or herbicides initiated a cascade of effects, beginning with increased availability of nitrogen and soil water, followed by increased growth of herbaceous vegetation. Response of butterflies and magnitudes of runoff and erosion closely followed herbaceous vegetation recovery. Effects on shrubs, biological soil crust, tree cover, surface woody fuel loads, and sagebrush-obligate bird communities will take longer to be fully expressed. In the short term, cool wet sites were more resilient than warm dry sites, and resistance was mostly dependent on pretreatment herbaceous cover. At least 10 yr of posttreatment time will likely be necessary to determine outcomes for most sites. Mechanical treatments did not serve as surrogates for prescribed fire in how each influenced the fuel bed, the soil, erosion, and sage-obligate bird communities. Woody vegetation reduction by any means resulted in increased availability of soil water, higher herbaceous cover, and greater butterfly numbers. We identified several trade-offs (desirable outcomes for some variables, undesirable for others), involving most components of the study system. Trade-offs are inevitable when managing complex natural systems, and they underline the importance of asking questions about the whole system when developing management objectives. Substantial spatial and temporal heterogeneity in sagebrush steppe ecosystems emphasizes the point that there will rarely be a “recipe” for choosing management actions on any specific area. Use of a consistent evaluation process linked to monitoring may be the

  11. A synopsis of short-term response to alternative restoration treatments in sagebrush-steppe: the SageSTEP project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIver, James; Brunson, Mark; Bunting, Steve; Chambers, Jeanne; Doescher, Paul; Grace, James; Hulet, April; Johnson, Dale; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard; Pellant, Mike; Pierson, Fred; Pyke, David; Rau, Benjamin; Rollins, Kim; Roundy, Bruce; Schupp, Eugene; Tausch, Robin; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is an integrated long-term study that evaluates ecological effects of alternative treatments designed to reduce woody fuels and to stimulate the herbaceous understory of sagebrush steppe communities of the Intermountain West. This synopsis summarizes results through 3 yr posttreatment. Woody vegetation reduction by prescribed fire, mechanical treatments, or herbicides initiated a cascade of effects, beginning with increased availability of nitrogen and soil water, followed by increased growth of herbaceous vegetation. Response of butterflies and magnitudes of runoff and erosion closely followed herbaceous vegetation recovery. Effects on shrubs, biological soil crust, tree cover, surface woody fuel loads, and sagebrush-obligate bird communities will take longer to be fully expressed. In the short term, cool wet sites were more resilient than warm dry sites, and resistance was mostly dependent on pretreatment herbaceous cover. At least 10 yr of posttreatment time will likely be necessary to determine outcomes for most sites. Mechanical treatments did not serve as surrogates for prescribed fire in how each influenced the fuel bed, the soil, erosion, and sage-obligate bird communities. Woody vegetation reduction by any means resulted in increased availability of soil water, higher herbaceous cover, and greater butterfly numbers. We identified several trade-offs (desirable outcomes for some variables, undesirable for others), involving most components of the study system. Trade-offs are inevitable when managing complex natural systems, and they underline the importance of asking questions about the whole system when developing management objectives. Substantial spatial and temporal heterogeneity in sagebrush steppe ecosystems emphasizes the point that there will rarely be a “recipe” for choosing management actions on any specific area. Use of a consistent evaluation process linked to monitoring may be the

  12. Implementing Financial Assurance for Mitigation Project Success

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Institute for Water Resources (IWR) prepared this white paper on financial assurance for mitigation project success to provide a reference resource for Corps district staff involved with establishing and overseeing financial assurances.

  13. Locatable mineral assessment tracts for the U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    San Juan, Carma A.; Horton, John D.; Parks, Heather L.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Denning, Paul D.; Giles, Stuart A.; Hall, Susan M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Hearn, Carter B.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Lund, Karen; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Robinson, Jr., Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Rytuba, James J.; Smith, Steven M.; Stillings, Lisa; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Vikre, Peter G.; Wallis, John C.; Wilson, Anna B.; Zientek, Michael L.; Zurcher, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    The polygon (vector) feature class represents locatable mineral resource assessment tracts (tracts of land) associated with the Department of the Interior (DOI) Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Montana, Wyoming and Utah, central Idaho, and the Oregon-Nevada-Idaho border area. The mineral-resources tracts are geographic areas that were assessed by the USGS and were determined to be geologically favorable for a deposit type of interest to a depth of 1 kilometer. Qualitative assessment methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) were used to develop tract boundaries and to assign a level of mineral-resource potential and certainty to each tract. The general process included (1) identifying possible mineral deposit types for locatable commodities specified by BLM for each focal area, (2) outlining those areas that potentially contained mineral deposits based on geology, mineral occurrences, geophysics, soil and stream-sediment geochemistry, alteration mineral assemblages inferred from satellite imagery, BLM claims and permit data, mineral-exploration activity, and existing mineral-resource assessment data, and (3) evaluating the level of mineral-resource potential and level of certainty associated with the outlined areas using BLM assessment categories. A full description of the assessment is provided in the accompanying report (Day and others, 2016).SFAs, identified by agencies of the DOI, are high-quality sagebrush habitat areas supporting high densities of breeding greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). SFAs are within priority habitat areas or areas where land-use measures are intended to minimize or avoid habitat disturbance. Seven SFAs are within the USGS Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment Project study area. They include the Bear River Watershed, North-Central Idaho, North-Central Montana, Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada, and

  14. Insights into big sagebrush seedling storage practices

    Treesearch

    Emily C. Overton; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Anthony S. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. [Asteraceae]) is an essential component of shrub-steppe ecosystems in the Great Basin of the US, where degradation due to altered fire regimes, invasive species, and land use changes have led to increased interest in the production of high-quality big sagebrush seedlings for conservation and restoration projects. Seedling...

  15. Using state-and-transition models to project cheatgrass and juniper invasion in Southeastern Oregon sagebrush steppe

    Treesearch

    Megan K. Creutzburg; Joshua S. Halofsky; Miles A. Hemstrom

    2012-01-01

    Many threats are jeopardizing the sagebrush steppe of the Columbia Basin, including the spread of invasive species such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and the expansion of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) into historic shrub steppe. Native sagebrush steppe provides productive grazing lands and important...

  16. The lake acidification mitigation project (LAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Porcella, D.P. )

    1987-01-01

    In areas where there is limited capacity to resist input of acid deposition, acid soils and surface waters have affected natural communities and man's uses of the environment. In response to problems of acid soils, farmers added limestone materials to their soil during Roman times; this method of agricultural management continues today. The addition of limestone (CaCo/sub 3/), called liming, has been used more recently to mitigate acidic conditions in lakes and streams. Liming neutralizes acidity directly, provides buffering as acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) or alkalinity, and increases calcium ion concentration which mitigates toxicity in low ionic strength waters. The Lake Acidification Mitigation Project (LAMP) has the objective of identifying and quantifying environmental impacts of liming, and evaluating the effectiveness of liming and stocking procedures in restoring acid lakes. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of LAMP and to summarize results from the initial phases of the project.

  17. Airport expansion requires major wetlands mitigation project

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the steps taken to mitigate the impact to existing wetlands by creating new wetlands in an airport expansion project. The project addressed maintaining suitable amounts of wetlands to accommodate peak waterfowl populations, moving of high voltage power transmission towers, and maintaining agricultural and hunting interests. This project involved recreating of open water areas, marsh habitat, mud flat habitat, saline meadow habitat, maintaining two existing wetlands in the area of the new wetlands without disturbing them, and improving upland habitat surrounding the new wetlands.

  18. Restoring Wyoming big sagebrush

    Treesearch

    Cindy R. Lysne

    2005-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of big sagebrush can be attributed to many adaptive features. Big sagebrush plays an essential role in its communities by providing wildlife habitat, modifying local environmental conditions, and facilitating the reestablishment of native herbs. Currently, however, many sagebrush steppe communities are highly fragmented. As a result, restoring...

  19. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project : Annual Report of Mitigation Activities.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray D.

    2001-04-01

    The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group was actively involved in implementing wildlife mitigation activities in 2000. The Work Group met each quarter to discuss management and budget issues affecting Albeni Falls wildlife mitigation. Members of the Work Group protected a total of 1,242 acres of wetland habitat in 2000. The total amount of wildlife habitat protected for Albeni Falls mitigation is approximately 4,190 acres (4,630 Habitat Units). Approximately 16% of the total wildlife habitat lost has been mitigated. Land management activities were limited in 2000 as protection opportunities took up most staff time. Administrative activities increased in 2000 as funding was more evenly distributed among Work Group members. As a result, implementation is expected to continue to increase in the coming year. Land management and monitoring and evaluation activities will increase in 2001 as site-specific management plans are completed and implemented.

  20. Projections of contemporary and future climate niche for Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate subsp. wyomingensis): A guide for restoration

    Treesearch

    Shannon M. Still; Bryce A. Richardson

    2015-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is one of the most widespread and abundant plant species in the intermountain regions of western North America. This species occupies an extremely wide ecological niche ranging from the semi-arid basins to the subalpine. Within this large niche, three widespread subspecies are recognized. Montane ecoregions are occupied by...

  1. Artemisia L.: sagebrush

    Treesearch

    Susan E. Meyer

    2008-01-01

    Sagebrush - Artemisia L. - species are probably the most common shrubs in western North America. Big sagebrush alone occupies an estimated 60 million ha as a landscape dominant or codominant in the semiarid interior, and related species of the subgenus Tridentatae are estimated to occupy an additional 50 million ha (Beetle 1960; McArthur and Stevens in press)....

  2. Sagebrush systematics and distribution

    Treesearch

    E. Durant McArthur

    2000-01-01

    In this paper on sagebrush systematics and distribution, it is appropriate to begin by defining a few terms. Sagebrush, under my definition, are woody North American Artemisia of the subgenus Tridentatae. Tridentatae are one of four subgenera in Artemisia. Tridentatae or true...

  3. Seeding considerations in restoring big sagebrush habitat

    Treesearch

    Scott M. Lambert

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes methods of managing or seeding to restore big sagebrush communities for wildlife habitat. The focus is on three big sagebrush subspecies, Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis), basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata), and mountain...

  4. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  5. Insider Threat Mitigation Project: A Dynamic Network Approach (Poster)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-23

    OCT 2014 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Insider Threat Mitigation Project: A Dynamic Network Approach 5a...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Insider Threat Mitigation Project A Dynamic Network Approach Approach: • Semi-automated coding...to- external communication • Remove suspected distribution lists • Identify “normal behavior” using Enron • Develop pattern for “ insiders ” in

  6. Sagebrush Ecosystems Under Fire

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, Janelle L.

    2014-12-30

    Since settlement of the western United States began, sagebrush (Artemisia L. spp.) ecosystems have decreased both in quantity and quality. Originally encompassing up to 150 million acres in the West, the “interminable fields” of sage described by early explorers (Fremont 1845) have been degraded and often eliminated by conversion to agriculture, urbanization, livestock grazing, invasion by alien plants, and alteration of wildfire cycles (Hann et al. 1997; West 1999). More than half of the original sagebrush steppe ecosystems in Washington have been converted to agriculture and many of the remaining stands of sagebrush are degraded by invasion of exotic annuals such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.). Today, sagebrush ecosystems are considered to be one of the most imperiled in the United States (Noss, LeRoe and Scott 1995), and more than 350 sagebrush-associated plants and animals have been identified as species of conservation concern (Suring et al. 2005; Wisdom et al. 2005). The increasing frequency of wildfire in sagebrush-dominated landscapes is one of the greatest threats to these habitats and also presents one of the most difficult to control.

  7. Columbia River Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report / Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County Pygmy Rabbit Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites.

  8. Countering misinformation concerning big sagebrush

    Treesearch

    Bruce L Welch; Craig Criddle

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the scientific merits of eight axioms of range or vegetative management pertaining to big sagebrush. These axioms are: (1) Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) does not naturally exceed 10 percent canopy cover and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana) does not naturally exceed 20 percent canopy...

  9. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Plan for Libby Hydroelectric Project, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mundinger, John

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the proposed mitigation plan for wildlife losses attributable to the construction of the Libby hydroelectric project. Mitigation objectives and alternatives, the recommended mitigation projects, and the crediting system for each project are described by each target species. The report describes mitigation that has already taken place and 8 recommended mitigation projects designed to complete total wildlife mitigation. 8 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Multiscale sagebrush rangeland habitat modeling in southwest Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homer, Collin G.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Meyer, Debra K.; Coan, Michael J.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2009-01-01

    four secondary targets included percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), percent big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), percent Wyoming sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis), and sagebrush height (centimeters). Results were validated by an independent accuracy assessment with root mean square error (RMSE) values ranging from 6.38 percent for bare ground to 2.99 percent for sagebrush at the QuickBird scale and RMSE values ranging from 12.07 percent for bare ground to 6.34 percent for sagebrush at the full Landsat scale. Subsequent project phases are now in progress, with plans to deliver products that improve accuracies of existing components, model new components, complete models over larger areas, track changes over time (from 1988 to 2007), and ultimately model wildlife population trends against these changes. We believe these results offer significant improvement in sagebrush rangeland quantification at multiple scales and offer users products that have been rigorously validated.

  11. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Plan, Palisades Project: Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1986-11-01

    Under direction of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 and the subsequent Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, projects have been developed in Idaho and Wyoming to mitigate the losses of wildlife habitat and annual production due to the development and operation of the Palisades Project. A modified Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to assess the benefits of the preferred mitigation plan to wildlife. The interagency work group used the target species Habitat Units (HU's) lost with inundation of the reservoir area as a guideline during the mitigation planning process, while considering needs of wildlife in eastern Idaho and western Wyoming. A total of 37,068 HU's were estimated to be lost as a result of the inundation of the Palisades Reservoir area. Through a series of protection/enhancement projects, the preferred mitigation plan will provide benefits of an estimated 37,066 HU's. Target species to be benefited by this mitigation plan include bald eagle, mule deer, elk, mallard, Canada goose, mink, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, ruffed grouse, and peregrine falcon.

  12. Great Basin sagebrush ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2008-01-01

    Sagebrush ecosystems exhibit widespread degradation due to a variety of causes, including invasion by exotic plants, expansion of pinyon and juniper, altered fire regimes, excessive livestock grazing, urbanization and land development, conversion to agriculture, road development and use, mining, and energy development. These ecosystems have been identified as the most...

  13. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Terra-Burns, Mary

    2002-02-11

    The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group was actively engaged in implementing wildlife mitigation activities in 2001. The Work Group met quarterly to discuss management and budget issues affecting the Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Program. Work Group members protected 851 acres of wetland habitat in 2001. Wildlife habitat protected to date for the Albeni Falls project is approximately 5,248.31 acres ({approx}4,037.48 Habitat Units). Approximately 14% of the total wildlife habitat lost has been mitigated. Administrative activities increased as funding was more evenly distributed among Work Group members and protection opportunities became more time consuming. In 2001, Work Group members focused on development and implementation of the monitoring and evaluation program as well as completion of site-specific management plans. With the implementation of the monitoring and evaluation program, and as management plans are reviewed and executed, on the ground management activities are expected to increase in 2002.

  14. Earthquake risk mitigation projects in central asia and india

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausler, E.; Petal, M.; Tobin, T.; Tucker, B.; Gupta, M.; Sharma, A.; Shaw, R.

    2003-04-01

    In the fall of 2002, GeoHazards International (GHI), a California-based nonprofit organization, launched two 3-year projects, each funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, to improve the earthquake risk management of 23 cities in Central Asia and India. The objectives of these projects are to: * Assess the earthquake risk of each city, * Identify the most effective risk mitigation options for each city, * Raise awareness of that risk and those mitigation options, and * Initiate mitigation activities in some of these cities. A critical characteristic of these projects is that leaders of each local community will be deeply involved in realizing all four objectives. GHI will work with, in addition to local authorities, national government, academic and non-governmental organizations. In India, GHI’s partners are the Disaster Management Planning Hyogo Office, United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) of Kobe, Japan, and the Sustainable Environment and Ecological Development Society (SEEDS), of Delhi, India. In India, we will work in 20 cities that were chosen, in a February 1, 2002 workshop (sponsored by Munich Reinsurance Company) in Delhi; the cities were selected by Indian earthquake professionals on the basis of the cities’ population, hazard, and economic, cultural and political significance. In Central Asia, we will focus on Tashkent, Uzbekistan; Dushanbe, Tadzhikistan; and Almaty, Kazakstan. GHI and its partners are looking for other organizations that would like to collaborate on these projects.

  15. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Soults, Scott

    2009-08-05

    The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group (AFIWG) was actively involved in implementing wildlife mitigation activities in late 2007, but due to internal conflicts, the AFIWG members has fractionated into a smaller group. Implementation of the monitoring and evaluation program continued across protected lands. As of 2008, The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group (Work Group) is a coalition comprised of wildlife managers from three tribal entities (Kalispel Tribe, Kootenai Tribe, Coeur d Alene Tribe) and the US Army Corps of Engineers. The Work Group directs where wildlife mitigation implementation occurs in the Kootenai, Pend Oreille and Coeur d Alene subbasins. The Work Group is unique in the Columbia Basin. The Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA) wildlife managers in 1995, approved what was one of the first two project proposals to implement mitigation on a programmatic basis. The maintenance of this kind of approach through time has allowed the Work Group to implement an effective and responsive habitat protection program by reducing administrative costs associated with site-specific project proposals. The core mitigation entities maintain approximately 9,335 acres of wetland/riparian habitats in 2008.

  16. Should ranchers value sagebrush? Why we need sagebrush

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sagebrush is an important native species that has potential benefits to ranchers who desire multiple services from their lands. Here, we outline how sagebrush benefits other range plants, improves forage and habitat for wildlife, and can be valuable for winter livestock grazing and revegetation....

  17. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Plan for Hungry Horse Hydroelectric Project, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Gael

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the proposed mitigation plan for wildlife losses attributable to the construction of the Hungry Horse hydroelectric project. In this report, mitigation objectives and alternatives, the recommended mitigation projects, and the crediting system for each project are described by each target species. Mitigation objectives for each species (group) were established based on the loss estimates but tailored to the recommended projects. 13 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. Big Sagebrush Seed Bank Densities Following Wildfires

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) is a critical shrub to such sagebrush obligate species as sage grouse, (Centocercus urophasianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Big sagebrush do not sprout after wildfires wildfires and big sagebrush seed is generally sho...

  19. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. This area consists of several separated land parcels, of which 2,000 hectares (4,943 acres) have been purchased by BPA and an additional 4,640 hectares (11,466 acres) have been identified by the Colville Confederated Tribes for inclusion in the Project. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  20. Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Hydropower development within the Columbia and Snake River Basins has significantly affected riparian, riverine, and adjacent upland habitats and the fish and wildlife species dependent upon them. Hydroelectric dams played a major role in the extinction or major loss of both anadromous and resident salmonid populations and altered instream and adjacent upland habitats, water quality, and riparian/riverine function. Hydroelectric facility construction and inundation directly affected fish and wildlife species and habitats. Secondary and tertiary impacts including road construction, urban development, irrigation, and conversion of native habitats to agriculture, due in part to the availability of irrigation water, continue to affect wildlife and fish populations throughout the Columbia and Snake River Basins. Fluctuating water levels resulting from facility operations have created exposed sand, cobble, and/or rock zones. These zones are generally devoid of vegetation with little opportunity to re-establish riparian plant communities. To address the habitat and wildlife losses, the United States Congress in 1980 passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act) (P.L. 96-501), which authorized the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington to create the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The Act directed the Council to prepare a program in conjunction with federal, state, and tribal wildlife resource authorities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife species affected by the construction, inundation and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin (NPPC 2000). Under the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program), the region's fish and wildlife agencies, tribes, non-government organizations (NGOs), and the public propose fish and wildlife projects that address wildlife and fish losses resulting from dam construction and subsequent inundation. As directed by the Council, project proposals are

  1. Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Site Specific Management Plan for the Hellsgate Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Matthew T.; Judd, Steven L.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains a detailed site-specific management plan for the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project. The report provides background information about the mitigation process, the review process, mitigation acquisitions, Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) and mitigation crediting, current habitat conditions, desired future habitat conditions, restoration/enhancements efforts and maps.

  2. Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project : 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kesling, Jason; Abel, Chad; Schwabe, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    In 1998, the Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT) submitted a proposal to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for the acquisition of the Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project). The proposed mitigation site was for the Denny Jones Ranch and included Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and Oregon Division of State Lands (DSL) leases and grazing allotments. The Project approval process and acquisition negotiations continued for several years until the BPT and BPA entered into a Memorandum of Agreement, which allowed for purchase of the Project in November 2000. The 31,781 acre Project is located seven miles east of Juntura, Oregon and is adjacent to the Malheur River (Figure 1). Six thousand three hundred eighty-five acres are deeded to BPT, 4,154 acres are leased from DSL, and 21,242 acres are leased from BLM (Figure 2). In total 11 grazing allotments are leased between the two agencies. Deeded land stretches for seven miles along the Malheur River. It is the largest private landholding on the river between Riverside and Harper, Oregon. Approximately 938 acres of senior water rights are included with the Ranch. The Project is comprised of meadow, wetland, riparian and shrub-steppe habitats. The BLM grazing allotment, located south of the ranch, is largely shrub-steppe habitat punctuated by springs and seeps. Hunter Creek, a perennial stream, flows through both private and BLM lands. Similarly, the DSL grazing allotment, which lies north of the Ranch, is predominantly shrub/juniper steppe habitat with springs and seeps dispersed throughout the upper end of draws (Figure 2).

  3. Blue Creek Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs; Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington

    1994-11-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Agreement pertaining to the Blue Creek Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Spokane Tribe, Upper Columbia United Tribes, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). If fully implemented, the proposed action would allow the sponsors to protect and enhance 2,631 habitat units of big game winter range and riparian shrub habitat on 2,185 hectares (5,400 acres) of Spokane Tribal trust lands, and to conduct long term wildlife management activities within the Spokane Indian Reservation project area. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir.

  4. Projections of Rapidly Rising Temperatures over Africa Under Low Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelbrecht, Francois; Adegoke, Jimmy; Bopape, Mary-Jane; Naidoo, Mogesh; Garland, Rebecca; Thatcher, Marcus; McGregor, John; Katzfe, Jack; Werner, Micha; Ichoku, Charles; Gatebe, Charles

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of observed trends in African annual-average near-surface temperatures over the last five decades reveals drastic increases, particularly over parts of the subtropics and central tropical Africa. Over these regions, temperatures have been rising at more than twice the global rate of temperature increase. An ensemble of high-resolution downscalings, obtained using a single regional climate model forced with the sea-surface temperatures and sea-ice fields of an ensemble of global circulation model (GCM) simulations, is shown to realistically represent the relatively strong temperature increases observed in subtropical southern and northern Africa. The amplitudes of warming are generally underestimated, however. Further warming is projected to occur during the 21st century, with plausible increases of 4-6 C over the subtropics and 3-5 C over the tropics by the end of the century relative to present-day climate under the A2 (a low mitigation) scenario of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios. High impact climate events such as heat-wave days and high fire-danger days are consistently projected to increase drastically in their frequency of occurrence. General decreases in soil-moisture availability are projected, even for regions where increases in rainfall are plausible, due to enhanced levels of evaporation. The regional downscalings presented here, and recent GCM projections obtained for Africa, indicate that African annual-averaged temperatures may plausibly rise at about 1.5 times the global rate of temperature increase in the subtropics, and at a somewhat lower rate in the tropics. These projected increases although drastic, may be conservative given the model underestimations of observed temperature trends. The relatively strong rate of warming over Africa, in combination with the associated increases in extreme temperature events, may be key factors to consider when interpreting the suitability of global mitigation targets in terms of African

  5. Projections of Rapidly Rising Temperatures over Africa Under Low Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelbrecht, Francois; Adegoke, Jimmy; Bopape, Mary-Jane; Naidoo, Mogesh; Garland, Rebecca; Thatcher, Marcus; McGregor, John; Katzfe, Jack; Werner, Micha; Ichoku, Charles; hide

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of observed trends in African annual-average near-surface temperatures over the last five decades reveals drastic increases, particularly over parts of the subtropics and central tropical Africa. Over these regions, temperatures have been rising at more than twice the global rate of temperature increase. An ensemble of high-resolution downscalings, obtained using a single regional climate model forced with the sea-surface temperatures and sea-ice fields of an ensemble of global circulation model (GCM) simulations, is shown to realistically represent the relatively strong temperature increases observed in subtropical southern and northern Africa. The amplitudes of warming are generally underestimated, however. Further warming is projected to occur during the 21st century, with plausible increases of 4-6 C over the subtropics and 3-5 C over the tropics by the end of the century relative to present-day climate under the A2 (a low mitigation) scenario of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios. High impact climate events such as heat-wave days and high fire-danger days are consistently projected to increase drastically in their frequency of occurrence. General decreases in soil-moisture availability are projected, even for regions where increases in rainfall are plausible, due to enhanced levels of evaporation. The regional downscalings presented here, and recent GCM projections obtained for Africa, indicate that African annual-averaged temperatures may plausibly rise at about 1.5 times the global rate of temperature increase in the subtropics, and at a somewhat lower rate in the tropics. These projected increases although drastic, may be conservative given the model underestimations of observed temperature trends. The relatively strong rate of warming over Africa, in combination with the associated increases in extreme temperature events, may be key factors to consider when interpreting the suitability of global mitigation targets in terms of African

  6. Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Mitigation Projects, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray D.

    2001-12-05

    The Pend Oreille Wetlands project consists of two adjacent parcels totaling about 600 acres. The parcels make up the northern boundary of the Kalispel Indian Reservation, and is also adjacent to the Pend Oreille River about 25 miles north of Newport and Albeni Falls Dam (Figure 1). Located in the Selkirk Mountains in Pend Oreille County Washington, the project is situated on an active floodplain, increasing its effectiveness as mitigation for Albeni Falls Dam. The combination of the River, wetlands and the north-south alignment of the valley have resulted in an important migratory waterfowl flyway. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and Kalispel Natural Resource Department have designated both project sites as priority habitats. Seven habitat types exist on the project properties and include four wetland habitats (open water, emergent, and scrub-shrub and forested), riparian deciduous forest, upland mixed coniferous forest and floodplain meadow. Importance of the project to wildlife is further documented by the occurrence of an active Bald Eagle nest aerie.

  7. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancment Plan: Minidoka Dam: Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Meuleman, G. Allyn; Martin, Robert C.; Hansen, H. Jerome

    1991-04-01

    A wildlife protection, mitigation, and enhancement plan has been developed for the US Bureau of Reclamation's Minidoka Dam and Reservoir in south-central Idaho. Specific objectives of this study included the following: Develop protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals and objectives for target wildlife species; identify potential protection, mitigation, and enhancement opportunities to achieve the mitigation objectives; and coordinate project activities with agencies, tribes, and the public. The interagency work group previously assessed the impacts of Minidoka Dam on wildlife. There were estimated losses of 10,503 habitat units (HU's) for some target wildlife species and gains of 5,129 HU's for other target species. The work group agreed that mitigation efforts should be directed toward target species that were negatively impacted by Minidoka Dam. They developed the following prioritized mitigation goals: 1,531 river otter HU's in riparian/river habitat, 1,922 sage grouse HU's in shrub-steppe (sagebrush-grassland) habitat, 1,746 mule deer HU's in shrub-steppe habitat, and 175 yellow warbler HU's in deciduous scrub-shrub wetland habitat. The work group proposed the following preferred mitigation options, in priority order: Provide benefits of 1,706 river otter and yellow warbler HU's by protecting and enhancing riparian/river habitat in south central Idaho; and provide benefits of 3,668 sage grouse and mule deer HU's by protecting and enhancing shrub-steppe (sagebrush-grassland) habitat. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Today`s notice announces BPA`s proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA`s obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  9. Sagebrush defoliator outbreak in Northern California

    Treesearch

    Ralph C. Hall

    1965-01-01

    The sagebrush defoliator was responsible for varying degrees of sagebrush defoliation and mortality over a widespread area in southeastern Oregon, northeastern California, and northwestern Nevada in 1963 and 1964. Severe defoliation sometimes killed sagebrush in a single season. Indications are that the outbreak will continue at least another season. A....

  10. Big sagebrush seed bank densities following wildfires

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) is a critical shrub to many wildlife species including sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Big sagebrush is killed by wildfires and big sagebrush seed is generally short-lived and do not s...

  11. A synthesis of environmental and recreational mitigation requirements at hydropower projects in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, Michael P.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; DeRolph, Chris R.

    2016-04-11

    Environmental mitigation plays an important role in the environmentally sustainable development of hydropower resources. However, comprehensive data on mitigation required by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) at United States (US) hydropower projects is lacking. Therefore, our objective was to create a comprehensive database of mitigation required at non-federal hydropower projects and provide a synthesis of available mitigation data. Mitigation data was collated for over 300 plants licensed or relicensed from 1998 through 2013. We observed that the majority of FERC mitigation requirements deal with either hydrologic flows or recreation and that hydropower plants in the Pacific Northwest had the highest number of requirements. Our data indicate opportunities exist to further explore hydropower mitigation in the areas of environmental flows, fish passage, and water quality. Lastly, connecting these data with ecological outcomes, actual flow data, and larger landscape level information will be necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation and ultimately inform regulators, managers, and planners.

  12. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Plan for the Thompson Falls Hydroelectric Project, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Gael; Wood, Marilyn

    1985-08-01

    This document presents a preliminary mitigation and enhancement plan for the Thompson Falls hydroelectric project. It discusses options available to provide wildlife protection, mitigation and enhancement in accordance with the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-501). The options focus on mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat losses attributable to the construction of the hydroelectric project. These losses were previously estimated from the best available information concerning the degree of negative and positive impacts to target wildlife species (Wood and Olsen 1984). Criteria by which the mitigation alternatives were evaluated were the same as those used to assess the impacts identified in the Phase I document (Wood and Olsen 1984). They were also evaluated according to feasibility and cost effectiveness. This document specifically focuses on mitigation for target species which were identified during Phase I (Wood and Olsen 1984). It was assumed mitigation and enhancement for the many other target wildlife species impacted by the hydroelectric developments will occur as secondary benefits. The recommended mitigation plan includes two recommended mitigation projects: (1) development of wildlife protection and enhancement plans for MPC lands and (2) strategies to protect several large islands upstream of the Thompson Falls reservoir. If implemented, these projects would provide satisfactory mitigation for wildlife losses associated with the Thompson Falls hydroelectric project. The intent of the mitigation plan is to recommend wildlife management objectives and guidelines. The specific techniques, plans, methods and agreements would be developed is part of the implementation phase.

  13. 77 FR 24505 - Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for... comments on Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings... property from hazards and their effects. One such activity is the implementation of wind retrofit...

  14. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects: Volume II. Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J. E.; Cada, G. F.; Dauble, D. D.; Hunt, R. T.; Jones, D. W.; Rinehart, B. N.; Sommers, G. L.; Costello, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy, through its hydropower program, is studying environmental mitigation practices at hydroelectric projects. The study of environmental mitigation is intended to provide greater understanding of environmental problems and solutions that are associated with conventional hydroelectric projects. This volume examines upstream and downstream fish passage/protection technologies and the associated practices, benefits, and costs. Fish passage/protection mitigation technologies are investigated by three methods: (a) national, regional (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission regions), and temporal frequencies of fish passage/protection mitigation are examined at 1,825 operating and conventional (excludes pumped storage) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulated hydroelectric sites in the United States; (b) general fish passage/protection mitigation costs are discussed for 50 FERC regulated hydroelectric projects; and (c) 16 case studies are used to examine specific fish passage/protection mitigation practices, benefits, and costs.

  15. The seismic project of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppenheimer, D.H.; Bittenbinder, A.N.; Bogaert, B.M.; Buland, R.P.; Dietz, L.D.; Hansen, R.A.; Malone, S.D.; McCreery, C.S.; Sokolowski, T.J.; Whitmore, P.M.; Weaver, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the five western States of Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington joined in a partnership called the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) to enhance the quality and quantity of seismic data provided to the NOAA tsunami warning centers in Alaska and Hawaii. The NTHMP funded a seismic project that now provides the warning centers with real-time seismic data over dedicated communication links and the Internet from regional seismic networks monitoring earthquakes in the five western states, the U.S. National Seismic Network in Colorado, and from domestic and global seismic stations operated by other agencies. The goal of the project is to reduce the time needed to issue a tsunami warning by providing the warning centers with high-dynamic range, broadband waveforms in near real time. An additional goal is to reduce the likelihood of issuing false tsunami warnings by rapidly providing to the warning centers parametric information on earthquakes that could indicate their tsunamigenic potential, such as hypocenters, magnitudes, moment tensors, and shake distribution maps. New or upgraded field instrumentation was installed over a 5-year period at 53 seismic stations in the five western states. Data from these instruments has been integrated into the seismic network utilizing Earthworm software. This network has significantly reduced the time needed to respond to teleseismic and regional earthquakes. Notably, the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center responded to the 28 February 2001 Mw 6.8 Nisqually earthquake beneath Olympia, Washington within 2 minutes compared to an average response time of over 10 minutes for the previous 18 years. ?? Springer 2005.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey sage-grouse and sagebrush ecosystem research annual report for 2017

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.

    2017-09-08

    The sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystem extends across a large portion of the Western United States, and the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is one of the iconic species of this ecosystem. Greater sage-grouse populations occur in 11 States and are dependent on relatively large expanses of sagebrush-dominated habitat. Sage-grouse populations have been experiencing long-term declines owing to multiple stressors, including interactions among fire, exotic plant invasions, and human land uses, which have resulted in significant loss, fragmentation, and degradation of landscapes once dominated by sagebrush. In addition to the sage-grouse, over 350 species of plants and animals are dependent on the sagebrush ecosystem.Increasing knowledge about how these species and the sagebrush ecosystem respond to these stressors and to management actions can inform and improve strategies to maintain existing areas of intact sagebrush and restore degraded landscapes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a broad research program focused on providing the science needed to inform these strate-gies and to help land and resource managers at the Federal, State, Tribal, and local levels as they work towards sustainable sage-grouse populations and restored landscapes for the broad range of uses critical to stakeholders in the Western United States.USGS science has provided a foundation for major land and resource management decisions including those that precluded the need to list the greater sage-grouse under the Endangered Species Act. The USGS is continuing to build on that foundation to inform science-based decisions to help support local economies and the continued conservation, management, and restoration of the sagebrush ecosystem.This report contains descriptions of USGS sage-grouse and sagebrush ecosystem research projects that are ongoing or were active during 2017 and is organized into five thematic areas: Fire, Invasive Species, Restoration, Sagebrush and Sage

  17. Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project; Long-term Management Plan, Project Report 1993, Final Draft.

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Matthew T.

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted on the Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project area, a 4,943 acre ranch purchased for mitigating some habitat losses associated with the original construction of Grand Coulee Dam and innundation of habitat by Lake Roosevelt. A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was used to determine habitat quality and quantity baseline data and future projections. Target species used in the study were sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemoinus), mink (Mustela vison), spotted sandpiper (Actiius colchicus), bobcat (Felis reufs), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura). From field data collected, limiting life values or HSI's (Habitat Suitability Index's) for each indicator species was determined for existing habitats on project lands. From this data a long term management plan was developed. This report is designed to provide guidance for the management of project lands in relation to the habitat cover types discussed and the indicator species used to evaluate these cover types. In addition, the plan discusses management actions, habitat enhancements, and tools that will be used to enhance, protect and restore habitats to desired conditions. Through planned management actions biodiversity and vegetative structure can be optimized over time to reduce or eliminate, limiting HSI values for selected wildlife on project lands.

  18. Banking Wyoming big sagebrush seeds

    Treesearch

    Robert P. Karrfalt; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Five commercially produced seed lots of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. var. wyomingensis (Beetle & Young) S.L. Welsh [Asteraceae]) were stored under various conditions for 5 y. Purity, moisture content as measured by equilibrium relative humidity, and storage temperature were all important factors to successful seed storage. Our results indicate...

  19. Big sagebrush transplanting success in crested wheatgrass stands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The conversion of formerly big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate ssp. wyomingensis)/bunchgrass communities to annual grass dominance, primarily cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), in Wyoming big sagebrush ecosystems has sparked the increasing demand to establish big sagebrush on disturbed rangelands. The e...

  20. Multiscale sagebrush rangeland habitat modeling in the Gunnison Basin of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homer, Collin G.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Meyer, Debra K.; Schell, Spencer J.

    2013-01-01

    North American sagebrush-steppe ecosystems have decreased by about 50 percent since European settlement. As a result, sagebrush-steppe dependent species, such as the Gunnison sage-grouse, have experienced drastic range contractions and population declines. Coordinated ecosystem-wide research, integrated with monitoring and management activities, is needed to help maintain existing sagebrush habitats; however, products that accurately model and map sagebrush habitats in detail over the Gunnison Basin in Colorado are still unavailable. The goal of this project is to provide a rigorous large-area sagebrush habitat classification and inventory with statistically validated products and estimates of precision across the Gunnison Basin. This research employs a combination of methods, including (1) modeling sagebrush rangeland as a series of independent objective components that can be combined and customized by any user at multiple spatial scales; (2) collecting ground measured plot data on 2.4-meter QuickBird satellite imagery in the same season the imagery is acquired; (3) modeling of ground measured data on 2.4-meter imagery to maximize subsequent extrapolation; (4) acquiring multiple seasons (spring, summer, and fall) of Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery (30-meter) for optimal modeling; (5) using regression tree classification technology that optimizes data mining of multiple image dates, ratios, and bands with ancillary data to extrapolate ground training data to coarser resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper; and 6) employing accuracy assessment of model predictions to enable users to understand their dependencies. Results include the prediction of four primary components including percent bare ground, percent herbaceous, percent shrub, and percent litter, and four secondary components including percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), percent big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), percent Wyoming sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis), and shrub height (centimeters

  1. Sagebrush ecosystems: current status and trends.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, E.A.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.; Stiver, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) biome has changed since settlement by Europeans. The current distribution, composition and dynamics, and disturbance regimes of sagebrush ecosystems have been altered by interactions among disturbance, land use, and invasion of exotic plants. In this chapter, we present the dominant factors that have influenced habitats across the sagebrush biome. Using a large-scale analysis, we identified regional changes and patterns in “natural disturbance”, invasive exotic species, and influences of land use in sagebrush systems. Number of fires and total area burned has increased since 1980 across much of the sagebrush biome. Juniper (Juniperus spp.) and pinyon (Pinus spp.) woodlands have expanded into sagebrush habitats at higher elevations. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an exotic annual grass, has invaded much of lower elevation, more xeric sagebrush landscapes across the western portion of the biome. Consequently, synergistic feedbacks between habitats and disturbance (natural and human-caused) have altered disturbance regimes, plant community dynamics and contributed to loss of sagebrush habitats and change in plant communities. Habitat conversion to agriculture has occurred in the highly productive regions of the sagebrush biome and influenced up to 56% of the Conservation Assessment area. Similarly, urban areas, and road, railroad, and powerline networks fragment habitats, facilitate predator movements, and provide corridors for spread of exotic species across the entire sagebrush biome. Livestock grazing has altered sagebrush habitats; the effects of overgrazing combined with drought on plant communities in the late 1880s and early 1900s still influences current habitats. Management of livestock grazing has influenced sagebrush ecosystems by habitat treatments to increase forage and reduce sagebrush and other plant species unpalatable to livestock. Fences, roads, and water developments to manage livestock movements have further

  2. Wildlife Loss Estimates and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Volume Three, Hungry Horse Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Daniel

    1984-10-01

    This assessment addresses the impacts to the wildlife populations and wildlife habitats due to the Hungry Horse Dam project on the South Fork of the Flathead River and previous mitigation of theses losses. In order to develop and focus mitigation efforts, it was first necessary to estimate wildlife and wildlife hatitat losses attributable to the construction and operation of the project. The purpose of this report was to document the best available information concerning the degree of impacts to target wildlife species. Indirect benefits to wildlife species not listed will be identified during the development of alternative mitigation measures. Wildlife species incurring positive impacts attributable to the project were identified.

  3. Northeast Oregon Wildlife Mitigation Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribe

    1996-08-01

    Development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin has had far-reaching effects on many species of wildlife. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the Federal portion of this system, as allocated to the purpose of power production. BPA needs to mitigate for loss of wildlife habitat in the Snake River Subbasin.

  4. RFI Mitigation and Testing Employed at GGAO for NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, Lawrence M.; Rajagopalan, Ganesh; Stevenson, Thomas; Turner, Charles; Bulcha, Berhanu

    2017-01-01

    Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Mitigation at Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) has been addressed in three different ways by NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP); masks, blockers, and filters. All of these techniques will be employed at the GGAO, to mitigate the RFI consequences to the Very Long Baseline Interferometer.

  5. PREFERENCE EVALUATION AND DECISION SUPPORT FOR MULTIPLE UTILITIES OF HEAT MITIGATION PROJECTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Hideharu; Nakatani, Jun; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    Heat mitigation projects, such as green roof, waterfront, mist spraying and water-retentive pavement, are mainly intended to decrease outdoor temperature, while some of them have multiple utilities including increase of species, mitigation of flood, improvement of spatial design and environmental enlightenment in addition to decrease in outdoor temperature. This paper proposes and demonstrates a decision support method for alternative design based on prioritization and preference evaluation for multiple utilities of heat mitigation projects. First, applying analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the priority order of project implementation was decided based on subjective evaluation of multi-stakeholders such as benefit recipients, experts and project implementers on multiple utilities of the projects. Then, the preference structure of office workers as benefit recipients of projects was identified using conjoint analysis, each utility was evaluated in monetary value, and discussed which aspects should be emphasized on detailed project planning.

  6. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Washington Facilities (Intrastate) Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, Jack

    1984-11-01

    This report was prepared for BPA in fulfillment of section 1004 (b)(1) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, to review the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation program at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Projects addressed are: Merwin Dam; Swift Project; Yale Project; Cowlitz River; Boundary Dam; Box Canyon Dam; Lake Chelan; Condit Project; Enloe Project; Spokane River; Tumwater and Dryden Dam; Yakima; and Naches Project.

  7. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Columbia River Mainstem Facilities, 1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, Jack; Hwang, Diana

    1984-11-01

    This report reviews the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation programs at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Each hydropower facility report is abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  8. Abbreviated Detailed Project Report, Mitigation of Erosion Damages, Delaware River, Pennsville, New Jersey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Abbreviated Detailed Project Study indicates that the dike’s impact on erosion is limited to the shoreline landward of the dike. 28 Erosion damage ...RIVER PENNSVILLE, NEW JERSEY MITIGATION OF EROSION DAMAGES ABBREVIATED DETAILED PROJECT REPORT FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT The Army Corps of...REPORT MITIGATION OF EROSION DAMAGES DELAWARE RIVER PENNSVILLE, NEW JERSEY C.-I. s1 4 09 024 NOTICE THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN REPRODUCED FROM THE BEST

  9. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37 % of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90 %) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  10. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects.

    PubMed

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37% of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90%) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  11. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project; Idaho Department of Fish and Game 2007 Final Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cousins, Katherine

    2009-04-03

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game maintained a total of about 2,743 acres of wildlife mitigation habitat in 2007, and protected another 921 acres. The total wildlife habitat mitigation debt has been reduced by approximately two percent (598.22 HU) through the Department's mitigation activities in 2007. Implementation of the vegetative monitoring and evaluation program continued across protected lands. For the next funding cycle, the IDFG is considering a package of restoration projects and habitat improvements, conservation easements, and land acquisitions in the project area.

  12. Colville Confederated Tribes' Performance Project Wildlife Mitigation Acquisitions, Annual Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Richard; Berger, Matthew; Tonasket, Patrick

    2006-12-01

    The Colville Confederated Tribes Wildlife Mitigation Project is protecting lands as partial mitigation for hydropower's share of the wildlife losses resulting from Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. The Mitigation Project protects and manages 54,606 acres for the biological requirements of managed wildlife species that are important to the Colville Tribes. With the inclusion of 2006 acquisitions, the Colville Tribes have acquired approximately 32,018 habitat units (HUs) towards a total 35,819 HUs lost from original inundation due to hydropower development. This annual report for 2006 briefly describes that four priority land acquisitions that were considered for enrollment into the Colville Tribes Mitigation Project during the 2006 contract period.

  13. A synthesis of environmental and recreational mitigation requirements at hydropower projects in the United States

    DOE PAGES

    Schramm, Michael P.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; DeRolph, Chris R.

    2016-04-11

    Environmental mitigation plays an important role in the environmentally sustainable development of hydropower resources. However, comprehensive data on mitigation required by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) at United States (US) hydropower projects is lacking. Therefore, our objective was to create a comprehensive database of mitigation required at non-federal hydropower projects and provide a synthesis of available mitigation data. Mitigation data was collated for over 300 plants licensed or relicensed from 1998 through 2013. We observed that the majority of FERC mitigation requirements deal with either hydrologic flows or recreation and that hydropower plants in the Pacific Northwest had themore » highest number of requirements. Our data indicate opportunities exist to further explore hydropower mitigation in the areas of environmental flows, fish passage, and water quality. Lastly, connecting these data with ecological outcomes, actual flow data, and larger landscape level information will be necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation and ultimately inform regulators, managers, and planners.« less

  14. Mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp vaseyana) seed production

    Treesearch

    Melissa L. Landeen

    2015-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) is the most widespread and common shrub in the sagebrush biome of western North America. Of the three most common subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), mountain big sagebrush (ssp. vaseyana; MBS) is the most resilient to disturbance, but still requires favorable climactic conditions and a viable post-...

  15. Big and black sagebrush landscapes [Chapter 5

    Treesearch

    Stanley G. Kitchen; E. Durant McArthur

    2007-01-01

    Perhaps no plant evokes a common vision of the semi-arid landscapes of western North America as do the sagebrushes. A collective term, sagebrush is applied to shrubby members of the mostly herbaceous genus, Artemisia L. More precisely, the moniker is usually restricted to members of subgenus Tridentatae, a collection of some 20 woody taxa endemic to North America (...

  16. Blue Creek Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project : Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs; Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington

    1994-11-01

    This preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities are analyzed: Habitat protection; Habitat enhancement; Operation and maintenance; and Monitoring and evaluation. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir.

  17. Methodological Issues In Forestry Mitigation Projects: A CaseStudy Of Kolar District

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Murthy, I.K.; Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Sahana, C.A.; Srivathsa, K.G.; Khan, H.

    2007-06-01

    There is a need to assess climate change mitigationopportunities in forest sector in India in the context of methodologicalissues such as additionality, permanence, leakage, measurement andbaseline development in formulating forestry mitigation projects. A casestudy of forestry mitigation project in semi-arid community grazing landsand farmlands in Kolar district of Karnataka, was undertaken with regardto baseline and project scenariodevelopment, estimation of carbon stockchange in the project, leakage estimation and assessment ofcost-effectiveness of mitigation projects. Further, the transaction coststo develop project, and environmental and socio-economic impact ofmitigation project was assessed.The study shows the feasibility ofestablishing baselines and project C-stock changes. Since the area haslow or insignificant biomass, leakage is not an issue. The overallmitigation potential in Kolar for a total area of 14,000 ha under variousmitigation options is 278,380 tC at a rate of 20 tC/ha for the period2005-2035, which is approximately 0.67 tC/ha/yr inclusive of harvestregimes under short rotation and long rotation mitigation options. Thetransaction cost for baseline establishment is less than a rupee/tC andfor project scenario development is about Rs. 1.5-3.75/tC. The projectenhances biodiversity and the socio-economic impact is alsosignificant.

  18. Wildfire, climate, and invasive grass interactions negatively impact an indicator species by reshaping sagebrush ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Coates, Peter S; Ricca, Mark A; Prochazka, Brian G; Brooks, Matthew L; Doherty, Kevin E; Kroger, Travis; Blomberg, Erik J; Hagen, Christian A; Casazza, Michael L

    2016-10-25

    Iconic sagebrush ecosystems of the American West are threatened by larger and more frequent wildfires that can kill sagebrush and facilitate invasion by annual grasses, creating a cycle that alters sagebrush ecosystem recovery post disturbance. Thwarting this accelerated grass-fire cycle is at the forefront of current national conservation efforts, yet its impacts on wildlife populations inhabiting these ecosystems have not been quantified rigorously. Within a Bayesian framework, we modeled 30 y of wildfire and climatic effects on population rates of change of a sagebrush-obligate species, the greater sage-grouse, across the Great Basin of western North America. Importantly, our modeling also accounted for variation in sagebrush recovery time post fire as determined by underlying soil properties that influence ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasion. Our results demonstrate that the cumulative loss of sagebrush to direct and indirect effects of wildfire has contributed strongly to declining sage-grouse populations over the past 30 y at large spatial scales. Moreover, long-lasting effects from wildfire nullified pulses of sage-grouse population growth that typically follow years of higher precipitation. If wildfire trends continue unabated, model projections indicate sage-grouse populations will be reduced to 43% of their current numbers over the next three decades. Our results provide a timely example of how altered fire regimes are disrupting recovery of sagebrush ecosystems and leading to substantial declines of a widespread indicator species. Accordingly, we present scenario-based stochastic projections to inform conservation actions that may help offset the adverse effects of wildfire on sage-grouse and other wildlife populations.

  19. Wildfire, climate, and invasive grass interactions negatively impact an indicator species by reshaping sagebrush ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Ricca, Mark; Prochazka, Brian; Brooks, Matthew L.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Kroger, Travis; Blomberg, Erik J.; Hagen, Christian A.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Iconic sagebrush ecosystems of the American West are threatened by larger and more frequent wildfires that can kill sagebrush and facilitate invasion by annual grasses, creating a cycle that alters sagebrush ecosystem recovery post disturbance. Thwarting this accelerated grass–fire cycle is at the forefront of current national conservation efforts, yet its impacts on wildlife populations inhabiting these ecosystems have not been quantified rigorously. Within a Bayesian framework, we modeled 30 y of wildfire and climatic effects on population rates of change of a sagebrush-obligate species, the greater sage-grouse, across the Great Basin of western North America. Importantly, our modeling also accounted for variation in sagebrush recovery time post fire as determined by underlying soil properties that influence ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasion. Our results demonstrate that the cumulative loss of sagebrush to direct and indirect effects of wildfire has contributed strongly to declining sage-grouse populations over the past 30 y at large spatial scales. Moreover, long-lasting effects from wildfire nullified pulses of sage-grouse population growth that typically follow years of higher precipitation. If wildfire trends continue unabated, model projections indicate sage-grouse populations will be reduced to 43% of their current numbers over the next three decades. Our results provide a timely example of how altered fire regimes are disrupting recovery of sagebrush ecosystems and leading to substantial declines of a widespread indicator species. Accordingly, we present scenario-based stochastic projections to inform conservation actions that may help offset the adverse effects of wildfire on sage-grouse and other wildlife populations.

  20. Wildfire, climate, and invasive grass interactions negatively impact an indicator species by reshaping sagebrush ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Ricca, Mark; Prochazka, Brian; Brooks, Matthew L.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Kroger, Travis; Blomberg, Erik J.; Hagen, Christian A.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Iconic sagebrush ecosystems of the American West are threatened by larger and more frequent wildfires that can kill sagebrush and facilitate invasion by annual grasses, creating a cycle that alters sagebrush ecosystem recovery post disturbance. Thwarting this accelerated grass–fire cycle is at the forefront of current national conservation efforts, yet its impacts on wildlife populations inhabiting these ecosystems have not been quantified rigorously. Within a Bayesian framework, we modeled 30 y of wildfire and climatic effects on population rates of change of a sagebrush-obligate species, the greater sage-grouse, across the Great Basin of western North America. Importantly, our modeling also accounted for variation in sagebrush recovery time post fire as determined by underlying soil properties that influence ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasion. Our results demonstrate that the cumulative loss of sagebrush to direct and indirect effects of wildfire has contributed strongly to declining sage-grouse populations over the past 30 y at large spatial scales. Moreover, long-lasting effects from wildfire nullified pulses of sage-grouse population growth that typically follow years of higher precipitation. If wildfire trends continue unabated, model projections indicate sage-grouse populations will be reduced to 43% of their current numbers over the next three decades. Our results provide a timely example of how altered fire regimes are disrupting recovery of sagebrush ecosystems and leading to substantial declines of a widespread indicator species. Accordingly, we present scenario-based stochastic projections to inform conservation actions that may help offset the adverse effects of wildfire on sage-grouse and other wildlife populations.

  1. Wildfire, climate, and invasive grass interactions negatively impact an indicator species by reshaping sagebrush ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Peter S.; Ricca, Mark A.; Prochazka, Brian G.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Kroger, Travis; Blomberg, Erik J.; Hagen, Christian A.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Iconic sagebrush ecosystems of the American West are threatened by larger and more frequent wildfires that can kill sagebrush and facilitate invasion by annual grasses, creating a cycle that alters sagebrush ecosystem recovery post disturbance. Thwarting this accelerated grass–fire cycle is at the forefront of current national conservation efforts, yet its impacts on wildlife populations inhabiting these ecosystems have not been quantified rigorously. Within a Bayesian framework, we modeled 30 y of wildfire and climatic effects on population rates of change of a sagebrush-obligate species, the greater sage-grouse, across the Great Basin of western North America. Importantly, our modeling also accounted for variation in sagebrush recovery time post fire as determined by underlying soil properties that influence ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasion. Our results demonstrate that the cumulative loss of sagebrush to direct and indirect effects of wildfire has contributed strongly to declining sage-grouse populations over the past 30 y at large spatial scales. Moreover, long-lasting effects from wildfire nullified pulses of sage-grouse population growth that typically follow years of higher precipitation. If wildfire trends continue unabated, model projections indicate sage-grouse populations will be reduced to 43% of their current numbers over the next three decades. Our results provide a timely example of how altered fire regimes are disrupting recovery of sagebrush ecosystems and leading to substantial declines of a widespread indicator species. Accordingly, we present scenario-based stochastic projections to inform conservation actions that may help offset the adverse effects of wildfire on sage-grouse and other wildlife populations. PMID:27791084

  2. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects. Volume 2, Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L.; Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W.; Dauble, D.D.; Hunt, R.T.; Costello, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines envirorunental mitigation practices that provide upstream and downstream fish passage and protection at hydroelectric projects. The study includes a survey of fish passage and protection mitigation practices at 1,825 hydroelectric plants regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to determine frequencies of occurrence, temporal trends, and regional practices based on FERC regions. The study also describes, in general terms, the fish passage/protection mitigation costs at 50 non-Federal hydroelectric projects. Sixteen case studies are used to examine in detail the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection. The 16 case studies include 15 FERC licensed or exempted hydroelectric projects and one Federally-owned and-operated hydroelectric project. The 16 hydroelectric projects are located in 12 states and range in capacity from 400 kilowatts to 840 megawatts. The fish passage and protection mitigation methods at the case studies include fish ladders and lifts, an Eicher screen, spill flows, airburst-cleaned inclined and cylindrical wedgewire screens, vertical barrier screens, and submerged traveling screens. The costs, benefits, monitoring methods, and operating characteristics of these and other mitigation methods used at the 16 case studies are examined.

  3. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in the forest sector of Russia: National and project level assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, T.S.; Kolchugina, T.P.; Andrasko, K.A.

    1996-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options in the Russian forest sector include: afforestation and reforestation of unforested/degraded land area; enhanced forest productivity; incorporation of nondestructive methods of wood harvesting in the forest industry; establishment of land protective forest stands; increase in stand age of final harvest in the European part of Russia; increased fire control; increased disease and pest control; and preservation of old growth forests in the Russian Far-East, which are presently threatened. Considering the implementation of all of the options presented, the GHG mitigation potential within the forest and agroforestry sectors of Russia is approximately 0.6-0.7 Pg C/yr or one half of the industrial carbon emissions of the United States. The difference between the GHG mitigation potential and the actual level of GHGs mitigated in the Russian forest sector will depend to a great degree on external financing that may be available. One possibility for external financing is through joint implementation (JI). However, under the JI process, each project will be evaluated by considering a number of criteria including also the difference between the carbon emissions or sequestration for the baseline (or reference) and the project case, the permanence of the project, and leakage. Consequently, a project level assessment must appreciate the near-term constraints that will face practitioners who attempt to realize the GHG mitigation potential in the forest and agroforestry sectors of their countries. 25 refs.

  4. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat—Part 1. Concepts for understanding and applying restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pyke, David A.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pellant, Mike; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard F.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Doescher, Paul S.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Brunson, Mark; McIver, James D.

    2015-10-26

    restoration techniques for sage-grouse habitat restoration. We conclude with a description of the critical nature of monitoring for adaptive management of sagebrush steppe restoration at landscape- and project-specific levels.

  5. Quantifying spatiotemporal changes in a sagebrush ecosystem in relation to energy development.

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, L. J.; Cantwell, B. L.; Krummel, J. R.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-12-01

    Energy development has been occurring in the intermountain western United States for over a century, yet few studies have attempted to spatially quantify the impacts of this disturbance on native ecosystems. We used temporal remotely sensed data for the Pinedale Anticline Project Area (PAPA) in western Wyoming, a region that has experienced increased natural gas development within the past 10 yr, to quantify the spatiotemporal distribution of Wyoming big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata, natural gas development, and other landcover types. Our analyses included 5 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images of the PAPA over a 22-yr period (1985-2006). We determined whether Wyoming big sagebrush spatiotemporal patterns were associated with natural gas development or other landcover types. We also developed a footprint model to determine the direct and indirect impacts of natural gas development on the distribution of Wyoming big sagebrush habitats. Over the 22-yr period, we observed an inverse relationship between the amount of Wyoming big sagebrush habitat and natural gas development. During this time, Wyoming big sagebrush habitat declined linearly at a rate of 0.2% yr-1 (4.5% total net loss), whereas natural gas development increased exponentially at a rate of 20% yr-1 (4800% total net increase). Our evaluation indicated that, by 2006, natural gas development directly impacted 2.7% (1750 ha) of original Wyoming big sagebrush habitat. Indirect impacts, quantified to account for degraded habitat quality, affected as much as 58.5% (assuming 1000-m buffers) of the original Wyoming big sagebrush habitat. Integrating assessments of the direct and indirect impacts will yield a better elucidation of the overall effects of disturbances on ecosystem function and quality.

  6. Perspectives on the Sagebrush Rebellion

    SciTech Connect

    Dowdle, B.

    1984-03-01

    The Sagebrush Rebellion began in the late 1970s with the objective of transferring various categories of federally owned lands to the states. The movement was centered in western ''public lands'' states, where nearly half the total land area is in federal ownership. Within a relatively short period of time this objective was changed to one of ''privatizing'' federal lands, of selling these land into private ownership. While the Sagebrush Rebellion has been highly political in its activities, the movement can be viewed in the perspective of historical land disposition policies in the US. These policies were changed near the turn of the centruy from alienating public lands into private ownership to their retention and management by federal government. Confusion over the economics of building a free enterprise system based on private property rights, and the costs associated with building such as system, appear to have been major factors in changing land policies. Two important areas in which this occurred were the Homestead Act of 1862 and timber. The provisions of the Homestead Act imposed heavy costs on settlers, and these costs caused a reaction against the economic system that was being built. 15 references, 1 table.

  7. Rainwater Wildlife Area, Watershed Management Plan, A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-03-01

    This Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary. The purpose of the project is

  8. Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project : Annual Report 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Richard P.; Berger, Matthew T.; Rushing, Samuel; Peone, Cory

    2009-01-01

    The Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Hellsgate Project) was proposed by the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CTCR) as partial mitigation for hydropower's share of the wildlife losses resulting from Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. At present, the Hellsgate Project protects and manages 57,418 acres (approximately 90 miles2) for the biological requirements of managed wildlife species; most are located on or near the Columbia River (Lake Rufus Woods and Lake Roosevelt) and surrounded by Tribal land. To date we have acquired about 34,597 habitat units (HUs) towards a total 35,819 HUs lost from original inundation due to hydropower development. In addition to the remaining 1,237 HUs left unmitigated, 600 HUs from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife that were traded to the Colville Tribes and 10 secure nesting islands are also yet to be mitigated. This annual report for 2008 describes the management activities of the Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Hellsgate Project) during the past year.

  9. Native perennial forb variation between mountain big sagebrush and Wyoming big sagebrush plant communities.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kirk W; Bates, Jon D

    2010-09-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) occupies large portions of the western United States and provides valuable wildlife habitat. However, information is lacking quantifying differences in native perennial forb characteristics between mountain big sagebrush [A. tridentata spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle] and Wyoming big sagebrush [A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh] plant communities. This information is critical to accurately evaluate the quality of habitat and forage that these communities can produce because many wildlife species consume large quantities of native perennial forbs and depend on them for hiding cover. To compare native perennial forb characteristics on sites dominated by these two subspecies of big sagebrush, we sampled 106 intact big sagebrush plant communities. Mountain big sagebrush plant communities produced almost 4.5-fold more native perennial forb biomass and had greater native perennial forb species richness and diversity compared to Wyoming big sagebrush plant communities (P < 0.001). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) and the multiple-response permutation procedure (MRPP) demonstrated that native perennial forb composition varied between these plant communities (P < 0.001). Native perennial forb composition was more similar within plant communities grouped by big sagebrush subspecies than expected by chance (A = 0.112) and composition varied between community groups (P < 0.001). Indicator analysis did not identify any perennial forbs that were completely exclusive and faithful, but did identify several perennial forbs that were relatively good indicators of either mountain big sagebrush or Wyoming big sagebrush plant communities. Our results suggest that management plans and habitat guidelines should recognize differences in native perennial forb characteristics between mountain and Wyoming big sagebrush plant communities.

  10. Plume Mitigation for Mars Terminal Landing: Soil Stabilization Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has led the efforts for lunar and Martian landing site preparation, including excavation, soil stabilization, and plume damage prediction. There has been much discussion of sintering but until our team recently demonstrated it for the lunar case there was little understanding of the serious challenges. Simplistic sintering creates a crumbly, brittle, weak surface unsuitable for a rocket exhaust plume. The goal of this project is to solve those problems and make it possible to land a human class lander on Mars, making terminal landing of humans on Mars possible for the first time.

  11. Mitigating project risk by use of high performance collector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richert, Timo; Riffelmann, Klaus-Jürgen; Nava, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Collectors with a high optical quality are generally valued for their additional performance, i.e. the expected additional output due to the performance gain compared to a lower quality reference collector. However, high-performance collectors additionally have a lower sensitivity to additional optical errors and, thus not only perform better nominally, but are also more likely to reach their nominal performance even when project uncertainties (e.g. increased sun-shape) or quality issues (e.g. increased component optical error) degrade their performance. This has physical reasons, whose cause and effect will be described and quantified within this paper.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDATE HOUSES FOR NORTH FLORIDA PORTION OF THE FLORIDA RADON MITIGATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to locate candidate houses for a proposed radon mitigation research and demonstration project in North Florida. he effort involved: 1) identification of target geographical areas, 2) radon monitoring in identified clusters, and 3) house charact...

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDATE HOUSES FOR NORTH FLORIDA PORTION OF THE FLORIDA RADON MITIGATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to locate candidate houses for a proposed radon mitigation research and demonstration project in North Florida. he effort involved: 1) identification of target geographical areas, 2) radon monitoring in identified clusters, and 3) house charact...

  14. Evaluating Aggregate Terrestrial Impacts of Road Construction Projects for Advanced Regional Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, James H.; Girvetz, Evan H.; McCoy, Michael C.

    2009-05-01

    This study presents a GIS-based database framework used to assess aggregate terrestrial habitat impacts from multiple highway construction projects in California, USA. Transportation planners need such impact assessment tools to effectively address additive biological mitigation obligations. Such assessments can reduce costly delays due to protracted environmental review. This project incorporated the best available statewide natural resource data into early project planning and preliminary environmental assessments for single and multiple highway construction projects, and provides an assessment of the 10-year state-wide mitigation obligations for the California Department of Transportation. Incorporation of these assessments will facilitate early and more strategic identification of mitigation opportunities, for single-project and regional mitigation efforts. The data architecture format uses eight spatial scales: six nested watersheds, counties, and transportation planning districts, which were intersected. This resulted in 8058 map planning units statewide, which were used to summarize all subsequent analyses. Range maps and georeferenced locations of federally and state-listed plants and animals and a 55-class landcover map were spatially intersected with the planning units and the buffered spatial footprint of 967 funded projects. Projected impacts were summarized and output to the database. Queries written in the database can sum expected impacts and provide summaries by individual construction project, or by watershed, county, transportation district or highway. The data architecture allows easy incorporation of new information and results in a tool usable without GIS by a wide variety of agency biologists and planners. The data architecture format would be useful for other types of regional planning.

  15. Evaluating aggregate terrestrial impacts of road construction projects for advanced regional mitigation.

    PubMed

    Thorne, James H; Girvetz, Evan H; McCoy, Michael C

    2009-05-01

    This study presents a GIS-based database framework used to assess aggregate terrestrial habitat impacts from multiple highway construction projects in California, USA. Transportation planners need such impact assessment tools to effectively address additive biological mitigation obligations. Such assessments can reduce costly delays due to protracted environmental review. This project incorporated the best available statewide natural resource data into early project planning and preliminary environmental assessments for single and multiple highway construction projects, and provides an assessment of the 10-year state-wide mitigation obligations for the California Department of Transportation. Incorporation of these assessments will facilitate early and more strategic identification of mitigation opportunities, for single-project and regional mitigation efforts. The data architecture format uses eight spatial scales: six nested watersheds, counties, and transportation planning districts, which were intersected. This resulted in 8058 map planning units statewide, which were used to summarize all subsequent analyses. Range maps and georeferenced locations of federally and state-listed plants and animals and a 55-class landcover map were spatially intersected with the planning units and the buffered spatial footprint of 967 funded projects. Projected impacts were summarized and output to the database. Queries written in the database can sum expected impacts and provide summaries by individual construction project, or by watershed, county, transportation district or highway. The data architecture allows easy incorporation of new information and results in a tool usable without GIS by a wide variety of agency biologists and planners. The data architecture format would be useful for other types of regional planning.

  16. Safety equipment list for the 241-SY-101 RAPID mitigation project

    SciTech Connect

    MORRIS, K.L.

    1999-06-29

    This document provides the safety classification for the safety (safety class and safety RAPID Mitigation Project. This document is being issued as the project SEL until the supporting authorization basis documentation, this document will be superseded by the TWRS SEL (LMHC 1999), documentation istlralized. Upon implementation of the authorization basis significant) structures, systems, and components (SSCS) associated with the 241-SY-1O1 which will be updated to include the information contained herein.

  17. 40 CFR 93.125 - Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... written commitments to mitigation measures must be obtained prior to a positive conformity determination... scope and project-level mitigation and control measures. 93.125 Section 93.125 Protection of Environment... measures. (a) Prior to determining that a transportation project is in conformity, the MPO, other...

  18. Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dan

    2008-11-03

    The Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is a 12,718 acre complex located in Douglas County, Washington. Four distinct management units make up the area: Bridgeport, Chester Butte, Dormaier and Sagebrush Flat. The four Units are located across a wide geographic area within Douglas County. The Units are situated roughly along a north/south line from Bridgeport in the north to the Douglas/Grant county line in the south, 60 miles away. The wildlife area was established to conserve and enhance shrubsteppe habitat for the benefit shrubsteppe obligate and dependent wildlife species. In particular, the Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is managed to promote the recovery of three state-listed species: Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (threatened), greater sage grouse (threatened) and the pygmy rabbit (endangered). The US Fish and Wildlife Service also list the pygmy rabbit as endangered. Wildlife area staff seeded 250 acres of old agricultural fields located on the Sagebrush Flat, Dormaier and Chester Butte units. This has been a three project to reestablish high quality shrubsteppe habitat on fields that had either been abandoned (Dormaier) or were dominated by non-native grasses. A mix of 17 native grasses and forbs, most of which were locally collected and grown, was used. First year maintenance included spot spraying Dalmatian toadflax on all sites and mowing annual weeds to reduce competition. Photo points were established and will be integral to long term monitoring and evaluation. Additional monitoring and evaluation will come from existing vegetation transects. This year weed control efforts included spot treatment of noxious weeds, particularly Dalmatian toadflax, in previously restored fields on the Bridgeport Unit (150 acres). Spot treatment also took place within fields scheduled for restoration (40 acres) and in areas where toadflax infestations are small and relatively easily contained. Where toadflax is so widespread that chemical treatment would be impractical, we use the

  19. 75 FR 77801 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Dunes Sagebrush Lizard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... consultant for a wind energy farm to be located in Lea County, near Tatum, New Mexico. The proposed ] project.... Potential direct effects to the dunes sagebrush lizard from wind energy development include physical... studies at wind energy development sites that have examined these effects. Although there is no...

  20. Modeling erosion on steep sagebrush rangeland before and after prescribed fire

    Treesearch

    Corey A. Moffet; Frederick B. Pierson; Kenneth E. Spaeth

    2007-01-01

    Fire in sagebrush rangelands significantly alters canopy cover, ground cover, and soil properties that influence runoff and erosion processes. Runoff is generated more quickly and a larger volume of runoff is produced following prescribed fire. The result is increased risk of severe erosion and downstream flooding. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP), developed...

  1. Special Issue On Estimation Of Baselines And Leakage In CarbonMitigation Forestry Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2006-06-01

    There is a growing acceptance that the environmentalbenefits of forests extend beyond traditional ecological benefits andinclude the mitigation of climate change. Interest in forestry mitigationactivities has led to the inclusion of forestry practices at the projectlevel in international agreements. Climate change activities place newdemands on participating institutions to set baselines, establishadditionality, determine leakage, ensure permanence, and monitor andverify a project's greenhouse gas benefits. These issues are common toboth forestry and other types of mitigation projects. They demandempirical evidence to establish conditions under which such projects canprovide sustained long term global benefits. This Special Issue reportson papers that experiment with a range of approaches based on empiricalevidence for the setting of baselines and estimation of leakage inprojects in developing Asia and Latin America.

  2. Conforth Ranch (Wanaket) Wildlife Mitigation Project : Draft Management Plan and Draft Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation, Oregon.

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to mitigate for loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of Columbia River Basin hydroelectric projects, including McNary dam. The proposed wildlife mitigation project involves wildlife conservation on 1140 hectares (ha)(2817 acres) of land (including water rights) in Umatilla County, Oregon. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA)(DOE/EA- 1016) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  3. Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects : Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington . Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities.

  4. Predicting environmental mitigation requirements for hydropower projects through the integration of biophysical and socio-political geographies

    DOE PAGES

    Bevelhimer, Mark S.; DeRolph, Christopher R.; Schramm, Michael P.

    2016-06-06

    Uncertainty about environmental mitigation needs at existing and proposed hydropower projects makes it difficult for stakeholders to minimize environmental impacts. Hydropower developers and operators desire tools to better anticipate mitigation requirements, while natural resource managers and regulators need tools to evaluate different mitigation scenarios and order effective mitigation. Here we sought to examine the feasibility of using a suite of multidisciplinary explanatory variables within a spatially explicit modeling framework to fit predictive models for future environmental mitigation requirements at hydropower projects across the conterminous U.S. Using a database comprised of mitigation requirements from more than 300 hydropower project licenses, wemore » were able to successfully fit models for nearly 50 types of environmental mitigation and to apply the predictive models to a set of more than 500 non-powered dams identified as having hydropower potential. The results demonstrate that mitigation requirements have been a result of a range of factors, from biological and hydrological to political and cultural. Furthermore, project developers can use these models to inform cost projections and design considerations, while regulators can use the models to more quickly identify likely environmental issues and potential solutions, hopefully resulting in more timely and more effective decisions on environmental mitigation.« less

  5. Predicting environmental mitigation requirements for hydropower projects through the integration of biophysical and socio-political geographies

    SciTech Connect

    Bevelhimer, Mark S.; DeRolph, Christopher R.; Schramm, Michael P.

    2016-06-06

    Uncertainty about environmental mitigation needs at existing and proposed hydropower projects makes it difficult for stakeholders to minimize environmental impacts. Hydropower developers and operators desire tools to better anticipate mitigation requirements, while natural resource managers and regulators need tools to evaluate different mitigation scenarios and order effective mitigation. Here we sought to examine the feasibility of using a suite of multidisciplinary explanatory variables within a spatially explicit modeling framework to fit predictive models for future environmental mitigation requirements at hydropower projects across the conterminous U.S. Using a database comprised of mitigation requirements from more than 300 hydropower project licenses, we were able to successfully fit models for nearly 50 types of environmental mitigation and to apply the predictive models to a set of more than 500 non-powered dams identified as having hydropower potential. The results demonstrate that mitigation requirements have been a result of a range of factors, from biological and hydrological to political and cultural. Furthermore, project developers can use these models to inform cost projections and design considerations, while regulators can use the models to more quickly identify likely environmental issues and potential solutions, hopefully resulting in more timely and more effective decisions on environmental mitigation.

  6. Predicting environmental mitigation requirements for hydropower projects through the integration of biophysical and socio-political geographies.

    PubMed

    DeRolph, Christopher R; Schramm, Michael P; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2016-10-01

    Uncertainty about environmental mitigation needs at existing and proposed hydropower projects makes it difficult for stakeholders to minimize environmental impacts. Hydropower developers and operators desire tools to better anticipate mitigation requirements, while natural resource managers and regulators need tools to evaluate different mitigation scenarios and order effective mitigation. Here we sought to examine the feasibility of using a suite of multi-faceted explanatory variables within a spatially explicit modeling framework to fit predictive models for future environmental mitigation requirements at hydropower projects across the conterminous U.S. Using a database comprised of mitigation requirements from more than 300 hydropower project licenses, we were able to successfully fit models for nearly 50 types of environmental mitigation and to apply the predictive models to a set of more than 500 non-powered dams identified as having hydropower potential. The results demonstrate that mitigation requirements are functions of a range of factors, from biophysical to socio-political. Project developers can use these models to inform cost projections and design considerations, while regulators can use the models to more quickly identify likely environmental issues and potential solutions, hopefully resulting in more timely and more effective decisions on environmental mitigation.

  7. Predicting environmental mitigation requirements for hydropower projects through the integration of biophysical and socio-political geographies

    SciTech Connect

    Bevelhimer, Mark S.; DeRolph, Christopher R.; Schramm, Michael P.

    2016-06-06

    Uncertainty about environmental mitigation needs at existing and proposed hydropower projects makes it difficult for stakeholders to minimize environmental impacts. Hydropower developers and operators desire tools to better anticipate mitigation requirements, while natural resource managers and regulators need tools to evaluate different mitigation scenarios and order effective mitigation. Here we sought to examine the feasibility of using a suite of multidisciplinary explanatory variables within a spatially explicit modeling framework to fit predictive models for future environmental mitigation requirements at hydropower projects across the conterminous U.S. Using a database comprised of mitigation requirements from more than 300 hydropower project licenses, we were able to successfully fit models for nearly 50 types of environmental mitigation and to apply the predictive models to a set of more than 500 non-powered dams identified as having hydropower potential. The results demonstrate that mitigation requirements have been a result of a range of factors, from biological and hydrological to political and cultural. Furthermore, project developers can use these models to inform cost projections and design considerations, while regulators can use the models to more quickly identify likely environmental issues and potential solutions, hopefully resulting in more timely and more effective decisions on environmental mitigation.

  8. Oregon Trust Agreement Planning Project : Potential Mitigations to the Impacts on Oregon Wildlife Resources Associated with Relevant Mainstem Columbia River and Willamette River Hydroelectric Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-10-01

    A coalition of the Oregon wildlife agencies and tribes (the Oregon Wildlife Mitigation Coalition) have forged a cooperative effort to promote wildlife mitigation from losses to Oregon wildlife resources associated with the four mainstream Columbia River and the eight Willamette River Basin hydroelectric projects. This coalition formed a Joint Advisory Committee, made up of technical representatives from all of the tribes and agencies, to develop this report. The goal was to create a list of potential mitigation opportunities by priority, and to attempt to determine the costs of mitigating the wildlife losses. The information and analysis was completed for all projects in Oregon, but was gathered separately for the Lower Columbia and Willamette Basin projects. The coalition developed a procedure to gather information on potential mitigation projects and opportunities. All tribes, agencies and interested parties were contacted in an attempt to evaluate all proposed or potential mitigation. A database was developed and minimum criteria were established for opportunities to be considered. These criteria included the location of the mitigation site within a defined area, as well as other criteria established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Costs were established for general habitats within the mitigation area, based on estimates from certified appraisers. An analysis of the cost effectiveness of various types of mitigation projects was completed. Estimates of operation and maintenance costs were also developed. The report outlines strategies for gathering mitigation potentials, evaluating them, determining their costs, and attempting to move towards their implementation.

  9. Big sagebrush: A sea fragmented into lakes, ponds, and puddles

    Treesearch

    Bruce L. Welch

    2005-01-01

    Pioneers traveling along the Oregon Trail from western Nebraska, through Wyoming and southern Idaho and into eastern Oregon, referred to their travel as an 800 mile journey through a sea of sagebrush, mainly big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). Today approximately 50 percent of the sagebrush sea has given way to agriculture, cities and towns, and...

  10. Sand sagebrush response to fall and spring prescribed burns

    Treesearch

    Lance T. Vermeire; Robert B. Mitchell; Samuel D. Fuhlendorf

    2001-01-01

    Sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia) is a dominant shrub on sandy soils throughout the Great Plains and Southwest. Sand sagebrush is reported to reduce wind erosion and provides valuable forage and cover to numerous wildlife species. However, the fire ecology of sand sagebrush is not well understood. Our objectives were to evaluate fire-induced mortality, occurrence of...

  11. 75 FR 19643 - Sagebrush, a California Partnership; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...] Sagebrush, a California Partnership; Notice of Filing April 7, 2010. Take notice that on April 5, 2010, Sagebrush, a California partnership (Sagebrush) submits for filing a revised open access transmission tariff... proceeding. Any person wishing to become a party must file a notice of intervention or motion to intervene...

  12. Seismic imaging of a slope stability mitigation project at Newby Island Sanitary Landfill, San Jose, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treece, B.; Catchings, R.; Reed, D.; Goldman, M.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic reflection and refraction data were obtained along a transect through a slope stability mitigation project involving deep soil mixing at Newby Island Sanitary Landfill in San Jose, California. Deep soil mixing involves the simultaneous injection of a cement slurry while rotating augers advance vertically down through the subsurface material, resulting in groups of soil-cement columns (elements) intended to increase the strength and rigidity of the treated area. Seismic data were used to analyze the effectiveness of the mitigation procedure, approximately one month after the completion of the deep soil mixing project. Repeated accelerated-weight-drop (AWD) impacts provided the seismic source at each geophone location. Seismic arrivals were recorded with 40-Hz vertical-component geophones, spaced at 3-m intervals. All shots were recorded on all channels. This shooting geometry was designed to produce tomographic refraction (velocity) and reflection (CDP stacks) images from a yet to be mitigated area into the mitigated area, along the base of a steep slope composed of compacted landfill. The acquired data were generally of good quality, with shots propagating the entire length of the profile. An initial analysis of the data shows an increase in seismic velocity in the treated areas compared with non-treated areas, and a relative seismic velocity increase with curing time for soil-cement elements. Future surveys will be collected to further constrain strength increases with time, and to correlate calculated rates of strength with other subsurface data.

  13. Resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems: implications for state and transition models and management treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Miller, Richard F.; Board, David I.; Pyke, David A.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Grace, James B.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Tausch, Robin J.

    2014-01-01

    In sagebrush ecosystems invasion of annual exotics and expansion of piñon (Pinus monophylla Torr. and Frem.) and juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook., J. osteosperma [Torr.] Little) are altering fire regimes and resulting in large-scale ecosystem transformations. Management treatments aim to increase resilience to disturbance and enhance resistance to invasive species by reducing woody fuels and increasing native perennial herbaceous species. We used Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project data to test predictions on effects of fire vs. mechanical treatments on resilience and resistance for three site types exhibiting cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion and/or piñon and juniper expansion: 1) warm and dry Wyoming big sagebrush (WY shrub); 2) warm and moist Wyoming big sagebrush (WY PJ); and 3) cool and moist mountain big sagebrush (Mtn PJ). Warm and dry (mesic/aridic) WY shrub sites had lower resilience to fire (less shrub recruitment and native perennial herbaceous response) than cooler and moister (frigid/xeric) WY PJ and Mtn PJ sites. Warm (mesic) WY Shrub and WY PJ sites had lower resistance to annual exotics than cool (frigid to cool frigid) Mtn PJ sites. In WY shrub, fire and sagebrush mowing had similar effects on shrub cover and, thus, on perennial native herbaceous and exotic cover. In WY PJ and Mtn PJ, effects were greater for fire than cut-and-leave treatments and with high tree cover in general because most woody vegetation was removed increasing resources for other functional groups. In WY shrub, about 20% pretreatment perennial native herb cover was necessary to prevent increases in exotics after treatment. Cooler and moister WY PJ and especially Mtn PJ were more resistant to annual exotics, but perennial native herb cover was still required for site recovery. We use our results to develop state and transition models that illustrate how resilience and resistance influence vegetation dynamics and management options.

  14. Resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems: implications for state and transition models and management treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Miller, Richard F.; Board, David I.; Pyke, David A.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Grace, James B.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Tausch, Robin J.

    2014-01-01

    In sagebrush ecosystems invasion of annual exotics and expansion of piñon (Pinus monophylla Torr. and Frem.) and juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook., J. osteosperma [Torr.] Little) are altering fire regimes and resulting in large-scale ecosystem transformations. Management treatments aim to increase resilience to disturbance and enhance resistance to invasive species by reducing woody fuels and increasing native perennial herbaceous species. We used Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project data to test predictions on effects of fire vs. mechanical treatments on resilience and resistance for three site types exhibiting cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion and/or piñon and juniper expansion: 1) warm and dry Wyoming big sagebrush (WY shrub); 2) warm and moist Wyoming big sagebrush (WY PJ); and 3) cool and moist mountain big sagebrush (Mtn PJ). Warm and dry (mesic/aridic) WY shrub sites had lower resilience to fire (less shrub recruitment and native perennial herbaceous response) than cooler and moister (frigid/xeric) WY PJ and Mtn PJ sites. Warm (mesic) WY Shrub and WY PJ sites had lower resistance to annual exotics than cool (frigid to cool frigid) Mtn PJ sites. In WY shrub, fire and sagebrush mowing had similar effects on shrub cover and, thus, on perennial native herbaceous and exotic cover. In WY PJ and Mtn PJ, effects were greater for fire than cut-and-leave treatments and with high tree cover in general because most woody vegetation was removed increasing resources for other functional groups. In WY shrub, about 20% pretreatment perennial native herb cover was necessary to prevent increases in exotics after treatment. Cooler and moister WY PJ and especially Mtn PJ were more resistant to annual exotics, but perennial native herb cover was still required for site recovery. We use our results to develop state and transition models that illustrate how resilience and resistance influence vegetation dynamics and management options.

  15. Evaluating the impact of gas extraction infrastructure on the occupancy of sagebrush-obligate songbirds.

    PubMed

    Mutter, Max; Pavlacky, David C; Van Lanen, Nicholas J; Grenyer, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Development associated with natural gas extraction may have negative effects on wildlife. Here we assessed the effects of natural gas development on the distributions of three sagebrush-obligate birds (Brewer's Sparrow, Spizella breweri; Sagebrush Sparrow, Amphispiza belli; and Sage Thrasher, Oreoscoptes montanus) at a natural gas extraction site in Wyoming, USA. Two drivers of habitat disturbance were investigated: natural gas well pads and roadways. Disturbances were quantified on a small scale (minimum distance to a disturbance) and a large scale (landscape density of a disturbance). Their effects on the study species' distributions were assessed using a multi-scale occupancy model. Minimum distances to wells and roadways were found to not have significant impacts on small-scale occupancy. However, roadway and well density at the landscape-scale significantly impacted the large-scale occupancy of Sagebrush Sparrows and Sage Thrashers. The results confirmed our hypotheses that increasing road density negatively affects the landscape-scale occupancy rates of Sagebrush Sparrow and Sage Thrasher, but did not confirm our hypothesis that increasing well density would negatively impact large-scale occupancy. We therefore suggest that linear features that affect patch size may be more important than point features in determining sagebrush-obligate songbird occupancy when compared to structural effects such as habitat fragmentation and increased predation. We recommend that future well construction be focused along existing roadways, that horizontal drilling be used to reduce the need for additional roads, and that deactivation and restoration of roadways be implemented upon the deactivation of wells, we also recommend a possible mitigation strategy when new roads are to be built.

  16. Spectroscopic detection of nitrogen concentrations in sagebrush

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. MITCHELL; N. F. GLENN; T.T. SANKEY; D. R. DERRYBERRY; R. C. HRUSKA; M. O. Anderson

    2012-07-01

    The ability to estimate foliar nitrogen (N) in semi-arid landscapes can yield information on nutritional status and improve our limited understanding of controls on canopy photosynthesis. We examined two spectroscopic methods for estimating sagebrush dried leaf and live shrub N content: first derivative reflectance (FDR) and continuum removal. Both methods used partial least squares (PLS) regression to select wavebands most significantly correlated with N concentrations in the samples. Sagebrush dried leaf spectra produced PLS models (R2 = 0.76–0.86) that could predict N concentrations within the dataset more accurately than PLS models generated from live shrub spectra (R2 = 0.41–0.63). Inclusion of wavelengths associated with leaf water in the FDR transformations appeared to improve regression results. Findings are encouraging and warrant further exploration into sagebrush reflectance spectra to characterize N concentrations.

  17. Selecting sagebrush seed sources for restoration in a variable climate: ecophysiological variation among genotypes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities dominate a large fraction of the United States and provide critical habitat for a number of wildlife species of concern. Loss of big sagebrush due to fire followed by poor restoration success continues to reduce ecological potential of this ecosystem type, particularly in the Great Basin. Choice of appropriate seed sources for restoration efforts is currently unguided due to knowledge gaps on genetic variation and local adaptation as they relate to a changing landscape. We are assessing ecophysiological responses of big sagebrush to climate variation, comparing plants that germinated from ~20 geographically distinct populations of each of the three subspecies of big sagebrush. Seedlings were previously planted into common gardens by US Forest Service collaborators Drs. B. Richardson and N. Shaw, (USFS Rocky Mountain Research Station, Provo, Utah and Boise, Idaho) as part of the Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project. Seed sources spanned all states in the conterminous Western United States. Germination, establishment, growth and ecophysiological responses are being linked to genomics and foliar palatability. New information is being produced to aid choice of appropriate seed sources by Bureau of Land Management and USFS field offices when they are planning seed acquisitions for emergency post-fire rehabilitation projects while considering climate variability and wildlife needs.

  18. Ural-Tweed Bighorn Sheep Wildlife Mitigation Project, 1984-1990 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Lewis R.; Yde, Chris A.

    1990-06-01

    The results of habitat improvement project activities accomplished under contract No.84-38 for bighorn sheep mitigation along Koocanusa Reservoir from September 1, 1984, through June 30, 1990, are reported here. Habitat treatments were applied to ten areas and covered 1100 acres. Treatments used were prescribed fire, slashing combined with prescribed fire, and fertilization. Several variations in season or intensity were used within the slashing and prescribed fire treatments. This project was coordinated with and complemented concurrent Kootenai National Forest habitat improvement activities.

  19. Composting projects under the Clean Development Mechanism: Sustainable contribution to mitigate climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Rogger, Cyrill; Beaurain, Francois; Schmidt, Tobias S.

    2011-01-15

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries and at the same time to assist these countries in sustainable development. While composting as a suitable mitigation option in the waste sector can clearly contribute to the former goal there are indications that high rents can also be achieved regarding the latter. In this article composting is compared with other CDM project types inside and outside the waste sector with regards to both project numbers and contribution to sustainable development. It is found that, despite the high number of waste projects, composting is underrepresented and a major reason for this fact is identified. Based on a multi-criteria analysis it is shown that composting has a higher potential for contribution to sustainable development than most other best in class projects. As these contributions can only be assured if certain requirements are followed, eight key obligations are presented.

  20. Saving the sagebrush sea: An ecosystem conservation plan for big sagebrush plant communities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetation change and anthropogenic development are altering ecosystems and decreasing biodiversity. Successful management of ecosystems threatened by multiple stressors requires development of ecosystem conservation plans rather than single species plans. We selected the big sagebrush (Artemisia ...

  1. Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Mitigation Project Management Plan for the "Dilling Addition".

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray D.

    1999-01-15

    This report is a recommendation from the Kalispel Tribe to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA) for management of the Pend Oreille Wetland Wildlife Mitigation project II (Dilling Addition) for the extensive habitat losses caused by Albeni Falls Dam on Kalispel Ceded Lands. Albeni Falls Dam is located on the Pend Oreille River near the Washington-Idaho border, about 25 miles upstream of the Kalispel Indian Reservation. The dam controls the water level on Lake Pend Oreille. The lake was formerly the center of subsistence use by the Kalispel Tribe. Flooding of wetlands, and water fluctuations both on the lake and downstream on the river, has had adverse impacts to wildlife and wildlife habitat. An extensive process was followed to formulate and prioritize wildlife resource goals. The Kalispel Natural Resource Department provided guidance in terms of opportunities onsite. To prioritize specific goals, the Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Wildlife Caucus were consulted. From this process, the top priority goal for the Kalispel Tribe is: Protect and develop riparian forest and shrub, and freshwater wetlands, to mitigate losses resulting from reservoir inundation and river level fluctuations due to Albeni Falls Dam. Indicator species used to determine the initial construction/inundation loses and mitigation project gains include Bald Eagle (breeding and wintering), Black-capped Chickadee, Canada Goose, Mallard, muskrat, white-tailed deer, and Yellow Warbler.

  2. Northwest Montana Wildlife Habitat Enhancement: Hungry Horse Elk Mitigation Project: Monitoring and Evaluation Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Daniel; Malta, Patrick

    1990-12-01

    Portions of two important elk (Cervus elaphus) winter ranges totalling 8749 acres were lost due to the construction of the Hungry Horse Dam hydroelectric facility. This habitat loss decreased the carrying capacity of the both the elk and the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). In 1985, using funds from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as authorized by the Northwest Power Act, the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (FWP) completed a wildlife mitigation plan for Hungry Horse Reservoir. This plan identified habitat enhancement of currently-occupied winter range as the most cost-efficient, easily implemented mitigation alternative available to address these large-scale losses of winter range. The Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, as amended in 1987, authorized BPA to fund winter range enhancement to meet an adjusted goal of 133 additional elk. A 28-month advance design phase of the BPA-funded project was initiated in September 1987. Primary goals of this phase of the project included detailed literature review, identification of enhancement areas, baseline (elk population and habitat) data collection, and preparation of 3-year and 10-year implementation plans. This document will serve as a site-specific habitat and population monitoring plan which outlines our recommendations for evaluating the results of enhancement efforts against mitigation goals. 25 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Current public health perspective of fluorosis mitigation project in Pavagada taluk, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Mythri, Halappa; Dinesh; Bennadi, Darshana

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fluoride has become a recurring theme in discussing water issues in India. In Karnataka, where groundwater sources are concentrated with fluorides the impact is devastating. Dental and spine-related ailments are showing up in many cities and villages. Several villages in Pavagada taluk in Tumkur district have fluoride concentration 5 times more than the permissible level. The different aspects to the problem are many defluoridation interventions were failure. Objective: To determine and compare fluoride level in water samples from Fluorosis mitigation project area. Materials and Methods: Samples of municipal water were collected in sterile containers in an unannounced visit. All the samples of water were assigned a code so that those undertaking analysis would be blind to the source. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode (Orion 94-09) method. Results: Mean fluoride level in the water samples collected in the project was 0.8 which was within the normal range. Conclusion: Even though the fluoride level was within the normal limits after implementation of flourosis mitigation project, ground reality was numbers of beneficiaries were less. Hence, proper planning and monitoring always becomes essential for any project to be successful. PMID:23776321

  4. Fish passage mitigation of impacts from hydroelectric power projects in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.

    1996-10-01

    Obstruction of fish movements by dams continues to be the major environmental issue facing the hydropower industry in the US. Dams block upstream migrations, which can cut off adult fish form their historical spawning grounds and severely curtail reproduction. Conversely, downstream-migrating fish may be entrained into the turbine intake flow and suffer turbine-passage injury or mortality. Hydroelectric projects can interfere with the migrations of a wide variety of fish. Maintenance, restoration or enhancement of populations of these species may require the construction of facilities to allow for upstream and downstream fish passage. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), by law, must give fish and wildlife resources equal consideration with power production in its licensing decisions, must be satisfied that a project is consistent with comprehensive plans for a waterway (including fisheries management plans), and must consider all federal and state resource agency terms and conditions for the protection of fish and wildlife. As a consequence, FERC often requires fish passage mitigation measures as a condition of the hydropower license when such measures are deemed necessary for the protection of fish. Much of the recent research and development efforts of the US Department of Energy`s Hydropower Program have focused on the mitigation of impacts to upstream and downstream fish passage. This paper descries three components of that effort: (1) a survey of environmental mitigation measures at hydropower sites across the country; (2) a critical review of the effectiveness of fish passage mitigation measures at 16 case study sites; and (3) ongoing efforts to develop new turbine designs that minimize turbine-passage mortality.

  5. Reseeding big sagebrush: Techniques and issues

    Treesearch

    Nancy L. Shaw; Ann M. DeBolt; Roger Rosentreter

    2005-01-01

    Reestablishing big sagebrush on rangelands now dominated by native perennial grasses, introduced perennial grasses, or exotic annual grasses, particularly cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), serves to stabilize soil, improve moisture availability and nutrient recyling, increase biological diversity, and foster community stability and resiliency. A first...

  6. Grass seedling demography and sagebrush steppe restoration

    Treesearch

    J. J. James; M. J. Rinella; T. Svejcar

    2012-01-01

    Seeding is a key management tool for arid rangeland. In these systems, however, seeded species often fail to establish. A recent study inWyoming big sagebrush steppe suggested that over 90% of seeded native grass individuals die before seedlings emerged. This current study examines the timing and rate of seed germination, seedling emergence, and seedling death related...

  7. Seeding big sagebrush successfully on Intermountain rangelands

    Treesearch

    Susan E. Meyer; Thomas W. Warren

    2015-01-01

    Big sagebrush can be seeded successfully on climatically suitable sites in the Great Basin using the proper seeding guidelines. These guidelines include using sufficient quantities of high-quality seed of the correct subspecies and ecotype, seeding in late fall to mid-winter, making sure that the seed is not planted too deeply, and seeding into an environment...

  8. Managing Intermountain rangelands - sagebrush-grass ranges

    Treesearch

    James P. Blaisdell; Robert B Murray; E. Durant McArthur

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a distillation of some of the most important information resulting from a half-century of research on sagebrush-grass rangelands. It has been prepared as a reference for managers and users of rangelands and as a help for planning and decisionmaking.

  9. Conservation of priority birds in sagebrush ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Terrell D. Rich; Michael J. Wisdom; Victoria A. Saab

    2005-01-01

    Sagebrush ecosystems occupy over 62,000,000 ha of the western US. However, they have been degraded or completely eliminated by agricultural conversion, overgrazing by domestic livestock, invasion of exotic plants, expansion of pinyon and juniper woodlands, uncharacteristic wildfires, and fragmentation. This habitat loss has led to an increasing number of special status...

  10. Restoring mountain big sagebrush communities after prescribed fire in juniper encroached rangelands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western juniper encroachment into sagebrush steppe communities has reduced livestock forage production, increased erosion and runoff risk, and degraded sagebrush-associated wildlife habitat. We evaluated seeding perennial herbaceous vegetation and sagebrush at five sites where juniper was controlle...

  11. The monitoring evaluation, reporting and verification of climate change mitigation projects

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Sathaye, J.

    1998-05-01

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, the US and other countries are implementing, by themselves or in cooperation with one or more other nations, climate change mitigation projects. These projects will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or sequester carbon, and will also result in non-GHG benefits (i.e., environmental, economic, and social benefits). Monitoring, evaluating, reporting, and verifying (MERV) guidelines are needed for these projects to accurately determine their net GHG, and other, benefits. Implementation of MERV guidelines is also intended to: (1) increase the reliability of data for estimating GHG benefits; (2) provide real-time data so that mid-course corrections can be made; (3) introduce consistency and transparency across project types and reporters; and (4) enhance the credibility of the projects with stakeholders. In this paper, the authors review the issues involved in MERV activities. They identify several topics that future protocols and guidelines need to address, such as: (1) establishing a credible baseline; (2) accounting for impacts outside project boundaries through leakage; (3) net GHG reductions and other benefits; (4) precision of measurement; (5) MERV frequency; (6) persistence (sustainability) of savings, emissions reduction, and carbon sequestration; (7) reporting by multiple project participants; (8) verification of GHG reduction credits; (9) uncertainty and risk; (10) institutional capacity in conducting MERV; and (11) the cost of MERV.

  12. The Dust Management Project: Characterizing Lunar Environments and Dust, Developing Regolith Mitigation Technology and Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Straka, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    A return to the Moon to extend human presence, pursue scientific activities, use the Moon to prepare for future human missions to Mars, and expand Earth?s economic sphere, will require investment in developing new technologies and capabilities to achieve affordable and sustainable human exploration. From the operational experience gained and lessons learned during the Apollo missions, conducting long-term operations in the lunar environment will be a particular challenge, given the difficulties presented by the unique physical properties and other characteristics of lunar regolith, including dust. The Apollo missions and other lunar explorations have identified significant lunar dust-related problems that will challenge future mission success. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it?s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems and human explorers. The Dust Management Project (DMP) is tasked with the evaluation of lunar dust effects, assessment of the resulting risks, and development of mitigation and management strategies and technologies related to Exploration Systems architectures. To this end, the DMP supports the overall goal of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) of addressing the relevant high priority technology needs of multiple elements within the Constellation Program (CxP) and sister ETDP projects. Project scope, plans, and accomplishments will be presented.

  13. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project: Implementation and Management of a Wetland Mitigation Bank.

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Christopher; DeSteven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca; Kilgo, John; Imm, Donald; Kolka, Randy; Blake, John, I.

    2003-01-01

    A wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses associated with future authorized construction and environmental restoration projects in SRS wetlands. The Bank was intended not only to hasten mitigation efforts with respect to regulatory requirements and implementation, but also to provide onsite and fully functional compensation of impacted wetland acreage prior to any impact. Restoration and enhancement of small isolated wetlands, as well as major bottomland wetland systems scattered throughout the nonindustrialized area of SRS were designated for inclusion in the Bank. Based on information and techniques gained from previous research efforts involving Carolina bay wetlands (DOE 1997), a project to restore degraded Carolina bays on SRS has been undertaken to serve as the initial ''deposit'' in The Bank. There are over 300 Carolina bays or bay-like depression wetlands on the SRS, of which an estimated two-thirds were ditched or disturbed prior to federal occupation of the Site (Kirkman et al., 1996). These isolated wetlands range from small ephemeral depressions to large permanent ponds of 10-50 hectares in size. They provide habitat to support a wide range of rare plant species, and many vertebrates (birds, amphibians, bats). Historical impacts to the Carolina bays at SRS were primarily associated with agricultural activities. Bays were often drained tilled and planted to crops. The consequence was a loss in the wetland hydrologic cycle, the native wetland vegetation, and associated wildlife. The purpose of this mitigation and research project is to restore the functions and vegetation typical of intact depression wetlands and, in doing so, to enhance habitat for wetland dependent wildlife on SRS.

  14. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation at 14 of 27 Major Hydroelectric Projects in Idaho, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Robert C.; Mehrhoff, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act and wildlife and their habitats in the Columbia River Basin and to compliance with the Program, the wildlife mitigation status reports coordination with resource agencies and Indian Tribes. developed the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program development, operation, and maintenance of hydroelectric projects on existing agreements; and past, current, and proposed wildlife factual review and documentation of existing information on wildlife meet the requirements of Measure 1004(b)(l) of the Program. The mitigation, enhancement, and protection activities were considered. In mitigate for the losses to those resources resulting from the purpose of these wildlife mitigation status reports is to provide a resources at some of the Columbia River Basin hydroelectric projects the river and its tributaries. To accomplish this goal, the Council were written with the cooperation of project operators, and in within Idaho.

  15. Evaluation of impacts and mitigation assessments for the UMTRA Project: Gunnison and Durango pilot studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beranich, S.J.

    1994-08-24

    This report evaluates the impacts assessment and proposed mitigations provided in environmental documents concerning the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The projected impacts and proposed mitigations identified in UMTRA Project environmental documents were evaluated for two UMTRA Project sites. These sites are Gunnison and Durango, which are representative of currently active and inactive UMTRA Project sites, respectively. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation was prepared for the remedial action at Durango and Gunnison as well as for the provision of an alternate water supply system at Gunnison. Additionally, environmental analysis was completed for mill site demolition Gunnison, and for a new road related to the Durango remedial action. The results in this report pertain only to the impact assessments prepared by the Regulatory Compliance staff as a part of the NEPA compliance requirements. Similarly, the mitigative measures documented are those that were identified during the NEPA process.

  16. Kootenai River Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project : Long-term Bighorn Sheep/Mule Deer Winter and Spring Habitat Improvement Project : Wildlife Mitigation Project, Libby Dam, Montana : Management Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Yde, Chis

    1990-06-01

    The Libby hydroelectric project, located on the Kootenai River in northwestern Montana, resulted in several impacts to the wildlife communities which occupied the habitats inundated by Lake Koocanusa. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, in cooperation with the other management agencies, developed an impact assessment and a wildlife and wildlife habitat mitigation plan for the Libby hydroelectric facility. In response to the mitigation plan, Bonneville Power Administration funded a cooperative project between the Kootenai National Forest and Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks to develop a long-term habitat enhancement plan for the bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring ranges adjacent to Lake Koocanusa. The project goal is to rehabilitate 3372 acres of bighorn sheep and 16,321 acres of mule deer winter and spring ranges on Kootenai National Forest lands adjacent to Lake Koocanusa and to monitor and evaluate the effects of implementing this habitat enhancement work. 2 refs.

  17. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan Executive Summary : A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-02-01

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the Draft Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan. The comprehensive plan can be viewed on the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) website at: www.umatilla.nsn.us or requested in hard copy from the CTUIR at the address below. The wildlife area was established in September 1998 when the CTUIR purchased the Rainwater Ranch through Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for purposes of fish and wildlife mitigation for the McNary and John Day dams. The Management Plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by BPA for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus management actions and prioritize funding during the 2002-2006 planning period. Since acquisition of the property in late 1998, the CTUIR has conducted an extensive baseline resource assessment in preparation for the management plan, initiated habitat restoration in the Griffin Fork drainage to address road-related resource damage caused by roads constructed for forest practices and an extensive flood event in 1996, and initiated infrastructure developments associated with the Access and Travel Management Plan (i.e., installed parking areas, gates, and public information signs). In addition to these efforts, the CTUIR has worked to set up a long-term funding mechanism with BPA through the NPPC Fish and Wildlife Program. The CTUIR has also continued to coordinate closely with local and state government organizations to ensure consistency with local land use laws and maintain open lines of communication regarding important issues such as big game hunting, tribal member exercise of treaty rights, and public

  18. Assessment of indirect losses and costs of emergency for project planning of alpine hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amenda, Lisa; Pfurtscheller, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    By virtue of augmented settling in hazardous areas and increased asset values, natural disasters such as floods, landslides and rockfalls cause high economic losses in Alpine lateral valleys. Especially in small municipalities, indirect losses, mainly stemming from a breakdown of transport networks, and costs of emergency can reach critical levels. A quantification of these losses is necessary to estimate the worthiness of mitigation measures, to determine the appropriate level of disaster assistance and to improve risk management strategies. There are comprehensive approaches available for assessing direct losses. However, indirect losses and costs of emergency are widely not assessed and the empirical basis for estimating these costs is weak. To address the resulting uncertainties of project appraisals, a standardized methodology has been developed dealing with issues of local economic effects and emergency efforts needed. In our approach, the cost-benefit-analysis for technical mitigation of the Austrian Torrent and Avalanche Control (TAC) will be optimized and extended using the 2005-debris flow as a design event, which struggled a small town in the upper Inn valley in southwest Tyrol (Austria). Thereby, 84 buildings were affected, 430 people were evacuated and due to this, the TAC implemented protection measures for 3.75 million Euros. Upgrading the method of the TAC and analyzing to what extent the cost-benefit-ratio is about to change, is one of the main objectives of this study. For estimating short-run indirect effects and costs of emergency on the local level, data was collected via questionnaires, field mapping, guided interviews, as well as intense literature research. According to this, up-to-date calculation methods were evolved and the cost-benefit-analysis of TAC was recalculated with these new-implemented results. The cost-benefit-ratio will be more precise and specific and hence, the decision, which mitigation alternative will be carried out

  19. Computer system requirements specification for 101-SY hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    SciTech Connect

    McNeece, S.G.; Truitt, R.W.

    1994-10-12

    The system requirements specification for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project (HMTP) data acquisition and control system (DACS-1) documents the system requirements for the DACS-1 project. The purpose of the DACS is to provide data acquisition and control capabilities for the hydrogen mitigation testing of Tank SY-101. Mitigation testing uses a pump immersed in the waste, directed at varying angles and operated at different speeds and time durations. Tank and supporting instrumentation is brought into the DACS to monitor the status of the tank and to provide information on the effectiveness of the mitigation test. Instrumentation is also provided for closed loop control of the pump operation. DACS is also capable for being expanded to control and monitor other mitigation testing. The intended audience for the computer system requirements specification includes the SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test data acquisition and control system designers: analysts, programmers, instrument engineers, operators, maintainers. It is intended for the data users: tank farm operations, mitigation test engineers, the Test Review Group (TRG), data management support staff, data analysis, Hanford data stewards, and external reviewers.

  20. Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project : Rainwater Wildlife Area Final Management Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen

    2002-03-01

    This Draft Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary.

  1. Seasonal soil CO2 flux under big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.)

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Amacher; Cheryl L. Mackowiak

    2011-01-01

    Soil respiration is a major contributor to atmospheric CO2, but accurate landscape-scale estimates of soil CO2 flux for many ecosystems including shrublands have yet to be established. We began a project to measure, with high spatial and temporal resolution, soil CO2 flux in a stand (11 x 25 m area) of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) at the Logan, Utah,...

  2. Stimulation Controls and Mitigation of Induced Seismicity for EGS Project: Examples from the Newberry EGS Demonstration Project (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, S.; Cladouhos, T. T.; Osborn, W.; Iovenitti, J.

    2010-12-01

    Creating an EGS reservoir depends upon injection induced seismicity (IIS) to create fracture permeability and allow the reservoir to be mapped using passive microseismic monitoring. However, in some cases, the seismicity induced through the stimulation has been felt by surrounding populations and in one case caused sufficient concern to force shut-down of the project. AltaRock Energy, Inc. is working with universities, national labs and consultants on the Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration Project (Funded in part through a grant from the US DOE: DE-EE0002777). This project will attempt to stimulate a very low permeability existing deep geothermal well with high temperature to develop a circulating geothermal system that be able to sustain production of economic quantities of hot water and steam for power production. In order to allay concerns that IIS might become hazardous at Newberry, AltaRock Energy has agreed to a robust series of safeguards and mitigation controls. The safeguards detail how the EGS stimulation will be monitored and under what circumstances the stimulation should be safely reduced or halted to avoid perceptible seismic events that would alarm or possibly cause damage to the local community. The International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Cooperative Programme on Geothermal Energy Research and Technology, or Geothermal Implementing Agreement (GIA), developed an induced seismicity mitigation protocol which has been adopted by the US Department of Energy for their funded EGS Demonstration Projects. AltaRock is the process of making this protocol site specific for the Newberry project.The Notice of Intent (NOI) to the BLM for the Newberry EGS Demonstration includes plans to conduct an induced seismicity hazards and risk assessment. These plans include implementing the Protocol for Induced Seismicity Associated with Geothermal System (Majer et al., 2008), adopted by the International Energy Agency. The theory of IIS has recently

  3. Influence of the South-North Water Diversion Project and the mitigation projects on the water quality of Han River.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y P; Zhang, H P; Chen, L; Zhao, J F

    2008-11-15

    Situated in the central part of China, the Han River Basin is undergoing rapid social and economic development with some human interventions to be made soon which will profoundly influence the water environment of the basin. The integrated MIKE 11 model system comprising of a rainfall-runoff model (NAM), a non-point load evaluation model (LOAD), a hydrodynamic model (MIKE 11 HD) and a water quality model (ECOLab) was applied to investigate the impact of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project on the Han River and the effectiveness of the 2 proposed mitigation projects, the 22 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project. The study concludes that business as usual will lead to a continuing rapid deterioration of the water quality of the Han River. Implementation of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project in 2010 will bring disastrous consequence in the form of the remarkably elevated pollution level and high risk of algae bloom in the middle and lower reaches. The proposed WWTPs will merely lower the pollution level in the reach by around 10%, while the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project can significantly improve the water quality in the downstream 200-km reach. The results reveal that serious water quality problem will emerge in the middle reach between Xiangfan and Qianjiang in the future. Implementation of the South-North Water Diversion Project (phase II) in 2030 will further exacerbate the problem. In order to effectively improve the water quality of the Han River, it is suggested that nutrient removal processes should be adopted in the proposed WWTPs, and the pollution load from the non-point sources, especially the load from the upstream Henan Province, should be effectively controlled.

  4. The VUELCO project consortium: new interdisciplinary research for improved risk mitigation and management during volcanic unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottsmann, J.

    2012-04-01

    Volcanic unrest is a complex multi-hazard phenomenon of volcanism. The fact that unrest may, but not necessarily must lead to an imminent eruption contributes significant uncertainty to short-term hazard assessment of volcanic activity world-wide. Although it is reasonable to assume that all eruptions are associated with precursory activity of some sort, the knowledge of the causative links between subsurface processes, resulting unrest signals and imminent eruption is, today, inadequate to deal effectively with crises of volcanic unrest. This results predominantly from the uncertainties in identifying the causative processes of unrest and as a consequence in forecasting its short-term evolution. However, key for effective risk mitigation and management during unrest is the early and reliable identification of changes in the subsurface dynamics of a volcano and their assessment as precursors to an impending eruption. The VUELCO project consortium has come together for a multi-disciplinary attack on the origin, nature and significance of volcanic unrest from the scientific contributions generated by collaboration of ten partners in Europe and Latin America. Dissecting the science of monitoring data from unrest periods at six type volcanoes in Italy, Spain, the West Indies, Mexico and Ecuador the consortium will create global strategies for 1) enhanced monitoring capacity and value, 2) mechanistic data interpretation and 3) identification of reliable eruption precursors; all from the geophysical, geochemical and geodetic fingerprints of unrest episodes. Experiments will establish a mechanistic understanding of subsurface processes capable of inducing unrest and aid in identifying key volcano monitoring parameters indicative of the nature of unrest processes. Numerical models will help establish a link between the processes and volcano monitoring data to inform on the causes of unrest and its short-term evolution. Using uncertainty assessment and new short

  5. PRESS40: a project for involving students in active seismic risk mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaba, Carla; Contessi, Elisa; Rosa Girardi, Maria

    2016-04-01

    To memorialize the anniversary of the 1976 Friuli earthquake, the Istituto Statale di Istruzione Superiore "Magrini Marchetti" in Gemona del Friuli (NE Italy), with the collaboration of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), has promoted the PRESS40 Project (Prevenzione Sismica nella Scuola a 40 anni dal terremoto del Friuli, that in English sounds like "Seismic Prevention at School 40 years later the Friuli earthquake"). The project has developed in the 2015-2016 school year, starting from the 40th anniversary of the Friuli earthquake, and it aims to disseminate historical memory, seismic culture and awareness of seismic safety in the young generations, too often unconscious of past experiences, as recent seismic hazard perception tests have demonstrated. The basic idea of the PRESS40 Project is to involve the students in experimental activities to be active part of the seismic mitigation process. The Project is divided into two main parts, the first one in which students learn-receive knowledge from researchers, and the second one in which they teach-bring knowledge to younger students. In the first part of the project, 75 students of the "Magrini Marchetti" school acquired new geophysical data, covering the 23 municipalities from which they come from. These municipalities represent a wide area affected by the 1976 Friuli earthquake. In each locality a significant site was examined, represented by a school area. At least, 127 measurements of ambient noise have been acquired. Data processing and interpretation of all the results are still going on, under the supervision of OGS researchers.The second part of the project is planned for the early spring, when the students will present the results of geophysical survey to the younger ones of the monitored schools and to the citizens in occasion of events to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Friuli earthquake.

  6. On mitigating rapid onset natural disasters: Project THRUST (Tsunami Hazards Reduction Utilizing Systems Technology)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, E. N.; Behn, R. R.; Hebenstreit, G. T.; Gonzalez, F. I.; Krumpe, P.; Lander, J. F.; Lorca, E.; McManamon, P. M.; Milburn, H. B.

    Rapid onset natural hazards have claimed more than 2.8 million lives worldwide in the past 20 years. This category includes such events as earthquakes, landslides, hurricanes, tornados, floods, volcanic eruptions, wildfires, and tsunamis. Effective hazard mitigation is particularly difficult in such cases, since the time available to issue warnings can be very short or even nonexistent. This paper presents the concept of a local warning system that exploits and integrates the existing technologies of risk evaluation, environmental measurement, and telecommunications. We describe Project THRUST, a successful implementation of this general, systematic approach to tsunamis. The general approach includes pre-event emergency planning, real-time hazard assessment, and rapid warning via satellite communication links.

  7. Report of the Project Research on Disaster Reduction using Disaster Mitigating Information Sharing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takeyasu

    For the purpose of reducing disaster damage by applying information sharing technologies, "the research on disaster reduction using crisis-adaptive information sharing technologies" was carried out from July, 2004 through March 2007, as a three year joint project composed of a government office and agency, national research institutes, universities, lifeline corporations, a NPO and a private company. In this project, the disaster mitigating information sharing platform which is effective to disaster response activities mainly for local governments was developed, as a framework which enables information sharing in disasters. A prototype of the platform was built by integrating an individual system and tool. Then, it was applied to actual local governments and proved to be effective to disaster responses. This paper summarizes the research project. It defines the platform as a framework of both information contents and information systems first and describes information sharing technologies developed for utilization of the platform. It also introduces fields tests in which a prototype of the platform was applied to local governments.

  8. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities: Ecology, importance and restoration potential

    Treesearch

    Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy L. Shaw

    2000-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) is the most common and widespread sagebrush species in the Intermountain region. Climatic patterns, elevation gradients, soil characteristics and fire are among the factors regulating the distribution of its three major subspecies. Each of these subspecies is considered a topographic climax dominant....

  9. Sagebrush-ungulate relationships on the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range

    Treesearch

    Carl L. Wambolt

    2005-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia) taxa have historically been the landscape dominants over much of the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range (NYWR). Their importance to the unnaturally large ungulate populations on the NYWR throughout the twentieth century has been recognized since the 1920s. Sagebrush-herbivore ecology has been the focus of research on the NYWR for...

  10. Sagebrush identification, ecology, and palatability relative to sage-grouse

    Treesearch

    Roger Rosentreter

    2005-01-01

    Basic identification keys and comparison tables for 23 low and big sagebrush (Artemisia) taxa are presented. Differences in sagebrush ecology, soil temperature regimes, geographic range, palatability, mineralogy, and chemistry are discussed. Coumarin, a chemical produced in the glands of some Artemisia species, causes UV-light fluorescence of the...

  11. AmeriFlux US-Rms RCEW Mountain Big Sagebrush

    SciTech Connect

    Flerchinger, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Rms RCEW Mountain Big Sagebrush. Site Description - The site is located on the USDA-ARS's Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed. It is dominated by mountain big sagebrush on land managed by USDI Bureau of Land Management.

  12. Effect of fungicides on Wyoming big sagebrush seed germination

    Treesearch

    Robert D. Cox; Lance H. Kosberg; Nancy L. Shaw; Stuart P. Hardegree

    2011-01-01

    Germination tests of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young [Asteraceae]) seeds often exhibit fungal contamination, but the use of fungicides should be avoided because fungicides may artificially inhibit germination. We tested the effect of seed-applied fungicides on germination of Wyoming big sagebrush at 2 different...

  13. Fuel and fire behavior prediction in big sagebrush

    Treesearch

    James K. Brown

    1982-01-01

    Relationships between height of big sagebrush and crown area, fuel loading, bulk density, size distribution of foliage and stemwood, and fraction dead stemwood are presented. Based upon these relationships, modeled rate-of-fire spread and fireline intensity are shown for sagebrush ranging in height from 20 to 120 em and in coverage from 10 to 40 percent. Verification...

  14. Comparison of postfire seeding practices for Wyoming big sagebrush

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey E. Ott; Robert D. Cox; Nancy L. Shaw

    2017-01-01

    Wildfires in the Great Basin have resulted in widespread loss of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young), an ecologically important shrub that has proven difficult to establish from seed.We sought to identify optimal seeding practices forWyoming big sagebrush in the context of postfire seeding operations involving...

  15. Cattle grazing and vegetation succession on burned sagebrush steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is limited information on the effects of cattle grazing to longer-term plant community composition and productivity following fire in big sagebrush steppe. This study evaluated vegetation response to cattle grazing over seven years (2007-2013) on burned Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia triden...

  16. Restoring mountain big sagebrush steppe habitat after western juniper control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western juniper is being controlled across large acreages in the northern Great Basin to restore sagebrush steppe plant communities. One of the most common control methods is prescribed burning. After burning juniper stands, sagebrush is absent from the community and the herbaceous understory may ...

  17. Sagebrush in western North America: habitats and species in jeopardy.

    Treesearch

    Jonathan. Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Sagebrush habitats are declining rapidly across western North America, with over 350 associated plant and animal species at risk of local or regional extirpation. The sagebrush ecosystem is one of the largest in the United States, and it is vulnerable to a litany of threats. Chief among them is invasion of cheatgrass into the understory, followed by high-severity fires...

  18. The importance of maintaining perennial bunchgrass in the sagebrush steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sagebrush steppe is generally described as an ecosystem at great risk from encroachment of invasive annual grasses and conifer woodlands, land use changes, climate shifts and fragmentation in general. A great deal of attention has been focused on sage-grouse and need for sagebrush cover and for...

  19. Estimating sagebrush biomass using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impacts of climate change, including changing fire frequency and intensity and the spread of invasive species have led to a rapidly changing habitat for sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). Monitoring the change and distribution of suitable habitat and fuel loads is an important aspect of sagebrush...

  20. Comparing Burned and Mowed Treatments in Mountain Big Sagebrush Steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, K. W.; Bates, J. D.; Nafus, A. M.

    2012-09-01

    Fires in mountain big sagebrush [ Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle] plant communities historically shifted dominance from woody to herbaceous vegetation. However, fire return intervals have lengthened with European settlement, and sagebrush dominance has increased at the expense of herbaceous vegetation in some plant communities. Management actions may be needed to decrease sagebrush in dense sagebrush stands to increase herbaceous vegetation. Prescribed fire is often used to remove sagebrush; however, mechanical treatments, such as mowing, are increasingly used because they are more controllable and do not pose an inherent risk of escape compared with fire. However, information on the effects of burned and mowed treatments on herbaceous vegetation and whether fire and mowed applications elicit similar vegetation responses are limited. We evaluated the effects of prescribed burning and mowing for 3 years after treatment in mountain big sagebrush plant communities. The burned and mowed treatments generally increased herbaceous cover, density, and production compared with untreated controls ( P < 0.05). However, neither treatment induced a response in native perennial forb cover, density, or biomass ( P > 0.05). In contrast, annual forb (predominately natives) cover, density, and biomass increased with mowing and burning ( P < 0.05). Vegetation generally responded similarly in burned and mowed treatments; however, the burned treatment had less sagebrush, greater herbaceous vegetation production, and more bare ground than the mowed treatment ( P < 0.05). These differences should be considered when selecting treatments to decrease sagebrush.

  1. Seed bank and big sagebrush plant community composition in a range margin for big sagebrush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martyn, Trace E.; Bradford, John B.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Burke, Ingrid C.; Laurenroth, William K.

    2016-01-01

    The potential influence of seed bank composition on range shifts of species due to climate change is unclear. Seed banks can provide a means of both species persistence in an area and local range expansion in the case of increasing habitat suitability, as may occur under future climate change. However, a mismatch between the seed bank and the established plant community may represent an obstacle to persistence and expansion. In big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plant communities in Montana, USA, we compared the seed bank to the established plant community. There was less than a 20% similarity in the relative abundance of species between the established plant community and the seed bank. This difference was primarily driven by an overrepresentation of native annual forbs and an underrepresentation of big sagebrush in the seed bank compared to the established plant community. Even though we expect an increase in habitat suitability for big sagebrush under future climate conditions at our sites, the current mismatch between the plant community and the seed bank could impede big sagebrush range expansion into increasingly suitable habitat in the future.

  2. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Iskuulpa Wildlife Mitigation and Watershed Project, Technical Report 1998-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Quaempts, Eric

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to evaluate lands acquired and leased in Eskuulpa Watershed, a Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation watershed and wildlife mitigation project. The project is designed to partially credit habitat losses incurred by BPA for the construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grasslands cover types were included in the evaluation. Indicator species included downy woodpecker (Picuides puhescens), black-capped chickadee (Pams atricopillus), blue grouse (Beadragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petschia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnello neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 55,500 feet of transects, 678 m2 plots, and 243 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 123.9 and f 0,794.4 acres were evaluated for each indicator species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total habitat units credited to BPA for the Iskuulpa Watershed Project and its seven indicator species is 4,567.8 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest, which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing or implementation of restoration grazing schemes, road de-commissioning, reforestation, large woody debris additions to floodplains, control of competing and unwanted vegetation, reestablishing displaced or reduced native vegetation species

  3. Accounting for Impacts of Natural Disturbances on Climate Change Mitigation Projects in Tropical Forests (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsey, R.; Dai, Z.; Hernandez, J.; Johnson, K. D.; Vargas, R.

    2013-12-01

    Most forests in the world are recovering from natural or human-induced disturbances -- the fraction of the world's forests disturbed each year by fire and insects alone is conservatively estimated by FAO to be 2.6%. Natural disturbances are common in many tropical forest areas and have significant impacts on carbon stocks. For example, emissions from wildfires in tropical forests are estimated to exceed 700 TgC yr-1 annually, with significant interannual variability related to global weather cycles. Several lines of evidence point toward long-term climate-induced increases in natural disturbances, with the potential for changing the world's terrestrial ecosystems from a sink to a source of CO2. This raises the important question of whether forests can be an effective part of a climate change mitigation strategy and concurrently, how to account for the effects of disturbances separately from the effects of changes in land use or forest management. Although global and regional studies have made some good progress to quantify the impacts of natural disturbances, it remains a technical challenge to separate or 'factor out' the impacts of natural disturbances from other causes of changes in carbon stocks, such as vegetation regrowth and CO2 fertilization, when developing the accounting and monitoring systems required to support climate change mitigation projects. We tested one approach in the semi-deciduous dry forests of the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico using the ecosystem process model DNDC. Spatial variability in simulated C stocks reflects variations in stand age, vegetation type, soil characteristics and disturbance. Disturbances that occurred between 1985 and 2010 led to a mean decrease in C stocks of 3.2 Mg C ha-1 in 2012 not including forestland lost to crops and urban land uses. Other approaches may be possible for factoring out specific causes of changes in carbon stocks, but the IPCC has twice determined that none of the currently available alternatives is

  4. Multi-phase Temporal Seismic Imaging of a Slope Stability Mitigation Project at Newby Island Sanitary Landfill, San Jose, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treece, B. J.; Catchings, R.; Reed, D.; Goldman, M.

    2014-12-01

    Without slope stability mitigation, liquefaction-induced settlement in bay mud and Pleistocene alluvial deposits may lead to the collapse of levee walls surrounding sanitary landfills that are located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay. To analyze the effectiveness of a slope stability mitigation project involving deep soil mixing at Newby Island Sanitary Landfill in San Jose, California, we acquired P- and S-wave seismic surveys along a transect through the mitigated region during, and two years after, completion of the mitigation project. Deep soil mixing involves the injection of a cement slurry in augered holes, resulting in groups of soil-cement columns (elements) that are intended to increase the strength and rigidity of the subsurface materials. For our seismic investigations, we used accelerated-weight-drop (AWD) and hammer impacts to generate P- and S-wave seismic sources, respectively, at 57 geophone locations, spaced 5 m apart. The resulting seismic data were recorded using 40-Hz, vertical-component (P-wave) and 4.5-Hz, horizontal-component (S-wave) sensors. Initially, we developed tomographic refraction (velocity) images along a progressive transition from a yet-to-be-mitigated area into a more recently mitigated area, located along the base of a steep slope composed of compacted landfill. The initial survey revealed an increase in seismic velocity in the treated area, seismic velocity increases with curing time for soil-cement elements, and a high-velocity zone beneath the active injection zone. The influence of the mitigation was most apparent from increases in Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios. To assess the long-term effects of the mitigation project, an identical, follow-up survey was acquired in July 2014, 23 months after the initial survey. We present a comparative analysis of the tomographic images from the two surveys, variations in Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios over time, and a comparison of in situ, time-varying seismic parameters with laboratory

  5. 40 CFR 93.125 - Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Enforceability of design concept and... Transit Laws § 93.125 Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control... measures which are identified as conditions for NEPA process completion with respect to local CO, PM10,...

  6. 40 CFR 93.125 - Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enforceability of design concept and... Transit Laws § 93.125 Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control... measures which are identified as conditions for NEPA process completion with respect to local CO, PM10,...

  7. 40 CFR 93.125 - Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enforceability of design concept and... Transit Laws § 93.125 Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control... measures which are identified as conditions for NEPA process completion with respect to local CO, PM10,...

  8. 40 CFR 93.125 - Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enforceability of design concept and... Transit Laws § 93.125 Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control... measures which are identified as conditions for NEPA process completion with respect to local CO, PM10,...

  9. Remote sensing of sagebrush canopy nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, Jessica J.; Glenn, Nancy F.; Sankey, Temuulen T.; Derryberry, DeWayne R.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a combination of techniques suitable for remotely sensing foliar Nitrogen (N) in semiarid shrublands – a capability that would significantly improve our limited understanding of vegetation functionality in dryland ecosystems. The ability to estimate foliar N distributions across arid and semi-arid environments could help answer process-driven questions related to topics such as controls on canopy photosynthesis, the influence of N on carbon cycling behavior, nutrient pulse dynamics, and post-fire recovery. Our study determined that further exploration into estimating sagebrush canopy N concentrations from an airborne platform is warranted, despite remote sensing challenges inherent to open canopy systems. Hyperspectral data transformed using standard derivative analysis were capable of quantifying sagebrush canopy N concentrations using partial least squares (PLS) regression with an R2 value of 0.72 and an R2 predicted value of 0.42 (n = 35). Subsetting the dataset to minimize the influence of bare ground (n = 19) increased R2 to 0.95 (R2 predicted = 0.56). Ground-based estimates of canopy N using leaf mass per unit area measurements (LMA) yielded consistently better model fits than ground-based estimates of canopy N using cover and height measurements. The LMA approach is likely a method that could be extended to other semiarid shrublands. Overall, the results of this study are encouraging for future landscape scale N estimates and represent an important step in addressing the confounding influence of bare ground, which we found to be a major influence on predictions of sagebrush canopy N from an airborne platform.

  10. Antiretroviral Therapy and Reproductive Life Projects: Mitigating the Stigma of AIDS in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Mbakwem, Benjamin C

    2010-01-01

    As millions of people infected with HIV in Africa are increasingly able to live longer and healthier lives because of access to antiretroviral therapy, concerns have emerged that people might eschew protective practices after their health improves. Extending beyond the notion of sexual “disinhibition,” researchers have begun to analyze the sexual behavior of people in treatment through the perspective of their marital and childbearing aspirations. This article explores the reproductive life projects of HIV-positive men and women in southeastern Nigeria, showing how actions that contradict medical advice are understandable in the context of patients’ socially normative desires for marriage and children. Based on in-depth interviews and observations (June–December 2004; June–July 2006; June–July 2007) of people enrolled in the region’s oldest treatment program, we argue that broadly held social expectations with regard to reproduction are experienced even more acutely by HIV-positive people. This is because in Nigeria the stigma associated with AIDS is closely tied to widespread perceptions of social and moral crisis, such that AIDS itself is seen as both a cause and a symptom of anxiety-producing forms of social change. Specifically, in an era of rapid societal transformation, Nigerians see sexual promiscuity and the alienation of young people from traditional obligations to kin and community as indicative of threatened social reproduction. For people who are HIV-positive, marrying and having children offer not only the opportunity to lead normal lives, but also a means to mitigate the stigma associated with the disease. Four ethnographic case studies are provided to exemplify how and why social and personal life projects can trump or complicate medical and public health priorities. These examples suggest that treatment programs must openly address and proactively support the life projects of people on antiretroviral therapy if the full benefits of

  11. Science framework for conservation and restoration of the sagebrush biome: Linking the Department of the Interior’s Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy to long-term strategic conservation actions, Part 1. Science basis and applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bradford, John B.; Bybee, Jared; Campbell, Steve; Carlson, John; Christiansen, Thomas J; Clause, Karen J.; Collins, Gail; Crist, Michele R.; Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Doherty, Kevin E; Edwards, Fred; Espinosa, Shawn; Griffin, Kathleen A.; Griffin, Paul; Haas, Jessica R.; Hanser, Steve; Havlina, Douglas W.; Henke, Kenneth F.; Hennig, Jacob D.; Joyce, Linda A; Kilkenny, Francis F.; Kulpa, Sarah M; Kurth, Laurie L; Maestas, Jeremy D; Manning, Mary; Mayer, Kenneth E.; Mealor, Brian A.; McCarthy, Clinton; Pellant, Mike; Perea, Marco A.; Prentice, Karen L.; Pyke, David A.; Wiechman , Lief A.; Wuenschel, Amarina

    2017-01-01

    The Science Framework is intended to link the Department of the Interior’s Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy with long-term strategic conservation actions in the sagebrush biome. The Science Framework provides a multiscale approach for prioritizing areas for management and determining effective management strategies within the sagebrush biome. The emphasis is on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems and Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). The approach provided in the Science Framework links sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative, invasive plant species to species habitat information based on the distribution and abundance of focal species. A geospatial process is presented that overlays information on ecosystem resilience and resistance, species habitats, and predominant threats and that can be used at the mid-scale to prioritize areas for management. A resilience and resistance habitat matrix is provided that can help decisionmakers evaluate risks and determine appropriate management strategies. Prioritized areas and management strategies can be refined by managers and stakeholders at the local scale based on higher resolution data and local knowledge. Decision tools are discussed for determining appropriate management actions for areas that are prioritized for management. Geospatial data, maps, and models are provided through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) ScienceBase and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Landscape Approach Data Portal. The Science Framework is intended to be adaptive and will be updated as additional data become available on other values and species at risk. It is anticipated that the Science Framework will be widely used to: (1) inform emerging strategies to conserve sagebrush ecosystems, sagebrush dependent species, and human uses of the sagebrush system, and (2) assist managers in prioritizing and planning on-the-ground restoration and mitigation actions across the sagebrush biome.

  12. Burrows of the sagebrush vole (Lemmiscus curtatus) in southeastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Mullican, T.R.; Keller, B.L.

    1987-04-30

    Burrows of the sagebrush vole (Lemmiscus curtatus) were analyzed by injecting them with expanding polyurethane foam. Average mean depth +/- 1 SE of four burrows was 12.5 +/- 2.6 cm. Tunnels were wider than high and flat on the bottom. Three of four burrows were nearly linear, with an average of five entrances. Burrows usually contained one nest made of Artemisia tridentat bark. No middens or communal nests were found. The burrow structure in sagebrush habitat suggests that sagebrush voles occur singly or in pairs rather than in colonies.

  13. System design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Truitt, R.W.; Pounds, T.S.; Smith, S.O.

    1994-08-24

    This document describes the hardware subsystems of the data acquisition and control system (DACS) used in mitigation tests conducted on waste tank SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The system was designed and implemented by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and supplied to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The mitigation testing uses a pump immersed in the waste tank, directed at certain angles and operated at different speeds and time durations. The SY-101 tank has experienced recurrent periodic gas releases of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and (recently discovered) methane. The hydrogen gas represents a danger, as some of the releases are in amounts above the lower flammability limit (LFL). These large gas releases must be mitigated. Several instruments have been added to the tank to monitor the gas compositions, the tank level, the tank temperature, and other parameters. A mixer pump has been developed to stir the tank waste to cause the gases to be released at a slow rate. It is the function of the DACS to monitor those instruments and to control the mixer pump in a safe manner. During FY93 and FY94 the mixer pump was installed with associated testing operations support equipment and a mitigation test project plan was implemented. These activities successfully demonstrated the mixer pump`s ability to mitigate the SY-101 tank hydrogen gas hazard.

  14. An assessment of potential hydrologic and ecologic impacts of constructing mitigation wetlands, Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA project sites

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This-assessment examines the consequences and risks that could result from the proposed construction of mitigation wetlands at the New and Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites near Rifle, Colorado. Remediation of surface contamination at those sites is now under way. Preexisting wetlands at or near the Old and New Rifle sites have been cleaned up, resulting in the loss of 0.7 and 10.5 wetland acres (ac) (0.28 and 4.2 hectares [ha]) respectively. Another 9.9 ac (4.0 ha) of wetlands are in the area of windblown contamination west of the New Rifle site. The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has jurisdiction over the remediated wetlands. Before remedial action began, and before any wetlands were eliminated, the USACE issued a Section 404 Permit that included a mitigation plan for the wetlands to be lost. The mitigation plan calls for 34.2 ac (1 3.8 ha) of wetlands to be constructed at the south end and to the west of the New Rifle site. The mitigation wetlands would be constructed over and in the contaminated alluvial aquifer at the New Rifle site. As a result of the hydrologic characteristics of this aquifer, contaminated ground water would be expected to enter the environment through the proposed wetlands. A preliminary assessment was therefore required to assess any potential ecological risks associated with constructing the mitigation wetlands at the proposed location.

  15. Hydropeaking mitigation project on a multi-purpose hydro-scheme on Valsura River in South Tyrol/Italy.

    PubMed

    Premstaller, Georg; Cavedon, Valentina; Pisaturo, Giuseppe Roberto; Schweizer, Steffen; Adami, Vito; Righetti, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    A hydropeaking mitigation project on Valsura River in the Italians Alps is described. The project is of particular interest due to several aspects. First of all, the Valsura torrent has unique morphological braiding characteristics, which are unique in the reach of Adige valley between Merano and Bolzano, and has a good reproduction potential for fish, especially in the terminal stretch along a biotope before its confluence with Adige River. Moreover, the Valsura hydropower cascade, which overall consists of six high-head hydropower plants, has an exceptional economic importance for the local hydropower industry. Lastly, the last HPP on the cascade is a multipurpose plant, so that interesting interactions between hydropeaking mitigation, irrigation supply and peak energy production are considered. The project started from a hydrological and a limnological measuring campaign and from an energetic, hydraulic and legislative framework analysis. The ecological findings are combined into a deficit analysis, founding the basis for the definition of a hydrological target state, which points to achieve a good natural reproduction for brown trout in the hydropeaked stretch, fulfilling at the same time the human safety conditions. Finally, mitigation Measures are described that at the same time comply with the following manifold aspects: a. maintenance of the requested target limits for fish reproduction; b. maintenance of the water release for the agricultural irrigation; c. enhancement of the flexibility of the hydropower plant's operation; d. reduction of the risk for local population. The paper compares operational and constructive mitigation measures and shows that constructive hydropeaking mitigation measures, for the present case study, can combine the positive effects of ecological improvement with higher safety standards and more flexible energy production.

  16. Investigating Seed Longevity of Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Intermountain West is dominated by big sagebrush communities (Artemisia tridentata subspecies) that provide habitat and forage for wildlife, prevent erosion, and are economically important to recreation and livestock industries. The two most prominent subspecies of big sagebrush in this region are Wyoming big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. wyomingensis) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana). Increased understanding of seed bank dynamics will assist with sustainable management and persistence of sagebrush communities. For example, mountain big sagebrush may be subjected to shorter fire return intervals and prescribed fire is a tool used often to rejuvenate stands and reduce tree (Juniperus sp. or Pinus sp.) encroachment into these communities. A persistent seed bank for mountain big sagebrush would be advantageous under these circumstances. Laboratory germination trials indicate that seed dormancy in big sagebrush may be habitat-specific, with collections from colder sites being more dormant. Our objective was to investigate seed longevity of both subspecies by evaluating viability of seeds in the field with a seed retrieval experiment and sampling for seeds in situ. We chose six study sites for each subspecies. These sites were dispersed across eastern Oregon, southern Idaho, northwestern Utah, and eastern Nevada. Ninety-six polyester mesh bags, each containing 100 seeds of a subspecies, were placed at each site during November 2006. Seed bags were placed in three locations: (1) at the soil surface above litter, (2) on the soil surface beneath litter, and (3) 3 cm below the soil surface to determine whether dormancy is affected by continued darkness or environmental conditions. Subsets of seeds were examined in April and November in both 2007 and 2008 to determine seed viability dynamics. Seed bank samples were taken at each site, separated into litter and soil fractions, and assessed for number of germinable seeds in a greenhouse. Community composition data

  17. Medusahead in sagebrush steppe rangelands: Prevention, control, and revegetation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Medusahead is an exotic annual grass invading western rangelands. Medusahead invasion is particularly troublesome, because revegetation of invaded areas is difficult. This manuscript synthesizes the literature to provide recommendations for managing medusahead in sagebrush plant communities. Beca...

  18. Ecological influence and pathways of land use in sagebrush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Miller, Richard F.; Pyke, David A.; Wisdom, Michael J.; Finn, Sean P.; Rinkes, E. Thomas; Henny, Charles J.; Knick, Steven T.; Connelly, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Land use in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) landscapes influences all sage-grouse (Centrocer-cus spp.) populations in western North America. Croplands and the network of irrigation canals cover 230,000 km2 and indirectly influence up to 77% of the Sage-Grouse Conservation Area and 73% of sagebrush land cover by subsidizing synanthropic predators on sage-grouse. Urbanization and the demands of human population growth have created an extensive network of con-necting infrastructure that is expanding its influence on sagebrush landscapes. Over 2,500 km2 are now covered by interstate highways and paved roads; when secondary roads are included, 15% of the Sage-Grouse Conservation Area and 5% of existing sagebrush habitats are 2.5 km from roads. Density of secondary roads often exceeds 5 km/km2, resulting in widespread motorized access for recreation, creating extensive travel corridors for management actions and resource development, subsidizing predators adapted to human presence, and facilitating spread of exotic or invasive plants. Sagebrush lands also are being used for their wilderness and recreation values, including off highway vehicle use. Approximately 12,000,000 animal use months (AUM amount of forage to support one livestock unit per month) are permitted for grazing livestock on public lands in the western states. Direct effects of grazing on sage-grouse populations or sagebrush landscapes are not possible to assess from current data. However, management of lands grazed by livestock has influenced sagebrush ecosystems by vegetation treatments to increase forage and reduce sagebrush and other plant species unpalatable to livestock. Fences (2 km/km2 in some regions), roads, and water developments to manage livestock movements further modify the landscape. Oil and gas development influences 8% of the sagebrush habitats with the highest intensities occurring in the eastern range of sage-grouse; 20% of the sagebrush distribution is indirectly influenced in the Great

  19. Natural regeneration processes in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), is the dominant plant species of large portions of semiarid western North America. However, much of historical big sagebrush vegetation has been removed or modified. Thus, regeneration is recognized as an important component for land management. Limited knowledge about key regeneration processes, however, represents an obstacle to identifying successful management practices and to gaining greater insight into the consequences of increasing disturbance frequency and global change. Therefore, our objective is to synthesize knowledge about natural big sagebrush regeneration. We identified and characterized the controls of big sagebrush seed production, germination, and establishment. The largest knowledge gaps and associated research needs include quiescence and dormancy of embryos and seedlings; variation in seed production and germination percentages; wet-thermal time model of germination; responses to frost events (including freezing/thawing of soils), CO2 concentration, and nutrients in combination with water availability; suitability of microsite vs. site conditions; competitive ability as well as seedling growth responses; and differences among subspecies and ecoregions. Potential impacts of climate change on big sagebrush regeneration could include that temperature increases may not have a large direct influence on regeneration due to the broad temperature optimum for regeneration, whereas indirect effects could include selection for populations with less stringent seed dormancy. Drier conditions will have direct negative effects on germination and seedling survival and could also lead to lighter seeds, which lowers germination success further. The short seed dispersal distance of big sagebrush may limit its tracking of suitable climate; whereas, the low competitive ability of big sagebrush seedlings may limit successful competition with species that track climate. An improved understanding of the

  20. Bird counts in stands of big sagebrush and greasewood

    Treesearch

    Bruce L. Welch

    2005-01-01

    Total numbers of birds and numbers of bird species were significantly (p=0.05 percent) higher in stands of big sagebrush than in stands of greasewood. This was especially true for Brewer’s sparrow, lark sparrow, and mourning dove. The big sagebrush ecosystem appears to support greater number of birds and more species of birds than does the greasewood ecosystem.

  1. 75 FR 65615 - Conditional Commitment for a Federal Loan Guarantee for Project Financing for Southwest Intertie...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ..., global warming, and cumulative impacts.In evaluating WWP's claims, DOE reviewed and considered the... SWIP project could facilitate industrial development that could cause the destruction of sagebrush...

  2. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Plan for the Noxon Rapids and Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Projects, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Gael

    1985-04-01

    Mitigation projects for wildlife species impacted by the Noxon Rapids and Cabinet Gorge hydroelectric projects are recommended. First priority projects encompass the development of long-term wildlife management plans for WWP lands adjacent to the two reservoirs. General objectives for all WWP lands include alternatives designed to protect or enhance existing wildlife habitat. It is also suggested that WWP evaluate the current status of beaver and river otter populations occupying the reservoirs and implement indicated management. Second priority projects include the protection/enhancement of wildlife habitat on state owned or privately owned lands. Long-term wildlife management agreements would be developed with Montana School Trust lands and may involve reimbursement of revenues lost to the state. Third priority projects include the enhancement of big game winter ranges located on Kootenai National Forest lands. 1 ref., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  3. Status of national CO{sub 2}-mitigation projects and initiatives in the Philippine energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Tupas, C.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Philippines has a huge energy requirement for the next 30 years in order to achieve its economic growth target. Based on an expected annual GDP growth rate of 6.9 percent, the Philippines total energy requirement is estimated to increase at an average of 6.6 percent annually from 1996 to 2025. Gross energy demand shall increase from 219.0 million barrels of fuel oil equivalent (MMBFOE) in 1996 to 552.4 MMBFOE in 2010 and 1,392.6 MMBFOE by 2025. These energy demand levels shall be driven primarily by the substantial increase in fuel requirements for power generation whose share of total energy requirement is 28.3 percent in 1996, 48.0 percent in 2010 and 55.0 percent in 2025. With the expected increase in energy demand, there will necessarily be adverse impacts on the environment. Energy projects and their supporting systems - from fuel extraction and storage to distribution - can and will be major contributors not only to local but also to regional and global environmental pollution and degradation. International experiences and trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventory have shown that the energy sector has always been the dominant source of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) - the principal contributor to global climate change. The energy sector`s CO{sub 2} emissions come primarily from fossil fuels combustion. Since energy use is the dominant source of CO{sub 2} emissions, efforts should therefore be concentrated on designing a mitigation strategy in this sector.

  4. Concerns About Climate Change Mitigation Projects: Summary of Findings from Case Studies in Brazil, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Andrasko, Kenneth; Makundi, Willy; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre; Ravinandranath, N.H.; Melli, Anandi; Rangachari, Anita; Amaz, Mireya; Gay, Carlos; Friedmann, Rafael; Goldberg, Beth; van Horen, Clive; Simmonds, Gillina; Parker, Gretchen

    1998-11-01

    The concept of joint implementation as a way to implement climate change mitigation projects in another country has been controversial ever since its inception. Developing countries have raised numerous issues at the project-specific technical level, and broader concerns having to do with equity and burden sharing. This paper summarizes the findings of studies for Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa, four countries that have large greenhouse gas emissions and are heavily engaged in the debate on climate change projects under the Kyoto Protocol. The studies examine potential or current projects/programs to determine whether eight technical concerns about joint implementation can be adequately addressed. They conclude that about half the concerns were minor or well managed by project developers, but concerns about additionality of funds, host country institutions and guarantees of performance (including the issues of baselines and possible leakage) need much more effort to be adequately addressed. All the papers agree on the need to develop institutional arrangements for approving and monitoring such projects in each of the countries represented. The case studies illustrate that these projects have the potential to bring new technology, investment, employment and ancillary socioeconomic and environmental benefits to developing countries. These benefits are consistent with the goal of sustainable development in the four study countries. At a policy level, the studies' authors note that in their view, the Annex I countries should consider limits on the use of jointly implemented projects as a way to get credits against their own emissions at home, and stress the importance of industrialized countries developing new technologies that will benefit all countries. The authors also observe that if all countries accepted caps on their emissions (with a longer time period allowed for developing countries to do so) project-based GHG mitigation would be significantly

  5. Planetary Defense Architecture for Mitigating Short-Term Warning Cosmic Threats: READI Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nambiar, Shrrirup; Hussein, Alaa; Silva-Martinez, Jackelynne; Reinert, Jessica; Gonzalez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Earth is being constantly bombarded by a large variety of celestial bodies and has been since its formation 4.5 billion years ago. Among those bodies, mainly asteroids and comets, there are those that have the potential to create large scale destruction upon impact. The only extinction-level impact recorded to date was 65 million years ago, during the era of dinosaurs. The probability of another extinction-level, or even city-killer, impact may be negligible, but the consequences can be severe for the biosphere and for our species. Therefore it is highly imperative for us to be prepared for such a devastating impact in the near future, especially since humanity is at the threshold of wielding technologies that allow us to do so. Majority of scientists, engineers, and policymakers have focused on long-term strategies and warning periods for Earth orbit crossing Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), and have suggested methods and policies to tackle such problems. However, less attention has been paid to short warning period NEO threats. Such NEOs test current technological and international cooperation capabilities in protecting ourselves, and can create unpredictable devastation ranging from local to global scale. The most recent example is the Chelyabinsk incident in Russia. This event has provided a wakeup call for space agencies and governments around the world towards establishing a Planetary Defense Program. The Roadmap for EArth Defense Initiative (READI) is a project by a team of international, intercultural, and interdisciplinary participants of the International Space University's Space Studies Program 2015 hosted by Ohio University, Athens, OH proposing a roadmap for space agencies, governments, and the general public to tackle NEOs with a short warning before impact. Taking READI as a baseline, this paper presents a technical description of methodologies proposed for detection and impact mitigation of a medium-sized comet (up to 800m across) with a short

  6. Architecture for Mitigating Short-Term Warning Cosmic Threats: READI Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nambiar, Shrrirup P.; Hussein, Alaa; Silva-Martinez, Jackelynne; Reinert, Jessica; Gonzalez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Earth is being constantly bombarded by a large variety of celestial bodies and has been since its formation 4.5 billion years ago. Among those bodies, mainly asteroids and comets, there are those that have the potential to create large scale destruction upon impact. The only extinction-level impact recorded to date was 65 million years ago, during the era of dinosaurs. The probability of another extinction-level, or even city-killer, impact may be negligible, but the consequences can be severe for the biosphere and for our species. Therefore it is highly imperative for us to be prepared for such a devastating impact in the near future, especially since humanity is at the threshold of wielding technologies that allow us to do so. Majority of scientists, engineers, and policymakers have focused on long-term strategies and warning periods for Earth orbit crossing Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), and have suggested methods and policies to tackle such problems. However, less attention has been paid to short warning period NEO threats. Such NEOs test current technological and international cooperation capabilities in protecting ourselves, and can create unpredictable devastation ranging from local to global scale. The most recent example is the Chelyabinsk incident in Russia. This event has provided a wakeup call for space agencies and governments around the world towards establishing a Planetary Defense Program. The Roadmap for EArth Defense Initiative (READI) is a project by a team of international, intercultural, and interdisciplinary participants of the International Space University's Space Studies Program 2015 hosted by Ohio University, Athens, OH proposing a roadmap for space agencies, governments, and the general public to tackle NEOs with a short warning before impact. Taking READI as a baseline, this paper presents a technical description of methodologies proposed for detection and impact mitigation of a medium-sized comet (up to 800m across) with a short

  7. Restoration of mountain big sagebrush steppe following prescibed burning to control western juniper

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis ssp. occidentalis Hook) encroachment into mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) steppe has degraded sagebrush-associated wildlife habitat, reduced livestock forage production, and increased erosion risk. The loss of sagebr...

  8. PRESCRIBED FIRE EFFECTS ON UNDERSTORY COMPONENTS IN A WYOMING BIG SAGEBRUSH COMMUNITY

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Historically, fire was a naturally occurring disturbance in the Wyoming big sagebrush alliance (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young), temporarily shifting plant community dominance from sagebrush to perennial grasses. Research efforts have been focused on fire effects on sites with...

  9. Evaluating a seed enhancement technology (seed pillows) for sagebrush restoration efforts across a large elevation gradient

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) restoration is needed across vast areas, especially after large wildfires, to restore important ecosystem services. Sagebrush restoration success is inconsistent with a high rate of seeding failures, particularly at lower elevations. Seed enhancement tech...

  10. Restoration of mountain big sagebrush plant communities following western juniper control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis ssp. occidentalis Hook) encroachment into mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) plant communities has degraded sagebrush-associated wildlife habitat, reduced livestock forage, and increased erosion and runoff risk. The los...

  11. D Applications in Disaster Mitigation and Management: Core Results of Ditac Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaptan, K.; Kavlak, U.; Yilmaz, O.; Celik, O. T.; Manesh, A. K.; Fischer, P.; Lupescu, O.; Ingrassia, P. L.; Ammann, W. J.; Ashkenazi, M.; Arculeo, C.; Komadina, R.; Lechner, K.; Arnim, G. v.; Hreckovski, B.

    2013-08-01

    According to statistical data, natural disasters as well as the number of people affected by them are occurring with increasing frequency compared to the past. This situation is also seen in Europe Union; So, Strengthening the EU capacity to respond to Disasters is very important. This paper represents the baseline results of the FP-7 founded DITAC project, which aims to develop a holistic and highly structured curriculum for responders and strategic crisis managers. Up-to-date geospatial information is required in order to create an effective disaster response plan. Common sources for geospatial information such as Google Earth, GIS databases, and aerial surveys are frequently outdated, or insufficient. This limits the effectiveness of disaster planning. Disaster Management has become an issue of growing importance. Planning for and managing large scale emergencies is complex. The number of both victims and relief workers is large and the time pressure is extreme. Emergency response and triage systems with 2D user interfaces are currently under development and evaluation. Disasters present a number of spatially related problems and an overwhelming quantity of information. 3D user interfaces are well suited for intuitively solving basic emergency response tasks. Such tasks include commanding rescue agents and prioritizing the disaster victims according to the severity of their medical condition. Further, 3D UIs hold significant potential for improving the coordination of rescuers as well as their awareness of relief workers from other organizations. This paper describes the outline of a module in a Disaster Management Course related to 3D Applications in Disaster Mitigation and Management. By doing this, the paper describes the gaps in existing systems and solutions. Satellite imageries and digital elevation data of Turkey are investigated for detecting sites prone to natural hazards. Digital image processing methods used to enhance satellite data and to produce

  12. 76 FR 19304 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Dunes Sagebrush Lizard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ...; Endangered Status for Dunes Sagebrush Lizard AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed... rule to list the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) under the Endangered Species Act of... dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) that was published in the Federal Register on December 14...

  13. 77 FR 11061 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for the Dunes Sagebrush...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ...; Proposed Endangered Status for the Dunes Sagebrush Lizard AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior..., 2010, proposed endangered status for the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) under the... agreement for the dunes sagebrush lizard in Texas. We are reopening the comment period to allow all...

  14. Influence of container size on Wyoming big sagebrush seedling morphology and cold hardiness

    Treesearch

    Kayla R. Herriman; Anthony S. Davis; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is a key component of sagebrush steppe ecosystems and is a dominant shrub throughout the western United States. Our objective was to identify the effect of container size on plant morphology of Wyoming big sagebrush. We used three different stocktypes (45/340 ml [20 in3], 60/250 ml [15 in3], 112/105 ml [6....

  15. Cold hardiness in Wyoming big sagebrush seedlings: implications for nursery production and outplanting

    Treesearch

    Kayla R. Herriman; Anthony S. Davis

    2012-01-01

    Throughout much of the interior western United States, Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) is a keystone species, serving an important ecological role in sagebrush steppe and Great Basin sagebrush vegetation types (Lysne 2005, Lambrecht et al. 2007). Over the past century, these ecosystems have been degraded by fire, invasive species, and...

  16. Effect of aspect on sagebrush steppe recovery post-fire juniper woodlands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Restoration of sagebrush after controlling encroaching western juniper with fire in mountain big sagebrush communities is needed to improve wildlife habitat. We evaluated seeding mountain and Wyoming big sagebrush on north and south aspects after juniper control with prescribed burning. We included...

  17. RoboCup-Rescue: an international cooperative research project of robotics and AI for the disaster mitigation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadokoro, Satoshi; Kitano, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Tomoichi; Noda, Itsuki; Matsubara, Hitoshi; Shinjoh, Atsushi; Koto, Tetsuo; Takeuchi, Ikuo; Takahashi, Hironao; Matsuno, Fumitoshi; Hatayama, Mitsunori; Nobe, Jun; Shimada, Susumu

    2000-07-01

    This paper introduces the RoboCup-Rescue Simulation Project, a contribution to the disaster mitigation, search and rescue problem. A comprehensive urban disaster simulator is constructed on distributed computers. Heterogeneous intelligent agents such as fire fighters, victims and volunteers conduct search and rescue activities in this virtual disaster world. A real world interface integrates various sensor systems and controllers of infrastructures in the real cities with the real world. Real-time simulation is synchronized with actual disasters, computing complex relationship between various damage factors and agent behaviors. A mission-critical man-machine interface provides portability and robustness of disaster mitigation centers, and augmented-reality interfaces for rescue in real disasters. It also provides a virtual- reality training function for the public. This diverse spectrum of RoboCup-Rescue contributes to the creation of the safer social system.

  18. Work plan for upgrade of SY-101 Hydrogen Mitigation Test Project Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Truitt, R.W.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this effort is to upgrade the existing DACS-1 used for control and data acquisition in support of the hydrogen mitigation program for tank 101-SY. The planned upgrades will enhance the system capabilities to support additional mitigation projects and improve the system operability by implementing changes identified during operation of the system to date. Once the upgrades have been implemented, the DACS-1 system should operate as it did prior to the upgrade, but with greatly increased speed and capability. No retraining of Test Engineers will be required; the upgrade is designed to be transparent to those who operate it, with only a noticeable increase in the speed of the system. This work plan defines the tasks required for implementing the upgrade. It identifies deliverables, responsible organizations and individuals, interfaces, and schedule. This upgrade effort employs system engineering principles wherever applicable.

  19. Mitigation and Monitoring Plan for impacted wetlands at the Gunnison UMTRA Project site, Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The Gunnison, Colorado, abandoned uranium mill site is one site being cleaned up by the DOE under UMTRCA authority. This site`s contaminated material is being transported to a disposal site on US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land east of Gunnison. Remedial action activities have temporarily disturbed 0.8 acre (ac) (0.3 hectares [ha]) of wetlands and permanently eliminated 4.3 ac (1.7 ha). As required by the Clean Water Act, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) prepared a Section 404 Permit that addresses the loss of wetlands as a result of remedial action at the Gunnison UMTRA Project site. The 404 permit includes this report as an attachment and it describes the wetland mitigation and monitoring plan. The DOE formulated this plan in consultation with the BLM and the USACE. This report represents a revised version of the mitigation and monitoring plan (DOE, 1992b).

  20. Wildlife Mitigation and Restoration for Grand Coulee Dam: Blue Creek Project, Phase 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Merker, Christopher

    1993-04-01

    This report is a recommendation from the Spokane Tribe to the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) for partial mitigation for the extensive wildlife and wildlife habitat losses on the Spokane Indian Reservation caused by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. NPPC`s interim wildlife goal over the next 7 years for the Columbia hydropower system, is to protect, mitigate and enhance approximately 35% basin wide of the lost habitat units. Grand Coulee Dam had the greatest habitat losses of any Dams of the Wildlife Rule.

  1. The economics of fuel management: Wildfire, invasive plants, and the dynamics of sagebrush rangelands in the western United States

    Treesearch

    Michael H. Taylor; Kimberly Rollins; Mimako Kobayashi; Robin J. Tausch

    2013-01-01

    In this article we develop a simulation model to evaluate the economic efficiency of fuel treatments and apply it to two sagebrush ecosystems in the Great Basin of the western United States: the Wyoming Sagebrush Steppe and Mountain Big Sagebrush ecosystems. These ecosystems face the two most prominent concerns in sagebrush ecosystems relative to wildfire: annual grass...

  2. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation at Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Oregon Facilities, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, Karen L.

    1984-08-01

    The report presents a review and documentation of existing information on wildlife resources at Columbia River Basin hydroelectric facilities within Oregon. Effects of hydroelectric development and operation; existing agreements; and past, current and proposed wildlife mitigation, enhancement, and protection activities were considered. (ACR)

  3. Insights into transcriptomes of big and low sagebrush.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Mark D; Page, Justin T; Richardson, Bryce A; Udall, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    We report the sequencing and assembly of three transcriptomes from Big (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis and A. tridentata ssp. tridentata) and Low (A. arbuscula ssp. arbuscula) sagebrush. The sequence reads are available in the Sequence Read Archive of NCBI. We demonstrate the utilities of these transcriptomes for gene discovery and phylogenomic analysis. An assembly of 61,883 transcripts followed by transcript identification by the program TRAPID revealed 16 transcripts directly related to terpene synthases, proteins critical to the production of multiple secondary metabolites in sagebrush. A putative terpene synthase was identified in two of our sagebrush samples. Using paralogs with synonymous mutations we reconstructed an evolutionary time line of ancient genome duplications. By applying a constant mutation rate to the data we estimate that these three ancient duplications occurred about 18, 34 and 60 million years ago. These transcriptomes offer a foundation for future studies of sagebrush, including inferences in chemical defense and the identification of species and subspecies of sagebrush for restoration and preservation of the threatened sage-grouse.

  4. Restoration of Mountain Big Sagebrush Steppe Following Prescribed Burning to Control Western Juniper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, K. W.; Bates, J. D.; Madsen, M. D.; Nafus, A. M.

    2014-05-01

    Western juniper ( Juniperus occidentalis ssp. occidentalis Hook) encroachment into mountain big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) steppe has reduced livestock forage production, increased erosion risk, and degraded sagebrush-associated wildlife habitat. Western juniper has been successfully controlled with partial cutting followed by prescribed burning the next fall, but the herbaceous understory and sagebrush may be slow to recover. We evaluated the effectiveness of seeding perennial herbaceous vegetation and sagebrush at five sites where juniper was controlled by partially cutting and prescribed burning. Treatments tested at each site included an unseeded control, herbaceous seed mix (aerially seeded), and the herbaceous seed mix plus sagebrush seed. In the third year post-treatment, perennial grass cover and density were twice as high in plots receiving the herbaceous seed mix compared to the control plots. Sagebrush cover and density in the sagebrush seeded plots were between 74- and 290-fold and 62- and 155-fold greater than the other treatments. By the third year after treatment, sagebrush cover was as high as 12 % in the sagebrush seeded plots and between 0 % and 0.4 % where it was not seeded. These results indicate that aerial seeding perennial herbaceous vegetation can accelerate the recovery of perennial grasses which likely stabilize the site. Our results also suggest that seeding mountain big sagebrush after prescribed burning encroaching juniper can rapidly recover sagebrush cover and density. In areas where sagebrush habitat is limited, seeding sagebrush after juniper control may increase sagebrush habitat and decrease the risks to sagebrush-associated species.

  5. The role of fire in structuring sagebrush habitats and bird communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, S.T.; Holmes, A.L.; Miller, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Fire is a dominant and highly visible disturbance in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems. In lower elevation, xeric sagebrush communities, the role of fire has changed in recent decades from an infrequent disturbance maintaining a landscape mosaic and facilitating community processes to frequent events that alter sagebrush communities to exotic vegetation, from which restoration is unlikely. Because of cheatgrass invasion, fire-return intervals in these sagebrush ecosystems have decreased from an historical pattern (pre-European settlement) of 30 to >100 yr to 5-15 yr. In other sagebrush communities, primarily higher elevation ecosystems, the lack of fire has allowed transitions to greater dominance by sagebrush, loss of herbaceous understory, and expansion of juniper-pinyon woodlands. Response by birds living in sagebrush habitats to fire was related to the frequency, size, complexity (or patchiness), and severity of the burns. Small-scale fires that left patchy distributions of sagebrush did not influence bird populations. However, large-scale fires that resulted in large grassland expanses and isolated existing sagebrush patches reduced the probability of occupancy by sagebrush-obligate species. Populations of birds also declined in sagebrush ecosystems with increasing dominance by juniper (Juniperus spp.) and pinyon (Pinus spp.) woodlands. Our understanding of the effects of fire on sagebrush habitats and birds in these systems is limited. Almost all studies of fire effects on birds have been opportunistic, correlative, and lacking controls. We recommend using the large number of prescribed burns to develop strong inferences about cause-and-effect relationships. Prescribed burning is complicated and highly contentious, particularly in low-elevation, xeric sagebrush communities. Therefore, we need to use the unique opportunities provided by planned burns to understand the spatial and temporal influence of fire on sagebrush landscapes and birds. In particular

  6. Quantifying and predicting fuels and the effects of reduction treatments along successional and invasion gradients in sagebrush habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinneman, Douglas; Pilliod, David; Arkle, Robert; Glenn, Nancy F.

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush shrubland ecosystems in the Great Basin are prime examples of how altered successional trajectories can create dynamic fuel conditions and, thus, increase uncertainty about fire risk and behavior. Although fire is a natural disturbance in sagebrush, post-fire environments are highly susceptible to conversion to an invasive grass-fire regime (often referred to as a “grass-fire cycle”). After fire, native shrub-steppe plants are often slow to regenerate, whereas nonnative annuals, especially cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae), can establish quickly and outcompete native species. Once fire-prone annuals become established, fire occurrences increase, further promoting dominance of nonnative species. The invasive grass-fire regime also alters nutrient and hydrologic cycles, pushing ecosystems beyond ecological thresholds toward steady-state, fire-prone, nonnative communities. These changes affect millions of hectares in the Great Basin and increase fire risk, decrease habitat quality and biodiversity, accelerate soil erosion, and degrade rangeland resources for livestock production. In many sagebrush landscapes, constantly changing plant communities and fuel conditions hinder attempts by land managers to predict and control fire behavior, restore native communities, and provide ecosystem services (e.g., forage production for livestock). We investigated successional and nonnative plant invasion states and associated fuel loads in degraded sagebrush habitat in a focal study area, the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (hereafter the NCA), in the Snake River Plain Ecoregion of southern Idaho. We expanded our inference by comparing our findings to similar data collected throughout seven major land resource areas (MLRAs) across the Great Basin (JFSP Project “Fire Rehabilitation Effectiveness: A Chronosequence Approach for the Great Basin” [09-S-02-1]). 4 We used a combination of field

  7. Airborne signals of communication in sagebrush: a pharmacological approach

    PubMed Central

    Shiojiri, Kaori; Ishizaki, Satomi; Ozawa, Rika; Karban, Richard

    2015-01-01

    When plants receive volatiles from a damaged plant, the receivers become more resistant to herbivory. This phenomenon has been reported in many plant species and called plant-plant communication. Lab experiments have suggested that several compounds may be functioning as airborne signals. The objective of this study is to identify potential airborne signals used in communication between sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) individuals in the field. We collected volatiles of one branch from each of 99 sagebrush individual plants. Eighteen different volatiles were detected by GC-MS analysis. Among these, 4 compounds; 1.8-cineol, β-caryophyllene, α-pinene and borneol, were investigated as signals of communication under natural conditions. The branches which received either 1,8-cineol or β-caryophyllene tended to get less damage than controls. These results suggested that 1,8-cineol and β-caryophyllene should be considered further as possible candidates for generalized airborne signals in sagebrush. PMID:26418970

  8. Ensuring Success of Adaptive Control Research Through Project Lifecycle Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate M.

    2011-01-01

    Lessons Learne: 1. Design-out unnecessary risk to prevent excessive mitigation management during flight. 2. Consider iterative checkouts to confirm or improve human factor characteristics. 3. Consider the total flight test profile to uncover unanticipated human-algorithm interactions. 4. Consider test card cadence as a metric to assess test readiness. 5. Full-scale flight test is critical to development, maturation, and acceptance of adaptive control laws for operational use.

  9. CARBON-14 IN SAGEBRUSH ON THE HANFORD SITE AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Price, K. R.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the levels of {sup 14}C in sagebrush wood from plants growing on the Hanford Site and vicinity and to determine if these levels could be attributed to past and present operations at Hanford. Mature sagebrush plants were collected at one onsite and two offsite locations and analyzed for {sup 14}C. The offsite samples were collected both 60 km upwind and 26 km downwind from fuel reprocessing facilities on the Hanford Site. The results from these samples showed no statistically significant increased levels of {sup 14}C for any time period during the operation of Hanford fuel reprocessing facilities. However, samples representative of the postnuclear era showed a 30% increase in {sup 14}C content over prenuclear era (pre-1944) samples. This increase is primarily attributable to worldwide fallout resulting from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. An important finding of the study was the approximate fourfold increase in {sup 14}C detected in sagebrush wood collected onsite near the PUREX fuel reprocessing facility at Hanford. This result implies that sagebrush plants growing within 0.5 km of PUREX while the facility was in operation were exposed to an estimated average air concentration four times normal or about 4 pCi/m{sup 3}. This was during those times when the sagebrush was actively growing and assimilating carbon. The data indicate that sagebrush wood provides an historical record of changes in {sup 14}C assimilation and, thus, some basis for judging what to expect in the way of increased levels of {sup 14}C in vegetation following the proposed restart of PUREX operations.

  10. Mitigating Cost and Schedule Risk from Environmental Litigation Over DOD Projects in Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    39 Figure 7. Honolulu Rail Transit Project Map (From HART, 2012)................................41 Figure 8. Hawaii ...providing service between Pearl City and Hawaii Kai. 39 Figure 6. HART Project Route and Station Map (From Daniel Mann, Johnson...SCHEDULE RISK FROM ENVIRONMENTAL LITIGATION OVER DOD PROJECTS IN HAWAII by Michael R. Stefani March 2013 Thesis Advisor: David H. Olwell

  11. Biochemical processes in sagebrush ecosystems: Interactions with terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, P. (Principal Investigator); Reiners, W.; Strong, L.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of a biogeochemical study of sagebrush ecosystems in Wyoming and their interactions with terrain are as follows: to describe the vegetational pattern on the landscape and elucidate controlling variables, to measure the soil properties and chemical cycling properties associated with the vegetation units, to associate soil properties with vegetation properties as measured on the ground, to develop remote sensing capabilities for vegetation and surface characteristics of the sagebrush landscape, to develop a system of sensing snow cover and indexing seasonal soil to moisture; and to develop relationships between temporal Thematic Mapper (TM) data and vegetation phenological state.

  12. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF WYOMING BIG SAGEBRUSH (ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA SSP. WYOMINGENSIS) VARIES SPATIALLY AND IS NOT RELATED TO THE PRESENCE OF A SAGEBRUSH DIETARY SPECIALIST

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Xinzhu; Lam, Lisa; Gehlken, Kristina; Ulappa, Amy C.; Rachlow, Janet L.; Forbey, Jennifer Sorensen

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) in North America is an abundant native plant species that is ecologically and evolutionarily adapted to have a diverse array of biologically active chemicals. Several of these chemicals, specifically polyphenols, have antioxidant activity that may act as biomarkers of biotic or abiotic stress. This study investigated the spatial variation of antioxidant capacity, as well as the relationship between a mammalian herbivore and antioxidant capacity in Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis). We quantified and compared total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of leaf extracts from sagebrush plants from different spatial scales and at different levels of browsing by a specialist mammalian herbivore, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). We found that antioxidant capacity of sagebrush extracts was positively correlated with total polyphenol content. Antioxidant capacity varied spatially within and among plants. Antioxidant capacity in sagebrush was not related to either browsing intensity or duration of association with rabbits. We propose that the patterns of antioxidant capacity observed in sagebrush may be a result of spatial variation in abiotic stress experienced by sagebrush. Antioxidants could therefore provide a biomarker of environmental stress for sagebrush that could aid in management and conservation of this plant in the threatened sagebrush steppe. PMID:26582971

  13. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Volume One, Libby Dam Project, Operator, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

    SciTech Connect

    Yde, Chris A.

    1984-10-01

    This assessment addresses the impacts to the wildlife populations and wildlife habitats due to the Libby Dam project on the Kootenai River and previous mitigation of these losses. The current assessment documents the best available information concerning the impacts to the wildlife populations inhabiting the project area prior to construction of the dam and creation of the reservoir. Many of the impacts reported in this assessment differ from those contained in the earlier document compiled by the Fish and Wildlife Service; however, this document is a thorough compilation of the available data (habitat and wildlife) and, though conservative, attempts to realistically assess the impacts related to the Libby Dam project. Where appropriate the impacts resulting from highway construction and railroad relocation were included in the assessment. This was consistent with the previous assessments.

  14. Sustainable and non-conventional monitoring systems to mitigate natural hazards in low income economies: the 4onse project approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Ratnayake, Rangajeewa; Antonovic, Milan; Strigaro, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    Environmental monitoring systems in low economies countries are often in decline, outdated or missing with the consequence that there is a very scarce availability and accessibility to these information that are vital for coping and mitigating natural hazards. Non-conventional monitoring systems based on open technologies may constitute a viable solution to create low cost and sustainable monitoring systems that may be fully developed, deployed and maintained at local level without lock-in dependances on copyrights or patents or high costs of replacements. The 4onse research project , funded under the Research for Development program of the Swiss National Science Foundation and the Swiss Office for Development and Cooperation, propose a complete monitoring system that integrates Free & Open Source Software, Open Hardware, Open Data, and Open Standards. After its engineering, it will be tested in the Deduru Oya catchment (Sri Lanka) to evaluate the system and develop a water management information system to optimize the regulation of artificial basins levels and mitigate flash floods. One of the objective is to better scientifically understand strengths, criticalities and applicabilities in terms of data quality; system durability; management costs; performances; sustainability. Results, challenges and experiences from the first six months of the projects will be presented with particular focus on the activities of synergies building and data collection and dissemination system advances.

  15. The Influence of Woodland Encroachment on Runoff and Erosion in Sagebrush Steppe Systems, Great Basin, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, F. B.; Kormos, P. R.; Williams, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    Pinyon and juniper woodlands have expanded 10 to 30% in the past 30 years and now occupy nearly 20 million hectares of sagebrush shrub steppe in the Great Basin Region and Colorado Plateau, USA. The conversion of sagebrush steppe to pinyon and juniper woodlands has been linked to changes in plant community structure and composition and respective increases in overland flow and erosion from these landscapes. The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP, www.sagestep.org) was implemented in 2005 as a 5 year interdisciplinary research study to evaluate restoration methodologies for sagebrush rangelands degraded by woodland and grassland encroachment over a six state area within the Great Basin. The hydrology component of SageSTEP focuses on the relationships between changes in vegetation and groundcover and runoff/erosion processes. In 2006, 140 small scale (0.5 m2) rainfall simulations were conducted at 2 locations within the Great Basin to determine whether critical thresholds exist in vegetation and ground cover that significantly influence infiltration, runoff, and erosion in pinyon and juniper woodlands. Simulation plots were distributed on interspaces (areas between shrub/tree canopies) and juniper, pinyon, and shrub coppices (areas underneath canopy). Water drop penetration times and litter depths were also collected for each plot to explore controls on soil hydrophobicity. Preliminary results suggest a positive correlation between litter depth and hydrophobicity, as soils under thick pinyon and juniper coppices are strongly water repellant and soils in interspaces and under shrub coppices are easily wettable. Interspace plots with varying amounts of grasses and forbs have the highest erosion and runoff rates due to higher percentages of bare ground and relatively low soil stability. Pinyon coppices have the least runoff and erosion due to very high litter depths and low bare ground cover, even though surface soils are hydrophobic. Juniper and

  16. 1997 Monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado Wetlands Mitigation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleaned up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination near the town of Gunnison, Colorado. Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres (ac) (1.7 hectares [ha]) of wetlands. This loss is mitigated by the enhancement of six spring-fed areas on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land (mitigation sites). Approximately 254 ac (1 03.3 ha) were fenced at the six sites to exclude grazing livestock. Of the 254 ac (103.3 ha), 17.8 ac (7.2 ha) are riparian plant communities; the rest are sagebrush communities. Baseline grazed conditions of the riparian plant communities at the mitigation sites were measured prior to fencing. This report discusses results of the fourth year of a monitoring program implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. Three criteria for determining success of the mitigation were established: plant height, vegetation density (bare ground), and vegetation diversity. By 1996, Prospector Spring, Upper Long`s Gulch, and Camp Kettle met the criteria. The DOE requested transfer of these sites to BLM for long-term oversight. The 1997 evaluation of the three remaining sites, discussed in this report, showed two sites (Houston Gulch and Lower Long`s Gulch) meet the criteria. The DOE will request the transfer of these two sites to the BLM for long-term oversight. The last remaining site, Sage Hen Spring, has met only two of the criteria (percent bare ground and plant height). The third criterion, vegetation diversity, was not met. The vegetation appears to be changing from predominantly wet species to drier upland species, although the reason for this change is uncertain. It may be due to below-normal precipitation in recent years, diversion of water from the spring to the stock tank, or manipulation of the hydrology farther up gradient.

  17. Climate influences the demography of three dominant sagebrush steppe plants.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, Harmony J; Koons, David N; Hooten, Mevin B; Moffet, Corey A; Adler, Peter B

    2011-01-01

    Climate change could alter the population growth of dominant species, leading to profound effects on community structure and ecosystem dynamics. Understanding the links between historical variation in climate and population vital rates (survival, growth, recruitment) is one way to predict the impact of future climate change. Using a unique, long-term data set from eastern Idaho, USA, we parameterized integral projection models (IPMs) for Pseudoroegneria spicata, Hesperostipa comata, and Artemisia tripartita to identify the demographic rates and climate variables most important for population growth. We described survival, growth, and recruitment as a function of genet size using mixed-effect regression models that incorporated climate variables. Elasticites for the survival + growth portion of the kernel were larger than the recruitment portion for all three species, with survival + growth accounting for 87-95% of the total elasticity. The genet sizes with the highest elasticity values in each species were very close to the genet size threshold where survival approached 100%. We found strong effects of climate on the population growth rate of two of our three species. In H. comata, a 1% decrease in previous year's precipitation would lead to a 0.6% decrease in population growth. In A. tripartita, a 1% increase in summer temperature would result in a 1.3% increase in population growth. In both H. comata and A. tripartita, climate influenced population growth by affecting genet growth more than survival or recruitment. Late-winter snow was the most important climate variable for P. spicata, but its effect on population growth was smaller than the climate effects we found in H. comata or A. tripartita. For all three species, demographic responses lagged climate by at least one year. Our analysis indicates that understanding climate effects on genet growth may be crucial for anticipating future changes in the structure and function of sagebrush steppe vegetation.

  18. Remote sensing and ecosystem simulation modeling of the intermountain sagebrush-steppe, with implications for global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Three papers are presented that focus on remote sensing and ecosystem simulation modeling of the Intermountain Northwest sagebrush-steppe ecosystem. The first utilizes Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data to derive seasonal greenness indices of three pre-dominant vegetation communities in south-central WashingtoN. Temporal signatures were statistically separated, and used to create a classification for the three communities by integrating Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices over the growing season. The classification accuracy was 75% when compared to 53 ground-truthed sites, but was less accurate (62%) in a more topographically variable region. The second paper develops a logic for treating the intermountain sagebrush-steepe as a mosaic of distinct, hydrologically partitioned vegetation communities, and identifies critical ecophysiological considerations for process modeling of arid ecosystems. Soil water and nutrient dynamics of an ecosystem process model were modified to simulate productivity and seasonal water use patterns in Artemisia, Agropyron, and Bromus communities for the same study site. 60 year simulations maintained steady state vegetation productivity while predicting soil moisture content for 65 dates in 1992 with R[sup 2] values ranging from 0.93 to 0.98. In the third paper, the model was used to derive projections of the response of the ecosystem to natural and general circulation model (GCM)-predicted climate variability. Simulations predicted the adaptability of a less productive, invasive grass community (Bromus) to climate change, while a native sagebrush (Artemisia) community does not survive the increased temperatures of the GCM climates. High humidity deficits and greater maintenance respiration costs associated with increased temperatures limit the ability of the sagebrush community to support a relatively high biomass, and substantial increases in soil water storage and subsurface outflow occur was the vegetation senesces.

  19. Uncertainty in future agro-climate projections in the United States and benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation

    DOE PAGES

    Monier, Erwan; Xu, Liyi; Snyder, Richard

    2016-04-26

    Scientific challenges exist on how to extract information from the wide range of projected impacts simulated by crop models driven by climate ensembles. A stronger focus is required to understand and identify the mechanisms and drivers of projected changes in crop yield. In this study, we investigate the robustness of future projections of five metrics relevant to agriculture stakeholders (accumulated frost days, dry days, growing season length, plant heat stress and start of field operations). We use a large ensemble of climate simulations by the MIT IGSM-CAM integrated assessment model that accounts for the uncertainty associated with different emissions scenarios,more » climate sensitivities, and representations of natural variability. By the end of the century, the US is projected to experience fewer frosts, a longer growing season, more heat stress and an earlier start of field operations-although the magnitude and even the sign of these changes vary greatly by regions. Projected changes in dry days are shown not to be robust. We highlight the important role of natural variability, in particular for changes in dry days (a precipitation-related index) and heat stress (a threshold index). The wide range of our projections compares well the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble, especially for temperature-related indices. This suggests that using a single climate model that accounts for key sources of uncertainty can provide an efficient and complementary framework to the more common approach of multi-model ensembles. We also show that greenhouse gas mitigation has the potential to significantly reduce adverse effects (heat stress, risks of pest and disease) of climate change on agriculture, while also curtailing potentially beneficial impacts (earlier planting, possibility for multiple cropping). A major benefit of climate mitigation is potentially preventing changes in several indices to emerge from the noise of natural variability, even by 2100. This has major

  20. Uncertainty in future agro-climate projections in the United States and benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monier, Erwan; Xu, Liyi; Snyder, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Scientific challenges exist on how to extract information from the wide range of projected impacts simulated by crop models driven by climate ensembles. A stronger focus is required to understand and identify the mechanisms and drivers of projected changes in crop yield. In this study, we investigate the robustness of future projections of five metrics relevant to agriculture stakeholders (accumulated frost days, dry days, growing season length, plant heat stress and start of field operations). We use a large ensemble of climate simulations by the MIT IGSM-CAM integrated assessment model that accounts for the uncertainty associated with different emissions scenarios, climate sensitivities, and representations of natural variability. By the end of the century, the US is projected to experience fewer frosts, a longer growing season, more heat stress and an earlier start of field operations—although the magnitude and even the sign of these changes vary greatly by regions. Projected changes in dry days are shown not to be robust. We highlight the important role of natural variability, in particular for changes in dry days (a precipitation-related index) and heat stress (a threshold index). The wide range of our projections compares well the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble, especially for temperature-related indices. This suggests that using a single climate model that accounts for key sources of uncertainty can provide an efficient and complementary framework to the more common approach of multi-model ensembles. We also show that greenhouse gas mitigation has the potential to significantly reduce adverse effects (heat stress, risks of pest and disease) of climate change on agriculture, while also curtailing potentially beneficial impacts (earlier planting, possibility for multiple cropping). A major benefit of climate mitigation is potentially preventing changes in several indices to emerge from the noise of natural variability, even by 2100. This has major implications

  1. Economic aspects of hydro geological risk mitigation measures management in Italy: the ReNDiS project experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spizzichino, D.; Campobasso, C.; Gallozzi, P. L.; Dessi', B.; Traversa, F.

    2009-04-01

    ReNDiS project is a useful tool for monitoring, analysis and management of information data on mitigation measures and restoration works of soil protection at national scale. The main scope of the project, and related monitoring activities, is to improve the knowledge about the use of national funds and efforts against floods and landslides risk and, as a consequence, to better address the preventive policies in future. Since 1999 after the disastrous mudflow event occurred in Sarno in 1998, which caused the loss of 160 human lives, an extraordinary effort was conducted by the Italian Government in order to promote preventive measures against the hydro geological risk over the entire Italian territory. The Italian Ministry for the Environment promoted several and annual soil protection programmes. The ReNDiS project (Repertory of mitigation measures for National Soil Protection) is carried out by ISPRA - Institute for Environmental protection and Research, with the aim of improving the knowledge about the results of preventive policies against floods and landslides in order to better address national funds as requested by the Minister itself. The repertory is composed by a main archive and two secondary interface, the first for direct data management (ReNDiS-ist) and the latter (ReNDiS-web) for the on-line access and public consultation. At present, ReNDiS database contains about 3000 records concerning those programmes, focused on restoration works but including also information on landslide typologies and processes. The monitoring project is developed taking into account all the information about each step of every mitigation measure from the initial funding phase until the end of the work. During present work, we have statistically analyzed the ReNDiS database in order to highlight the conformity between the characteristic and type of the hazard (identified in a specific area) and the corresponding mitigation measures adopted for risk reduction. Through specific

  2. Taking Sides on "Takings": Rhetorical Resurgence of the Sagebrush Rebellion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiaviello, Tony

    The "Takings Clause" of the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution seems clear enough: when the government takes an individual's property, it must pay him or her for it. The "Sagebrush Rebellion" refers to the numerous incarnations of a movement to privatize public lands and contain environmental regulation. This…

  3. Container configuration influences western larch and big sagebrush seedling development

    Treesearch

    Matthew Mehdi. Aghai

    2012-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.), a woody shrub, and western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.), a deciduous conifer, are among many western North American species that have suffered a decline in presence and natural regeneration across their native ranges. These species are economically, ecologically, and intrinsically valuable, therefore many current...

  4. An efficient sampling protocol for sagebrush/grassland monitoring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Monitoring the health and condition of rangeland vegetation can be very time consuming and costly. An efficiency but rigorous sampling protocol is needed for monitoring sagebrush/grassland vegetation. A randomized sampling protocol was presented for geo-referenced, nadir photographs acquired using...

  5. MEDUSAHEAD DISPERSAL AND ESTABLISHMENT IN SAGEBRUSH PLANT COMMUNITIES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski) is an invasive annual grass that that is rapidly invading sagebrush plant communities. To prevent medusahead invasion land managers need to know 1) when and how far medusahead seeds disperse and 2) its establishment rates and interactions with the...

  6. Biomass consumption during prescribed fires in big sagebrush ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Clinton S. Wright; Susan J. Prichard

    2006-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) ecosystems typically experience stand replacing fires during which some or all of the ignited biomass is consumed. Biomass consumption is directly related to the energy released during a fire, and is an important factor that determines smoke production and the effects of fire on other resources. Consumption of...

  7. Seeding techniques for sagebrush community restoration after fire

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey E. Ott; Anne Halford; Nancy Shaw

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To outline important considerations and options for post-fire seeding, including the selection of seed mixes and seeding equipment for restoring sagebrush communities following fire. The emphasis is on lower-elevation communities where restoration needs are greatest. References and resources are offered for greater detail and guidance on specific...

  8. Establishing big sagebrush and other shrubs from planting stock

    Treesearch

    Nancy L. Shaw; Anne Halford; J. Kent McAdoo

    2015-01-01

    Bareroot or container seedlings can be used to quickly re-establish big sagebrush and other native shrubs in situations where direct seeding is not feasible or unlikely to succeed. Guidelines are provided for developing a planting plan and timeline, arranging for seedling production, and installing and managing outplantings.

  9. Postfire Succession in Big Sagebrush Steppe With Livestock Grazing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prescribed fire in rangeland ecosystems is applied for a variety of management objectives including enhancing productivity of forage species for domestic livestock. In big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) steppe of the western United States, fire has been a natural and prescribed disturbance ...

  10. Models for predicting fuel consumption in sagebrush-dominated ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Clinton S. Wright

    2013-01-01

    Fuel consumption predictions are necessary to accurately estimate or model fire effects, including pollutant emissions during wildland fires. Fuel and environmental measurements on a series of operational prescribed fires were used to develop empirical models for predicting fuel consumption in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate Nutt.) ecosystems....

  11. Medusahead In Sagebrush Steppe Rangelands: Control, Restoration, And Prevention.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Medusahead is a non-native annual grass that is degrading sagebrush rangelands. However, information on its management is not widely available to land managers. We compiled results from previous studies to provide information on controlling, restoring, and preventing medusahead infestations in sag...

  12. Insights into transcriptomes of Big and Low sagebrush

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Huynh; Justin T. Page; Bryce A. Richardson; Joshua A. Udall

    2015-01-01

    We report the sequencing and assembly of three transcriptomes from Big (Artemisia tridentatassp. wyomingensis and A. tridentatassp. tridentata) and Low (A. arbuscula ssp. arbuscula) sagebrush. The sequence reads are available in the Sequence Read Archive of NCBI. We demonstrate the utilities of these transcriptomes for gene discovery and phylogenomic analysis. An...

  13. Scales of snow depth variability in high elevation rangeland sagebrush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesche, Molly E.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; Meiman, Paul J.

    2017-09-01

    In high elevation semi-arid rangelands, sagebrush and other shrubs can affect transport and deposition of wind-blown snow, enabling the formation of snowdrifts. Datasets from three field experiments were used to investigate the scales of spatial variability of snow depth around big mountain sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) at a high elevation plateau rangeland in North Park, Colorado, during the winters of 2002, 2003, and 2008. Data were collected at multiple resolutions (0.05 to 25 m) and extents (2 to 1000 m). Finer scale data were collected specifically for this study to examine the correlation between snow depth, sagebrush microtopography, the ground surface, and the snow surface, as well as the temporal consistency of snow depth patterns. Variograms were used to identify the spatial structure and the Moran's I statistic was used to determine the spatial correlation. Results show some temporal consistency in snow depth at several scales. Plot scale snow depth variability is partly a function of the nature of individual shrubs, as there is some correlation between the spatial structure of snow depth and sagebrush, as well as between the ground and snow depth. The optimal sampling resolution appears to be 25-cm, but over a large area, this would require a multitude of samples, and thus a random stratified approach is recommended with a fine measurement resolution of 5-cm.

  14. Wyoming big sagebrush associations of eastern Oregon; vegetation attributes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report provides a synopsis of several vegetative characteristics for the Wyoming big sagebrush complex in eastern Oregon covering the High Desert , Snake River, and Owyhee Ecological Provinces in Harney, Lake, and Malheur Counties. The complex has been grouped into six associations defined by t...

  15. Woody fuels reduction in Wyoming big sagebrush communities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young) ecosystems historically have been subject to disturbances that reduce or remove shrubs primarily by fire, although insect outbreaks and disease have also been important. Depending on site productivity, fire return in...

  16. Improving sustainable seed yield in Wyoming big sagebrush

    Treesearch

    Jeremiah C. Armstrong

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Great Basin Restoration Initiative, the effects of browsing, competition removal, pruning, fertilization and seed collection methods on increasing seed production in Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. spp wyomingensis Beetle & Young) were studied. Study sites were located in Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. A split-plot...

  17. Mitigation effectiveness for improving nesting success of greater sage-grouse influenced by energy development

    PubMed Central

    Kirol, Christopher P.; Sutphin, Andrew L.; Bond, Laura; Fuller, Mark R.; Maechtle, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats being developed for oil and gas reserves are inhabited by sagebrush obligate species—including the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse) that is currently being considered for protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Numerous studies suggest increasing oil and gas development may exacerbate species extinction risks. Therefore, there is a great need for effective on-site mitigation to reduce impacts to co-occurring wildlife such as sage-grouse. Nesting success is a primary factor in avian productivity and declines in nesting success are also thought to be an important contributor to population declines in sage-grouse. From 2008 to 2011 we monitored 296 nests of radio-marked female sage-grouse in a natural gas (NG) field in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA and compared nest survival in mitigated and non-mitigated development areas and relatively unaltered areas to determine if specific mitigation practices were enhancing nest survival. Nest survival was highest in relatively unaltered habitats followed by mitigated, and then non-mitigated NG areas. Reservoirs used for holding NG discharge water had the greatest support as having a direct relationship to nest survival. Within a 5 km2 area surrounding a nest, the probability of nest failure increased by about 15% for every 1.5 km increase in reservoir water edge. Reducing reservoirs was a mitigation focus and sage-grouse nesting in mitigated areas were exposed to almost half of the amount of water edge compared to those in non-mitigated areas. Further, we found that an increase in sagebrush cover was positively related to nest survival. Consequently, mitigation efforts focused on reducing reservoir construction and reducing surface disturbance, especially when the surface disturbance results in sagebrush removal, are important to enhancing sage-grouse nesting success. PMID:26366042

  18. Mitigation effectiveness for improving nesting success of greater sage-grouse influenced by energy development.

    PubMed

    Kirol, Christopher P; Sutphin, Andrew L; Bond, Laura; Fuller, Mark R; Maechtle, Thomas L

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats being developed for oil and gas reserves are inhabited by sagebrush obligate species-including the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse) that is currently being considered for protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Numerous studies suggest increasing oil and gas development may exacerbate species extinction risks. Therefore, there is a great need for effective on-site mitigation to reduce impacts to co-occurring wildlife such as sage-grouse. Nesting success is a primary factor in avian productivity and declines in nesting success are also thought to be an important contributor to population declines in sage-grouse. From 2008 to 2011 we monitored 296 nests of radio-marked female sage-grouse in a natural gas (NG) field in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA and compared nest survival in mitigated and non-mitigated development areas and relatively unaltered areas to determine if specific mitigation practices were enhancing nest survival. Nest survival was highest in relatively unaltered habitats followed by mitigated, and then non-mitigated NG areas. Reservoirs used for holding NG discharge water had the greatest support as having a direct relationship to nest survival. Within a 5 km(2) area surrounding a nest, the probability of nest failure increased by about 15% for every 1.5 km increase in reservoir water edge. Reducing reservoirs was a mitigation focus and sage-grouse nesting in mitigated areas were exposed to almost half of the amount of water edge compared to those in non-mitigated areas. Further, we found that an increase in sagebrush cover was positively related to nest survival. Consequently, mitigation efforts focused on reducing reservoir construction and reducing surface disturbance, especially when the surface disturbance results in sagebrush removal, are important to enhancing sage-grouse nesting success.

  19. Mitigation effectiveness for improving nesting success of greater sage-grouse influenced by energy development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirol, Christopher P.; Sutphin, Andrew L.; Bond, Laura S.; Fuller, Mark R.; Maechtle, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush Artemisia spp. habitats being developed for oil and gas reserves are inhabited by sagebrush obligate species — including the greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus (sage-grouse) that is currently being considered for protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Numerous studies suggest increasing oil and gas development may exacerbate species extinction risks. Therefore, there is a great need for effective on-site mitigation to reduce impacts to co-occurring wildlife such as sage-grouse. Nesting success is a primary factor in avian productivity and declines in nesting success are also thought to be an important contributor to population declines in sage-grouse. From 2008 to 2011 we monitored 296 nests of radio-marked female sage-grouse in a natural gas (NG) field in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, and compared nest survival in mitigated and non-mitigated development areas and relatively unaltered areas to determine if specific mitigation practices were enhancing nest survival. Nest survival was highest in relatively unaltered habitats followed by mitigated, and then non-mitigated NG areas. Reservoirs used for holding NG discharge water had the greatest support as having a direct relationship to nest survival. Within a 5-km2 area surrounding a nest, the probability of nest failure increased by about 15% for every 1.5 km increase in reservoir water edge. Reducing reservoirs was a mitigation focus and sage-grouse nesting in mitigated areas were exposed to almost half of the amount of water edge compared to those in non-mitigated areas. Further, we found that an increase in sagebrush cover was positively related to nest survival. Consequently, mitigation efforts focused on reducing reservoir construction and reducing surface disturbance, especially when the surface disturbance results in sagebrush removal, are important to enhancing sage-grouse nesting success.

  20. Methane emission from ruminants and solid waste: A critical analysis of baseline and mitigation projections for climate and policy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, E.

    2012-12-01

    Current and projected estimates of methane (CH4) emission from anthropogenic sources are numerous but largely unexamined or compared. Presented here is a critical appraisal of CH4 projections used in climate-chemistry and policy studies. We compare emissions for major CH4 sources from several groups, including our own new data and RCP projections developed for climate-chemistry models for the next IPCC Assessment Report (AR5). We focus on current and projected baseline and mitigation emissions from ruminant animals and solid waste that are both predicted to rise dramatically in coming decades, driven primarily by developing countries. For waste, drivers include increasing urban populations, higher per capita waste generation due to economic growth and increasing landfilling rates. Analysis of a new global data base detailing waste composition, collection and disposal indicates that IPCC-based methodologies and default data overestimate CH4 emission for the current period which cascades into substantial overestimates in future projections. CH4 emission from solid waste is estimated to be ~10-15 Tg CH4/yr currently rather than the ~35 Tg/yr often reported in the literature. Moreover, emissions from developing countries are unlikely to rise rapidly in coming decades because new management approaches, such as sanitary landfills, that would increase emissions are maladapted to infrastructures in these countries and therefore unlikely to be implemented. The low current emission associated with solid waste (~10 Tg), together with future modest growth, implies that mitigation of waste-related CH4 emission is a poor candidate for slowing global warming. In the case of ruminant animals (~90 Tg CH4/yr currently), the dominant assumption driving future trajectories of CH4 emission is a substantial increase in meat and dairy consumption in developing countries to be satisfied by growing animal populations. Unlike solid waste, current ruminant emissions among studies exhibit a

  1. Evaluation of the varying Naturally Occurring Asbestos mitigation measures at School and Commercial construction projects in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalika, S.

    2012-12-01

    In commercial development or K-12 school construction, project sites are often purchased and much of the planning process completed prior to an assessment of the soils proposed for excavation or potential offhaul. Geologic maps, while initially helpful for identifying potential hazards such as landslides and earthquake faults, are less helpful in the identification of naturally occurring hazardous minerals, such as the seven regulated minerals currently classified as asbestos. Geologic maps identify mafic and ultramafic bedrock zones; however, a skilled geologist with knowledge of asbestos hazards will further visualize the earth-shaping processes that may have resulted in the deposition of naturally occurring asbestos in locations outside mapped ultramafic zones including the base of an alluvial fan or within streambed channels. When sampled as an afterthought prior to disposal, property owners are surprised by the budget-crippling costs of waste handling and disposal of NOA, as well as mitigations required to protect the health of construction workers, the public, and future site occupants. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) continues to lead the way in evaluation and regulation of NOA, through development of the CARB 435 preparation and laboratory analytical method, local enforcement of the Asbestos Airborne Toxic Control Measure for Construction, Grading, Quarrying, and Surface Mining Operations (ATCM), and implementation of dust control measures to protect public health. A thorough site evaluation and construction design includes utilization of the sampling methods developed by the California Geological Survey, laboratory analytical methods within CARB 435, and mitigation measures required by CARB, DTSC, and OSHA for the protection of worker and public health after NOA is discovered. The site evaluation should additionally include an assessment of the future site usage, as regulations differ based on potential health affects to future occupants

  2. Contrasting effects of different mammalian herbivores on sagebrush plant communities.

    PubMed

    Veblen, Kari E; Nehring, Kyle C; McGlone, Christopher M; Ritchie, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Herbivory by both grazing and browsing ungulates shapes the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, and both types of herbivory have been implicated in major ecosystem state changes. Despite the ecological consequences of differences in diets and feeding habits among herbivores, studies that experimentally distinguish effects of grazing from spatially co-occurring, but temporally segregated browsing are extremely rare. Here we use a set of long-term exclosures in northern Utah, USA, to determine how domestic grazers vs. wild ungulate herbivores (including browsers and mixed feeders) affect sagebrush-dominated plant communities that historically covered ~62 million ha in North America. We sampled plant community properties and found that after 22 years grazing and browsing elicited perceptible changes in overall plant community composition and distinct responses by individual plant species. In the woody layer of the plant community, release from winter and spring wild ungulate herbivory increased densities of larger Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, ssp. wyomingensis) at the expense of small sagebrush, while disturbance associated with either cattle or wild ungulate activity alone was sufficient to increase bare ground and reduce cover of biological soil crusts. The perennial bunchgrass, bottlebrush squirretail (Elymus elymoides), responded positively to release from summer cattle grazing, and in turn appeared to competitively suppress another more grazing tolerant perennial grass, Sandberg's blue grass (Poa secunda). Grazing by domestic cattle also was associated with increased non-native species biomass. Together, these results illustrate that ungulate herbivory has not caused sagebrush plant communities to undergo dramatic state shifts; however clear, herbivore-driven shifts are evident. In a dry, perennial-dominated system where plant community changes can occur very slowly, our results provide insights into potential long

  3. Contrasting Effects of Different Mammalian Herbivores on Sagebrush Plant Communities

    PubMed Central

    Veblen, Kari E.; Nehring, Kyle C.; McGlone, Christopher M.; Ritchie, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Herbivory by both grazing and browsing ungulates shapes the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, and both types of herbivory have been implicated in major ecosystem state changes. Despite the ecological consequences of differences in diets and feeding habits among herbivores, studies that experimentally distinguish effects of grazing from spatially co-occurring, but temporally segregated browsing are extremely rare. Here we use a set of long-term exclosures in northern Utah, USA, to determine how domestic grazers vs. wild ungulate herbivores (including browsers and mixed feeders) affect sagebrush-dominated plant communities that historically covered ~62 million ha in North America. We sampled plant community properties and found that after 22 years grazing and browsing elicited perceptible changes in overall plant community composition and distinct responses by individual plant species. In the woody layer of the plant community, release from winter and spring wild ungulate herbivory increased densities of larger Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, ssp. wyomingensis) at the expense of small sagebrush, while disturbance associated with either cattle or wild ungulate activity alone was sufficient to increase bare ground and reduce cover of biological soil crusts. The perennial bunchgrass, bottlebrush squirretail (Elymus elymoides), responded positively to release from summer cattle grazing, and in turn appeared to competitively suppress another more grazing tolerant perennial grass, Sandberg’s blue grass (Poa secunda). Grazing by domestic cattle also was associated with increased non-native species biomass. Together, these results illustrate that ungulate herbivory has not caused sagebrush plant communities to undergo dramatic state shifts; however clear, herbivore-driven shifts are evident. In a dry, perennial-dominated system where plant community changes can occur very slowly, our results provide insights into potential long

  4. Effects of Wyoming big sagebrush seeding rate and grass competition on the long-term density and canopy volume of the big sagebrush and wildlife habitat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research was initiated in 1997 to evaluate the effects of seeding rates of grass and Wyoming big sagebrush on the establishment of big sagebrush. The research was accomplished at the Belle Ayr West mine, south of Gillette, WY using a randomized complete block experimental design with three big ...

  5. Conserving and restoring habitat for Greater Sage-Grouse and other sagebrush-obligate wildlife: The crucial link of forbs and sagebrush diversity

    Treesearch

    Kas Dumroese; Tara Luna; Bryce A. Richardson; Francis F. Kilkenny; Justin B. Runyon

    2015-01-01

    In the western US, Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus Bonaparte [Phasianidae]) have become an indicator species of the overall health of the sagebrush (Artemisia L. [Asteraceae]) dominated communities that support a rich diversity of flora and fauna. This species has an integral association with sagebrush, its understory forbs and grasses, and the...

  6. Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections for Exploration Missions: Uncertainty Reduction and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis; Badhwar, Gautam; Saganti, Premkumar; Schimmerling, Walter; Wilson, John; Peterson, Leif; Dicello, John

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we discuss expected lifetime excess cancer risks for astronauts returning from exploration class missions. For the first time we make a quantitative assessment of uncertainties in cancer risk projections for space radiation exposures. Late effects from the high charge and energy (HZE) ions present in the galactic cosmic rays including cancer and the poorly understood risks to the central nervous system constitute the major risks. Methods used to project risk in low Earth orbit are seen as highly uncertain for projecting risks on exploration missions because of the limited radiobiology data available for estimating HZE ion risks. Cancer risk projections are described as a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. Monte-Carlo sampling from subjective error distributions represents the lack of knowledge in each factor to quantify risk projection overall uncertainty. Cancer risk analysis is applied to several exploration mission scenarios. At solar minimum, the number of days in space where career risk of less than the limiting 3% excess cancer mortality can be assured at a 95% confidence level is found to be only of the order of 100 days.

  7. Selection of a Propulsion System for Jason-CS in Order to Fulfil Space Debris Mitigation Requirements for ESA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthen, Bjoern; Beck, Jan; Duske, Norbert; Francis, Richard; Koeble, Klaus-Peter

    2013-08-01

    For two decades, the mission Topex-Poseidon and its successor mission Jason/Ocean Surface Topography Mission provide satellite data for the analysis of sea topography, wave heights and wind speeds. For the continuation of service mission Jason-CS, ESA's choice to rely on the CryoSat-2 platform design permits re-use of a well established product and proven processes. An industrial consortium led by Astrium GmbH has built the satellite CryoSat-2 which for over three years successfully provides altimeter measurements of the polar ice cap thickness evolutions. This platform is perfectly suited for accommodation of the Jason-CS instruments. Unlike CryoSat-2, Jason-CS is required to perform a post-mission disposal according to the Requirements for Space Debris Mitigation for ESA Projects. This paper discusses different technologies in terms of efficiency, feasibility and accommodation, aiming at minimizing necessary spacecraft design modifications.

  8. Rainwater Wildlife Area Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland cover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2}2 plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  9. Air pollution prevention through urban heat island mitigation: An update on the urban heat island pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsevski, V.; Taha, H.; Quattrochi, D.; Luvall, J.

    1998-07-01

    Urban heat islands increase the demand for cooling energy and accelerate the formation of smog. They are created when natural vegetation is replaced by heat-absorbing surfaces such as building roofs and walls, parking lots, and streets. Through the implementation of measures designed to mitigate the urban heat island, communities can decrease their demand for energy and effectively cool the metropolitan landscape. In addition to the economic benefits, using less energy leads to reductions in emission of CO{sub 2}--a greenhouse gas--as well as ozone (smog) precursors such as NOx and VOCs. Because ozone is created when NOx and VOCs photochemically combine with heat and solar radiation, actions taken to lower ambient air temperature can significantly reduce ozone concentrations in certain areas. Measures to reverse the urban heat island include afforestation and the widespread use of highly reflective surfaces. To demonstrate the potential benefits of implementing these measures, EPA has teamed up with NASA and LBNL to initiate a pilot project with three US cities. As part of the pilot, NASA will use remotely-sensed data to quantify surface temperature, albedo, the thermal response number and NDVI vegetation of each city. This information will be used by scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) along with other data as inputs to model various scenarios that will help quantify the potential benefits of urban heat island mitigation measures in terms of reduced energy use and pollution. This paper will briefly describe this pilot project and provide an update on the progress to date.

  10. The role of PIXE in the AIRUSE project "testing and development of air quality mitigation measures in Southern Europe"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Calzolai, G.; Giannoni, M.; Nava, S.; Udisti, R.; Severi, M.; Querol, X.; Amato, F.; Alves, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2015-11-01

    The European AIRUSE LIFE+ project aims at testing existing and future mitigation measures and developing new strategies for the improvement of air quality in Southern European countries. The project involves public and private institutions of Spain, UK, Portugal, Italy and Greece. PM10 and PM2.5 daily samplings have been scheduled for one year (from January 2013) in four urban sites, Barcelona (Spain), Porto (Portugal), Athens (Greece), and Florence (Italy). The daily data set gives an overall representative picture of the PM composition in these urban sites. The project includes also samplings with hourly resolution for limited periods. Hourly samples give an easier identification of the different aerosol sources due to the capability of tracking rapid changes as the ones occurring in many particulate emissions as well as in atmospheric transport and dilution processes. The role of PIXE technique within the project has been described in this paper. The comparison of data obtained by different techniques (e.g. PIXE, IC and ICP) assured a quality assurance control on the huge quantity of data obtained in the project. PIXE data together with those obtained by other analytical techniques have been used to reconstruct the average aerosol chemical composition and in Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis to determine the aerosol sources and their impact on PM10 and PM2.5 mass. In particular the high sensitivity of PIXE for all the crustal elements (including Si which is not easily detected by ICP) allows the direct determination of the Saharan dust contribution. Finally, the 1-h resolution data, which can be obtained only by PIXE, confirmed and reinforced the identification of the aerosol sources obtained by the daily concentrations.

  11. Projections of NH3 emissions from manure generated by livestock production in China to 2030 under six mitigation scenarios.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Koloutsou-Vakakis, Sotiria; Rood, Mark J; Luan, Shengji

    2017-12-31

    China's rapid urbanization, large population, and increasing consumption of calorie-and meat-intensive diets, have resulted in China becoming the world's largest source of ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock production. This is the first study to use provincial, condition-specific emission factors based on most recently available studies on Chinese manure management and environmental conditions. The estimated NH3 emission temporal trends and spatial patterns are interpreted in relation to government policies affecting livestock production. Scenario analysis is used to project emissions and estimate mitigation potential of NH3 emissions, to year 2030. We produce a 1km×1km gridded NH3 emission inventory for 2008 based on county-level activity data, which can help identify locations of highest NH3 emissions. The total NH3 emissions from manure generated by livestock production in 2008 were 7.3TgNH3·yr(-1) (interquartile range from 6.1 to 8.6TgNH3·yr(-1)), and the major sources were poultry (29.9%), pigs (28.4%), other cattle (27.9%), and dairy cattle (7.0%), while sheep and goats (3.6%), donkeys (1.3%), horses (1.2%), and mules (0.7%) had smaller contributions. From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with two peaks (1996 and 2006), and total emissions increased from 2.2 to 7.3Tg·yr(-1) increasing on average 4.4%·yr(-1). Under a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, NH3 emissions in 2030 are expected to be 13.9TgNH3·yr(-1) (11.5-16.3TgNH3·yr(-1)). Under mitigation scenarios, the projected emissions could be reduced by 18.9-37.3% compared to 2030 BAU emissions. This study improves our understanding of NH3 emissions from livestock production, which is needed to guide stakeholders and policymakers to make well informed mitigation decisions for NH3 emissions from livestock production at the country and regional levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluor-Hanford 3013 Digital Radiography Dead Zone Mitigation Project Pressure Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, K.

    2003-11-21

    The use of digital radiographic (DR) measurement of lid deflection as an indication of pressurization of the 3013 inner can was first reported by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). The conclusions of this report were that for cans with relatively large initial concavity, lid deflection could be used to meet the 3013 standard (DOE-STD-3013-2000) requirement for a nondestructive indication of a pressurization of 100 psig. During acceptance testing of the system in the Spring of 2003, it was confirmed that for some cans the DR measured lid deflection could become insensitive to the change in lid deflection when compared to actual mechanical measurements. The basic explanation of this phenomenon is that characteristics of the lid geometry such as tilt and wobble can obfuscate the bottom of the lid where the deflection is measured. The purpose of this report is to document the results of the pressure testing and the efficacy of the alternate imaging and analysis methods developed to mitigate the dead zone problem. Prior to review of the results, a review of the current method and an introduction to the newly developed methods and techniques is provided.

  13. Herbicide treatment effects on properties of mountain big sagebrush soils after fourteen years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, I. C.; Reiners, W. A.; Sturges, D. L.; Matson, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of sagebrush conversion on the soil properties of a high-elevation portion of the Western Intermountain Sagebrush Steppe (West, 1983) are described. Changes were found in only a few soil chemical properties after conversion to grassland. It was found that surface concentrations of N were lower under grass vegetation than under undisturbed vegetation. Undershrub net N mineralization rates were higher under shrubs in the sagebrush vegetation than under former shrubs in the grass vegetation.

  14. Herbicide treatment effects on properties of mountain big sagebrush soils after fourteen years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, I. C.; Reiners, W. A.; Sturges, D. L.; Matson, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of sagebrush conversion on the soil properties of a high-elevation portion of the Western Intermountain Sagebrush Steppe (West, 1983) are described. Changes were found in only a few soil chemical properties after conversion to grassland. It was found that surface concentrations of N were lower under grass vegetation than under undisturbed vegetation. Undershrub net N mineralization rates were higher under shrubs in the sagebrush vegetation than under former shrubs in the grass vegetation.

  15. Mitigation of Selected Hanford Site Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Ellen P.; Harvey, David W.

    2006-09-08

    This document is the first time that Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts from the Hanford Site have been assembled within a publication. The publication presents photographic and written documentation of a number of Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts that were identified and tagged during assessment walk throughs of historic buildings on the Hanford Site but which could not be curated within the Hanford collection because they were too large for long-term storage and/or exhibit purposes or were radiologically contaminated. The significance of the artifacts in this publication and a proposed future appendix is based not on the individual significance of any single artifact but on their collective contribution to the science and engineering of creating plutonium and advancing nuclear technology in nuclear fuel and power.

  16. Using offsets to mitigate environmental impacts of major projects: A stakeholder analysis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nigel; Evans, Megan; Rice, John; Lodhia, Sumit; Gibbons, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Global patterns of development suggest that as more projects are initiated, business will need to find acceptable measures to conserve biodiversity. The application of environmental offsets allows firms to combine their economic interests with the environment and society. This article presents the results of a multi-stakeholder analysis related to the design of offsets principles, policies, and regulatory processes, using a large infrastructure projects context. The results indicate that business was primarily interested in using direct offsets and other compensatory measures, known internationally as indirect offsets, to acquit their environmental management obligations. In contrast, the environmental sector argued that highly principled and scientifically robust offsets programs should be implemented and maintained for enduring environmental protection. Stakeholder consensus stressed the importance of offsets registers with commensurate monitoring and enforcement. Our findings provide instructive insights into the countervailing views of offsets policy stakeholders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Built Expansion and Global Climate Change Drive Projected Urban Heat: Relative Magnitudes, Interactions, and Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krayenhoff, E. S.; Georgescu, M.; Moustaoui, M.

    2016-12-01

    Surface climates are projected to warm due to global climate change over the course of the 21st century, and demographic projections suggest urban areas in the United States will continue to expand and develop, with associated local climate outcomes. Interactions between these two drivers of urban heat have not been robustly quantified to date. Here, simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (coupled to a Single-Layer Urban Canopy Model) are performed at 20 km resolution over the continental U.S. for two 10-year periods: contemporary (2000-2009) and end-of-century (2090-2099). Present and end of century urban land use are derived from the Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Climate and Land-Use Scenarios. Modelled effects on urban climates are evaluated regionally. Sensitivity to climate projection (Community Climate System Model 4.0, RCP 4.5 vs. RCP 8.5) and associated urban development scenarios are assessed. Effects on near-surface urban air temperature of RCP8.5 climate change are greater than those attributable to the corresponding urban development in many regions. Interaction effects vary by region, and while of lesser magnitude, are not negligible. Moreover, urban development and its interactions with RCP8.5 climate change modify the distribution of convective precipitation over the eastern US. Interaction effects result from the different meteorological effects of urban areas under current and future climate. Finally, the potential for design implementations such as green roofs and high albedo roofs to offset the projected warming is considered. Impacts of these implementations on precipitation are also assessed.

  18. Ural-Tweed Bighorn Sheep Wildlife Mitigation Project, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Yde, Chris A.; Summerfield, Bob; Young, Lewis

    1987-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of the project activities from September 1, 1984 to December 31, 1986. To date, habitat treatments have been initiated on eight areas. The treatments include selective slash and burn, prescribed fire and fertilization. Inclement weather precluded the completion of the prescribed burns scheduled during fall 1985 and fall 1986. The lower Stonehill prescribed fire was rescheduled from fall 1985 to spring 1986 with the burn accomplished, producing varied results. Extensive pretreatment vegetative information has been collected from all units scheduled for habitat manipulations. Additionally, future projects have been delineated for other areas frequented by bighorn sheep. Ten adult bighorn sheep (5 ewes and 5 rams) have been fitted with radio transmitters. Systematic aerial and ground surveys were utilized to monitor the movements and seasonal habitat preferences of the instrumented sheep. Age and sex information was gathered whenever possible to aid in the development of a population model, Monthly pallet group collections were initiated in May 1985 to provide samples for 2.6 diaminopimetic acid (DAPA), food habits and lungworm larvae analysis. The majority of the data analysis is ongoing and will be presented in later reports.

  19. Is fire exclusion in mountain big sagebrush communities prudent? Soil nutrient, plant diversity, and arthropod response to burning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fire has largely been excluded from many mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) communities. Land and wildlife managers are especially reluctant to reintroduce fire in mountain big sagebrush plant communities, especially those communities without significan...

  20. Outplanting Wyoming big sagebrush following wldfire: stock performance and economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettweiler-Robinson, Eva; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Evans, James R.; Newsome, Heidi; Davies, G. Matt; Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.; Easterly, Richard T.; Salstrom, Debra; Dunwiddle, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    mycorrhizal amendments. Most mortality occurred during the first year after planting; this period is the greatest barrier to establishment of sagebrush stock. The proportion of healthy stock in Year 1 was positively related to subsequent survival to Year 3. Costs were minimized, and survival maximized, by planting container stock or bare-root stock with a hydrogel dip. Our results indicate that outplanting is an ecologically and economically effective way of establishing Wyoming big sagebrush. However, statistical analyses were limited by the fact that data about initial variables (stock quality, site conditions, weather) were often unrecorded and by the lack of a replicated experimental design. Sharing consistent data and using an experimental approach would help land managers and restoration practitioners maximize the success of outplanting efforts.

  1. Small-Footprint Lidar Estimations of Sagebrush Canopy Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Anderson; Ryan Hruska; Jessica Mitchell; Nancy Glenn

    2011-05-01

    Separating lidar returns for use in determining canopy height and shape in low-height vegetation is difficult because the vegetation canopy return is often close to the ground return in time and space. In addition, height underestimation is likely exacerbated in sparsely vegetated shrub ecosystems. This study compares lidar point-cloud data to sagebrush canopy characteristics measured in the field. It was determined that cumulative prediction error could account for as much as 35.6% of the average height and 37.4% of the average canopy area of shrubs sampled. When scaling from the individual shrub scale to coarser scales, prediction error averaged over a number of shrubs decreases as observation numbers increase. High density (in this case an average of 9.46 returns per m2), small footprint lidar (in this case a footprint diameter of 18 cm at nadir) may provide sufficient accuracy for characterizing sagebrush structure and cover and estimating biomass across landscapes.

  2. Big sagebrush seed storage. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, B.L.; Briggs, S.F.; Johansen, J.H.

    1996-12-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) seeds were stored in three different environments; cool, constant temperature (refrigerator 10 degs. C); room temperature (14 to 24 degs. C); and a nonheated warehouse (-28 to +44 degs. C). In all three cases, humidity was held constant and equal. Significant drop in seed viability occurred first in the seed stored in the nonheated warehouse, followed by seed stored at room temperatures, and then seed stored at cool temperatures. It appeared from this study and studies by others that humidity control is more important to maintaining seed viability than temperature control. The old adage simply states `store seeds in a cool and dry place` - but first make sure the seeds have been properly dried. Drying sagebrush seed during the cool, wet weather of the harvesting period creates special challenges to the producer.

  3. Historical fire regimes, reconstructed from land-survey data, led to complexity and fluctuation in sagebrush landscapes.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Beth E; Baker, William L

    2013-04-01

    Sagebrush landscapes provide habitat for Sage-Grouse and other sagebrush obligates, yet historical fire regimes and the structure of historical sagebrush landscapes are poorly known, hampering ecological restoration and management. To remedy this, General Land Office Survey (GLO) survey notes were used to reconstruct over two million hectares of historical vegetation for four sagebrush-dominated (Artemisia spp.) study areas in the western United States. Reconstructed vegetation was analyzed for fire indicators used to identify historical fires and reconstruct historical fire regimes. Historical fire-size distributions were inverse-J shaped, and one fire > 100 000 ha was identified. Historical fire rotations were estimated at 171-342 years for Wyoming big sagebrush (A. tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) and 137-217 years for mountain big sagebrush (A. tridentata ssp. vaseyana). Historical fire and patch sizes were significantly larger in Wyoming big sagebrush than mountain big sagebrush, and historical fire rotations were significantly longer in Wyoming big sagebrush than mountain big sagebrush. Historical fire rotations in Wyoming were longer than those in other study areas. Fine-scale mosaics of burned and unburned area and larger unburned inclusions within fire perimeters were less common than in modern fires. Historical sagebrush landscapes were dominated by large, contiguous areas of sagebrush, though large grass-dominated areas and finer-scale mosaics of grass and sagebrush were also present in smaller amounts. Variation in sagebrush density was a common source of patchiness, and areas classified as "dense" made up 24.5% of total sagebrush area, compared to 16.3% for "scattered" sagebrush. Results suggest significant differences in historical and modern fire regimes. Modern fire rotations in Wyoming big sagebrush are shorter than historical fire rotations. Results also suggest that historical sagebrush landscapes would have fluctuated, because of infrequent

  4. Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study Area: An annotated bibliography of research conducted 1968-1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burgess, Leah M.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2004-01-01

    This annotated bibliography provides an overview of research projects conducted on the Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study Area (Stratton) since its designation as such in 1967. Sources include the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station records storage room, Laramie, Wyoming, the USGS and USFS online reference libraries, and scientific journal databases at the University of Wyoming and Colorado State University. This annotated bibliography summarizes publications from research conducted at Stratton during the prime of its tenure as a research lab from 1968 to 1990. In addition, an appendix is included that catalogues all data on file at the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station in Laramie, Wyoming. Each file folder was searched and its contents recorded here for the researcher seeking original data sets, charts, photographs and records.

  5. The Space Geodesy Project and Radio Frequency Interference Characterization and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Hilliard M.; Beaudoin, C.; Corey, B. E.; Tourain, C. L.; Petrachenko, B.; Dickey, John

    2013-01-01

    The Space Geodesy Project (SGP) development by NASA is an effort to co-locate the four international geodetic techniques Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) into one tightly referenced campus and coordinated reference frame analysis. The SGP requirement locates these stations within a small area to maintain line-of-sight and frequent automated survey known as the vector tie system. This causes a direct conflict with the new broadband VLBI technique. Broadband means 2-14 GHz, and RFI susceptibility at -80 dBW or higher due to sensitive RF components in the front end of the radio receiver.

  6. Carbon Sequestration in Semi-arid Ecosystems: Potential Benefits of Sagebrush Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austreng, A. C.; Olin, P. H.; Hummer, A.; Pierce, J. L.; deGraaff, M.; Benner, S. G.

    2011-12-01

    The results of our work indicate that sagebrush restoration may have the potential to offset 23% of annual US carbon emissions. Invasion of native sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities by cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in semi-arid ecosystems of the Intermountain Northwest is degrading ecosystem structure and function and can significantly decrease soil carbon contents. Remediation of invaded sagebrush-steppe communities may be accomplished by replacing cheatgrass with bunchgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and subsequently reestablishing native sagebrush. To evaluate how this remedial strategy affects soil carbon contents, we have quantified carbon associated with root biomass and soils under adjacent cheatgrass, bunchgrass and sagebrush communities at a site in the central Snake River Plain of southern Idaho. A large soil carbon dataset (n = 850) was generated allowing statistical distinction of belowground carbon pools (biomass and soil C). Our study led to two main results: (1) Soil carbon stores were greatest under sagebrush and lowest under cheatgrass (67 and 35 t C per hectare, respectively). Soil carbon was found to be significantly greater beneath sagebrush compared to cheatgrass (~90% increase) at all depths throughout a 60cm profile. (2) Belowground biomass was greatest under sagebrush and lowest beneath cheatgrass (31 and 14 t per hectare, respectively), which accounted for approximately 20% of the total increase in belowground carbon beneath sagebrush. The results of our work indicate that this stepwise reclamation strategy will produce significant increases in soil carbon storage with conversion of cheatgrass to bunchgrass facilitating carbon storage benefits of ~15 t C per hectare and a bunchgrass to native sagebrush benefit of ~17 t C per hectare. Extending these results to all ~10 million ha of cheatgrass-infested ecosystems in the Great Basin, suggests that sagebrush restoration may have the potential to compensate for 23% of US annual carbon

  7. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST) Yoshiyuki KANEDA Disaster mitigation center Nagoya University/ Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) Mustafa ELDIK Boğaziçi University, Kandilli Observatory and       Earthquake Researches Institute (KOERI) and Members of SATREPS Japan-Turkey project The target of this project is the Marmara Sea earthquake after the Izmit (Kocaeli) Earthquake 1999 along to the North Anatolian fault. According to occurrences of historical Earthquakes, epicenters have moved from East to West along to the North Anatolian Fault. There is a seismic gap in the Marmara Sea. In Marmara region, there is Istanbul with high populations such as Tokyo. Therefore, Japan and Turkey can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large Earthquakes and Tsunamis in cooperation with each other in SATREPS project. This project is composed of Multidisciplinary research project including observation researches, simulation researches, educational researches, and goals are as follows, ① To develop disaster mitigation policy and strategies based on Multidisciplinary research activities. ② To provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations. ③ To organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in Turkey. ④ To contribute the evaluation of active fault studies in Japan. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate Multidisciplinary research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and .disaster education in Turkey.

  8. Sharp-Tailed Grouse and Pygmy Rabbit Wildlife Mitigation Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Untied States. Bonneville Power Adminsitration.

    1992-10-01

    The Proposed Action is needed to protect and enhance shrub-steppe and riparian habitat for sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus), Pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis), and other indigenous wildlife species. The purpose of the Proposed Action is to compensate, in part, for wildlife habitat lost from the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and the inundation of Lake Roosevelt. Bonneville Power Administration proposes to fund management agreements, conservation easements, acquisition of fee title, or a combination of these on as many as 29,000 acres in Lincoln and Douglas Counties to improve shrub-steppe and riparian habitat for sharp-tailed grouse and pygmy rabbits. The BPA also proposes to fund habitat improvements (enhancements) on project lands including existing public lands. Proposed habitat treatments would include control of grazing; planting of native trees, shrubs, forbs and grasses; protection of wetlands and streambanks; herbicide use; fire prescriptions; and wildfire suppression. Proposed management activities may include predator control, population introductions, and control of crop depredation.

  9. Sharp-tailed Grouse and Pygmy Rabbit Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The Proposed Action is needed to protect and enhance shrub-steppe and riparian habitat for sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus), Pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis), and other indigenous wildlife species. The purpose of the Proposed Action is to compensate, in part, for wildlife habitat lost from the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and the inundation of Lake Roosevelt. Bonneville Power Administration proposes to fund management agreements, conservation easements, acquisition of fee title, or a combination of these on as many as 29,000 acres in Lincoln and Douglas Counties to improve shrub-steppe and riparian habitat for sharp-tailed grouse and pygmy rabbits. The BPA also proposes to fund habitat improvements (enhancements) on project lands including existing public lands. Proposed habitat treatments would include control of grazing; planting of native trees, shrubs, forbs and grasses; protection of wetlands and streambanks; herbicide use; fire prescriptions; and wildfire suppression. Proposed management activities may include predator control, population introductions, and control of crop depredation.

  10. South Fork Snake River/Palisades Wildlife Mitigation Project: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    BPA proposes to fund the implementation of the South Fork Snake River Programmatic Management Plan to compensate for losses of wildlife and wildlife habitat due to hydroelectric development at Palisades Dam. The Idaho Department of Fish and Game drafted the plan, which was completed in May 1993. This plan recommends land and conservation easement acquisition and wildlife habitat enhancement measures. These measures would be implemented on selected lands along the South Fork of the Snake River between Palisades Dam and the confluence with the Henry`s Fork, and on portions of the Henry`s Fork located in Bonneville, Madison, and Jefferson Counties, Idaho. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment evaluating the proposed project. The EA also incorporates by reference the analyses in the South Fork Snake River Activity/Operations Plan and EA prepared jointly in 1991 by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  11. Post-fire recovery of sagebrush communities: Assessment using SPOT5 and very large-scale aerial imagery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Much interest lies in the long-term recovery rates of sagebrush communities after fire in the western USA as sagebrush communities comprise millions of hectares of rangelands and important wildlife habitat. Little is known about post-fire changes in sagebrush canopy cover over time, especially at a...

  12. Libby Dam Hydro-electric Project Mitigation: Efforts for Downstream Ecosystem Restoration.

    SciTech Connect

    Holderman, Charles

    2009-02-10

    Construction of Libby Dam, a large hydropower and flood control dam occurred from 1966 to 1975 on the Kootenai River, near Libby, Montana in the Northwestern United States. Live reservoir storage is substantial, with water residence time of about 5 1/2 months (based on mean annual discharge of about 440 m{sup 3}/s). Downstream river discharge and thermal regimes and the dependent habitat conditions have been significantly altered by dam construction and operation relative to pre-dam conditions. Highly valued Kootenai River fish populations, including white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, burbot Lota lota and bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and their supporting ecological conditions have been deteriorating during post-dam years. Measurements of the presence of very low (ultraoligotrophic) concentrations of dissolved phosphorus in the river downstream from Libby Dam were identified as a critical limitation on primary production and overall ecosystem health. A decision was made to initiate the largest experimental river fertilization project to date in the Kootenai River at the Montana-Idaho border. Pre-treatment aquatic biomonitoring began in 2001; post-treatment monitoring began in 2005. A solar-powered nutrient addition system was custom designed and built to dose small releases of dissolved nutrients at rates from 10 to 40 L/hour, depending on river discharge, which averaged several hundred m3/s. Closely monitored experimental additions of ammonium polyphosphate solution (10-34-0) into the river occurred during the summers of 2005 through 2008. Targets for mixed in-river P concentrations were 1.5 {micro}g/L in 2005, and 3 {micro}g/L in subsequent years. Primary productivity and algal accrual rates along with invertebrate and fish community metrics and conditions were consistently measured annually, before and after experimental fertilization. Initial results from the program are very encouraging, and are reported.

  13. 2009 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano; R. D. Teel

    2009-09-30

    This document details the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2009, including 25 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and three bat mitigation projects.

  14. CO2 and non-CO2 radiative forcings in climate projections for twenty-first century mitigation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmann, Kuno M.; Plattner, G.-K.; Joos, F.

    2009-11-01

    Climate is simulated for reference and mitigation emissions scenarios from Integrated Assessment Models using the Bern2.5CC carbon cycle-climate model. Mitigation options encompass all major radiative forcing agents. Temperature change is attributed to forcings using an impulse-response substitute of Bern2.5CC. The contribution of CO2 to global warming increases over the century in all scenarios. Non-CO2 mitigation measures add to the abatement of global warming. The share of mitigation carried by CO2, however, increases when radiative forcing targets are lowered, and increases after 2000 in all mitigation scenarios. Thus, non-CO2 mitigation is limited and net CO2 emissions must eventually subside. Mitigation rapidly reduces the sulfate aerosol loading and associated cooling, partly masking Greenhouse Gas mitigation over the coming decades. A profound effect of mitigation on CO2 concentration, radiative forcing, temperatures and the rate of climate change emerges in the second half of the century.

  15. Effective management strategies for sage-grouse and sagebrush: a question of triage?

    Treesearch

    Michael J. Wisdom; Mary M. Rowland; Robin J. Tausch

    2005-01-01

    The sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystem once occupied over 150 million acres of western North America (Barbour and Billings 1988). The ecosystem still occupies over 100 million acres (Connelly et al. 2004, Wisdom et al. 2005), but the abundance and condition of sagebrush communities is declining rapidly in response to a variety of detrimental land...

  16. 76 FR 62087 - Draft Conservation Plan and Draft Environmental Assessment; Dunes Sagebrush Lizard, Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Lizard, Texas AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; announcement... application includes the draft Texas Conservation Plan for the Dunes Sagebrush Lizard (TCP). The draft TCP... Service (Service) and the Applicant for the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) throughout its...

  17. Chemical control of sand sagebrush: implications for lesser prairie chicken habitat.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditional management of sand sagebrush rangelands has emphasized sagebrush control to increase forage for livestock. Concerns over declining lesser prairie–chicken (LPC) populations have lead to increased scrutiny over the use of herbicides to control shrubs. Our objective was to describe change...

  18. Wyoming big sagebrush: Efforts towards development of target plants for restoration

    Treesearch

    Kayla R. Herriman

    2009-01-01

    Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis) is a dominant shrub throughout much of the interior western United States. It is a key component of sagebrush steppe ecosystems, which have been degraded due to European settlement, improper land use, and changing fire regimes resulting from the invasion of exotic...

  19. Prescribed fire in a Great Basin sagebrush ecosystem: Dynamics of soil extractable nitrogen and phosphorus

    Treesearch

    B. M. Rau; R. R. Blank; J. C. Chambers; D. W. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Pinyon and juniper have been expanding into sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) ecosystems since settlement of the Great Basin around 1860. Herbaceous understory vegetation is eliminated as stand densities increase and the potential for catastrophic fires increases. Prescribed fire is increasingly used to remove trees and promote recovery of sagebrush...

  20. Evaluation of cultural methods for establishing Wyoming big sagebrush on mined lands

    SciTech Connect

    Cockrell, J.R.; Schuman, G.E.; Booth, D.T.

    1995-09-01

    Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. wyomingensis) is one of the most widely distributed and adapted shrub species in Wyoming and the region. However, its reestablishment on mined lands has proven difficult because of low seedling vigor, its inability to compete with herbaceous species, poor seed quality, and altered edaphic conditions. Field research evaluating the effect of topsoil management, mulching practice, and plant competition have shown that all of these factors significantly influence early initial sagebrush establishment. Greater sagebrush establishment occurred on fresh topsoil compared to 5 year old stockpiled topsoil. Stubble and surface applied mulch and elimination of herbaceous species competition also significantly increased big sagebrush establishment in the first growing season. However, a cool, wet second year growing season (April-September) resulted in large increases in sagebrush seedling density across all treatments. These large increases resulted in some changes in response to imposed treatments; however, greater sagebrush seedling densities were still evident on fresh compared to stockpiled topsoil and competition still significantly reduced seedling density on the fresh topsoil treatment. Mulch type showed limited effects on sagebrush seedling density in the later phases of the study. This research indicated that big sagebrush seed viability may be longer than previously thought and that seed dormancy, safe site development, and climatic conditions play an important role in germination and establishment of this species.

  1. AmeriFlux US-Rws Reynolds Creek Wyoming big sagebrush

    SciTech Connect

    Flerchinger, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Rws Reynolds Creek Wyoming big sagebrush. Site Description - The site is located on the USDA-ARS's Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed. It is dominated by Wyoming big sagebrush on land managed by USDI Bureau of Land Management.

  2. Use of distance measures to assess environmental and genetic variability across sagebrush hybrid zones

    Treesearch

    D. Carl Freeman; John H. Graham; Terra Jones; Han Wang; Kathleen J. Miglia; E. Durant McArthur

    2001-01-01

    Reciprocal transplant studies in the big sagebrush hybrid zone at Salt Creek Canyon, Utah, showed that hybrids between basin (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana) are more fit than either parental taxon, but only when raised in the hybrid zone. Hybrids are less fit than the native parent when raised in the parental...

  3. Region-wide ecological responses of arid Wyoming big sagebrush communities to fuel treatments

    Treesearch

    David A. Pyke; Scott E. Shaff; Andrew I. Lindgren; Eugene W. Schupp; Paul S. Doescher; Jeanne C. Chambers; Jeffrey S. Burnham; Manuela M. Huso

    2014-01-01

    If arid sagebrush ecosystems lack resilience to disturbances or resistance to annual invasives, then alternative successional states dominated by annual invasives, especially cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), are likely after fuel treatments. We identified six Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young) locations (152-381 mm...

  4. Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community structure on two sagebrush steppe sites in southern Idaho

    Treesearch

    Stephen P. Cook; Sara M. Birch; Frank W. Merickel; Carrie Caselton Lowe; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2011-01-01

    Although sagebrush, Artemisia spp., does not require an insect pollinator, there are several native species of bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), that are present in sagebrush steppe ecosystems where they act as pollinators for various forbs and shrubs. These native pollinators contribute to plant productivity and reproduction. We captured 12 species of...

  5. Herbicide Control of Sand Sagebrush: Impacts on Lesser Prairie Chicken Habitat.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditional management of rangelands dominated by sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia) has centered around removal of sagebrush to increase forage for livestock production. There has been both concern and support over shrub control strategies when managing lesser prairie-chicken (LPC, Tympanuchus p...

  6. Chemical control of sand sagebrush: implications for lesser prairie-chicken habitat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditional management of rangelands dominated by sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia) has emphasized sagebrush control to increase forage for livestock. Since the 1950’s, shrub removal has been primarily achieved with herbicides. Concerns about the declining lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pa...

  7. Greater sage-grouse as an umbrella species for sagebrush-associated vertebrates.

    Treesearch

    Mary M. Rowland; Michael J. Wisdom; Lowell Suring; Cara W. Meinke

    2006-01-01

    Widespread degradation of the sagebrush ecosystem in the western United States, including the invasion of cheatgrass, has prompted resource managers to consider a variety of approaches to restore and conserve habitats for sagebrush-associated species. One such approach involves the use of greater sage-grouse, a species of prominent conservation interest, as an umbrella...

  8. Effects of humidity on storing big sagebrush seed. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, B.L.

    1996-12-01

    Data support the conclusion that big sagebrush seed should not be stored in environments having humidities above 32 to 40 percent. Some humidities may even dry seed to a greater degree than when first placed in storage. Force-air seed driers should not heat big sagebrush seed over 60 degrees C.

  9. Implications of longer term rest from grazing in the sagebrush steppe

    Treesearch

    K.W. Davies; M. Vavra; B. Schultz; N. Rimbey

    2014-01-01

    Longer term grazing rest has occurred or been proposed in large portions of the sagebrush steppe based on the assumption that it will improve ecosystem properties. However, information regarding the influence of longer term rest from grazing is limited and has not been summarized. We synthesized the scientific literature on long-term rest in the sagebrush steppe to...

  10. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat - Part 1

    Treesearch

    David A. Pyke; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Steven T. Knick; Richard F. Miller; Jeffrey L. Beck; Paul S. Doescher; Eugene W. Schupp; Bruce A. Roundy; Mark Brunson; James D. McIver

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus...

  11. Big sagebrush response to one-way and two-way chaining in Southeastern Utah

    Treesearch

    John A. Fairchild; James N. Davis; Jack D. Brotherson

    2005-01-01

    A decadent, mixed stand of Wyoming big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis, and mountain big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata vaseyana, located north of Cisco, Utah, was subjected to one-way and two-way chaining treatments in November 1987. The effect of the treatments on plant community characteristics and shrub vigor was...

  12. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) in a shifting climate context: Assessment of seedling responses to climate

    Treesearch

    Martha A. Brabec

    2014-01-01

    The loss of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) throughout the Great Basin Desert has motivated efforts to restore it because of fire and other disturbance effects on sagebrush-dependent wildlife and ecosystem function. Initial establishment is the first challenge to restoration, and appropriateness of seeds, climate, and weather variability are factors that may...

  13. Genetic and environmental effects on seed weight in subspecies of big sagebrush: Applications for restoration

    Treesearch

    Bryce A. Richardson; Hector G. Ortiz; Stephanie L. Carlson; Deidre M. Jaeger; Nancy L. Shaw

    2015-01-01

    The sagebrush steppe is a patchwork of species and subspecies occupying distinct environmental niches across the intermountain regions of western North America. These ecosystems face degradation from disturbances and exotic weeds. Using sagebrush seed that is matched to its appropriate niche is a critical component to successful restoration, improving habitat for the...

  14. Conifer removal in the sagebrush steppe: why, when, where, and how?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past 150 years, juniper and pine woodlands have increased in both distribution and density across the sagebrush steppe of the Intermountain West. To restore sagebrush steppe plant communities the application of mechanical and prescribed fire treatments are used to remove the influence of e...

  15. Restoring big sagebrush after controlling encroaching western juniper with fire: aspect and subspecies effects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The need for restoration of shrubs is increasingly recognized around the world. In the western USA, restoration of mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) after controlling encroaching conifers is a priority to improve sagebrush-associated wildlife habitat. ...

  16. Effects of using winter grazing as a fuel treatment on Wyoming big sagebrush plant communities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    More frequent wildfires and incidences of mega-fires have increased the pressure for fuel treatments in sagebrush (Artemisia) communities. Winter grazing has been one of many fuel treatments proposed for Wyoming big sagebrush (A. tridentata Nutt. subsp. wyomingensis Beetle and A. Young) communitie...

  17. Guidelines for prescribed burning sagebrush-grass rangelands in the northern Great Basin

    Treesearch

    Stephen C. Bunting; Bruce M. Kilgore; Charles L. Bushey

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes recent literature on the effects of fire on sagebrush-grass vegetation. Also outlines procedures and considerations for planning and conducting prescribed fires and monitoring effects. Includes a comprehensive annotated bibliography of the fire-sagebrush-grass literature published since 1980.

  18. Sagebrush ecosystem conservation and management: ecoregional assessment tools and models for the Wyoming Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, S.E.; Leu, M.; Knick, S.T.; Aldridge, C.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Wyoming Basins are one of the remaining strongholds of the sagebrush ecosystem. However, like most sagebrush habitats, threats to this region are numerous. This book adds to current knowledge about the regional status of the sagebrush ecosystem, the distribution of habitats, the threats to the ecosystem, and the influence of threats and habitat conditions on occurrence and abundance of sagebrush associated fauna and flora in the Wyoming Basins. Comprehensive methods are outlined for use in data collection and monitoring of wildlife and plant populations. Field and spatial data are integrated into a spatially explicit analytical framework to develop models of species occurrence and abundance for the egion. This book provides significant new information on distributions, abundances, and habitat relationships for a number of species of conservation concern that depend on sagebrush in the region. The tools and models presented in this book increase our understanding of impacts from land uses and can contribute to the development of comprehensive management and conservation strategies.

  19. Comparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platforms for Assessing Vegetation Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins; Stephen Bunting; Jerry Harbour; Sera White

    2011-09-01

    In this study, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quick and safe method for monitoring biotic resources was evaluated. Vegetation cover and the amount of bare ground are important factors in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems and assessment of rangeland health. Methods that improve speed and cost efficiency could greatly improve how biotic resources are monitored on western lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species (including sage grouse and pygmy rabbit). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluations. In this project, two UAV platforms, fixed wing and helicopter, were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess vegetation cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate percent cover for six different vegetation types (shrub, dead shrub, grass, forb, litter, and bare ground) and (2) locate sage grouse using representative decoys. The field plots were located on the Idaho National Engineering (INL) site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetation cover. A software program called SamplePoint was used along with visual inspection to evaluate percent cover for the six cover types. Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy. The comparison of fixed-wing and helicopter UAV technology against field estimates shows good agreement for the measurement of bare ground. This study shows that if a high degree of detail and data accuracy is desired, then a helicopter UAV may be a good platform to use. If the data collection objective is to assess broad-scale landscape level changes, then the collection of imagery with a fixed-wing system is probably more appropriate.

  20. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosytstems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2005-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  1. Effects of land cover and regional climate variations on long-term spatiotemporal changes in sagebrush ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, George Z.; Homer, Collin G.; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of climate and land cover change on variation in sagebrush ecosystems. We combined information of multi-year sagebrush distribution derived from multitemporal remote sensing imagery and climate data to study the variation patterns of sagebrush ecosystems under different potential disturbances. We found that less than 40% of sagebrush ecosystem changes involved abrupt changes directly caused by landscape transformations and over 60% of the variations involved gradual changes directly related to climatic perturbations. The primary increases in bare ground and declines in sagebrush vegetation abundance were significantly correlated with the 1996-2006 decreasing trend in annual precipitation.

  2. Teetering on the edge or too late? Conservation and research issues for avifauna of sagebrush habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, Steven T.; Dobkin, D.S.; Rotenberry, J.T.; Schroeder, M.A.; Vander Haegen, M.; Van Riper, C.

    2003-01-01

    Degradation, fragmentation, and loss of native sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) landscapes have imperiled these habitats and their associated avifauna. Historically, this vast piece of the Western landscape has been undervalued: even though more than 70% of all remaining sagebrush habitat in the United States is publicly owned, <3% of it is protected as federal reserves or national parks. We review the threats facing birds in sagebrush habitats to emphasize the urgency for conservation and research actions, and synthesize existing information that forms the foundation for recommended research directions. Management and conservation of birds in sagebrush habitats will require more research into four major topics: (1) identification of primary land-use practices and their influence on sagebrush habitats and birds, (2) better understanding of bird responses to habitat components and disturbance processes of sagebrush ecosystems, (3) improved hierarchical designs for surveying and monitoring programs, and (4) linking bird movements and population changes during migration and wintering periods to dynamics on the sagebrush breeding grounds. This research is essential because we already have seen that sagebrush habitats can be altered by land use, spread of invasive plants, and disrupted disturbance regimes beyond a threshold at which natural recovery is unlikely. Research on these issues should be instituted on lands managed by state or federal agencies because most lands still dominated by sagebrush are owned publicly. In addition to the challenge of understanding shrubsteppe bird-habitat dynamics, conservation of sagebrush landscapes depends on our ability to recognize and communicate their intrinsic value and on our resolve to conserve them.

  3. Appalachian Stream Mitigation Workshop

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A 5 day workshop in 2011 developed for state and federal regulatory and resource agencies, who review, comment on and/or approve compensatory mitigation plans for surface coal mining projects in Appalachia

  4. Simulated big sagebrush regeneration supports predicted changes at the trailing and leading edges of distribution shifts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Taylor, Kyle A.; Pennington, Victoria E.; Nelson, Kellen N.; Martin, Trace E.; Rottler, Caitlin M.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Many semi-arid plant communities in western North America are dominated by big sagebrush. These ecosystems are being reduced in extent and quality due to economic development, invasive species, and climate change. These pervasive modifications have generated concern about the long-term viability of sagebrush habitat and sagebrush-obligate wildlife species (notably greater sage-grouse), highlighting the need for better understanding of the future big sagebrush distribution, particularly at the species' range margins. These leading and trailing edges of potential climate-driven sagebrush distribution shifts are likely to be areas most sensitive to climate change. We used a process-based regeneration model for big sagebrush, which simulates potential germination and seedling survival in response to climatic and edaphic conditions and tested expectations about current and future regeneration responses at trailing and leading edges that were previously identified using traditional species distribution models. Our results confirmed expectations of increased probability of regeneration at the leading edge and decreased probability of regeneration at the trailing edge below current levels. Our simulations indicated that soil water dynamics at the leading edge became more similar to the typical seasonal ecohydrological conditions observed within the current range of big sagebrush ecosystems. At the trailing edge, an increased winter and spring dryness represented a departure from conditions typically supportive of big sagebrush. Our results highlighted that minimum and maximum daily temperatures as well as soil water recharge and summer dry periods are important constraints for big sagebrush regeneration. Overall, our results confirmed previous predictions, i.e., we see consistent changes in areas identified as trailing and leading edges; however, we also identified potential local refugia within the trailing edge, mostly at sites at higher elevation. Decreasing

  5. USGS: providing scientific understanding of the sagebrush biome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Early explorers wrote about the vast sea of sagebrush that stretched in front of them. Today, the consequences of land-use practices, invasion by exotic plants, and altered disturbance regimes have touched virtually all of these seemingly endless expanses. Increasing human populations in the western United States, the infrastructure necessary to support these populations, and a growing demand for natural resources exert a large influence. Changes within the biome have resulted in its designation as one of the most endangered ecosystems in North America.

  6. Public ownership of land and the Sagebrush Rebellion

    SciTech Connect

    McCurdy, H.E.

    1984-03-01

    Advocates of ''privatization'' argue that the sale of public lands to private owners would significantly improve the management of natural resources. Experience from the first round of land sales suggests that the government, responding to the politics of the Sagebrush Rebellion, will continue to subsidize preferred uses of ''privatized'' lands through give-aways, below-par purchases, preference sales, and imperfect sales. Even though the federal government may go ahead with the land sales program, political compromises will not allow the free market goals of privatization to be realized. 12 references.

  7. System Design Description for the SY-101 Hydrogen Mitigation Test Project Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-1)

    SciTech Connect

    ERMI, A.M.

    2000-01-24

    This document describes the hardware and software of the computer subsystems for the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) used in mitigation tests conducted on waste tank 241-SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation.

  8. Socioeconomic monitoring and mitigation plan for the Salt Repository Project Site, Deaf Smith County, Texas: Revision 5: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of the Socioeconomic Monitoring and Mitigation Plan (SMMP) is to identify, in consultation with the affected States and Indian Tribes, potentially significant adverse socioeconomic impacts that could result from site characterization activities, to describe approaches that will be used to monitor any such identified impacts, and to describe procedures for mitigating them. Chapter 3 of the SMMP provides a description of site characterization phase activities planned to assess the geologic condition of the site and construction the exploratory shafts and surface support facilities. The rationale for developing socioeconomic monitoring studies is presented in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains descriptions of the socioeconomic monitoring and mitigation procedures whenever they are applicable. Additionally, in Chapter 6, the SMMP includes a procedure for modifying the monitoring and mitigation program and an approach for reporting monitoring results to interested parties. 8 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Are There Benefits to Mowing Wyoming Big Sagebrush Plant Communities? An Evaluation in Southeastern Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Kirk W.; Bates, Jon D.; Nafus, Aleta M.

    2011-09-01

    Wyoming big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young) communities frequently are mowed in an attempt to increase perennial herbaceous vegetation. However, there is limited information as to whether expected benefits of mowing are realized when applied to Wyoming big sagebrush communities with intact understory vegetation. We compared vegetation and soil nutrient concentrations in mowed and undisturbed reference plots in Wyoming big sagebrush plant communities at eight sites for three years post-treatment. Mowing generally did not increase perennial herbaceous vegetation cover, density, or biomass production ( P > 0.05). Annual forbs and exotic annual grasses were generally greater in the mowed compared to the reference treatment ( P < 0.05). By the third year post-treatment annual forb and annual grass biomass production was more than nine and sevenfold higher in the mowed than reference treatment, respectively. Our results imply that the application of mowing treatments in Wyoming big sagebrush plant communities does not increase perennial herbaceous vegetation, but may increase the risk that exotic annual grasses will dominate the herbaceous vegetation. We suggest that mowing Wyoming big sagebrush communities with intact understories does not produce the expected benefits. However, the applicability of our results to Wyoming big sagebrush communities with greater sagebrush cover and/or degraded understories needs to be evaluated.

  10. Data Report: Meteorological and Evapotranspiration Data from Sagebrush and Pinyon Pine/Juniper Communities at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, 2011-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Jasoni, Richard L; Larsen, Jessica D; Lyles, Brad F.; Healey, John M; Cooper, Clay A; Hershey, Ronald L; Lefebre, Karen J

    2013-04-01

    Pahute Mesa is a groundwater recharge area at the Nevada National Security Site. Because underground nuclear testing was conducted at Pahute Mesa, groundwater recharge may transport radionuclides from underground test sites downward to the water table; the amount of groundwater recharge is also an important component of contaminant transport models. To estimate the amount of groundwater recharge at Pahute Mesa, an INFIL3.0 recharge-runoff model is being developed. Two eddy covariance (EC) stations were installed on Pahute Mesa to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) to support the groundwater recharge modeling project. This data report describes the methods that were used to estimate ET and collect meteorological data. Evapotranspiration was estimated for two predominant plant communities on Pahute Mesa; one site was located in a sagebrush plant community, the other site in a pinyon pine/juniper community. Annual ET was estimated to be 310±13.9 mm for the sagebrush site and 347±15.9 mm for the pinyon pine/juniper site (March 26, 2011 to March 26, 2012). Annual precipitation measured with unheated tipping bucket rain gauges was 179 mm at the sagebrush site and 159 mm at the pinyon pine/juniper site. Annual precipitation measured with bulk precipitation gauges was 222 mm at the sagebrush site and 227 mm at the pinyon pine/juniper site (March 21, 2011 to March 28, 2012). A comparison of tipping bucket versus bulk precipitation data showed that total precipitation measured by the tipping bucket rain gauges was 17 to 20 percent lower than the bulk precipitation gauges. These differences were most likely the result of the unheated tipping bucket precipitation gauges not measuring frozen precipitation as accurately as the bulk precipitation gauges. In this one-year study, ET exceeded precipitation at both study sites because estimates of ET included precipitation that fell during the winter of 2010-2011 prior to EC instrumentation and the precipitation gauges started

  11. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, Karen; Zürcher, Lukas; Hofstra, Albert H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; John, David A.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Idaho SFA, which extends from east-central to south-central Idaho. The geologically complex area is composed of many different rock units that locally contain potential mineral resources.

  12. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Montana Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter D in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hearn, B. Carter; Parks, Heather L.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Denning, Paul D.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Folger, Helen W.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Granitto, Matthew; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Ober, Joyce A.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Sangine, Elizabeth S.; Schweitzer, Peter N.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Montana SFA. The proposed withdrawal area that is evaluated in this report is located in north-central Montana, and includes parts of Fergus, Petroleum, Phillips, and Valley Counties.

  13. Conversion of sagebrush shrublands to exotic annual grasslands negatively impacts small mammal communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostoja, S.M.; Schupp, E.W.

    2009-01-01

    Aim The exotic annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is fast replacing sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities throughout the Great Basin Desert and nearby regions in the Western United States, impacting native plant communities and altering fire regimes, which contributes to the long-term persistence of this weedy species. The effect of this conversion on native faunal communities remains largely unexamined. We assess the impact of conversion from native perennial to exotic annual plant communities on desert rodent communities. Location Wyoming big sagebrush shrublands and nearby sites previously converted to cheatgrass-dominated annual grasslands in the Great Basin Desert, Utah, USA. Methods At two sites in Tooele County, Utah, USA, we investigated with Sherman live trapping whether intact sagebrush vegetation and nearby converted Bromus tectorum-dominated vegetation differed in rodent abundance, diversity and community composition. Results Rodent abundance and species richness were considerably greater in sagebrush plots than in cheatgrass-dominated plots. Nine species were captured in sagebrush plots; five of these were also trapped in cheatgrass plots, all at lower abundances than in the sagebrush. In contrast, cheatgrass-dominated plots had no species that were not found in sagebrush. In addition, the site that had been converted to cheatgrass longer had lower abundances of rodents than the site more recently converted to cheatgrass-dominated plots. Despite large differences in abundances and species richness, Simpson's D diversity and Shannon-Wiener diversity and Brillouin evenness indices did not differ between sagebrush and cheatgrass-dominated plots. Main conclusions This survey of rodent communities in native sagebrush and in converted cheatgrass-dominated vegetation suggests that the abundances and community composition of rodents may be shifting, potentially at the larger spatial scale of the entire Great Basin, where cheatgrass continues to invade

  14. Methyl jasmonate as an allelopathic agent: sagebrush inhibits germination of a neighboring tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Preston, Catherine A; Betts, Hazel; Baldwi, Ian T

    2002-11-01

    Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata is the dominant and defining shrub in the Great Basin Desert, with well-documented allelopathic tendencies that have generally been ascribed to its most abundantly released secondary metabolites. However, as a minor component, sagebrush releases a highly biologically active substance, methyljasmonate (MeJA), which is known to function as both a germination inhibitor and promoter in laboratory studies. Nicotiana attenuata is a tobacco species native to the Great Basin Desert and grows in newly burned juniper-sagebrush habitats for 2-3 yr following a fire. With a combination of field and laboratory studies, we examined the role of MeJA release from sagebrush by both air and water transport in inhibiting N. attenuata seed germination. We demonstrated that sagebrush interacts allelopathically with the seed bank of N. attenuata through its release of MeJA. In the field, seeds buried 0-40 cm from sagebrush plants for 4 months in net bags had significantly reduced germination compared to seeds buried similarly but protected in plastic bags. Moreover, germination on soils collected from underneath sagebrush plants was reduced by 60% compared to seeds placed on soils collected between sagebrush plants or outside of the sagebrush population. Exposure to A. tridentata seeds and seedlings did not affect N. attenuata germination, suggesting that established sagebrush plants only influence the tobacco's seed bank. In the laboratory, exposure of seeds to sagebrush emissions resulted in germination delays of up to 6 d. Exposure to volatile and aqueous MeJA also inhibited germination of N. attenuata seeds at quantities that are released naturally by sagebrush: 3.5 microg/hr and 1.12 microg/seed cup (56 ng/seed), respectively. A. tridentata seeds were significantly more resistant to MeJA, being inhibited at 336 microg MeJA (16.8 microg/seed), 300 times greater than the level of aqueous MeJA required to inhibit N. attenuata seeds. MeJA inhibited N

  15. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-27) - Abbot Creek Fish Barrier Project (Hungry Horse Mitigation / Habitat Improvements)

    SciTech Connect

    Yarde, Richard

    2002-06-28

    BPA proposes to fund a fishery enhancement project where a fish passage barrier will be installed in Abbot Creek to remove introduced rainbow trout and prevent hybridization with westslope cutthroat trout. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) will operate a fish trap downstream of the barrier for 6-10 consecutive years to manually remove the rainbow trout and hybrid spawners from the population. Removal of rainbow trout and hybrids from the stream will eradicate the existing hybrid population spawning in Abbot Creek and ultimately reduce the threat of hybridization in the Flathead River system. Pending completion of a successful disease screening and authorization from MFWP Fish Health Committee, live fish captured in the fish trap will be transported to a nearby close-basin lake for use in MFWP’s Urban Fishing Program.

  16. Geology and mineral resources of the Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming, and the Bear River Watershed Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming and Utah: Chapter E in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Anna B.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Yager, Douglas B.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Parks, Heather L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming and Bear River Watershed, Wyoming and Utah, SFAs.

  17. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment/Management Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property.

  18. Mountain big sagebrush age distribution and relationships on the northern Yellowstone Winter Range

    Treesearch

    Carl L. Wambolt; Trista L. Hoffman

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted within the Gardiner Basin, an especially critical wintering area for native ungulates utilizing the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range. Mountain big sagebrush plants on 33 sites were classified as large (≥22 cm canopy cover), small (

  19. Clarifying Potential Successional Trajectories in Sagebrush Communities Historically Seeded with Crested Wheatgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum [L.] Gaertn.) has been historically seeded on thousands of hectares of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingenis) communities. Initially used to improve degraded rangeland, its use has become controversial in the current management set...

  20. COMPARISON OF MEDUSAHEAD INVADED AND NON-INVADED WYOMING BIG SAGEBRUSH STEPPE IN SOUTHEASTERN OREGON

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski) is an exotic, annual grass invading sagebrush steppe rangelands in the western United States. Medusahead invasion has been demonstrated to reduce livestock forage, but otherwise information comparing vegetation characteristics of medusahead invade...

  1. Temporal variability in microclimatic conditions for grass germination and emergence in the sagebrush steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the western United States are characterized by harsh environmental conditions with high annual and seasonal variability in both precipitation and temperature. Environmental variability contributes to widespread failure in establishing stands of desired species on degr...

  2. Success of seeding native compared with introduced perennial vegetation for revegetating medusahead-invaded sagebrush rangeland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Millions of hectares of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle &Young) rangeland have been invaded by medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski), an exotic annual grass that degrades wildlife habitat, reduces forage production, and decreases biodiversity....

  3. Mechanical mastication of Utah juniper encroaching sagebrush steppe increases inorganic soil N

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Juniper (Juniperus spp.) has encroached millions of hectares of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe. Juniper mechanical mastication increases cover of understory species, but could increase resource availability and subsequently invasive plant species. We quantified the effects of juniper mastication ...

  4. Attempting to restore herbaceous understories in Wyoming big sagebrush communities with mowing and seeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shrub steppe communities with depleted perennial herbaceous understories need to be restored to increase resilience, provide quality wildlife habitat, and improve ecosystem function. Mowing has been applied to Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle &Young) steppe...

  5. Modeling regeneration responses of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) to abiotic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems dominated by big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), which are the most widespread ecosystems in semiarid western North America, have been affected by land use practices and invasive species. Loss of big sagebrush and the decline of associated species, such as greater sage-grouse, are a concern to land managers and conservationists. However, big sagebrush regeneration remains difficult to achieve by restoration and reclamation efforts and there is no regeneration simulation model available. We present here the first process-based, daily time-step, simulation model to predict yearly big sagebrush regeneration including relevant germination and seedling responses to abiotic factors. We estimated values, uncertainty, and importance of 27 model parameters using a total of 1435 site-years of observation. Our model explained 74% of variability of number of years with successful regeneration at 46 sites. It also achieved 60% overall accuracy predicting yearly regeneration success/failure. Our results identify specific future research needed to improve our understanding of big sagebrush regeneration, including data at the subspecies level and improved parameter estimates for start of seed dispersal, modified wet thermal-time model of germination, and soil water potential influences. We found that relationships between big sagebrush regeneration and climate conditions were site specific, varying across the distribution of big sagebrush. This indicates that statistical models based on climate are unsuitable for understanding range-wide regeneration patterns or for assessing the potential consequences of changing climate on sagebrush regeneration and underscores the value of this process-based model. We used our model to predict potential regeneration across the range of sagebrush ecosystems in the western United States, which confirmed that seedling survival is a limiting factor, whereas germination is not. Our results also suggested that modeled

  6. Projected US timber and primary forest product market impacts of climate change mitigation through timber set-asides

    Treesearch

    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang

    2013-01-01

    Whereas climate change mitigation involving payments to forest landowners for accumulating carbon on their land may increase carbon stored in forests, it will also affect timber supply and prices. This study estimated the effect on US timber and primary forest product markets of hypothetical timber set-aside scenarios where US forest landowners would be paid to forego...

  7. Canopy growth and density of Wyoming big sagebrush sown with cool-season perennial grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Hild, A.L.; Schuman, G.E.; Vicklund, L.E.; Williams, M.I.

    2006-07-15

    Post-mining revegetation efforts often require grass seeding and mulch applications to stabilize the soils at the same time as shrub seeding, creating intraspecific competition between seeded shrubs and grasses that is not well understood. In 1999, we initiated a study at the Belle Ayr Coal Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, to evaluate the influence of grass competition on establishment and growth of Wyoming big sagebrush. Combinations of three sagebrush seeding rates (1, 2, and 4 kg pls ha{sup -1}) and seven cool-season perennial grass mixture seeding rates (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 14 kg pls ha{sup -1}) were seeded during winter 1998-1999. Shrub density and grass cover were assessed from 1999 to 2004. We monitored sagebrush canopy size in 2001, 2002, and 2004. All sagebrush seeding rates provided shrub densities (>=) 1 shrub m {sup -1} after six growing seasons. Grass production (>=) 75 g m{sup -2} was achieved by seeding grasses at 6 to 8 kg pls ha{sup -1}). Canopy growth of individual sagebrush plants was least in the heaviest grass seeding rate. Reduced grass seeding rates can aid in achieving Wyoming big sagebrush density standards and enhance shrub canopy growth.

  8. Presenting Triple-Wins? Assessing Projects That Deliver Adaptation, Mitigation and Development Co-benefits in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Suckall, Natalie; Stringer, Lindsay C; Tompkins, Emma L

    2015-02-01

    The concept of climate compatible development (CCD) is increasingly employed by donors and policy makers seeking 'triple-wins' for development, adaptation and mitigation. While CCD rhetoric is becoming more widespread, analyses drawing on empirical cases that present triple-wins are sorely lacking. We address this knowledge gap. Drawing on examples in rural sub-Saharan Africa, we provide the first glimpse into how projects that demonstrate triple-win potential are framed and presented within the scientific literature. We identify that development projects are still commonly evaluated in terms of adaptation or mitigation benefits. Few are framed according to their benefits across all three dimensions. Consequently, where triple-wins are occurring, they are likely to be under-reported. This has important implications, which underestimates the co-benefits that projects can deliver. A more robust academic evidence base for the delivery of triple-wins is necessary to encourage continued donor investment in activities offering the potential to deliver CCD.

  9. Science framework for the conservation and restoration strategy of DOI secretarial order 3336: Utilizing resilience and resistance concepts to assess threats to sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse, prioritize conservation and restoration actions, and inform management strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Campbell, Steve; Carlson, John; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Clause, Karen J.; Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Espinosa, Shawn; Griffin, Kathleen A.; Christiansen, Thomas J.; Crist, Michele R.; Hanser, Steve; Havlina, Douglas W.; Henke, Kenneth F.; Hennig, Jacob D.; Kurth, Laurie L.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Mayer, Kenneth E.; Manning, Mary; Mealor, Brian A.; McCarthy, Clinton; Pellant, Mike; Prentice, Karen L.; Perea, Marco A.; Pyke, David A.; Wiechman , Lief A.; Wuenschel, Amarina

    2016-01-01

    The Science Framework for the Conservation and Restoration Strategy of the Department of the Interior, Secretarial Order 3336 (SO 3336), Rangeland Fire Prevention, Management and Restoration, provides a strategic, multiscale approach for prioritizing areas for management and determining effective management strategies across the sagebrush biome. The emphasis of this version is on sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse. The Science Framework uses a six step process in which sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative, invasive annual grasses is linked to species habitat information based on the distribution and abundance of focal species. The predominant ecosystem and anthropogenic threats are assessed, and a habitat matrix is developed that helps decision makers evaluate risks and determine appropriate management strategies at regional and local scales. Areas are prioritized for management action using a geospatial approach that overlays resilience and resistance, species habitat information, and predominant threats. Decision tools are discussed for determining the suitability of priority areas for management and the most appropriate management actions at regional to local scales. The Science Framework and geospatial crosscut are intended to complement the mitigation strategies associated with the Greater Sage-Grouse Land Use Plan amendments for the Department of the Interior Bureaus, such as the Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Forest Service.

  10. Erosion response of a disturbed sagebrush steppe hillslope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, B.F.; Bent, G.C.; Hart, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Land management activities that disrupt surface vegetation cover pose a serious threat to the long-term stability of buried-waste sites located within the semiarid sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) steppe region of the northwestern USA. In this study, we evaluated the erosion response of a sagebrush hillslope subjected to three vegetation cover treatments: natural (undisturbed), bare (plant canopy and litter cover removed), and clipped (canopy removed). A rotating boom rainfall simulator was used to apply rain at 60 or 120 mm/h intensities to runoff plots (3.0 m by 10.7 m) with dry, wet, and very wet antecedent moisture conditions, and during two late and one early summer seasons. Supplemental overland flow was added at the upper end of each plot to simulate increased slope length during very wet runs. Maximum soil loss rates on the natural, clipped, and bare treatments were, respectively, 1, 5, and 216 mg/m2 per s during the 60 mm/h rainfall intensity, and 13, 79, and 1473 mg/m2 per s during the 120 mm/h rainfall intensity. Cumulative soil loss was typically 100 to 1000 times greater on the bare treatment than on the natural or clipped treatments. Increases in simulated slope length produced a near linear increase in soil loss from the bare treatment plots (about 0.02 g/m2 per s soil loss per m of slope length) until 30 m, after which the effect of slope length declined. Surface crust development and mound-intermound microtopography played important roles in governing soil detachment and transport on the hillslope. Despite high rainfall intensity and surface runoff rates, rill erosion was negligible on both the undisturbed and disturbed portions of the hillslope.

  11. Functional design criteria for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Truitt, R.W.

    1994-09-01

    Early in 1990, the potential for a large quantity of hydrogen and nitrous oxide to exist as an explosive mixture within some Hanford waste tanks was declared an unreviewed safety question. The waste tank safety task team was established at that time to carry out safety evaluations and plan the means for mitigating this potential hazard. Action was promptly taken to identify those tanks with the highest hazard and to implement interim operating requirements to minimize ignition sources.

  12. System Design Description for the SY-101 Hydrogen Mitigation Test Project Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-1)

    SciTech Connect

    ERMI, A.M.

    1999-08-25

    This document describes the hardware and software of the computer subsystems for the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) used in mitigation tests conducted on waste tank 241-SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, The original system was designed and implemented by LANL, supplied to WHC, and turned over to LMHC for operation. In 1999, the hardware and software were upgraded to provide a state-of-the-art, Year-2000 compliant system.

  13. Using Unmanned Helicopters to Assess Vegetation Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins; Stephen Bunting; Jerry Harbour; Randy Lee

    2012-07-01

    Evaluating vegetation cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. Methods that have sufficient accuracy and improved cost efficiency could dramatically alter how biotic resources are monitored on both public and private lands. This will be of interest to land managers because there are rarely enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluations. In this project, unmanned helicopters were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess vegetation cover during May, June, and July in 2005. The images were used to estimate percent cover for six vegetative cover classes (shrub, dead shrub, grass, forbs, litter, and bare ground). The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. Ocular assessments of digital imagery were performed using a software program called SamplePoint, and the results were compared against field measurements collected using a point-frame method to assess accuracy. The helicopter imagery evaluation showed a high degree of agreement with field cover class values for litter, bare ground, and grass, and reasonable agreement for dead shrubs. Shrub cover was often overestimated and forbs were generally underestimated. The helicopter method took 45% less time than the field method to set plots and collect and analyze data. This study demonstrates that UAV technology provides a viable method for monitoring vegetative cover on rangelands in less time and with lower costs. Tradeoffs between cost and accuracy are critical management decisions that are important when managing vegetative conditions across vast sagebrush ecosystems throughout the Intermountain West.

  14. Effects of agricultural management on productivity, soil quality and climate change mitigation - evaluations within the EU Project (FP 7) CATCH-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, Heide; Schlatter, Norman; Haslmayr, Hans-Peter; Baumgarten, Andreas; ten Berge, Hein

    2014-05-01

    Soils are the main basis for the production of food and feed. Furthermore, the production of biomass for energy and material use is becoming increasingly important. Goals for an optimal management of agricultural soils are, on the one hand, the maintenance or improvement of soil quality and, on the other hand, high productivity and climate change mitigation (reduction of GHG emissions and C sequestration). Thus, the EU project CATCH-C aims to evaluate current management practices concerning these three goals based on indicators derived from long-term field experiments of the project partners and from literature data. A maximum of 72 indicators for productivity, soil quality and the potential for carbon storage in the soil and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions were selected by the project partners. As indicators for productivity, crop yields are determined in almost all field trials. The content of soil organic carbon (SOC) is an indicator for chemical, physical and biological soil quality and was analysed in the topsoil in all field trials. Less data exist for SOC contents in the subsoil. An important physical soil quality indicator is the bulk density, however, it is not determined in all field trials of the project partners. Therefore, information on SOC stocks, with relevance to carbon storage and climate change mitigation, is not available in all field experiments. Other physical indicators, such as penetration resistance, runoff coefficient and soil losses are evaluated. Essential biological indicators are microbial biomass and the number and weight of earthworms, which have been tested in several field trials. The evaluation of all these indicators will help to select "best management practices" and to address trade-offs and synergies for all indicators under consideration of major European farm type zones. CATCH-C is funded within the 7th Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration, Theme 2 - Biotechnologies

  15. Net carbon exchange and evapotranspiration in postfire and intact sagebrush communities in the Great Basin.

    PubMed

    Prater, Margaret R; Obrist, Daniel; Arnone, John A; DeLucia, Evan H

    2006-01-01

    Invasion of non-native annuals across the Intermountain West is causing a widespread transition from perennial sagebrush communities to fire-prone annual herbaceous communities and grasslands. To determine how this invasion affects ecosystem function, carbon and water fluxes were quantified in three, paired sagebrush and adjacent postfire communities in the northern Great Basin using a 1-m3 gas exchange chamber. Most of the plant cover in the postfire communities was invasive species including Bromus tectorum L., Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn and Sisymbrium altissimum L. Instantaneous morning net carbon exchange (NCE) and evapotranspiration (ET) in native shrub plots were greater than either intershrub or postfire plots. Native sagebrush communities were net carbon sinks (mean NCE 0.2-4.3 micromol m-2 s-1) throughout the growing season. The magnitude and seasonal variation of NCE in the postfire communities were controlled by the dominant species and availability of soil moisture. Net C exchange in postfire communities dominated by perennial bunchgrasses was similar to sagebrush. However, communities dominated by annuals (cheatgrass and mustard) had significantly lower NCE than sagebrush and became net sources of carbon to the atmosphere (NCE declined to -0.5 micromol m-2 s-1) with increased severity of the summer drought. Differences in the patterns of ET led to lower surface soil moisture content and increased soil temperatures during summer in the cheatgrass-dominated community compared to the adjacent sagebrush community. Intensive measurements at one site revealed that temporal and spatial patterns of NCE and ET were correlated most closely with changes in leaf area in each community. By altering the patterns of carbon and water exchange, conversion of native sagebrush to postfire invasive communities may disrupt surface-atmosphere exchange and degrade the carbon storage capacity of these systems.

  16. Computer system design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Truitt, R.W.

    1994-08-24

    This document provides descriptions of components and tasks that are involved in the computer system for the data acquisition and control of the mitigation tests conducted on waste tank SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The system was designed and implemented by Los alamos National Laboratory and supplied to Westinghouse Hanford Company. The computers (both personal computers and specialized data-taking computers) and the software programs of the system will hereafter collectively be referred to as the DACS (Data Acquisition and Control System).

  17. Larose to Golden Meadow, Louisiana, Hurricane Protection Project. Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement and Draft Mitigation Report. Technical Appendixes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Clovelly Farms and the Louisiana Lands and Exploration area (showqin blue, Inclosure 2). The project area is primarily drained wetlands surrounded by inter...bayou; and proposed construction along alinements around Clovelly Farms and Louisiana Lands and Exploration (Inc.losure 2, shown in blue). The project...harvest contributed by the marsh acreage associated with Louisiana Land and Exploration Company and Clovelly Farms under future-without project

  18. The monitoring, evaluation, reporting, and verification of climate change mitigation projects: Discussion of issues and methodologies and review of existing protocols and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Sathaye, J.

    1997-12-01

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, the US and other countries are implementing, by themselves or in cooperation with one or more other nations (i.e., joint implementation), climate change mitigation projects. These projects will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or sequester carbon, and will also result in non-GHG impacts (i.e., environmental, economic, and social impacts). Monitoring, evaluating, reporting, and verifying (MERV) guidelines are needed for these projects in order to accurately determine their net GHG, and other, benefits. Implementation of MERV guidelines is also intended to: (1) increase the reliability of data for estimating GHG benefits; (2) provide real-time data so that mid-course corrections can be made; (3) introduce consistency and transparency across project types and reporters; and (4) enhance the credibility of the projects with stakeholders. In this paper, the authors review the issues and methodologies involved in MERV activities. In addition, they review protocols and guidelines that have been developed for MERV of GHG emissions in the energy and non-energy sectors by governments, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies. They comment on their relevance and completeness, and identify several topics that future protocols and guidelines need to address, such as (1) establishing a credible baseline; (2) accounting for impacts outside project boundaries through leakage; (3) net GHG reductions and other impacts; (4) precision of measurement; (5) MERV frequency; (6) persistence (sustainability) of savings, emissions reduction, and carbon sequestration; (7) reporting by multiple project participants; (8) verification of GHG reduction credits; (9) uncertainty and risk; (10) institutional capacity in conducting MERV; and (11) the cost of MERV.

  19. Sagebrush, greater sage-grouse, and the occurrence and importance of forbs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pennington, Victoria E.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bradford, John B.; Palmquist, Kyle A.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2016-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) ecosystems provide habitat for sagebrush-obligate wildlife species such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). The understory of big sagebrush plant communities is composed of grasses and forbs that are important sources of cover and food for wildlife. The grass component is well described in the literature, but the composition, abundance, and habitat role of forbs in these communities is largely unknown. Our objective was to synthesize information about forbs and their importance to Greater Sage-Grouse diets and habitats, how rangeland management practices affect forbs, and how forbs respond to changes in temperature and precipitation. We also sought to identify research gaps and needs concerning forbs in big sagebrush plant communities. We searched for relevant literature including journal articles and state and federal agency reports. Our results indicated that in the spring and summer, Greater Sage-Grouse diets consist of forbs (particularly species in the Asteraceae family), arthropods, and lesser amounts of sagebrush. The diets transition to sagebrush in fall and winter. Forbs provide cover for Greater Sage-Grouse individuals at their lekking, nesting, and brood-rearing sites, and the species has a positive relationship with arthropod presence. The effect of grazing on native forbs may be compounded by invasion of nonnative species and differs depending on grazing intensity. The effect of fire on forbs varies greatly and may depend on time elapsed since burning. In addition, chemical and mechanical treatments affect annual and perennial forbs differently. Temperature and precipitation influence forb phenology, biomass, and abundance differently among species. Our review identified several uncertainties and research needs about forbs in big sagebrush ecosystems. First, in many cases the literature about forbs is reported only at the genus or functional type level. Second, information about forb

  20. Antifungal leaf-surface metabolites correlate with fungal abundance in sagebrush populations.

    PubMed

    Talley, Sharon M; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A

    2002-11-01

    A central component in understanding plant-enemy interactions is to determine whether plant enemies, such as herbivores and pathogens, mediate the evolution of plant secondary metabolites. Using 26 populations of a broadly distributed plant species, sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), we examined whether sagebrush populations in habitats with a greater prevalence of fungi contained antifungal secondary metabolites on leaf surfaces that were more active and diverse than sagebrush populations in habitats less favorable to fungi. Because moisture and temperature play a key role in the epidemiology of most plant-pathogen interactions, we also examined the relationship between the antifungal activity of secondary metabolites and the climate of a site. We evaluated the antifungal activity of sagebrush secondary metabolites against two fungi, a wild Penicillium sp. and a laboratory yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a filter-paper disk assay and bioautography. Comparing the 26 sagebrush populations, we found that fungal abundance was a good predictor of both the activity (r2 = 0.36 for Saccharomyces, r2 = 0.37 for Penicillium) and number (r2 = 0.34 for Saccharomyces) of antifungal secondary metabolites. This suggests that selection imposed by fungal pathogens has led to more effective antifungal secondary metabolites. We found that the antifungal activity of sagebrush secondary metabolites was negatively related to average vapor pressure deficit of the habitat (r2 = 0.60 for Saccharomyces, r2 = 0.61 for Penicillium). Differences in antifungal activity among populations were not due to the amount of secondary metabolites, but rather to qualitative differences in the composition of antifungal compounds. Although all populations in habitats with high fungal prevalence had secondary metabolites with high antifungal activity, different suites of compounds were responsible for this activity, suggesting independent outcomes of selection on plants by fungal pathogens. The

  1. Classification and capabilities of woody sagebrush communities of Western North America with emphasis on sage-grouse habitat

    Treesearch

    Sherel Goodrich

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with diversity, classification, and capabilities of different sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities. Capabilities of sagebrush communities in terms of production, plant diversity, potential for ground cover and sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) habitat are discussed. Reaction to fire and relationships with...

  2. The role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in nitrogen availability, competition and plant invasion into the sagebrush steppe

    Treesearch

    Erin M. Goergen

    2009-01-01

    In the semi-arid sagebrush steppe of the Northeastern Sierra Nevada, resources are both spatially and temporally variable, arguably making resource availability a primary factor determining invasion success. N fixing plant species, primarily native legumes, are often relatively abundant in sagebrush steppe and can contribute to ecosystem nitrogen budgets. ...

  3. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat - Part 2: Landscape level restoration decisions

    Treesearch

    David A. Pyke; Steven T. Knick; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Richard F. Miller; Jeffrey L. Beck; Paul S. Doescher; Eugene W. Schupp; Bruce A. Roundy; Mark Brunson; James D. McIver

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently (2015) occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (...

  4. Post-fire seeding on Wyoming big sagebrush ecological sites: regression analyses of seeded nonnative and native species densities.

    PubMed

    Eiswerth, Mark E; Krauter, Karl; Swanson, Sherman R; Zielinski, Mike

    2009-02-01

    Since the mid-1980s, sagebrush rangelands in the Great Basin of the United States have experienced more frequent and larger wildfires. These fires affect livestock forage, the sagebrush/grasses/forbs mosaic that is important for many wildlife species (e.g., the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)), post-fire flammability and fire frequency. When a sagebrush, especially a Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young)), dominated area largely devoid of herbaceous perennials burns, it often transitions to an annual dominated and highly flammable plant community that thereafter excludes sagebrush and native perennials. Considerable effort is devoted to revegetating rangeland following fire, but to date there has been very little analysis of the factors that lead to the success of this revegetation. This paper utilizes a revegetation monitoring dataset to examine the densities of three key types of vegetation, specifically nonnative seeded grasses, nonnative seeded forbs, and native Wyoming big sagebrush, at several points in time following seeding. We find that unlike forbs, increasing the seeding rates for grasses does not appear to increase their density (at least for the sites and seeding rates we examined). Also, seeding Wyoming big sagebrush increases its density with time since fire. Seeding of grasses and forbs is less successful at locations that were dominated primarily by annual grasses (cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)), and devoid of shrubs, prior to wildfire. This supports the hypothesis of a "closing window of opportunity" for seeding at locations that burned sagebrush for the first time in recent history.

  5. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat - Part 3: Site level restoration decisions

    Treesearch

    David A. Pyke; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Richard F. Miller; Jeffrey L. Beck; Paul S. Doescher; Bruce A. Roundy; Eugene W. Schupp; Steven T. Knick; Mark Brunson; James D. McIver

    2017-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently (2016) occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus...

  6. Effects of spring prescribed fire in expanding pinyon-juniper woodlands on seedling establishment of sagebrush species

    Treesearch

    David I. Board; Jeanne C. Chambers; Joan G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Pinyon and juniper trees are expanding into mountain sagebrush communities throughout their ranges. Fire is used to restore these sagebrush communities, but limited information is available on seedling establishment of native shrubs and herbs. We examined effects of spring prescribed fire in the Great Basin on emergence and survival of five species (Artemisia...

  7. Trend of mountain big Sagebrush crown cover and ground cover on burned sites, Uinta Mountains and West Tavaputs Plateau, Utah

    Treesearch

    Sherel Goodrich; Allen Huber; Brian Monroe

    2008-01-01

    Photography and notes on file at the Supervisors Office, Ashley National Forest make it possible to date many fires in mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) communities on this National Forest. Crown cover of mountain big sagebrush and other shrubs was measured in repeat visits to many burned sites. Burned...

  8. Natural recruitment of Wyoming big sagebrush in and adjacent to burned areas during an El Nino year

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wyoming big sagebrush is known to have episodic recruitment, but the driving factors for these recruitment events is poorly understood. Sagebrush is not fire adapted, is a mid to late seral species, and can take multiple decades to reach a similar density of unburned stands. Fire and climate regimes...

  9. Effects of intermediate-term grazing rest on sagebrush communities with depleted understories: evidence of a threshold

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Millions of hectares of sagebrush (Artemisia L.) plant communities have been degraded by past improper management resulting in dense sagebrush stands with depleted herbaceous understories. Rest from grazing is often applied to promote herbaceous recovery from past mismanagement. However, the effe...

  10. Is pile seeding Wyoming big sagebrush(Artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis) an effective alternative to broadcast seeding?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sagebrush plays an important role in the ecological functions of sagebrush steppe plant communities and is a necessary component of habitat for a variety of wildlife including sage-grouse. At lower elevations, increased fire frequency associated with exotic annual grass invasion has heightened the ...

  11. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae on water stress tolerance of big sagebrush seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman, G.E.; Stahl, P.D.; Williams, S.E.; Frost, S.M.

    1998-12-31

    Reestablishment of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) on mined lands has been difficult in the past even though it is widespread in the western US. Its reestablishment on mined lands has recently become law where wildlife is one of the post-mining land uses and it represented the primary premining shrub species. One hypothesis thought to contribute to its difficult reestablishment is the reduce lack of mycorrhizae inoculum present in the disturbed topsoil and the resulting effect on the seedling`s ability to extract water from the soil under the arid/semiarid climate of this region. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mycorrhizae on sagebrush seedling water stress tolerance. Seedling ages evaluated ranged from 30 to 150 days. Seedling survival was greater for mycorrhizal seedlings compared to non-mycorrhizal seedlings when soil moisture tension was {minus}2.5 to {minus}3.8 MPa. At all ages, the degree of soil dryness necessary to cause sagebrush seedling mortality was significantly greater for mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Seedling age and mycorrhizal infection exhibited a significant statistical interaction; suggesting that as the sagebrush seedling aged, the benefits of arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) increased the plants water stress tolerance. These findings lead the authors to conclude that topsoil management that prevents/reduces the loss of AM inoculum in the topsoil will significantly enhance the success of sagebrush establishment on mined lands.

  12. Ecohydrology of adjacent sagebrush and lodgepole pine ecosystems: the consequences of climate change and disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradford, John B.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2014-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe and lodgepole pine forests are two of the most widespread vegetation types in the western United States and they play crucial roles in the hydrologic cycle of these water-limited regions. We used a process-based ecosystem water model to characterize the potential impact of climate change and disturbance (wildfire and beetle mortality) on water cycling in adjacent sagebrush and lodgepole pine ecosystems. Despite similar climatic and topographic conditions between these ecosystems at the sites examined, lodgepole pine, and sagebrush exhibited consistent differences in water balance, notably more evaporation and drier summer soils in the sagebrush and greater transpiration and less water yield in lodgepole pine. Canopy disturbances (either fire or beetle) have dramatic impacts on water balance and availability: reducing transpiration while increasing evaporation and water yield. Results suggest that climate change may reduce snowpack, increase evaporation and transpiration, and lengthen the duration of dry soil conditions in the summer, but may have uncertain effects on drainage. Changes in the distribution of sagebrush and lodgepole pine ecosystems as a consequence of climate change and/or altered disturbance regimes will likely alter ecosystem water balance.

  13. Recovery of big sagebrush communities after burning in south-western Montana.

    PubMed

    Wambolt, C L; Walhof, K S; Frisina, M R

    2001-03-01

    Prescribed burning of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) communities is conducted with the intention of increasing either the productivity of the understory plants or the big sagebrush. It was our objective to compare the recovery of big sagebrush communities from prescribed fire at as many sites as we could locate in south-western Montana with environmentally paired unburned portions. We located and sampled 13 sites that had been burned over a span of two to 32 growing seasons earlier. Big sagebrush canopy cover, density, and production of winter forage were significantly greater (P < or = 0.05) in the unburned portions in 34 of 38 comparisons. Canopy coverage of Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis Elmer), the dominant herbaceous species, was greater in the burned portion at only one site while it was less (P < or = 0.05) at four sites. Total perennial grass canopy coverage was not different (P < or = 0.05) between treatments over the 13 sites. Managers considering prescribed burning of big sagebrush communities should be aware that herbaceous plant responses may be minimal while shrub values will likely be lost for many years. The loss of the dominant shrubs in any ecosystem will affect many other organisms and severely impact species that have an obligate habit with the shrubs.

  14. Common raven occurrence in relation to energy transmission line corridors transiting human-altered sagebrush steppe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related infrastructure and other human enterprises within sagebrush steppe of the American West often results in changes that promote common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) populations. Ravens, a generalist predator capable of behavioral innovation, present a threat to many species of conservation concern. We evaluate the effects of detailed features of an altered landscape on the probability of raven occurrence using extensive raven survey (n= 1045) and mapping data from southern Idaho, USA. We found nonlinear relationships between raven occurrence and distances to transmission lines, roads, and facilities. Most importantly, raven occurrence was greater with presence of transmission lines up to 2.2 km from the corridor.We further explain variation in raven occurrence along anthropogenic features based on the amount of non-native vegetation and cover type edge, such that ravens select fragmented sagebrush stands with patchy, exotic vegetative introgression. Raven occurrence also increased with greater length of edge formed by the contact of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate spp.) with non-native vegetation cover types. In consideration of increasing alteration of sagebrush steppe, these findings will be useful for planning energy transmission corridor placement and other management activities where conservation of sagebrush obligate species is a priority.

  15. Characterization of a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) die-off on the Handford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, A.; Lewinsohn, J.; Auger, C.; Downs, J.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Burrows, R.

    1997-09-01

    The Hanford Site contains one of the few remaining contiguous areas of shrub-steppe habitat left in Washington State. This habitat is home to many native plant and wildlife species, some of which are threatened with extinction or are unique to the Site. The importance of the Hanford Site increases as other lands surrounding the Site are developed, and these native species and habitats are lost. Stands of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) on the Site are a particularly important component of shrub-steppe habitat, because a number of wildlife require big sagebrush for food and cover. Since 1993, researchers and field biologists have made anecdotal observations of dying and declining sagebrush in stands of shrubs near the 100 Areas. This study was initiated to delineate and document the general boundary where sagebrush stands appear to be declining. We mapped the areal extent of the die-off using a global positioning system and found that the central portion of the die-off encompasses 280 hectares. Shrub stand defoliation was estimated to be near or greater than 80% in this area. The remainder of the die-off area exhibits varying mixtures of completely defoliated, partially defoliated, and healthy-looking stands. Declining sagebrush stands comprise a total of 1776 hectares.

  16. Assessing Interannual Variation in Growth Response of Big Sagebrush to Climate in Spring Valley, NV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apodaca, L. F.; Devitt, D.; Fenstermaker, L.

    2012-12-01

    An assessment of the growth response of key vegetative species to climatic variability is vital to understanding possible impacts on ecosystems threatened by impending hydrologic change. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities in Spring Valley, NV are predicted to experience changes in water availability brought about by climate change that could result in widespread shifts in community composition, ecotonal boundaries, and plant phenology. The degree and direction of the growth response of sagebrush species to these changes is of great interest to land managers as a decline in growth and plant vigor has implications on the long-term trajectories for community biodiversity and wildfire management practices. To evaluate growth response to past climate variability, an empirical relationship between sagebrush growth ring indices and satellite-derived vegetation indices (NDVI) was examined in the context of historical precipitation. Ring indices were constructed using over one hundred stem cross-sections sampled from thirty-six sagebrush stands located throughout the large, spatially heterogenous 900 km2 Spring Valley study area. Growing season NDVI values were extracted from Landsat scenes collected between 1986 and 2010. Sagebrush early and late wood indices were also compared to seasonal precipitation records in order to examine both the progression of wood development throughout the growing season and the seasonal contribution of spring and summer precipitation to wood growth. The results will allow for a more comprehensive assessment of past vegetative response to climate variation, both temporally and spatially, which can be used in the modeling of growth of an important desert species.

  17. Biogeochemistry of Cesium in a Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, C. D.; Hess, J. R.; Hamilton, M. A.; Cook, L. L.; Siegel, L. S.; Yancey, N. A.

    2002-12-01

    The nature of radiocesium sources is such that they often have resulted in the contamination of shallow (< 1m), vegetated soils. This surface and near-surface soil contamination by radiocesium may be susceptible to migration on vegetated sites due to plant facilitated 137Cs translocation. Once in the plant, the 137Cs will not only reposition within the soil profile, but grazing and predation can move it through the food chain and range fires can further disperse it throughout the environment. We have been studying the biogeochemistry of cesium in a sagebrush ecosystem at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in southeastern Idaho. This ecosystem is dominated by crested wheatgrass, rabbitbrush, and sagebrush. Field measurements at the Central Facilities Area indicate that approximately 94% of plant mass radiocesium is associated with crested wheatgrass. Under conditions of senescence, the crested wheatgrass root-to-soil and shoot-to-root ratios (transfer factors) are different for 137Cs and stable Cs (133Cs). These differences are partially attributed to the differences in the binding mechanisms of 137Cs and 133Cs in the soil. Field measurements in the vicinity of the former SL-1 reactor show changes in concentrations and transfer factors with the stage of plant growth. The samples included both rhizosphere and bulk soils as well as roots and shoots from the crested wheatgrass. The ranges of total cesium in rhizosphere and bulk soils are similar, are fairly narrow (1.7 to 5.2 mg kg-1), and do not appear to vary seasonally. In contrast, 137Cs activities in rhizosphere and bulk soils are significantly different, vary over orders of magnitude (10-180 pCi g-1), and show seasonal differences. Shoot and root 137Cs activities decrease between April and May. Total Cs shoot-to-root ratios are greater than the corresponding ratios for radiocesium. Total Cs root-to-rhizosphere soil ratios are lower than the corresponding ratios for 137Cs. These results

  18. Work plan for transition of SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    SciTech Connect

    McClees, J.; Truitt, R.W.

    1994-10-12

    The purpose of this effort is to transfer operating and maintenance responsibility for the 241-SY-101 data acquisition and control system (DACS-1) from Los Alamos National Laboratory to Westinghouse Hanford Company. This work plan defines the tasks required for a successful turnover. It identifies DACS-1 transition, deliverables, responsible organizations and individuals, interfaces, cost, and schedule. The transition plan will discuss all required hardware, software, documentation, maintenance, operations, and training for use at Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-101. The transfer of responsibilities for DACS-1 to WHC is contingent on final approval of applicable Acceptance for Beneficial Use documentation by Waste Tank Operations. The DACS-1 was designed to provide data monitoring, display, and storage for Tank 241-SY-101. The DACS-1 also provides alarm and control of all the hydrogen mitigation testing systems, as well as ancillary systems and equipment (HVAC, UPS, etc.) required to achieve safe and reliable operation of the testing systems in the tank.

  19. Computer system design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Ermi, A.M.

    1997-05-01

    Description of the Proposed Activity/REPORTABLE OCCURRENCE or PIAB: This ECN changes the computer systems design description support document describing the computers system used to control, monitor and archive the processes and outputs associated with the Hydrogen Mitigation Test Pump installed in SY-101. There is no new activity or procedure associated with the updating of this reference document. The updating of this computer system design description maintains an agreed upon documentation program initiated within the test program and carried into operations at time of turnover to maintain configuration control as outlined by design authority practicing guidelines. There are no new credible failure modes associated with the updating of information in a support description document. The failure analysis of each change was reviewed at the time of implementation of the Systems Change Request for all the processes changed. This document simply provides a history of implementation and current system status.

  20. Mitigating artifacts in back-projection source imaging with implications for frequency-dependent properties of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lingsen; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Luo, Yingdi; Wu, Wenbo; Ni, Sidao

    2012-12-01

    Comparing teleseismic array back-projection source images of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake with results from static and kinematic finite source inversions has revealed little overlap between the regions of high- and low-frequency slip. Motivated by this interesting observation, back-projection studies extended to intermediate frequencies, down to about 0.1 Hz, have suggested that a progressive transition of rupture properties as a function of frequency is observable. Here, by adapting the concept of array response function to non-stationary signals, we demonstrate that the "swimming artifact", a systematic drift resulting from signal non-stationarity, induces significant bias on beamforming back-projection at low frequencies. We introduce a "reference window strategy" into the multitaper-MUSIC back-projection technique and significantly mitigate the "swimming artifact" at high frequencies (1 s to 4 s). At lower frequencies, this modification yields notable, but significantly smaller, artifacts than time-domain stacking. We perform extensive synthetic tests that include a 3D regional velocity model for Japan. We analyze the recordings of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake at the USArray and at the European array at periods from 1 s to 16 s. The migration of the source location as a function of period, regardless of the back-projection methods, has characteristics that are consistent with the expected effect of the "swimming artifact". In particular, the apparent up-dip migration as a function of frequency obtained with the USArray can be explained by the "swimming artifact". This indicates that the most substantial frequency-dependence of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake source occurs at periods longer than 16 s. Thus, low-frequency back-projection needs to be further tested and validated in order to contribute to the characterization of frequency-dependent rupture properties.

  1. Mitigation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carusi, Andrea; Perozzi, Ettore; Scholl, Hans

    2005-04-01

    There are three major options for mitigation of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Deflection and disruption of NEOs require the development of new space technologies. A third option, the preparation of the target area on Earth to mitigate an impact, needs institutions for the required civil defense measures. The three options are complementary. Basic requirements for the presently most preferred strategy, deflection, are presented. To cite this article: A. Carusi et al., C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

  2. Soil resources influence vegetation and response to fire and fire-surrogate treatments in sagebrush-steppe ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rau, Benjamin M.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Doescher, Paul; Caldwell, Todd G.

    2014-01-01

    Current paradigm suggests that spatial and temporal competition for resources limit an exotic invader, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), which once established, alters fire regimes and can result in annual grass dominance in sagebrush steppe. Prescribed fire and fire surrogate treatments (mowing, tebuthiuron, and imazapic) are used to reduce woody fuels and increase resistance to exotic annuals, but may alter resource availability and inadvertently favor invasive species. We used four study sites within the Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) to evaluate 1) how vegetation and soil resources were affected by treatment, and 2) how soil resources influenced native herbaceous perennial and exotic annual grass cover before and following treatment. Treatments increased resin exchangeable NH4+, NO3−, H2PO4−, and K+, with the largest increases caused by prescribed fire and prolonged by application of imazapic. Burning with imazapic application also increased the number of wet growing degree days. Tebuthiuron and imazapic reduced exotic annual grass cover, but imazapic also reduced herbaceous perennial cover when used with prescribed fire. Native perennial herbaceous species cover was higher where mean annual precipitation and soil water resources were relatively high. Exotic annual grass cover was higher where resin exchangeable H2PO4− was high and gaps between perennial plants were large. Prescribed fire, mowing, and tebuthiuron were successful at increasing perennial herbaceous cover, but the results were often ephemeral and inconsistent among sites. Locations with sandy soil, low mean annual precipitation, or low soil water holding capacity were more likely to experience increased exotic annual grass cover after treatment, and treatments that result in slow release of resources are needed on these sites. This is one of few studies that correlate abiotic variables to native and exotic species cover across a broad geographic setting, and that

  3. Soil resources influence vegetation and response to fire and fire-surrogate treatments in sagebrush-steppe ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rau, Benjamin M.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Doescher, Paul; Caldwell, Todd G.

    2014-01-01

    Current paradigm suggests that spatial and temporal competition for resources limit an exotic invader, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), which once established, alters fire regimes and can result in annual grass dominance in sagebrush steppe. Prescribed fire and fire surrogate treatments (mowing, tebuthiuron, and imazapic) are used to reduce woody fuels and increase resistance to exotic annuals, but may alter resource availability and inadvertently favor invasive species. We used four study sites within the Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) to evaluate 1) how vegetation and soil resources were affected by treatment, and 2) how soil resources influenced native herbaceous perennial and exotic annual grass cover before and following treatment. Treatments increased resin exchangeable NH4+, NO3−, H2PO4−, and K+, with the largest increases caused by prescribed fire and prolonged by application of imazapic. Burning with imazapic application also increased the number of wet growing degree days. Tebuthiuron and imazapic reduced exotic annual grass cover, but imazapic also reduced herbaceous perennial cover when used with prescribed fire. Native perennial herbaceous species cover was higher where mean annual precipitation and soil water resources were relatively high. Exotic annual grass cover was higher where resin exchangeable H2PO4− was high and gaps between perennial plants were large. Prescribed fire, mowing, and tebuthiuron were successful at increasing perennial herbaceous cover, but the results were often ephemeral and inconsistent among sites. Locations with sandy soil, low mean annual precipitation, or low soil water holding capacity were more likely to experience increased exotic annual grass cover after treatment, and treatments that result in slow release of resources are needed on these sites. This is one of few studies that correlate abiotic variables to native and exotic species cover across a broad geographic setting, and that

  4. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover and Identify Biotic Resources in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems: Preliminary Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2006-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  5. Succession patterns following soil disturbance in a sagebrush steppe community.

    PubMed

    McLendon, Terry; Redente, Edward F

    1990-12-01

    A study was begun in 1976 to measure succession patterns following soil disturbance within a sagebrush community in northwestern Colorado. The principal hypothesis was that type of disturbance affects the direction of succession, resulting in different plant communities over time. Successional dynamics were studied through 1988. Four types of soil disturbance resulted in 3 early seral communities: one dominated by grasses, one by annuals, and one intermediate. The annual-dominated communities were opportunistic on these sites, lasting 3-5 years and not determining the direction in which succession proceeded following their replacement. Twelve years after disturbance, 3 communities (one grass-dominated, one shrub-dominated, and one intermediate) occupied the site, the characteristics of which were functions of type of initial soil disturbance. For the period of time covered by this study (12 years), degree of disturbance was found to affect the direction of succession, resulting in different plant communities over time. There were, however, successional characteristics toward the end of the study that suggest that over a longer time period, succession might progress to a single community regardless of type of disturbance.

  6. Spatial wildlife-vehicle collision models: a review of current work and its application to transportation mitigation projects.

    PubMed

    Gunson, Kari E; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Quackenbush, Lindi J

    2011-04-01

    In addition to posing a serious risk to motorist safety, vehicle collisions with wildlife are a significant threat for many species. Previous spatial modeling has concluded that wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVCs) exhibit clustering on roads, which is attributed to specific landscape and road-related factors. We reviewed twenty-four published manuscripts that used generalized linear models to statistically determine the influence that numerous explanatory predictors have on the location of WVCs. Our motivation was to summarize empirical WVC findings to facilitate application of this knowledge to planning, and design of mitigation strategies on roads. In addition, commonalities between studies were discussed and recommendations for future model design were made. We summarized the type and measurement of each significant predictor and whether they potentially increased or decreased the occurrence of collisions with ungulates, carnivores, small-medium vertebrates, birds, and amphibians and reptiles. WVCs commonly occurred when roads bisect favorable cover, foraging, or breeding habitat for specific species or groups of species. WVCs were generally highest on road sections with high traffic volumes, or low motorist visibility, and when roads cut through drainage movement corridors, or level terrain. Ungulates, birds, small-medium vertebrates, and carnivore collision locations were associated with road-side vegetation and other features such as salt pools. In several cases, results were spurious due to confounding and interacting predictors within the same model. For example, WVCs were less likely to occur when a road bisected steep slopes; however, steep slopes may be located along specific road-types and habitat that also influence the occurrence of WVCs. In conclusion, this review showed that much of the current literature has gleaned the obvious, broad-scale relationships between WVCs and predictors from available data sets, and localized studies can provide unique

  7. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey. (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Y.; Erdik, M. O.; Takahashi, N.; Meral Ozel, N.; Hori, T.; Hori, M.; Kumamoto, K.; Kalafat, D.; Pinar, A.; Ozel, A. O.; Yalciner, A. C.; Nurlu, M.; Tanircan, G.; Citak, S.; Ariyoshi, K.; Necmioglu, O.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1900, around 90,000 people have lost their lives in 76 earthquakes occurred in Turkey, with a total affected population of ~7 million and direct estimated losses of ~25 billion USD. About half the lives lost were due to two earthquakes associated with the North Anatolian Fault in 1939 and 1999. During this time, seven large westward-migrating earthquakes created a 900-km-long continuous surface rupture along the fault zone from Erzincan to the Marmara Sea, stopping just short of Istanbul. Based on a time-dependent model that includes coseismic and postseismic effects of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) = 7.4, Parsons concluded that the probability of an earthquake with Mw >7 in the Sea of Marmara near Istanbul is 35% to 70% in the next 30 years. This high probability is shared by Tokyo and San Francisco; however, the earthquake fragility of the pre-2000 building stock in Turkey is much higher than that of California or Japan. (Erdik, 2013). All of the arguments described above provide a sound basis for a Japanese-Turkish partnership enabling each partner to share experiences gained from past destructive earthquakes and prepare for expected large earthquakes. The SATREPS project aims to address this need, also focusing on the tsunami hazard. The project's main objectives are i) to develop disaster mitigation policies and strategies based on multidisciplinary research activities; ii) to provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations; iii) to organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in Turkey; iv) to contribute the evaluation of active fault studies in Japan. To achieve successfully these objectives, 4 research groups have been set specializing on observations, simulations, civil engineering and disaster education and the results will be integrated for disaster mitigation in the Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey.

  8. Contrasting ecosystem drivers of mass and energy fluxes at upper and lower elevation sagebrush steppe sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. E.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Kwon, H.

    2012-12-01

    The sagebrush steppe ecosystem covers nearly 15% of Western North America, and its productivity is sensitive to warming and increasingly variable precipitation. Previous work has shown that soil moisture below 45cm is an important control over net ecosystem exchange NEE for sagebrush ecosystems while shallower soil moisture controls ET. We seek to expand on that work by using multiple site years from eddy covariance sites near the upper and lower elevation range of sagebrush to answer the question "How do changing water availability affect the ecosystem controls of carbon, water, and energy fluxes from rocky mountain sagebrush ecosystems". We are answering this question by quantifying ecosystem scale carbon, water, and energy cycling using eddy covariance measurements and a standard suite of atmospheric, soil and vegetation monitoring instruments. The two sites were active from 2006 to 2010 and were located at elevations of 2069m and 2469m at Saratoga, WY and Walden, CO, with mean annual temperatures of 5.9C and 4.5, respectively. The relationship of drivers to ecosystem fluxes is hypothesized to have stronger controls at the high elevation sagebrush site relative to the low elevation site. Our work shows a strong relationship between deep soil moisture and ecosystem fluxes, but that one driver alone does not explain all of the seasonal and interannual variation in the fluxes. Other drives of the water and carbon cycles include vapor pressure deficit, net radiation and soil temperature. Fluxes from the high elevation site have a 40% reduction of carbon and a 70% reduction of water flux relative to the low elevation site over the same time period, due to a higher frequency of short duration, larger flux events at the lower elevation site. Ecosystem models that attempt to capture the dynamics of carbon, water and energy fluxes from sagebrush steppe ecosystems must account for the variation in controls of those fluxes and their variations in time and elevation.

  9. Seasonal variation of responses to herbivory and volatile communication in sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Satomi; Shiojiri, Kaori; Karban, Richard; Ohara, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Plants can respond to insect herbivory in various ways to avoid reductions in fitness. However, the effect of herbivory on plant performance can vary depending on the seasonal timing of herbivory. We investigated the effects of the seasonal timing of herbivory on the performance of sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). Sagebrush is known to induce systemic resistance by receiving volatiles emitted from clipped leaves of the same or neighboring plants, which is called volatile communication. Resistance to leaf herbivory is known to be induced most effectively after volatile communication in spring. We experimentally clipped 25 % of leaves of sagebrush in May when leaves were expanding, or in July when inflorescences were forming. We measured the growth and flower production of clipped plants and neighboring plants which were exposed to volatiles emitted from clipped plants. The treatment conducted in spring reduced the growth of clipped plants. This suggests that early season leaf herbivory is detrimental because it reduces the opportunities for resource acquisition after herbivory, resulting in strong induction of resistance in leaves. On the other hand, the late season treatment increased flower production in plants exposed to volatiles, which was caused mainly by the increase in the number of inflorescences. Because the late season treatment occurred when sagebrush produces inflorescences, sagebrush may respond to late herbivory by increasing compensation ability and/or resistance in inflorescences rather than in leaves. Our results suggest that sagebrush can change responses to herbivory and subsequent volatile communication seasonally and that the seasonal variation in responses may reduce the cost of induced resistance.

  10. Contrasting the patterns of aspen forest and sagebrush shrubland gross ecosystem exchange in montane Idaho, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellows, A.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the environmental controls on Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE) at an aspen forest and a sagebrush shrubland in southwest Idaho. The two sites were situated within a mosaic of vegetation that included temperate deciduous trees, shrublands, and evergreen conifer trees. The distribution of vegetation was presumably linked to water availability; aspen were located in wetter high-elevations sites, topographic drainages, or near snow drifts. Local temperatures have increased by ~2-3 °C over the past 50 years and less precipitation has arrived as snow. These ongoing changes in weather may impact snow water redistribution, plant-water availability, and plant-thermal stress, with associated impacts on vegetation health and production. We used eddy covariance to measure the exchange of water and carbon dioxide above the two sites and partitioned the net carbon flux to determine GEE. The sagebrush record was from 2003-2007 and the aspen record was from 2007-12. The region experienced a modest-to-severe drought in 2007, with ~73% of typical precipitation. We found that aspen were local "hotspots" for carbon exchange; peak rates of aspen GEE were ~ 60% greater than the peak rates of sagebrush GEE. Light, temperature, and water availability were dominant controls on the seasonality of GEE at both sites. Sagebrush and aspen were dormant during winter, limited by cold temperatures during winter and early spring, and water availability during mid-late summer. The onset of summer drought was typically later in the aspen than in the sagebrush. Drifting snow, lateral water redistribution, or increased rooting depths may have increased water availability in the aspen stand. Seasonal patterns of observed soil moisture and evaporation indicated aspen were rooted to >= 1 m. The sagebrush and aspen both responded strongly to the 2007 drought; peak GEE decreased by ~75%, peak GEE shifted to earlier parts of the year, and mid-summer GEE was decreased. We consider potential

  11. One carbon cycle: Impacts of model integration, ecosystem process detail, model resolution, and initialization data, on projections of future climate mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; le page, Y.; Patel, P. L.; Chini, L. P.; Sahajpal, R.; Dubayah, R.; Thomson, A. M.; Edmonds, J.; Janetos, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Integrated assessment models (IAMs) simulate the interactions between human and natural systems at a global scale, representing a broad suite of phenomena across the global economy, energy system, land-use, and carbon cycling. Most proposed climate mitigation strategies rely on maintaining or enhancing the terrestrial carbon sink as a substantial contribution to restrain the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, however most IAMs rely on simplified regional representations of terrestrial carbon dynamics. Our research aims to reduce uncertainties associated with forest modeling within integrated assessments, and to quantify the impacts of climate change on forest growth and productivity for integrated assessments of terrestrial carbon management. We developed the new Integrated Ecosystem Demography (iED) to increase terrestrial ecosystem process detail, resolution, and the utilization of remote sensing in integrated assessments. iED brings together state-of-the-art models of human society (GCAM), spatial land-use patterns (GLM) and terrestrial ecosystems (ED) in a fully coupled framework. The major innovative feature of iED is a consistent, process-based representation of ecosystem dynamics and carbon cycle throughout the human, terrestrial, land-use, and atmospheric components. One of the most challenging aspects of ecosystem modeling is to provide accurate initialization of land surface conditions to reflect non-equilibrium conditions, i.e., the actual successional state of the forest. As all plants in ED have an explicit height, it is one of the few ecosystem models that can be initialized directly with vegetation height data. Previous work has demonstrated that ecosystem model resolution and initialization data quality have a large effect on flux predictions at continental scales. Here we use a factorial modeling experiment to quantify the impacts of model integration, process detail, model resolution, and initialization data on projections of

  12. Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bottum, Edward; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2001-03-01

    This report covers calendar year 2000 activities for the Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation project. This project, implemented by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Shoshone Bannock Tribes wildlife mitigation staff, is designed to protect, enhance and maintain wildlife habitats to mitigate construction losses for Palisades, Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon and Minidoka hydroelectric projects. Additional project information is available in the quarterly reports.

  13. Southern idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bottum, Edward; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2000-04-01

    This report is for the Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation project. This project, implemented by IDFG and SBT wildlife mitigation staff, is designed to protect, enhance and maintain wildlife habitats to mitigate construction losses for Palisades, Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon and Minidoka hydroelectric projects. Additional project information is available in the quarterly reports.

  14. A European effort towards the development of tools for tsunami hazard and risk assessment and mitigation, and tsunami early warning: the EC-funded TRANSFER project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, S.; Armigliato, A.

    2007-12-01

    TRANSFER (acronym for "Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region") is a European Community funded project being coordinated by the University of Bologna (Italy) and involving 29 partners in Europe, Turkey and Israel. The main objectives of the project can be summarised as: 1) improving our understanding of tsunami processes in the Euro-Mediterranean region, 2) contributing to the tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment, 3) identifying the best strategies for reduction of tsunami risk, 4) focussing on the gaps and needs for the implementation of an efficient tsunami early warning system (TEWS) in the Euro-Mediterranean area, which is a high-priority task in consideration that no tsunami early warning system is today in place in the Euro- Mediterranean countries. This paper briefly outlines the results that were obtained in the first year of life of the project and the activities that are currently carried out and planned for the future. In particular, we will emphasize the efforts made so far in the following directions. 1) The improvement of existing numerical models for tsunami generation, propagation and impact, and the possible development of new ones. Existing numerical models have been already applied to selected benchmark problems. At the same time, the project is making an important effort in the development of standards for inundation maps in Europe. 2) The project Consortium has selected seven test areas in different countries facing the Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Atlantic Ocean, where innovative probabilistic and statistical approaches for tsunami hazard assessment, up-to-date and new methods to compute inundation maps are being and will be applied. For the same test areas, tsunami scenario approaches are being developed, vulnerability and risk assessed, prevention and mitigation measures defined also by the advice of end users that are organised in an End User Group. 3) A final key aspect is represented by the dissemination of

  15. Full-Scaled Advanced Systems Testbed: Ensuring Success of Adaptive Control Research Through Project Lifecycle Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate M.

    2011-01-01

    , experiment functionality, overall risk mitigation, flight test approach and results, and lessons learned of adaptive controls research of the Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed.

  16. Land use and habitat conditions across the southwestern Wyoming sagebrush steppe: development impacts, management effectiveness and the distribution of invasive plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manier, Daniel J.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick; Chong, Geneva; Homer, Collin G.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Schell, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    For the past several years, USGS has taken a multi-faceted approach to investigating the condition and trends in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This recent effort builds upon decades of work in semi-arid ecosystems providing a specific, applied focus on the cumulative impacts of expanding human activities across these landscapes. Here, we discuss several on-going projects contributing to these efforts: (1) mapping and monitoring the distribution and condition of shrub steppe communities with local detail at a regional scale, (2) assessing the relationships between specific, land-use features (for example, roads, transmission lines, industrial pads) and invasive plants, including their potential (environmentally defined) distribution across the region, and (3) monitoring the effects of habitat treatments on the ecosystem, including wildlife use and invasive plant abundance. This research is focused on the northern sagebrush steppe, primarily in Wyoming, but also extending into Montana, Colorado, Utah and Idaho. The study area includes a range of sagebrush types (including, Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata, Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis, Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia nova) and other semi-arid shrubland types (for example, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, Atriplex confertifolia, Atriplex gardneri), impacted by extensive interface between steppe ecosystems and industrial energy activities resulting in a revealing multiple-variable analysis. We use a combination of remote sensing (AWiFS (1 Any reference to platforms, data sources, equipment, software, patented or trade-marked methods is for information purposes only. It does not represent endorsement of the U.S.D.I., U.S.G.S. or the authors), Landsat and Quickbird platforms), Geographic Information System (GIS) design and data management, and field-based, replicated sampling to generate multiple scales of data representing the distribution of shrub communities for the habitat inventory. Invasive plant

  17. Mammoth Lakes Route 203 transportation project: a case study in air-quality modeling and mitigation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, P.; Nokes, W.; Cramer, R.

    1985-06-01

    An evaluation is made of the effects on carbon monoxide concentrations of transportation improvements incorporated in the Route 203 highway project. This includes a comparison of preconstruction and postconstruction field-sampling studies. The performance of the CALINE4 air-quality model is evaluated for use in complex terrain. The report describes the problems encountered in applying the model to mountainous locations, the tracer-release study used for assessing model performance, and the model-verification analysis.

  18. Quality improvement in resident education: a pilot project to mitigate metabolic side effects from atypical antipsychotic medications in youth

    PubMed Central

    Jeffrey, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This resident physician-led quality improvement project was conducted with aims to improve the health of youth prescribed atypical antipsychotic medications by increasing physician monitoring for metabolic side effects, while simultaneously educating trainees in quality improvement methodology. The plan, do, study, act quality improvement framework was utilized. Baseline metabolic monitoring rates of patients prescribed atypical antipsychotic medications in the two psychiatry resident outpatient clinics were obtained. Rates were stratified based on time on medication (<1 year, ≥1 year) and parameter monitored. Metabolic monitoring rates subsequent to targeted changes were obtained. Problem solving with residents revealed barriers to monitoring, such as limited awareness of specific guideline recommendations and lack of convenient access to medical equipment (calibrated scales). Residents received education about atypical antipsychotic monitoring guidelines and side effect treatment. Residents were provided with calibrated scales. Atypical antipsychotic monitoring templates were introduced. Online surveys using were conducted to determine self-reported baseline-monitoring rates and comfort with guidelines following targeted change. The baseline metabolic monitoring rates of patients prescribed atypical antipsychotic medications was 9% (range: 0 to 17.6%) for youth in their first year taking an atypical antipsychotic medication and 58.9% (range: 29% to 100%) in subsequent years on medication. The results of relatively easy changes resulted in modest improvement in monitoring rates. The metabolic monitoring rate of a patient initiated on an atypical antipsychotic medication was 29% after targeted quality improvement measures were employed. Following quality improvement changes, residents reported increased knowledge about guidelines and increased monitoring for side effects. Use of a standardized data collection instrument to track monitoring of patients increased

  19. Fungal and bacterial contributions to nitrogen cycling in cheatgrass-invaded and uninvaded native sagebrush soils of the western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeCrappeo, Nicole; DeLorenze, Elizabeth J.; Giguere, Andrew T; Pyke, David A.; Bottomley, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    AimThere is interest in determining how cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) modifies N cycling in sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) soils of the western USA.MethodsTo gain insight into the roles of fungi and bacteria in N cycling of cheatgrass-invaded and uninvaded sagebrush soils, the fungal protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX), and the bacteriocidal compound, bronopol (BRO) were combined with a 15NH4+ isotope pool dilution approach.ResultsCHX reduced gross N mineralization to the same rate in both sagebrush and cheatgrass soils indicating a role for fungi in N mineralization in both soil types. In cheatgrass soils BRO completely inhibited gross N mineralization, whereas, in sagebrush soils a BRO-resistant gross N mineralization rate was detected that was slower than CHX sensitive gross N mineralization, suggesting that the microbial drivers of gross N mineralization were different in sagebrush and cheatgrass soils. Net N mineralization was stimulated to a higher rate in sagebrush than in cheatgrass soils by CHX, implying that a CHX inhibited N sink was larger in the former than the latter soils. Initial gross NH4+ consumption rates were reduced significantly by both CHX and BRO in both soil types, yet, consumption rates recovered significantly between 24 and 48 h in CHX-treated sagebrush soils. The recovery of NH4+ consumption in sagebrush soils corresponded with an increase in the rate of net nitrification.ConclusionsThese results suggest that cheatgrass invasion of sagebrush soils of the northern Great Basin reduces the capacity of the fungal N consumption sink, enhances the capacity of a CHX resistant N sink and alters the contributions of bacteria and fungi to gross N mineralization.

  20. Selection of high producing shrubs of the Western United States for energy biomass. Final report, April 1, 1978-October 31, 1981. [Saltbush, sagebrush, rabbitbrush, and greasewood

    SciTech Connect

    McKell, C.M.; Van Epps, G.A.; Barker, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    This project investigated the selection and preliminary study of the most productive native shrubs that are commonly found growing on millions of acres of arid and semiarid lands of the Western United States for their potential use as energy fuel from biomass. Many uncertainties exist in producing biomass for energy fuels. However, arid land shrub biomass production offers several advantages that may be more favorable than other biomass types. Shrubs could utilize available marginal croplands and rangelands; there would be little or no competition for scarce water resources, and within the wide diversity of native shrubs, a number of species have a potential for relatively large biomass production. Species chosen for study were fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), big saltbush (A. lentiformis), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), spreading rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus linifolis), rubber rabbitbrush (C. nauseosus), and greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus). The study was divided into three phases. Phase one dealt with the selection, measurement, and burning quality of large growing shrubs in native populations. The main objective of phase two was to measure the biomass production of the selected large growing shrubs at a dryland field research station for three years. In addition the influence of planting space was ascertained. In phase three the genetic differences of large and small sagebrush (A. tridentata) were evaluated. 15 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. Sagebrush steppe recovery after fire varies by development phase of Juniperus occidentalis woodland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pinus-Juniperus L. (Piñon- juniper) woodlands have expanded into Artemisia tridentata Beetle (big sagebrush) steppe of the western United States primarily as a result of reduced fire disturbances. Woodland control measures, including prescribed fire, have been increasingly employed to restore sagebr...

  2. Effects of conifer treatments on soil nutrient availability and plant composition in sagebrush steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Piñon-juniper woodlands of the western United States have expanded 2 to 10-fold since the late 1800’s. Since the 1950’s woodland control measures using chainsaws, heavy equipment and prescribed fire have been used to reduce woodlands and restore big sagebrush steppe and decrease woody fuel loading. ...

  3. Response of a depleted sagebrush steppe riparian system to grazing control and woody plantings

    Treesearch

    Warren P. Clary; Nancy L. Shaw; Jonathan G. Dudley; Victoria A. Saab; John W. Kinney; Lynda C. Smithman

    1996-01-01

    To find out if a depleted riparian system in the sagebrush steppe of eastern Oregon would respond quickly to improved management, five management treatments were applied for 7 years, ranging from ungrazed to heavily grazed treatments, including in some cases, planting of woody species. While the results varied, all treatments were too limited to significantly restore...

  4. Characteristics of western juniper encroachment into sagebrush communities in central Oregon

    Treesearch

    Mary M. Rowland; Lowell H. Suring; Robin J. Tausch; Susan Geer; Michael J. Wisdom

    2008-01-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) woodlands in Oregon have expanded four-fold from 600,000 ha in 1930 to > 2.6 million ha, often resulting in the reduction and fragmentation of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities. We documented dynamics of western juniper across the John Day Ecological Province in central Oregon by recording size class and growth form at...

  5. Sagebrush wildfire effects on surface soil nutrient availability: A temporal and spatial study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wildfires occurring in Artemisia (sagebrush) ecosystems can temporarily increase soil nutrient availability in surface soil. Less is known, however, on how soil nutrient availability changes over time and microsite location post-wildfire. In Oct., 2013 a wildfire approximately 30 km north of Reno, N...

  6. Advancing nursery production of big sagebrush seedlings: Cold storage and variation in subspecies growth

    Treesearch

    Emily C. Overton

    2012-01-01

    Big sagebrush is an essential component of shrub-steppe ecosystems that is rapidly disappearing from the landscape. Recognizing this, it has become a target of restoration; however, current efforts using direct seeding have shown variable success and planting seedlings may provide a better option. Nonetheless, limited information is available on the nursery production...

  7. Spatial and temporal variability in minimum temperature trends in the western U.S. sagebrush steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Climate is a major driver of ecosystem dynamics. In recent years there has been considerable interest in future climate change and potential impacts on ecosystems and management options. In this paper, we analyzed minimum monthly temperature (T min) for ten rural locations in the western sagebrush...

  8. Extruded seed pellets: a novel approach to enhancing sagebrush seedling emergence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    1. To sustain North America’s sagebrush biome novel seeding methods are required that can restore degraded landscapes after a disturbance. Seeds need to be planted at an optimal depth where moisture resources are available for seed germination yet not too deep that seedling emergence is impaired. Du...

  9. Impacts of feral horse use on riparian vegetation within the sagebrush steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feral horses inhabit rangeland ecosystems around the world, but their impacts on riparian ecosystems are poorly understood. We characterized impacts of a free-ranging horse population on the structure and composition of riparian plant communities in the sagebrush steppe ecosystem in the western US....

  10. Water And Carbon Fluxes Along An Elevation/Precipitation Gradient In A Sagebrush Steppe Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flerchinger, G. N.; Fellows, A.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental gradients exert controls on water, carbon and energy fluxes across montane landscapes, impacting the magnitude and timing of evapotranspiration, carbon uptake, water stress, and water use efficiency. Four eddy covariance systems were situated along an elevation gradient in Idaho's Owyhee Mountains. The sites are part of the Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory and contribute to an ongoing long-term environmental monitoring network in the USDA's Reynold's Creek Experimental Watershed. The sites include a Wyoming big sagebrush site, a low sagebrush site, a post-fire mountain big sagebrush site, and a mountain big sagebrush site located at elevations of 1425, 1680, 1808 and 2111 m. Variations in climate follow the montane elevation gradient; mean annual precipitation at the sites is 290, 337, 425, and 795 mm, respectively, and mean annual temperature is 8.9, 8.4, 6.1, 5.4°C. Transpiration peaked about a month earlier at the lower elevation sites, but with limited precipitation the vegetation also encountered water stress much earlier. The two higher elevation sites experienced relatively little water stress and transpired at near potential for most of the growing season. Implications on water use efficiency were investigated.

  11. Variation in sagebrush communities historically seeded with crested wheatgrass in the eastern great basin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although crested wheatgrass (CWG; Agropyron cristatum [L.] Gaertn.) has been one of the most commonly seeded exotic species in the western United States, long-term successional trajectories of seeded sites are poorly characterized, especially for big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentana Nutt.) ecosystems...

  12. Estimation of big sagebrush leaf area index with terrestrial laser scanning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A remote-sensing technique is need to bridge the gap between airborne laser scanning (ALS) and ground-based field techniques for accurately assessing leaf area index (LAI) in sparsely vegetated landscapes like sagebrush steppe. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was used to measure structural variable...

  13. Do container volume, site preparation, and field fertilization affect restoration potential of Wyoming big sagebrush?

    Treesearch

    Kayla R. Herriman; Anthony S. Davis; Kent G. Apostol; Olga. A. Kildisheva; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Kas Dumroese

    2016-01-01

    Land management practices, invasive species expansion, and changes in the fire regime greatly impact the distribution of native plants in natural areas. Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis), a keystone species in the Great Basin, has seen a 50% reduction in its distribution. For many dryland species, reestablishment efforts have...

  14. Seed production estimation for mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana)

    Treesearch

    Melissa L. Landeen; Loreen Allphin; Stanley G. Kitchen; Steven L. Petersen

    2017-01-01

    Seed production is an essential component of postdisturbance recovery for mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp vaseyana [Rydb] Beetle; MBS). We tested a method for rapid estimation of MBS seed production using measurements of inflorescence morphology. We measured total stem length, stem length from first branchlet to stem tip, stem diameter, fresh...

  15. Postfire shrub cover dynamics: a 70-year fire history in mountain big sagebrush communities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fire is a natural process in sagebrush (Artemisia L.) communities. Land managers use fire to meet rangeland management objectives. This study was conducted to quantify, from present conditions, the effect of time since last burn (TSLB) on shrub cover over 70 yr of fire history. We sampled mountain...

  16. Postfire shrub-cover dynamics: a 70-year fire history in big sagebrush communities.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land managers use prescribed fire to meet rangeland management objectives. This study was conducted to quantify, from present conditions, the effect of time since last burn (TSLB) on shrub cover over 70 yr of fire history. We sampled mountain big sagebrush communities at the USDA, ARS, U.S. Sheep ...

  17. Impacts of fire on hydrology and erosion in steep mountain big sagebrush communities

    Treesearch

    Frederick B. Pierson; Peter R. Robichaud; Kenneth E. Spaeth; Corey A. Moffet

    2003-01-01

    Wildfire is an important ecological process and management issue on western rangelands. Major unknowns associated with wildfire are its affects on vegetation and soil conditions that influence hydrologic processes including infiltration, surface runoff, erosion, sediment transport, and flooding. Post wildfire hydrologic response was studied in big sagebrush plant...

  18. Sagebrush wildfire effects on soil chemistry: A temporal and spatial study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In sagebrush ecosystems, surface soil nutrient availability, particularly of N, often increases immediately following wildfire. However, little is known on how soil N availability and other nutrients, change over time post-wildfire. In October 2013, a wildfire approximately 30 km north of Reno, NV o...

  19. Plant and soil consequences of shrub management in a big sagebrush-dominated rangeland ecosystem

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) responses to shrub management in western US rangelands, especially those dominated by Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young) in low rainfall areas (<300 mm), remains a major knowledge gap. We sampled vegetation and soils in 2009 ...

  20. Implications of longer term rest from grazing in the sagebrush steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Longer term grazing rest has occurred or been proposed in large portions of the sagebrush steppe based on the assumption that it will improve ecosystem properties. However, information regarding the influence of longer term rest is limited and has not been summarized. We synthesized the literature o...

  1. Climate drives adaptive genetic responses associated with survival in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Treesearch

    Lindsay Chaney; Bryce A. Richardson; Matthew J. Germino

    2016-01-01

    A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation for survival in Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush). Artemisia tridentata is a widespread and foundational shrub species in western North America. This species has become extremely fragmented, to the detriment of dependent wildlife, and efforts to restore it are now a land management priority. Common-...

  2. Estimation procedures for understory biomass and fuel loads in sagebrush steppe invaded by woodlands

    Treesearch

    Alicia L. Reiner; Robin J. Tausch; Roger F. Walker

    2010-01-01

    Regression equations were developed to predict biomass for 9 shrubs, 9 grasses, and 10 forbs that generally dominate sagebrush ecosystems in central Nevada. Independent variables included percent cover, average height, and plant volume. We explored 2 ellipsoid volumes: one with maximum plant height and 2 crown diameters and another with live crown height and 2 crown...

  3. A comparison of Bromus tectorum growth and mycorrhizal colonization in salt desert versus sagebrush habitat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cheatgrass has recently invaded marginal low elevation salt desert habitats across the Great Basin, USA. We tested the hypothesis that cheatgrass seed produced in populations from the more stressful salt desert versus upland sagebrush habitats should grow differently in salt desert soils compared to...

  4. The influence of plant removal on succession in wyoming big sagebrush

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predicting plant community response following disturbance is a major hurdle facing ecologists. The objective of our study was to identify the rate of short-term (<10 years) floristic changes following removal of plant functional groups in Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensi...

  5. Seral stage classification and monitoring model for big sagebrush/western wheatgrass/blue grama habitat

    Treesearch

    Lakhdar Benkobi; Daniel W. Uresk

    1996-01-01

    An ecological classification model for seral stages was developed for big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) shrub steppe habitat in Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming. Four seral stages (early to late succession) were defined in this habitat type. Ecological seral stages were quantitatively identified with an estimated 92% level of accuracy...

  6. Spatial variability in cost and success of revegetation in a Wyoming big sagebrush community

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ecological integrity of the Wyoming big sagebrush alliance is being severely interrupted by post-fire invasion of non-native annual grasses. In order to curtail this invasion, successful post-fire revegetation of perennial grasses in affected areas is required. Environmental factors impacting ...

  7. Attempting to restore mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) four years after fire

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Restoration of shrubs is increasingly needed throughout the world because of altered fire regimes, anthropogenic disturbance, and over-utilization. The native shrub mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) is a restoration priority in western North America be...

  8. Predicting fire-based perennial bunchgrass mortality in low elevation big sagebrush plant communities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maintenance and post-fire rehabilitation of perennial bunchgrasses is important for reducing the spread of annual grass species in low elevation big sagebrush plant communities. Post-fire rehabilitation decisions are hampered by a lack of tools for determining extent of fire-induced perennial grass...

  9. Transcriptome sequencing, characterization, and polymorphism detection in subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisa tridentata)

    Treesearch

    Prabin Bajgain

    2011-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is one of the ecologically most important shrub species in western North America. The species serves as a major source of food and habitat for the nearthreatened sage grouse and various other fauna. Habitat loss due to a combination of disturbances followed by establishment of invasive plant species is considered as a serious threat...

  10. Transcriptome characterization and polymorphism detection between subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Treesearch

    Prabin Bajgain; Bryce A. Richardson; Jared C. Price; Richard C. Cronn; Joshua A. Udall

    2011-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is one of the most widely distributed and ecologically important shrub species in western North America. This species serves as a critical habitat and food resource for many animals and invertebrates. Habitat loss due to a combination of disturbances followed by establishment of invasive plant species is a serious threat to big...

  11. Resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems: Implications for state and transition models and management treatments

    Treesearch

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Richard F. Miller; David I. Board; David A. Pyke; Bruce A. Roundy; James B. Grace; Eugene W. Schupp; Robin J. Tausch

    2014-01-01

    In sagebrush ecosystems invasion of annual exotics and expansion of pinon (Pinus monophylla Torr. and Frem.) and juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook., J. osteosperma [Torr.] Little) are altering fire regimes and resulting in large-scale ecosystem transformations. Management treatments aim to increase resilience to disturbance and enhance resistance to invasive species...

  12. Vegetation species diversity inside and outside exclosures in sagebrush, salt desert shrub, and aspen communities

    Treesearch

    W. A. Laycock; Dale Bartos

    1999-01-01

    Vegetation was sampled inside and outside eight exclosures in salt desert shrub and sagebrush vegetation types in Southwestern Wyoming and eight exclosures in aspen vegetation in southern Utah. Only species richness has been examined thus far. Five of the eight Wyoming exclosures had an average of 11% more plant species present outside the exclosure than inside.

  13. Impact of tebuthiuron on biodiversity of high elevation mountain big sagebrush communities

    Treesearch

    Barbara A. Wachocki; Mohammad Sondossi; Stewart C. Sanderson; Bruce L. Webb; E. Durant McArthur

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine tebuthiuron’s (1) effectiveness at low application rates in thinning dense, high elevation stands of mountain big sagebrush, (2) impact on understory herbaceous plants and soil microflora, and (3) movement and stability in soil. Four study sites were established in the Fish Lake National Forest and adjacent Bureau of Land...

  14. Mountain big sagebrush communities on the Bishop Conglomerate in the eastern Uinta Mountains

    Treesearch

    Sherel Goodrich; Allen Huber

    2001-01-01

    The Bishop Conglomerate forms broad, gently sloping pediments that include a mantle or veneer of coarse gravel and some cobble over underlying formations. These pediments cover large areas at the margins of the Uinta Mountains. Mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata var. pauciflora) communities cover rather large areas at the outer edge or lower end of these...

  15. Evaluating winter/spring seeding of a native perennial bunchgrass in the sagebrush steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) plant communities in the US Great Basin region are being severely impacted by increasingly frequent wildfires in association with the expansion of exotic annual grasses. Maintenance of native perennial bunchgrasses is key to controlling annual grass expansion,...

  16. Native bunchgrass response to prescribed fire in ungrazed Mountain Big Sagebrush ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; J. Boone Kauffman

    2010-01-01

    Fire was historically a dominant ecological process throughout mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana [Rydb.] Beetle) ecosystems of western North America, and the native biota have developed many adaptations to persist in a regime typified by frequent fires. Following spring and fall prescribed fires...

  17. Two subspecies and a hybrid of big sagebrush: Comparison of respiration and growth characteristics

    Treesearch

    L. D. Hansen; L. K. Farnsworth; N. K. Itoga; A. Nicholson; H. L. Summers; M. C. Whitsitt; E. D. McArthur

    2008-01-01

    Environmental temperatures and growth and respiratory characteristics of natural populations of two subspecies and a hybrid of sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) that grow on a single hillside were measured to test a hypothesis that adaptation to microclimate temperature patterns restricts these taxa to their native locations and that plant-endophyte...

  18. Tapping soil survey information for rapid assessment of sagebrush ecosystem resilience and resistance

    Treesearch

    Jeremy D. Maestas; Steven B. Campbell; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Richard F. Miller

    2016-01-01

    A new ecologically-based approach to risk abatement has emerged that can aid land managers in grappling with escalating impacts of large-scale wildfire and invasive annual grasses in sagebrush ecosystems, particularly in the Great Basin. Specifically, ecosystem resilience and resistance (R&R) concepts have been more fully operationalized from regional...

  19. Hydrologic impacts of woodland encroachment and tree removal in Great Basin sagebrush steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extensive woodland expansion in the Great Basin has generated concern regarding the ecological impacts of tree encroachment on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) rangelands. This study used rainfall and concentrated flow experiments and measures of vegetation, ground cover, and soils at three sites to inve...

  20. Dynamics of western juniper woodland expansion into sagebrush communities in central Oregon

    Treesearch

    Mary M. Rowland; Lowell H. Suring; Robin J. Tausch; Susan Greer; Michael J. Wisdom

    2011-01-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) woodlands in Oregon have expanded four-fold from 600,000 ha in 1930 to > 2.6 million ha, often resulting in the reduction and fragmentation of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities. We documented dynamics of western juniper across the John Day Ecological Province in central Oregon by recording size class and growth form at...

  1. Challenges of establishing big sgebrush (Artemisia tridentata) in rangeland restoration: effects of herbicide, mowing, whole-community seeding, and sagebrush seed sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabec, Martha M.; Germino, Matthew J.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Pilliod, David S.; McIlroy, Susan K.; Arkle, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) on sites disturbed by fire has motivated restoration seeding and planting efforts. However, the resulting sagebrush establishment is often lower than desired, especially in dry areas. Sagebrush establishment may be increased by addressing factors such as seed source and condition or management of the plant community. We assessed initial establishment of seeded sagebrush and four populations of small outplants (from different geographies, climates, and cytotypes) and small sagebrush outplants in an early seral community where mowing, herbicide, and seeding of other native plants had been experimentally applied. No emergence of seeded sagebrush was detected. Mowing the site before planting seedlings led to greater initial survival probabilities for sagebrush outplants, except where seeding also occurred, and these effects were related to corresponding changes in bare soil exposure. Initial survival probabilities were > 30% greater for the local population of big sagebrush relative to populations imported to the site from typical seed transfer distances of ~320–800 km. Overcoming the high first-year mortality of outplanted or seeded sagebrush is one of the most challenging aspects of postfire restoration and rehabilitation, and further evaluation of the impacts of herb treatments and sagebrush seed sources across different site types and years is needed.

  2. Identifying key climate and environmental factors affecting rates of post-fire big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) recovery in the northern Columbia Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinneman, Douglas; McIlroy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe of North America is considered highly imperilled, in part owing to increased fire frequency. Sagebrush ecosystems support numerous species, and it is important to understand those factors that affect rates of post-fire sagebrush recovery. We explored recovery of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp.wyomingensis) and basin big sagebrush (A. tridentata ssp. tridentata) communities following fire in the northern Columbia Basin (Washington, USA). We sampled plots across 16 fires that burned in big sagebrush communities from 5 to 28 years ago, and also sampled nearby unburned locations. Mixed-effects models demonstrated that density of large–mature big sagebrush plants and percentage cover of big sagebrush were higher with time since fire and in plots with more precipitation during the winter immediately following fire, but were lower when precipitation the next winter was higher than average, especially on soils with higher available water supply, and with greater post-fire mortality of mature big sagebrush plants. Bunchgrass cover 5 to 28 years after fire was predicted to be lower with higher cover of both shrubs and non-native herbaceous species, and only slightly higher with time. Post-fire recovery of big sagebrush in the northern Columbia Basin is a slow process that may require several decades on average, but faster recovery rates may occur under specific site and climate conditions.

  3. 2008 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2008 and includes 22 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and two bat habitat mitigation projects.

  4. 2007 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    K. A. Gano; C. T. Lindsey

    2007-09-27

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2007 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 3 bat habitat mitigation projects.

  5. DimeRisk Project: Development of an educational and training program for the prevention and mitigation of seismic risk in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-González, Fidel; Martín-Velazquez, Silvia; Giner-Robles, Jorge; Martínez-Díaz, Jose Jesus; Rodríguez-Pascua, Miguel Angel; Béjar, Marta; Pérez-López, Raul; López, Jose Antonio; Morales, Javier; Barranco, Ana; Palomo, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    In Spain, due to the low recurrence of earthquakes in the last century, there is no awareness of seismic risk and prevention plans. For this reason, moderate magnitude earthquakes have generated significant damage and casualties. However, the risk is evident, in Spain during the nineteenth century there were more than five destructive earthquakes with intensities greater than VIII (e.g. Arenas del Rey IX-X, Torrevieja IX-X). A recent example was the 2011 Lorca earthquake, that with moderate magnitudes and intensities (magnitude Mw 5.2, intensity VI) it struck a populated area with old historic buildings and a population unprepared (9 victims, 324 injured, 1,200 million in reparations). In this earthquake many errors were found in the behavior of the population and in the basic self-protection measures. Many countries have educational programs that significantly reduce the damage and losses caused by earthquakes. The objective of this project (Dimerisk project) is to generate training and educational materials that help mitigate the damage and losses caused by earthquakes. This project is based on plans of experienced countries (e.g. U.S.A., Italy, Mexico, New Zealand) but having into account the mistakes made in the last earthquake in Spain, and also the characteristics of the Spanish educational system and building characteristics. This project has been founded by FUNDACION MAPFRE. The team is formed by geologist, earthquake researchers and teachers at secondary schools and universities. The ultimate goal is to generate material that can inform about the seismic and geological processes that participate in an earthquake and the basics of self-protection against earthquakes. This project has focused on scenarios (offices, factories, homes, education centers) and educational levels (schools, colleges and universities). Educational materials have been also developed for different educational levels with basic concepts related to seismicity, how to behave during an

  6. Greater sage-grouse as an umbrella species for sagebrush-associated vertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowland, M.M.; Wisdom, M.J.; Suring, L.H.; Meinke, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Widespread degradation of the sagebrush ecosystem in the western United States, including the invasion of cheatgrass, has prompted resource managers to consider a variety of approaches to restore and conserve habitats for sagebrush-associated species. One such approach involves the use of greater sage-grouse, a species of prominent conservation interest, as an umbrella species. This shortcut approach assumes that managing habitats to conserve sage-grouse will simultaneously benefit other species of conservation concern. The efficacy of using sage-grouse as an umbrella species for conservation management, however, has not been fully evaluated. We tested that concept by comparing: (1) commonality in land-cover associations, and (2) spatial overlap in habitats between sage-grouse and 39 other sagebrush-associated vertebrate species of conservation concern in the Great Basin ecoregion. Overlap in species' land-cover associations with those of sage-grouse, based on the ?? (phi) correlation coefficient, was substantially greater for sagebrush obligates (x??=0.40) than non-obligates (x??=0.21). Spatial overlap between habitats of target species and those associated with sage-grouse was low (mean ?? = 0.23), but somewhat greater for habitats at high risk of displacement by cheatgrass (mean ?? = 0.33). Based on our criteria, management of sage-grouse habitats likely would offer relatively high conservation coverage for sagebrush obligates such as pygmy rabbit (mean ?? = 0.84), but far less for other species we addressed, such as lark sparrow (mean ?? = 0.09), largely due to lack of commonality in land-cover affinity and geographic ranges of these species and sage-grouse.

  7. Harvesting considerations for ecosystem restoration projects

    Treesearch

    Dana Mitchell; John. Klepac

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to identify and develop cost effective harvesting systems for ecosystem restoration projects. In the Western United States, pinyon-juniper woodlands are expanding into sagebrush and rangeland ecosystems. In many areas, this growth negatively impacts water, wildlife habitat, biodiversity, and other resources. In other areas, such as Texas and Oklahoma,...

  8. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Phase 1, Volume Two (B), Clark Fork River Projects, Cabinet Gorge and Noxon Rapids Dams, Operator, Washington Water Power Company.

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Marilyn

    1984-06-01

    This report documents best available information concerning the wildlife species impacted and the degree of the impact. A target species list was developed to focus the impact assessment and to direct mitigation efforts. Many non-target species also incurred impacts but are not discussed in this report. All wildlife habitats inundated by the two reservoirs are represented by the target species. It was assumed the numerous non-target species also affected will be benefited by the mitigation measures adopted for the target species. Impacts addressed are limited to those directly attributable to the loss of habitat and displacement of wildlife populations due to the construction and operation of the two hydroelectric projects. Secondary impacts, such as the relocation of railroads and highways, and the increase of the human population, were not considered. In some cases, both positive and negative impacts were assessed; and the overall net effect was reported. The loss/gain estimates reported represent impacts considered to have occurred during one point in time except where otherwise noted. When possible, quantitative estimates were developed based on historical information from the area or on data from similar areas. Qualitative loss estimates of low, moderate, or high with supporting rationale were assessed for each species or species group.

  9. The economics of fuel management: wildfire, invasive plants, and the dynamics of sagebrush rangelands in the western United States.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michael H; Rollins, Kimberly; Kobayashi, Mimako; Tausch, Robin J

    2013-09-15

    In this article we develop a simulation model to evaluate the economic efficiency of fuel treatments and apply it to two sagebrush ecosystems in the Great Basin of the western United States: the Wyoming Sagebrush Steppe and Mountain Big Sagebrush ecosystems. These ecosystems face the two most prominent concerns in sagebrush ecosystems relative to wildfire: annual grass invasion and native conifer expansion. Our model simulates long-run wildfire suppression costs with and without fuel treatments explicitly incorporating ecological dynamics, stochastic wildfire, uncertain fuel treatment success, and ecological thresholds. Our results indicate that, on the basis of wildfire suppression costs savings, fuel treatment is economically efficient only when the two ecosystems are in relatively good ecological health. We also investigate how shorter wildfire-return intervals, improved treatment success rates, and uncertainty about the location of thresholds between ecological states influence the economic efficiency of fuel treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Final Project Report: Development of Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulations and Experimental Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Wessel, Silvia; Harvey, David

    2013-06-28

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a primary requirement for large scale commercialization of these power systems in transportation and stationary market applications that target operational lifetimes of 5,000 hours and 40,000 hours by 2015, respectively. Key degradation modes contributing to fuel cell lifetime limitations have been largely associated with the platinum-based cathode catalyst layer. Furthermore, as fuel cells are driven to low cost materials and lower catalyst loadings in order to meet the cost targets for commercialization, the catalyst durability has become even more important. While over the past few years significant progress has been made in identifying the underlying causes of fuel cell degradation and key parameters that greatly influence the degradation rates, many gaps with respect to knowledge of the driving mechanisms still exist; in particular, the acceleration of the mechanisms due to different structural compositions and under different fuel cell conditions remains an area not well understood. The focus of this project was to address catalyst durability by using a dual path approach that coupled an extensive range of experimental analysis and testing with a multi-scale modeling approach. With this, the major technical areas/issues of catalyst and catalyst layer performance and durability that were addressed are: 1. Catalyst and catalyst layer degradation mechanisms (Pt dissolution, agglomeration, Pt loss, e.g. Pt in the membrane, carbon oxidation and/or corrosion). a. Driving force for the different degradation mechanisms. b. Relationships between MEA performance, catalyst and catalyst layer degradation and operational conditions, catalyst layer composition, and structure. 2. Materials properties a. Changes in catalyst, catalyst layer, and MEA materials properties due to degradation. 3. Catalyst performance a. Relationships between catalyst structural changes and performance. b. Stability of the three-phase boundary and its effect on

  11. Projected 21st Century Impacts of Climate Change on the Performance of the Los Angeles Aqueduct and Adaptation Measures to Mitigate Adverse Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, B.; Sayenko, K.; Roy, S. B.; Lew, C.

    2011-12-01

    One of the largest sources of drinking water to the City of Los Angeles (the City) comes from snow melt from the Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains that drain into Owens Valley and Mono Basin. Much of this water is then transported to the City via the Los Angeles Aqueduct (LAA) originally built in 1913. During the 1980s and earlier, up to 500,000 acre-feet (af) of water was conveyed annually, but more recently less water has been transported due to increasing usage in Owens Valley, and due to a series of dry years.The City is concerned about potential impacts of climate change on this water supply, and commissioned the authors to perform a study to evaluate these potential impacts on both the infrastructure of the LAA and water supply to the City. This presentation focuses on the water supply issue, which has the potential to impact millions of customers. The study results presented here are part of a larger study where 16 global climate models were downscaled and applied to the Owens Valley and Mono Basin watersheds. This presentation begins by assuming base-of-mountain runoff is known from the 16 GCMs, and does not focus on the GCMs or downscaling.The results of the study described in this presentation are those of the authors and not of the LADWP. One of the most consequential findings of the study is the projected decrease in runoff from the watershed over the 21st century. While wet years are still dispersed between dry years, over the 21st century the loss in runoff is equivalent to approximately five years of historical average runoff. In addition to climate change impacts, water usage in the Owens valley is projected to increase over the 21st century and that increasing usage is projected to be comparable to climate change impacts. Eight adaptation options were identified to mitigate potential impacts. These included increasing storage volume of reservoirs in Owens Valley, changing operational rules for releasing water, construction of surface storage or

  12. HOW EFFECTIVE ARE FEDERAL PROGRAMS IN MITIGATING WETLAND LOSSES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project tests the hypothesis that fundamental value differences among three key contributors to wetlands mitigation may be important and generally unrecognized factors determining the project outcomes.

  13. An integrated multi-parameter monitoring approach for the quantification and mitigation of the climate change impact on the coasts of Eastern Crete, S. Aegean Sea (Project AKTAIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghionis, George; Alexandrakis, George; Karditsa, Aikaterini; Sifnioti, Dafni; Vousdoukas, Michalis; Andreadis, Olympos; Petrakis, Stelios; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Lipakis, Michalis

    2014-05-01

    associated sediment transport and beach morphodynamics, calibrated with in situ data, is used to predict beach response and vulnerability to different climate change scenarios. Finally, the socio-economic impact of the climate change on the coastal zone will be assessed and a management protocol for the coastal zone and for the mitigation of the climate change impact will be developed. The ultimate scope of the project is to benefit the society by providing current and high quality information on the consequences of the climate change, especially those related to sea-level rise, and on the available protection and mitigation measures. In addition, the technological product will help in the proper planning of the required actions and technical interventions, reducing the need for costly, incomplete and frequently redundant localized studies and the risk of unsuccessful interventions. Acknowledgements The project is supported by the Action "Cooperation 2007-2013" (09SYN-31-711 "AKTAIA") of the Operational Program "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and the General Secretariat for Research and Technology (Hellenic Ministry of Education).

  14. The ICDP-CFDDP Project: Understanding caldera dynamics and mitigating the extreme risk of the most urbanised volcano in the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato; Piochi, Monica; Di Vito, Mauro; Isaia, Roberto; De Vita, Sandro; Sacchi, Marco; Josè Jurado, Maria; Wiersberg, Thomas; Kueck, Jochem; Molisso, Flavia; Erzinger, Joerge; Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; Gudmundsson, Agust; Burg, Jean Pierre; Zappone, Alba; Hill, David P.

    2013-04-01

    The Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP) entered the operative phase during the second half of 2012, with the pilot hole drilling. The Project was initiated to address two kinds of problems: 1) purely volcanological, to understand in detail the dynamics of the most explosive and yet mostly unknown volcanism on the Earth with the potential to generate global catastrophes, and 2) to mitigate the highest volcanic risk in the World, namely the one associated with the metropolitan area of Naples where more than 3,000,000 people are exposed to extreme risk. The CFDDP Project offers the only direct means to understand the physics driving the on-going ground uplift affecting the area since at least six centuries, through in situ and laboratory measurements of rock rheology and permeability. In particular, direct investigation at depth by drilling is essential for understanding the extent that shallow magma intrusion is involved in the uplift of 15 to 20 m accumulated over the last centuries. Such a high cumulative uplift corresponds to 1-10 km3 of new magma intruded into the system, depending on details of the model used. Such an erupted volume should be conservatively assumed as the worst scenario for a future eruption. This corresponds to a massive eruption, largest than any other one after the caldera-forming Yellow Tuff eruption of 15,000 y BP and not much smaller than that, which would anyway require evacuation of some millions people. An alternative possibility is that the cumulative uplift is mostly due to shallow geothermal perturbations as described in several recent publications. Both possibilities, each with widely differing hazard implications, rely strongly on as yet poorly known conditions at depth beneath the caldera. It is thus crucial to discriminate between these two opposing possibilities in order to clarify the worst scenario for a future eruption and to provide an invaluable tool for civil defence at this densely populated area. This

  15. USGS mineral-resource assessment of Sagebrush Focal Areas in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David G.; Frost, Thomas P.; Day, Warren C.; ,

    2016-10-04

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have completed an assessment of the mineral-resource potential of nearly 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. The assessment of these lands, identified as Sagebrush Focal Areas, was done at the request of the Bureau of Land Management. The assessment results will be used in the decision-making process that the Department of the Interior is pursuing toward the protection of large areas of contiguous sagebrush habitat for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Western United States. The detailed results of this ambitious study are published in the five volumes of USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089 and seven accompanying data releases.

  16. North American Artemisia species from the subgenus Tridentatae (Sagebrush): a phytochemical, botanical and pharmacological review.

    PubMed

    Turi, Christina E; Shipley, Paul R; Murch, Susan J

    2014-02-01

    The genus Artemisia consists of between 350 and 500 species with most of the North American endemic Artemisia species contained within the subgenus Tridentatae (Sagebrush). The reported uses of these species by Native American and First Nations peoples include analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiseptic, immunostimulation activity, as well as the treatment of afflictions from spiritual origins. Taxonomic revision for North American Sagebrush has created a number of synonyms that confuse the literature. The phytochemical diversity of the Tridentatae includes at least 220 distinct and important specialized metabolites. This manuscript reviews the current phytochemical, botanical and pharmacological understanding for the subgenus Tridentatae, and provides a foundation for future studies of the metabolomes of the Tridentatae. Modern approaches to phytochemical analysis and drug discovery are likely to provide interesting lead compounds in the near future.

  17. Establishing native grasses in a big sagebrush-dominated site: an intermediate restoration step

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Pyke, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Many semiarid rangelands in the Great Basin, U.S.A., are shifting dominance to woody species as a consequence of land degradation including intense livestock grazing and fire suppression. Whereas past rehabilitation efforts in Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) steppes removed the shrub and added introduced forage grasses to successfully shift communities from shrublands to grasslands, current consensus is that native species should be included in restoration projects and that retention of some woody plants is desirable. We examined the potential for interseeding grasses into dense shrub communities as a precursor to thinning shrubs and releasing grasses from shrub interference. We compared seedling establishment of the native grass, Bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), with that of the Eurasia grass, Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum), in dense Ar. tridentata stands. Shrubs may play an important role as nurse plants for seedling establishment (reduced solar radiation, 'island of fertility' effect) but result in highly contrasting light environments and root interference for seedlings. In experimental plots, we examined effects of Ar. tridentata shade levels (0, 40, 70, and 90% reduction of solar radiation) and initial root exclusion (present/absent) on the establishment and growth of P. spicata and Ag. desertorum seedlings. With this design we evaluated the interference effects of Ar. tridentata on the two grasses and identified the most beneficial microsites for grass restoration in Ar. tridentataa??dominated communities. We predicted seedling survival and growth to be greater under moderate shade (40% reduction) and limited root competition than under no or strong shade conditions (0 and 90%) and unrestricted root interactions. Fifty to 85% of the P. spicata and Ag. desertorum seedlings survived the dry summer months of 1995 and 1996 and the intervening winter. Neither shading nor root exclusion from Ar. tridentata affected final seedling

  18. Comparison of radionuclide levels in soil, sagebrush, plant litter, cryptogams, and small mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    Soil, sagebrush, plant litter, cryptogam, and small mammal samples were collected and analyzed for cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium 239/240, technetium-99, and iodine-129 from 1981 to 1986 at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State as part of site characterization and environmental monitoring activities. Samples were collected on the 200 Areas Plateau, downwind from ongoing waste management activities. Plant litter, cryptogams, and small mammals are media that are not routinely utilized in monitoring or characterization efforts for determination of radionuclide concentrations. Studies at Hanford, other US Department of Energy sites, and in eastern Europe have indicated that plant litter and cryptogams may serve as effective ``natural`` monitors of air quality. Plant litter in this study consists of fallen leaves from sagebrush and ``cryptogams`` describes that portion of the soil crust composed of mosses, lichens, algae, and fungi. Comparisons of cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations in the soil, sagebrush, litter, and cryptogams revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) levels in plant litter and cryptogams. Technetium-99 values were the highest in sagebrush and litter. Plutonium-238 and 239/40 and iodine-129 concentrations never exceeded 0.8 pCi/gm in all media. No evidence of any significant amounts of any radionuclides being incorporated into the small mammal community was discovered. The data indicate that plant litter and cryptogams may be better, indicators of environmental quality than soil or vegetation samples. Augmenting a monitoring program with samples of litter and cryptogams may provide a more accurate representation of radionuclide environmental uptake and/or contamination levels in surrounding ecosystems. The results of this study may be applied directly to other radioecological monitoring conducted at other nuclear sites and to the monitoring of other pollutants.

  19. Trade-off between plant growth and defense? A comparison of sagebrush populations.

    PubMed

    Messina, Frank J; Durham, Susan L; Richards, James H; McArthur, Durant E

    2002-03-01

    We used ecotypic variation in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) to examine potential trade-offs between inherent growth rate and tolerance or resistance to herbivory. Seeds were obtained from seven geographic populations, and 1,120 seedlings were established in a common garden. In one set of plots, plants were subjected to five treatments: control, regular insecticide spray, moderate browsing, severe browsing, or moderate browsing plus insecticide. Plants in a second set of plots were all untreated, and were used to estimate ambient growth, flower production, and susceptibility to herbivorous insects. In the first growing season, population differences in relative growth rate produced approximately seven-fold variation in mean biomass. Two populations of basin big sagebrush (A. tridentata tridentata) and one population of mountain big sagebrush (A. tridentata vaseyana) grew fastest; those of Wyoming big sagebrush (A. tridentata wyomingensis) showed the slowest growth. Bi-weekly application of insecticide for two growing seasons had no effect on the growth of either browsed or unbrowsed plants. All populations showed compensatory growth (but not overcompensation) in response to browsing, but the degree of compensation was unrelated to inherent growth rate. Similarly, there was no consistent relationship between plant growth rate and flower production in the second growing season. Some insects colonized fast-growing populations more frequently than slow-growing ones, but patterns of insect colonization were species-specific. At the level of geographic populations and subspecies, we found little evidence of a built-in trade-off between inherent growth rate and the ability to tolerate or resist herbivory. Because population ranks for growth rate changed substantially between seasons, attempts to correlate growth and defense characters need to account for differences in the growth trajectories of perennial plants.

  20. Signals of speciation: volatile organic compounds resolve closely related sagebrush taxa, suggesting their importance in evolution.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Deidre M; Runyon, Justin B; Richardson, Bryce A

    2016-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in the environmental adaptation and fitness of plants. Comparison of the qualitative and quantitative differences in VOCs among closely related taxa and assessing the effects of environment on their emissions are important steps to deducing VOC function and evolutionary importance. Headspace VOCs from five taxa of sagebrush (Artemisia, subgenus Tridentatae) growing in two common gardens were collected and analyzed using GC-MS. Of the 74 total VOCs emitted, only 15 were needed to segregate sagebrush taxa using Random Forest analysis with a low error of 4%. All but one of these 15 VOCs showed qualitative differences among taxa. Ordination of results showed strong clustering that reflects taxonomic classification. Random Forest identified five VOCs that classify based on environment (2% error), which do not overlap with the 15 VOCs that segregated taxa. We show that VOCs can discriminate closely related species and subspecies of Artemisia, which are difficult to define using molecular markers or morphology. Thus, it appears that changes in VOCs either lead the way or follow closely behind speciation in this group. Future research should explore the functions of VOCs, which could provide further insights into the evolution of sagebrushes.

  1. Multi-scale remote sensing sagebrush characterization with regression trees over Wyoming, USA: Laying a foundation for monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homer, Collin G.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Meyer, Debra K.; Schell, Spencer J.

    2012-02-01

    Sagebrush ecosystems in North America have experienced extensive degradation since European settlement. Further degradation continues from exotic invasive plants, altered fire frequency, intensive grazing practices, oil and gas development, and climate change - adding urgency to the need for ecosystem-wide understanding. Remote sensing is often identified as a key information source to facilitate ecosystem-wide characterization, monitoring, and analysis; however, approaches that characterize sagebrush with sufficient and accurate local detail across large enough areas to support this paradigm are unavailable. We describe the development of a new remote sensing sagebrush characterization approach for the state of Wyoming, U.S.A. This approach integrates 2.4 m QuickBird, 30 m Landsat TM, and 56 m AWiFS imagery into the characterization of four primary continuous field components including percent bare ground, percent herbaceous cover, percent litter, and percent shrub, and four secondary components including percent sagebrush ( Artemisia spp.), percent big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata), percent Wyoming sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Wyomingensis), and shrub height using a regression tree. According to an independent accuracy assessment, primary component root mean square error (RMSE) values ranged from 4.90 to 10.16 for 2.4 m QuickBird, 6.01 to 15.54 for 30 m Landsat, and 6.97 to 16.14 for 56 m AWiFS. Shrub and herbaceous components outperformed the current data standard called LANDFIRE, with a shrub RMSE value of 6.04 versus 12.64 and a herbaceous component RMSE value of 12.89 versus 14.63. This approach offers new advancements in sagebrush characterization from remote sensing and provides a foundation to quantitatively monitor these components into the future.

  2. A spatial model to prioritize sagebrush landscapes in the intermountain west (U.S.A.) for restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinke, C.W.; Knick, S.T.; Pyke, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The ecological integrity of Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems in the Intermountain West (U.S.A.) has been diminished by synergistic relationships among human activities, spread of invasive plants, and altered disturbance regimes. An aggressive effort to restore Sagebrush habitats is necessary if we are to stabilize or improve current habitat trajectories and reverse declining population trends of dependent wildlife. Existing economic resources, technical impediments, and logistic difficulties limit our efforts to a fraction of the extensive area undergoing fragmentation, degradation, and loss. We prioritized landscapes for restoring Sagebrush habitats within the intermountain western region of the United States using geographic information system (GIS) modeling techniques to identify areas meeting a set of conditions based on (1) optimum abiotic and biotic conditions favorable for revegetation of Sagebrush; (2) potential to increase connectivity of Sagebrush habitats in the landscape to benefit wildlife; (3) location of population strongholds for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, a species of conservation concern); and (4) potential impediments to successful restoration created by Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum, an invasive exotic annual grass). Approximately 5.8 million ha in southwestern Idaho, northern Nevada, and eastern Oregon met our criteria for restoring Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) and 5.1 million ha had high priority for restoring Mountain big sagebrush (A. tridentata ssp. vaseyana). Our results represent an integral component in a hierarchical framework after which site-specific locations for treatments can be focused within high-priority areas. Using this approach, long-term restoration strategies can be implemented that combine local-scale treatments and objectives with large-scale ecological processes and priorities. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  3. Relative abundance of and composition within fungal orders differ between cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)-associated soils.

    PubMed

    Wiber, Carolyn F; King, Gary M; Aho, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Nonnative Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) is decimating sagebrush steppe, one of the largest ecosystems in the Western United States, and is causing regional-scale shifts in the predominant plant-fungal interactions. Sagebrush, a native perennial, hosts arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), whereas cheatgrass, a winter annual, is a relatively poor host of AMF. This shift is likely intertwined with decreased carbon (C)-sequestration in cheatgrass-invaded soils and alterations in overall soil fungal community composition and structure, but the latter remain unresolved. We examined soil fungal communities using high throughput amplicon sequencing (ribosomal large subunit gene) in the 0-4 cm and 4-8 cm depth intervals of six cores from cheatgrass- and six cores from sagebrush-dominated soils. Sagebrush core surfaces (0-4 cm) contained higher nitrogen and total C than cheatgrass core surfaces; these differences mirrored the presence of glomalin related soil proteins (GRSP), which has been associated with AMF activity and increased C-sequestration. Fungal richness was not significantly affected by vegetation type, depth or an interaction of the two factors. However, the relative abundance of seven taxonomic orders was significantly affected by vegetation type or the interaction between vegetation type and depth. Teloschistales, Spizellomycetales, Pezizales and Cantharellales were more abundant in sagebrush libraries and contain mycorrhizal, lichenized and basal lineages of fungi. Only two orders (Coniochaetales and Sordariales), which contain numerous economically important pathogens and opportunistic saprotrophs, were more abundant in cheatgrass libraries. Pleosporales, Agaricales, Helotiales and Hypocreales were most abundant across all libraries, but the number of genera detected within these orders was as much as 29 times lower in cheatgrass relative to sagebrush libraries. These compositional differences between fungal communities associated with cheatgrass- and

  4. Relative abundance of and composition within fungal orders differ between cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate)-associated soils.

    PubMed

    Weber, Carolyn F; King, Gary M; Aho, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Nonnative Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) is decimating sagebrush steppe, one of the largest ecosystems in the Western United States, and is causing regional-scale shifts in the predominant plant-fungal interactions. Sagebrush, a native perennial, hosts arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), whereas cheatgrass, a winter annual, is a relatively poor host of AMF. This shift is likely intertwined with decreased carbon (C)-sequestration in cheatgrass-invaded soils and alterations in overall soil fungal community composition and structure, but the latter remain unresolved. We examined soil fungal communities using high throughput amplicon sequencing (ribosomal large subunit gene) in the 0-4 cm and 4-8 cm depth intervals of six cores from cheatgrass- and six cores from sagebrush-dominated soils. Sagebrush core surfaces (0-4 cm) contained higher nitrogen and total C than cheatgrass core surfaces; these differences mirrored the presence of glomalin related soil proteins (GRSP), which has been associated with AMF activity and increased C-sequestration. Fungal richness was not significantly affected by vegetation type, depth or an interaction of the two factors. However, the relative abundance of seven taxonomic orders was significantly affected by vegetation type or the interaction between vegetation type and depth. Teloschistales, Spizellomycetales, Pezizales and Cantharellales were more abundant in sagebrush libraries and contain mycorrhizal, lichenized and basal lineages of fungi. Only two orders (Coniochaetales and Sordariales), which contain numerous economically important pathogens and opportunistic saprotrophs, were more abundant in cheatgrass libraries. Pleosporales, Agaricales, Helotiales and Hypocreales were most abundant across all libraries, but the number of genera detected within these orders was as much as 29 times lower in cheatgrass relative to sagebrush libraries. These compositional differences between fungal communities associated with cheatgrass- and

  5. Relative Abundance of and Composition within Fungal Orders Differ between Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)-Associated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Carolyn F.; King, Gary M.; Aho, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Nonnative Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) is decimating sagebrush steppe, one of the largest ecosystems in the Western United States, and is causing regional-scale shifts in the predominant plant-fungal interactions. Sagebrush, a native perennial, hosts arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), whereas cheatgrass, a winter annual, is a relatively poor host of AMF. This shift is likely intertwined with decreased carbon (C)-sequestration in cheatgrass-invaded soils and alterations in overall soil fungal community composition and structure, but the latter remain unresolved. We examined soil fungal communities using high throughput amplicon sequencing (ribosomal large subunit gene) in the 0–4 cm and 4–8 cm depth intervals of six cores from cheatgrass- and six cores from sagebrush-dominated soils. Sagebrush core surfaces (0–4 cm) contained higher nitrogen and total C than cheatgrass core surfaces; these differences mirrored the presence of glomalin related soil proteins (GRSP), which has been associated with AMF activity and increased C-sequestration. Fungal richness was not significantly affected by vegetation type, depth or an interaction of the two factors. However, the relative abundance of seven taxonomic orders was significantly affected by vegetation type or the interaction between vegetation type and depth. Teloschistales, Spizellomycetales, Pezizales and Cantharellales were more abundant in sagebrush libraries and contain mycorrhizal, lichenized and basal lineages of fungi. Only two orders (Coniochaetales and Sordariales), which contain numerous economically important pathogens and opportunistic saprotrophs, were more abundant in cheatgrass libraries. Pleosporales, Agaricales, Helotiales and Hypocreales were most abundant across all libraries, but the number of genera detected within these orders was as much as 29 times lower in cheatgrass relative to sagebrush libraries. These compositional differences between fungal communities associated with cheatgrass- and

  6. Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bottum, Edward; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2002-01-01

    This report covers calendar year 2001 activities for the Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation project. This project, implemented by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Shoshone Bannock Tribes, is designed to protect, enhance and maintain wildlife habitats to mitigate for construction losses associated with Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon, Deadwood, Minidoka and Palisades hydroelectric projects. Additional project information is available in the quarterly reports.

  7. Projecting the Dependence of Sage-steppe Vegetation on Redistributed Snow in a Warming Climate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderquist, B.; Kavanagh, K.; Link, T. E.; Seyfried, M. S.; Strand, E. K.

    2015-12-01

    In mountainous regions, the redistribution of snow by wind can increase the effective precipitation available to vegetation. Moisture subsidies caused by drifting snow may be critical to plant productivity in semi-arid ecosystems. However, with increasing temperatures, the distribution of precipitation is becoming more uniform as rain replaces drifting snow. Understanding the ecohydrological interactions between sagebrush steppe vegetation communities and the heterogeneous distribution of soil moisture is essential for predicting and mitigating future losses in ecosystem diversity and productivity in regions characterized by snow dominated precipitation regimes. To address the dependence of vegetation productivity on redistributed snow, we simulated the net primary production (NPP) of aspen, sagebrush, and C3 grass plant functional types spanning a precipitation phase (rain:snow) gradient in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed and Critical Zone Observatory (RCEW-CZO). The biogeochemical process model Biome-BGC was used to simulate NPP at three sites located directly below snowdrifts that provide melt water late into the spring. To assess climate change impacts on future plant productivity, mid-century (2046-2065) NPP was simulated using the average temperature increase from the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) data set under the RCP 8.5 emission scenario. At the driest site, mid-century projections of decreased snow cover and increased growing season evaporative demand resulted in limiting soil moisture up to 30 and 40 days earlier for aspen and sage respectively. While spring green up for aspen occurred an average of 13 days earlier under climate change scenarios, NPP remained negative up to 40 days longer during the growing season. These results indicate that the loss of the soil moisture subsidy stemming from prolonged redistributed snow water resources can directly influence ecosystem productivity in the rain:snow transition zone.

  8. Transcriptome characterization and polymorphism detection between subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is one of the most widely distributed and ecologically important shrub species in western North America. This species serves as a critical habitat and food resource for many animals and invertebrates. Habitat loss due to a combination of disturbances followed by establishment of invasive plant species is a serious threat to big sagebrush ecosystem sustainability. Lack of genomic data has limited our understanding of the evolutionary history and ecological adaptation in this species. Here, we report on the sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in subspecies of big sagebrush. Results cDNA of A. tridentata sspp. tridentata and vaseyana were normalized and sequenced using the 454 GS FLX Titanium pyrosequencing technology. Assembly of the reads resulted in 20,357 contig consensus sequences in ssp. tridentata and 20,250 contigs in ssp. vaseyana. A BLASTx search against the non-redundant (NR) protein database using 29,541 consensus sequences obtained from a combined assembly resulted in 21,436 sequences with significant blast alignments (≤ 1e-15). A total of 20,952 SNPs and 119 polymorphic SSRs were detected between the two subspecies. SNPs were validated through various methods including sequence capture. Validation of SNPs in different individuals uncovered a high level of nucleotide variation in EST sequences. EST sequences of a third, tetraploid subspecies (ssp. wyomingensis) obtained by Illumina sequencing were mapped to the consensus sequences of the combined 454 EST assembly. Approximately one-third of the SNPs between sspp. tridentata and vaseyana identified in the combined assembly were also polymorphic within the two geographically distant ssp. wyomingensis samples. Conclusion We have produced a large EST dataset for Artemisia tridentata, which contains a large sample of the big sagebrush leaf transcriptome. SNP

  9. Compensatory Mitigation for Losses of Aquatic Resources; Final Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These regulations are designed to improve the effectiveness of compensatory mitigation to replace lost aquatic resource functions and area, and increase the efficiency and predictability of the mitigation project review process.

  10. Big sagebrush in pinyon-juniper woodlands: Using forest inventory and analysis data as a management tool for quantifying and monitoring mule deer habitat

    Treesearch

    Chris Witt; Paul L. Patterson

    2011-01-01

    We used Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IW-FIA) data to identify conditions where pinyon-juniper woodlands provide security cover, thermal cover, and suitable amounts of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp.) forage to mule deer in Utah. Roughly one quarter of Utah's pinyon-juniper woodlands had a big sagebrush component in their understory....

  11. Narrow hybrid zone between two subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata: Asteraceae): XI. Plant-insect interactions in reciprocal transplant gardens

    Treesearch

    John H. Graham; E. Durant McArthur; D. Carl Freeman

    2001-01-01

    Basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana) hybridize in a narrow zone near Salt Creek, Utah. Reciprocal transplant experiments in this hybrid zone demonstrate that hybrids are more fit than either parental subspecies, but only in the hybrid zone. Do hybrids experience greater, or lesser, use by...

  12. Producing fractional rangeland component predictions in a sagebrush ecosystem, a Wyoming sensitivity analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, George; Homer, Collin G.; Granneman, Brian; Meyer, Debra K.

    2012-01-01

    Remote sensing information has been widely used to monitor vegetation condition and variations in a variety of ecosystems, including shrublands. Careful application of remotely sensed imagery can provide additional spatially explicit, continuous, and extensive data on the composition and condition of shrubland ecosystems. Historically, the most widely available remote sensing information has been collected by Landsat, which has offered large spatial coverage and moderate spatial resolution data globally for nearly three decades. Such medium-resolution satellite remote sensing information can quantify the distribution and variation of terrestrial ecosystems. Landsat imagery has been frequently used with other high-resolution remote sensing data to classify sagebrush components and quantify their spatial distributions (Ramsey and others, 2004; Seefeldt and Booth, 2004; Stow and others, 2008; Underwood and others, 2007). Modeling algorithms have been developed to use field measurements and satellite remote sensing data to quantify the extent and evaluate the quality of shrub ecosystem components in large geographic areas (Homer and others, 2009). The percent cover of sagebrush ecosystem components, including bare-ground, herbaceous, litter, sagebrush, and shrub, have been quantified for entire western states (Homer and others, 2012). Furthermore, research has demonstrated the use of current measurements with historical archives of Landsat imagery to quantify the variations of these components for the last two decades (Xian and others, 2012). The modeling method used to quantify the extent and spatial distribution of sagebrush components over a large area also has required considerable amounts of training data to meet targeted accuracy requirements. These training data have maintained product accuracy by ensuring that they are derived from good quality field measurements collected during appropriate ecosystem phenology and subsequently maximized by extrapolation on

  13. Short- and longer-term effects of fire and herbivory on sagebrush communities in south-central Montana.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Fred; Darragh, Jeffrey A

    2006-09-01

    To better understand the role of herbivory and fire as potential disturbance processes in sagebrush communities, we examined responses of a grazing ungulate, elk (Cervus elaphus), following prescribed burning of sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) in south-central Montana (USA.) with concurrent monitoring of changes in plant production, nutritional quality, and community diversity from 1989-1999. Burning transformed low-diversity, sagebrush-dominated communities into high-diversity, graminoid-forb communities that persisted for 10 years without significant reestablishment of sagebrush. Elk increased use of burned sites one year after burning, but elk use returned to pre-burn levels over the next two to nine years. Forage biomass and nutritional quality declined after initial increases that coincided with increased elk use. Increases in elk use appeared to be influenced by increases in combined graminoid and forb production and changes in structural vegetation characteristics that permitted greater foraging efficiency. Declines in use were associated with loss of nutritional enhancement and declines in combined graminoid and forb production. Managers may observe only short-term responses from grazing ungulates to prescribed fire in sagebrush communities, but can expect longer-term increases in plant diversity and establishment of graminoid-forb communities.

  14. Loss of sagebrush ecosystems and declining bird populations in the Intermountain West: Priority research issues and information needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2002-01-01

    Sagebrush lands in the Intermountain West are declining rapidly in quality and extent. Consequently, populations of many bird species dependent on these ecosystems also are declining. The greater sage-grouse has been petitioned for listing as a threatened and endangered species, and other species of sagebrush-obligate birds have special conservation status in most states. We identified the primary issues and information needs during a multi-agency workshop, conducted in response to concerns by management agencies related to declining bird population trends in sagebrush habitats. Priority needs were to (1) obtain a better understanding of bird response to habitat and landscape features, (2) develop monitoring designs to sample habitats and bird populations, (3) determine the effects of land use on sagebrush habitats and dependent bird species, and (4) identify linkages between breeding and wintering ranges. This agenda will identify causes and mechanisms of population declines in birds dependent on sagebrush ecosystems and will lead to better management of the ecosystems upon which they depend.

  15. Remote Sensing Technologies Mitigate Drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Ames Research Center has partnered with the California Department of Water Resources to develop satellite-based technologies to mitigate drought conditions. One project aims to help water managers adjust their irrigation to match the biological needs of each crop, and another involves monitoring areas where land is fallow so emergency relief can more quickly aid affected communities.

  16. RADON MITIGATION STUDIES: NASHVILLE DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an EPA radon mitigation demonstration project involving 14 houses in the Nashville, TN, area with indoor radon levels of 5.6-47.6 pCi/L, using a variety of techniques, designed to be the most cost effective methods possible to implement, and yet adequa...

  17. RFI Mitigation / Excision techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshi, D. A.

    2004-06-01

    Radio frequency interference (RFI) is increasingly affecting radio astronomy research. A few years ago, active research to investigate the possibility of observing in the presence of interference using RFI mitigation techniques was initiated. In this paper, I briefly discuss four RFI mitigation/excision projects. These projects are:- (1) A technique to suppress double sideband amplitude modulated interference in which I show that an astronomical signal in the presence of a DSB interference can be observed with a signal-to-noise ratio factor of 2 less compared to observations if the RFI were not present. (2) Techniques to suppress interference due to synchronization signals in composite video signals are presented. A combination of noise-free modelling of the synchronization signals and adaptive filtering is used for suppressing the interference. (3) Design techniques to minimize spurious pick-up at the analog input of an analog-to-digital converter are discussed. (4) Spectral RFI excision using a spectral channel weighted scheme and its application to Green Bank telescope observations are also presented.

  18. Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Sacramento River Bank Protection Project 3 Environmental Impact of Construction of the First Phase 6 Determination of Mitigation Needs 7 Analysis 8...be acquired for habitat restoration for fish and wildlife purposes to offset the impact of construction of the First Phase of the Sacramento River...set forth, along with other data necessary for project authorization, in a report submitted to the Congress by the construction agency. Construction

  19. Hurricane risk mitigation - High Pressure Gas Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A worker pours concrete as part of a nitrogen risk mitigation project at the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The concrete slab will provide the foundation needed to place new pumps at the site and is part of ongoing hurricane-related mitigation work at Stennis.

  20. 32 CFR 989.22 - Mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.22 Mitigation. (a) When preparing EIAP documents, indicate... should include the cost of mitigation as a line item in the budget for a proposed project. The...

  1. Mitigation assessment results and priorities in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Zongxin; Wei Zhihong

    1996-12-31

    In this paper energy related CO2 emission projections of China by 2030 are given. CO2 mitigation potential and technology options in main fields of energy conservation and energy substitution are analyzed. CO2 reduction costs of main mitigation technologies are estimated and the AHP approach is used for helping assessment of priority technologies.

  2. Hurricane risk mitigation - High Pressure Gas Facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-07-29

    A worker pours concrete as part of a nitrogen risk mitigation project at the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The concrete slab will provide the foundation needed to place new pumps at the site and is part of ongoing hurricane-related mitigation work at Stennis.

  3. Uranium in big sagebrush from western U.S. and evidence of possible mineralization in the Owyhee mountains of Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdman, J.A.; Harrach, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    Two regional studies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), a widely distributed and dominant shrub in the western United States, have shown its responsiveness to known uranium mineralization in the Monument Hill and Pumpkin Buttes districts of the southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming, and the Uravan mineral belt area in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado. Uranium concentrations in the ash of 154 stem-and-leaf samples of sagebrush are plotted on two maps, one representing the sampling design for the Powder River Basin study, and the other representing the sampling design for the Colorado Plateaus, the Basin and Range, and the Columbia Plateaus physiographic provinces of the West. Sites having high concentrations in sagebrush correspond not only to the above uranium districts, but also reveal an area along the northeast flanks of the Owyhee Mountains in Idaho that should be further explored for its possible uranium potential.

  4. Sagebrush as a sampling medium for gold exploration in the Great Basin - evaluation from a greenhouse study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, K.C.; McKown, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Seedlings (Artemisia tridentata subsp, tridentata germinated from seed collected near Preble, Nevada were grown in soils containing Carlin-type disseminated gold ore. After 4 months growth leaves, twigs and stems were combined and analyzed by INAA. Plants grown in soils containing Carlin ore did not accumulate significantly more gold than those growing in control soil. On the other hand, sagebrush grown in soils containing Carlin ores accumulated significantly more arsenic and antimony compared to those grown in control soils. Results suggest that sagebrush would be a good prospecting medium for detecting concealed Carlin-type deposits in the Great Basin if arsenic and antimony are used as the pathfinder elements. Results also suggest that true gold anomalies in sagebrush will be more difficult to separate from aeolian contamination than those for arsenic and antimony in arid environments. -from Authors

  5. Multi-scale remote sensing sagebrush characterization with regression trees over Wyoming, USA: laying a foundation for monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homer, Collin G.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Meyer, Debra K.; Schell, Spencer J.

    2012-01-01

    agebrush ecosystems in North America have experienced extensive degradation since European settlement. Further degradation continues from exotic invasive plants, altered fire frequency, intensive grazing practices, oil and gas development, and climate change – adding urgency to the need for ecosystem-wide understanding. Remote sensing is often identified as a key information source to facilitate ecosystem-wide characterization, monitoring, and analysis; however, approaches that characterize sagebrush with sufficient and accurate local detail across large enough areas to support this paradigm are unavailable. We describe the development of a new remote sensing sagebrush characterization approach for the state of Wyoming, U.S.A. This approach integrates 2.4 m QuickBird, 30 m Landsat TM, and 56 m AWiFS imagery into the characterization of four primary continuous field components including percent bare ground, percent herbaceous cover, percent litter, and percent shrub, and four secondary components including percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), percent big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), percent Wyoming sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Wyomingensis), and shrub height using a regression tree. According to an independent accuracy assessment, primary component root mean square error (RMSE) values ranged from 4.90 to 10.16 for 2.4 m QuickBird, 6.01 to 15.54 for 30 m Landsat, and 6.97 to 16.14 for 56 m AWiFS. Shrub and herbaceous components outperformed the current data standard called LANDFIRE, with a shrub RMSE value of 6.04 versus 12.64 and a herbaceous component RMSE value of 12.89 versus 14.63. This approach offers new advancements in sagebrush characterization from remote sensing and provides a foundation to quantitatively monitor these components into the future.

  6. Pinyon and juniper encroachment into sagebrush ecosystems impacts distribution and survival of greater sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Prochazka, Brian; Ricca, Mark; Gustafson, K. Ben; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    In sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems, encroachment of pinyon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.; hereafter, “pinyon-juniper”) trees has increased dramatically since European settlement. Understanding the impacts of this encroachment on behavioral decisions, distributions, and population dynamics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and other sagebrush obligate species could help benefit sagebrush ecosystem management actions. We employed a novel two-stage Bayesian model that linked avoidance across different levels of pinyon-juniper cover to sage-grouse survival. Our analysis relied on extensive telemetry data collected across 6 yr and seven subpopulations within the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment (DPS), on the border of Nevada and California. The first model stage indicated avoidance behavior for all canopy cover classes on average, but individual grouse exhibited a high degree of heterogeneity in avoidance behavior of the lowest cover class (e.g., scattered isolated trees). The second stage modeled survival as a function of estimated avoidance parameters and indicated increased survival rates for individuals that exhibited avoidance of the lowest cover class. A post hoc frailty analysis revealed the greatest increase in hazard (i.e., mortality risk) occurred in areas with scattered isolated trees consisting of relatively high primary plant productivity. Collectively, these results provide clear evidence that local sage-grouse distributions and demographic rates are influenced by pinyon-juniper, especially in habitats with higher primary productivity but relatively low and seemingly benign tree cover. Such areas may function as ecological traps that convey attractive resources but adversely affect population vital rates. To increase sage-grouse survival, our model predictions support reducing actual pinyon-juniper cover as low as 1.5%, which is lower than the published target of 4.0%. These results may represent effects of pinyon

  7. Ecosystem engineering of harvester ants: effects on vegetation in a sagebrush-steppe ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosselin, Elyce N; Holbrook, Joseph D.; Huggler, Katey; Brown, Emily; Vierling, Kerri T.; Arkle, Robert; Pilliod, David

    2016-01-01

    Harvester ants are influential in many ecosystems because they distribute and consume seeds, remove vegetation, and redistribute soil particles and nutrients. Understanding the interaction between harvester ants and plant communities is important for management and restoration efforts, particularly in systems altered by fire and invasive species such as the sagebrush-steppe. Our objective was to evaluate how vegetation cover changed as a function of distance from Owyhee harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex salinus) nests within a sagebrush-steppe ecosystem. We sampled 105 harvester ant nests within southern Idaho, USA, that occurred in different habitats: annual grassland, perennial grassland, and native shrubland. The influence of Owyhee harvester ants on vegetation was larger at the edge of ant nests, but the relationship was inconsistent among plant species. Percent cover was positively associated with distance from harvester ant nests for plant species that were considered undesirable food sources and were densely distributed. However, percent cover was negatively associated with distance-from-nests for patchily distributed and desirable plant species. For some plant species, there was no change in cover associated with distance-from-nests. Total vegetation cover was associated with distance-from-nests in the shrubland habitat but not in the 2 grasslands. The dominant plant species in the shrubland habitat was a densely distributed shrub (winterfat, Krascheninnikovia lanata) that was defoliated by harvester ants. Our results suggest that Owyhee harvester ants increase spatial heterogeneity in plant communities through plant clearing, but the direction and magnitude of effect will likely be contingent on the dominant vegetation groups. This information may inform future management and plant restoration efforts in sagebrush-steppe by directly considering the islands of influence associated with harvester ant engineering.

  8. Evaluating redband trout habitat in sagebrush desert basins in southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zoellick, B.W.; Cade, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    We estimated abundance quantiles of redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri relative to five site-specific habitat variables (stream shading, bank cover, bank stability, fine sediment in the stream substrate, and cover for adults) and one landscape variable (distance from stream headwaters) on 30 streams in southwestem Idaho during 1993-1998. In addition, the five site-specific habitat variables were used to calculate a habitat suitability rating (HSR) used by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management to determine habitat quality of sagebrush desert streams for redband trout. Variation in abundance increased significantly with increasing HSR; the highest abundances were only found with high HSRs, indicating that the HSR model correctly predicted habitat quality for redband trout. However, a model that consisted of stream shade, distance from stream headwaters, and their interaction best predicted redband trout density, explaining 36% of the variation in adult density in sagebrush desert basin streams; stream shade explained most of the variation in redband trout density. When habitat quality was modeled on shade alone, the precision in predicting adult redband trout density was similar to that of the HSR model, as evaluated with tolerance intervals that contained 80% of future observations of redband trout density with 95% confidence. Increasing stream shade in the uppermost 50 km of a stream would result in the greatest increase in redband trout density. We recommend that land managers primarily evaluate the habitat quality of sagebrush desert streams by quantifying the amount of stream shade provided by riparian shrubs and trees. Use of a multivariable habitat model should be retained for desert streams where shade from riparian plant communities is limited.

  9. Spatial variability in cost and success of revegetation in a Wyoming big sagebrush community.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Chad S; Davies, Kirk W

    2012-09-01

    The ecological integrity of the Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and A. Young) alliance is being severely interrupted by post-fire invasion of non-native annual grasses. To curtail this invasion, successful post-fire revegetation of perennial grasses is required. Environmental factors impacting post-fire restoration success vary across space within the Wyoming big sagebrush alliance; however, most restorative management practices are applied uniformly. Our objectives were to define probability of revegetation success over space using relevant soil-related environmental factors, use this information to model cost of successful revegetation and compare the importance of vegetation competition and soil factors to revegetation success. We studied a burned Wyoming big sagebrush landscape in southeast Oregon that was reseeded with perennial grasses. We collected soil and vegetation data at plots spaced at 30 m intervals along a 1.5 km transect in the first two years post-burn. Plots were classified as successful (>5 seedlings/m(2)) or unsuccessful based on density of seeded species. Using logistic regression we found that abundance of competing vegetation correctly predicted revegetation success on 51 % of plots, and soil-related variables correctly predicted revegetation performance on 82.4 % of plots. Revegetation estimates varied from $167.06 to $43,033.94/ha across the 1.5 km transect based on probability of success, but were more homogenous at larger scales. Our experimental protocol provides managers with a technique to identify important environmental drivers of restoration success and this process will be of value for spatially allocating logistical and capital expenditures in a variable restoration environment.

  10. Variable responses of insects to hybrid versus parental sagebrush in common gardens.

    PubMed

    Messina, Frank J; Richards, James H; McArthur, E Durant

    1996-09-01

    Both ecological and genetic mechanisms have been proposed to explain patterns of herbivore attack on interspecific plant hybrids, but distinguishing among them can be difficult in natural hybrid zones. We performed a common-garden experiment to evaluate four genetic hypotheses: dominance, additivity, elevated hybrid susceptibility, and elevated hybrid resistance. Censuses and cage experiments were used to compare insect responses to basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. tridentata), mountain big sagebrush (A. t. vaseyana), and their F2 progeny. After two growing seasons, hybrid shrubs resembled mountain big sagenbrush in size, but were more similar to basin big sagebrush in flower production. Censuses of naturally colonizing insects (the gall midge Rhopalomyia obovata, the bagworm moth Apterona helix, and the aphid Obtusicauda coweni) tended to support the dominance hypothesis: if the insect clearly discriminated between the two parents, its frequency on hybrids closely resembled that on one of the parents. Moreover, colonization of hybrids in all three cases suggested a dominance deviation toward the susceptible parent rather than toward the resistant parent. In contrast to the censuses, cage experiments involving two insects supported the hybrid-susceptibility hypothesis; both survival and growth of the grasshopper Melanoplus sanguinipes and growth of the leaf beetle Trirhabda pilosa were higher on hybrid shrubs than on either parent. Because many secondary compounds have been determined to occur at intermediate concentrations in F2 shrubs, dominance for susceptibility may indicate that insects respond to plant traits (e.g., oviposition stimulants and deterrents) in a threshold manner. Mechanisms underlying increased hybrid susceptibility are less clear, but our experimental design makes environmental explanations (e.g., the plant-stress hypothesis) unlikely. Although we eliminated several confounding factors, our results agree with the conclusion from

  11. Spatial Variability in Cost and Success of Revegetation in a Wyoming Big Sagebrush Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Chad S.; Davies, Kirk W.

    2012-09-01

    The ecological integrity of the Wyoming big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and A. Young) alliance is being severely interrupted by post-fire invasion of non-native annual grasses. To curtail this invasion, successful post-fire revegetation of perennial grasses is required. Environmental factors impacting post-fire restoration success vary across space within the Wyoming big sagebrush alliance; however, most restorative management practices are applied uniformly. Our objectives were to define probability of revegetation success over space using relevant soil-related environmental factors, use this information to model cost of successful revegetation and compare the importance of vegetation competition and soil factors to revegetation success. We studied a burned Wyoming big sagebrush landscape in southeast Oregon that was reseeded with perennial grasses. We collected soil and vegetation data at plots spaced at 30 m intervals along a 1.5 km transect in the first two years post-burn. Plots were classified as successful (>5 seedlings/m2) or unsuccessful based on density of seeded species. Using logistic regression we found that abundance of competing vegetation correctly predicted revegetation success on 51 % of plots, and soil-related variables correctly predicted revegetation performance on 82.4 % of plots. Revegetation estimates varied from 167.06 to 43,033.94/ha across the 1.5 km transect based on probability of success, but were more homogenous at larger scales. Our experimental protocol provides managers with a technique to identify important environmental drivers of restoration success and this process will be of value for spatially allocating logistical and capital expenditures in a variable restoration environment.

  12. A cross-scale approach to understand drought-induced variability of sagebrush ecosystem productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assal, T.; Anderson, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) mortality has recently been reported in the Upper Green River Basin (Wyoming, USA) of the sagebrush steppe of western North America. Numerous causes have been suggested, but recent drought (2012-13) is the likely mechanism of mortality in this water-limited ecosystem which provides critical habitat for many species of wildlife. An understanding of the variability in patterns of productivity with respect to climate is essential to exploit landscape scale remote sensing for detection of subtle changes associated with mortality in this sparse, uniformly vegetated ecosystem. We used the standardized precipitation index to characterize drought conditions and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery (250-m resolution) to characterize broad characteristics of growing season productivity. We calculated per-pixel growing season anomalies over a 16-year period (2000-2015) to identify the spatial and temporal variability in productivity. Metrics derived from Landsat satellite imagery (30-m resolution) were used to further investigate trends within anomalous areas at local scales. We found evidence to support an initial hypothesis that antecedent winter drought was most important in explaining reduced productivity. The results indicate drought effects were inconsistent over space and time. MODIS derived productivity deviated by more than four standard deviations in heavily impacted areas, but was well within the interannual variability in other areas. Growing season anomalies highlighted dramatic declines in productivity during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. However, large negative anomalies persisted in other areas during the 2014 growing season, indicating lag effects of drought. We are further investigating if the reduction in productivity is mediated by local biophysical properties. Our analysis identified spatially explicit patterns of ecosystem properties altered by severe drought which are consistent with

  13. Canopy structure of sagebrush ecosystems leading to differences in carbon and water fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. E.; Ewers, B. E.; Peckham, S. D.; Pendall, E. G.; Kelly, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The sagebrush steppe ecosystem covers nearly 15% of Western North America, and its productivity is sensitive to warming and increasingly variable precipitation. Previous work has shown that interannual variability of precipitation is the largest factor in carbon and water cycling in these semi-arid ecosystems and that the relationship of traditional drivers of fluxes (VPD, net radiation, soil temperature) to carbon and water fluxes as well as ecosystem water use efficiency does not change along an elevation gradient. We seek to expand on that work by using multiple site-years from eddy covariance data near the upper (2469m) and lower (2069m) elevation range of sagebrush to answer the question 'How does canopy structure and canopy leaf area index combine to control the ecosystem carbon and water fluxes from rocky mountain sagebrush ecosystems'. We are answering this question by quantifying ecosystem scale carbon and water using eddy covariance measurements and a standard suite of atmospheric, soil and vegetation monitoring instruments. This data will be used with the Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator (TREES) Bayesian framework model that utilizes a coupled plant hydraulic and carbon uptake. For this work we use the TREES model to simulate canopy structure and leaf area based on seven years of eddy covariance data from the two different locations. This canopy information will be compared with canopy structure ground measurements within the eddy covariance footprint, and then we will compare the relationship between canopy structure and ecosystem fluxes. During well watered growing season time periods, the high elevation site has average water flux of 1.06 mmol m-2 s-1 and carbon flux of 1.54 μmol m-2 s-1 of uptake. Average water and carbon fluxes at the lower elevation site were 0.84 mmol m-2 s-1 and 1.09 μmol m-2 s-1 of uptake respectively. This is a reduction of 20% for water flux and 30% and carbon flux down the elevation gradient. With the

  14. The influence of mitigation on sage-grouse habitat selection within an energy development field.

    PubMed

    Fedy, Bradley C; Kirol, Christopher P; Sutphin, Andrew L; Maechtle, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Growing global energy demands ensure the continued growth of energy development. Energy development in wildlife areas can significantly impact wildlife populations. Efforts to mitigate development impacts to wildlife are on-going, but the effectiveness of such efforts is seldom monitored or assessed. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are sensitive to energy development and likely serve as an effective umbrella species for other sagebrush-steppe obligate wildlife. We assessed the response of birds within an energy development area before and after the implementation of mitigation action. Additionally, we quantified changes in habitat distribution and abundance in pre- and post-mitigation landscapes. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development at large spatial scales is well documented. We limited our research to directly within an energy development field in order to assess the influence of mitigation in close proximity to energy infrastructure. We used nest-location data (n = 488) within an energy development field to develop habitat selection models using logistic regression on data from 4 years of research prior to mitigation and for 4 years following the implementation of extensive mitigation efforts (e.g., decreased activity, buried powerlines). The post-mitigation habitat selection models indicated less avoidance of wells (well density β = 0.18 ± 0.08) than the pre-mitigation models (well density β = -0.09 ± 0.11). However, birds still avoided areas of high well density and nests were not found in areas with greater than 4 wells per km2 and the majority of nests (63%) were located in areas with ≤ 1 well per km2. Several other model coefficients differed between the two time periods and indicated stronger selection for sagebrush (pre-mitigation β = 0.30 ± 0.09; post-mitigation β = 0.82 ± 0.08) and less avoidance of rugged terrain (pre-mitigation β = -0.35 ± 0.12; post-mitigation β = -0.05 ± 0.09). Mitigation efforts implemented may

  15. The Influence of Mitigation on Sage-Grouse Habitat Selection within an Energy Development Field

    PubMed Central

    Fedy, Bradley C.; Kirol, Christopher P.; Sutphin, Andrew L.; Maechtle, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Growing global energy demands ensure the continued growth of energy development. Energy development in wildlife areas can significantly impact wildlife populations. Efforts to mitigate development impacts to wildlife are on-going, but the effectiveness of such efforts is seldom monitored or assessed. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are sensitive to energy development and likely serve as an effective umbrella species for other sagebrush-steppe obligate wildlife. We assessed the response of birds within an energy development area before and after the implementation of mitigation action. Additionally, we quantified changes in habitat distribution and abundance in pre- and post-mitigation landscapes. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development at large spatial scales is well documented. We limited our research to directly within an energy development field in order to assess the influence of mitigation in close proximity to energy infrastructure. We used nest-location data (n = 488) within an energy development field to develop habitat selection models using logistic regression on data from 4 years of research prior to mitigation and for 4 years following the implementation of extensive mitigation efforts (e.g., decreased activity, buried powerlines). The post-mitigation habitat selection models indicated less avoidance of wells (well density β = 0.18 ± 0.08) than the pre-mitigation models (well density β = -0.09 ± 0.11). However, birds still avoided areas of high well density and nests were not found in areas with greater than 4 wells per km2 and the majority of nests (63%) were located in areas with ≤ 1 well per km2. Several other model coefficients differed between the two time periods and indicated stronger selection for sagebrush (pre-mitigation β = 0.30 ± 0.09; post-mitigation β = 0.82 ± 0.08) and less avoidance of rugged terrain (pre-mitigation β = -0.35 ± 0.12; post-mitigation β = -0.05 ± 0.09). Mitigation efforts implemented may

  16. Physical disturbance shapes vascular plant diversity more profoundly than fire in the sagebrush steppe of southeastern Idaho, U.S.A

    PubMed Central

    Lavin, Matt; Brummer, Tyler J; Quire, Ryan; Maxwell, Bruce D; Rew, Lisa J

    2013-01-01

    Fire is thought to profoundly change the ecology of the sagebrush steppe. The Idaho National Laboratory provides an ideal setting to compare the effects of fire and physical disturbance on plant diversity in high-native-cover sagebrush steppe. Seventy-eight 1-hectare transects were established along paved, green-striped, gravel, and two-track roads, in overgrazed rangeland, and within sagebrush steppe involving different fire histories. Transects were sampled for the diversity and abundance of all vascular plants. Alpha, beta, and phylogenetic beta diversity were analyzed as a response to fire and physical disturbance. Postfire vegetation readily rebounds to prefire levels of alpha plant diversity. Physical disturbance, in contrast, strongly shapes patterns of alpha, beta, and especially phylogenetic beta diversity much more profoundly than fire disturbance. If fire is a concern in the sagebrush steppe then the degree of physical-disturbance should be more so. This finding is probably not specific to the study area but applicable to the northern and eastern portions of the sagebrush biome, which is characterized by a pulse of spring moisture and cold mean minimum winter temperatures. The distinction of sagebrush steppe from Great Basin sagebrush should be revised especially with regard to reseeding efforts and the control of annual grasses. PMID:23789073

  17. Data resources for range-wide assessment of livestock grazing across the sagebrush biome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Assal, T.J.; Veblen, K.E.; Farinha, M.A.; Aldridge, C.L.; Casazza, M.L.; Pyke, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The data contained in this series were compiled, modified, and analyzed for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) report "Range-Wide Assessment of Livestock Grazing Across the Sagebrush Biome." This report can be accessed through the USGS Publications Warehouse (online linkage: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1263/). The dataset contains spatial and tabular data related to Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Grazing Allotments. We reviewed the BLM national grazing allotment spatial dataset available from the GeoCommunicator National Integrated Land System (NILS) website in 2007 (http://www.geocommunicator.gov). We identified several limitations in those data and learned that some BLM State and/or field offices had updated their spatial data to rectify these limitations, but maintained the data outside of NILS. We contacted appropriate BLM offices (State or field, 25 in all) to obtain the most recent data, assessed the data, established a data development protocol, and compiled data into a topologically enforced dataset throughout the area of interest for this project (that is, the pre-settlement distribution of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Western United States). The final database includes three spatial datasets: Allotments (BLM Grazing Allotments), OUT_Polygons (nonallotment polygons used to ensure topology), and Duplicate_Polygon_Allotments. See Appendix 1 of the aforementioned report for complete methods. The tabular data presented here consists of information synthesized by the Land Health Standard (LHS) analysis (Appendix 2), and data obtained from the BLM Rangeland Administration System (http://www.blm.gov/ras/). In 2008, available LHS data for all allotments in all regions were compiled by BLM in response to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request made by a private organization. The BLM provided us with a copy of these data. These data provided three major types of information that were of interest: (1) date(s) (if any) of the most recent LHS evaluation for each

  18. 2006 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. L. Johnson; K. A. Gano

    2006-10-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. One of the objectives of restoration is the revegetation of remediated waste sites to stabilize the soil and restore the land to native vegetation. The report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2006 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 2 bat habitat mitigation projects.

  19. Novel Ice Mitigation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    After the loss of Columbia, there was great concern in the Space Shuttle program for the impact of debris against the leading edges of the Orbiter wings. It was quickly recognized that, in addition to impacts by foam, ice that formed on the liquid-oxygen bellows running down the outside of the External Tank could break free during launch and hit this sensitive area. A Center Director s Discretionary Fund (CDDF) project would concentrate on novel ideas that were potentially applicable. The most successful of the new concepts for ice mitigation involved shape memory alloy materials. These materials can be bent into a given shape and, when heated, will return to their original shape.

  20. Bee floral guilds of sagebrush-steppe wildflowers: evaluating bee community benefits among available species to seed after fire

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Healthy plant communities of the American sagebrush-steppe consist of mostly wind-pollinated shrubs and grasses interspersed with a diverse mix of mostly spring-blooming, herbaceous perennial wildflowers. Native, non-social bees are the common floral visitors, but their floral associations and abund...

  1. Fire effects on runoff generation and sediment yield from a coarse-textured sagebrush-dominated landscape

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Post-fire increases in runoff and sediment yield from sagebrush rangelands are commonly attributed to fire-induced soil water repellency and/or reduction in canopy and ground cover. Recent research has demonstrated the strength of soil water repellency and its influence on runoff and sediment gener...

  2. Response of Two Sagebrush Sites to Low-Disturbance, Mechanical Removal of Piñyon and Juniper

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Encroachment of shrubland communities by woody species is occurring across the globe and prompting land management agencies to deal with the ecological results. In North America, invasion by Pinus monophylla (pinyon pine) and Juniperus osteosperma (Utah juniper) into Artemisia spp. (sagebrush) commu...

  3. Conservation and restoration of sagebrush ecosystems and sage-grouse: An assessment of USDA Forest Service Science

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch; Douglas A. Boyce; Jeanne C. Chambers; Chris J. Colt; Kas Dumroese; Stanley G. Kitchen; Clinton McCarthy; Susan E. Meyer; Bryce A. Richardson; Mary M. Rowland; Mark A. Rumble; Michael K. Schwartz; Monica S. Tomosy; Michael J. Wisdom

    2016-01-01

    Sagebrush ecosystems are among the largest and most threatened ecosystems in North America. Greater sage-grouse has served as the bellwether for species conservation in these ecosystems and has been considered for listing under the Endangered Species Act eight times. In September 2015, the decision was made not to list greater sage-grouse, but to reevaluate its status...

  4. Preference of pen-reared northern bobwhite among native plant seeds of the sand sagebrush-mixed prairie

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adult northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) are largely granivorous, eating primarily seeds produced from grasses and forbs. The objective of this research was to determine northern bobwhite quail preference among seeds of 45 plant species associated with the sand sagebrush-mixed prairie. ...

  5. The importance of floristics to sagebrush breeding birds of the south Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys, British Columbia

    Treesearch

    Susan Paczek; Pam Krannitz

    2005-01-01

    Habitat associations were determined for five species of songbirds breeding in sagebrush habitat of the South Okanagan and Similkameen valleys, British Columbia. We examined the relative importance of plant species versus “total forbs” and “total grasses” at a local level (<100 m) with point counts and vegetation survey...

  6. Soil resources influence vegetation and response to fire and fire-surrogate treatments in Sagebrush-Steppe Ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Benjamin M. Rau; Jeanne C. Chambers; David A. Pyke; Bruce A. Roundy; Eugene W. Schupp; Paul Doescher; Todd G. Caldwell

    2014-01-01

    Current paradigm suggests that spatial and temporal competition for resources limit an exotic invader, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), which once established, alters fire regimes and can result in annual grass dominance in sagebrush steppe. Prescribed fire and fire surrogate treatments (mowing, tebuthiuron, and imazapic) are used to reduce woody...

  7. Fine-scale variation of historical fire regimes in sagebrush-steppe and juniper woodland: An example from California, USA

    Treesearch

    Richard F. Miller; Emily K. Heyerdahl

    2008-01-01

    Coarse-scale estimates of fire intervals across the mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) alliance range from decades to centuries. However, soil depth and texture can affect the abundance and continuity of fine fuels and vary at fine spatial scales, suggesting fire regimes may vary at similar scales. We explored...

  8. Effects of sand sagebrush control in southern mixed-grass prairie rangeland on cattle performance and economic return

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To evaluate the effects of sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia Torr.) control in native rangelands on cattle performance, 15 pastures (10 to 21 ha each) were selected in Northwest Oklahoma. Eleven pastures had been sprayed with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in 1984 or 2003 to establish differences...

  9. Sagebrush steppe and pinyon-juniper ecosystems: effects of changing fire regimes, increased fuel loads, and invasive species

    Treesearch

    Jeanne C. Chambers; E. Durant McArthur; Steven B. Monson; Susan E. Meyer; Nancy L. Shaw; Robin J. Tausch; Robert R. Blank; Steve Bunting; Richard R. Miller; Mike Pellant; Bruce A. Roundy; Scott C. Walker; Alison Whittaker

    2005-01-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands and Wyoming big sagebrush ecosystems have undergone major changes in vegetation structure and composition since settlement by European Americans. These changes are resulting in dramatic shifts in fire frequency, size and severity. Effective management of these systems has been hindered by lack of information on: (1) presettlement fire regimes...

  10. Evolutionary and ecological implications of genome size in the North American endemic sagebrushes and allies (Artemisia, Asteraceae)

    Treesearch

    Sonia Garcia; Miguel A. Canela; Teresa Garnatje; E. Durant McArthur; Jaume Pellicer; Stewart C. Sanderson; Joan Valles

    2008-01-01

    The genome size of 51 populations of 20 species of the North American endemic sagebrushes (subgenus Tridentatae), related species, and some hybrid taxa were assessed by flow cytometry, and were analysed in a phylogenetic framework. Results were similar for most Tridentatae species, with the exception of three taxonomically conflictive species: Artemisia bigelovii Gray...

  11. Plant community dynamics of burned and unburned sagebrush and pinyon-juniper vegetation in West-Central Utah

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey E. Ott; E. Durant McArthur; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2001-01-01

    Fire ecology of sagebrush and pinyon-juniper vegetation in the Great Basin has been influenced by human disturbances and exotic plant introductions. Late-seral woody vegetation, which increased following Euro-American settlement, is now decreasing because of wildfire and exotic annuals. Multiple successional pathways following fire have been observed in these...

  12. History of fire and Douglas-fir establishment in a savanna and sagebrush-grassland mosaic, southwestern Montana, USA

    Treesearch

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Richard F. Miller; Russell A. Parsons

    2006-01-01

    Over the past century, trees have encroached into grass- and shrublands across western North America. These include Douglas-fir trees (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) encroaching into mountain big sagebrush Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) from stable islands of savanna in...

  13. The effect of herbaceous species removal, fire and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) on soil water availability in sagebrush steppe

    Treesearch

    Alison Whittaker; Bruce Roundy; Jeanne Chambers; Susan Meyer; Robert Blank; Stanley Kitchen; John Korfmacher

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several decades, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has been continually expanding in the sagebrush steppe ecosystem. There has been very little research that examines why cheatgrass is able to invade these communities. To determine the effects of herbaceous vegetation removal and fire on available water for cheatgrass invasion, as well as...

  14. Selection of anthropogenic features and vegetation characteristics by nesting Common Ravens in the sagebrush ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Common Raven (Corvus corax) numbers and distribution are increasing throughout the sagebrush steppe, influencing avian communities in complex ways. Anthropogenic structures are thought to increase raven populations by providing food and nesting subsidies, which is cause for concern because ravens are important nest predators of sensitive species, including Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). During 2007–2009, we located raven nests in southeastern Idaho and conducted a resource selection analysis. We measured variables at multiple spatial scales for 72 unique nest locations, including landscape-level vegetation characteristics and anthropogenic structures. Using generalized linear mixed models and an information-theoretic approach, we found a 31% decrease in the odds of nesting by ravens for every 1 km increase in distance away from a transmission line. Furthermore, a 100-m increase in distance away from the edge of two different land cover types decreased the odds of nesting by 20%, and an increase in the amount of edge by 1 km within an area of 102.1 ha centered on the nest increased the odds of nesting by 49%. A post hoc analysis revealed that ravens were most likely to nest near edges of adjoining big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and land cover types that were associated with direct human disturbance or fire. These findings contribute to our understanding of raven expansion into rural environments and could be used to make better-informed conservation decisions, especially in the face of increasing renewable energy development.

  15. Effect of succession after fire on species contribution to evapotranspiration in sagebrush steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naithani, K.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Bayless, M. K.

    2005-12-01

    Shrubland ecosystems play an important role in the hydrology of the often drought stricken inter-mountain basins of the United Sates. Our objective was to investigate the impact of changing environmental conditions on three major plant functional types, shrubs, grasses and forbs. We measured changes in diurnal water flux from Artemisia tridentata var vaseyana (mountain big sagebrush), Elymus smithii (western wheatgrass) and Lupinus argentus (lupine) with changing environmental drivers for a sagebrush ecosystem fire chronosequence near the Sierra Madre Mountains, Wyoming, USA. The measurements were conducted on four stands ranging in age from 2 to 38 years, during the summers of 2004 and 2005. Leaf scale measurements and shrub sapflux were compared with ecosystem scale measurements. We explained the diurnal and monthly variability of water fluxes from June through October using vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture, light and temperature. In the year 2005, peak ecosystem level evapotranspiration of 5-7 mmol m-2 s-1 was higher than 2004 with 2-3 mmol m-2 s-1. The interannual difference in evapotranspiration was explained by higher precipitation causing greater biomass, especially in non shrub species, in 2005. Our results show that environmental conditions have impacts on total evapotranspiration that depend on plant functional type.

  16. Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas: Chapter B in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vikre, Peter G.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Cossette, Pamela M.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Hall, Susan M.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Rytuba, James J.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Stillings, Lisa M.; Wallis, John C.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.; Zürcher, Lukas

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of selected locatable minerals in lands proposed for withdrawal that span the Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah borders. In this report, the four study areas evaluated were (1) the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex SFA in Washoe County, Nevada, and Harney and Lake Counties, Oregon; (2) the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada SFA in Humboldt County, Nevada, and Harney and Malheur Counties, Oregon; (3) the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada SFA in Cassia, Owyhee, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho, Elko County, Nevada, and Box Elder County, Utah; and (4) the Nevada additions in Humboldt and Elko Counties, Nevada.

  17. Spatial and temporal dynamics of Aroga moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) populations and damage to sagebrush in shrub steppe across varying elevation.

    PubMed

    Bolshakova, Virginia L J; Evans, Edward W

    2014-12-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in the density of the Aroga moth, Aroga websteri Clarke (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and in its damage to its host plant, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nuttall), were examined at 38 sites across a shrub steppe landscape in mountain foothills of northern Utah. Sites were sampled from 2008 to 2012 during and after an outbreak of the moth, to assess whether and how local variation in moth abundance, survivorship, and damage to the host plant was accounted for by sagebrush cover, elevation, slope, aspect, or incident solar radiation. As moth numbers declined from a peak in 2009, individual sites had a consistent tendency in subsequent years to support more or fewer defoliator larvae. Local moth abundance was not correlated with sagebrush cover, which declined with elevation, and moth survivorship was highest at intermediate elevations (1,800-2,000 m). North-facing stands of sagebrush, characterized by lower values of incident solar radiation, were found to be especially suitable local habitats for the Aroga moth, as reflected in measures of both abundance and feeding damage. This high habitat suitability may result from favorable microclimate, both in its direct effects on the Aroga moth and in indirect effects through associated vegetative responses. North-facing sites also supported taller and more voluminous sagebrush plants in comparison to south-facing sites. Thus, the moth is reasonably predictable in the sites at which it is likely to occur in greatest numbers, and such sites may be those that in fact have most potential to recover from feeding damage.

  18. Restoration as mitigation: analysis of stream mitigation for coal mining impacts in southern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Margaret A; Hondula, Kelly L

    2014-09-16

    Compensatory mitigation is commonly used to replace aquatic natural resources being lost or degraded but little is known about the success of stream mitigation. This article presents a synthesis of information about 434 stream mitigation projects from 117 permits for surface mining in Appalachia. Data from annual monitoring reports indicate that the ratio of lengths of stream impacted to lengths of stream mitigation projects were <1 for many projects, and most mitigation was implemented on perennial streams while most impacts were to ephemeral and intermittent streams. Regulatory requirements for assessing project outcome were minimal; visual assessments were the most common and 97% of the projects reported suboptimal or marginal habitat even after 5 years of monitoring. Less than a third of the projects provided biotic or chemical data; most of these were impaired with biotic indices below state standards and stream conductivity exceeding federal water quality criteria. Levels of selenium known to impair aquatic life were reported in 7 of the 11 projects that provided Se data. Overall, the data show that mitigation efforts being implemented in southern Appalachia for coal mining are not meeting the objectives of the Clean Water Act to replace lost or degraded streams ecosystems and their functions.

  19. Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Deluane, Paul B.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s plans for implementing the Vision for Space Exploration include returning to the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond. Dust on the lunar surface has a ubiquitous presence which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. While the operational challenges attributable to dust during the Apollo missions did not prove critical, the comparatively long duration of impending missions presents a different challenge. Near term plans to revisit the moon places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program s Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. The Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development project has been implemented within the ETDP. Project scope and plans will be presented, along with a a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware. This paper further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it s characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost.

  20. Simulating the Dependence of Sagebrush Steppe Vegetation on Redistributed Snow in a Semi-Arid Watershed.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderquist, B.; Kavanagh, K.; Link, T. E.; Strand, E. K.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    In mountainous regions across the western USA, the composition of aspen (Populus tremuloides) and sagebrush steppe plant communities is often closely related to heterogeneous soil moisture subsidies resulting from redistributed snow. With decades of climate and precipitation data across elevational and precipitation gradients, the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) and critical zone observatory (CZO) in southwest Idaho provides a unique opportunity to study the relationship between vegetation types and redistributed snow. Within the RCEW, the total amount of precipitation has remained unchanged over the past 50 years, however the percentage of the precipitation falling as snow has declined by approximately 4% per decade at mid-elevation sites. As shifts in precipitation phase continue, future trends in vegetation composition and net primary productivity (NPP) of different plant functional types remains a critical question. We hypothesize that redistribution of snow may supplement drought sensitive species like aspen more so than drought tolerant species like mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana). To assess the importance of snowdrift subsidies on sagebrush steppe vegetation, NPP of aspen, shrub, and grass species was simulated at three sites using the biogeochemical process model BIOME-BGC. Each site is located directly downslope from snowdrifts providing soil moisture inputs to aspen stands and neighboring vegetation. Drifts vary in size with the largest containing up to four times the snow water equivalent (SWE) of a uniform precipitation layer. Precipitation inputs used by BIOME-BGC were modified to represent the redistribution of snow and simulations were run using daily climate data from 1985-2013. Simulated NPP of annual grasses at each site was not responsive to subsidies from drifting snow. However, at the driest site, aspen and shrub annual NPP was increased by as much as 44 and 30%, respectively, with the redistribution of