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Sample records for saharan cyclone tracks

  1. Poleward transport of Saharan dust initiated by a Saharan cyclone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam Francis, Diana Bou; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Cuesta, Juan

    2016-04-01

    To enhance the understanding of the role of Saharan mineral dust in the Arctic climate system, this study focuses on dust emission and poleward transport associated with an intense Saharan cyclone that occurred over North Africa in early April 2011. Satellites observations at high spatio-temporal resolution are used in this study in order to characterize qualitatively (using MSG-SEVIRI and CALIPSO/CloudSat) and quantitatively (using MODIS and OMI) the dust activity over North Africa associated with the Saharan cyclone as well as the transport of dust toward the northern pole. Beside the observations, a simulation at high resolution is performed using the MesoNh model in order to estimation the dust load transported northward and to evaluate the dust deposition north to 60°N and its impact on the Albedo. In this study, we identify in new and important mechanism for the transport of dust over long distances toward the northern pole: the poleward migration of Saharan cyclones, in which the dust is transported toward the Arctic following a newly identified path; across the Northern Atlantic Ocean around the Icelandic Low. This path is to be added to the two preferable paths mentioned in previous studies i.e. through transport across Northern Europe and across the Atlantic Ocean around the Bermuda High. Key words: Arctic, North Africa, dust storm, dust deposition, surface albedo.

  2. Quantitative observations on tropical cyclone tracks in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, James P.; Gienko, Gennady

    2018-03-01

    The Arabian Sea basin represents a minor component of global total cyclones annually and has not featured so prominently in cyclone research compared with other basins where greater numbers of cyclones are registered each year. This paper presents the results of exploratory analysis of various features of cyclone tracks in the Arabian Sea, with a particular focus on examining their temporal and spatial patterns. Track morphometry also reveals further information on track shape. The study indicates how cyclones spawned during May in the early pre-monsoon period (often strong events) have a tendency to follow more sinuous tracks, whereas cyclones occurring in October in the post-monsoon period tend to follow straighter tracks. Track sinuosity is significantly related to other attributes, including cyclone longevity and intensity. Comparisons are also drawn between the general characteristics of cyclone tracks in the Arabian Sea and other ocean basins, suggesting how the size and geography of the Arabian Sea basin exert influences on these characteristics.

  3. Analysis of Tropical Cyclone Tracks in the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, A.; Paliwal, M.; Mohapatra, M.

    2011-12-01

    Cyclones are regarded as one of the most dangerous meteorological phenomena of the tropical region. The probability of landfall of a tropical cyclone depends on its movement (trajectory). Analysis of trajectories of tropical cyclones could be useful for identifying potentially predictable characteristics. There is long history of analysis of tropical cyclones tracks. A common approach is using different clustering techniques to group the cyclone tracks on the basis of certain characteristics. Various clustering method have been used to study the tropical cyclones in different ocean basins like western North Pacific ocean (Elsner and Liu, 2003; Camargo et al., 2007), North Atlantic Ocean (Elsner, 2003; Gaffney et al. 2007; Nakamura et al., 2009). In this study, tropical cyclone tracks in the North Indian Ocean basin, for the period 1961-2010 have been analyzed and grouped into clusters based on their spatial characteristics. A tropical cyclone trajectory is approximated as an open curve and described by its first two moments. The resulting clusters have different centroid locations and also differently shaped variance ellipses. These track characteristics are then used in the standard clustering algorithms which allow the whole track shape, length, and location to be incorporated into the clustering methodology. The resulting clusters have different genesis locations and trajectory shapes. We have also examined characteristics such as life span, maximum sustained wind speed, landfall, seasonality, many of which are significantly different across the identified clusters. The clustering approach groups cyclones with higher maximum wind speed and longest life span in to one cluster. Another cluster includes short duration cyclonic events that are mostly deep depressions and significant for rainfall over Eastern and Central India. The clustering approach is likely to prove useful for analysis of events of significance with regard to impacts.

  4. Synoptic regimes associated with the eastern Mediterranean wet season cyclone tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazroui, Mansour; Awad, Adel M.

    2016-11-01

    The main synoptic patterns associated with the wet season (October-May) eastern Mediterranean cyclones have been analyzed and described using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis datasets for the period 1958-2013. The cyclone tracks detected in the eastern Mediterranean are classified into two types based on their positions: the local tracks and the long tracks. The local tracks are either stationary or short tracks. The long tracks distinguished into eleven very closed and highly correlated clusters, which are presented into three regimes namely the northern, the southern and the eastern border Mediterranean regimes. Among the 940 (44.78% of a total of 2099) long tracks, the northern, southern, and eastern border regime contributes respectively about 53.62%, 41.81% and 5% of the long tracks. In addition, the distribution of the long tracks reveals that a larger proportion of the cyclones are generated at the northern coast during November and spring months, while few cyclones are developed over the eastern Mediterranean border in warm months (April and May). Further, their synoptic features show that the regimes are associated with the extension of Azores high, specifically for each regime, the cyclogenesis areas of its clusters are controlled by the intersection of low level (850 hPa) trough and the position of the upper level (250 hPa) maximum wind. Furthermore, the orientations of clusters are controlled by the extension of Siberian high and the shape of cyclonic trough at 850 hPa. In addition, the synoptic study shows that most of the southern cyclones generated externally by African and Red Sea troughs, while most of the northern and eastern border cyclones are generated internally.

  5. The Poleward Shift of Storm Tracks Under Climate Change: Tracking Cyclones in CMIP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspi, Y.; Tamarin, T.

    2017-12-01

    Extratropical cyclones dominate the distribution of precipitation and wind in the midlatitudes, and therefore their frequency, intensity, and paths have a significant effect on weather and climate. Comprehensive climate models forced by enhanced greenhouse gas emissions suggest that under a climate change scenario, the latitudinal band of storm tracks would shift poleward. While the poleward shift is a robust response across most models, there is currently no consensus on what is the dominant dynamical mechanism. Here we use a Lagrangian approach to study the poleward shift, by employing a storm-tracking algorithm on an ensemble of CMIP5 models forced by increased CO2 emissions. We demonstrate that in addition to a poleward shift in the latitude of storm genesis, associated with the expansion of the Hadley cell, the averaged cyclonic storm also propagates more poleward until it reaches its maximum intensity. A mechanism for enhanced poleward motion of cyclones in a warmer climate is proposed, supported by idealized global warming experiments, and relates the shift to changes in upper level jet and atmospheric water vapour content. Our results imply that under the RCP8.5 climate change scenario, the averaged latitude of peak cyclone intensity shifts poleward by about 1.2○ (1.0○) in the Atlantic (Pacific) storm track in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), and by about 1.6○ in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) storm track. These changes in cyclone tracks can have a significant impact on midlatitude climate.

  6. A climatological model of North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone genesis, tracks and landfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahiduzzaman, Mohammad; Oliver, Eric C. J.; Wotherspoon, Simon J.; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2017-10-01

    Extensive damage and loss of life can be caused by tropical cyclones (TCs) that make landfall. Modelling of TC landfall probability is beneficial to insurance/re-insurance companies, decision makers, government policy and planning, and residents in coastal areas. In this study, we develop a climatological model of tropical cyclone genesis, tracks and landfall for North Indian Ocean (NIO) rim countries based on kernel density estimation, a generalised additive model (GAM) including an Euler integration step, and landfall detection using a country mask approach. Using a 35-year record (1979-2013) of tropical cyclone track observations from the Joint Typhoon Warning Centre (part of the International Best Track Archive Climate Stewardship Version 6), the GAM is fitted to the observed cyclone track velocities as a smooth function of location in each season. The distribution of cyclone genesis points is approximated by kernel density estimation. The model simulated TCs are randomly selected from the fitted kernel (TC genesis), and the cyclone paths (TC tracks), represented by the GAM together with the application of stochastic innovations at each step, are simulated to generate a suite of NIO rim landfall statistics. Three hindcast validation methods are applied to evaluate the integrity of the model. First, leave-one-out cross validation is applied whereby the country of landfall is determined by the majority vote (considering the location by only highest percentage of landfall) from the simulated tracks. Second, the probability distribution of simulated landfall is evaluated against the observed landfall. Third, the distances between the point of observed landfall and simulated landfall are compared and quantified. Overall, the model shows very good cross-validated hindcast skill of modelled landfalling cyclones against observations in each of the NIO tropical cyclone seasons and for most NIO rim countries, with only a relatively small difference in the percentage of

  7. Cluster Analysis of Downscaled and Explicitly Simulated North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Tracks

    DOE PAGES

    Daloz, Anne S.; Camargo, S. J.; Kossin, J. P.; ...

    2015-02-11

    A realistic representation of the North Atlantic tropical cyclone tracks is crucial as it allows, for example, explaining potential changes in U.S. landfalling systems. Here, the authors present a tentative study that examines the ability of recent climate models to represent North Atlantic tropical cyclone tracks. Tracks from two types of climate models are evaluated: explicit tracks are obtained from tropical cyclones simulated in regional or global climate models with moderate to high horizontal resolution (1°–0.25°), and downscaled tracks are obtained using a downscaling technique with large-scale environmental fields from a subset of these models. Here, for both configurations, tracksmore » are objectively separated into four groups using a cluster technique, leading to a zonal and a meridional separation of the tracks. The meridional separation largely captures the separation between deep tropical and subtropical, hybrid or baroclinic cyclones, while the zonal separation segregates Gulf of Mexico and Cape Verde storms. The properties of the tracks’ seasonality, intensity, and power dissipation index in each cluster are documented for both configurations. The authors’ results show that, except for the seasonality, the downscaled tracks better capture the observed characteristics of the clusters. The authors also use three different idealized scenarios to examine the possible future changes of tropical cyclone tracks under 1) warming sea surface temperature, 2) increasing carbon dioxide, and 3) a combination of the two. The response to each scenario is highly variable depending on the simulation considered. Lastly, the authors examine the role of each cluster in these future changes and find no preponderant contribution of any single cluster over the others.« less

  8. Robustness of serial clustering of extra-tropical cyclones to the choice of tracking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Joaquim G.; Ulbrich, Sven; Karremann, Melanie K.; Stephenson, David B.; Economou, Theodoros; Shaffrey, Len C.

    2016-04-01

    Cyclone families are a frequent synoptic weather feature in the Euro-Atlantic area in winter. Given appropriate large-scale conditions, the occurrence of such series (clusters) of storms may lead to large socio-economic impacts and cumulative losses. Recent studies analyzing Reanalysis data using single cyclone tracking methods have shown that serial clustering of cyclones occurs on both flanks and downstream regions of the North Atlantic storm track. This study explores the sensitivity of serial clustering to the choice of tracking method. With this aim, the IMILAST cyclone track database based on ERA-interim data is analysed. Clustering is estimated by the dispersion (ratio of variance to mean) of winter (DJF) cyclones passages near each grid point over the Euro-Atlantic area. Results indicate that while the general pattern of clustering is identified for all methods, there are considerable differences in detail. This can primarily be attributed to the differences in the variance of cyclone counts between the methods, which range up to one order of magnitude. Nevertheless, clustering over the Eastern North Atlantic and Western Europe can be identified for all methods and can thus be generally considered as a robust feature. The statistical links between large-scale patterns like the NAO and clustering are obtained for all methods, though with different magnitudes. We conclude that the occurrence of cyclone clustering over the Eastern North Atlantic and Western Europe is largely independent from the choice of tracking method and hence from the definition of a cyclone.

  9. Tropical cyclone track Analysis over Indian Coast Using Spatio-Temporal data-mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Gyanendranath; Manjunath, Swetha; Behera, Sasmita; Mohanty, Pratap Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Tropical cyclones are a natural hazard which largely affects the lives and property with its destructive wind and heavy rainfall. Fluctuations in the frequency and intensity complicate the detection of long-term trends and play an important role in the global climate system; therefore understanding and predicting tropical cyclones track, intensity, and landfall location is of both societal and scientific significance. In this study a data-mining approach is being used to analyze the tropical cyclone track both in the temporal and spatial scale. Basically, the Indian coast line is divided into four zones viz. north east, south east in the eastern side adjoining Bay of Bengal and North west and south west in the western side adjoining Arabian sea as these coastal areas are very much vulnerable for disaster due to maximum number of landfall of Tropical Cyclones. The track and landfall associated with all the cyclones are clustered based on their intensity (Severe, moderate and low) and landfall location. The analyses are carried out for landfall location and the extent of track separately for the events happening in two seasons i.e. pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period. Along with categorization of intensity, trend analysis of track and the targeted zone of maximum damage also been studied. Algorithms are being developed for potential resilient and impact assessment of the parameters associated with cyclone disaster in the coastal region of India. One of the important objectives of this present work is also the identification of most disaster prone coastal area and becoming a part of the information support system during the cyclone period. Based on the statistics like mean, Standard Deviation, regression and correlation analysis, an index is developed which determines the level of damage and vulnerability along the coastal region. This index can be used for the early warning system of particular coastal areas for the preparedness and mitigation of future cyclone

  10. Large‐scale heavy precipitation over central Europe and the role of atmospheric cyclone track types

    PubMed Central

    Lexer, Annemarie; Homann, Markus; Blöschl, Günter

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Precipitation patterns over Europe are largely controlled by atmospheric cyclones embedded in the general circulation of the mid‐latitudes. This study evaluates the climatologic features of precipitation for selected regions in central Europe with respect to cyclone track types for 1959–2015, focusing on large‐scale heavy precipitation. The analysis suggests that each of the cyclone track types is connected to a specific pattern of the upper level atmospheric flow, usually characterized by a major trough located over Europe. A dominant upper level cut‐off low (COL) is found over Europe for strong continental (CON) and van Bebber's type (Vb) cyclones which move from the east and southeast into central Europe. Strong Vb cyclones revealed the longest residence times, mainly due to circular propagation paths. The central European cyclone precipitation climate can largely be explained by seasonal track‐type frequency and cyclone intensity; however, additional factors are needed to explain a secondary precipitation maximum in early autumn. The occurrence of large precipitation totals for track events is strongly related to the track type and the region, with the highest value of 45% of all Vb cyclones connected to heavy precipitation in summer over the Czech Republic and eastern Austria. In western Germany, Atlantic winter cyclones are most relevant for heavy precipitation. The analysis of the top 50 precipitation events revealed an outstanding heavy precipitation period from 2006 to 2011 in the Czech Republic, but no gradual long‐term change. The findings help better understand spatio‐temporal variability of heavy precipitation in the context of floods and may be used for evaluating climate models.

  11. Saharan Air Layer Interaction with Hurricane Claudette (2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, G. S.; Gill, T. E.; Chang, C.

    2004-12-01

    It has long been observed that the Saharan Air Layer (SAL), a large and seasonally-persistent layer of West African aeolian dust suspended over the Atlantic Ocean, may influence the variability and intensity of easterly waves and tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin. The radiative and conductive properties of the Saharan aerosols may contribute to warming within the dust layer, creating an anomalous baroclinic zone in the tropical North Atlantic. Environmental baroclinic instability is a mechanism for conversion of potential energy to eddy kinetic energy, facilitating wave growth. However, this same baroclinic mechanism, along with the dry properties of the SAL, could also promote asymmetry in a tropical cyclone, limiting its intensity. Detailed investigations of specific cases are necessary to better understand the radiative heating or cooling impact that the Saharan aerosols cause as well as potential influences on cyclone track and intensity stemming from the aeolian dust cloud. Here, we consider the case of Claudette in 2003. On June 29, 2003, an easterly wave embedded near the southern boundary of a broad Saharan dust layer emerged from the West African Coastal Bend region into the Atlantic Ocean. The wave propagated westward, reaching tropical storm intensity as Claudette in the Caribbean and developing into a hurricane just before making landfall on the southern Texas Gulf of Mexico coast on July 15. The SAL propagated in phase with this system throughout almost its entire evolution. Rapid intensification of Claudette into a hurricane in the last 15 hours prior to landfall was concurrent with a decoupling from the Saharan dust intrusion, with the two following separate tracks into North America at the end of the period. We performed an investigation to understand and diagnose the interaction between the Saharan Air Layer and Claudette. HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) along-trajectory potential temperature plots as

  12. Assessing the capability of high resolution climatic model experiments to simulate Mediterranean cyclonic tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.; Giannakopoulos, C.; Kostopoulou, E.; Kouroutzoglou, I.; Keay, K.; Simmonds, I.

    2010-09-01

    In this study, a comparison of a reanalysis driven simulation to a GCM driven simulation of a regional climate model is performed in order to assess the model's ability to capture the climatic characteristics of cyclonic tracks in the Mediterranean in the present climate. The ultimate scope of the study will be to perform a future climate projection related to cyclonic tracks in order to better understand and assess climate change in the Mediterranean. The climatology of the cyclonic tracks includes inter-monthly variations, classification of tracks according to their origin domain, dynamic and kinematic characteristics, as well as trend analysis. For this purpose, the ENEA model is employed based on PROTHEUS system composed of the RegCM atmospheric regional model and the MITgcm ocean model, coupled through the OASIS3 flux coupler. These model data became available through the EU Project CIRCE which aims to perform, for the first time, climate change projections with a realistic representation of the Mediterranean Sea. Two experiments are employed; a) the ERA402 with lateral Boundary conditions from ERA40 for the 43-year period 1958-2000, and b) the EH5OM_20C3M where the lateral boundary conditions for the atmosphere (1951-2000) are taken from the ECHAM5-MPIOM 20c3m global simulation (run3) included in the IPCC-AR4. The identification and tracking of cyclones is performed with the aid of the Melbourne University algorithm (MS algorithm), according to the Lagrangian perspective. MS algorithm characterizes a cyclone only if a vorticity maximum could be connected with a local pressure minimum. This approach is considered to be crucial, since open lows are also incorporated into the storm life-cycle, preventing possible inappropriate time series breaks, if a temporary weakening to an open-low state occurs. The model experiments verify that considerable inter-monthly variations of track density occur in the Mediterranean region, consistent with previous studies. The

  13. Saharan Air and Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Suppression From a Global Modeling Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reale, O.; Lau, W. K. M.; daSilva, A.; Kim, K.-M.

    2007-01-01

    During summer 2006, the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (NAMMA) organized a field campaign in Africa called Special Observation Period (SOP-3), in which scientists in the field were involved in a number of surface network and aircraft measurements. One of the scientific goals of the campaign was to understand the nature and causes for tropical cyclogenesis originating out of African Easterly Waves (AEWs, westward propagating atmospheric disturbances sometimes associated with precursors of hurricanes), and the role that the Saharan Air Layer (SAL, a hot and dry air layer advecting large amounts of dust) can play in the formation or suppression of tropical cyclones. During the NAMMA campaign a high-resolution global model, the NASA GEOS-5, was operationally run by the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) in support to the mission. The daily GEOS-5 forecasts were found to be very useful by decision-making scientists in the field as an aid to discriminate between developing and non-developing AEWs and plan the flight tracks. In the post-event analyses which were performed mostly by the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres, two events were highlighted: a non-developing AEW which appeared to have been suppressed by Saharan air, compared to a developing AEW which was the precursor of hurricane Helene. Both events were successfully predicted by the GEOS-5 during the real-time forecasts provided in support to the mission. In this work it is found that very steep moisture gradients and a strong thermal dipole, with relatively warm air in the mid-troposphere and cool air below, are associated with SAL in both the GEOS-5 forecasts and the NCEP analyses, even at -great distance- from the Sahara. The presence of these unusual thermodynamic features over the Atlantic Ocean, at several thousands of kilometers from the African coastline, is suggestive that SAL mixing is very minimal and that the model's capability of retaining the different properties

  14. Persistent northward North Atlantic tropical cyclone track migration over the past five centuries

    SciTech Connect

    Baldini, Lisa M.; Baldini, James U. L.; McElwaine, Jim N.

    Accurately predicting future tropical cyclone risk requires understanding the fundamental controls on tropical cyclone dynamics. Here we present an annually-resolved 450-year reconstruction of western Caribbean tropical cyclone activity developed using a new coupled carbon and oxygen isotope ratio technique in an exceptionally well-dated stalagmite from Belize. Western Caribbean tropical cyclone activity peaked at 1650 A.D., coincident with maximum Little Ice Age cooling, and decreased gradually until the end of the record in 1983. Considered with other reconstructions, the new record suggests that the mean track of Cape Verde tropical cyclones shifted gradually north-eastward from the western Caribbean toward the Northmore » American east coast over the last 450 years. Since ~1870 A.D., these shifts were largely driven by anthropogenic greenhouse gas and sulphate aerosol emissions. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that future emission scenarios will result in more frequent tropical cyclone impacts on the financial and population centres of the northeastern United States.« less

  15. Persistent northward North Atlantic tropical cyclone track migration over the past five centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, Lisa M.; Baldini, James U. L.; McElwaine, Jim N.; Frappier, Amy Benoit; Asmerom, Yemane; Liu, Kam-Biu; Prufer, Keith M.; Ridley, Harriet E.; Polyak, Victor; Kennett, Douglas J.; MacPherson, Colin G.; Aquino, Valorie V.; Awe, Jaime; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.

    2016-11-01

    Accurately predicting future tropical cyclone risk requires understanding the fundamental controls on tropical cyclone dynamics. Here we present an annually-resolved 450-year reconstruction of western Caribbean tropical cyclone activity developed using a new coupled carbon and oxygen isotope ratio technique in an exceptionally well-dated stalagmite from Belize. Western Caribbean tropical cyclone activity peaked at 1650 A.D., coincident with maximum Little Ice Age cooling, and decreased gradually until the end of the record in 1983. Considered with other reconstructions, the new record suggests that the mean track of Cape Verde tropical cyclones shifted gradually north-eastward from the western Caribbean toward the North American east coast over the last 450 years. Since ~1870 A.D., these shifts were largely driven by anthropogenic greenhouse gas and sulphate aerosol emissions. Our results strongly suggest that future emission scenarios will result in more frequent tropical cyclone impacts on the financial and population centres of the northeastern United States.

  16. Persistent northward North Atlantic tropical cyclone track migration over the past five centuries

    DOE PAGES

    Baldini, Lisa M.; Baldini, James U. L.; McElwaine, Jim N.; ...

    2016-11-23

    Accurately predicting future tropical cyclone risk requires understanding the fundamental controls on tropical cyclone dynamics. Here we present an annually-resolved 450-year reconstruction of western Caribbean tropical cyclone activity developed using a new coupled carbon and oxygen isotope ratio technique in an exceptionally well-dated stalagmite from Belize. Western Caribbean tropical cyclone activity peaked at 1650 A.D., coincident with maximum Little Ice Age cooling, and decreased gradually until the end of the record in 1983. Considered with other reconstructions, the new record suggests that the mean track of Cape Verde tropical cyclones shifted gradually north-eastward from the western Caribbean toward the Northmore » American east coast over the last 450 years. Since ~1870 A.D., these shifts were largely driven by anthropogenic greenhouse gas and sulphate aerosol emissions. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that future emission scenarios will result in more frequent tropical cyclone impacts on the financial and population centres of the northeastern United States.« less

  17. The Role of African Easterly Wave on Dust Transport and the Interaction Between Saharan Dust Layer and Atlantic ITCZ During Boreal Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationships among Saharan dust outbreak and transport, African easterly waves (AEW), African easterly jet (AEJ) and associated convective activities of Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) using Cloudsat-Calipso, MODIS and MERRA data. We find that a major Saharan dust outbreak is associated with the formation of a westward propagating strong cyclone around 15-25N over the western part northern Saharan. The strong cyclonic flow mobilizes and lifts the dust from the desert surface to a high elevation. As the cyclone propagate westward, it transports a thick elevated dust layer between 900 -500 hPa from the African continent to the eastern Atlantic. Cloudiness is reduced within the warm, dry dusty layer, but enhanced underneath it, possibly due to the presence of a shallow inversion layer over the marine boundary layer. The dust outbreak is linked to enhanced deep convection in the northern part of Atlantic ITCZ, abutting the southern flank of the dust layer, and a strengthening of the northward flank of the AEJ. As the dust layer spreads westward, it loses elevation and becomes increasing diffused as it reaches the central and western Atlantic. Using band pass filtered EOF analysis of MERRA winds, we find that AEWs propagating westward along two principal tracks, centered at 15-25N and 5-10N respectively. The easterly waves in the northern track are highly correlated with major dust outbreak over North Africa and associated with slower moving systems, with a quasi-periodicity of 6-9 day. On the other hand, easterly waves along the southern track are faster, with quasi-periodicity of 3-5 days. These faster easterly waves are closely tied to rainfall/cloud variations along the Atlantic ITCZ. Dust transport along the southern track by the faster waves generally leads rainfall/cloud anomalies in the same region by one or two days, suggesting the southern tracks of dust outbreak are regions of strong interaction between

  18. The Impact of Dry Saharan Air on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The controversial role of the dry Saharan Air Layer (SAL) on tropical storm intensification in the Atlantic will be addressed. The SAL has been argued in previous studies to have potential positive influences on storm development, but most recent studies have argued for a strong suppressing influence on storm intensification as a result of dry air, high stability, increased vertical wind shear, and microphysical impacts of dust. Here, we focus on observations of Hurricane Helene (2006), which occurred during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Activities (NAMMA) experiment. Satellite and airborne observations, combined with global meteorological analyses depict the initial environment of Helene as being dominated by the SAL, although with minimal evidence that the SAL air actually penetrated to the core of the disturbance. Over the next several days, the SAL air quickly moved westward and was gradually replaced by a very dry, dust-free layer associated with subsidence. Despite the wrapping of this very dry air around the storm, Helene intensified steadily to a Category 3 hurricane suggesting that the dry air was unable to significantly slow storm intensification. Several uncertainties remain about the role of the SAL in Helene (and in tropical cyclones in general). To better address these uncertainties, NASA will be conducting a three year airborne campaign called the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3). The HS3 objectives are: To obtain critical measurements in the hurricane environment in order to identify the role of key factors such as large-scale wind systems (troughs, jet streams), Saharan air masses, African Easterly Waves and their embedded critical layers (that help to isolate tropical disturbances from hostile environments). To observe and understand the three-dimensional mesoscale and convective-scale internal structures of tropical disturbances and cyclones and their role in intensity change. The mission objectives will be achieved using

  19. Citizen scientists analyzing tropical cyclone intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennon, Christopher C.

    2012-10-01

    A new crowd sourcing project called CycloneCenter enables the public to analyze historical global tropical cyclone (TC) intensities. The primary goal of CycloneCenter, which launched in mid-September, is to resolve discrepancies in the recent global TC record arising principally from inconsistent development of tropical cyclone intensity data. The historical TC record is composed of data sets called "best tracks," which contain a forecast agency's best assessment of TC tracks and intensities. Best track data have improved in quality since the beginning of the geostationary satellite era in the 1960s (because TCs could no longer disappear from sight). However, a global compilation of best track data (International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS)) has brought to light large interagency differences between some TC best track intensities, even in the recent past [Knapp et al., 2010Knapp et al., 2010]. For example, maximum wind speed estimates for Tropical Cyclone Gay (1989) differed by as much as 70 knots as it was tracked by three different agencies.

  20. Influence of the Saharan Air Layer on Atlantic tropical cyclone formation during the period 1-12 September 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weiyu; Wu, Liguang; Shie, Chung-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data show that the Saharan air layer (SAL) is a dry, warm, and well-mixed layer between 950 and 500 hPa over the tropical Atlantic, extending westward from the African coast to the Caribbean Sea. The formations of both Hurricane Isabel and Tropical Depression 14 (TD14) were accompanied with outbreaks of SAL air during the period 1-12 September 2003, although TD14 failed to develop into a named tropical cyclone. The influence of the SAL on their formations is investigated by examining data from satellite observations and numerical simulations, in which AIRS data are incorporated into the MM5 model through the nudging technique. Analyses of the AIRS and simulation data suggest that the SAL may have played two roles in the formation of tropical cyclones during the period 1-12 September 2003. First, the outbreaks of SAL air on 3 and 8 September enhanced the transverse-vertical circulation with the rising motion along the southern edge of the SAL and the sinking motion inside the SAL, triggering the development of two tropical disturbances associated with Hurricane Isabel and TD14. Second, in addition to the reduced environmental humidity and enhanced static stability in the lower troposphere, the SAL dry air intruded into the inner region of these tropical disturbances as their cyclonic flows became strong. This effect may have slowed down the formation of Isabel and inhibited TD14 becoming a named tropical cyclone, while the enhanced vertical shear contributed little to tropical cyclone formation during this period. The 48-h trajectory calculations confirm that the parcels from the SAL can be transported into the inner region of an incipient tropical cyclone.

  1. Physician tracking in sub-Saharan Africa: current initiatives and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physician tracking systems are critical for health workforce planning as well as for activities to ensure quality health care - such as physician regulation, education, and emergency response. However, information on current systems for physician tracking in sub-Saharan Africa is limited. The objective of this study is to provide information on the current state of physician tracking systems in the region, highlighting emerging themes and innovative practices. Methods This study included a review of the literature, an online search for physician licensing systems, and a document review of publicly available physician registration forms for sub-Saharan African countries. Primary data on physician tracking activities was collected as part of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) - through two rounds over two years of annual surveys to 13 medical schools in 12 sub-Saharan countries. Two innovations were identified during two MEPI school site visits in Uganda and Ghana. Results Out of twelve countries, nine had existing frameworks for physician tracking through licensing requirements. Most countries collected basic demographic information: name, address, date of birth, nationality/citizenship, and training institution. Practice information was less frequently collected. The most frequently collected practice fields were specialty/degree and current title/position. Location of employment and name and sector of current employer were less frequently collected. Many medical schools are taking steps to implement graduate tracking systems. We also highlight two innovative practices: mobile technology access to physician registries in Uganda and MDNet, a public-private partnership providing free mobile-to-mobile voice and text messages to all doctors registered with the Ghana Medical Association. Conclusion While physician tracking systems vary widely between countries and a number of challenges remain, there appears to be increasing interest in

  2. Physician tracking in sub-Saharan Africa: current initiatives and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Candice; Baird, Sarah; Ssentongo, Katumba; Mehtsun, Sinit; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi; Scott, Jim; Sewankambo, Nelson; Talib, Zohray; Ward-Peterson, Melissa; Mariam, Damen Haile; Rugarabamu, Paschalis

    2014-04-23

    Physician tracking systems are critical for health workforce planning as well as for activities to ensure quality health care - such as physician regulation, education, and emergency response. However, information on current systems for physician tracking in sub-Saharan Africa is limited. The objective of this study is to provide information on the current state of physician tracking systems in the region, highlighting emerging themes and innovative practices. This study included a review of the literature, an online search for physician licensing systems, and a document review of publicly available physician registration forms for sub-Saharan African countries. Primary data on physician tracking activities was collected as part of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) - through two rounds over two years of annual surveys to 13 medical schools in 12 sub-Saharan countries. Two innovations were identified during two MEPI school site visits in Uganda and Ghana. Out of twelve countries, nine had existing frameworks for physician tracking through licensing requirements. Most countries collected basic demographic information: name, address, date of birth, nationality/citizenship, and training institution. Practice information was less frequently collected. The most frequently collected practice fields were specialty/degree and current title/position. Location of employment and name and sector of current employer were less frequently collected. Many medical schools are taking steps to implement graduate tracking systems. We also highlight two innovative practices: mobile technology access to physician registries in Uganda and MDNet, a public-private partnership providing free mobile-to-mobile voice and text messages to all doctors registered with the Ghana Medical Association. While physician tracking systems vary widely between countries and a number of challenges remain, there appears to be increasing interest in developing these systems and many

  3. The impact of Saharan Dust on the genesis and evolution of Hurricane Earl (2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, B.; Wang, Y.; Hsieh, J. S.; Lin, Y.; Hu, J.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    Dust, one of the most abundant natural aerosols, can exert substantial radiative and microphysical effects on the regional climate and has potential impacts on the genesis and intensification of tropical cyclones (TCs). A Weather Research and Forecasting Model and the Regional Oceanic Modeling System coupled model (WRF-ROMS) is used to simulate the evolution of Hurricane Earl (2010), of which Earl was interfered by Saharan dust at the TC genesis stage. A new dust module has been implemented to the TAMU two-moment microphysics scheme in the WRF model. It accounts for both dust as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) and Ice Nuclei (IN). The hurricane track, intensity and precipitation have been compared to the best track data and TRMM precipitation, respectively. The influences of Saharan dust on Hurricane Earl are investigated with dust-CCN, dust-IN, and dust-free scenarios. The analysis shows that Saharan dust changes the latent heat and moisture distribution, invigorates the convections in the hurricane's eyewall, and suppresses the development of Earl. This finding addresses the importance of accounting dust microphysics effect on hurricane predictions.

  4. The Sharav Cyclone: Observations and some theoretical considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P.; Ziv, B.

    1989-12-01

    A special study of the Sharav Cyclones indicates that they are the result of large-scale weak baroclinicity, enhanced by vigorous boundary-layer baroclinicity between the North African coast and the Mediterranean. It is illustrated how the jet stream plays a major role in the vertical circulation in producing a complex cyclonic circulation dominated by at least three mechanisms: large-scale interior baroclinicity, boundary-layer baroclinicity, and jet stream related circulations. The main characteristics of the Sharav Cyclone (also called the Saharan Depression or Khamsin Depression) in the Mediterranean are reviewed. Unlike the cold winter cyclone, the Sharav Cyclone is a spring cyclone. Its tracks lie mainly along the North African coast and turn to the north near the southeastern Mediterranean. Its warm front is active and is sometimes associated with extremely high surface temperatures. Its cold front is shallow. The Sharav Cyclone moves eastward relatively fast, typically faster than 10 m s-1, and with a small speed variability. In general, there is an upper level trough to the west of the surface low and the surface horizontal scale is of the order of 500-1000 km. Finally, it is frequently associated with heavy dust/sand storms and low visibilities. Some of these features are illustrated in a case study of the April 28-30, 1986, cyclone. Vertical cross sections indicate a deep circulation associated with the exit region of an upper level jet. In addition to presenting evidence that the Sharav Cyclone is a deep tropospheric circulation, it is shown that the transverse indirect circulation at the exit region of the jet is a major component of its circulation. The classic two-level baroclinic model (Phillips, 1954) is applied. The effects of the major diabatic heating due to the sensible heat flux above the North African desert and the large north to south temperature gradients are incorporated through the thermal wind of the basic state. The model predicts the

  5. A similarity retrieval approach for weighted track and ambient field of tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Xu, Luan; Hu, Bo; Li, Yuejun

    2018-03-01

    Retrieving historical tropical cyclones (TC) which have similar position and hazard intensity to the objective TC is an important means in TC track forecast and TC disaster assessment. A new similarity retrieval scheme is put forward based on historical TC track data and ambient field data, including ERA-Interim reanalysis and GFS and EC-fine forecast. It takes account of both TC track similarity and ambient field similarity, and optimal weight combination is explored subsequently. Result shows that both the distance and direction errors of TC track forecast at 24-hour timescale follow an approximately U-shape distribution. They tend to be large when the weight assigned to track similarity is close to 0 or 1.0, while relatively small when track similarity weight is from 0.2˜0.7 for distance error and 0.3˜0.6 for direction error.

  6. Sensitivity of cyclone tracks to the initial moisture distribution: A moist potential vorticity perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zuohao; Zhang, Da-Lin

    2005-11-01

    In this study, the characteristics of moist potential vorticity (MPV) in the vicinity of a surface cyclone center and their physical processes are investigated. A prognostic equation of surface absolute vorticity is then used to examine the relationship between the cyclone tracks and negative MPV (NMPV) using numerical simulations of the life cycle of an extratropical cyclone. It is shown that the MPV approach developed herein, i.e., by tracing the peak NMPV, can be used to help trace surface cyclones during their development and mature stages. Sensitivity experiments are conducted to investigate the impact of different initial moisture fields on the effectiveness of the MPV approach. It is found that the lifetime of NMPV depends mainly on the initial moisture field, the magnitude of condensational heating, and the advection of NMPV. When NMPV moves into a saturated environment at or near a cyclone center, it can trace better the evolution of the surface cyclone due to the conservative property of MPV. It is also shown that the NMPV generation is closely associated with the coupling of large potential temperature and moisture gradients as a result of frontogenesis processes. Analyses indicate that condensation, confluence and tilting play important but different roles in determining the NMPV generation. NMPV is generated mainly through the changes in the strength of baroclinicity and in the direction of the moisture gradient due to moist and/or dry air mass intrusion into the baroclinic zone.

  7. The spatial distribution and evolution characteristics of North Atlantic cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacre, H.; Gray, S.

    2009-09-01

    Mid-latitude cyclones play a large role in determining the day-to-day weather conditions in western Europe through their associated wind and precipitation patterns. Thus, their typical spatial and evolution characteristics are of great interest to meteorologists, insurance and risk management companies. In this study a feature tracking algorithm is applied to a cyclone database produced using the Hewson-method of cyclone identification, based on low-level gradients of wet-bulb potential temperature, to produce a climatology of mid-latitude cyclones. The aim of this work is to compare the cyclone track and density statistics found in this study with previous climatologies and to determine reasons for any differences. This method is found to compare well with other cyclone identification methods; the north Atlantic storm track is reproduced along with the major regions of genesis. Differences are attributed to cyclone lifetime and strength thresholds, dataset resolution and cyclone identification and tracking methods. Previous work on cyclone development has been largely limited to case studies as opposed to analysis of climatological data, and does not distinguish between the different stages of cyclone evolution. The cyclone database used in this study allows cyclone characteristics to be tracked throughout the cyclone lifecycle. This enables the evaluation of the characteristics of cyclone evolution for systems forming in different genesis regions and a calculation of the spatial distribution and evolution of these characteristics in composite cyclones. It was found that most of the cyclones that cross western Europe originate in the east Atlantic where the baroclinicity and sea surface temperature gradients are weak compared to the west Atlantic. East Atlantic cyclones also have higher low-level relative vorticity and lower mean sea level pressure at their genesis point than west Atlantic cyclones. This is consistent with the hypothesis that they are secondary

  8. The spatial distribution and evolution characteristics of North Atlantic cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacre, H.; Gray, S.

    2009-04-01

    Mid-latitude cyclones play a large role in determining the day-to-day weather conditions in western Europe through their associated wind and precipitation patterns. Thus, their typical spatial and evolution characteristics are of great interest to meteorologists, insurance and risk management companies. In this study a feature tracking algorithm is applied to a cyclone database produced using the Hewson-method of cyclone identification, based on low-level gradients of wet-bulb potential temperature, to produce a climatology of mid-latitude cyclones. The aim of this work is to compare the cyclone track and density statistics found in this study with previous climatologies. This method is found to compare well with other cyclone identification methods; the north Atlantic storm track is reproduced along with the major regions of genesis. Differences are attributed to cyclone lifetime and strength thresholds, dataset resolution and cyclone identification and tracking methods. Previous work on cyclone development has been largely limited to case studies as opposed to analysis of climatological data, and does not distinguish between the different stages of cyclone evolution. The cyclone database used in this study allows cyclone characteristics to be tracked throughout the cyclone lifecycle. This enables the evaluation of the characteristics of cyclone evolution for systems forming in different genesis regions and a calculation of the spatial distribution and evolution of these characteristics in composite cyclones. It was found that most of the cyclones that cross western Europe originate in the east Atlantic where the baroclinicity and sea surface temperature gradients are weak compared to the west Atlantic. East Atlantic cyclones also have higher low-level relative vorticity and lower mean sea level pressure at their genesis point than west Atlantic cyclones. This is consistent with the hypothesis that they are secondary cyclones developing on the trailing fronts of

  9. Automated Historical and Real-Time Cyclone Discovery With Multimodal Remote Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, S.; Talukder, A.; Liu, T.; Tang, W.; Bingham, A.

    2008-12-01

    Existing cyclone detection and tracking solutions involve extensive manual analysis of modeled-data and field campaign data by teams of experts. We have developed a novel automated global cyclone detection and tracking system by assimilating and sharing information from multiple remote satellites. This unprecedented solution of combining multiple remote satellite measurements in an autonomous manner allows leveraging off the strengths of each individual satellite. Use of multiple satellite data sources also results in significantly improved temporal tracking accuracy for cyclones. Our solution involves an automated feature extraction and machine learning technique based on an ensemble classifier and Kalman filter for cyclone detection and tracking from multiple heterogeneous satellite data sources. Our feature-based methodology that focuses on automated cyclone discovery is fundamentally different from, and actually complements, the well-known Dvorak technique for cyclone intensity estimation (that often relies on manual detection of cyclonic regions) from field and remote data. Our solution currently employs the QuikSCAT wind measurement and the merged level 3 TRMM precipitation data for automated cyclone discovery. Assimilation of other types of remote measurements is ongoing and planned in the near future. Experimental results of our automated solution on historical cyclone datasets demonstrate the superior performance of our automated approach compared to previous work. Performance of our detection solution compares favorably against the list of cyclones occurring in North Atlantic Ocean for the 2005 calendar year reported by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) in our initial analysis. We have also demonstrated the robustness of our cyclone tracking methodology in other regions over the world by using multiple heterogeneous satellite data for detection and tracking of three arbitrary historical cyclones in other regions. Our cyclone detection and tracking

  10. Investigating Sensitivity to Saharan Dust in Tropical Cyclone Formation Using Nasa's Adjoint Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    As tropical cyclones develop from easterly waves coming of the coast of Africa they interact with dust from the Sahara desert. There is a long standing debate over whether this dust inhibits or advances the developing storm and how much influence it has. Dust can surround the storm and absorb incoming solar radiation, cooling the air below. As a result an energy source for the system is potentially diminished, inhibiting growth of the storm. Alternatively dust may interact with clouds through micro-physical processes, for example by causing more moisture to condense, potentially increasing the strength. As a result of climate change, concentrations and amount of dust in the atmosphere will likely change. It it is important to properly understand its effect on tropical storm formation. The adjoint of an atmospheric general circulation model provides a very powerful tool for investigating sensitivity to initial conditions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently developed an adjoint version of the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) dynamical core, convection scheme, cloud model and radiation schemes. This is extended so that the interaction between dust and radiation is also accounted for in the adjoint model. This provides a framework for examining the sensitivity to dust in the initial conditions. Specifically the set up allows for an investigation into the extent to which dust affects cyclone strength through absorption of radiation. In this work we investigate the validity of using an adjoint model for examining sensitivity to dust in hurricane formation. We present sensitivity results for a number of systems that developed during the Atlantic hurricane season of 2006. During this period there was a significant outbreak of Saharan dust and it is has been argued that this outbreak was responsible for the relatively calm season. This period was also covered by an extensive observation campaign. It is shown that the

  11. Investigating sensitivity to Saharan dust in tropical cyclone formation using NASA's adjoint model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdaway, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    As tropical cyclones develop from easterly waves coming off the coast of Africa they interact with dust from the Sahara desert. There is a long standing debate over whether this dust inhibits or advances the developing storm and how much influence it has. Dust can surround the storm and absorb incoming solar radiation, cooling the air below. As a result an energy source for the system is potentially diminished, inhibiting growth of the storm. Alternatively dust may interact with clouds through micro-physical processes, for example by causing more moisture to condense, potentially increasing the strength. As a result of climate change, concentrations and amount of dust in the atmosphere will likely change. It it is important to properly understand its effect on tropical storm formation. The adjoint of an atmospheric general circulation model provides a very powerful tool for investigating sensitivity to initial conditions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently developed an adjoint version of the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) dynamical core, convection scheme, cloud model and radiation schemes. This is extended so that the interaction between dust and radiation is also accounted for in the adjoint model. This provides a framework for examining the sensitivity to dust in the initial conditions. Specifically the set up allows for an investigation into the extent to which dust affects cyclone strength through absorption of radiation. In this work we investigate the validity of using an adjoint model for examining sensitivity to dust in hurricane formation. We present sensitivity results for a number of systems that developed during the Atlantic hurricane season of 2006. During this period there was a significant outbreak of Saharan dust and it is has been argued that this outbreak was responsible for the relatively calm season. This period was also covered by an extensive observation campaign. It is shown that the

  12. Objective Tracking of Tropical Cyclones in the North-West Pacific Basin Based on Wind Field Information only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckebusch, G. C.; Befort, D. J.; Kruschke, T.

    2016-12-01

    Although only ca. 12% of the global insured losses of natural disasters occurred in Asia, there are two major reasons to be concerned about risks in Asia: a) The fraction of loss events was substantial higher with 39% of which 94% were due to atmospheric processes; b) Asia and especially China, is undergoing quick transitions and especially the insurance market is rapidly growing. In order to allow for the estimation of potential future (loss) impacts in East-Asia, in this study we further developed and applied a feature tracking system based on extreme wind speed occurrences to tropical cyclones, which was originally developed for extra-tropical cyclones (Leckebusch et al., 2008). In principle, wind fields will be identified and tracked once a coherent exceedance of local percentile thresholds is identified. The focus on severe wind impact will allow an objective link between the strength of a cyclone and its potential damages over land. The wind tracking is developed in such a way to be applicable also to course-gridded AOGCM simulation. In the presented configuration the wind tracking algorithm is applied to the Japanese reanalysis (JRA55) and TC Identification is based on 850hPa wind speeds (6h resolution) from 1979 to 2014 over the Western North Pacific region. For validation the IBTrACS Best Track archive version v03r8 is used. Out of all 904 observed tracks, about 62% can be matched to at least one windstorm event identified in JRA55. It is found that the relative amount of matched best tracks increases with the maximum intensity. Thus, a positive matching (hit rate) of above 98% for Violent Typhoons (VTY), above 90% for Very Strong Typhoons (VSTY), about 75% for Typhoons (TY), and still some 50% for less intense TCs (TD, TS, STS) is found. This result is extremely encouraging to apply this technique to AOGCM outputs and to derive information about affected regions and intensity-frequency distributions potentially changed under future climate conditions.

  13. The Relationship Between Extratropical Cyclone Steering and Blocking Along the North American East Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, James F.; Dunn-Sigouin, Etienne; Pfahl, Stephan

    2017-12-01

    The path and speed of extratropical cyclones along the east coast of North America influence their societal impact. This work characterizes the climatological relationship between cyclone track path and speed, and blocking and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). An analysis of Lagrangian cyclone track propagation speed and angle shows that the percentage of cyclones with blocks is larger for cyclones that propagate northward or southeastward, as is the size of the blocked region near the cyclone. Cyclone-centered composites show that propagation of cyclones relative to blocks is consistent with steering by the block: northward tracks more often have a block east/northeast of the cyclone; slow tracks tend to have blocks due north of the cyclone. Comparison with the NAO shows that to first-order blocking and the NAO steer cyclones in a similar manner. However, blocked cyclones are more likely to propagate northward, increasing the likelihood of cyclone related impacts.

  14. Serial clustering of extratropical cyclones and relationship with NAO and jet intensity based on the IMILAST cyclone database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbrich, Sven; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Economou, Theodoros; Stephenson, David B.; Karremann, Melanie K.; Shaffrey, Len C.

    2017-04-01

    Cyclone families are a frequent synoptic weather feature in the Euro-Atlantic area, particularly during wintertime. Given appropriate large-scale conditions, such series (clusters) of storms may cause large socio-economic impacts and cumulative losses. Recent studies analyzing reanalysis data using single cyclone tracking methods have shown that serial clustering of cyclones occurs on both flanks and downstream regions of the North Atlantic storm track. Based on winter (DJF) cyclone counts from the IMILAST cyclone database, we explore the representation of serial clustering in the ERA-Interim period and its relationship with the NAO-phase and jet intensity. With this aim, clustering is estimated by the dispersion of winter (DJF) cyclone passages for each grid point over the Euro-Atlantic area. Results indicate that clustering over the Eastern North Atlantic and Western Europe can be identified for all methods, although the exact location and the dispersion magnitude may vary. The relationship between clustering and (i) the NAO-phase and (ii) jet intensity over the North Atlantic is statistically evaluated. Results show that the NAO-index and the jet intensity show a strong contribution to clustering, even though some spread is found between methods. We conclude that the general features of clustering of extratropical cyclones over the North Atlantic and Western Europe are robust to the choice of tracking method. The same is true for the influence of the NAO and jet intensity on cyclone dispersion.

  15. An intercomparison of tropical cyclone best-track products for the southwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Andrew D.; Verdon-Kidd, Danielle C.; Kiem, Anthony S.

    2016-06-01

    Recent efforts to understand tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the southwest Pacific (SWP) have led to the development of numerous TC databases. The methods used to compile each database vary and are based on data from different meteorological centres, standalone TC databases and archived synoptic charts. Therefore the aims of this study are to (i) provide a spatio-temporal comparison of three TC best-track (BT) databases and explore any differences between them (and any associated implications) and (ii) investigate whether there are any spatial, temporal or statistical differences between pre-satellite (1945-1969), post-satellite (1970-2011) and post-geostationary satellite (1982-2011) era TC data given the changing observational technologies with time. To achieve this, we compare three best-track TC databases for the SWP region (0-35° S, 135° E-120° W) from 1945 to 2011: the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) and the Southwest Pacific Enhanced Archive of Tropical Cyclones (SPEArTC). The results of this study suggest that SPEArTC is the most complete repository of TCs for the SWP region. In particular, we show that the SPEArTC database includes a number of additional TCs, not included in either the JTWC or IBTrACS database. These SPEArTC events do occur under environmental conditions conducive to tropical cyclogenesis (TC genesis), including anomalously negative 700 hPa vorticity (VORT), anomalously negative vertical shear of zonal winds (VSZW), anomalously negative 700 hPa geopotential height (GPH), cyclonic (absolute) 700 hPa winds and low values of absolute vertical wind shear (EVWS). Further, while changes in observational technologies from 1945 have undoubtedly improved our ability to detect and monitor TCs, we show that the number of TCs detected prior to the satellite era (1945-1969) are not statistically different to those in the post-satellite era (post-1970). Although data from

  16. An updated climatology of explosive cyclones using alternative measures of cyclone intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, J.; Caballero, R.

    2009-04-01

    Using a novel cyclone tracking and identification method, we compute a climatology of explosively intensifying cyclones or ‘bombs' using the ERA-40 and ERA-Interim datasets. Traditionally, ‘bombs' have been identified using a central pressure deepening rate criterion (Sanders and Gyakum, 1980). We investigate alternative methods of capturing such extreme cyclones. These methods include using the maximum wind contained within the cyclone, and using a potential vorticity column measure within such systems, as a measure of intensity. Using the different measures of cyclone intensity, we construct and intercompare maps of peak cyclone intensity. We also compute peak intensity probability distributions, and assess the evidence for the bi-modal distribution found by Roebber (1984). Finally, we address the question of the relationship between storm intensification rate and storm destructiveness: are ‘bombs' the most destructive storms?

  17. Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Model Tracks in Present and Future Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Jennifer; Camargo, Suzana J.; Sobel, Adam H.; Henderson, Naomi; Emanuel, Kerry A.; Kumar, Arun; LaRow, Timothy E.; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Wang, Hui; Wehner, Michael F.; Zhao, Ming

    2017-09-01

    Western North Pacific tropical cyclone (TC) model tracks are analyzed in two large multimodel ensembles, spanning a large variety of models and multiple future climate scenarios. Two methodologies are used to synthesize the properties of TC tracks in this large data set: cluster analysis and mass moment ellipses. First, the models' TC tracks are compared to observed TC tracks' characteristics, and a subset of the models is chosen for analysis, based on the tracks' similarity to observations and sample size. Potential changes in track types in a warming climate are identified by comparing the kernel smoothed probability distributions of various track variables in historical and future scenarios using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov significance test. Two track changes are identified. The first is a statistically significant increase in the north-south expansion, which can also be viewed as a poleward shift, as TC tracks are prevented from expanding equatorward due to the weak Coriolis force near the equator. The second change is an eastward shift in the storm tracks that occur near the central Pacific in one of the multimodel ensembles, indicating a possible increase in the occurrence of storms near Hawaii in a warming climate. The dependence of the results on which model and future scenario are considered emphasizes the necessity of including multiple models and scenarios when considering future changes in TC characteristics.

  18. The influence of asymmetric convections on typhoon cyclonic deflection tracks across Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, L. H.; Su, S. H.

    2016-12-01

    This study focus on the mechanisms of typhoon cyclonic deflection tracks (CDT) approaching the east coast of Taiwan. We analyzed for 84 landfall typhoons which has 49 CDT cases, 18 cases are with very large deflection angles (DA) ( > 20°) and another 7 cases are with cyclonic looping tracks (CLT). Most of the large DA and CLT cases are with relatively slow translation speeds of 4 m s-1 and occurred near the east coast, north of 23 °N in Taiwan. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model was used to simulate the typhoon CDT cases. We use the potential vorticity (PV) tendency diagnosis to analyze the typhoon movements, and decompose the wave number one component of PV tendencies into horizontal advection (HA), vertical advection (VA) and diabatic heating (DH) terms. The northern landfall storms have significant vorticity stretching and subsidence warming to the south of the storm. The subsidence warming suppresses convections and produces heating asymmetries for the typhoon structure. The vorticity stretching (VA effect) and diabatic heating asymmetries (DH effect) which lead the southwestward deflection storm motion. The HA effect in general does not contribute to the CDT. Our results highlight the effects of vorticity stretching and asymmetric convective heating in producing the CDT to north of 23 °N near the east coast of Taiwan.

  19. AIRS Impact on the Analysis and Forecast Track of Tropical Cyclone Nargis in a Global Data Assimilation and Forecasting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reale, O.; Lau, W.K.; Susskind, J.; Brin, E.; Liu, E.; Riishojgaard, L. P.; Rosenburg, R.; Fuentes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Tropical cyclones in the northern Indian Ocean pose serious challenges to operational weather forecasting systems, partly due to their shorter lifespan and more erratic track, compared to those in the Atlantic and the Pacific. Moreover, the automated analyses of cyclones over the northern Indian Ocean, produced by operational global data assimilation systems (DASs), are generally of inferior quality than in other basins. In this work it is shown that the assimilation of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) temperature retrievals under partial cloudy conditions can significantly impact the representation of the cyclone Nargis (which caused devastating loss of life in Myanmar in May 2008) in a global DAS. Forecasts produced from these improved analyses by a global model produce substantially smaller track errors. The impact of the assimilation of clear-sky radiances on the same DAS and forecasting system is positive, but smaller than the one obtained by ingestion of AIRS retrievals, possibly due to poorer coverage.

  20. Detection of centers of tropical cyclones using Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Juhyun; Im, Jungho; Park, Seohui; Yoo, Cheolhee

    2017-04-01

    Tropical cyclones are one of major natural disasters, which results in huge damages to human and society. Analyzing behaviors and characteristics of tropical cyclones is essential for mitigating the damages by tropical cyclones. In particular, it is important to keep track of the centers of tropical cyclones. Cyclone center and track information (called Best Track) provided by Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are widely used for the reference data of tropical cyclone centers. However, JTWC uses multiple resources including numerical modeling, geostationary satellite data, and in situ measurements to determine the best track in a subjective way and makes it available to the public 6 months later after an event occurred. Thus, the best track data cannot be operationally used to identify the centers of tropical cyclones in real time. In this study, we proposed an automated approach for identifying the centers of tropical cyclones using only Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) Meteorological Imager (MI) sensor derived data. It contains 5 bands—VIS (0.67µm), SWIR (3.7µm), WV (6.7µm), IR1 (10.8µm), and IR2 (12.0µm). We used IR1 band images to extract brightness temperatures of cloud tops over Western North Pacific between 2011 and 2012. The Angle deviation between brightness temperature-based gradient direction in a moving window and the reference angle toward the center of the window was extracted. Then, a spatial analysis index called circular variance was adopted to identify the centers of tropical cyclones based on the angle deviation. Finally, the locations of the minimum circular variance indexes were identified as the centers of tropical cyclones. While the proposed method has comparable performance for detecting cyclone centers in case of organized cloud convections when compared with the best track data, it identified the cyclone centers distant ( 2 degrees) from the best track centers for unorganized convections.

  1. The dynamical structure of intense Mediterranean cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaounas, Emmanouil; Raveh-Rubin, Shira; Wernli, Heini; Drobinski, Philippe; Bastin, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents and analyzes the three-dimensional dynamical structure of intense Mediterranean cyclones. The analysis is based on a composite approach of the 200 most intense cyclones during the period 1989-2008 that have been identified and tracked using the output of a coupled ocean-atmosphere regional simulation with 20 km horizontal grid spacing and 3-hourly output. It is shown that the most intense Mediterranean cyclones have a common baroclinic life cycle with a potential vorticity (PV) streamer associated with an upper-level cyclonic Rossby wave breaking, which precedes cyclogenesis in the region and triggers baroclinic instability. It is argued that this common baroclinic life cycle is due to the strongly horizontally sheared environment in the Mediterranean basin, on the poleward flank of the quasi-persistent subtropical jet. The composite life cycle of the cyclones is further analyzed considering the evolution of key atmospheric elements as potential temperature and PV, as well as the cyclones' thermodynamic profiles and rainfall. It is shown that most intense Mediterranean cyclones are associated with warm conveyor belts and dry air intrusions, similar to those of other strong extratropical cyclones, but of rather small scale. Before cyclones reach their mature stage, the streamer's role is crucial to advect moist and warm air towards the cyclones center. These dynamical characteristics, typical for very intense extratropical cyclones in the main storm track regions, are also valid for these Mediterranean cases that have features that are visually similar to tropical cyclones.

  2. Targeted observations to improve tropical cyclone track forecasts in the Atlantic and eastern Pacific basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aberson, Sim David

    In 1997, the National Hurricane Center and the Hurricane Research Division began conducting operational synoptic surveillance missions with the Gulfstream IV-SP jet aircraft to improve operational forecast models. During the first two years, twenty-four missions were conducted around tropical cyclones threatening the continental United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Global Positioning System dropwindsondes were released from the aircraft at 150--200 km intervals along the flight track in the tropical cyclone environment to obtain wind, temperature, and humidity profiles from flight level (around 150 hPa) to the surface. The observations were processed and formatted aboard the aircraft and transmitted to the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). There, they were ingested into the Global Data Assimilation System that subsequently provides initial and time-dependent boundary conditions for numerical models that forecast tropical cyclone track and intensity. Three dynamical models were employed in testing the targeting and sampling strategies. With the assimilation into the numerical guidance of all the observations gathered during the surveillance missions, only the 12-h Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Hurricane Model forecast showed statistically significant improvement. Neither the forecasts from the Aviation run of the Global Spectral Model nor the shallow-water VICBAR model were improved with the assimilation of the dropwindsonde data. This mediocre result is found to be due mainly to the difficulty in operationally quantifying the storm-motion vector used to create accurate synthetic data to represent the tropical cyclone vortex in the models. A secondary limit on forecast improvements from the surveillance missions is the limited amount of data provided by the one surveillance aircraft in regular missions. The inability of some surveillance missions to surround the tropical cyclone with dropwindsonde observations is a possible

  3. Tropical storm redistribution of Saharan dust to the upper troposphere and ocean surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbener, Stephen R.; Saleeby, Stephen M.; Heever, Susan C.; Twohy, Cynthia H.

    2016-10-01

    As a tropical cyclone traverses the Saharan Air Layer (SAL), the storm will spatially redistribute the dust from the SAL. Dust deposited on the surface may affect ocean fertilization, and dust transported to the upper levels of the troposphere may impact radiative forcing. This study explores the relative amounts of dust that are vertically redistributed when a tropical cyclone crosses the SAL. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was configured to simulate the passage of Tropical Storm Debby (2006) through the SAL. A dust mass budget approach has been applied, enabled by a novel dust mass tracking capability of the model, to determine the amounts of dust deposited on the ocean surface and transferred aloft. The mass of dust removed to the ocean surface was predicted to be nearly 2 orders of magnitude greater than the amount of dust transported to the upper troposphere.

  4. The sensitivity to the microphysical schemes on the skill of forecasting the track and intensity of tropical cyclones using WRF-ARW model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Devanil; Das, Someshwar

    2017-06-01

    The Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model is used to simulate Very Severe Cyclonic Storms (VSCS) Hudhud (7-13 October, 2014), Phailin (8-14 October, 2013) and Lehar (24-29 November, 2013) to investigate the sensitivity to microphysical schemes on the skill of forecasting track and intensity of the tropical cyclones for high-resolution (9 and 3 km) 120-hr model integration. For cloud resolving grid scale (<5 km) cloud microphysics plays an important role. The performance of the Goddard, Thompson, LIN and NSSL schemes are evaluated and compared with observations and a CONTROL forecast. This study is aimed to investigate the sensitivity to microphysics on the track and intensity with explicitly resolved convection scheme. It shows that the Goddard one-moment bulk liquid-ice microphysical scheme provided the highest skill on the track whereas for intensity both Thompson and Goddard microphysical schemes perform better. The Thompson scheme indicates the highest skill in intensity at 48, 96 and 120 hr, whereas at 24 and 72 hr, the Goddard scheme provides the highest skill in intensity. It is known that higher resolution domain produces better intensity and structure of the cyclones and it is desirable to resolve the convection with sufficiently high resolution and with the use of explicit cloud physics. This study suggests that the Goddard cumulus ensemble microphysical scheme is suitable for high resolution ARW simulation for TC's track and intensity over the BoB. Although the present study is based on only three cyclones, it could be useful for planning real-time predictions using ARW modelling system.

  5. A Statistical Model of Tropical Cyclone Tracks in the Western North Pacific with ENSO-Dependent Cyclogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonekura, Emmi; Hall, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    A new statistical model for western North Pacific Ocean tropical cyclone genesis and tracks is developed and applied to estimate regionally resolved tropical cyclone landfall rates along the coasts of the Asian mainland, Japan, and the Philippines. The model is constructed on International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) 1945-2007 historical data for the western North Pacific. The model is evaluated in several ways, including comparing the stochastic spread in simulated landfall rates with historic landfall rates. Although certain biases have been detected, overall the model performs well on the diagnostic tests, for example, reproducing well the geographic distribution of landfall rates. Western North Pacific cyclogenesis is influenced by El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This dependence is incorporated in the model s genesis component to project the ENSO-genesis dependence onto landfall rates. There is a pronounced shift southeastward in cyclogenesis and a small but significant reduction in basinwide annual counts with increasing ENSO index value. On almost all regions of coast, landfall rates are significantly higher in a negative ENSO state (La Nina).

  6. Development and Application of an Objective Tracking Algorithm for Tropical Cyclones over the North-West Pacific purely based on Wind Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befort, Daniel J.; Kruschke, Tim; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2017-04-01

    Tropical Cyclones over East Asia have huge socio-economic impacts due to their strong wind fields and large rainfall amounts. Especially, the most severe events are associated with huge economic losses, e.g. Typhoon Herb in 1996 is related to overall losses exceeding 5 billion US (Munich Re, 2016). In this study, an objective tracking algorithm is applied to JRA55 reanalysis data from 1979 to 2014 over the Western North Pacific. For this purpose, a purely wind based algorithm, formerly used to identify extra-tropical wind storms, has been further developed. The algorithm is based on the exceedance of the local 98th percentile to define strong wind fields in gridded climate data. To be detected as a tropical cyclone candidate, the following criteria must be fulfilled: 1) the wind storm must exist for at least eight 6-hourly time steps and 2) the wind field must exceed a minimum size of 130.000km2 for each time step. The usage of wind information is motivated to focus on damage related events, however, a pre-selection based on the affected region is necessary to remove events of extra-tropical nature. Using IBTrACS Best Tracks for validation, it is found that about 62% of all detected tropical cyclone events in JRA55 reanalysis can be matched to an observed best track. As expected the relative amount of matched tracks increases with the wind intensity of the event, with a hit rate of about 98% for Violent Typhoons, above 90% for Very Strong Typhoons and about 75% for Typhoons. Overall these results are encouraging as the parameters used to detect tropical cyclones in JRA55, e.g. minimum area, are also suitable to detect TCs in most CMIP5 simulations and will thus allow estimates of potential future changes.

  7. Looping tracks associated with tropical cyclones approaching an isolated mountain. Part I: Essential parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Chih; Lin, Yuh-Lang

    2018-06-01

    Essential parameters for making a looping track when a westward-moving tropical cyclone (TC) approaches a mesoscale mountain are investigated by examining several key nondimensional control parameters with a series of systematic, idealized numerical experiments, such as U/ Nh, V max/ Nh, U/ fL x , V max/ fR, h/ L x , and R/ L y . Here U is the uniform zonal wind velocity, N the Brunt-Vaisala frequency, h the mountain height, f the Coriolis parameter, V max the maximum tangential velocity at a radius of R from the cyclone center and L x is the halfwidth of the mountain in the east-west direction. It is found that looping tracks (a) tend to occur under small U/ Nh and U/ fL x , moderate h/ L x , and large V max/ Nh, which correspond to slow movement (leading to subgeostrophic flow associated with strong orographic blocking), moderate steepness, and strong tangential wind associated with TC vortex; (b) are often accompanied by an area of perturbation high pressure to the northeast of the mountain, which lasts for only a short period; and (c) do not require the existence of a northerly jet. The nondimensional control parameters are consolidated into a TC looping index (LI), {U2 R2 }/{V_{max 2 hLy }} , which is tested by several historical looping and non-looping typhoons approaching Taiwan's Central Mountain Range (CMR) from east or southeast. It is found that LI < 0.0125 may serve as a criterion for looping track to occur.

  8. Extra-tropical Cyclones and Windstorms in Seasonal Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Befort, Daniel J.; Weisheimer, Antje; Knight, Jeff; Thornton, Hazel; Roberts, Julia; Hermanson, Leon

    2015-04-01

    Severe damages and large insured losses over Europe related to natural phenomena are mostly caused by extra-tropical cyclones and their related windstorm fields. Thus, an adequate representation of these events in seasonal prediction systems and reliable forecasts up to a season in advance would be of high value for society and economy. In this study, state-of-the-art seasonal forecast prediction systems are analysed (ECMWF, UK Met Office) regarding the general climatological representation and the seasonal prediction of extra-tropical cyclones and windstorms during the core winter season (DJF) with a lead time of up to four months. Two different algorithms are used to identify cyclones and windstorm events in these datasets. Firstly, we apply a cyclone identification and tracking algorithm based on the Laplacian of MSLP and secondly, we use an objective wind field tracking algorithm to identify and track continuous areas of extreme high wind speeds (cf. Leckebusch et al., 2008), which can be related to extra-tropical winter cyclones. Thus, for the first time, we can analyse the forecast of severe wind events near to the surface caused by extra-tropical cyclones. First results suggest a successful validation of the spatial climatological distributions of wind storm and cyclone occurrence in the seasonal forecast systems in comparison with reanalysis data (ECMWF-ERA40 & ERAInterim) in general. However, large biases are found for some areas. The skill of the seasonal forecast systems in simulating the year-to-year variability of the frequency of severe windstorm events and cyclones is investigated using the ranked probability skill score. Positive skill is found over large parts of the Northern Hemisphere as well as for the most intense extra-tropical cyclones and its related wind fields.

  9. Tropical Cyclone Signatures in Atmospheric Convective Available Potential Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studholme, Joshua; Gulev, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Tropical cyclones play an important role in the climate system providing transports of energy and water vapor, forcing the ocean, and also affecting mid-latitude circulation phenomena. Tropical cyclone tracks experience strong interannual variability and in addition, longer term trend-like changes in all ocean basins. Analysis of recent historical data reveal a poleward shift in the locations of tropical cyclone tracks in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (Kossin et al. 2014, Nature, 509, 349-352). The physical consequences of these alterations are largely unconstrained. For example, the increasing encroachment of tropical cyclone activity into the extra-tropical environment presents a novel and still poorly understood paradigm for tropical-extratropical interactions. In this respect, the role that the atmospheric convective available potential energy (CAPE) plays in the dynamics of tropical cyclones is highly interesting. The two characteristic global-scale spatial patterns in CAPE are identified using EOF analysis. The first pattern shows an abundance of CAPE in the centre of the Pacific and corresponds to the El Nino Southern Oscillation. The second one is capturing positive CAPE anomalies in the oceanic tropics and negative anomalies over equatorial Africa. Associated with these buoyancy patterns, alterations in tropical cyclone activity occur in all basins forming both zonal and meridional patterns. Atmospheric buoyancy is the trigger for deep convection, and subsequently cyclone genesis. This is the mechanism of impact upon location at the start of cyclone tracks. It is found to have less impact upon where cyclones subsequently move, whether or not they undergo extratropical transition and when and where they experience lysis. It is shown that CAPE plays a critical role in the general circulation in the tropics which in turn is the larger steering context for embedded systems within the Walker and Hadley cells. So this lack of `latter life' impact

  10. Assessing Impacts of Global Warming on Tropical Cyclone Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Li-Guang; Wang, Bin

    2003-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to assess the possible impacts of the global climate change on tropical cyclone (TC) tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) basin. The idea is based on the premise that the future change of TC track characteristics is primarily determined by changes in large-scale environmental steering flows. It is demonstrated that the main characteristics of the current climatology of TC tracks can be derived from the climatological mean velocity field of TC motion by using a trajectory model. The climatological mean velocity of TC motion, which is composed of the large-scale steering and beta drift, is determined on each grid of the basin. The mean beta drift is estimated from the best track data, and the mean large-scale steering flow is computed from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis for the current climate state. The derived mean beta drift agrees well with the results of previous observational and numerical studies in terms of its direction and magnitude. The outputs of experiments A2 and B2 of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) R30 climate model suggest that the subtropical high will be persistently weak over the western part of the WNP or shift eastward during July-September in response to the future climate change. By assuming that the mean beta drift in the future climate state is unchanged, the change in the general circulation by 2059 will decrease the TC activities in the WNP, but favor a northward shift of typical TC tracks. As a result, the storm activities in the South China Sea will decrease by about 12%, while the Japan region will experience an increase of TCs by 12-15%. During the period of 2000-2029, the tropical storms that affect the China region will increase by 5-6%, but return to the current level during 2030-2059. It is also suggested that, during the period of 2030-2059 tropical storms will more frequently affect Japan and the middle latitude region of China given that the formation locations remain the same as in the

  11. How ocean color can steer Pacific tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanadesikan, Anand; Emanuel, Kerry; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Anderson, Whit G.; Hallberg, Robert

    2010-09-01

    Because ocean color alters the absorption of sunlight, it can produce changes in sea surface temperatures with further impacts on atmospheric circulation. These changes can project onto fields previously recognized to alter the distribution of tropical cyclones. If the North Pacific subtropical gyre contained no absorbing and scattering materials, the result would be to reduce subtropical cyclone activity in the subtropical Northwest Pacific by 2/3, while concentrating cyclone tracks along the equator. Predicting tropical cyclone activity using coupled models may thus require consideration of the details of how heat moves into the upper thermocline as well as biogeochemical cycling.

  12. Dust emission and transport associated with a Saharan depression: February 2007 case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bou Karam, Diana; Flamant, Cyrille; Cuesta, Juan; Pelon, Jacques; Williams, Earle

    2010-01-01

    The dust activity over North Africa associated with the Saharan depression event in February 2007 is investigated by mean of spaceborne observations, ground-based measurements, and mesoscale simulation with Meso-NH. The main characteristics of the cyclone as well as the meteorological conditions during this event are described using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The dust storm and cloud cover over North Africa is thoroughly described combining for the first time Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra-Red Imager (SEVIRI) images for the spatiotemporal evolution and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) and CloudSat observations for the vertical distribution. The Saharan depression formed over Algeria in the lee of the Atlas Mountains on the afternoon of 20 February in response to midlatitude trough intrusion. It migrated eastward with a speed of 11 m s-1 and reached Libya on 22 February before exiting the African continent toward the Mediterranean Sea on 23 February. The horizontal scale of the cyclone at the surface varied between 800 and 1000 km during its lifetime. On the vertical the cyclone extended over 8 km, and a potential vorticity of 2 potential vorticity units (PVU) was reported at its center at 3 km in altitude. The cyclone was characterized by a surface pressure anomaly of about 9 hPa with respect to the environment, a warm front typified at the surface by an increase in surface temperature of 5°C, and a sharp cold front characterized by a drop in surface temperature of 8°C and an increase in 10 m wind speed of 15 m s-1. The cyclone provided dynamical forcing that led to strong near-surface winds and produced a major dust storm over North Africa. The dust was transported all around the cyclone leaving a clear eye at its center and was accompanied by a deep cloud band along the northwestern edge of the cyclone. On the vertical, slanted dust layers were consistently observed during the

  13. Understanding the impact of saharan dust aerosols on tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeger, Aaron

    Genesis of Tropical Cyclones (TCs) in the main development region for Atlantic hurricanes is tied to convection initiated by African easterly waves (AEWs) during Northern hemisphere summer and fall seasons. The main development region is also impacted by dust aerosols transported from the Sahara. It has been hypothesized that dust aerosols can modulate the development of TCs through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interaction processes. In this study, we investigate the impact of dust aerosols on TC development using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We first develop a technique to constrain the WRF-Chem model with a realistic three-dimensional spatial distribution of dust aerosols. The horizontal distribution of dust is specified using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived aerosol products and output from the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. The vertical distribution of dust is constrained using the Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO). We validate our technique through in situ aircraft measurements where both showed aerosol number concentrations from 20-30 cm-3 in the atmosphere for Saharan dust moving over the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Then, we use the satellite data constraint technique to nudge the WRF-Chem aerosol fields throughout the simulation of TC Florence developing over the eastern Atlantic Ocean during September 2006. Three different experiments are conducted where the aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interaction processes are either activated or deactivated in the model while all other model options are identical between the experiments. By comparing the model experiment results, the impact of the aerosol interaction processes on TC development can be understood. The results indicate that dust aerosols can delay or prevent the development of a TC as the minimum sea level pressure of TC Florence was 13 h

  14. Objectively classifying Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    There has been a long tradition in attempting to separate extratropical cyclones into different classes depending on their cloud signatures, airflows, synoptic precursors, or upper-level flow features. Depending on these features, the cyclones may have different impacts, for example in their precipitation intensity. It is important, therefore, to understand how the distribution of different cyclone classes may change in the future. Many of the previous classifications have been performed manually. In order to be able to evaluate climate models and understand how extratropical cyclones might change in the future, we need to be able to use an automated method to classify cyclones. Extratropical cyclones have been identified in the Southern Hemisphere from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset with a commonly used identification and tracking algorithm that employs 850 hPa relative vorticity. A clustering method applied to large-scale fields from ERA-Interim at the time of cyclone genesis (when the cyclone is first detected), has been used to objectively classify identified cyclones. The results are compared to the manual classification of Sinclair and Revell (2000) and the four objectively identified classes shown in this presentation are found to match well. The relative importance of diabatic heating in the clusters is investigated, as well as the differing precipitation characteristics. The success of the objective classification shows its utility in climate model evaluation and climate change studies.

  15. Impacts of Particulate Matter on Gulf of Mexico Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W.; Rohli, R. V.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to analyze the relationship between tropical cyclones of the Gulf of Mexico-Atlantic basin and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The daily mean PM2.5 concentration values were collected from United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Tropical cyclone data were collected from Tropical Prediction Center Best Track Reanalysis in Unisys Weather®. The GRIdded Binary (GRIB-formatted) data were downloaded from the Data Support Section of the Computational and Information Systems Laboratory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Through ArcGIS®, the tropical cyclone tracks were compared with the interpolated daily mean PM2.5 concentration value. Results suggest that the tracks tend to avoid areas with higher PM2.5 concentrations, and the intensity was weakened significantly after passing the PM2.5-rich area. Through simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, the pressure and vertical structure of Hurricane Lili were weakened after passing the most PM2.5-rich area in Louisiana. Also, little evidence is found for the possibility of precipitation generated by the approaching tropical cyclone to cleanse the atmosphere of PM2.5 before storm passage. These results have important implications for tropical cyclone prediction as storms approach polluted areas or other places where PM2.5 particles are abundant, not only including urban environments but also in coastal areas where proscribed burns take place during tropical cyclone season, such as during sugarcane harvesting in southern Louisiana.

  16. Impact of Representing Model Error in a Hybrid Ensemble-Variational Data Assimilation System for Track Forecast of Tropical Cyclones over the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutty, Govindan; Muraleedharan, Rohit; Kesarkar, Amit P.

    2018-03-01

    Uncertainties in the numerical weather prediction models are generally not well-represented in ensemble-based data assimilation (DA) systems. The performance of an ensemble-based DA system becomes suboptimal, if the sources of error are undersampled in the forecast system. The present study examines the effect of accounting for model error treatments in the hybrid ensemble transform Kalman filter—three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) DA system (hybrid) in the track forecast of two tropical cyclones viz. Hudhud and Thane, formed over the Bay of Bengal, using Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model. We investigated the effect of two types of model error treatment schemes and their combination on the hybrid DA system; (i) multiphysics approach, which uses different combination of cumulus, microphysics and planetary boundary layer schemes, (ii) stochastic kinetic energy backscatter (SKEB) scheme, which perturbs the horizontal wind and potential temperature tendencies, (iii) a combination of both multiphysics and SKEB scheme. Substantial improvements are noticed in the track positions of both the cyclones, when flow-dependent ensemble covariance is used in 3DVAR framework. Explicit model error representation is found to be beneficial in treating the underdispersive ensembles. Among the model error schemes used in this study, a combination of multiphysics and SKEB schemes has outperformed the other two schemes with improved track forecast for both the tropical cyclones.

  17. Is the poleward migration of tropical cyclone maximum intensity associated with a poleward migration of tropical cyclone genesis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daloz, Anne Sophie; Camargo, Suzana J.

    2018-01-01

    A recent study showed that the global average latitude where tropical cyclones achieve their lifetime-maximum intensity has been migrating poleward at a rate of about one-half degree of latitude per decade over the last 30 years in each hemisphere. However, it does not answer a critical question: is the poleward migration of tropical cyclone lifetime-maximum intensity associated with a poleward migration of tropical cyclone genesis? In this study we will examine this question. First we analyze changes in the environmental variables associated with tropical cyclone genesis, namely entropy deficit, potential intensity, vertical wind shear, vorticity, skin temperature and specific humidity at 500 hPa in reanalysis datasets between 1980 and 2013. Then, a selection of these variables is combined into two tropical cyclone genesis indices that empirically relate tropical cyclone genesis to large-scale variables. We find a shift toward greater (smaller) average potential number of genesis at higher (lower) latitudes over most regions of the Pacific Ocean, which is consistent with a migration of tropical cyclone genesis towards higher latitudes. We then examine the global best track archive and find coherent and significant poleward shifts in mean genesis position over the Pacific Ocean basins.

  18. Dust emission and transport associated with a Saharan depression: The February 2007 case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Diana Bou; Flamant, Cyrille; Cuesta, Juan; Pelon, Jacques; Williams, Earle

    2010-05-01

    The dust activity over North Africa associated with the Saharan depression event in February 2007 is investigated by mean of spaceborne observations, ground based measurements and mesoscale simulation with Meso-NH. The main characteristics of the cyclone as well as the meteorological conditions during this event are described using the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The dust storm and cloud cover over North Africa is thoroughly described combining for the first time Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra-Red Imager (SEVIRI) images for the spatio-temporal evolution and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) and CloudSat observations for the vertical distribution. The Saharan depression formed over Algeria in the lee of the Atlas Mountain on the afternoon of February 20 in response to midlatitude trough intrusion. It migrated eastward with a speed of 11 m s-1 and reached Libya on February 22 before exiting the African continent toward the Mediterranean Sea on February 23. The horizontal scale of the cyclone at the surface varied between 800 km and 1000 km during its lifetime. On the vertical the cyclone extended over 8 km and a potential vorticity of 2 PVU was reported on its centre at 3 km in altitude. The cyclone was characterised by a surface pressure anomaly of about 9 hPa with respect to the environment, a warm front typified at the surface by an increase in surface temperature of 5°C, and a sharp cold front characterized by a drop in surface temperature of 8°C and an increase in 10 m wind speed of 15 m s-1. The cyclone provided a dynamical forcing that led to strong near-surface winds and produced a major dust storm over North Africa. The dust was transported all around the cyclone leaving a clear eye on its centre and was accompanied by a deep cloud band along the northwestern edge of the cyclone. On the vertical, slanted dust layers were consistently observed during the event over North Africa

  19. Assessing the impact of cyclones in the coastal zone of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Judith; Bricheno, Lucy; Chowdury, Shahad; Rahman, Munsur; Ghosh, Tuhin; Kay, Susan; Caesar, John

    2014-05-01

    We review the state of knowledge regarding tropical cyclones and their impacts on coastal ecosystems, as well as the livelihood and health of the coastal communities, under the present and future climate, with application to the coastal zone of Bangladesh. This region is particularly vulnerable to tropical cyclones as it is very low-lying and densely populated. Cyclones cause damage due to the high wind speed and also the ensuing storm surge, which causes inundation and salinity intrusion into agricultural land and contaminates fresh water. The world's largest mangrove forest, the Sundarbans, protects the coast of the Brahmaputra-Ganges-Meghna (BGM) delta from these cyclonic storms but mangroves are themselves vulnerable to cyclone damage, as in 2007 when ~36% of the mangrove area was severely damaged leading to further losses of livelihood. We apply an idealised cyclone model and use the winds and pressures from this model to drive a storm surge model in the Bay of Bengal, in order to examine the impact of the intensity, track speed and landfall of the cyclones in terms of surge and inundation. The model is tested by reproducing the track and intensity of Cyclone Sidr of 2007. We also examine the projected future climate from the South Asia Regional Climate Model to understand how tropical cyclones may change under global warming and assess how this may impact the BGM Delta over the 21st century.

  20. A stochastic model for tropical cyclone tracks based on Reanalysis data and GCM output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, K.; Nakano, S.; Ueno, G.

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we try to express probability distribution of tropical cyclone (TC) trajectories estimated on the basis of GCM output. The TC tracks are mainly controlled by the atmospheric circulation such as the trade winds and the Westerlies as well as are influenced to move northward by the Beta effect. The TC tracks, which calculated with trajectory analysis, would thus correspond to the movement of TCs due to the atmospheric circulation. Comparing the result of the trajectory analysis from reanalysis data with the Best Track (BT) of TC in the present climate, the structure of the trajectory seems to be similar to the BT. However, here is a significant problem for the calculation of a trajectory in the reanalysis wind field because there are many rotation elements including TCs in the reanalysis data. We assume that a TC would move along the steering current and the rotations would not have a great influence on the direction of moving. We are designing a state-space model based on the trajectory analysis and put an adjustment parameter for the moving vector. Here, a simple track generation model is developed. This model has a possibility to gain the probability distributions of calculated TC tracks by fitting to the BT using data assimilation. This work was conducted under the framework of the "Development of Basic Technology for Risk Information on Climate Change" supported by the SOUSEI Program of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology.

  1. An effort to improve track and intensity prediction of tropical cyclones through vortex initialization in NCUM-global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vivek; Routray, A.; Mallick, Swapan; George, John P.; Rajagopal, E. N.

    2016-05-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) have strong impact on socio-economic conditions of the countries like India, Bangladesh and Myanmar owing to its awful devastating power. This brings in the need of precise forecasting system to predict the tracks and intensities of TCs accurately well in advance. However, it has been a great challenge for major operational meteorological centers over the years. Genesis of TCs over data sparse warm Tropical Ocean adds more difficulty to this. Weak and misplaced vortices at initial time are one of the prime sources of track and intensity errors in the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. Many previous studies have reported the forecast skill of track and intensity of TC improved due to the assimilation of satellite data along with vortex initialization (VI). Keeping this in mind, an attempt has been made to investigate the impact of vortex initialization for simulation of TC using UK-Met office global model, operational at NCMRWF (NCUM). This assessment is carried out by taking the case of a extremely severe cyclonic storm "Chapala" that occurred over Arabian Sea (AS) from 28th October to 3rd November 2015. Two numerical experiments viz. Vort-GTS (Assimilation of GTS observations with VI) and Vort-RAD (Same as Vort-GTS with assimilation of satellite data) are carried out. This vortex initialization study in NCUM model is first of its type over North Indian Ocean (NIO). The model simulation of TC is carried out with five different initial conditions through 24 hour cycles for both the experiments. The results indicate that the vortex initialization with assimilation of satellite data has a positive impact on the track and intensity forecast, landfall time and position error of the TCs.

  2. Influences of the Saharan Air Layer on the Formation and Intensification of Hurricane Isabel (2003): Analysis of AIRS data and Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Braun, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past two decades, little advance has been made in prediction of tropical cyclone intensity while substantial improvements have been made in forecasting hurricane tracks. One reason is that we don't well understand the physical processes that govern tropical cyclone intensity. Recent studies have suggested that the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) may be yet another piece of the puzzle in advancing our understanding of tropical cyclone intensity change in the Atlantic basin. The SAL is an elevated mixed layer, forming as air moves across the vast Sahara Desert, in particular during boreal summer months. The SAL contains warm, dry air as well as a substantial amount of mineral dust, which can affect radiative heating and modify cloud processes. Using the retrieved temperature and humidity profiles from the AIRS suite on the NASA Aqua satellite, the SAL and its influences on the formation and intensification of Hurricane Isabel (2003) are analyzed and simulated with MM5. When the warmth and dryness of the SAL (the thermodynamic effect) is considered by relaxing the model thermodynamic state to the AIRS profiles, MM5 can well simulate the large-scale flow patterns and the activity of Hurricane Isabel in terms of the timing and location of formation and the subsequent track. Compared with the experiment without nudging the AIRS data, it is suggested that the simulated SAL effect may delay the formation and intensification of Hurricane Isabel. This case study generally confirms the argument by Dunion and Velden (2004) that the SAL can suppress Atlantic tropical cyclone activity by increasing the vertical wind shear, reducing the mean relative humidity, and stabilizing the environment at lower levels.

  3. Characteristics of the internal and external sources of the Mediterranean synoptic cyclones for the period 1956-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazroui, Mansour; Awad, Adel M.; Nazrul Islam, M.

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates the main sources and features of the Mediterranean synoptic cyclones affecting the basin, using the cyclone tracks. The cyclones' tracks are identified using sea level pressure (SLP) from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data for the period 1956-2013. The identified cyclones are classified into two categories: basin affected and basin non-affected. Most of the basin-affected (non-affected) cyclones are internal (external), i.e., generated inside (outside) the Mediterranean basin. This study reveals four (five) main sources of internal (external) cyclones. These four (five) main sources generated about 63.76% (57.25%) of the internal (external) cyclones. Seasonal analysis shows that most of the basin-affected internal (external) cyclones were generated in the winter (spring) season. The lowest number of cyclones were found in the summer. Moreover, the synoptic study of the atmospheric systems accompanied the highest- and lowest-generated years demonstrates that the deepening of the north Europe cyclones and the relative positions of Azores- and Siberian-high systems represent the important factors that influence the number of internal cyclones. Essential factors influencing the external cyclones are the strength of the maximum upper wind, Azores high, Siberian high, and orientations of their ridges.

  4. Trend discrepancies among three best track data sets of western North Pacific tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jin-Jie; Wang, Yuan; Wu, Liguang

    2010-06-01

    The hot debate over the influence of global warming on tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the western North Pacific over the past several decades is partly due to the diversity of TC data sets used in recent publications. This study investigates differences of track, intensity, frequency, and the associated long-term trends for those TCs that were simultaneously recorded by the best track data sets of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) Tokyo, and the Shanghai Typhoon Institute (STI). Though the differences in TC tracks among these data sets are negligibly small, the JTWC data set tends to classify TCs of category 2-3 as category 4-5, leading to an upward trend in the annual frequency of category 4-5 TCs and the annual accumulated power dissipation index, as reported by Webster et al. (2005) and Emanuel (2005). This trend and potential destructiveness over the period 1977-2007 are found only with the JTWC data set, but downward trends are apparent in the RSMC and STI data sets. It is concluded that the different algorithms used in determining TC intensity may cause the trend discrepancies of TC activity in the western North Pacific.

  5. Trends in Northern Hemisphere surface cyclone frequency and intensity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Clark, M.P.; Serreze, Mark C.

    2001-01-01

    One of the hypothesized effects of global warming from increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases is a change in the frequency and/or intensity of extratropical cyclones. In this study, winter frequencies and intensities of extratropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere for the period 1959-97 are examined to determine if identifiable trends are occurring. Results indicate a statistically significant decrease in midlatitude cyclone frequency and a significant increase in high-latitude cyclone frequency. In addition, storm intensity has increased in both the high and midlatitudes. The changes in storm frequency correlate with changes in winter Northern Hemisphere temperature and support hypotheses that global warming may result in a northward shift of storm tracks in the Northern Hemisphere.

  6. Changes of Mediterranean cyclones in the future climate employing high resolution climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.; Kouroutzoglou, J.; Keay, K.; Simmonds, I.; Giannakopoulos, C. A.; Brikolas, V.

    2011-12-01

    A number of studies suggest that cyclone activity over both hemispheres has changed over the second half of the 20th century. The assessment of the future changes of the cyclonic activity as imposed by global warming conditions is very important since these cyclones can be associated with extreme precipitation conditions, severe storms and floods. This is more important for the Mediterranean that has been found to be more vulnerable to climate change. The main objective of the current study is to better understand and assess future changes in the main characteristics of Mediterranean cyclones, including temporal and spatial variations of frequency of cyclonic tracks, and dynamic and kinematic parameters, such as intensity, size, propagation velocity, as well as trend analysis. For this purpose, the MPI-HH regional coupled climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology is employed consisting of the REgional atmosphere MOdel (REMO), the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology ocean model (MPI-OM) and the Hydrological Discharge Model (HD Model). A 25 km resolution domain is established on a rotated latitude-longitude coordinate system, while the physical parameterizations are taken from the global climate model ECHAM-4. These model data became available through the EU Project CIRCE which aims to perform, for the first time, climate change projections with a realistic representation of the Mediterranean Sea. The model results for the present climate are evaluated against ERA-40 Reanalysis (available through ECMWF), for the period 1962-2001. The identification and tracking of cyclones is performed with the aid of the Melbourne University algorithm (MS algorithm), according to the Lagrangian perspective. MS algorithm characterizes a cyclone only if a vorticity maximum could be connected with a local pressure minimum. According to the results, a decrease of the storm number and a tendency towards deeper cyclones is expected in the future, in general agreement with

  7. tropical cyclone risk analysis: a decisive role of its track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelsea Nam, C.; Park, Doo-Sun R.; Ho, Chang-Hoi

    2016-04-01

    The tracks of 85 tropical cyclones (TCs) that made landfall to South Korea for the period 1979-2010 are classified into four clusters by using a fuzzy c-means clustering method. The four clusters are characterized by 1) east-short, 2) east-long, 3) west-long, and 4) west-short based on the moving routes around Korean peninsula. We conducted risk comparison analysis for these four clusters regarding their hazards, exposure, and damages. Here, hazard parameters are calculated from two different sources independently, one from the best-track data (BT) and the other from the 60 weather stations over the country (WS). The results show distinct characteristics of the four clusters in terms of the hazard parameters and economic losses (EL), suggesting that there is a clear track-dependency in the overall TC risk. It is appeared that whether there occurred an "effective collision" overweighs the intensity of the TC per se. The EL ranking did not agree with the BT parameters (maximum wind speed, central pressure, or storm radius), but matches to WS parameter (especially, daily accumulated rainfall and TC-influenced period). The west-approaching TCs (i.e. west-long and west-short clusters) generally recorded larger EL than the east-approaching TCs (i.e. east-short and east-long clusters), although the east-long clusters are the strongest in BT point of view. This can be explained through the spatial distribution of the WS parameters and the regional EL maps corresponding to it. West-approaching TCs accompanied heavy rainfall on the southern regions with the helps of the topographic effect on their tracks, and of the extended stay on the Korean Peninsula in their extratropical transition, that were not allowed to the east-approaching TCs. On the other hand, some regions had EL that are not directly proportional to the hazards, and this is partly attributed to spatial disparity in wealth and vulnerability. Correlation analysis also revealed the importance of rainfall; daily

  8. Comparison of Mid-latitude Cyclones in Sea Level Pressure, Gepotential Height and Vorticity Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raible, Christoph C.; Blender, Richard; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    The mid-latitudes are dominated by diurnal variability, which is related to traveling high- and low-pressure systems. The lows or cyclones are a major source of natural hazards. This has led to growing interest in the scientific community to develop Eulerian and Lagrangian measures and to analyze the atmospheric high-frequency variability. One important issue is that there is no straight forward definition of cyclones resulting in a large variety of so-called cyclone detection and tracking methods. Each of these methods relies on different input fields which are related to specific features of a cyclone, e.g., sea level pressure (SLP), which specifically focuses on the mass aspect of the velocity field. Recently, the available methods have been compared with respect to climatology and life cycles using the ERA interim data set (Neu et al. 2013). Based on this study we investigate different fields as input for one specific method. We focus on the three mostly used input data, sea level pressure (SLP), 1000-hPa gepotential height (Z1000) and 850-hPa vorticity (850VOR). The cyclone detection and tracking method developed by Blender et al. (1997) is used and we apply it to ERA interim data in the 1.5 x 1.5 resolution. The method was mainly applied for Z1000 and the Northern Hemisphere (e.g., Blender et al. 1997; Raible et al. 2008). To compare the tracks and cyclone characteristics obtained from the different input data we need to adapt critical parameters of the method in such a way that comparable numbers of cyclone centers are identified in either field. The target is set to the number of cyclone centers in northern hemispheric winter. This enables us to assess the seasonal and hemispheric dependence. Preliminary results show that the agreement between cyclones based on SLP and Z1000 varies between roughly 70 to 80% depending on the season and the hemisphere. Spatially, most of the differences are found around orographic features like Greenland. An interesting

  9. Associating extreme precipitation events to parent cyclones in gridded data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Ruari; Shaffrey, Len; Gray, Sue

    2015-04-01

    When analysing the relationship of regional precipitation to its parent cyclone, it is insufficient to consider the cyclone's region of influence as a fixed radius from the centre due to the irregular shape of rain bands. A new method is therefore presented which allows the use of objective feature tracking data in the analysis of regional precipitation. Utilising the spatial extent of precipitation in gridded datasets, the most appropriate cyclone(s) may be associated with regional precipitation events. This method is applied in the context of an analysis of the influence of clustering and stalling of extra-tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic on total precipitation accumulations over England and Wales. Cyclone counts and residence times are presented for historical records (ERA-Interim) and future projections (HadGEM2-ES) of extreme (> 98th percentile) precipitation accumulations over England and Wales, for accumulation periods ranging from one day to one month.

  10. Mediterranean Cyclones in a changing climate. First statistical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tous, M.; Genoves, A.; Campins, J.; Picornell, M. A.; Jansa, A.; Mizuta, R.

    2009-09-01

    The Mediterranean storms play an important role in weather and climate. Their influence in determining the local weather is known; heavy precipitation systems and strong wind cases are often related to the presence of a cyclone in the Mediterranean. From a large-scale point of view, the Mediterranean storm track has importance in the vertical and horizontal transfers of heat and water vapour towards the Eastern regions. For all of these reasons, any future change related to the intensity, frequency or tracks of these storms can be important for both the local weather and local climate, at least, in the countries around the basin. The Mediterranean cyclones constitute a study subject of increasing interest. Some climatologies from long series of re-analyses, like ERA15, NCEP/NCAR and ERA40, or from operational and high resolution analysis systems, like HIRLAM_INM and ECMWF, have allowed to define the main characteristics of these storms. Generally speaking, the Mediterranean storms have the characteristics of extratropical storms, showing smaller sizes and shorter life cycles than those ones developed in other maritime areas of the world. Moreover, the influence of the land areas and high mountains around the basin and the large-scale heat releases have been revealed as key factors for understanding their genesis and rates of development. In spite of the fact that probably the existing automatic procedures include some large scale assumptions, which may not the best for the correct detection and tracking the Mediterranean storms, these procedures can provide a first and almost necessary step, from a statistical/climatological point of view, specially taking into account both the current resolution of the existent global re-analysis series and global climatic models and the state-of-the art about Mediterranean cyclones. A cyclone detection and tracking procedure, originally designed for the description of Mediterranean storms, has been applied to the low resolution

  11. Resolving Tropical Cyclone Intensity in Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. A.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, global weather forecast models and global climate models have begun to depict intense tropical cyclones, even up to category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale. In light of the limitation of horizontal resolution in such models, the author performs calculations, using the extended Best Track data for Atlantic tropical cyclones, to estimate the ability of models with differing grid spacing to represent Atlantic tropical cyclone intensity statistically. Results indicate that, under optimistic assumptions, models with horizontal grid spacing of one fourth degree or coarser should not produce a realistic number of category 4 and 5 storms unless there are errors in spatial attributes of the wind field. Furthermore, the case of Irma (2017) is used to demonstrate the importance of a realistic depiction of angular momentum and to motivate the use of angular momentum in model evaluation.

  12. Contrasting effects of tropical cyclones on the annual survival of a pelagic seabird in the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, Malcolm A C; Nevoux, Marie; Jones, Carl G; Ratcliffe, Norman; Ruhomaun, Kevin; Tatayah, Vikash; Norris, Ken

    2017-02-01

    Tropical cyclones are renowned for their destructive nature and are an important feature of marine and coastal tropical ecosystems. Over the last 40 years, their intensity, frequency and tracks have changed, partly in response to ocean warming, and future predictions indicate that these trends are likely to continue with potential consequences for human populations and coastal ecosystems. However, our understanding of how tropical cyclones currently affect marine biodiversity, and pelagic species in particular, is limited. For seabirds, the impacts of cyclones are known to be detrimental at breeding colonies, but impacts on the annual survival of pelagic adults and juveniles remain largely unexplored and no study has simultaneously explored the direct impacts of cyclones on different life-history stages across the annual life cycle. We used a 20-year data set on tropical cyclones in the Indian Ocean, tracking data from 122 Round Island petrels and long-term capture-mark-recapture data to explore the impacts of tropical cyclones on the survival of adult and juvenile (first year) petrels during both the breeding and migration periods. The tracking data showed that juvenile and adult Round Island petrels utilize the three cyclone regions of the Indian Ocean and were potentially exposed to cyclones for a substantial part of their annual cycle. However, only juvenile petrel survival was affected by cyclone activity; negatively by a strong cyclone in the vicinity of the breeding colony and positively by increasing cyclone activity in the Northern Indian Ocean where they spend the majority of their first year at sea. These contrasting effects raise the intriguing prospect that the projected changes in cyclones under current climate change scenarios may have positive as well as the more commonly perceived negative impacts on marine biodiversity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Southern Hemisphere Extratropical Cyclones and their Relationship with ENSO in springtime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reboita, M. S.; Ambrizzi, T.; Da Rocha, R.

    2013-05-01

    Extratropical cyclones occurrence is associated with the teleconnection mechanisms that produce climate variability. Among these mechanisms we have El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Some works have indicated that during the ENSO positive phase there are more cyclogenetic conditions in some parts of the globe as the southwest of South Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to verify if the extratropical cyclones number and location are altered in the different ENSO phases in the austral spring over the Southern Hemisphere (SH). The Melbourne University automatic tracking scheme was used to determine the cyclone climatology from 1980 to 2012. All cyclones that appear with lifetime higher or equal to 24 hours in the sea level pressure data from National Centers for Environment Prediction reanalysis I were included in the climatology. El Niño (EN), La Niña (LN) and Neutral (N) years were identified through the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) from Climate Prediction Center/NOAA. The average number of cyclones in the spring over the SH is similar in the EN (200), N (184) and LN (197) episodes. By latitude bands, during EN episodes the cyclones occurrence reduces in 16% between 70-60 degrees and increases in ~15% between 80-70 and 50-40 degrees. On the other hand, during the LN episodes, the cyclones are 17% more frequent in 50-60 degrees and 22% less frequent in 30-20 degrees. One more detailed analysis of the cyclones trajectory density (that is a statistic product of the tracking algorithm) shows that in the South Atlantic Ocean, near the southeast of South America, the number of cyclones in EN years is higher than in the neutral period and lower than in the LN years. In the Indian Ocean, the EN year is characterized by a cyclones reduction in the west and east sector, near the continents. In the Pacific Ocean, the region southward the New Zealand presents more cyclones occurrence in EN years.

  14. Tropical cyclone Pam field survey in Vanuatu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.; Kosciuch, Thomas; Hong, Isabel; Rarai, Allan; Harrison, Morris J.; Jockley, Fred R.; Horton, Benjamin P.

    2016-04-01

    Severe tropical cyclone Pam (Cat. 5, SSHS) crossed the Vanuatu archipelago with sustained winds of 270 km/h on March 13 and 14, 2015 and made landfall on Erromango. Pam is the most intense tropical cyclone to make landfall on Vanuatu since the advent of satellite imagery based intensity estimates in the 1970s. Pam caused one of the worst natural disaster in Vanuatu's recorded history. Eleven fatalities were directly attributed to cyclone Pam and mostly due to lack of shelter from airborne debris. On March 6 Pam formed east of the Santa Cruz Islands causing coastal inundation on Tuvalu's Vaitupu Island located some 1100 km east of the cyclone center. Pam intensified while tracking southward along Vanuatu severely affecting the Shefa and Tafea Provinces. An international storm surge reconnaissance team was deployed to Vanuatu from June 3 to 17, 2015 to complement earlier local surveys. Cyclone Pam struck a remote island archipelago particularly vulnerable to the combined cyclonic multi-hazards encompassing extreme wind gusts, massive rainfall and coastal flooding due to a combination of storm surge and storm wave impacts. The team surveyed coastal villages on Epi, the Shepherd Islands (Tongoa and Mataso), Efate (including Lelepa), Erromango, and Tanna. The survey spanned 320 km parallel to the cyclone track between Epi and Tanna encompassing more than 45 sites including the hardest hit settlements. Coastal flooding profiles were surveyed from the shoreline to the limit of inundation. Maximum coastal flood elevations and overland flow depths were measured based on water marks on buildings, scars on trees, rafted debris and corroborated with eyewitness accounts. We surveyed 91 high water marks with characteristic coastal flood levels in the 3 to 7 m range and composed of storm surge with superimposed storm waves. Inundation distances were mostly limited to a few hundred meters but reached 800 m on Epi Island. Wrack lines containing pumice perfectly delineated the

  15. Climatology of North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Tracks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    positions before they were used in the analyses and calculations. The interpolation was accomplished by the Akima method.* ( It should be noted that the...constant throughout its life with a heading between 2500 and 3600. A recurver is defined as a tropical cyclone that turned from its initial westward or... belongs to two periods, and in some cases three. The starting date was chosen for classification purposes because, in operational fact, a storm’s

  16. Simulated sensitivity of tropical cyclone track to the moisture in an idealized monsoon gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ziyu; Ge, Xuyang; Guo, Bingyao

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the sensitivity of tropical cyclone (TC) track to the moisture condition in a nearby monsoon gyre (MG) is investigated. Numerical simulations reveal that TC track is highly sensitive to the spatial distribution of relative humidity (RH). In an experiment conducted with higher (lower) RH in the eastern (western) semicircle of an MG, the TC experiences a sharp northward turning. In contrast, when the RH pattern is reversed, the simulated TC does not show a sharp northward turning. The RH distribution modulates the intensity and structure of both the TC and MG, so that when the TC is initially embedded in a moister environment, convection is enhanced in the outer core, which favors an expansion of the outer core size. A TC with a larger outer size has greater beta-effect propagation, favoring a faster westward translational speed. Meanwhile, higher RH enhances the vorticity gradient within the MG and promotes a quicker attraction between the TC and MG centers through vorticity segregation process. These cumulative effects cause the TC to collocate with the MG center. Once the coalescence process takes place, the energy dispersion associated with the TC and MG is enhanced, which rapidly strengthens southwesterly flows on the eastern flanks. The resulting steering flow leads the TC to take a sharp northward track.

  17. Developing an enhanced tropical cyclone data portal for the Southern Hemisphere and the Western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshov, Yuriy; de Wit, Roald; Atalifo, Terry; Prakash, Bipendra; Waqaicelua, Alipate; Kunitsugu, Masashi; Caroff, Philippe; Chane-Ming, Fabrice

    2013-04-01

    Tropical cyclones are the most extreme weather phenomena which severely impact coastal communities and island nations. There is an ongoing research (i) on accurate analysis of observed trends in tropical cyclone occurrences, and (ii) how tropical cyclone frequency and intensity may change in the future as a result of climate change. Reliable historical records of cyclone activity are vital for this research. The Pacific Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning (PACCSAP) program is dedicated to help Pacific Island countries and Timor Leste gain a better understanding of how climate change will impact their regions. One of the key PACCSAP projects is focused on developing a tropical cyclone archive, climatology and seasonal prediction for the regions. As part of the project, historical tropical cyclone best track data have been examined and prepared to be subsequently displayed through the enhanced tropical cyclone data portal for the Southern Hemisphere and the Western Pacific Ocean. Data from the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (RSMC) Nadi, Fiji and Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs) in Brisbane, Darwin and Wellington for 1969-1970 to 2010-2011 tropical cyclone seasons have been carefully examined. Errors and inconsistencies which have been found during the quality control procedure have been corrected. To produce a consolidated data set for the South Pacific Ocean, best track data from these four centres have been used. Specifically, for 1969-1970 to 1994-1995 tropical cyclone seasons, data from TCWCs in Brisbane, Darwin and Wellington have been used. In 1995, RSMC Nadi, Fiji has been established with responsibilities for issuing tropical cyclone warnings and preparing best track data for the area south of the equator to 25°S, 160°E to 120°W. Consequently, data from RSMC Nadi have been used as a primary source for this area, starting from the 1995-1996 tropical cyclone season. These data have been combined with the data from

  18. Explosive cyclones in CMIP5 climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, C.; Zwiers, F. W.

    2014-12-01

    Explosive cyclones are rapidly intensifying low pressure systems with severe wind speeds and precipitation, affecting livelihoods and infrastructure primarily in coastal and marine environments. A better understanding of the potential impacts of climate change on these so called meteorological bombs is therefore of great societal relevance. This study evaluates how well CMIP5 climate models reproduce explosive cyclones in the extratropics of the northern hemisphere, and how these bombs respond to global warming. For this purpose an objective-feature tracking algorithm was used to identify and track extratropical cyclones from 25 CMIP5 models and 3 reanalysis products for the periods 1980 to 2005 and 2070 to 2099. Cyclones were identified as the maxima of T42 vorticity of 6h wind speed at 850 hPa. Explosive and non-explosive cyclones were separated based on the corresponding deepening rates of mean sea level pressure. Most models accurately reproduced the spatial distribution of bombs when compared to results from reanalysis data (R2 = 0.84, p-value = 0.00), with high frequencies along the Kuroshio Current and the Gulf Stream, as well as the exit regions of the polar jet streaks. Most models however significantly underestimated bomb frequencies by a third on average, and by 74% in the most extreme case. This negative frequency bias coincided with significant underestimations of either meridional sea surface temperature (SST) gradients, or wind speeds of the polar jet streaks. Bomb frequency biases were significantly correlated with the number vertical model levels (R2= 0.36, p-value = 0.001), suggesting that the vertical atmospheric model resolution is crucial for simulating bomb frequencies accurately. The impacts of climate change on the location, frequency, and intensity of explosive cyclones were then explored for the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5. Projections were related to model bias, resolution, projected changes of SST gradients, and wind speeds

  19. Tropical cyclones over the North Indian Ocean: experiments with the high-resolution global icosahedral grid point model GME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumkar, Yogesh V.; Sen, P. N.; Chaudhari, Hemankumar S.; Oh, Jai-Ho

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to conduct a numerical experiment with the high-resolution global model GME to predict the tropical storms in the North Indian Ocean during the year 2007. Numerical integrations using the icosahedral hexagonal grid point global model GME were performed to study the evolution of tropical cyclones, viz., Akash, Gonu, Yemyin and Sidr over North Indian Ocean during 2007. It has been seen that the GME model forecast underestimates cyclone's intensity, but the model can capture the evolution of cyclone's intensity especially its weakening during landfall, which is primarily due to the cutoff of the water vapor supply in the boundary layer as cyclones approach the coastal region. A series of numerical simulation of tropical cyclones have been performed with GME to examine model capability in prediction of intensity and track of the cyclones. The model performance is evaluated by calculating the root mean square errors as cyclone track errors.

  20. ENSO Effect on East Asian Tropical Cyclone Landfall via Changes in Tracks and Genesis in a Statistical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonekura, Emmi; Hall, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Improvements on a statistical tropical cyclone (TC) track model in the western North Pacific Ocean are described. The goal of the model is to study the effect of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on East Asian TC landfall. The model is based on the International Best-Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) database of TC observations for 1945-2007 and employs local regression of TC formation rates and track increments on the Nino-3.4 index and seasonally varying climate parameters. The main improvements are the inclusion of ENSO dependence in the track propagation and accounting for seasonality in both genesis and tracks. A comparison of simulations of the 1945-2007 period with observations concludes that the model updates improve the skill of this model in simulating TCs. Changes in TC genesis and tracks are analyzed separately and cumulatively in simulations of stationary extreme ENSO states. ENSO effects on regional (100-km scale) landfall are attributed to changes in genesis and tracks. The effect of ENSO on genesis is predominantly a shift in genesis location from the southeast in El Nino years to the northwest in La Nina years, resulting in higher landfall rates for the East Asian coast during La Nina. The effect of ENSO on track propagation varies seasonally and spatially. In the peak activity season (July-October), there are significant changes in mean tracks with ENSO. Landfall-rate changes from genesis- and track-ENSO effects in the Philippines cancel out, while coastal segments of Vietnam, China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan show enhanced La Nina-year increases.

  1. Satellite Observations of Stratospheric Gravity Waves Associated With the Intensification of Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Lars; Wu, Xue; Alexander, M. Joan

    2018-02-01

    Forecasting the intensity of tropical cyclones is a challenging problem. Rapid intensification is often preceded by the formation of "hot towers" near the eyewall. Driven by strong release of latent heat, hot towers are high-reaching tropical cumulonimbus clouds that penetrate the tropopause. Hot towers are a potentially important source of stratospheric gravity waves. Using 13.5 years (2002-2016) of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations of stratospheric gravity waves and tropical cyclone data from the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship, we found empirical evidence that stratospheric gravity wave activity is associated with the intensification of tropical cyclones. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship data showed that strong gravity wave events occurred about twice as often for tropical cyclone intensification compared to storm weakening. Observations of stratospheric gravity waves, which are not affected by obscuring tropospheric clouds, may become an important future indicator of storm intensification.

  2. Jason Tracks Powerful Tropical Cyclone Gonu High Winds, Waves

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-06-08

    This pair of images from the radar altimeter instrument on NASA U.S./France Jason mission reveals information on wind speeds and wave heights of Tropical Cyclone Gonu, which reached Category 5 strength in the Arabian Sea prior to landfall in early June.

  3. Impact of parameterization of physical processes on simulation of track and intensity of tropical cyclone Nargis (2008) with WRF-NMM model.

    PubMed

    Pattanayak, Sujata; Mohanty, U C; Osuri, Krishna K

    2012-01-01

    The present study is carried out to investigate the performance of different cumulus convection, planetary boundary layer, land surface processes, and microphysics parameterization schemes in the simulation of a very severe cyclonic storm (VSCS) Nargis (2008), developed in the central Bay of Bengal on 27 April 2008. For this purpose, the nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (NMM) dynamic core of weather research and forecasting (WRF) system is used. Model-simulated track positions and intensity in terms of minimum central mean sea level pressure (MSLP), maximum surface wind (10 m), and precipitation are verified with observations as provided by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) and Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). The estimated optimum combination is reinvestigated with six different initial conditions of the same case to have better conclusion on the performance of WRF-NMM. A few more diagnostic fields like vertical velocity, vorticity, and heat fluxes are also evaluated. The results indicate that cumulus convection play an important role in the movement of the cyclone, and PBL has a crucial role in the intensification of the storm. The combination of Simplified Arakawa Schubert (SAS) convection, Yonsei University (YSU) PBL, NMM land surface, and Ferrier microphysics parameterization schemes in WRF-NMM give better track and intensity forecast with minimum vector displacement error.

  4. Impact of Parameterization of Physical Processes on Simulation of Track and Intensity of Tropical Cyclone Nargis (2008) with WRF-NMM Model

    PubMed Central

    Pattanayak, Sujata; Mohanty, U. C.; Osuri, Krishna K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study is carried out to investigate the performance of different cumulus convection, planetary boundary layer, land surface processes, and microphysics parameterization schemes in the simulation of a very severe cyclonic storm (VSCS) Nargis (2008), developed in the central Bay of Bengal on 27 April 2008. For this purpose, the nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (NMM) dynamic core of weather research and forecasting (WRF) system is used. Model-simulated track positions and intensity in terms of minimum central mean sea level pressure (MSLP), maximum surface wind (10 m), and precipitation are verified with observations as provided by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) and Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). The estimated optimum combination is reinvestigated with six different initial conditions of the same case to have better conclusion on the performance of WRF-NMM. A few more diagnostic fields like vertical velocity, vorticity, and heat fluxes are also evaluated. The results indicate that cumulus convection play an important role in the movement of the cyclone, and PBL has a crucial role in the intensification of the storm. The combination of Simplified Arakawa Schubert (SAS) convection, Yonsei University (YSU) PBL, NMM land surface, and Ferrier microphysics parameterization schemes in WRF-NMM give better track and intensity forecast with minimum vector displacement error. PMID:22701366

  5. Hurricane track forecast cones from fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Meuel, T.; Prado, G.; Seychelles, F.; Bessafi, M.; Kellay, H.

    2012-01-01

    Trajectories of tropical cyclones may show large deviations from predicted tracks leading to uncertainty as to their landfall location for example. Prediction schemes usually render this uncertainty by showing track forecast cones representing the most probable region for the location of a cyclone during a period of time. By using the statistical properties of these deviations, we propose a simple method to predict possible corridors for the future trajectory of a cyclone. Examples of this scheme are implemented for hurricane Ike and hurricane Jimena. The corridors include the future trajectory up to at least 50 h before landfall. The cones proposed here shed new light on known track forecast cones as they link them directly to the statistics of these deviations. PMID:22701776

  6. Using Proxy Records to Document Gulf of Mexico Tropical Cyclones from 1820-1915

    PubMed Central

    Rohli, Robert V.; DeLong, Kristine L.; Harley, Grant L.; Trepanier, Jill C.

    2016-01-01

    Observations of pre-1950 tropical cyclones are sparse due to observational limitations; therefore, the hurricane database HURDAT2 (1851–present) maintained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration may be incomplete. Here we provide additional documentation for HURDAT2 from historical United States Army fort records (1820–1915) and other archived documents for 28 landfalling tropical cyclones, 20 of which are included in HURDAT2, along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast. One event that occurred in May 1863 is not currently documented in the HURDAT2 database but has been noted in other studies. We identify seven tropical cyclones that occurred before 1851, three of which are potential tropical cyclones. We corroborate the pre-HURDAT2 storms with a tree-ring reconstruction of hurricane impacts from the Florida Keys (1707–2009). Using this information, we suggest landfall locations for the July 1822 hurricane just west of Mobile, Alabama and 1831 hurricane near Last Island, Louisiana on 18 August. Furthermore, we model the probable track of the August 1831 hurricane using the weighted average distance grid method that incorporates historical tropical cyclone tracks to supplement report locations. PMID:27898726

  7. Moist Thermodynamics of Tropical Cyclone Formation and Intensification in High-Resolution Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, A. A.; Camargo, S. J.; Sobel, A. H.; Kim, D.; Moon, Y.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Murakami, H.; Reed, K. A.; Vecchi, G. A.; Wehner, M. F.; Zarzycki, C. M.; Zhao, M.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, climate models have improved such that high-resolution simulations are able to reproduce the climatology of tropical cyclone activity with some fidelity and show some skill in seasonal forecasting. However, biases remain in many models, motivating a better understanding of what factors control the representation of tropical cyclone activity in climate models. We explore tropical cyclogenesis and intensification processes in six high-resolution climate models from NOAA/GFDL, NCAR, and NASA, including both coupled and uncoupled configurations. Our analysis framework focuses on how convection, moisture, clouds and related processes are coupled and employs budgets of column moist static energy and the spatial variance of column moist static energy. The latter allows us to quantify the different feedback processes responsible for the amplification of moist static energy anomalies associated with the organization of convection and cyclogenesis, including surface flux feedbacks and cloud-radiative feedbacks. We track the formation and evolution of tropical cyclones in the climate model simulations and apply our analysis along the individual tracks and composited over many tropical cyclones. We use two methods of compositing: a composite over all TC track points in a given intensity range, and a composite relative to the time of lifetime maximum intensity for each storm (at the same stage in the TC life cycle).

  8. Simulation of Extreme Arctic Cyclones in IPCC AR5 Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-15

    atmospheric fields, including sea level pressure ( SLP ), on daily and sub-daily time scales at 2° horizontal resolution. A higher-resolution and more...its 21st-century simulation. Extreme cyclones were defined as occurrences of daily mean SLP at least 40 hPa below the climatological annual-average... SLP at a grid point. As such, no cyclone-tracking algorithm was employed, because the purpose here is to identify instances of extremely strong

  9. Use of JPSS ATMS, CrIS, and VIIRS data to Improve Tropical Cyclone Track and Intensity Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirokova, G.; Demaria, M.; DeMaria, R.; Knaff, J. A.; Dostalek, J.; Musgrave, K. D.; Beven, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    JPSS data provide unique information that could be critical for the forecasting of tropical cyclone (TC) track and intensity and is currently underutilized. Preliminary results from several TC applications using data from the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), the Cross-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), carried by the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership satellite (SNPP), will be discussed. The first group of applications, which includes applications for moisture flux and for eye-detection, aims to improve rapid intensification (RI) forecasts, which is one of the highest priorities within NOAA. The applications could be used by forecasters directly and will also provide additional input to the Rapid Intensification Index (RII), the statistical-dynamical tool for forecasting RI events that is operational at the National Hurricane Center. The moisture flux application uses bias-corrected ATMS-MIRS (Microwave Integrated Retrieval System) and NUCAPS (NOAA Unique CrIS ATMS Processing System), retrievals that provide very accurate temperature and humidity soundings in the TC environment to detect dry air intrusions. The objective automated eye-detection application uses geostationary and VIIRS data in combination with machine learning and computer vision techniques for determining the onset of eye formation which is very important for TC intensity forecast but is usually determined by subjective methods. First version of the algorithm showed very promising results with a 75% success rate. The second group of applications develops tools to better utilize VIIRS data, including day-night band (DNB) imagery, for tropical cyclone forecasting. Disclaimer: The views, opinions, and findings contained in this article are those of the authors and should not be construed as an official National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) or U.S. Government position, policy, or decision.

  10. Challenges associated with tracking resources allocation for reproductive health in sub-Saharan African countries: the UNFPA/NIDI resource flows project experience.

    PubMed

    Sidze, Estelle M; Beekink, Erik; Maina, Beatrice W

    2015-05-05

    Universal access to reproductive health services entails strengthening health systems, but requires significant resource commitments as well as efficient and effective use of those resources. A number of international organizations and governments in developing countries are putting efforts into tracking the flow of health resources in order to inform resource mobilization and allocation, strategic planning, priority setting, advocacy and general policy making. The UNFPA/NIDI-led Resource Flows Project ("The UNFPA/NIDI RF Project") has conducted annual surveys since 1997 to monitor progress achieved by developing countries in implementing reproductive health financial targets. This commentary summarizes the Project experiences and challenges in gathering data on allocation of resources for reproductive health at the domestic level in sub-Saharan African countries. One key lesson learnt from the Project experience is the need for strengthening tracking mechanisms in sub-Saharan African countries and making information on reproductive health resources and expenditures available, in particular the private sector resources.

  11. Serial Clustering of North Atlantic Cyclones and Wind Storms: A New Identification Base and Sensitivity to Intensity and Intra-Seasonal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckebusch, G. C.; Kirchner-Bossi, N. O.; Befort, D. J.; Ulbrich, U.

    2015-12-01

    Time-clustered mid-latitude winter storms are responsible for a large portion of the overall windstorm-related damage in Europe. Thus, its study entails a high meteorological interest, while its outcome can result in a crucial utility for the (re)insurance industry. In addition to existing cyclone-based studies, here we use an event identification approach based on surface near wind speeds only, to investigate windstorm clustering and compare it to cyclone clustering. Specifically, cyclone and windstorm tracks are identified for winter 1979-2013 (Oct-Mar), to perform two sensitivity analyses on event-clustering in the North Atlantic using ERA-Interim Reanalysis. First, the link between clustering and cyclone intensity is analysed and compared to windstorms. Secondly, the sensitivity of clustering on intra-seasonal time scales is investigated, for both cyclones and windstorms. The wind-based approach reveals additional regions of clustering over Western Europe, which could be related to extreme damages, showing the added value of investigating wind field derived tracks in addition to that of cyclone tracks. Previous studies indicate a higher degree of clustering for stronger cyclones. However, our results show that this assumption is not always met. Although a positive relationship is confirmed for the clustering centre located over Iceland, clustering off the coast of the Iberian Peninsula behaves opposite. Even though this region shows the highest clustering, most of its signal is due to cyclones with intensities below the 70th percentile of the Laplacian of MSLP. Results on the sensitivity of clustering to the time of the winter season (Oct-Mar) show a temporal evolution of the clustering patterns, for both windstorms and cyclones. Compared to all cyclones, clustering of windstorms and strongest cyclones culminate around February, while all cyclone clustering peak in December to January.

  12. Lessons learnt from tropical cyclone losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honegger, Caspar; Wüest, Marc; Zimmerli, Peter; Schoeck, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    Swiss Re has a long history in developing natural catastrophe loss models. The tropical cyclone USA and China model are examples for event-based models in their second generation. Both are based on basin-wide probabilistic track sets and calculate explicitly the losses from the sub-perils wind and storm surge in an insurance portfolio. Based on these models, we present two cases studies. China: a view on recent typhoon loss history Over the last 20 years only very few major tropical cyclones have caused severe insurance losses in the Pearl River Delta region and Shanghai, the two main exposure clusters along China's southeast coast. Several storms have made landfall in China every year but most struck areas with relatively low insured values. With this study, we make the point that typhoon landfalls in China have a strong hit-or-miss character and available insured loss experience is too short to form a representative view of risk. Historical storm tracks and a simple loss model applied to a market portfolio - all from publicly available data - are sufficient to illustrate this. An event-based probabilistic model is necessary for a reliable judgement of the typhoon risk in China. New York: current and future tropical cyclone risk In the aftermath of hurricane Sandy 2012, Swiss Re supported the City of New York in identifying ways to significantly improve the resilience to severe weather and climate change. Swiss Re provided a quantitative assessment of potential climate related risks facing the city as well as measures that could reduce those impacts.

  13. Unravelling the Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers of North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Track Position since the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, L. M.; Baldini, J. U. L.; McElwaine, J.; Frappier, A. B.; Asmerom, Y.; Liu, K. B.; Prufer, K. M.; Ridley, H.; Polyak, V. J.; Kennett, D. J.; Macpherson, C.; Aquino, V. V.; Awe, J.; Breitenbach, S. F. M.

    2017-12-01

    In the last decade, stalagmites have been recognised as valuable archives of past hurricane activity. The characteristically low δ18O rainfall of tropical cyclones (TCs, including both hurricanes and tropical storms) is particularly well-preserved in fast-growing tropical speleothems. Here we present a new multi-proxy approach used to extract the western Caribbean TC signal from background wet season rainfall that, at our site in southern Belize, is driven by seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The result is an annual 450-year record of western Caribbean TC activity that, when compared to documentary and statistical model-based reconstructions of North Atlantic TC activity, reveals a northward migration of dominant TC track since the height of Little Ice Age cooling. Importantly, the record reveals a reversal in the TC track position-North Atlantic sea surface temperature relationship between the pre-Industrial and Industrial Eras. During the pre-Industrial interval, TC track position migrated with the ITCZ toward the warmer hemisphere. Conversely, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions during the Industrial Era have decoupled TC track position from the ITCZ through expansion of the Hadley Cell. This research suggests that under future greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions scenarios, the dominant TC track is likely to remain to the north. Combined with greenhouse gas-induced rising sea surface temperatures, the risk to the NE US population and financial centres is likely to increase in the future.

  14. Saharan Dust, Transport Processes, and Possible Impacts on Hurricane Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present observational evidence of significant relationships between Saharan dust outbreak, and African Easterly wave activities and hurricane activities. We found two dominant paths of transport of Saharan dust: a northern path, centered at 25degN associated with eastward propagating 6-19 days waves over northern Africa, and a southern path centered at 15degN, associated with the AEW, and the Atlantic ITCZ. Seasons with stronger dust outbreak from the southern path are associated with a drier atmosphere over the Maximum Development Region (MDR) and reduction in tropical cyclone and hurricane activities in the MDR. Seasons with stronger outbreak from the northern path are associated with a cooler N. Atlantic, and suppressed hurricane in the western Atlantic basin.

  15. From cyclone tracks to the costs of European winter storms: A probabilistic loss assessment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renggli, Dominik; Corti, Thierry; Reese, Stefan; Wueest, Marc; Viktor, Elisabeth; Zimmerli, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The quantitative assessment of the potential losses of European winter storms is essential for the economic viability of a global reinsurance company. For this purpose, reinsurance companies generally use probabilistic loss assessment models. This work presents an innovative approach to develop physically meaningful probabilistic events for Swiss Re's new European winter storm loss model. The meteorological hazard component of the new model is based on cyclone and windstorm tracks identified in the 20th Century Reanalysis data. The knowledge of the evolution of winter storms both in time and space allows the physically meaningful perturbation of properties of historical events (e.g. track, intensity). The perturbation includes a random element but also takes the local climatology and the evolution of the historical event into account. The low-resolution wind footprints taken from 20th Century Reanalysis are processed by a statistical-dynamical downscaling to generate high-resolution footprints of the historical and probabilistic winter storm events. Downscaling transfer functions are generated using ENSEMBLES regional climate model data. The result is a set of reliable probabilistic events representing thousands of years. The event set is then combined with country- and risk-specific vulnerability functions and detailed market- or client-specific exposure information to compute (re-)insurance risk premiums.

  16. Natural and anthropogenic forcing of North Atlantic tropical cyclone track position since 1550 A.D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, Lisa; Baldini, James; McElwaine, Jim; Frappier, Amy; Asmerom, Yemane; Liu, Kam-biu; Prufer, Keith; Ridley, Harriet; Polyak, Victor; Kennett, Douglas; Macpherson, Colin; Aquino, Valorie; Awe, Jamie; Breitenbach, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, North Atlantic tropical cyclones (TC) have increased in frequency, intensity, and duration in response to rising North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SST). Here we present a 450-year record of western Caribbean TC activity reconstructed using subannually-resolved carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in a stalagmite from Yok Balum Cave, southern Belize. Western Caribbean TC activity peaked at 1650 A.D. coincident with maximum Little Ice Age cooling and decreased gradually to 1983 A.D. (the end of the record). Comparison with existing basin-wide reconstructions reveals that the dominant TC tracks corridor migrated from the western Caribbean toward the North American east coast through time. A close link with Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) exists throughout the record but with a clear polarity shift in the TC-AMO relationship at 1870 A.D., coincident with industrialisation. We suggest that the cause of this reversal is Greenhouse gas and aerosol emission induced changes in the relationship between the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the Bermuda High between the modern warm period and the Pre-Industrial Era. The likely impact of continued anthropogenic forcing of TC track on population centres of the western North Atlantic and Caribbean will be addressed.

  17. Tropical Cyclone - Equatorial Ionosphere Coupling: A Statistical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagavathiammal, G. J.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the equatorial ionosphere response to tropical cyclone events which was observed over the Indian Ocean. This statistical study tries to reveal the possible Tropical Cyclone (TC) - Ionosphere coupling. Tropical cyclone track and data can be obtained from the India Meteorological Department, New Delhi. Digisonde/Ionosonde data for the equatorial latitudes can be obtained from Global Ionospheric Radio Observatory. It is believed that TC induced convection as the driving agent for the increased gravity wave activity in the lower atmosphere and these propagating gravity waves deposit their energy and momentum into the upper atmosphere as Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs). The convective regions are identified with the help of Outgoing Long wave radiation (OLR) data from NOAA Climate Data Center/ Precipitation data from TRMM Statellite. The variability of ionospheric parameter like Total Electron Content (TEC), foF2, h'F2 and Drift velocity are examined during TC periods. This study will report the possibility of TC-Ionosphere Coupling in equatorial atmosphere.

  18. Predictability of tropical cyclone events on intraseasonal timescales with the ECMWF monthly forecast model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsberry, Russell L.; Jordan, Mary S.; Vitart, Frederic

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study is to provide evidence of predictability on intraseasonal time scales (10-30 days) for western North Pacific tropical cyclone formation and subsequent tracks using the 51-member ECMWF 32-day forecasts made once a week from 5 June through 25 December 2008. Ensemble storms are defined by grouping ensemble member vortices whose positions are within a specified separation distance that is equal to 180 n mi at the initial forecast time t and increases linearly to 420 n mi at Day 14 and then is constant. The 12-h track segments are calculated with a Weighted-Mean Vector Motion technique in which the weighting factor is inversely proportional to the distance from the endpoint of the previous 12-h motion vector. Seventy-six percent of the ensemble storms had five or fewer member vortices. On average, the ensemble storms begin 2.5 days before the first entry of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) best-track file, tend to translate too slowly in the deep tropics, and persist for longer periods over land. A strict objective matching technique with the JTWC storms is combined with a second subjective procedure that is then applied to identify nearby ensemble storms that would indicate a greater likelihood of a tropical cyclone developing in that region with that track orientation. The ensemble storms identified in the ECMWF 32-day forecasts provided guidance on intraseasonal timescales of the formations and tracks of the three strongest typhoons and two other typhoons, but not for two early season typhoons and the late season Dolphin. Four strong tropical storms were predicted consistently over Week-1 through Week-4, as was one weak tropical storm. Two other weak tropical storms, three tropical cyclones that developed from precursor baroclinic systems, and three other tropical depressions were not predicted on intraseasonal timescales. At least for the strongest tropical cyclones during the peak season, the ECMWF 32-day ensemble provides

  19. Simulations of Cyclone Sidr in the Bay of Bengal with a High-Resolution Model: Sensitivity to Large-Scale Boundary Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Anil; Done, James; Dudhia, Jimy; Niyogi, Dev

    2011-01-01

    The predictability of Cyclone Sidr in the Bay of Bengal was explored in terms of track and intensity using the Advanced Research Hurricane Weather Research Forecast (AHW) model. This constitutes the first application of the AHW over an area that lies outside the region of the North Atlantic for which this model was developed and tested. Several experiments were conducted to understand the possible contributing factors that affected Sidr s intensity and track simulation by varying the initial start time and domain size. Results show that Sidr s track was strongly controlled by the synoptic flow at the 500-hPa level, seen especially due to the strong mid-latitude westerly over north-central India. A 96-h forecast produced westerly winds over north-central India at the 500-hPa level that were notably weaker; this likely caused the modeled cyclone track to drift from the observed actual track. Reducing the model domain size reduced model error in the synoptic-scale winds at 500 hPa and produced an improved cyclone track. Specifically, the cyclone track appeared to be sensitive to the upstream synoptic flow, and was, therefore, sensitive to the location of the western boundary of the domain. However, cyclone intensity remained largely unaffected by this synoptic wind error at the 500-hPa level. Comparison of the high resolution, moving nested domain with a single coarser resolution domain showed little difference in tracks, but resulted in significantly different intensities. Experiments on the domain size with regard to the total precipitation simulated by the model showed that precipitation patterns and 10-m surface winds were also different. This was mainly due to the mid-latitude westerly flow across the west side of the model domain. The analysis also suggested that the total precipitation pattern and track was unchanged when the domain was extended toward the east, north, and south. Furthermore, this highlights our conclusion that Sidr was influenced from the west

  20. Tropical Cyclone Genesis and Sudden Changes of Track and Intensity in the Western Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    North Atlantic . (Published in 2008) Our work on the effect of internally generated inner-core asymmetries on tropical cyclone potential intensity has...of the atmospheric circulation in TC basins to the global warming is more critical than increasing SST to understanding the impacts of global warming...Japan and its adjacent seas is studied with WRF model. The results suggest that the northward moisture transport through the outer cyclonic circulation

  1. Variability of upper-ocean characteristics and tropical cyclones in the South West Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawren, D.; Reason, C. J. C.

    2017-03-01

    Track and intensity are key aspects of tropical cyclone behavior. Intensity may be impacted by the upper-ocean heat content relevant for TC intensification (known as Tdy) and barrier layer thickness (BLT). Here the variability of Tdy and BLT in the South West Indian Ocean and their relationships with tropical cyclones are investigated. It is shown that rapid cyclone intensification is influenced by large Tdy values, thick barrier layers and the presence of anticyclonic eddies. For TC generation in the South West Indian Ocean, the parameter Tdy was found to be important. Large BLT values overlay with large Tdy values during summer. Both fields are modulated by the westward propagation of Rossby waves, which are often associated with ENSO. For example, the 1997-1998 El Niño shows a strong signal in Tdy, SST, and BLT over the South West Indian Ocean. After this event, an increasing trend in Tdy occurred over most of the basin which may be associated with changes in atmospheric circulation. Increasing SST, Power Dissipation Index and frequency of Category 5 tropical cyclones also occurred from 1980 to 2010. To further examine the links between tropical cyclones, Tdy, and BLT, the ocean response to Category 5 Tropical Cyclone Bansi that developed near Madagascar during January 2015 was analyzed. Its unusual track was found to be linked with the strengthening of the monsoonal north westerlies while its rapid intensification from Category 2 to Category 4 was linked to a high-Tdy region, associated with a warm core eddy and large BLT.

  2. Simulating the Cyclone Induced Turbulent Mixing in the Bay of Bengal using COAWST Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, K. R.; Nigam, T.; Pant, V.

    2017-12-01

    Mixing in the upper oceanic layers (up to a few tens of meters from surface) is an important process to understand the evolution of sea surface properties. Enhanced mixing due to strong wind forcing at surface leads to deepening of mixed layer that affects the air-sea exchange of heat and momentum fluxes and modulates sea surface temperature (SST). In the present study, we used Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) model to demonstrate and quantify the enhanced cyclone induced turbulent mixing in case of a severe cyclonic storm. The COAWST model was configured over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and used to simulate the atmospheric and oceanic conditions prevailing during the tropical cyclone (TC) Phailin that occurred over the BoB during 10-15 October 2013. The model simulated cyclone track was validated with IMD best-track and model SST validated with daily AVHRR SST data. Validation shows that model simulated track & intensity, SST and salinity were in good agreement with observations and the cyclone induced cooling of the sea surface was well captured by the model. Model simulations show a considerable deepening (by 10-15 m) of the mixed layer and shoaling of thermocline during TC Phailin. The power spectrum analysis was performed on the zonal and meridional baroclinic current components, which shows strongest energy at 14 m depth. Model results were analyzed to investigate the non-uniform energy distribution in the water column from surface up to the thermocline depth. The rotary spectra analysis highlights the downward direction of turbulent mixing during the TC Phailin period. Model simulations were used to quantify and interpret the near-inertial mixing, which were generated by cyclone induced strong wind stress and the near-inertial energy. These near-inertial oscillations are responsible for the enhancement of the mixing operative in the strong post-monsoon (October-November) stratification in the BoB.

  3. Concepts on tracking the impact of tropical cyclones through the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvitski, J. P.; Hannon, M. T.; Kettner, A. J.; Bachman, S.

    2009-12-01

    constellation can track storm fronts and tropical cyclones and sense sediment discharged, resuspension of shoreline sediment, and be used to observe the dimensions and dynamics of delta flooding and delta-plain aggradation (Syvitski et al. 2009). An integrated workflow involving these models and data system will be presented outlining their use in characterizing sediment flux within the coastal zone.

  4. Extratropical Cyclone in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer portray an occluded extratropical cyclone situated in the Southern Ocean, about 650 kilometers south of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia.

    Parts of the Yorke Peninsula and a portion of the Murray-Darling River basin are visible between the clouds near the top of the left-hand image, a true-color view from MISR's nadir(vertical-viewing) camera. Retrieved cloud-tracked wind velocities are indicated by the superimposed arrows. The image on the right displays cloud-top heights. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in black. Both the wind vectors and the cloud heights were derived using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate these results are still being refined, and future versions of these products may show modest changes.

    Extratropical cyclones are the dominant weather system at midlatitudes, and the term is used generically for region allow-pressure systems in the mid- to high-latitudes. In the southern hemisphere, cyclonic rotation is clockwise. These storms obtain their energy from temperature differences between air masses on either side of warm and cold fronts, and their characteristic pattern is of warm and cold fronts radiating out from a migrating low pressure center which forms, deepens, and dissipates as the fronts fold and collapse on each other. The center of this cyclone has started to decay, with the band of cloud to the south most likely representing the main front that was originally connected with the cyclonic circulation.

    These views were acquired on October 11, 2001 during Terra orbit 9650, and represent an area of about 380 kilometers x 1900 kilometers.

  5. Extratropical Cyclone in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray an occluded extratropical cyclone situated in the Southern Ocean, about 650 kilometers south of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. The left-hand image, a true-color view from MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, shows clouds just south of the Yorke Peninsula and the Murray-Darling river basin in Australia. Retrieved cloud-tracked wind velocities are indicated by the superimposed arrows. The image on the right displays cloud-top heights. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in black. Both the wind vectors and the cloud heights were derived using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate these results are still being refined, and future versions of these products may show modest changes. Extratropical cyclones are the dominant weather system at midlatitudes, and the term is used generically for regional low-pressure systems in the mid- to high-latitudes. In the southern hemisphere, cyclonic rotation is clockwise. These storms obtain their energy from temperature differences between air masses on either side of warm and cold fronts, and their characteristic pattern is of warm and cold fronts radiating out from a migrating low pressure center which forms, deepens, and dissipates as the fronts fold and collapse on each other. The center of this cyclone has started to decay, with the band of cloud to the south most likely representing the main front that was originally connected with the cyclonic circulation. These views were acquired on October 11, 2001, and the large view represents an area of about 380 kilometers x 1900 kilometers. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  6. Observational study of upper ocean cooling due to Phet super cyclone in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muni Krishna, K.

    2016-05-01

    Phet super cyclone (31 May-7 June 2010) was the most intense and also the rarest of the rare track in Arabian Sea as per the recorded history during 1877-2009. The present study focuses on the ocean physical responses to Phet cyclone using satellite and Argo observations. The sea surface temperature is decreased to 6 °C with an approximately 350 km long and 100 km width area in the Arabian Sea after the cyclone passage. The translation speed of cyclone is 3.86 m/s, the mixed layer is 79 m, and thermocline displacement is 13 m at the cooling area. With the relationship of wind stress curl and Ekman pumping velocity (EPV), the author found that the speed of EPV was increased after the passage of cyclone. So the extent of the SST drop was probably due to the moving speed of cyclone and the depth of the mixed layer.

  7. Sea surface height evidence for long-term warming effects of tropical cyclones on the ocean

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Wei; Primeau, François; McWilliams, James C.; Pasquero, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Tropical cyclones have been hypothesized to influence climate by pumping heat into the ocean, but a direct measure of this warming effect is still lacking. We quantified cyclone-induced ocean warming by directly monitoring the thermal expansion of water in the wake of cyclones, using satellite-based sea surface height data that provide a unique way of tracking the changes in ocean heat content on seasonal and longer timescales. We find that the long-term effect of cyclones is to warm the ocean at a rate of 0.32 ± 0.15 PW between 1993 and 2009, i.e., ∼23 times more efficiently per unit area than the background equatorial warming, making cyclones potentially important modulators of the climate by affecting heat transport in the ocean–atmosphere system. Furthermore, our analysis reveals that the rate of warming increases with cyclone intensity. This, together with a predicted shift in the distribution of cyclones toward higher intensities as climate warms, suggests the ocean will get even warmer, possibly leading to a positive feedback. PMID:23922393

  8. Sea surface height evidence for long-term warming effects of tropical cyclones on the ocean.

    PubMed

    Mei, Wei; Primeau, François; McWilliams, James C; Pasquero, Claudia

    2013-09-17

    Tropical cyclones have been hypothesized to influence climate by pumping heat into the ocean, but a direct measure of this warming effect is still lacking. We quantified cyclone-induced ocean warming by directly monitoring the thermal expansion of water in the wake of cyclones, using satellite-based sea surface height data that provide a unique way of tracking the changes in ocean heat content on seasonal and longer timescales. We find that the long-term effect of cyclones is to warm the ocean at a rate of 0.32 ± 0.15 PW between 1993 and 2009, i.e., ∼23 times more efficiently per unit area than the background equatorial warming, making cyclones potentially important modulators of the climate by affecting heat transport in the ocean-atmosphere system. Furthermore, our analysis reveals that the rate of warming increases with cyclone intensity. This, together with a predicted shift in the distribution of cyclones toward higher intensities as climate warms, suggests the ocean will get even warmer, possibly leading to a positive feedback.

  9. Temporal clustering of tropical cyclones on the Great Barrier Reef and its ecological importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Nicholas H.; Wong, Aaron; Vitolo, Renato; Stolberg, Kristin; Anthony, Kenneth R. N.; Mumby, Peter J.

    2016-06-01

    Tropical cyclones have been a major cause of reef coral decline during recent decades, including on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). While cyclones are a natural element of the disturbance regime of coral reefs, the role of temporal clustering has previously been overlooked. Here, we examine the consequences of different types of cyclone temporal distributions (clustered, stochastic or regular) on reef ecosystems. We subdivided the GBR into 14 adjoining regions, each spanning roughly 300 km, and quantified both the rate and clustering of cyclones using dispersion statistics. To interpret the consequences of such cyclone variability for coral reef health, we used a model of observed coral population dynamics. Results showed that clustering occurs on the margins of the cyclone belt, being strongest in the southern reefs and the far northern GBR, which also has the lowest cyclone rate. In the central GBR, where rates were greatest, cyclones had a relatively regular temporal pattern. Modelled dynamics of the dominant coral genus, Acropora, suggest that the long-term average cover might be more than 13 % greater (in absolute cover units) under a clustered cyclone regime compared to stochastic or regular regimes. Thus, not only does cyclone clustering vary significantly along the GBR but such clustering is predicted to have a marked, and management-relevant, impact on the status of coral populations. Additionally, we use our regional clustering and rate results to sample from a library of over 7000 synthetic cyclone tracks for the GBR. This allowed us to provide robust reef-scale maps of annual cyclone frequency and cyclone impacts on Acropora. We conclude that assessments of coral reef vulnerability need to account for both spatial and temporal cyclone distributions.

  10. The poleward shift of storm tracks under global warming: A Lagrangian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamarin, T.; Kaspi, Y.

    2017-10-01

    Comprehensive models of climate change projections have shown that the latitudinal band of extratropical storms will likely shift poleward under global warming. Here we study this poleward shift from a Lagrangian storm perspective, through simulations with an idealized general circulation model. By employing a feature tracking technique to identify the storms, we demonstrate that the poleward motion of individual cyclones increases with increasing global mean temperature. A potential vorticity tendency analysis of the cyclone composites highlights two leading mechanisms responsible for enhanced poleward motion: nonlinear horizontal advection and diabatic heating associated with latent heat release. Our results imply that for a 4 K rise in the global mean surface temperature, the mean poleward displacement of cyclones increases by about 0.85° of latitude, and this occurs in addition to a poleward shift of about 0.6° in their mean genesis latitude. Changes in cyclone tracks may have a significant impact on midlatitude climate, especially in localized storm tracks such as the Atlantic and Pacific storm tracks, which may exhibit a more poleward deflected shape.

  11. Pattern Classification of Tropical Cyclone Tracks over the Western North Pacific using a Fuzzy Clustering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Ho, C.; Kim, J.

    2008-12-01

    This study presents the pattern classification of tropical cyclone (TC) tracks over the western North Pacific (WNP) basin during the typhoon season (June through October) for 1965-2006 (total 42 years) using a fuzzy clustering method. After the fuzzy c-mean clustering algorithm to the TC trajectory interpolated into 20 segments of equivalent length, we divided the whole tracks into 7 patterns. The optimal number of the fuzzy cluster is determined by several validity measures. The classified TC track patterns represent quite different features in the recurving latitudes, genesis locations, and geographical pathways: TCs mainly forming in east-northern part of the WNP and striking Korean and Japan (C1); mainly forming in west-southern part of the WNP, traveling long pathway, and partly striking Japan (C2); mainly striking Taiwan and East China (C3); traveling near the east coast of Japan (C4); traveling the distant ocean east of Japan (C5); moving toward South China and Vietnam straightly (C6); and forming in the South China Sea (C7). Atmospheric environments related to each cluster show physically consistent with each TC track patterns. The straight track pattern is closely linked to a developed anticyclonic circulation to the north of the TC. It implies that this ridge acts as a steering flow forcing TCs to move to the northwest with a more west-oriented track. By contrast, recurving patterns occur commonly under the influence of the strong anomalous westerlies over the TC pathway but there definitely exist characteristic anomalous circulations over the mid- latitudes by pattern. Some clusters are closely related to the well-known large-scale phenomena. The C1 and C2 are highly related to the ENSO phase: The TCs in the C1 (C2) is more active during La Niña (El Niño). The TC activity in the C3 is associated with the WNP summer monsoon. The TCs in the C4 is more (less) vigorous during the easterly (westerly) phase of the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation

  12. Structural Variability of Tropospheric Growth Factors Transforming Mid-latitude Cyclones to Severe Storms over the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Simon; Befort, Daniel J.; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2015-04-01

    The development of European surface wind storms out of normal mid-latitude cyclones is substantially influenced by upstream tropospheric growth factors over the Northern Atlantic. The main factors include divergence and vorticity advection in the upper troposphere, latent heat release and the presence of instabilities of short baroclinic waves of suitable wave lengths. In this study we examine a subset of these potential growth factors and their related influences on the transformation of extra-tropical cyclones into severe damage prone surface storm systems. Previous studies have shown links between specific growth factors and surface wind storms related to extreme cyclones. In our study we investigate in further detail spatial and temporal variability patterns of these upstream processes at different vertical levels of the troposphere. The analyses will comprise of the three growth factors baroclinicity, latent heat release and upper tropospheric divergence. Our definition of surface wind storms is based on the Storm Severity Index (SSI) alongside a wind tracking algorithm identifying areas of exceedances of the local 98th percentile of the 10m wind speed. We also make use of a well-established extra-tropical cyclone identification and tracking algorithm. These cyclone tracks form the base for a composite analysis of the aforementioned growth factors using ERA-Interim Reanalysis from 1979 - 2014 for the extended winter season (ONDJFM). Our composite analysis corroborates previous similar studies but extends them by using an impact based algorithm for the identification of strong wind systems. Based on this composite analysis we further identify variability patterns for each growth factor most important for the transformation of a cyclone into a surface wind storm. We thus also address the question whether the link between storm intensity and related growth factor anomaly taking into account its spatial variability is stable and can be quantified. While the

  13. The dynamical link between deep Atlantic extratropical cyclones and intense Mediterranean cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raveh-Rubin, Shira; Flaounas, Emmanouil

    2017-04-01

    Breaking of atmospheric Rossby waves has been previously shown to lead to intense Mediterranean cyclones, one of the most prominent environmental risks in the region. Wave breaking may be enhanced by warm conveyor belts (WCBs) associated with extratropical cyclones developing over the Atlantic Ocean. More precisely, WCBs supply the upper troposphere with air masses of low potential vorticity that, in turn, amplify ridges and thus favor Rossby wave breaking. This study identifies and validates the relevance of the mechanism that connects Atlantic cyclones and intense mature Mediterranean cyclones through ridge amplification by WCBs. Using ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalyses and a feature-based approach, we analyze the 200 most intense Mediterranean cyclones for the years 1989-2008 and show that their majority (181 cases) is indeed associated with this mechanism upstream. Results show that multiple Atlantic cyclones are associated with each case of intense Mediterranean cyclone downstream. Moreover, the associated Atlantic cyclones are particularly deep compared to climatology.

  14. From Cyclone Tracks to the Costs of European Winter Storms: A Probabilistic Loss Assessment Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orwig, K.; Renggli, D.; Corti, T.; Reese, S.; Wueest, M.; Viktor, E.; Zimmerli, P.

    2014-12-01

    European winter storms cause billions of dollars of insured losses every year. Therefore, it is essential to understand potential impacts of future events, and the role reinsurance can play to mitigate the losses. The authors will present an overview on natural catastrophe risk assessment modeling in the reinsurance industry, and the development of a new innovative approach for modeling the risk associated with European winter storms.The new innovative approach includes the development of physically meaningful probabilistic (i.e. simulated) events for European winter storm loss assessment. The meteorological hazard component of the new model is based on cyclone and windstorm tracks identified in the 20thCentury Reanalysis data. The knowledge of the evolution of winter storms both in time and space allows the physically meaningful perturbation of historical event properties (e.g. track, intensity, etc.). The perturbation includes a random element but also takes the local climatology and the evolution of the historical event into account.The low-resolution wind footprints taken from the 20thCentury Reanalysis are processed by a statistical-dynamical downscaling to generate high-resolution footprints for both the simulated and historical events. Downscaling transfer functions are generated using ENSEMBLES regional climate model data. The result is a set of reliable probabilistic events representing thousands of years. The event set is then combined with country and site-specific vulnerability functions and detailed market- or client-specific information to compute annual expected losses.

  15. Impacts and recovery from severe tropical cyclone Yasi on the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Beeden, Roger; Maynard, Jeffrey; Puotinen, Marjetta; Marshall, Paul; Dryden, Jen; Goldberg, Jeremy; Williams, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Full recovery of coral reefs from tropical cyclone (TC) damage can take decades, making cyclones a major driver of habitat condition where they occur regularly. Since 1985, 44 TCs generated gale force winds (≥17 metres/second) within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). Of the hurricane strength TCs (≥H1-Saffir Simpson scale; ≥ category 3 Australian scale), TC Yasi (February, 2011) was the largest. In the weeks after TC Yasi crossed the GBRMP, participating researchers, managers and rangers assessed the extent and severity of reef damage via 841 Reef Health and Impact Surveys at 70 reefs. Records were scaled into five damage levels representing increasingly widespread colony-level damage (1, 2, 3) and reef structural damage (4, 5). Average damage severity was significantly affected by direction (north vs south of the cyclone track), reef shelf position (mid-shelf vs outer-shelf) and habitat type. More outer-shelf reefs suffered structural damage than mid-shelf reefs within 150 km of the track. Structural damage spanned a greater latitudinal range for mid-shelf reefs than outer-shelf reefs (400 vs 300 km). Structural damage was patchily distributed at all distances, but more so as distance from the track increased. Damage extended much further from the track than during other recent intense cyclones that had smaller circulation sizes. Just over 15% (3,834 km2) of the total reef area of the GBRMP is estimated to have sustained some level of coral damage, with ~4% (949 km2) sustaining a degree of structural damage. TC Yasi likely caused the greatest loss of coral cover on the GBR in a 24-hour period since 1985. Severely impacted reefs have started to recover; coral cover increased an average of 4% between 2011 and 2013 at re-surveyed reefs. The in situ assessment of impacts described here is the largest in scale ever conducted on the Great Barrier Reef following a reef health disturbance.

  16. Impacts and Recovery from Severe Tropical Cyclone Yasi on the Great Barrier Reef

    PubMed Central

    Beeden, Roger; Maynard, Jeffrey; Puotinen, Marjetta; Marshall, Paul; Dryden, Jen; Goldberg, Jeremy; Williams, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Full recovery of coral reefs from tropical cyclone (TC) damage can take decades, making cyclones a major driver of habitat condition where they occur regularly. Since 1985, 44 TCs generated gale force winds (≥17 metres/second) within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). Of the hurricane strength TCs (≥H1—Saffir Simpson scale; ≥ category 3 Australian scale), TC Yasi (February, 2011) was the largest. In the weeks after TC Yasi crossed the GBRMP, participating researchers, managers and rangers assessed the extent and severity of reef damage via 841 Reef Health and Impact Surveys at 70 reefs. Records were scaled into five damage levels representing increasingly widespread colony-level damage (1, 2, 3) and reef structural damage (4, 5). Average damage severity was significantly affected by direction (north vs south of the cyclone track), reef shelf position (mid-shelf vs outer-shelf) and habitat type. More outer-shelf reefs suffered structural damage than mid-shelf reefs within 150 km of the track. Structural damage spanned a greater latitudinal range for mid-shelf reefs than outer-shelf reefs (400 vs 300 km). Structural damage was patchily distributed at all distances, but more so as distance from the track increased. Damage extended much further from the track than during other recent intense cyclones that had smaller circulation sizes. Just over 15% (3,834 km2) of the total reef area of the GBRMP is estimated to have sustained some level of coral damage, with ~4% (949 km2) sustaining a degree of structural damage. TC Yasi likely caused the greatest loss of coral cover on the GBR in a 24-hour period since 1985. Severely impacted reefs have started to recover; coral cover increased an average of 4% between 2011 and 2013 at re-surveyed reefs. The in situ assessment of impacts described here is the largest in scale ever conducted on the Great Barrier Reef following a reef health disturbance. PMID:25874718

  17. Cyclone Nargis survey in Myanmar's Ayeyarwady River delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Blount, C.; Thwin, S.; Thu, M. K.; Chan, N.

    2008-12-01

    Tropical cyclone Nargis (Cat. 4) made landfall on May 2, 2008, causing the worst natural disaster in Myanmar's recorded history. Official death toll estimates exceed 130,000 fatalities making it the 7th deadliest cyclone ever recorded worldwide. Nargis took a rare nearly eastern track over the Bay of Bengal while developing sustained winds over 210 km/h with gusts up to 260 km/h hours prior to landfall in Myanmar at untypically low latitude near 16°N. It then proceeded northeast and approximately 12 hours later weakened to a Category 1 storm with sustained wind speeds of 130 km/h as it passed over Yangon. The first independent storm surge reconnaissance team was deployed to Myanmar from 9 to 23 August 2008. Cyclone Nargis struck low-lying coastal plains particularly vulnerable to storm surge flooding due to the lack of effective barriers. The team surveyed coastal and inland villages from Pyapon to Purian Point, encompassing the Bogale and Ayeyarwady River mouths. The survey by boat spanned more than 150 km parallel to the cyclone track between Pyapon and Pyinkhayan encompassing 20 hardest hit settlements such as Pyinsalu. More than 1m vertical erosion and 150 m land loss were measured at various coastal locations such as Aya. Massive deforestation of mangroves and land use were documented. Maximum storm surge elevations and overland flow depths were measured based on water marks on buildings, scars on trees, and rafted debris. The storm surge peaked in the landfall area south of Pyinkhayan and eastwards in Pyinsalu exceeding 5m. Storm waves more than 2m high were superimposed on the storm surge level in most areas according to eyewitnesses. Inundation distances reached beyond 50 km inland. Catastrophic peak fatality rates exceeded 80% in hardest hit villages with the majority being children and women. The high water marks and fatality rates significantly exceeded corresponding 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami values at every location. Eyewitnesses were interviewed to

  18. Storm Surge Hazard in Oman Based on Cyclone Gonu and Historic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blount, C.; Fritz, H. M.; Albusaidi, F. B.; Al-Harthy, A. H.

    2008-12-01

    Super Cyclone Gonu was the strongest tropical cyclone on record in the Arabian Sea. Gonu developed sustained winds reaching 240 km/h with gusts up to 315 km/h and an estimated central pressure of 920 mbar by late 4 June 2007 while centered east-southeast of Masirah Island on the coast of Oman. Gonu weakened after encountering dry air and cooler waters prior to the June 5 landfall on the eastern-most tip of Oman, becoming the strongest tropical cyclone to hit the Arabian Peninsula. Gonu dropped heavy rainfall near the eastern coastline, reaching up to 610 mm which caused wadi flooding and heavy damage. The shore parallel cyclone track resulted in coastal damage due to storm surge and storm wave impact along a 300km stretch of Omani coastline. Maximum high water marks, overland flow depths, and inundation distances were measured along the Gulf of Oman during the 1-4 August 2007 reconnaissance. The high water marks peaked at Ras al Hadd at the eastern tip of Oman exceeding 5 meters, surpassing 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami runup at every corresponding point. The cyclone caused $4 billion in damage and at least 49 deaths in the Sultanate of Oman. Prior to Gonu, only two similar cyclones struck the coast of Oman in the last 1200 years (in 865 and 1890). The 1890 storm, which remains the worst natural disaster in Oman's history, drenched the coast from Soor to Suwayq causing inland wadi flooding. Matrah and Muscat were the hardest hit areas with many ships being washed ashore and wrecked. The storm is known to have killed about 727 people and caused huge agricultural and shipping losses. Similarly, the 865 storm affected areas between Gobrah and Sohar. A high-resolution finite element ADCIRC mesh of the Arabian Sea is created to model storm surge and is coupled with STWAVE. Modeling results from Gonu are compared to measurements and used to determine the contribution from storm surge and waves. The 1890 and 865 storms are modeled with standard cyclone parameters and results

  19. Statistical Detection of Anthropogenic Temporal Changes in the Distribution of Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joannes-boyau, R.; Bodin, T.; Scheffers, A.; Sambridge, M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies highlighting the potential impact of climate change on tropical cyclones have added fuel to the already controversial debates. The link between climate change and tropical cyclone intensity and frequency has been disputed, as both appear to remain in the natural variability. The difficulty lies in our ability to distinguish natural changes from anthropogenic-induced anomalies. The increased anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide leads to environmental changes such as warmer Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) and thus could impact tropical cyclones intensities and frequencies. However, recent studies show that, against an increasing SST, no global trend in respect to cyclone frequency has yet emerged. Scientists have warned to consider the heterogeneity of the existing dataset; especially since the historical tropical cyclone record is frequently accused to be incomplete. Given the abundance of cyclone record data and its likely sensitivity to a number of environmental factors, the real limitation comes from our ability to understand the record as a whole. Thus, strong arguments against the impartiality of proposed models are often debated. We will present an impartial and independent statistical tool applicable to a wide variety of physical and biological phenomena such as processes described by power laws, to observe temporal variations in the tropical cyclone track record from 1842 to 2010. This methodology allows us to observe the impact of anthropogenic-induced modifications on climatic events, without being clustered in subjective parameterised models.

  20. How Will Climate Change Affect Explosive Cyclones in the Extratropics of the Northern Hemisphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, C.; Zwiers, F. W.

    2015-12-01

    Explosive cyclones are rapidly intensifying low pressure systems generating severe wind speeds and heavy precipitation primarily in coastal and marine environments, such as the March 2014 nor'easter which developed along the United States coastline, with hurricane force winds in eastern Maine and the Maritimes. This study presents the first analysis on how explosive cyclones respond to climate change in the extratropics of the Northern Hemisphere. An objective-feature tracking algorithm is used to identify and track cyclones from 23 CMIP5 climate models for the recent past (1981-1999) and future (2081-2099). Explosive cyclones are projected to shift northwards by about 2.2° latitude on average in the northern Pacific, with fewer and weaker events south of 45°N, and more frequent and stronger events north of this latitude. This shift is correlated with a poleward shift of the jet stream in the inter-model spread (R = 0.56). In the Atlantic, the total number of explosive cyclones is projected to decrease by about 17% when averaging across models, with the largest changes occurring along North America's East Coast. This reduction is correlated with a decline in the lower-tropospheric Eady growth rate (R = 0.51), and is stronger for models with smaller frequency biases (R = -0.65). The same region is also projected to experience a small intensification of explosive cyclones, with larger vorticity values for models that predict stronger increases in the speed of the jet stream (R = 0.58). This strengthening of the jet stream is correlated with an enhanced sea surface temperature gradient in the North Atlantic (R = -0.63). The inverse relationship between model bias and projection, and the role of model resolution are discussed.

  1. Training on Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones for Latin American students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfán, L. M.; Raga, G. B.

    2009-05-01

    Tropical cyclones are one of the most impressive atmospheric phenomena and their development in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific basins has potential to affect several Latin-American and Caribbean countries, where human resources are limited. As part of an international research project, we are offering short courses based on the current understanding of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific basin. Our main goal is to train students from higher-education institutions from various countries in Latin America. Key aspects are tropical cyclone formation and evolution, with particular emphasis on their development off the west coast of Mexico. Our approach includes lectures on tropical cyclone climatology and formation, dynamic and thermodynamic models, air-sea interaction and oceanic response, ocean waves and coastal impacts as well as variability and climate-related predictions. In particular, we use a best-track dataset issued by the United States National Hurricane Center and satellite observations to analyze convective patterns for the period 1970-2006. Case studies that resulted in landfall over northwestern Mexico are analyzed in more detail; this includes systems that developed during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 seasons. Additionally, we have organized a human-dimensions symposium to discuss socio-economic issues that are associated with the landfall of tropical cyclones. This includes coastal zone impact and flooding, the link between cyclones and water resources, the flow of weather and climate information from scientists to policy- makers, the role of emergency managers and decision makers, impact over health issues and the viewpoint of the insurance industry.

  2. Convection in Extratropical Cyclones: Analysis of GPM, NexRAD, GCMs and Re-Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyaratnam, J.; Booth, J. F.; Naud, C. M.; Luo, J.

    2017-12-01

    Extratropical Cyclones (ETCs) are the most common cause of extreme precipitation in mid-latitudes and are important in the general atmospheric circulation as they redistribute moisture and heat. Isentropic lifting, upright convection, and slantwise convection are mechanisms of vertical motion within an ETC, which deliver different rain rates and might respond differently to global warming. In this study we compare different metrics for identifying convection within the ETC's and calculate the relative contribution of convection to total ETC precipitation. We determine if convection occurs preferentially in specific regions of the storm and decide how to best utilize GPM retrievals covering other parts of the mid-latitudes. Additionally, mid-latitude cyclones are tracked and composites of these tracked cyclones are compared amongst multiple versions of Global Circulation Models (GCMs) from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) prototype models and re-analysis data; Model Diagnostic Task Force (MDTF) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) using a two-plume convection scheme, MDTF GFDL using the Donner convection scheme, Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2), and European Reanalysis produced by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF).

  3. Linkages Between the Great Arctic Cyclone of August 2012 and Tropopause Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernat, K.; Keyser, D.; Bosart, L. F.

    2017-12-01

    Coherent vortices in the vicinity of the tropopause, referred to as tropopause polar vortices (TPVs), are common features in the Arctic. TPVs may interact with and strengthen jet streams, as well as act as precursor disturbances for the development of Arctic cyclones. Arctic cyclones may be associated with strong surface winds and poleward advection of warm, moist air, contributing to reductions in Arctic sea-ice extent. Also, heavy precipitation, strong surface winds, and large waves accompanying Arctic cyclones may pose hazards to ships moving through open passageways in the Arctic Ocean. The Great Arctic Cyclone of August 2012 (hereafter AC12) is an example of an intense Arctic cyclone. AC12 formed on 2 August 2012 over central Siberia and attained a minimum sea level pressure (SLP) of 964 hPa on 6 August 2012 over the Arctic. Strong surface winds associated with AC12 led to reductions in Arctic sea-ice extent during a time in which sea ice was thin. Two TPVs are hypothesized to play a role in the life cycle of AC12. The purpose of this study is to investigate the linkages between AC12 and the two TPVs. The ERA-Interim dataset was utilized to examine the linkages between AC12 and the two TPVs. The two TPVs, TPV 1 and TPV 2, were tracked objectively using a TPV tracking algorithm. AC12 was tracked manually by following the locations of minimum SLP. During early August 2012, as TPV 1 approached and interacted with AC12 in a region of strong baroclinicity, it likely played an important role in the subsequent intensification of AC12. In addition, TPV-jet interactions involving both TPV 1 and TPV 2 likely contributed to the formation of a dual-jet configuration and jet coupling over AC12. The presence of warm, moist air and relatively strong lower-tropospheric ascent in the region of jet coupling and the subsequent interaction between both TPVs likely facilitated the intensification of AC12. After attaining its minimum SLP, AC12 moved slowly over the Arctic, where

  4. Northern Hemisphere extratropical winter cyclones variability over the 20th century derived from ERA-20C reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varino, Filipa; Arbogast, Philippe; Joly, Bruno; Riviere, Gwendal; Fandeur, Marie-Laure; Bovy, Henry; Granier, Jean-Baptiste

    2018-03-01

    The multi-decadal variations of wintertime extra-tropical cyclones during the last century are studied using a vorticity-based tracking algorithm applied to the long-term ERA-20C reanalysis from ECMWF. The variability of moderate-to-deep extra-tropical winter cyclones in ERA-20C show three distinct periods. Two at the beginning and at the end of the century (1900-1935 and 1980-2010) present weak or no significant trends in the Northern Hemisphere as a whole and only some regional trends. The period in between (1935-1980) is marked by a significant increase in Northern Hemisphere moderate-to-deep cyclones frequency. During the latter period, polar regions underwent a significant cooling over the whole troposphere that increased and shifted poleward the mid-latitude meridional temperature gradient and the baroclinicity. This is linked to positive-to-negative shifts of the PDO between 1935 and 1957 and of the AMO between 1957 and 1980 which mainly reinforced the storm-track eddy generation in the North Pacific and North Atlantic regions respectively, as seen from baroclinic conversion from mean to eddy potential energy. As a result, both the North Pacific and North Atlantic extra-tropical storms increase in frequency during the two subperiods (1935-1957 and 1957-1980), together with other storm-track quantities such as the high-frequency eddy kinetic energy. In contrast, the first and third periods are characterized by a warming of the polar temperatures. However, as the stronger warming is confined to the lower troposphere, the baroclinicity do not uniformly increase in the whole troposphere. This may explain why the recent rapid increase in polar temperatures has not affected the behaviour of extratropical cyclones very much. Finally, the large magnitude of the positive trend found in moderate-to-deep cyclone frequency during the second period is still questioned as the period is marked by an important increase in the number of assimilated observations. However, the

  5. North Atlantic cyclones; trends, impacts and links to large-scale variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, R. M.; Trigo, I. F.; Ramos, A. M.; Paredes, D.; Garcia-Herrera, R.; Liberato, M. L. R.; Valente, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    Based on the cyclone detection and tracking algorithm previously developed (Trigo, 2006) we have assessed the inter-annual variability and cyclone frequency trends between 1960 and 2000 for the Euro-Atlantic sector using the highest spatial resolution available (1.125° x 1.125°) from the ERA-40 Surface Level Pressure. Additionally, trends for the u and v wind speed components are also computed at the monthly and seasonal scales, using the same dataset. All cyclone and wind speed trend maps were computed with the corresponding statistical significance field. Results reveal a significant frequency decrease (increase) in the western Mediterranean (Greenland and Scandinavia), particularly in December, February and March. Seasonal and monthly analysis of wind speed trends shows similar spatial patterns. We show that these changes in the frequency of low pressure centers and the associated wind patterns are partially responsible for trends of the significant height of waves. Throughout the extended winter months (ONDJFM), regions with positive (negative) wind magnitude trends, of up to 5 cm/s per year, often correspond to regions of positive (negative) significant wave height trends. The cyclone and wind speed trends computed for the JFM months are well matched by the corresponding trends in significant wave height, with February being the month with the highest trends (negative south of 50°N up to -3 cm/year, and positive up to 5cm/year just north of Scotland). Using precipitation data from ECMWF reanalyses and a CRU high resolution dataset we show the impact of these trends in cyclone frequencies upon the corresponding precipitation trends in the influenced areas. It is also shown that these changes are partially linked to major shifts on the indices of large-scale patterns modes, namely the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Eastern Atlantic (EA) and the Scandinavian Patterns (SCAN). Trigo, I. F. 2006: Climatology and Interannual Variability of Storm-Tracks in

  6. Storm-Tracks in ERA-40 and ERA-Interim Reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, M. L. R.; Trigo, I. F.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Extratropical cyclones, their dominant paths, frequency and intensity have long been the object of climatological studies. The analysis of cyclone characteristics for the Euro-Atlantic sector (85°W-70°E; 20°N-75°N) presented here is based on the cyclone detecting and tracking algorithm first developed for the Mediterranean region (Trigo et al., 1999, 2002) and recently extended to a larger Euro-Atlantic region (Trigo, 2006). The objective methodology, which identifies and follows individual lows (Trigo et al. 1999), is applied to 6-hourly geopotential data at 1000-hPa from two reanalyses datasets provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF): ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalyses. Two storm-track databases are built over the Northern Atlantic European area, spanning the common available extended winter seasons from October 1989 to March 2002. Although relatively short, this common period allows a comparison of systems represented in reanalyses datasets with distinct horizontal resolutions (T106 and T255, respectively). This exercise is mostly focused on the key areas of cyclone formation and dissipation and main cyclone characteristics for the Euro-Atlantic sector. Trigo, I. F., T. D. Davies, and G. R. Bigg, 1999: Objective climatology of cyclones in the Mediterranean region. J. Climate, 12, 1685-1696. Trigo I. F., G. R. Bigg and T. D. Davies, 2002: Climatology of Cyclogenesis Mechanisms in the Mediterranean. Mon. Weather Rev. 130, 549-569. Trigo, I. F. 2006: Climatology and Interannual Variability of Storm-Tracks in the Euro-Atlantic sector: a comparison between ERA-40 and NCEP/NCAR Reanalyses. Clim. Dyn. DOI 10.1007/s00382-005-0065-9.

  7. Characteristics of different convective parameterization schemes on the simulation of intensity and track of severe extratropical cyclones over North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, P. K.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Ferreira, Juan A.; Dasamsetti, S.; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.

    2018-01-01

    The role of the convective parameterization schemes (CPSs) in the ARW-WRF (WRF) mesoscale model is examined for extratropical cyclones (ETCs) over the North Atlantic Ocean. The simulation of very severe winter storms such as Xynthia (2010) and Gong (2013) are considered in this study. Most popular CPSs within WRF model, along with Yonsei University (YSU) planetary boundary layer (PBL) and WSM6 microphysical parameterization schemes are incorporated for the model experiments. For each storm, four numerical experiments were carried out using New Kain Fritsch (NKF), Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ), Grell 3D Ensemble (Gr3D) and no convection scheme (NCS) respectively. The prime objectives of these experiments were to recognize the best CPS that can forecast the intensity, track, and landfall over the Iberian Peninsula in advance of two days. The WRF model results such as central sea level pressure (CSLP), wind field, moisture flux convergence, geopotential height, jet stream, track and precipitation have shown sensitivity CPSs. The 48-hour lead simulations with BMJ schemes produce the best simulations both regarding ETCs intensity and track than Gr3D and NKF schemes. The average MAE and RMSE of intensities are least that (6.5 hPa in CSLP and 3.4 ms- 1 in the 10-m wind) found in BMJ scheme. The MAE and RMSE for and intensity and track error have revealed that NCS produces large errors than other CPSs experiments. However, for track simulation of these ETCs, at 72-, 48- and 24-hour means track errors were 440, 390 and 158 km respectively. In brevity, BMJ and Gr3D schemes can be used for short and medium range predictions of the ETCs over North Atlantic. For the evaluation of precipitation distributions using Gr3D scheme are good agreement with TRMM satellite than other CPSs.

  8. Extra-Tropical Cyclones at Climate Scales: Comparing Models to Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tselioudis, G.; Bauer, M.; Rossow, W.

    2009-04-01

    Climate is often defined as the accumulation of weather, and weather is not the concern of climate models. Justification for this latter sentiment has long been hidden behind coarse model resolutions and blunt validation tools based on climatological maps. The spatial-temporal resolutions of today's climate models and observations are converging onto meteorological scales, however, which means that with the correct tools we can test the largely unproven assumption that climate model weather is correct enough that its accumulation results in a robust climate simulation. Towards this effort we introduce a new tool for extracting detailed cyclone statistics from observations and climate model output. These include the usual cyclone characteristics (centers, tracks), but also adaptive cyclone-centric composites. We have created a novel dataset, the MAP Climatology of Mid-latitude Storminess (MCMS), which provides a detailed 6 hourly assessment of the areas under the influence of mid-latitude cyclones, using a search algorithm that delimits the boundaries of each system from the outer-most closed SLP contour. Using this we then extract composites of cloud, radiation, and precipitation properties from sources such as ISCCP and GPCP to create a large comparative dataset for climate model validation. A demonstration of the potential usefulness of these tools in process-based climate model evaluation studies will be shown.

  9. Contrasting the projected change in extreme extratropical cyclones in the two hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, E. K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Extratropical cyclones form an important part of the global circulation. They are responsible for much of the high impact weather in the mid-latitudes, including heavy precipitation, strong winds, and coastal storm surges. They are also the surface manifestation of baroclinic waves that are responsible for much of the transport of momentum, heat, and moisture across the mid-latitudes. Thus how these storms will change in the future is of much general interest. In particular, how the frequency of the extreme cyclones change are of most concern, since they are the ones that cause most damages. While the projection of a poleward shift of the Southern Hemisphere storm track and cyclone activity is widely accepted, together with a small decrease in the total number of extratropical cyclones, as discussed in the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5), projected change in cyclone intensity is still rather uncertain. Several studies have suggested that cyclone intensity, in terms of absolute value of sea level pressure (SLP) minima or SLP perturbations, is projected to increase under global warming. However, other studies found no increase in wind speed around extratropical cyclones. In this study, CMIP5 multi-model projection of how the frequency of extreme cyclones in terms of near surface wind intensity may change under global warming has been examined. Results suggest significant increase in the occurrences of extreme cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere. In the Northern Hemisphere, CMIP5 models project a northeastward shift in extreme cyclone activity over the Pacific, and significant decrease over the Atlantic. Substantial differences are also found between projected changes in near surface wind intensity and wind intensity at 850 hPa, suggesting that wind change at 850 hPa is not a good proxy for change in surface wind intensity. Finally, projected changes in the large scale environment are examined to understand the

  10. Oceanic response to tropical cyclone `Phailin' in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, V.; Prakash, K. R.

    2016-02-01

    Vertical mixing largely explains surface cooling induced by Tropical Cyclones (TCs). However, TC-induced upwelling of deeper waters plays an important role as it partly balances the warming of subsurface waters induced by vertical mixing. Below 100 m, vertical advection results in cooling that persists for a few days after the storm. The present study investigates the integrated ocean response to tropical cyclone `Phaillin' (10-14 October 2013) in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) through both coupled and stand-alone ocean-atmosphere models. Two numerical experiments with different coupling configurations between Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) were performed to investigate the impact of Phailin cyclone on the surface and sub-surface oceanic parameters. In the first experiment, ocean circulation model ROMS observe surface wind forcing from a mesoscale atmospheric model (WRF with nested damin setup), while rest forcing parameters are supplied to ROMS from NCEP data. In the second experiment, all surface forcing data to ROMS directly comes from WRF. The modeling components and data fields exchanged between atmospheric and oceanic models are described. The coupled modeling system is used to identify model sensitivity by exchanging prognostic variable fields between the two model components during simulation of Phallin cyclone (10-14 October 2013) in the BoB.In general, the simulated Phailin cyclone track and intensities agree well with observations in WRF simulations. Further, the inter-comparison between stand-alone and coupled model simulations validated against observations highlights better performance of coupled modeling system in simulating the oceanic conditions during the Phailin cyclone event.

  11. The short-term impacts of a cyclone on seagrass communities in Southwest Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Côté-Laurin, Marie-Claude; Benbow, Sophie; Erzini, Karim

    2017-04-01

    Cyclones are large-scale disturbances with highly destructive potential in coastal ecosystems. On February 22, 2013, a powerful tropical cyclone made landfall on the southwest coast of Madagascar, a region which is infrequently hit by such extreme weather events coming from the Mozambique Channel. Seagrass ecosystems, which provide valuable ecosystems services to local communities, are especially vulnerable because they thrive in shallow waters. The impact of Cyclone Haruna on seagrass diversity, height and coverage and associated fish diversity, abundance and biomass was assessed in 3 sites near Andavadoaka (22°07‧S, 43°23‧E) before and after the event using fish underwater visual census, video-transects, and seagrass quadrats. The cyclone caused a significant loss in seagrass cover at all 3 sites. Thalassia hemprichii and Syringodium isoetifolium were the most affected species. Andavadoaka beach, the most exposed site, which was also subject to human use and was most fragmented, suffered the largest negative effects of the cyclone. Cyclone Haruna was not found to significantly affect fish assemblages, which are highly mobile organisms able to use a diversity of niches and adjacent habitats after seagrass fragmentation. Extensive sampling and longer time-scale studies would be needed to fully evaluate the cyclone impact on communities of seagrass and fish, and track potential recovery in seagrass coverage. The intensity and destructive potential of cyclones is expected to increase with global warming, which is of concern for developing countries that encompass most of the world's seagrass beds. This study provided a unique and key opportunity to monitor immediate impacts of an extreme disturbance in a region where cyclones rarely hit coastal ecosystems and where local populations remain highly dependent on seagrass meadows.

  12. The influence of an atmospheric Two-Way coupled model system on the predictability of extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Mareike; Thürkow, Markus; Weiher, Stefan; Kirchner, Ingo; Ulbrich, Uwe; Will, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    A general bias of global atmosphere ocean models, and also of the MPI-ESM, is an under-representation of the high latitude cyclone activity and an overestimation of the mid latitude cyclone activity in the North Atlantic, thus representing the extra-tropical storm track too zonal. We will show, that this effect can be antagonized by applying an atmospheric Two-Way Coupling (TWC). In this study we present a newly developed Two-Way Coupled model system, which is based on the MPI-ESM, and show that it is able to capture the mean storm track location more accurate. It also influences the sub-decadal deterministic predictability of extra-tropical cyclones and shows significantly enhanced skill compared to the "uncoupled" MPI-ESM standalone system. This study evaluates a set of hindcast experiments performed with said Two-Way Coupled model system. The regional model COSMO CLM is Two-Way Coupled to the atmosphere of the global Max-Plack-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) and therefore integrates and exchanges the state of the atmosphere every 10 minutes (MPI-TWC-ESM). In the coupled source region (North Atlantic), mesoscale processes which are relevant for the formation and early-stage development of cyclones are expected to be better represented, and therefore influence the large scale dynamics of the target region (Europe). The database covers 102 "uncoupled" years and 102 Two-Way Coupled years of the recent climate (1960-2010). Results are validated against the ERA-Interim reanalysis. Besides the climatological point of view, the design of this single model ensemble allows for an analysis of the predictability of the first and second leadyears of the hindcasts. As a first step to understand the improved predictability of cyclones, we will show a detailed analysis of climatologies for specific cyclone categories, sorted by season and region. Especially for cyclones affecting Europe, the TWC is capable to counteract the AOGCM's biases in the North Atlantic. Also

  13. Tropical Cyclone Evolution and Water and Energy Fluxes: A Hurricane Katrina Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, M. C.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical cyclones are a highly destructive force of nature, characterized by extreme precipitation levels and wind speeds and heavy flooding. There are concerns that climate change will cause changes in the intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones. Therefore, the quantification of the water and energy fluxes that occur during a tropical cyclone's life cycle are important for anticipating the magnitude of damages that are likely to occur. This study used HURDAT2 storm track information and data from the satellite-derived SeaFlux and TRMM products to determine changes in precipitation, wind, and latent and sensible heat throughout the life cycle of Hurricane Katrina. The variables were examined along and around the storm track, taking averages both at stationary 5x5 degree boxes and within the instantaneous hurricane domain. Analysis focused on contributions of convergence and latent heat to the storm evolution and examined how the total flux was related to the storm intensity. Certain features, such as the eye, were not resolved due to the data resolution, but the data captures the general trend of enhanced flux levels that are due to the storm's presence. Analysis also included examination of the water and energy budgets as related to convergence and the sensible and latent heat fluxes.

  14. Assimilation of Tropical Cyclone Track and Wind Radius Data with an Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunii, M.

    2014-12-01

    Improving tropical cyclone (TC) forecasts is one of the most important issues in meteorology, but TC intensity forecasts are a challenging task. Because the lack of observations near TCs usually results in degraded accuracy of initial fields, utilizing TC advisory data in data assimilation typically has started with an ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF). In this study, TC intensity and position information was directly assimilated using the EnKF, and the impact of these observations was investigated by comparing different assimilation strategies. Another experiment with TC wind radius data was carried out to examine the influence of TC shape parameters. Sensitivity experiments indicated that the assimilation of TC intensity and position data yielded results that were superior to those based on conventional assimilation of TC minimum sea level pressure as a standard surface pressure observation. Assimilation of TC radius data modified TC outer circulations closer to observations. The impacts of these TC parameters were also evaluated using the case of Typhoon Talas in 2011. The TC intensity, position, and wind radius data led to improved TC track forecasts and thence to improved precipitation forecasts. These results imply that initialization with these TC-related observations benefits TC forecasts, offering promise for the prevention and mitigation of natural disasters caused by TCs.

  15. Effect of Nock-Ten Tropical Cyclone on Atmospheric Condition and Distribution of Rainfall in Gorontalo, Ternate, and Sorong Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumbangaol, A.; Serhalawan, Y. R.; Endarwin

    2017-12-01

    Nock-Ten Tropical Cyclone is an atmospheric phenomenon that has claimed many lives in the Philippines. This super-typhoon cyclone grows in the Western Pacific Ocean, North of Papua. With the area directly contiguous to the trajectory of Nock-Ten Tropical Cyclone growth, it is necessary to study about the growth activity of this tropical cyclones in Indonesia, especially in 3 different areas, namely Gorontalo, Ternate, and Sorong. This study was able to determine the impact of Nock-Ten Tropical Cyclone on atmospheric dynamics and rainfall growth distribution based on the stages of tropical cyclone development. The data used in this study include Himawari-8 IR channel satellite data to see the development stage and movement track of Tropical Cyclone Nock-Ten, rainfall data from TRMM 3B42RT satellite product to know the rain distribution in Gorontalo, Ternate, and Sorong, and reanalysis data from ECMWF such as wind direction and speed, vertical velocity, and relative vorticity to determine atmospheric conditions at the time of development of the Nock-Ten Tropical Cyclone. The results of data analysis processed using GrADS application showed the development stage of Nock-Ten Tropical Cyclone has effect of changes in atmospheric dynamics condition and wind direction pattern. In addition, tropical cyclones also contribute to very light to moderate scale intensity during the cycle period of tropical cyclone development in all three regions.

  16. The impact of environmental inertial stability on the secondary circulation of axisymmetric tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, M. E.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    In f-plane numerical simulations and analytical theory, tropical cyclones completely recycle their exhausted outflow air back into the boundary layer. This low-angular momentum air must experience cyclonic torque at the sea surface for cyclone to reach equilibrium. On Earth, however, it is not clear that tropical cyclones recycle all of the outflow air in a closed secondary circulation, and strong asymmetric outflow-jet interactions suggest that much of the air may be permanently evacuated from the storm over its lifetime. The fraction of outflow air that is returned to the near-storm boundary layer is in part a function of the environmental inertial stability, which controls the size and strength of the upper anticyclone. We run a suite of idealized axisymmetric tropical cyclone simulations at constant latitude while varying the outer domain's inertial stability profile. Fixing the latitude allows the gradient wind balance of the storm core to remain constant except for changes due to the far environment. By varying both the outer inertial stability and its location with respect to the Rossby radius of deformation, we show how the tropical cyclone's area-of-influence is controlled by the nature and strength of the upper anticyclone. Parcel tracking additionally demonstrates the likelihood of outflow air parcels to be quickly re-consumed by the secondary circulation as a function of inertial stability. These experiments demonstrate the sensitivity of the tropical cyclone's secondary circulation, typically assumed to be closed, to the dynamics of the far environment.

  17. Sensitivity of physical parameterizations on prediction of tropical cyclone Nargis over the Bay of Bengal using WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, P. V. S.; Potty, Jayaraman; Mohanty, U. C.

    2011-09-01

    Comprehensive sensitivity analyses on physical parameterization schemes of Weather Research Forecast (WRF-ARW core) model have been carried out for the prediction of track and intensity of tropical cyclones by taking the example of cyclone Nargis, which formed over the Bay of Bengal and hit Myanmar on 02 May 2008, causing widespread damages in terms of human and economic losses. The model performances are also evaluated with different initial conditions of 12 h intervals starting from the cyclogenesis to the near landfall time. The initial and boundary conditions for all the model simulations are drawn from the global operational analysis and forecast products of National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP-GFS) available for the public at 1° lon/lat resolution. The results of the sensitivity analyses indicate that a combination of non-local parabolic type exchange coefficient PBL scheme of Yonsei University (YSU), deep and shallow convection scheme with mass flux approach for cumulus parameterization (Kain-Fritsch), and NCEP operational cloud microphysics scheme with diagnostic mixed phase processes (Ferrier), predicts better track and intensity as compared against the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) estimates. Further, the final choice of the physical parameterization schemes selected from the above sensitivity experiments is used for model integration with different initial conditions. The results reveal that the cyclone track, intensity and time of landfall are well simulated by the model with an average intensity error of about 8 hPa, maximum wind error of 12 m s-1and track error of 77 km. The simulations also show that the landfall time error and intensity error are decreasing with delayed initial condition, suggesting that the model forecast is more dependable when the cyclone approaches the coast. The distribution and intensity of rainfall are also well simulated by the model and comparable with the TRMM estimates.

  18. Tropical Cyclones, Hurricanes, and Climate: NASA's Global Cloud-Scale Simulations and New Observations that Characterize the Lifecycle of Hurricanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putman, William M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the primary interests of Global Change research is the impact of climate changes and climate variability on extreme weather events, such as intense tropical storms and hurricanes. Atmospheric climate models run at resolutions of global weather models have been used to study the impact of climate variability, as seen in sea surface temperatures, on the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones. NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) in ensembles run at 50 km resolution has been able to reproduce the interannual variations of tropical cyclone frequency seen in nature. This, and other global models, have found it much more difficult to reproduce the interannual changes in intensity, a result that reflects the inability of the models to simulate the intensities of the most extreme storms. Better representation of the structures of cyclones requires much higher resolution models. Such improved representation is also fundamental to making best use of satellite observations. In collaboration with NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, GEOS-5 now has the capability of running at much higher resolution to better represent cloud-scale resolutions. Global simulations at cloud-permitting resolutions (10- to 3.5-km) allows for the development of realistic tropical cyclones from tropical storm 119 km/hr winds) to category 5 (>249km1hr winds) intensities. GEOS-5 has produced realistic rain-band and eye-wall structures in tropical cyclones that can be directly analyzed against satellite observations. For the first time a global climate model is capable of representing realistic intensity and track variability on a seasonal scale across basins. GEOS-5 is also used in assimilation mode to test the impact of NASA's observations on tropical cyclone forecasts. One such test, for tropical cyclone Nargis in the Indian Ocean in May 2008, showed that observations from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit

  19. Trends of Cyclone Characteristics in the Arctic and Their Patterns From Different Reanalysis Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, Matthias; Akperov, Mirseid; Rinke, Annette; Feser, Frauke; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2018-03-01

    Cyclones in the Arctic are detected and tracked in four different reanalysis data sets from 1981 to 2010. In great detail the spatial and seasonal patterns of changes are scrutinized with regards to their frequencies, depths, and sizes. We find common spatial patterns for their occurrences, with centers of main activity over the seas in winter, and more activity over land and over the North Pole in summer. The deep cyclones are more frequent in winter, and the number of weak cyclones peaks in summer. Overall, we find a good agreement of our tracking results across the different reanalyses. Regarding the frequency changes, we find strong decreases in the Barents Sea and along the Russian coast toward the North Pole and increases over most of the central Arctic Ocean and toward the Pacific in winter. Areas of increasing and decreasing frequencies are of similar size in winter. In summer there is a longish region of increase from the Laptev Sea toward Greenland, over the Canadian archipelago, and over some smaller regions west of Novaya Zemlya and over the Russia. The larger part of the Arctic experiences a frequency decrease. All the summer changes are found statistically unrelated to the winter patterns. In addition, the frequency changes are found unrelated to changes in cyclone depth and size. There is generally good agreement across the different reanalyses in the spatial patterns of the trend sign. However, the magnitudes of changes in a particular region may strongly differ across the data.

  20. Storm-tracks interannual variability and large-scale climate modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Isabel F.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2013-04-01

    In this study we focus on the interannual variability and observed changes in northern hemisphere mid-latitude storm-tracks and relate them to large scale atmospheric circulation variability modes. Extratropical storminess, cyclones dominant paths, frequency and intensity have long been the object of climatological studies. The analysis of storm characteristics and historical trends presented here is based on the cyclone detecting and tracking algorithm first developed for the Mediterranean region (Trigo et al. 1999) and recently extended to a larger Euro-Atlantic region (Trigo 2006). The objective methodology, which identifies and follows individual lows as minima in SLP fields, fulfilling a set of conditions regarding the central pressure and the pressure gradient, is applied to the northern hemisphere 6-hourly geopotential data at 1000 hPa from the 20th Century Reanalyses (20CRv2) project and from reanalyses datasets provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF): ERA-40 and ERA Interim reanalyses. First, we assess the interannual variability and cyclone frequency trends for each of the datasets, for the 20th century and for the period between 1958 and 2002 using the highest spatial resolution available (1.125° x 1.125°) from the ERA-40 data. Results show that winter variability of storm paths, cyclone frequency and travel times is in agreement with the reported variability in a number of large-scale climate patterns (including the North Atlantic Oscillation, the East Atlantic Pattern and the Scandinavian Pattern). In addition, three storm-track databases are built spanning the common available extended winter seasons from October 1979 to March 2002. Although relatively short, this common period allows a comparison of systems represented in reanalyses datasets with distinct horizontal resolutions. This exercise is mostly focused on the key areas of cyclogenesis and cyclolysis and main cyclone characteristics over the northern

  1. Stratified coastal ocean interactions with tropical cyclones

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, S. M.; Miles, T. N.; Seroka, G. N.; Xu, Y.; Forney, R. K.; Yu, F.; Roarty, H.; Schofield, O.; Kohut, J.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane-intensity forecast improvements currently lag the progress achieved for hurricane tracks. Integrated ocean observations and simulations during hurricane Irene (2011) reveal that the wind-forced two-layer circulation of the stratified coastal ocean, and resultant shear-induced mixing, led to significant and rapid ahead-of-eye-centre cooling (at least 6 °C and up to 11 °C) over a wide swath of the continental shelf. Atmospheric simulations establish this cooling as the missing contribution required to reproduce Irene's accelerated intensity reduction. Historical buoys from 1985 to 2015 show that ahead-of-eye-centre cooling occurred beneath all 11 tropical cyclones that traversed the Mid-Atlantic Bight continental shelf during stratified summer conditions. A Yellow Sea buoy similarly revealed significant and rapid ahead-of-eye-centre cooling during Typhoon Muifa (2011). These findings establish that including realistic coastal baroclinic processes in forecasts of storm intensity and impacts will be increasingly critical to mid-latitude population centres as sea levels rise and tropical cyclone maximum intensities migrate poleward. PMID:26953963

  2. The NASA CYGNSS Satellite Constellation for Tropical Cyclone Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruf, C. S.; Provost, D.; Rose, R.; Scherrer, J.; Atlas, R. M.; Chang, P.; Clarizia, M. P.; Garrison, J. L.; Gleason, S.; Katzberg, S. J.; Jelenak, Z.; Johnson, J. T.; Majumdar, S.; O'Brien, A.; Posselt, D. J.; Ridley, A. J.; Said, F.; Soisuvarn, S.; Zavorotny, V. U.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) is scheduled for launch in November 2016 to study the surface wind structure in and near the inner core of tropical cyclones. CYGNSS consists of a constellation of eight observatories carried into orbit on a single launch vehicle. Each observatory carries a 4-channel bistatic radar receiver tuned to receive GPS navigation signals scattered from the ocean surface. The eight satellites are spaced approximately twelve minutes apart in a common circular, low inclination orbit plane to provide frequent temporal sampling in the tropics. The 35deg orbit inclination results in coverage of the full globe between 38deg N and 38deg S latitude with a median(mean) revisit time of 3(7) hours The 32 CYGNSS radars operate in L-Band at a wavelength of 19 cm. This allows for adequate penetration to enable surface wind observations under all levels of precipitation, including those encountered in the inner core and eyewall of tropical cyclones. The combination of operation unaffected by heavy precipitation together with high temporal resolution throughout the life cycle of storms is expected to support significant improvements in the forecast skill of storm track and intensity, as well as better situational awareness of the extent and structure of storms in near real time. A summary of the properties of the CYGNSS science data products will be presented, together with an update on the results of ongoing Observation System Simulation Experiments performed by members of the CYGNSS science team over the past four years, in particular addressing the expected impact on storm track and intensity forecast skill. With launch scheduled for the month prior to AGU, the on orbit status of the constellation will also be presented.

  3. Towards a Statistical Model of Tropical Cyclone Genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, A.; Kashinath, K.; McAuliffe, J.; Prabhat, M.; Stark, P. B.; Wehner, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical Cyclones (TCs) are important extreme weather phenomena that have a strong impact on humans. TC forecasts are largely based on global numerical models that produce TC-like features. Aspects of Tropical Cyclones such as their formation/genesis, evolution, intensification and dissipation over land are important and challenging problems in climate science. This study investigates the environmental conditions associated with Tropical Cyclone Genesis (TCG) by testing how accurately a statistical model can predict TCG in the CAM5.1 climate model. TCG events are defined using TECA software @inproceedings{Prabhat2015teca, title={TECA: Petascale Pattern Recognition for Climate Science}, author={Prabhat and Byna, Surendra and Vishwanath, Venkatram and Dart, Eli and Wehner, Michael and Collins, William D}, booktitle={Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns}, pages={426-436}, year={2015}, organization={Springer}} to extract TC trajectories from CAM5.1. L1-regularized logistic regression (L1LR) is applied to the CAM5.1 output. The predictions have nearly perfect accuracy for data not associated with TC tracks and high accuracy differentiating between high vorticity and low vorticity systems. The model's active variables largely correspond to current hypotheses about important factors for TCG, such as wind field patterns and local pressure minima, and suggests new routes for investigation. Furthermore, our model's predictions of TC activity are competitive with the output of an instantaneous version of Emanuel and Nolan's Genesis Potential Index (GPI) @inproceedings{eman04, title = "Tropical cyclone activity and the global climate system", author = "Kerry Emanuel and Nolan, {David S.}", year = "2004", pages = "240-241", booktitle = "26th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology"}.

  4. An evaluation of the real-time tropical cyclone forecast skill of the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System in the western North Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorino, Michael; Goerss, James S.; Jensen, Jack J.; Harrison, Edward J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The paper evaluates the meteorological quality and operational utility of the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) in forecasting tropical cyclones. It is shown that the model can provide useful predictions of motion and formation on a real-time basis in the western North Pacific. The meterological characteristics of the NOGAPS tropical cyclone predictions are evaluated by examining the formation of low-level cyclone systems in the tropics and vortex structure in the NOGAPS analysis and verifying 72-h forecasts. The adjusted NOGAPS track forecasts showed equitable skill to the baseline aid and the dynamical model. NOGAPS successfully predicted unusual equatorward turns for several straight-running cyclones.

  5. Impact of PBL and convection parameterization schemes for prediction of severe land-falling Bay of Bengal cyclones using WRF-ARW model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. S.; Bhaskaran, Prasad K.

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluates the performance of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model for prediction of land-falling Bay of Bengal (BoB) tropical cyclones (TCs). Model integration was performed using two-way interactive double nested domains at 27 and 9 km resolutions. The present study comprises two major components. Firstly, the study explores the impact of five different planetary boundary layer (PBL) and six cumulus convection (CC) schemes on seven land-falling BoB TCs. A total of 85 numerical simulations were studied in detail, and the results signify that the model simulated better both the track and intensity by using a combination of Yonsei University (YSU) PBL and the old simplified Arakawa-Schubert CC scheme. Secondly, the study also investigated the model performance based on the best possible combinations of model physics on the real-time forecasts of four BoB cyclones (Phailin, Helen, Lehar, and Madi) that made landfall during 2013 based on another 15 numerical simulations. The predicted mean track error during 2013 was about 71 km, 114 km, 133 km, 148 km, and 130 km respectively from day-1 to day-5. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for Minimum Central Pressure (MCP) was about 6 hPa and the same noticed for Maximum Surface Wind (MSW) was about 4.5 m s-1 noticed during the entire simulation period. In addition the study also reveals that the predicted track errors during 2013 cyclones improved respectively by 43%, 44%, and 52% from day-1 to day-3 as compared to cyclones simulated during the period 2006-2011. The improvements noticed can be attributed due to relatively better quality data that was specified for the initial mean position error (about 48 km) during 2013. Overall the study signifies that the track and intensity forecast for 2013 cyclones using the specified combinations listed in the first part of this study performed relatively better than the other NWP (Numerical Weather Prediction) models, and thereby finds

  6. Relating Tropical Cyclone Track Forecast Error Distributions with Measurements of Forecast Uncertainty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    cyclone THORPEX The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment TIGGE THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble TS tropical storm ...forecast possible, but also relay the level of uncertainty unique to a given storm . This will better inform decision makers to help protect all assets at...for any given storm . Thus, the probabilities may 4 increase or decrease (and the probability swath may widen or narrow) to provide a more

  7. Suomi NPP Satellite Views of Tropical Cyclone Mahasen in the Northern Indian Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    The first tropical cyclone in the Northern Indian Ocean this season has been getting better organized as seen in NASA satellite imagery. Tropical Cyclone Mahasen is projected to track north through the Bay of Bengal and make landfall later this week. On May 13, NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite captured various night-time and day-time imagery that showed Mesospheric Gravity Waves, lightning, and heavy rainfall in false-colored imagery. For more information and updates on Cyclone Mahasen, visit NASA's Hurricane page at www.nasa.gov/hurricane. Image Credit: UWM-CIMSS/William Straka III/NASA/NOAA Text Credit: NASA Goddard/Rob Gutro NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  8. Storm-centric view of Tropical Cyclone oceanic wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentemann, C. L.; Scott, J. P.; Smith, D.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) have a dramatic impact on the upper ocean. Storm-generated oceanic mixing, high amplitude near-inertial currents, upwelling, and heat fluxes often warm or cool the surface ocean temperatures over large regions near tropical cyclones. These SST anomalies occur to the right (Northern Hemisphere) or left (Southern Hemisphere) of the storm track, varying along and across the storm track. These wide swaths of temperature change have been previously documented by in situ field programs as well as IR and visible satellite data. The amplitude, temporal and spatial variability of these surface temperature anomalies depend primarily upon the storm size, storm intensity, translational velocity, and the underlying ocean conditions. Tropical cyclone 'cold wakes' are usually 2 - 5 °C cooler than pre-storm SSTs, and persist for days to weeks. Since storms that occur in rapid succession typically follow similar paths, the cold wake from one storm can affect development of subsequent storms. Recent studies, on both warm and cold wakes, have mostly focused on small subsets of global storms because of the amount of work it takes to co-locate different data sources to a storm's location. While a number of hurricane/typhoon websites exist that co-locate various datasets to TC locations, none provide 3-dimensional temporal and spatial structure of the ocean-atmosphere necessary to study cold/warm wake development and impact. We are developing a global 3-dimensional storm centric database for TC research. The database we propose will include in situ data, satellite data, and model analyses. Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) has a widely-used storm watch archive which provides the user an interface for visually analyzing collocated NASA Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) winds with GHRSST microwave SSTs and SSM/I, TMI or AMSR-E rain rates for all global tropical cyclones 1999-2009. We will build on this concept of bringing together different data near storm locations when

  9. An atlas of 1977 and 1978 GEOS-3 radar altimeter data for tropical cyclone studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, H. R.; Taylor, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    All of the GEOS 3 satellite altimeter schedule information were collected with all of the available 1977 and 1978 tropical cyclone positional information. The time period covers from March 23, 1977 through Nov. 23, 1978. The geographical region includes all ocean area north of the equator divided into the following operational areas: the Atlantic area (which includes the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico); the eastern Pacific area; the central and western Pacific area; and the Indian Ocean area. All available source material concerning tropical cyclones was collected. The date/time/location information was extracted for each disturbance. This information was compared with the GEOS 3 altimeter ON/OFF history information to determine the existence of any altimeter data close enough in both time and location to make the data potentially useful for further study (the very liberal criteria used was time less than 24 hours and location within 25 degrees). Geographic plots (cyclone versus GEOS 3 orbit track) were produced for all of the events found showing the approximate location of the cyclone and the GEOS 3 orbit traces for the full day.

  10. A Statistical Approach For Modeling Tropical Cyclones. Synthetic Hurricanes Generator Model

    SciTech Connect

    Pasqualini, Donatella

    This manuscript brie y describes a statistical ap- proach to generate synthetic tropical cyclone tracks to be used in risk evaluations. The Synthetic Hur- ricane Generator (SynHurG) model allows model- ing hurricane risk in the United States supporting decision makers and implementations of adaptation strategies to extreme weather. In the literature there are mainly two approaches to model hurricane hazard for risk prediction: deterministic-statistical approaches, where the storm key physical parameters are calculated using physi- cal complex climate models and the tracks are usually determined statistically from historical data; and sta- tistical approaches, where both variables and tracks are estimatedmore » stochastically using historical records. SynHurG falls in the second category adopting a pure stochastic approach.« less

  11. Clusters of cyclones encircling Jupiter's poles.

    PubMed

    Adriani, A; Mura, A; Orton, G; Hansen, C; Altieri, F; Moriconi, M L; Rogers, J; Eichstädt, G; Momary, T; Ingersoll, A P; Filacchione, G; Sindoni, G; Tabataba-Vakili, F; Dinelli, B M; Fabiano, F; Bolton, S J; Connerney, J E P; Atreya, S K; Lunine, J I; Tosi, F; Migliorini, A; Grassi, D; Piccioni, G; Noschese, R; Cicchetti, A; Plainaki, C; Olivieri, A; O'Neill, M E; Turrini, D; Stefani, S; Sordini, R; Amoroso, M

    2018-03-07

    The familiar axisymmetric zones and belts that characterize Jupiter's weather system at lower latitudes give way to pervasive cyclonic activity at higher latitudes. Two-dimensional turbulence in combination with the Coriolis β-effect (that is, the large meridionally varying Coriolis force on the giant planets of the Solar System) produces alternating zonal flows. The zonal flows weaken with rising latitude so that a transition between equatorial jets and polar turbulence on Jupiter can occur. Simulations with shallow-water models of giant planets support this transition by producing both alternating flows near the equator and circumpolar cyclones near the poles. Jovian polar regions are not visible from Earth owing to Jupiter's low axial tilt, and were poorly characterized by previous missions because the trajectories of these missions did not venture far from Jupiter's equatorial plane. Here we report that visible and infrared images obtained from above each pole by the Juno spacecraft during its first five orbits reveal persistent polygonal patterns of large cyclones. In the north, eight circumpolar cyclones are observed about a single polar cyclone; in the south, one polar cyclone is encircled by five circumpolar cyclones. Cyclonic circulation is established via time-lapse imagery obtained over intervals ranging from 20 minutes to 4 hours. Although migration of cyclones towards the pole might be expected as a consequence of the Coriolis β-effect, by which cyclonic vortices naturally drift towards the rotational pole, the configuration of the cyclones is without precedent on other planets (including Saturn's polar hexagonal features). The manner in which the cyclones persist without merging and the process by which they evolve to their current configuration are unknown.

  12. Interannual variability of the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones striking the California coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, F. J.; Rueda, A.; Barnard, P.; Mori, N.; Nakajo, S.; Albuquerque, J.

    2016-12-01

    Hurricanes hitting California have a very low ocurrence probability due to typically cool ocean temperature and westward tracks. However, damages associated to these improbable events would be dramatic in Southern California and understanding the oceanographic and atmospheric drivers is of paramount importance for coastal risk management for present and future climates. A statistical analysis of the historical events is very difficult due to the limited resolution of atmospheric and oceanographic forcing data available. In this work, we propose a combination of: (a) climate-based statistical downscaling methods (Espejo et al, 2015); and (b) a synthetic stochastic tropical cyclone (TC) model (Nakajo et al, 2014). To build the statistical downscaling model, Y=f(X), we apply a combination of principal component analysis and the k-means classification algorithm to find representative patterns from large-scale may-to-november averaged monthly anomalies of SST and thermocline depth fields in Tropical Pacific (predictor X) and the associated historical tropical cyclones in Eastern North Pacific basin (predictand Y). As data for the historical occurrence and paths of tropical cyclones are scarce, we apply a stochastic TC model which is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of the joint distribution of track, minimum sea level pressure and translation speed of the historical events in the Eastern Central Pacific Ocean. Results will show the ability of the approach to explain the interannual variability of the frequency and intensity of TCs in Southern California, which is clearly related to post El Niño Eastern Pacific and El Niño Central Pacific. References Espejo, A., Méndez, F.J., Diez, J., Medina, R., Al-Yahyai, S. (2015) Seasonal probabilistic forecasting of tropical cyclone activity in the North Indian Ocean, Journal of Flood Risk Management, DOI: 10.1111/jfr3.12197 Nakajo, S., N. Mori, T. Yasuda, and H. Mase (2014) Global Stochastic Tropical Cyclone Model Based on

  13. Dust Episodes in Hong Kong (South China) and their Relationship with the Sharav and Mongolian Cyclones and Jet Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. C.; Wenig, Mark; Zhang, Zhenxi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Larko, Dave; Diehl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The study presented in this paper analyses two dust episodes in Hong Kong, one occurring in March 2006 and the other on 22 March 2010. The latter is the worst dust episode on Hong Kong record. The focus is on the relationship between the dust episodes and the Sharav/Mongolian cyclones and jet streams. The 16 March 2006 episode is traceable to a continental-scale Saharan dust outbreak of 5-9 March 2006 caused by the cold front of an East Mediterranean Sharav cyclone arriving at north-west Africa on 5 March 2006. The eastward movement of the cyclone along the North African coast is clearly illustrated in the geopotential height contours. Simulations by the chemistry transport model GOCART provide a visible evidence of the transport as well as an estimate of contributions from the Sahara to the aerosol concentration levels in Hong Kong. The transport simulations suggest that the dust is injected to the polar jet north of the Caspian Sea, while it is transported eastward simultaneously by the more southerly subtropical jet. The major source of dust for Hong Kong is usually the Gobi desert. Despite the effect of remote sources, the 16 March 2006 dust episode was still mainly under the influence of the Mongolian cyclone cold fronts. In the recent episode of 22 March 2010, the influence of the Mongolian cyclone predominated as well. It appears that the concurrent influence of the Sharav and Mongolian cyclones on Hong Kong and East Asia is not a common occurrence. Besides transporting dusts from non-East Asian sources to Hong Kong and East Asia, the strong subtropical jet on 21 March 2010 (i.e. 1 day prior to the major dust episode) is believed to have strengthened an easterly monsoon surge to South China causing the transport of voluminous dusts to Taiwan and Hong Kong the following day.

  14. Heavy rainfall in Mediterranean cyclones. Part I: contribution of deep convection and warm conveyor belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaounas, Emmanouil; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Lagouvardos, Konstantinos; Gray, Suzanne L.; Rysman, Jean-François; Claud, Chantal

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we provide an insight to the role of deep convection (DC) and the warm conveyor belt (WCB) as leading processes to Mediterranean cyclones' heavy rainfall. To this end, we use reanalysis data, lighting and satellite observations to quantify the relative contribution of DC and the WCB to cyclone rainfall, as well as to analyse the spatial and temporal variability of these processes with respect to the cyclone centre and life cycle. Results for the period 2005-2015 show that the relationship between cyclone rainfall and intensity has high variability and demonstrate that even intense cyclones may produce low rainfall amounts. However, when considering rainfall averages for cyclone intensity bins, a linear relationship was found. We focus on the 500 most intense tracked cyclones (responsible for about 40-50% of the total 11-year Mediterranean rainfall) and distinguish between the ones producing high and low rainfall amounts. DC and the WCB are found to be the main cause of rainfall for the former (producing up to 70% of cyclone rainfall), while, for the latter, DC and the WCB play a secondary role (producing up to 50% of rainfall). Further analysis showed that rainfall due to DC tends to occur close to the cyclones' centre and to their eastern sides, while the WCBs tend to produce rainfall towards the northeast. In fact, about 30% of rainfall produced by DC overlaps with rainfall produced by WCBs but this represents only about 8% of rainfall produced by WCBs. This suggests that a considerable percentage of DC is associated with embedded convection in WCBs. Finally, DC was found to be able to produce higher rain rates than WCBs, exceeding 50 mm in 3-h accumulated rainfall compared to a maximum of the order of 40 mm for WCBs. Our results demonstrate in a climatological framework the relationship between cyclone intensity and processes that lead to heavy rainfall, one of the most prominent environmental risks in the Mediterranean. Therefore, we set

  15. Frequency changes of tropical cyclones during the last century recorded in a canyon of the northern Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrass, Hermann; Machalett, Björn; Palamenghi, Luisa; Meyer, Inka

    2017-04-01

    Frequent cyclones originating in the Bay of Bengal and landfall to the southern delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra are well recorded in sediment cores from a canyon which deeply incises into the shelf and ends at the foreset beds of the submarine Ganges Brahmaputra delta. The large sediment supply by the two rivers during the monsoonal floods forms temporary deposits on the inner shelf, which are mobilized by waves and currents during the passage of cyclones. The resulting sand-silt-clay suspension forms high-density water masses, which plunge from the inner shelf into the shelf canyon, where they deposit graded beds evenly draping the broad canyon floor. A simple model was used to rank the historical known cyclones according to their capacity to transfer sediment from the submarine delta into the canyon. In a 362 cm-long sediment core ranging from the year 1985 to 2006, 48 graded beds can be correlated with the observed 41 cyclones. The cyclonic impact on the sediment transport has decreased by a factor of three during the last decade. The highest cyclonic impact occurred during the seventies. Compared to the sediment transfer by cyclones, the input by tidal currents and monsoonal floods is negligible. Thus cyclones are the dominating process for mobilizing and distributing sediment on the Bangladesh shelf and probably also on all shelf areas, which lie in the track of tropical cyclones.

  16. Hydrometeorological application of an extratropical cyclone classification scheme in the southern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkbeil, J. C.; Brommer, D. M.; Comstock, I. J.; Loyd, T.

    2012-07-01

    Extratropical cyclones (ETCs) in the southern United States are often overlooked when compared with tropical cyclones in the region and ETCs in the northern United States. Although southern ETCs are significant weather events, there is currently not an operational scheme used for identifying and discussing these nameless storms. In this research, we classified 84 ETCs (1970-2009). We manually identified five distinct formation regions and seven unique ETC types using statistical classification. Statistical classification employed the use of principal components analysis and two methods of cluster analysis. Both manual and statistical storm types generally showed positive (negative) relationships with El Niño (La Niña). Manual storm types displayed precipitation swaths consistent with discrete storm tracks which further legitimizes the existence of multiple modes of southern ETCs. Statistical storm types also displayed unique precipitation intensity swaths, but these swaths were less indicative of track location. It is hoped that by classifying southern ETCs into types, that forecasters, hydrologists, and broadcast meteorologists might be able to better anticipate projected amounts of precipitation at their locations.

  17. The impacts of tropical cyclones on the net carbon balance of eastern US forests (1851-2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, J. P.; Hurtt, G. C.; Chambers, J. Q.; Zeng, H.; Dolan, K. A.; Negrón-Juárez, R. I.

    2013-12-01

    In temperate forests of the eastern US, tropical cyclones are a principal agent of catastrophic wind damage, with dramatic impacts on the structure and functioning of forests. Substantial progress has been made to quantify forest damage and resulting gross carbon emissions from tropical cyclones. However, the net effect of storms on the carbon balance of forests depends not only on the biomass lost in single events, but also on the uptake during recovery from a mosaic of past events. This study estimates the net impacts of tropical cyclones on the carbon balance of US forests over the period 1851-2000. To track both disturbance and recovery and to isolate the effects of storms, a modeling framework is used combining gridded historical estimates of mortality and damage with a mechanistic model using an ensemble approach. The net effect of tropical cyclones on the carbon balance is shown to depend strongly on the spatial and temporal scales of analysis. On average, tropical cyclones contribute a net carbon source over latter half of the 19th century. However, throughout much of the 20th century a regional carbon sink is estimated resulting from periods of forest recovery exceeding damage. The large-scale net annual flux resulting from tropical cyclones varies by up to 50 Tg C yr-1, an amount equivalent to 17%-36% of the US forest carbon sink.

  18. Tropical Cyclone Diurnal Cycle as Observed by TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leppert, Kenneth D., II; Cecil, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Using infrared satellite data, previous work has shown a consistent diurnal cycle in the pattern of cold cloud tops around mature tropical cyclones. In particular, an increase in the coverage by cold cloud tops often occurs in the inner core of the storm around the time of sunset and subsequently propagates outward to several hundred kilometers over the course of the following day. This consistent cycle may have important implications for structure and intensity changes of tropical cyclones and the forecasting of such changes. Because infrared satellite measurements are primarily sensitive to cloud top, the goal of this study is to use passive and active microwave measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR), respectively, to examine and better understand the tropical cyclone diurnal cycle throughout a larger depth of the storm's clouds. The National Hurricane Center's best track dataset was used to extract all PR and TMI pixels within 1000 km of each tropical cyclone that occurred in the Atlantic basin between 1998-2011. Then the data was composited according to radius (100-km bins from 0-1000 km) and local standard time (LST; 3-hr bins). Specifically, PR composites involved finding the percentage of pixels with reflectivity greater than or equal to 20 dBZ at various heights (i.e., 2-14 km in increments of 2 km) as a function of radius and time. The 37- and 85- GHz TMI channels are especially sensitive to scattering by precipitation-sized ice in the mid to upper portions of clouds. Hence, the percentage of 37- and 85-GHz polarization corrected temperatures less than various thresholds were calculated using data from all storms as a function of radius and time. For 37 GHz, thresholds of 260 K, 265 K, 270 K, and 275 K were used, and for 85 GHz, thresholds of 200-270 K in increments of 10 K were utilized. Note that convection forced by the interactions of a tropical cyclone with land (e.g., due

  19. The evacuation of cairns hospitals due to severe tropical cyclone Yasi.

    PubMed

    Little, Mark; Stone, Theona; Stone, Richard; Burns, Jan; Reeves, Jim; Cullen, Paul; Humble, Ian; Finn, Emmeline; Aitken, Peter; Elcock, Mark; Gillard, Noel

    2012-09-01

    On February 2, 2011, Tropical Cyclone Yasi, the largest cyclone to cross the Australian coast and a system the size of Hurricane Katrina, threatened the city of Cairns. As a result, the Cairns Base Hospital (CBH) and Cairns Private Hospital (CPH) were both evacuated, the hospitals were closed, and an alternate emergency medical center was established in a sports stadium 15 km from the Cairns central business district. This article describes the events around the evacuation of 356 patients, staff, and relatives to Brisbane (approximately 1,700 km away by road), closure of the hospitals, and the provision of a temporary emergency medical center for 28 hours during the height of the cyclone. Our experience highlights the need for adequate and exercised hospital evacuation plans; the need for clear command and control with identified decision-makers; early decision-making on when to evacuate; having good communication systems with redundancy; ensuring that patients are adequately identified and tracked and have their medications and notes; ensuring adequate staff, medications, and oxygen for holding patients; and planning in detail the alternate medical facility safety and its role, function, and equipment. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  20. A New Coupled Ocean-Waves-Atmosphere Model Designed for Tropical Storm Studies: Example of Tropical Cyclone Bejisa (2013-2014) in the South-West Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianezze, J.; Barthe, C.; Bielli, S.; Tulet, P.; Jullien, S.; Cambon, G.; Bousquet, O.; Claeys, M.; Cordier, E.

    2018-03-01

    Ocean-Waves-Atmosphere (OWA) exchanges are not well represented in current Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems, which can lead to large uncertainties in tropical cyclone track and intensity forecasts. In order to explore and better understand the impact of OWA interactions on tropical cyclone modeling, a fully coupled OWA system based on the atmospheric model Meso-NH, the oceanic model CROCO, and the wave model WW3 and called MSWC was designed and applied to the case of tropical cyclone Bejisa (2013-2014). The fully coupled OWA simulation shows good agreement with the literature and available observations. In particular, simulated significant wave height is within 30 cm of measurements made with buoys and altimeters. Short-term (< 2 days) sensitivity experiments used to highlight the effect of oceanic waves coupling show limited impact on the track, the intensity evolution, and the turbulent surface fluxes of the tropical cyclone. However, it is also shown that using a fully coupled OWA system is essential to obtain consistent sea salt emissions. Spatial and temporal coherence of the sea state with the 10 m wind speed are necessary to produce sea salt aerosol emissions in the right place (in the eyewall of the tropical cyclone) and with the right size distribution, which is critical for cloud microphysics.

  1. A novel framework for objective detection and tracking of TC center from noisy satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Bibin; Thomas, Sachin; Rani, J. Sheeba

    2018-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel framework for automatically determining and tracking the center of a tropical cyclone (TC) during its entire life-cycle from the Thermal infrared (TIR) channel data of the geostationary satellite. The proposed method handles meteorological images with noise, missing or partial information due to the seasonal variability and lack of significant spatial or vortex features. To retrieve the cyclone center from these circumstances, a synergistic approach based on objective measures and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model is being proposed. This method employs a spatial gradient scheme to process missing and noisy frames or a spatio-temporal gradient scheme for image sequences that are continuous and contain less noise. The initial estimate of the TC center from the missing imagery is corrected by exploiting a NWP model based post-processing scheme. The validity of the framework is tested on Infrared images of different cyclones obtained from various Geostationary satellites such as the Meteosat-7, INSAT- 3 D , Kalpana-1 etc. The computed track is compared with the actual track data obtained from Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), and it shows a reduction of mean track error by 11 % as compared to the other state of the art methods in the presence of missing and noisy frames. The proposed method is also successfully tested for simultaneous retrieval of the TC center from images containing multiple non-overlapping cyclones.

  2. Changes in Tropical Cyclone Intensity Over the Past 30 Years: A Global and Dynamic Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, Bin; Braun, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    The hurricane season of 2005 was the busiest on record and Hurricane Katrina (2005) is believed to be the costliest hurricane in U. S. history. There are growing concerns regarding whether this increased tropical cyclone activity is a result of global warming, as suggested by Emanuel(2005) and Webster et al. (2005), or just a natural oscillation (Goldenberg et al. 2001). This study examines the changes in tropical cyclone intensity to see what were really responsible for the changes in tropical cyclone activity over the past 30 years. Since the tropical sea surface temperature (SST) warming also leads to the response of atmospheric circulation, which is not solely determined by the local SST warming, this study suggests that it is better to take the tropical cyclone activities in the North Atlantic (NA), western North Pacific (WNP) and eastern North Pacific (ENP) basins as a whole when searching for the influence of the global-scale SST warming on tropical cyclone intensity. Over the past 30 years, as the tropical SST increased by about 0.5 C, the linear trends indicate 6%, 16% and 15% increases in the overall average intensity and lifetime and the annual frequency. Our analysis shows that the increased annual destructiveness of tropical cyclones reported by Emanuel(2005) resulted mainly from the increases in the average lifetime and annual frequency in the NA basin and from the increases in the average intensity and lifetime in the WNP basin, while the annual destructiveness in the ENP basin generally decreased over the past 30 years. The changes in the proportion of intense tropical cyclones reported by Webster et a1 (2005) were due mainly to the fact that increasing tropical cyclones took the tracks that favor for the development of intense tropical cyclones in the NA and WNP basins over the past 30 years. The dynamic influence associated with the tropical SST warming can lead to the impact of global warming on tropical cyclone intensity that may be very

  3. Tropical Cyclone Report, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    19S Davilia 6 0 0 6 TC 20S Harriet 137 0 0 137 TC 21P Esau iII 0 0 i1 TC 22S Farida 36 0 0 36 TC 23S Ian 79 0 0 79 TC 24S Gerda 15 0 0 15 TC 25P Fran...13 115(60) 927 24S Gerda 27 Feb - 28 Feb 3 35(18) 997 25P Fran* 06 Mar - 17 Mar 23 140(72) 898 26P Gene 15 Mar - 19 Mar 9 65(33) 976 27P Hettie 25 Mar...CYCLONE 24S ( GERDA ) WRN BEST TRACK POSITION ERRORS WIND ERRORS M NO. LT NM WID 2A Al U 72 Z Al Ui 92022718 1 15.9S 61.7E 35 8 67 160 0 20 35 92022806 2

  4. Impact of Climate Change on the Climatology of Vb Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messmer, Martina; José Gómez-Navarro, Juan; Blumer, Sandro; Raible, Christoph C.

    2017-04-01

    Extra-tropical cyclones of type Vb develop over the western Mediterranean and move northeastward, leading to heavy precipitation over Central Europe and posing a major natural hazard. Since such cyclones are high-impact events that lead to important economical and personal damage, in Central Europe, and especially in the Alpine region, understanding their sensitivity to climate change is important to provide suitable adaptation measures. This communication aims at investigating the impact of climate change in Vb cyclones through a climate simulation covering the whole 21st century performed with the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). Further, some selected Vb episodes within the simulation are downscaled with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). The analysis focuses on two different time periods. The reference period spans the ERA-Interim period 1979 to 2013, whereas the other one covers the last 30 years of the 21st century 2070-2099. The simulation uses the emissions from the business as usual scenario (RCP8.5). For both periods, the Vb cyclones were identified using a tracking tool and their main properties were characterized. During the reference period 86 Vb cyclones can be identified overall, which corresponds to approximately 2.5 Vb cyclones per year. This number corresponds very well to the 82 Vb cyclones found in the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset in the same period of time. This number is reduced under future climate conditions, leading to 48 Vb cyclones in total, or to 1.6 Vb cyclones per year on average. Despite the reduction in their number, results indicate that there is a tendency for intensification in precipitation for high-impact Vb events of around 10% over the Alpine region in the future compared to the ones between 1979 and 2013. Interestingly, while the summer months are most prone for the occurrence of the 10 heaviest precipitation Vb events in the current conditions, the 10 heaviest precipitation Vb events in the future

  5. Extratropical Cyclones near Iceland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-22

    A cyclone is a low-pressure area of winds that spiral inwards. Although tropical storms most often come to mind, these spiraling storms can also form at mid- and high latitudes. Two such cyclones formed in tandem in November 2006. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying onboard NASA’s Terra satellite took this picture on November 20. This image shows the cyclones south of Iceland. Scotland appears in the lower right. The larger and perhaps stronger cyclone appears in the east, close to Scotland. Cyclones at high and mid-latitudes are actually fairly common, and they drive much of the Earth’s weather. In the Northern Hemisphere, cyclones move in a counter-clockwise direction, and both of the spiraling storms in this image curl upwards toward the northeast then the west. The eastern storm is fed by thick clouds from the north that swoop down toward the storm in a giant “V” shape on either side of Iceland. Skies over Iceland are relatively clear, allowing some of the island to show through. South of the storms, more diffuse cloud cover swirls toward the southeast. Credit: NASA NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  6. Cyclone Chris Hits Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This false-color image shows Cyclone Chris shortly after it hit Australia's northwestern coast on February 6, 2002. This scene was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. (Please note that this scene has not been reprojected.) Cyclone Chris is one of the most powerful storms ever to hit Australia. Initially, the storm contained wind gusts of up to 200 km per hour (125 mph), but shortly after making landfall it weakened to a Category 4 storm. Meteorologists expect the cyclone to weaken quickly as it moves further inland.

  7. Clusters of cyclones encircling Jupiter’s poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, A.; Mura, A.; Orton, G.; Hansen, C.; Altieri, F.; Moriconi, M. L.; Rogers, J.; Eichstädt, G.; Momary, T.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Filacchione, G.; Sindoni, G.; Tabataba-Vakili, F.; Dinelli, B. M.; Fabiano, F.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Atreya, S. K.; Lunine, J. I.; Tosi, F.; Migliorini, A.; Grassi, D.; Piccioni, G.; Noschese, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Plainaki, C.; Olivieri, A.; O’Neill, M. E.; Turrini, D.; Stefani, S.; Sordini, R.; Amoroso, M.

    2018-03-01

    The familiar axisymmetric zones and belts that characterize Jupiter’s weather system at lower latitudes give way to pervasive cyclonic activity at higher latitudes. Two-dimensional turbulence in combination with the Coriolis β-effect (that is, the large meridionally varying Coriolis force on the giant planets of the Solar System) produces alternating zonal flows. The zonal flows weaken with rising latitude so that a transition between equatorial jets and polar turbulence on Jupiter can occur. Simulations with shallow-water models of giant planets support this transition by producing both alternating flows near the equator and circumpolar cyclones near the poles. Jovian polar regions are not visible from Earth owing to Jupiter’s low axial tilt, and were poorly characterized by previous missions because the trajectories of these missions did not venture far from Jupiter’s equatorial plane. Here we report that visible and infrared images obtained from above each pole by the Juno spacecraft during its first five orbits reveal persistent polygonal patterns of large cyclones. In the north, eight circumpolar cyclones are observed about a single polar cyclone; in the south, one polar cyclone is encircled by five circumpolar cyclones. Cyclonic circulation is established via time-lapse imagery obtained over intervals ranging from 20 minutes to 4 hours. Although migration of cyclones towards the pole might be expected as a consequence of the Coriolis β-effect, by which cyclonic vortices naturally drift towards the rotational pole, the configuration of the cyclones is without precedent on other planets (including Saturn’s polar hexagonal features). The manner in which the cyclones persist without merging and the process by which they evolve to their current configuration are unknown.

  8. Objective tropical cyclone extratropical transition detection in high-resolution reanalysis and climate model data

    DOE PAGES

    Zarzycki, Colin M.; Thatcher, Diana R.; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2017-01-22

    This paper describes an objective technique for detecting the extratropical transition (ET) of tropical cyclones (TCs) in high-resolution gridded climate data. The algorithm is based on previous observational studies using phase spaces to define the symmetry and vertical thermal structure of cyclones. Storm tracking is automated, allowing for direct analysis of climate data. Tracker performance in the North Atlantic is assessed using 23 years of data from the variable-resolution Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) at two different resolutions (DX 55 km and 28 km), the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR, DX 38 km), and the ERA-Interim Reanalysis (ERA-I, DX 80 km).more » The mean spatiotemporal climatologies and seasonal cycles of objectively detected ET in the observationally constrained CFSR and ERA-I are well matched to previous observational studies, demonstrating the capability of the scheme to adequately find events. High resolution CAM reproduces TC and ET statistics that are in general agreement with reanalyses. One notable model bias, however, is significantly longer time between ET onset and ET completion in CAM, particularly for TCs that lose symmetry prior to developing a cold-core structure and becoming extratropical cyclones, demonstrating the capability of this method to expose model biases in simulated cyclones beyond the tropical phase.« less

  9. Improving our Understanding of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones through Knowledge of the Saharan Air Layer: Hope or Hype?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott A.; Shie, Chung-Lin

    2008-01-01

    The existence of the Saharan air layer (SAL), a layer of warm, dry, dusty air that frequently moves westward off of the Saharan desert of Africa and over the tropical Atlantic Ocean, has long been appreciated. As air moves over the desert, it is strongly heated from below, producing a very hot air mass at low levels. Because there is no moisture source over the Sahara, the rise in temperature causes a sharp drop in relative humidity, thus drying the air. In addition, the warm air produces a very strong jet of easterly flow in the middle troposphere called the African easterly jet that is thought to play a critical role in hurricane formation. In recent years, there has been an increased focus on the impact that the SAL has on the formation and evolution of hurricanes in the Atlantic. However, the nature of its impact remains unclear, with some researchers arguing that the SAL amplifies hurricane development and with others arguing that it inhibits it. The argument for positively influencing hurricane development is based upon the fact that the African easterly jet produces the waves that eventually form hurricanes and that it leads to rising motion south of the jet that favors the development of deep thunderstorm clouds. The potential negative impacts of the SAL include 1) low-level vertical wind shear associated with the African easterly jet; 2) warm SAL air aloft, which increases thermodynamic stability and suppresses cloud development; and 3) dry air, which produces cold downdrafts in precipitating regions, thereby removing energy needed for storm development. As part of this recent focus on the SAL and hurricanes (which motivated a 2006 NASA field experiment), there has been little emphasis on the SAL s potential positive influences and almost complete emphasis on its possible negative influences, almost to the point of claims that the SAL is the major suppressing influence on hurricanes in the Atlantic. Multiple NASA satellite data sets (TRMM, MODIS, and AIRS

  10. Climate change and Mediterranean storm tracks: present and future climate simulations of a high-resolution Mediterranean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.; Simmonds, I.; Keay, K.; Giannakopoulos, C.; Brikolas, V.; Kouroutzoglou, J.

    2010-09-01

    A number of studies suggest that cyclone activity over both hemispheres has changed over the second half of the 20th century. General features include a reduction in the number of cyclones but with an increase in the number of more intense cyclones; as well as a poleward shift in the tracks. Moreover, these features are expected to be projected in the future under global warming conditions. The assessment of the future changes of the cyclonic activity as imposed by global warming conditions is very important since these cyclones can be associated with extreme precipitation conditions, severe storms and floods. This is more important for the Mediterranean that has been found to be more vulnerable to climate change. The main objective of the current study is to better understand and assess future changes in the main characteristics of cyclonic tracks in the Mediterranean. The climatology of the cyclonic tracks includes temporal and spatial variations of frequency, and dynamic and kinematic parameters, such as intensity, size, propagation velocity, as well as trend analysis. For this purpose, the ENEA high resolution model is employed, based on PROTHEUS system composed of the RegCM atmospheric regional model and the MITgcm ocean model, coupled through the OASIS3 flux coupler. These model data became available through the EU Project CIRCE which aims to perform, for the first time, climate change projections with a realistic representation of the Mediterranean Sea. Two experiments are employed; a) the EH5OM_20C3M present climate simulation, where the lateral boundary conditions for the atmosphere (1951-2000) are taken from the ECHAM5-MPIOM 20c3m global simulation (run3) included in the IPCC-AR4, and b) the EH5OM_A1B scenario simulation, where the IPCC-AR4 ECHAM5-MPIOM SRESA1B global simulation (run3) has been used for the period 2001-2050. The identification and tracking of cyclones is performed with the aid of the Melbourne University algorithm (MS algorithm

  11. Cyclone performance by velocity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cyclones are used almost exclusively in the US cotton ginning industry for emission abatement on pneumatic conveying system exhausts because of their high efficiency, and low capital and operating cost.. Cyclone performance is improved by increasing collection effectiveness or decreasing energy cons...

  12. African aerosols and Atlantic tropical cyclone activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafatos, M.; Sun, D.; Sahoo, A.

    2006-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that the Atlantic basin major hurricane (MH) activity is associated with western Sahelian monsoon rainfall, while rainfall in the Sahel is found to be highly anti-correlated with the African dust storms. So if the Atlantic basin MH activity may be anti-correlated with the African dust aerosols? In order to investigate the relationship between the African dust and the tropical cyclone (including both tropical storms and hurricanes) activities in the Atlantic basin, we explore how the African dust may link to Atlantic TC activity by using the long-term (1982-2005) NCEP Reynolds sea surface temperature (SST) product, and tropical cyclone (TC) data from the National Hurricane Center Best Track Files, and the TOMS aerosol index (AI) data, because the TOMS AI positive values are associated with UV-absorbing aerosols, like dust and smoke. Although no significant negative correlation between the TOMS AI and the Atlantic TC or MH frequency and duration is found, the initial locations of the Atlantic tropical cyclones did occur over the ocean where the aerosol loading was low. Our analysis shows that SST over the north tropical Atlantic ocean is anti-correlated with the TOMS aerosol index. This may be due to the radiative forcing of the aerosols. The effects of the dust aerosols carried across the West African region led to a lowering of SST and therefore inhibited tropical cyclogenesis. During 2005, the aerosol loading along the western African coast was unusually low, while the SST over the main development region (MDR) was abnormally high, and the Atlantic TC/hurricane activities became record strong. We propose future observations to test these results.

  13. Analysis of sensitivity to different parameterization schemes for a subtropical cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quitián-Hernández, L.; Fernández-González, S.; González-Alemán, J. J.; Valero, F.; Martín, M. L.

    2018-05-01

    A sensitivity analysis to diverse WRF model physical parameterization schemes is carried out during the lifecycle of a Subtropical cyclone (STC). STCs are low-pressure systems that share tropical and extratropical characteristics, with hybrid thermal structures. In October 2014, a STC made landfall in the Canary Islands, causing widespread damage from strong winds and precipitation there. The system began to develop on October 18 and its effects lasted until October 21. Accurate simulation of this type of cyclone continues to be a major challenge because of its rapid intensification and unique characteristics. In the present study, several numerical simulations were performed using the WRF model to do a sensitivity analysis of its various parameterization schemes for the development and intensification of the STC. The combination of parameterization schemes that best simulated this type of phenomenon was thereby determined. In particular, the parameterization combinations that included the Tiedtke cumulus schemes had the most positive effects on model results. Moreover, concerning STC track validation, optimal results were attained when the STC was fully formed and all convective processes stabilized. Furthermore, to obtain the parameterization schemes that optimally categorize STC structure, a verification using Cyclone Phase Space is assessed. Consequently, the combination of parameterizations including the Tiedtke cumulus schemes were again the best in categorizing the cyclone's subtropical structure. For strength validation, related atmospheric variables such as wind speed and precipitable water were analyzed. Finally, the effects of using a deterministic or probabilistic approach in simulating intense convective phenomena were evaluated.

  14. Characteristics of Tropical Cyclones in High-Resolution Models of the Present Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaevitz, Daniel A.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Sobel, Adam H.; Jonas, Jeffery A.; Kim, Daeyhun; Kumar, Arun; LaRow, Timothy E.; Lim, Young-Kwon; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Roberts, Malcolm J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The global characteristics of tropical cyclones (TCs) simulated by several climate models are analyzed and compared with observations. The global climate models were forced by the same sea surface temperature (SST) in two types of experiments, using a climatological SST and interannually varying SST. TC tracks and intensities are derived from each model's output fields by the group who ran that model, using their own preferred tracking scheme; the study considers the combination of model and tracking scheme as a single modeling system, and compares the properties derived from the different systems. Overall, the observed geographic distribution of global TC frequency was reasonably well reproduced. As expected, with the exception of one model, intensities of the simulated TC were lower than in observations, to a degree that varies considerably across models.

  15. Characteristics of Tropical Cyclones in High-resolution Models in the Present Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaevitz, Daniel A.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Sobel, Adam H.; Jonas, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Daehyun; Kumar, Arun; LaRow, Timothy E.; Lim, Young-Kwon; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Reed, Kevin; hide

    2014-01-01

    The global characteristics of tropical cyclones (TCs) simulated by several climate models are analyzed and compared with observations. The global climate models were forced by the same sea surface temperature (SST) fields in two types of experiments, using climatological SST and interannually varying SST. TC tracks and intensities are derived from each model's output fields by the group who ran that model, using their own preferred tracking scheme; the study considers the combination of model and tracking scheme as a single modeling system, and compares the properties derived from the different systems. Overall, the observed geographic distribution of global TC frequency was reasonably well reproduced. As expected, with the exception of one model, intensities of the simulated TC were lower than in observations, to a degree that varies considerably across models.

  16. RegCM4-HadGEM2-ES simulated cyclone climatology (1979-2005) over the Southwestern South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfírio da Rocha, Rosmeri; Simões Reboita, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Cyclones over the Southwestern South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) are a subject of great interest once they modify the weather and control the climate near east coast of South America (SA). In this study we compare the cyclones climatology in the period 1979-2005 simulated by Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) with that from ERA-Interim reanalysis (ECMWF). RegCM4 was nested in HadGEM2-ES output and the simulation used the SA domain of CORDEX project, with a horizontal grid of 50 km and 18 sigma-pressure levels in the vertical. The RegCM4 simulation used the land surface Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) and the mixed convection Emanuel-Grell scheme configurations. This simulation is part of the CREMA (CORDEX REgCM4 hyper-MAtrix) experiment. The cyclones were identified using an automated tracking scheme based on minima (cyclonic in Southern Hemisphere) of relative vorticity from the wind at 925 hPa. The threshold of -1.5 x 10-5s-1 was used in the algorithm. All cyclones in RegCM4 and ERA-Interim with relative vorticity lower than this threshold and with lifetime higher or equal 24 hours were included in the climatology. ERA-Interim shows three main cyclogenetic regions near east coast of SA. In general, RegCM4 simulated these same regions but with an underestimation of the number of cyclones. In each of these regions, there is a different season of higher cyclones frequency. Over extreme south of southern Brazil and Uruguay the higher frequency of cyclones occurs in winter, while southeastern Brazil and southeastern Argentina cyclones are most frequent during summer. RegCM4 is able to simulate this observed seasonality.

  17. Fine-Scale Comparison of TOMS Total Ozone Data with Model Analysis of an Intense Midwestern Cyclone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Gallus, William A., Jr.; Stanford, John L.; Brown, John M.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution (approx. 40 km) along-track total column ozone data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are compared with a high-resolution mesoscale numerical model analysis of an intense cyclone in the Midwestern United States. Total ozone increased by 100 DU (nearly 38%) as the TOMS instrument passed over the associated tropopause fold region. Complex structure is seen in the meteorological fields and compares well with the total ozone observations. Ozone data support the meteorological analysis showing that stratospheric descent was confined to levels above approx. 600 hPa; significant positive potential vorticity at lower levels is attributable to diabetic processes. Likewise, meteorological fields show that two pronounced ozone streamers extending north and northeastward into Canada at high levels are not bands of stratospheric air feeding into the cyclone; one is a channel of exhaust downstream from the system, and the other apparently previously connected the main cyclonic circulation to a southward intrusion of polar stratospheric air and advected eastward as the cut-off cyclone evolved. Good agreement between small-scale features in the model output and total ozone data underscores the latter's potential usefulness in diagnosing upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric dynamics and kinematics.

  18. Role of upper-ocean on the intensity of Bay of Bengal cyclone `Phailin' as revealed by coupled simulation using Mesoscale Coupled Modeling System (WRF-ROMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, B.; Mandal, M.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical prediction of tropical cyclone (TC) track has improved significantly in recent years, but not the intensity. It is well accepted that TC induced sea surface temperature (SST) cooling in conjunction with pre-existing upper-ocean features have major influences on tropical cyclone intensity. Absence of two-way atmosphere-ocean feedback in the stand-alone atmosphere models has major consequences on their prediction of TC intensity. The present study investigates the role of upper-ocean on prediction of TC intensity and track based on coupled and uncoupled simulation of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) cyclone `Phailin'. The coupled simulation is conducted with the Mesoscale Coupled Modeling System (MCMS) which is a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean modeling system that includes the non-hydrostatic atmospheric model (WRF-ARW) and the three-dimensional hydrostatic ocean model (ROMS). The uncoupled simulation is performed using the atmosphere component of MCMS i.e., the customized version of WRF-ARW for BoB cyclones with prescribed (RTG) SST. The track and intensity of the storm is significantly better simulated by the MCMS and closely followed the observation. The peak intensity, landfall position and time are accurately predicted by MCMS, whereas the uncoupled simulation over predicted the storm intensity. Validation of storm induced SST cooling with the merged microwave-infrared satellite SST indicates that the MCMS simulation shows better correlation both in terms of spatial spread of cold wake and its magnitude. The analysis also suggests that the Pre-existing Cyclonic Eddy (PCE) observed adjacent to the storm enhanced the TC induced SST cooling. It is observed that the response of SST (i.e., cooling) to storm intensity is 12hr with 95% statistical significance. The air-sea enthalpy flux shows a clear asymmetry between Front Left (FL) and Rear Right (RR) regime to the storm center where TC induced cooling is more than 0.5K/24hr. The analysis of atmospheric boundary

  19. Extratropical Cyclones over Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Present and Future Climates projected by RegCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reboita, Michelle; Rodrigues, Marcelo; da Rocha, Rosmeri

    2017-04-01

    This study shows some of the climatological features of the extratropical cyclones in present and future climate over Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SAO). The projections were carried out with Regional Climate Model (RegCM4) nested in HadGEM2-ES global model outputs and using representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) from the CMIP5. The simulations considered the South America domain suggested by CORDEX, horizontal grid spacing of 50 km, 18 sigma-pressure levels in the vertical. An objective tracking scheme based on cyclonic relative vorticity calculated using the wind at 925 hPa was used to identify the cyclones. All cyclones with relative vorticity lower than the -1.5 x 10-5 s-1 and with lifetime higher or equal 24 hours were included in the climatology. Considering the period from 1979 to 2098, RegCM4 and HadGEM2-ES project a negative trend in the frequency of the extratropical cyclones over SAO, with the biggest negative trend occuring in the latitudinal band between 40°S and 57.5°S. This result can be associated with the southward displacement of the baroclinic zone which contributes to the cyclones move to south leaving the region analyzed. The three subregions with largest cyclogenetic activity discussed in the literature (southeast coast of Brazil - RG1, coast of Uruguay and southern Brazil - RG2; east coast of Argentina - RG3) were better reproduced in RegCM4 than in HadGEM2-ES. Therefore, RegCM4 downscaling ads value in the HadGEM2-ES projections. The frequency of cyclones in present (1979-2005) and future climate (2070-2098) is higher in winter and lower in summer. Regarding the mean characteristics of the cyclones (life time, travel distance, velocity, initial relative vorticity and total average vorticity), both models successfully reproduced those obtained in the reanalysis (NCEP1, NCEP2, CFSR, ERA40 and ERA-Interim) and there are no significant differences in the future climate compared with the present.

  20. Evaluation of Extratropical Cyclone Precipitation in the North Atlantic Basin: An analysis of ERA-Interim, WRF, and two CMIP5 models.

    PubMed

    Booth, James F; Naud, Catherine M; Willison, Jeff

    2018-03-01

    The representation of extratropical cyclones (ETCs) precipitation in general circulation models (GCMs) and a weather research and forecasting (WRF) model is analyzed. This work considers the link between ETC precipitation and dynamical strength and tests if parameterized convection affects this link for ETCs in the North Atlantic Basin. Lagrangian cyclone tracks of ETCs in ERA-Interim reanalysis (ERAI), the GISS and GFDL CMIP5 models, and WRF with two horizontal resolutions are utilized in a compositing analysis. The 20-km resolution WRF model generates stronger ETCs based on surface wind speed and cyclone precipitation. The GCMs and ERAI generate similar composite means and distributions for cyclone precipitation rates, but GCMs generate weaker cyclone surface winds than ERAI. The amount of cyclone precipitation generated by the convection scheme differs significantly across the datasets, with GISS generating the most, followed by ERAI and then GFDL. The models and reanalysis generate relatively more parameterized convective precipitation when the total cyclone-averaged precipitation is smaller. This is partially due to the contribution of parameterized convective precipitation occurring more often late in the ETC life cycle. For reanalysis and models, precipitation increases with both cyclone moisture and surface wind speed, and this is true if the contribution from the parameterized convection scheme is larger or not. This work shows that these different models generate similar total ETC precipitation despite large differences in the parameterized convection, and these differences do not cause unexpected behavior in ETC precipitation sensitivity to cyclone moisture or surface wind speed.

  1. Equatorial Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere/Ionosphere (MLTI) Response to Severe Cyclonic Storm `Aila' and `Ward' observed over North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G J, B.

    2016-12-01

    The present work investigates the Equatorial Mesosphere Lower Thermosphere/Ionosphere (MLTI) response to severe cyclonic storm `Aila (23-26 May 2009)' and `Ward (10-16 December 2009)' which were observed over north Indian Ocean during the extended solar minimum of the year 2009. This report reveals the coupling between Tropical Cyclone and MLTI region. Tropical cyclone track and data can be obtained from Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), New Delhi. Mesospheric and Ionospheric variation can be examined with the help of ground based Mesosphere Lower Thermosphere (MLT) radar and Digisonde located at equatorial low latitude station, Tirunelveli (8.7oN, 77.8oE). The Outgoing Long wave Radiation (OLR) data is used as a proxy for identifying the convective activity, which are retrieved from NOAA Climate Data Centre. It is observed that the tropical cyclone induced convection as the driving agent for the increased gravity wave activity in the lower atmosphere. These upward propagating gravity waves deposit their energy and momentum into the upper region of atmosphere as `Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs). During the cyclonic storm periods, we found increased gravity wave amplitude with upward propagation in the MLT region. Ionospheric response to severe cyclonic storm is examined with the dynamical parameters, foF2, hmF2, h'F2 and Total Election Content (TEC). Significant increase of foF2 frequency is observed during `Ward' cyclonic storm. Drastic variation in foF2 and h'F2 is observed during Aila cyclonic storm than ward event. More statistical analysis has been done for finding the correlation between cyclonic storm and Ionospheric parameters. Detailed results will be presented in the meeting.

  2. Stalling Tropical Cyclones over the Atlantic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen-Gammon, J. W.; Emanuel, K.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey produced massive amounts of rain over southeast Texas and southwest Louisiana. Average storm total rainfall amounts over a 10,000 square mile (26,000 square km) area exceeded 30 inches (750 mm). An important aspect of the storm that contributed to the large rainfall totals was its unusual motion. The storm stalled shortly after making landfall, then moved back offshore before once again making landfall five days later. This storm motion permitted heavy rainfall to occur in the same general area for an extended period of time. The unusual nature of this event motivates an investigation into the characteristics and potential climate change influences on stalled tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin using the HURDAT 2 storm track database for 1866-2016 and downscaled tropical cyclones driven by simulations of present and future climate. The motion of cyclones is quantified as the size of a circle circumscribing all storm locations during a given length of time. For a three-day period, Harvey remained inside a circle with a radius of 123 km. This ranks within the top 0.6% of slowest-moving historical storm instances. Among the 2% of slowest-moving storm instances prior to Harvey, only 13 involved storms that stalled near the continental United States coast, where they may have produced substantial rainfall onshore while tapping into marine moisture. Only two such storms stalled in the month of September, in contrast to 20 September stalls out of the 36 storms that stalled over the nearby open Atlantic. Just four of the stalled coastal storms were hurricanes, implying a return frequency for such storms of much less than once per decade. The synoptic setting of these storms is examined for common features, and historical and projected trends in occurrences of stalled storms near the coast and farther offshore are investigated.

  3. The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System: Data and Tools for Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knosp, B. W.; Ao, C. O.; Chao, Y.; Dang, V.; Garay, M.; Haddad, Z.; Hristova-Veleva, S.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P. P.; Park, K.; Poulsen, W. L.; Rosenman, M. A.; Su, H.; Vane, D.; Vu, Q. A.; Willis, J. K.; Wu, D.

    2008-12-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) is now open to the public. This web portal is designed to assist researchers by providing a one-stop shop for hurricane related data and analysis tools. While there are currently many places that offer storm data, plots, and other information, none offer an extensive archive of data files and images in a common space. The JPL TCIS was created to fill this gap. As currently configured, the JPL Tropical Cyclone Portal has three main features for researchers. The first feature consists of storm-scale data and plots for both observed and modeled data. As of the TCIS' first release, the entire 2005 storm season has been populated with data and plots from AIRS, MLS, AMSU-A, QuikSCAT, Argo floats, WRF models, GPS, and others. Storm data is subsetted to a 1000x1000 km window around the hurricane track for all six oceanic cyclone basins, and all the available data during the life time of any storm can be downloaded with one mouse click. Users can also view pre-generated storm-scale plots from all these data sets that are all co-located to the same temporal and spatial parameters. Work is currently underway to backfill all storm seasons to 1998 with as many relevant data sets as possible. The second offering from this web portal are large-scale data sets and associated visualization tools powered by Google Maps. On this interactive map, researchers can view a particular storm's intensity and track. Users may also overlay large-scale data such as aerosol maps from MODIS and MISR, and a blended microwave sea-surface temperature (SST) to gain an understanding of the large-scale environment of the storm. For example, by using this map, the cold sea-surface temperature wake can be tracked as a storm passes by. The third feature of this portal deals with interactive model and data analysis. A single-parameter analysis tools has recently been developed and added to this portal where users can plot maps, profiles, and histograms of

  4. Characteristics of tropical cyclones in high-resolution models in the present climate

    DOE PAGES

    Shaevitz, Daniel A.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Sobel, Adam H.; ...

    2014-12-05

    The global characteristics of tropical cyclones (TCs) simulated by several climate models are analyzed and compared with observations. The global climate models were forced by the same sea surface temperature (SST) fields in two types of experiments, using climatological SST and interannually varying SST. TC tracks and intensities are derived from each model's output fields by the group who ran that model, using their own preferred tracking scheme; the study considers the combination of model and tracking scheme as a single modeling system, and compares the properties derived from the different systems. Overall, the observed geographic distribution of global TCmore » frequency was reasonably well reproduced. As expected, with the exception of one model, intensities of the simulated TC were lower than in observations, to a degree that varies considerably across models.« less

  5. Development of an Adaptable Display and Diagnostic System for the Evaluation of Tropical Cyclone Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, P. A.; Burek, T.; Halley-Gotway, J.

    2015-12-01

    NCAR's Joint Numerical Testbed Program (JNTP) focuses on the evaluation of experimental forecasts of tropical cyclones (TCs) with the goal of developing new research tools and diagnostic evaluation methods that can be transitioned to operations. Recent activities include the development of new TC forecast verification methods and the development of an adaptable TC display and diagnostic system. The next generation display and diagnostic system is being developed to support evaluation needs of the U.S. National Hurricane Center (NHC) and broader TC research community. The new hurricane display and diagnostic capabilities allow forecasters and research scientists to more deeply examine the performance of operational and experimental models. The system is built upon modern and flexible technology that includes OpenLayers Mapping tools that are platform independent. The forecast track and intensity along with associated observed track information are stored in an efficient MySQL database. The system provides easy-to-use interactive display system, and provides diagnostic tools to examine forecast track stratified by intensity. Consensus forecasts can be computed and displayed interactively. The system is designed to display information for both real-time and for historical TC cyclones. The display configurations are easily adaptable to meet the needs of the end-user preferences. Ongoing enhancements include improving capabilities for stratification and evaluation of historical best tracks, development and implementation of additional methods to stratify and compute consensus hurricane track and intensity forecasts, and improved graphical display tools. The display is also being enhanced to incorporate gridded forecast, satellite, and sea surface temperature fields. The presentation will provide an overview of the display and diagnostic system development and demonstration of the current capabilities.

  6. Impacts of tropical cyclones on Fiji and Samoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshov, Yuriy; Prakash, Bipendra; Atalifo, Terry; Waqaicelua, Alipate; Seuseu, Sunny; Ausetalia Titimaea, Mulipola

    2013-04-01

    Weather and climate hazards have significant impacts on Pacific Island Countries. Costs of hazards such as tropical cyclones can be astronomical making enormous negative economic impacts on developing countries. We highlight examples of extreme weather events which have occurred in Fiji and Samoa in the last few decades and have caused major economic and social disruption in the countries. Destructive winds and torrential rain associated with tropical cyclones can bring the most damaging weather conditions to the region causing economic and social hardship, affecting agricultural productivity, infrastructure and economic development which can persist for many years after the initial impact. Analysing historical data, we describe the impacts of tropical cyclones Bebe and Kina on Fiji. Cyclone Bebe (October 1972) affected the whole Fiji especially the Yasawa Islands, Viti Levu and Kadavu where hurricane force winds have been recorded. Nineteen deaths were reported and damage costs caused by cyclone Bebe were estimated as exceeding F20 million (F 1972). Tropical cyclone Kina passed between Fiji's two main islands of Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, and directly over Levuka on the night of 2 January 1993 with hurricane force winds causing extensive damage. Twenty three deaths have been reported making Kina one of the deadliest hurricanes in Fiji's recent history. Severe flooding on Viti Levu, combined with high tide and heavy seas led to destruction of the Sigatoka and Ba bridges, as well as almost complete loss of crops in Sigatoka and Navua deltas. Overall, damage caused by cyclone Kina was estimated as F170 million. In Samoa, we describe devastation to the country caused by tropical cyclones Ofa (February 1990) and Val (December 1991) which were considered to be the worst cyclones to affect the Samoan islands since the 1889 Apia cyclone. In Samoa, seven people were killed due to cyclone Ofa, thousands of people were left homeless and entire villages were destroyed. Damage

  7. The Role of the Stratosphere in Explosive Deepening of Extratropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knippertz, Peter; Wilbraham, Robert; Trzeciak, Tomek; Owen, Jenny; Odell, Luke; Fink, Andreas H.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2014-05-01

    Using a combination of an automatic cyclone tracking method and a special version of the classical pressure tendency equation (PTE), changes in surface core pressure of extra-tropical cyclones can be related to contributions from horizontal temperature advection, vertical motion and diabatic processes, i.e. mainly latent heat release in clouds. Here, the PTE is evaluated in 3°x3° boxes located over the cyclone positions at 6-hourly basis, thus following the movement of a given storm at each time step. PTE calculations are performed from the surface to 100 hPa. Previous work has shown that this approach can be used to quantify the contribution of diabatic processes to cyclone deepening in an automated way, and can easily be applied to large gridded datasets, in this case ERA-Interim reanalyses. In order to close the mass budget in the PTE, geopotential height tendencies at the upper integration boundary (usually 100 hPa) need to be taken into account. Older studies have assumed this term to be negligible, and this has been confirmed with modern re-analysis data for many explosively deepening storms. However, some historical storms show a remarkable contribution from this term, indicating a substantial warming of the levels above 100hPa. An outstanding example is the Braer Storm of January 1993, which reached a record minimum core pressure of 914 hPa near Iceland. A stepwise increase of the upper integration boundary reveals that substantial geopotential height tendencies reach above 1 hPa. This unusual behaviour appears to be related to the propagation of a deep planetary wave trough from North America towards the North Atlantic basin. A similar but somewhat less dramatic behaviour was found for cyclone Wiebke. Another interesting example is storm Emma, which managed to sustain substantial deepening rates despite adverse positive geopotential height tendencies at 100 hPa. Future work will include a more robust statistical analysis of this problem and a better

  8. Conceptual Models of Frontal Cyclones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagleman, Joe R.

    1981-01-01

    This discussion of weather models uses maps to illustrate the differences among three types of frontal cyclones (long wave, short wave, and troughs). Awareness of these cyclones can provide clues to atmospheric conditions which can lead toward accurate weather forecasting. (AM)

  9. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Measurements in Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, J. G.; Simpson, J.

    2002-01-01

    The first measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) within and around tropical cyclones were made with the Desert Research Institute (DRI) CCN spectrometer (Hudson 1909) from a NOAA P-3 Hurricane Hunter aircraft throughout the 2001 season. Two penetrations of the closed eye of Hurricane Erin off the northeast US coast on Sept. 10 showed concentrations consistently well in excess of 1000 per cubic cm at approximately 1.4% supersaturation. Simultaneous condensation nuclei (CN--total particle) concentrations were consistently well in excess of 2000 per cubic cm throughout these closed eye penetrations. These within eye measurements at 4 km altitude for exceeded CCN and CN measurements just outside of the storm at similar altitudes--300 and 600 per cubic cm respectively. These CCN and CN concentrations within this closed eye were far above concentrations in maritime air masses; they are characteristic of continental or polluted air masses. Although there was a possibility that Saharan duct may have gotten into this storm these sub tenth micrometer particles are much too small and much too numerous to be dust. Such high concentrations may have originated from European air pollution, which may have been transported by similar airflow patterns to those that carry Saharan dust across the Atlantic. These high concentrations may be a manifestation of descending air that brings higher concentrations that are often characteristic of the upper troposphere (Clarke and Kapustin 2002). Later in the month measurements in Humberto showed highly variable CCN and CN concentrations that ranged from lots than 5 per cubic cm to more than 1000 per Cubic cm over km scale distances within and around the open eye of this tropical storm/hurricane. These very low concentrations suggest strong cloud scavenging.

  10. Statistical characteristics of austral summer cyclones in Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Na; Fu, Gang; Kuo, Ying-Hwa

    2012-06-01

    Characteristics of cyclones and explosively developing cyclones (or `bombs') over the Southern Ocean in austral summer (December, January and February) from 2004 to 2008 are analyzed by using the Final Analysis (FNL) data produced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the United States. Statistical results show that both cyclones and explosively developing cyclones frequently develop in January, and most of them occur within the latitudinal zone between 55°S and 70°S. These cyclones gradually approach the Antarctic Continent from December to February. Generally cyclones and bombs move east-southeastward with some exceptions of northeastward movement. The lifetime of cyclones is around 2-6 d, and the horizontal scale is about 1000 km. Explosive cyclones have the lifetime of about 1 week with the horizontal scale reaching up to 3000 km. Compared with cyclones developed in the Northern Hemisphere, cyclones over the southern ocean have much higher occurrence frequency, lower central pressure and larger horizontal scale, which may be caused by the unique geographical features of the Southern Hemisphere.

  11. The implementation of an automated tracking algorithm for the track detection of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, Maria; Flocas, Elena A.; Simmonds, Ian; Kouroutzoglou, John; Keay, Kevin; Rudeva, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Migratory cyclones and anticyclones mainly account for the short-term weather variations in extra-tropical regions. By contrast to cyclones that have drawn major scientific attention due to their direct link to active weather and precipitation, climatological studies on anticyclones are limited, even though they also are associated with extreme weather phenomena and play an important role in global and regional climate. This is especially true for the Mediterranean, a region particularly vulnerable to climate change, and the little research which has been done is essentially confined to the manual analysis of synoptic charts. For the construction of a comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclonic systems in the Mediterranean using an objective methodology, the Melbourne University automatic tracking algorithm is applied, based to the ERA-Interim reanalysis mean sea level pressure database. The algorithm's reliability in accurately capturing the weather patterns and synoptic climatology of the transient activity has been widely proven. This algorithm has been extensively applied for cyclone studies worldwide and it has been also successfully applied for the Mediterranean, though its use for anticyclone tracking is limited to the Southern Hemisphere. In this study the performance of the tracking algorithm under different data resolutions and different choices of parameter settings in the scheme is examined. Our focus is on the appropriate modification of the algorithm in order to efficiently capture the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in the Mediterranean, a closed basin with complex topography. We show that the number of the detected anticyclonic centers and the resulting tracks largely depend upon the data resolution and the search radius. We also find that different scale anticyclones and secondary centers that lie within larger anticyclone structures can be adequately represented; this is important, since the extensions of major

  12. The Evolution and Role of the Saharan Air Layer During Hurricane Helene (2006)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott A.; Sippel, Jason A.; Shie, Chung-Lin; Boller, Ryan A.

    2013-01-01

    The Saharan air layer (SAL) has received considerable attention in recent years as a potential negative influence on the formation and development of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Observations of substantial Saharan dust in the near environment of Hurricane Helene (2006) during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Activities (AMMA) Experiment (NAMMA) field campaign led to suggestions about the suppressing influence of the SAL in this case. In this study, a suite of satellite remote sensing data, global meteorological analyses, and airborne data are used to characterize the evolution of the SAL in the environment of Helene and assess its possible impact on the intensity of the storm. The influence of the SAL on Helene appears to be limited to the earliest stages of development, although the magnitude of that impact is difficult to determine observationally. Saharan dust was observed on the periphery of the storm during the first two days of development after genesis when intensification was slow. Much of the dust was observed to move well westward of the storm thereafter, with little SAL air present during the remainder of the storm's lifetime and with the storm gradually becoming a category-3 strength storm four days later. Dry air observed to wrap around the periphery of Helene was diagnosed to be primarily non-Saharan in origin (the result of subsidence) and appeared to have little impact on storm intensity. The eventual weakening of the storm is suggested to result from an eyewall replacement cycle and substantial reduction of the sea surface temperatures beneath the hurricane as its forward motion decreased.

  13. Assessment of Mediterranean cyclones in the multi-ensemble EC-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Victoria; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Isabel F.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    suggests a slight decrease of the spring maximum and a pronounced increase in the summer maximum. The cyclone characteristics obtained from the ensemble members of EC-Earth indicate that summer cyclones will tend to be slower, less intense but will have a faster deepening phase. Part of the summer enhanced activity is in areas dominated by thermal lows. Trigo I.F., G. R. Bigg and T.D. Davies, 2002: Climatology of cyclogenesis mechanisms in the Mediterranean. Mon. Wea. Rev. 130, 549-569. Trigo, I. F., 2006: Climatology and Interannual Variability of Storm-Tracks in the Euro-Atlantic sector: a comparison between ERA-40 and NCEP/NCAR Reanalyses. Clim. Dynam., 26, 127-143. Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).

  14. Modulation of low-latitude west wind on abnormal track and intensity of tropical cyclone Nargis (2008) in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Wei; Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Dongxiao; Yang, Lei; Deng, Yi

    2012-03-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) Nargis (2008) made landfall in Myanmar on 02 May 2008, bringing a storm surge, major flooding, and resulting in a significant death toll. TC Nargis (2008) displayed abnormal features, including rare eastward motion in its late stage, rapid intensification before landing. Using reanalysis data and a numerical model, we investigated how a low-latitude westerly wind modulated TC Nargis' (2008) track and provided favorable atmospheric conditions for its rapid intensification. More importantly, we found a possible counterbalance effect of flows from the two hemispheres on the TC track in the Bay of Bengal. Our analysis indicates that a strong westerly wind burst across the Bay of Bengal, resulting in TC Nargis' (2008) eastward movement after its recurvature. This sudden enhancement of westerly wind was mainly due to the rapidly intensified mid-level cross-equatorial flow. Our results show that a high-pressure system in the Southern Hemisphere induced this strong, mid-level, cross-equatorial flow. During the rapid intensification period of TC Nargis (2008), this strong and broad westerly wind also transported a large amount of water vapor to TC Nargis (2008). Sufficient water vapor gave rise to continuously high and increased mid-level relative humidity, which was favorable to TC Nargis' (2008) intensification. Condensation of water vapor increased the energy supply, which eventuated the intensification of TC Nargis (2008) to a category 4 on the Saffir-Simpson scale.

  15. Track-pattern-based seasonal prediction model for intense tropical cyclone activities over the North Atlantic and the western North Pacific basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, W.; Ho, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Intense tropical cyclones (TCs) accompanying heavy rainfall and destructive wind gusts sometimes cause incredible socio-economic damages in the regions near their landfall. This study aims to analyze intense TC activities in the North Atlantic (NA) and the western North Pacific (WNP) basins and develop their track propensity seasonal prediction model. Considering that the number of TCs in the NA basin is much smaller than that in the WNP basin, different intensity criteria are used; category 1 and above for NA and category 3 and above for WNP based on Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. By using a fuzzy clustering method, intense TC tracks in the NA and the WNP basins are classified into two and three representative patterns, respectively. Each pattern shows empirical relationships with climate variabilities such as sea surface temperature distribution associated with El Niño/La Niña or Atlantic Meridional Mode, Pacific decadal oscillation, upper and low level zonal wind, and strength of subtropical high. The hybrid statistical-dynamical method has been used to develop the seasonal prediction model for each pattern based on statistical relationships between the intense TC activity and seasonal averaged key predictors. The model performance is statistically assessed by cross validation for the training period (1982-2013) and has been applied for the 2014 and 2015 prediction. This study suggests applicability of this model to real prediction work and provide bridgehead of attempt for intense TC prediction.

  16. Cyclone: java-based querying and computing with Pathway/Genome databases.

    PubMed

    Le Fèvre, François; Smidtas, Serge; Schächter, Vincent

    2007-05-15

    Cyclone aims at facilitating the use of BioCyc, a collection of Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs). Cyclone provides a fully extensible Java Object API to analyze and visualize these data. Cyclone can read and write PGDBs, and can write its own data in the CycloneML format. This format is automatically generated from the BioCyc ontology by Cyclone itself, ensuring continued compatibility. Cyclone objects can also be stored in a relational database CycloneDB. Queries can be written in SQL, and in an intuitive and concise object-oriented query language, Hibernate Query Language (HQL). In addition, Cyclone interfaces easily with Java software including the Eclipse IDE for HQL edition, the Jung API for graph algorithms or Cytoscape for graph visualization. Cyclone is freely available under an open source license at: http://sourceforge.net/projects/nemo-cyclone. For download and installation instructions, tutorials, use cases and examples, see http://nemo-cyclone.sourceforge.net.

  17. A climatology of extratropical cyclones over East Asia during 1958-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingxian; Ding, Yihui; Li, Qiaoping

    2012-06-01

    A climatology of extratropical cyclones (ECs) over East Asia (20°-75°N, 60°-160°E) is analyzed by applying an improved objective detection and tracking algorithm to the 4-time daily sea level pressure fields from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis data. A total of 12914 EC processes for the period of 1958-2001 are identified, with an EC database integrated and EC activities reanalyzed using the objective algorithm. The results reveal that there are three major cyclogenesis regions: West Siberian Plain, Mongolia (to the south of Lake Baikal), and the coastal region of East China; whereas significant cyclolysis regions are observed in Siberia north of 60°N, Northeast China, and Okhotsk Sea-Northwest Pacific. It is found that the EC lifetime is largely 1-7 days while winter ECs have the shortest lifespan. The ECs are the weakest in summer among the four seasons. Strong ECs often appear in West Siberia, Northeast China, and Okhotsk Sea-Northwest Pacific. Statistical analysis based on k-means clustering has identified 6 dominating trajectories in the area south of 55°N and east of 80°E, among which 4 tracks have important impacts on weather/climate in China. ECs occurring in spring (summer) tend to travel the longest (shortest). They move the fastest in winter, and the slowest in summer. In winter, cyclones move fast in Northeast China, some areas of the Yangtze-Huaihe River region, and the south of Japan, with speed greater than 15 m s-1. Explosively-deepening cyclones are found to occur frequently along the east coast of China, Japan, and Northwest Pacific, but very few storms occur over the inland area. Bombs prefer to occur in winter, spring, and autumn. Their annual number and intensity in 1990 and 1992 in East Asia (EA) are smaller and weaker than their counterparts in North America.

  18. Ocean barrier layers' effect on tropical cyclone intensification.

    PubMed

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, Ping; Saravanan, R; Leung, L Ruby; Xu, Zhao; Li, Mingkui; Hsieh, Jen-Shan

    2012-09-04

    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are "quasi-permanent" features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

  19. Advances in dust cyclone research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dust cyclones reduce particulate emissions but their operation consumes electrical energy. Response surface methodology was used to compare two strategies to reduce energy costs without increasing emissions. Cyclones of a standard design (1D3D) were operated singly and in series, as was an ‘Experi...

  20. A global historical data set of tropical cyclone exposure (TCE-DAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Tobias; Frieler, Katja; Bresch, David N.

    2018-01-01

    Tropical cyclones pose a major risk to societies worldwide, with about 22 million directly affected people and damages of USD 29 billion on average per year over the last 20 years. While data on observed cyclones tracks (location of the center) and wind speeds are publicly available, these data sets do not contain information about the spatial extent of the storm and people or assets exposed. Here, we apply a simplified wind field model to estimate the areas exposed to wind speeds above 34, 64, and 96 knots (kn). Based on available spatially explicit data on population densities and gross domestic product (GDP) we estimate (1) the number of people and (2) the sum of assets exposed to wind speeds above these thresholds accounting for temporal changes in historical distribution of population and assets (TCE-hist) and assuming fixed 2015 patterns (TCE-2015). The associated spatially explicit and aggregated country-event-level exposure data (TCE-DAT) cover the period 1950 to 2015 and are freely available at https://doi.org/10.5880/pik.2017.011 (Geiger at al., 2017c). It is considered key information to (1) assess the contribution of climatological versus socioeconomic drivers of changes in exposure to tropical cyclones, (2) estimate changes in vulnerability from the difference in exposure and reported damages and calibrate associated damage functions, and (3) build improved exposure-based predictors to estimate higher-level societal impacts such as long-term effects on GDP, employment, or migration. We validate the adequateness of our methodology by comparing our exposure estimate to estimated exposure obtained from reported wind fields available since 1988 for the United States. We expect that the free availability of the underlying model and TCE-DAT will make research on tropical cyclone risks more accessible to non-experts and stakeholders.

  1. The coincidence of daily rainfall events in Liberia, Costa Rica and tropical cyclones in the Caribbean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waylen, Peter R.; Harrison, Michael

    2005-10-01

    The occurrence of tropical cyclones in the Caribbean and North Atlantic basins has been previously noted to have a significant effect both upon individual hydro-climatological events as well as on the quantity of annual precipitation experienced along the Pacific flank of Central America. A methodology for examining the so-called indirect effects of tropical cyclones (i.e. those effects resulting from a tropical cyclone at a considerable distance from the area of interest) on a daily rainfall record is established, which uses a variant of contingency table analysis. The method is tested using a single station on the Pacific slope of Costa Rica. Employing daily precipitation records from Liberia, north-western Costa Rica (1964-1995), and historic storm tracks of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic, it is determined that precipitation falling in coincidence with the passage of tropical depressions, tropical storms, and hurricanes accounts for approximately 15% of average annual precipitation. The greatest effects are associated with storms passing within 1300 km of the precipitation station, and are most apparent in the increased frequency of daily rainfall totals in the range of 40-60 mm, rather than in the largest daily totals. The complexity and nonstationarity of factors affecting precipitation in this region are reflected in the decline in the number of tropical cyclones and their significance to annual precipitation totals after 1980, simultaneous to an increase in annual precipitation totals. The methodology employed in this study is shown to be a useful tool in illuminating the indirect effects of tropical cyclones in the region, with the potential for application in other areas.

  2. A Classification of Mediterranean Cyclones Based on Global Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reale, Oreste; Atlas, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea region is dominated by baroclinic and orographic cyclogenesis. However, previous work has demonstrated the existence of rare but intense subsynoptic-scale cyclones displaying remarkable similarities to tropical cyclones and polar lows, including, but not limited to, an eye-like feature in the satellite imagery. The terms polar low and tropical cyclone have been often used interchangeably when referring to small-scale, convective Mediterranean vortices and no definitive statement has been made so far on their nature, be it sub-tropical or polar. Moreover, most of the classifications of Mediterranean cyclones have neglected the small-scale convective vortices, focusing only on the larger-scale and far more common baroclinic cyclones. A classification of all Mediterranean cyclones based on operational global analyses is proposed The classification is based on normalized horizontal shear, vertical shear, scale, low versus mid-level vorticity, low-level temperature gradients, and sea surface temperatures. In the classification system there is a continuum of possible events, according to the increasing role of barotropic instability and decreasing role of baroclinic instability. One of the main results is that the Mediterranean tropical cyclone-like vortices and the Mediterranean polar lows appear to be different types of events, in spite of the apparent similarity of their satellite imagery. A consistent terminology is adopted, stating that tropical cyclone- like vortices are the less baroclinic of all, followed by polar lows, cold small-scale cyclones and finally baroclinic lee cyclones. This classification is based on all the cyclones which occurred in a four-year period (between 1996 and 1999). Four cyclones, selected among all the ones which developed during this time-frame, are analyzed. Particularly, the classification allows to discriminate between two cyclones (occurred in October 1996 and in March 1999) which both display a very well

  3. Ocean Barrier Layers’ Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    SciTech Connect

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.

    2012-09-04

    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are 'quasi-permanent' features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropicalmore » cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.« less

  4. Human Influence on Tropical Cyclone Intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobel, Adam H.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Hall, Timothy M.; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tippett, Michael K.; Wing, Allison A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent assessments agree that tropical cyclone intensity should increase as the climate warms. Less agreement exists on the detection of recent historical trends in tropical cyclone intensity.We interpret future and recent historical trends by using the theory of potential intensity, which predicts the maximum intensity achievable by a tropical cyclone in a given local environment. Although greenhouse gas-driven warming increases potential intensity, climate model simulations suggest that aerosol cooling has largely canceled that effect over the historical record. Large natural variability complicates analysis of trends, as do poleward shifts in the latitude of maximum intensity. In the absence of strong reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, future greenhouse gas forcing of potential intensity will increasingly dominate over aerosol forcing, leading to substantially larger increases in tropical cyclone intensities.

  5. Inducing Tropical Cyclones to Undergo Brownian Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodyss, D.; McLay, J.; Moskaitis, J.; Serra, E.

    2014-12-01

    Stochastic parameterization has become commonplace in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models used for probabilistic prediction. Here, a specific stochastic parameterization will be related to the theory of stochastic differential equations and shown to be affected strongly by the choice of stochastic calculus. From an NWP perspective our focus will be on ameliorating a common trait of the ensemble distributions of tropical cyclone (TC) tracks (or position), namely that they generally contain a bias and an underestimate of the variance. With this trait in mind we present a stochastic track variance inflation parameterization. This parameterization makes use of a properly constructed stochastic advection term that follows a TC and induces its position to undergo Brownian motion. A central characteristic of Brownian motion is that its variance increases with time, which allows for an effective inflation of an ensemble's TC track variance. Using this stochastic parameterization we present a comparison of the behavior of TCs from the perspective of the stochastic calculi of Itô and Stratonovich within an operational NWP model. The central difference between these two perspectives as pertains to TCs is shown to be properly predicted by the stochastic calculus and the Itô correction. In the cases presented here these differences will manifest as overly intense TCs, which, depending on the strength of the forcing, could lead to problems with numerical stability and physical realism.

  6. Coupling between the lower and middle atmosphere observed during a very severe cyclonic storm 'Madi'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hima Bindu, H.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Yesubabu, V.; Narayana Rao, T.; Eswariah, S.; Naidu, C. V.; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.

    2018-04-01

    Synoptic-scale systems like cyclones can generate broad spectrum of waves, which propagate from its source to the middle atmosphere. Coupling between the lower and middle atmosphere over Tirupati (13.6°N, 79.4°E) is studied during a very severe cyclonic storm 'Madi' (06-13 December 2013) using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model assimilated fields and simultaneous meteor radar observations. Since high temporal and spatial measurements are difficult to obtain during these disturbances, WRF model simulations are obtained by assimilating conventional and satellite observations using 3DVAR technique. The obtained outputs are validated for their consistency in predicting cyclone track and vertical structure by comparing them with independent observations. The good agreement between the assimilated outputs and independent observations prompted us to use the model outputs to investigate the gravity waves (GWs) and tides over Tirupati. GWs with the periods 1-5 h are observed with clear downward phase propagation in the lower stratosphere. These upward propagating waves obtained from the model are also noticed in the meteor radar horizontal wind observations in the MLT region (70-110 km). Interestingly, enhancement in the tidal activity in both the zonal and meridional winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region is noticed during the peak cyclonic activity except the suppression of semi-diurnal tide in meridional wind. A very good agreement in the tidal activity is also observed in the horizontal winds in the troposphere and lower stratosphere from the WRF model outputs and ERA5. These results thus provide evidence on the vertical coupling of lower and middle atmosphere induced by the tropical cyclone.

  7. MISR CMVs and Multiangular Views of Tropical Cyclone Inner-Core Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.; Diner, David J.; Garay, Michael J; Jovanovic, Veljko M.; Lee, Jae N.; Moroney, Catherine M.; Mueller, Kevin J.; Nelson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Multi-camera stereo imaging of cloud features from the MISR (Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite provides accurate and precise measurements of cloud top heights (CTH) and cloud motion vector (CMV) winds. MISR observes each cloudy scene from nine viewing angles (Nadir, +/-26(sup o), +/-46(sup o), +/-60(sup o), +/-70(sup o)) with approximatel 275-m pixel resolution. This paper provides an update on MISR CMV and CTH algorithm improvements, and explores a high-resolution retrieval of tangential winds inside the eyewall of tropical cyclones (TC). The MISR CMV and CTH retrievals from the updated algorithm are significantly improved in terms of spatial coverage and systematic errors. A new product, the 1.1-km cross-track wind, provides high accuracy and precision in measuring convective outflows. Preliminary results obtained from the 1.1-km tangential wind retrieval inside the TC eyewall show that the inner-core rotation is often faster near the eyewall, and this faster rotation appears to be related linearly to cyclone intensity.

  8. Estimation of size of tropical cyclones in the North Indian Ocean using Oceansat-2 scatterometer high-resolution wind products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Neeru; Ha, Doan Thi Thu; Kishtawal, C. M.

    2018-03-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) is one of the most intense weather hazards, especially for the coastal regions, as it causes huge devastation through gale winds and torrential floods during landfall. Thus, accurate prediction of TC is of great importance to reduce the loss of life and damage to property. Most of the cyclone track prediction model requires size of TC as an important parameter in order to simulate the vortex. TC size is also required in the impact assessment of TC affected regions. In the present work, the size of TCs formed in the North Indian Ocean (NIO) has been estimated using the high resolution surface wind observations from oceansat-2 scatterometer. The estimated sizes of cyclones were compared to the radius of outermost closed isobar (ROCI) values provided by Joint Typhoon warning Center (JTWC) by plotting their histograms and computing the correlation and mean absolute error (MAE). The correlation and MAE between the OSCAT wind based TC size estimation and JTWC-ROCI values was found 0.69 and 33 km, respectively. The results show that the sizes of cyclones estimated by OSCAT winds are in close agreement to the JTWC-ROCI. The ROCI values of JTWC were analyzed to study the variations in the size of tropical cyclones in NIO during different time of the diurnal cycle and intensity stages.

  9. Microparticle Separation by Cyclonic Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karback, Keegan; Leith, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The ability to separate particles based on their size has wide ranging applications from the industrial to the medical. Currently, cyclonic separators are primarily used in agriculture and manufacturing to syphon out contaminates or products from an air supply. This has led us to believe that cyclonic separation has more applications than the agricultural and industrial. Using the OpenFoam computational package, we were able to determine the flow parameters of a vortex in a cyclonic separator in order to segregate dust particles to a cutoff size of tens of nanometers. To test the model, we constructed an experiment to separate a test dust of various sized particles. We filled a chamber with Arizona test dust and utilized an acoustic suspension technique to segregate particles finer than a coarse cutoff size and introduce them into the cyclonic separation apparatus where they were further separated via a vortex following our computational model. The size of the particles separated from this experiment will be used to further refine our model. Metropolitan State University of Denver, Colorado University of Denver, Dr. Randall Tagg, Dr. Richard Krantz.

  10. Analysis of the interannual variability of tropical cyclones striking the California coast based on statistical downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, F. J.; Rueda, A.; Barnard, P.; Mori, N.; Nakajo, S.; Espejo, A.; del Jesus, M.; Diez Sierra, J.; Cofino, A. S.; Camus, P.

    2016-02-01

    Hurricanes hitting California have a very low ocurrence probability due to typically cool ocean temperature and westward tracks. However, damages associated to these improbable events would be dramatic in Southern California and understanding the oceanographic and atmospheric drivers is of paramount importance for coastal risk management for present and future climates. A statistical analysis of the historical events is very difficult due to the limited resolution of atmospheric and oceanographic forcing data available. In this work, we propose a combination of: (a) statistical downscaling methods (Espejo et al, 2015); and (b) a synthetic stochastic tropical cyclone (TC) model (Nakajo et al, 2014). To build the statistical downscaling model, Y=f(X), we apply a combination of principal component analysis and the k-means classification algorithm to find representative patterns from a potential TC index derived from large-scale SST fields in Eastern Central Pacific (predictor X) and the associated tropical cyclone ocurrence (predictand Y). SST data comes from NOAA Extended Reconstructed SST V3b providing information from 1854 to 2013 on a 2.0 degree x 2.0 degree global grid. As data for the historical occurrence and paths of tropical cycloneas are scarce, we apply a stochastic TC model which is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of the joint distribution of track, minimum sea level pressure and translation speed of the historical events in the Eastern Central Pacific Ocean. Results will show the ability of the approach to explain seasonal-to-interannual variability of the predictor X, which is clearly related to El Niño Southern Oscillation. References Espejo, A., Méndez, F.J., Diez, J., Medina, R., Al-Yahyai, S. (2015) Seasonal probabilistic forecasting of tropical cyclone activity in the North Indian Ocean, Journal of Flood Risk Management, DOI: 10.1111/jfr3.12197 Nakajo, S., N. Mori, T. Yasuda, and H. Mase (2014) Global Stochastic Tropical Cyclone Model Based on

  11. Synoptic and climatological aspects of extra-tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckebusch, G. C.

    2010-09-01

    Mid-latitude cyclones are highly complex dynamical features embedded in the general atmospheric circulation of the extra-tropics. Although the basic mechanisms leading to the formation of cyclones are commonly understood, the specific conditions and physical reasons triggering extreme, partly explosive development, are still under investigation. This includes also the identification of processes which might modulate the frequency and intensity of cyclone systems on time scales from days to centennials. This overview presentation will thus focus on three main topics: Firstly, the dynamic-synoptic structures of cyclones, the possibility to objectively identify cyclones and wind storms, and actual statistical properties of cyclone occurrence under recent climate conditions are addressed. In a second part, aspects of the interannual variability and its causing mechanisms are related to the seasonal predictability of extreme cyclones producing severe storm events. Extending the time frame will mean to deduce information on decadal or even centennial time periods. Thus, actual work to decadal as well as climatological variability and changes will be presented. In the last part of the talk focus will be laid on potential socio-economical impacts of changed cyclone occurrence. By means of global and regional climate modeling, future damages in terms of insured losses will be investigated and measures of uncertainty estimated from a multi-model ensemble analysis will be presented.

  12. Human influence on tropical cyclone intensity.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Adam H; Camargo, Suzana J; Hall, Timothy M; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tippett, Michael K; Wing, Allison A

    2016-07-15

    Recent assessments agree that tropical cyclone intensity should increase as the climate warms. Less agreement exists on the detection of recent historical trends in tropical cyclone intensity. We interpret future and recent historical trends by using the theory of potential intensity, which predicts the maximum intensity achievable by a tropical cyclone in a given local environment. Although greenhouse gas-driven warming increases potential intensity, climate model simulations suggest that aerosol cooling has largely canceled that effect over the historical record. Large natural variability complicates analysis of trends, as do poleward shifts in the latitude of maximum intensity. In the absence of strong reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, future greenhouse gas forcing of potential intensity will increasingly dominate over aerosol forcing, leading to substantially larger increases in tropical cyclone intensities. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Global climatology of explosive cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-03-01

    Explosive cyclones, which have rapidly intensifying winds and heavy rain, can seriously threaten life and property. These "meteorological bombs" are difficult to forecast, in part because scientists need a better understanding of the physical mechanisms by which they form. In particular, the large-scale circulation conditions that may contribute to explosive cyclone formation are not well understood.

  14. Response of winter North Atlantic storm track to climate change in the CNRM-CM5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, Fabrice; Oudar, Thomas; Sanchez-Gomez, Emilia; Terray, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Climate variability in Europe in winter is largely controlled by North Atlantic storm tracks. These are associated with transport of energy, momentum, and water vapour, between the equator and mid latitudes. Extratropical cyclones have caused severe damages over some regions in north-western Europe, since they can combine extreme precipitation and strong winds. This is why it is relevant to study the impact of climate change on the extratropical cyclones, principally on their intensity, position or lifespan. Indeed, several recent studies have focused on this subject by using atmospheric reanalysis and general circulation models (GCMs). The main conclusions from the CMIP3 simulations showed a decreasing of the total number of cyclones and a poleward shift of their tracks in response to global warming. In the recent CMIP5 exercise, the consensus is not so clear, probably due to more complex feedbacks acting in the different models. Thus, the question of changes in North Atlantic storm-tracks with warming remains open. The main goal of this work is to explore the changes in the North Atlantic storm-tracks in the past and future decades and to analyze the contributions of the different external forcings (natural and anthropogenic) versus the internal variability. On this purpose, we use the Detection and Attribution (D&A) simulations performed with the coupled model CNRM-CM5. To characterize the extratropical cyclones and their tracks, a tracking scheme based on the detection of maximum of relative vorticity at 850 hPa is conducted. We show that the coupled model fairly well reproduces the storm genesis locations as well as the tracks pathways comparing to several atmospheric reanalysis products. In the recent historical period (1950-2005), the model shows a decrease in the number of storms in the southern North-Atlantic, when all the forcings (anthropogenic and natural) are prescribed. Even if the role of internal variability is important in the last decades (the

  15. Diabatic processes and the evolution of two contrasting extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methven, John; Martinez-Alvarado, Oscar; Gray, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Extratropical cyclones are typically weaker and less frequent in summer as a result of differences in the background state flow and diabatic processes with respect to other seasons. Two extratropical cyclones were observed in summer 2012 with a research aircraft during the DIAMET (DIAbatic influences on Mesoscale structure in ExTratropical storms) field campaign. The first cyclone deepened only down to 995 hPa; the second cyclone deepened down to 978 hPa and formed a potential vorticity (PV) tower, a frequent signature of intense cyclones. The cyclones were analyzed through numerical simulations incorporating tracers for the effects of diabatic processes on potential temperature and PV. It was found that the observed maximum vapor flux in the stronger cyclone was twice as strong as in the weaker cyclone; the water vapor mass flow along the warm conveyor belt of the stronger cyclone was over half that typical in winter even though the flow was weaker. Did the greater water transport and latent heat release associated with condensation result in the greater circulation in the PV tower case? A cyclone-centred integral framework is introduced relating the tracers with cross-isentropic mass transport and circulation around the cyclone. It is shown that the circulation increases much more slowly than the amplitude of the diabatically-generated PV tower at its centre. This effect is explained using the PV impermeability theorem and the influence of diabatic heating on circulation around a cyclone is shown to scale with Rossby number. The implication is that the stronger a cyclone becomes (larger Rossby number), the stronger the influence of latent heating on circulation.

  16. The Fronts and Atlantic Storm-Track Experiment (FASTEX): Scientific Objectives and Experimental Design.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Alain; Jorgensen, Dave; Shapiro, Melvyn A.; Thorpe, Alan; Bessemoulin, Pierre; Browning, Keith A.; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Chalon, Jean-Pierre; Clough, Sidney A.; Emanuel, Kerry A.; Eymard, Laurence; Gall, Robert; Hildebrand, Peter H.; Langland, Rolf H.; Lemaître, Yvon; Lynch, Peter; Moore, James A.; Persson, P. Ola G.; Snyder, Chris; Wakimoto, Roger M.

    1997-09-01

    The Fronts and Atlantic Storm-Track Experiment (FASTEX) will address the life cycle of cyclones evolving over the North Atlantic Ocean in January and February 1997. The objectives of FASTEX are to improve the forecasts of end-of-storm-track cyclogenesis (primarily in the eastern Atlantic but with applicability to the Pacific) in the range 24 to 72 h, to enable the testing of theoretical ideas on cyclone formation and development, and to document the vertical and the mesoscale structure of cloud systems in mature cyclones and their relation to the dynamics. The observing system includes ships that will remain in the vicinity of the main baroclinic zone in the central Atlantic Ocean, jet aircraft that will fly and drop sondes off the east coast of North America or over the central Atlantic Ocean, turboprop aircraft that will survey mature cyclones off Ireland with dropsondes, and airborne Doppler radars, including ASTRAIA/ELDORA. Radiosounding frequency around the North Atlantic basin will be increased, as well as the number of drifting buoys. These facilities will be activated during multiple-day intensive observing periods in order to observe the same meteorological systems at several stages of their life cycle. A central archive will be developed in quasi-real time in Toulouse, France, thus allowing data to be made widely available to the scientific community.

  17. The Climatology of Extreme Surge-Producing Extratropical Cyclones in Observations and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, A. J.; Broccoli, A. J.; Kapnick, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme coastal storms devastate heavily populated areas around the world by producing powerful winds that can create a large storm surge. Both tropical and extratropical cyclones (ETCs) occur over the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, and the risks associated with ETCs can be just as severe as those associated with tropical storms (e.g. high winds, storm surge). At The Battery in New York City, 17 of the 20 largest storm surge events were a consequence of extratropical cyclones (ETCs), which are more prevalent than tropical cyclones in the northeast region of the United States. Therefore, we analyze the climatology of ETCs that are capable of producing a large storm surge along the northeastern coast of the United States. For a historical analysis, water level data was collected from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tide gauges at three separate locations (Sewell's Pt., VA, The Battery, NY, and Boston, MA). We perform a k-means cluster analysis of sea level pressure from the ECMWF 20th Century Reanalysis dataset (ERA-20c) to explore the natural sets of observed storms with similar characteristics. We then composite cluster results with features of atmospheric circulation to observe the influence of interannual and multidecadal variability such as the North Atlantic Oscillation. Since observational records contain a small number of well-documented ETCs, the capability of a high-resolution coupled climate model to realistically simulate such extreme coastal storms will also be assessed. Global climate models provide a means of simulating a much larger sample of extreme events, allowing for better resolution of the tail of the distribution. We employ a tracking algorithm to identify ETCs in a multi-century simulation under present-day conditions. Quantitative comparisons of cyclolysis, cyclogenesis, and cyclone densities of simulated ETCs and storms from recent history (using reanalysis products) are conducted.

  18. Promoting the confluence of tropical cyclone research

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Contributions of biologists to tropical cyclone research may improve by integrating concepts from other disciplines. Employing accumulated cyclone energy into protocols may foster greater integration of ecology and meteorology research. Considering experienced ecosystems as antifragile instead of just resilient may improve cross-referencing among ecological and social scientists. Quantifying ecosystem capital as distinct from ecosystem services may improve integration of tropical cyclone ecology research into the expansive global climate change research community. PMID:26480001

  19. Promoting the confluence of tropical cyclone research.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Contributions of biologists to tropical cyclone research may improve by integrating concepts from other disciplines. Employing accumulated cyclone energy into protocols may foster greater integration of ecology and meteorology research. Considering experienced ecosystems as antifragile instead of just resilient may improve cross-referencing among ecological and social scientists. Quantifying ecosystem capital as distinct from ecosystem services may improve integration of tropical cyclone ecology research into the expansive global climate change research community.

  20. A global slowdown of tropical-cyclone translation speed.

    PubMed

    Kossin, James P

    2018-06-01

    As the Earth's atmosphere warms, the atmospheric circulation changes. These changes vary by region and time of year, but there is evidence that anthropogenic warming causes a general weakening of summertime tropical circulation 1-8 . Because tropical cyclones are carried along within their ambient environmental wind, there is a plausible a priori expectation that the translation speed of tropical cyclones has slowed with warming. In addition to circulation changes, anthropogenic warming causes increases in atmospheric water-vapour capacity, which are generally expected to increase precipitation rates 9 . Rain rates near the centres of tropical cyclones are also expected to increase with increasing global temperatures 10-12 . The amount of tropical-cyclone-related rainfall that any given local area will experience is proportional to the rain rates and inversely proportional to the translation speeds of tropical cyclones. Here I show that tropical-cyclone translation speed has decreased globally by 10 per cent over the period 1949-2016, which is very likely to have compounded, and possibly dominated, any increases in local rainfall totals that may have occurred as a result of increased tropical-cyclone rain rates. The magnitude of the slowdown varies substantially by region and by latitude, but is generally consistent with expected changes in atmospheric circulation forced by anthropogenic emissions. Of particular importance is the slowdown of 30 per cent and 20 per cent over land areas affected by western North Pacific and North Atlantic tropical cyclones, respectively, and the slowdown of 19 per cent over land areas in the Australian region. The unprecedented rainfall totals associated with the 'stall' of Hurricane Harvey 13-15 over Texas in 2017 provide a notable example of the relationship between regional rainfall amounts and tropical-cyclone translation speed. Any systematic past or future change in the translation speed of tropical cyclones, particularly over

  1. The use of a calculus-based cyclone identification method for generating storm statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benestad, R. E.; Chen, D.

    2006-08-01

    Maps of 12 hr sea-level pressure (SLP) from the former National Meteotrological Center (NMC) and 24 hr SLP maps from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 40 yr re-analysis (ERA40) were used to identify extratropical cyclones in the North Atlantic region. A calculus-based cyclone identification (CCI) method is introduced and evaluated, where a multiple regression against a truncated series of sinusoids was used to obtain a Fourier approximation of the north-south and east-west SLP profiles, providing a basis for analytical expressions of the derivatives. Local SLP minima were found from the zero-crossing points of the first-order derivatives for the SLP gradients where the second-order derivatives were greater than zero. Evaluation of cyclone counts indicates a good correspondence with storm track maps and independent monthly large-scale SLP anomalies. The results derived from ERA40 also revealed that the central storm pressure sometimes could be extremely deep in the re-analysis product, and it is not clear whether such outliers are truly representative of the actual events. The position and the depth of the cyclones were subjects for a study of long-term trends in cyclone number for various regions around the North Atlantic. Noting that the re-analyses may contain time-dependent biases due to changes in the observing practises, a tentative positive linear trend, statistically significant at the 10% level, was found in the number of intense storms over the Nordic countries over the period 1955-1994 in both the NMC and the ERA40 data. However, there was no significant trend in the western parts of the North Atlantic where trend analysis derived from NMC and ERA40 yielded different results. The choice of data set had a stronger influence on the results than choices such as the number of harmonics to include or spatial resolution of interpolation.

  2. Saharan dust contributions to PM10 and TSP levels in Southern and Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, S.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Kallos, G.; Kakaliagou, O.

    The analysis of PM10 and TSP levels recorded in rural areas from Southern and Eastern Spain (1996-1999) shows that most of the PM10 and TSP peak events are simultaneously recorded at monitoring stations up to 1000 km apart. The study of the atmospheric dynamics by back-trajectory analysis and simulations with the SKIRON Forecast System show that these high PM10 and TSP events occur when high-dust Saharan air masses are transported over the Iberian Peninsula. In the January-June period, this dust transport is mainly caused by cyclonic activity over the West or South of Portugal, whereas in the summer period this is induced by anticyclonic activity over the East or Southeast Iberian Peninsula. Most of the Saharan intrusions which exert a major influence on the particulate levels occur from May to September (63%) and in January and October. In rural areas in Northeast Spain, where the PM10 annual mean is around 18 μg PM10 m -3, the Saharan dust accounts for 4-7 annual daily exceedances of the forthcoming PM10-EU limit value (50 μg PM10 m -3 daily mean). Higher PM10 background levels are recorded in Southern Spain (30 μg PM10 m -3 as annual mean for rural areas) and very similar values are recorded in industrial and urban areas. In rural areas in Southern Spain, the Saharan dust events accounts for 10-23 annual daily exceedances of the PM10 limit value, a high number when compared with the forthcoming EU standard, which states that the limit value cannot be exceeded more than 7 days per year. The proportion of Sahara-induced exceedances with respect to the total annual exceedances is discussed for rural, urban and industrial sites in Southern Spain.

  3. Estimating the Risk of Tropical Cyclone Characteristics Along the United States Gulf of Mexico Coastline Using Different Statistical Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trepanier, J. C.; Ellis, K.; Jagger, T.; Needham, H.; Yuan, J.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical cyclones, with their high wind speeds, high rainfall totals and deep storm surges, frequently strike the United States Gulf of Mexico coastline influencing millions of people and disrupting off shore economic activities. Events, such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and Hurricane Isaac in 2012, can be physically different but still provide detrimental effects due to their locations of influence. There are a wide variety of ways to estimate the risk of occurrence of extreme tropical cyclones. Here, the combined risk of tropical cyclone storm surge and nearshore wind speed using a statistical copula is provided for 22 Gulf of Mexico coastal cities. Of the cities considered, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi has the shortest return period for a tropical cyclone with at least a 50 m s-1 nearshore wind speed and a three meter surge (19.5 years, 17.1-23.5). Additionally, a multivariate regression model is provided estimating the compound effects of tropical cyclone tracks, landfall central pressure, the amount of accumulated precipitation, and storm surge for five locations around Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana. It is shown the most intense tropical cyclones typically approach from the south and a small change in the amount of rainfall or landfall central pressure leads to a large change in the final storm surge depth. Data are used from the National Hurricane Center, U-Surge, SURGEDAT, and Cooperative Observer Program. The differences in the two statistical approaches are discussed, along with the advantages and limitations to each. The goal of combining the results of the two studies is to gain a better understanding of the most appropriate risk estimation technique for a given area.

  4. Prediction of tropical cyclone over North Indian Ocean using WRF model: sensitivity to scatterometer winds, ATOVS and ATMS radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodla, Venkata B.; Srinivas, Desamsetti; Dasari, Hari Prasad; Gubbala, Chinna Satyanarayana

    2016-05-01

    Tropical cyclone prediction, in terms of intensification and movement, is important for disaster management and mitigation. Hitherto, research studies were focused on this issue that lead to improvement in numerical models, initial data with data assimilation, physical parameterizations and application of ensemble prediction. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is the state-of-art model for cyclone prediction. In the present study, prediction of tropical cyclone (Phailin, 2013) that formed in the North Indian Ocean (NIO) with and without data assimilation using WRF model has been made to assess impacts of data assimilation. WRF model was designed to have nested two domains of 15 and 5 km resolutions. In the present study, numerical experiments are made without and with the assimilation of scatterometer winds, and radiances from ATOVS and ATMS. The model performance was assessed in respect to the movement and intensification of cyclone. ATOVS data assimilation experiment had produced the best prediction with least errors less than 100 km up to 60 hours and producing pre-deepening and deepening periods accurately. The Control and SCAT wind assimilation experiments have shown good track but the errors were 150-200 km and gradual deepening from the beginning itself instead of sudden deepening.

  5. A Climatological Study of Hurricane Force Extratropical Cyclones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    extratropical cyclone by months in the Pacific basin. Most of the storms occur from October through March...hurricane force extratropical cyclone. Starting from left to right; the first column is the storm name, second column is the year, month, day, hour (UTC...2000 through 2007 illustrates that the number of hurricane-force extratropical cyclones is quite significant: approximately 500 storms , nearly evenly

  6. Multiple Satellite Observations of Cloud Cover in Extratropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Booth, James F.; Posselt, Derek J.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Using cloud observations from NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer, and CloudSat-CALIPSO, composites of cloud fraction in southern and northern hemisphere extratropical cyclones are obtained for cold and warm seasons between 2006 and 2010, to assess differences between these three data sets, and between summer and winter cyclones. In both hemispheres and seasons, over the open ocean, the cyclone-centered cloud fraction composites agree within 5% across the three data sets, but behind the cold fronts, or over sea ice and land, the differences are much larger. To supplement the data set comparison and learn more about the cyclones, we also examine the differences in cloud fraction between cold and warm season for each data set. The difference in cloud fraction between cold and warm season southern hemisphere cyclones is small for all three data sets, but of the same order of magnitude as the differences between the data sets. The cold-warm season contrast in northern hemisphere cyclone cloud fractions is similar for all three data sets: in the warm sector, the cold season cloud fractions are lower close to the low, but larger on the equator edge than their warm season counterparts. This seasonal contrast in cloud fraction within the cyclones warm sector seems to be related to the seasonal differences in moisture flux within the cyclones. Our analysis suggests that the three different data sets can all be used confidently when studying the warm sector and warm frontal zone of extratropical cyclones but caution should be exerted when studying clouds in the cold sector.

  7. Atmospheric Motion Vectors from INSAT-3D: Initial quality assessment and its impact on track forecast of cyclonic storm NANAUK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, S. K.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Kumar, Prashant; Kiran Kumar, A. S.; Pal, P. K.; Kaushik, Nitesh; Sangar, Ghansham

    2016-03-01

    The advanced Indian meteorological geostationary satellite INSAT-3D was launched on 26 July 2013 with an improved imager and an infrared sounder and is placed at 82°E over the Indian Ocean region. With the advancement in retrieval techniques of different atmospheric parameters and with improved imager data have enhanced the scope for better understanding of the different tropical atmospheric processes over this region. The retrieval techniques and accuracy of one such parameter, Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMV) has improved significantly with the availability of improved spatial resolution data along with more options of spectral channels in the INSAT-3D imager. The present work is mainly focused on providing brief descriptions of INSAT-3D data and AMV derivation processes using these data. It also discussed the initial quality assessment of INSAT-3D AMVs for a period of six months starting from 01 February 2014 to 31 July 2014 with other independent observations: i) Meteosat-7 AMVs available over this region, ii) in-situ radiosonde wind measurements, iii) cloud tracked winds from Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) and iv) numerical model analysis. It is observed from this study that the qualities of newly derived INSAT-3D AMVs are comparable with existing two versions of Meteosat-7 AMVs over this region. To demonstrate its initial application, INSAT-3D AMVs are assimilated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and it is found that the assimilation of newly derived AMVs has helped in reduction of track forecast errors of the recent cyclonic storm NANAUK over the Arabian Sea. Though, the present study is limited to its application to one case study, however, it will provide some guidance to the operational agencies for implementation of this new AMV dataset for future applications in the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) over the south Asia region.

  8. Tropical cyclone intensity change. A quantitative forecasting scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dropco, K. M.; Gray, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    One to two day future tropical cyclone intensity change from both a composite and an individual case point-of-view are discussed. Tropical cyclones occurring in the Gulf of Mexico during the period 1957-1977 form the primary data source. Weather charts of the NW Atlantic were initially examined, but few differences were found between intensifying and non-intensifying cyclones. A rawinsonde composite analysis detected composite differences in the 200 mb height fields, the 850 mb temperature fields, the 200 mb zonal wind and the vertical shears of the zonal wind. The individual cyclones which make up the composite study were then separately examined using this composite case knowledge. Similar parameter differences were found in a majority of individual cases. A cyclone intensity change forecast scheme was tested against independent storm cases. Correct predictions of intensification or non-intensification could be made approximately 75% of the time.

  9. FORMAT OF TROPICAL CYCLONE RECORDS ("TCVITALS")

    Science.gov Websites

    FORMAT OF TROPICAL CYCLONE VITAL STATISTICS RECORDS ("TCVITALS") 8-16-2007 CHARACTER(S - These appear only in records that have been processed by the NCEP tropical cyclone quality control program SYNDAT_QCTROPCY. BOLDFACE - These appear only in NHC records. 1 - Prior to 1999, report date was

  10. Bomb Cyclones Of The Western North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Ryan E.

    "Bomb" cyclones represent a small subset of mid-latitude cyclones characterized by rapid intensification and frequently are associated with extreme weather conditions along the eastern coast of North America. Like other extreme phenomena, bomb cyclone predictions are prone to error leading to inadequate or untimely hazard warnings. The rare nature of bomb cyclones and the uniqueness of their evolutions has made it difficult for researchers to make meaningful generalizations on bomb cyclone events. This paper describes bomb cyclone climatology for the western North Atlantic, using data from the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis for 1948-2016, and uses a synoptic climatological analysis to relate these bombs to their associated atmospheric environments. A self-organizing map (SOM) of 300-hPa geopotential height tendency is created to partition the regional atmospheric environment. Thermodynamic fields are contrasted by each 300-hPa geopotential height tendency pattern for both bomb and non-bomb events in composite difference maps. The SOM patterns most significantly associated with western North Atlantic bomb cyclogenesis are characterized by both strongly and weakly negative height tendencies along the eastern United States. In both cases, these patterns exhibit strong meridional flow, a distinction marked by the weakening and breaking down of the polar vortex in the boreal Winter. The composite maps for each pattern show the mean differences in low-mid level ascent and near surface thermodynamics for bomb environments contrasted with non-bomb environments, resulting in diverse spatiotemporal distributions of bombs in the western North Atlantic.

  11. The contribution of tropical cyclones to rainfall in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustín Breña-Naranjo, J.; Pedrozo-Acuña, Adrián; Pozos-Estrada, Oscar; Jiménez-López, Salma A.; López-López, Marco R.

    Investigating the contribution of tropical cyclones to the terrestrial water cycle can help quantify the benefits and hazards caused by the rainfall generated from this type of hydro-meteorological event. Rainfall induced by tropical cyclones can enhance both flood risk and groundwater recharge, and it is therefore important to characterise its minimum, mean and maximum contributions to a region or country's water balance. This work evaluates the rainfall contribution of tropical depressions, storms and hurricanes across Mexico from 1998 to 2013 using the satellite-derived precipitation dataset TMPA 3B42. Additionally, the sensitivity of rainfall to other datasets was assessed: the national rain gauge observation network, real-time satellite rainfall and a merged product that combines rain gauges with non-calibrated space-borne rainfall measurements. The lower Baja California peninsula had the highest contribution from cyclonic rainfall in relative terms (∼40% of its total annual rainfall), whereas the contributions in the rest of the country showed a low-to-medium dependence on tropical cyclones, with mean values ranging from 0% to 20%. In quantitative terms, southern regions of Mexico can receive more than 2400 mm of cyclonic rainfall during years with significant TC activity. Moreover, (a) the number of tropical cyclones impacting Mexico has been significantly increasing since 1998, but cyclonic contributions in relative and quantitative terms have not been increasing, and (b) wind speed and rainfall intensity during cyclones are not highly correlated. Future work should evaluate the impacts of such contributions on surface and groundwater hydrological processes and connect the knowledge gaps between the magnitude of tropical cyclones, flood hazards, and economic losses.

  12. The Role of African Easterly Wave on Dust Transport and the Interaction Between Saharan Dust Layer and Atlantic ITCZ During Boreal Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, William K-M

    2011-01-01

    Saharan dust outbreaks not only transport large amount of dust to the northern Atlantic Ocean, but also alter African easterly jet and wave activities along the jet by changing north-south temperature gradient. Recent modeling and observational studies show that during periods of enhance outbreaks, rainfall on the northern part of ITCZ increases in conjunction with a northward shift of ITCZ toward the dust layer. In this paper, we study the radiative forcing of Saharan dust and its interactions with the Atlantic Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), through African easterly waves (AEW), African easterly jet (AEJ), using the Terra/Aqua observations as well as MERRA data. Using band pass filtered EOF analysis, we find that African easterly waves propagating westward along two principal tracks, centered at 15-25N and 5-10N respectively. The easterly waves in the northern track are slower, with propagation speed of 9 ms-1, and highly correlated with major dust outbreak over North Africa. On the other hand, easterly waves along the southern track are faster with propagating speed of 10 ms-1, and are closely tied to rainfall/cloud variations along the Atlantic ITCZ. Dust transport along the southern track leads rainfall/cloud anomalies in the same region by one or two days, suggesting the southern tracks of dust outbreak are regions of strong interaction between Saharan dust layer and Atlantic ITCZ. Possible linkage between two tracks of easterly waves, as well as the long-term change of easterly wave activities and dust outbreaks, are also discussed.

  13. Observed Recent Trends in Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Over Major Ocean Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K. M.; Zhou, Y. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) rainfall data together with historical storm track records to examine the trend of tropical cyclone (TC) rainfall in major ocean basins during recent decades (1980-2007). We find that accumulated total rainfall along storm tracks for all tropical cyclones shows a weak positive trend over the whole tropics. However, total rainfall associated with weak storms, and intense storms (Category 4-5) both show significant positive trends, while total rainfall associated with intermediate storms (Category1-3) show a significant negative trend. Storm intensity defined as total rain produced per unit storm also shows increasing trend for all storm types. Basin-wide, from the first half (1980-1993) to the second half (1994-2007) of the data period, the North Atlantic shows the pronounced increase in TC number and TC rainfall while the Northeast Pacific shows a significant decrease in all storm types. Except for the Northeast Pacific, all other major basins (North Atlantic, Northwest Pacific, Southern Oceans, and Northern Indian Ocean) show a significant increase in total number and rainfall amount in Category 4-5 storms. Overall, trends in TC rainfall in different ocean basins are consistent with long-term changes in the ambient large-scale environment, including SST, vertical wind shear, sea level pressure, mid-tropospheric humidity, and Maximum Potential Intensity (MPI). Notably the pronounced positive (negative) trend of TC rainfall in the North Atlantic (Northeast Pacific) appears to be related to the most (least) rapid increase in SST and MPI, and the largest decrease (increase) in vertical wind shear in the region, relative to other ocean basins.

  14. Statistical Analysis of Ensemble Forecasts of Tropical Cyclone Tracks over the North Atlantic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Figure 6. Official tracks of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season. Storms are listed in the top-right box with the symbols and track color explained in...Atlantic hurricane season. Storms are listed in the top-right box with the symbols and track color explained in the legend in the bottom-right box (From...NHC 2012l). ...................................................13 Figure 8. Official tracks of the 2010 Atlantic hurricane season. Storms are listed

  15. Diabatic processes and the evolution of two contrasting extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Alvarado, Oscar; Gray, Suzanne; Methven, John

    2016-04-01

    Two contrasting extratropical cyclones were observed over the United Kingdom during the summer 2012 field campaign of the DIAMET (DIAbatic influences on Mesoscale structures in ExtraTropical storms) project. The first cyclone, observed in July, was a shallow system typical of summer over west Europe while the second cyclone, observed in August, was a much deeper system which developed a potential vorticity (PV) tower. The evolution of these two cyclones was analysed and compared in terms of diabatic effects with respect to two aspects. The first aspect is the amount and distribution of heat produced during the development of each cyclone, measured by the cross-isentropic motion around the cyclone centre. The second aspect is the modification to the circulation around the cyclones' centres, measured by area-averaged isentropic vorticity. The contributions from individual diabatic processes, such as convection, cloud microphysics and radiation, to these two aspects is also considered. The cyclones were analysed via hindcast simulations with a research version of the Met Office Unified Model, enhanced with on-line tracers of diabatic changes of potential temperature and PV. A new methodology for the interpretation of these tracers was also implemented and used. The hindcast simulations were compared with the available dropsonde observations from the field campaign as well as operational analyses and radar rainfall rates. It is shown that, while boundary layer and turbulent mixing processes and cloud microphysics processes contributed to the development of both cyclones, the main differences between the cyclones in terms of diabatic effects could be attributed to differences in convective activity. It is also shown that the contribution from all these diabatic processes to changes in the circulation was modulated by the characteristics of advection around each cyclone in a highly nonlinear fashion. This research establishes a new framework for a systematic comparison

  16. Cyclonic eddies identified in the Cape Basin of the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C.; Lutjeharms, J. R. E.

    2011-03-01

    Inter-ocean exchange south of Africa takes place largely through the movement of Agulhas Rings into the Cape Basin. Recent observations have shown that the highly energetic flow field in this basin consists of anti-cyclonic rings as well as cyclonic eddies. Very little is known of the characteristics of the cyclonic eddies. Using altimetric data, this study determines the location, frequency and seasonality of these cyclonic eddies their size, trajectories, life spans and their association with Agulhas Rings. Cyclonic eddies were seen to split, merge and link with other cyclonic eddies, where splitting events created child cyclonic eddies. The 105 parent and 157 child cyclonic eddies identified over a decade show that on average 11 parent and 17 child cyclonic eddies appear annually in AVISO merged absolute dynamic topography data along the continental slope. Thirty-two percent follow an overall west south-westward direction, with 27% going west north-westward. Average translocation speeds are 2.2 ± 0.1 km/day for parent and 3.0 ± 0.2 km/day for child cyclonic eddies. Parent cyclonic eddy lifespan averaged 250 ± 18 days; whereas child cyclonic eddies survived for only 118 ± 11 days. A significant difference in lifespan for parent and child cyclonic eddies identified in the north and south region of the study area was detected. Seventy-seven percent of the northern and 93% of the southern cyclonic eddies were first detected directly adjacent to passing Agulhas Rings, suggesting a vital interaction between these mesoscale eddies within the region. Topographical features appeared to affect the behaviour and lifespan of these deep cyclonic eddies.

  17. 1994 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    force winds exist near the center. . . . The NOGAPS model does not analyze Tropical Depression 20W as a distinct feature, nor does it develop the...NOGAPS model for very small westward-moving trop- ical cyclones (Figure 3-20-8). According to Carr, NOGAPS effective grid spacing is too large to properly...analyze a very small to small tropical cyclone. The bogus vortex inserted into the analysis starts out too large and usually expands if the model

  18. Tropical Cyclone Paul

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-30

    NASA image March 29, 2010 Tropical Cyclone Paul spanned the ocean waters between Australia and New Guinea on March 29, 2010. The MODIS on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this natural-color image the same day. The center of the cyclone is along the coast of Northern Territory’s Arnhem Land. Clouds run counter-clockwise across the Gulf of Carpentaria and Cape York Peninsula, over New Guinea’s Pulau Dolok, and over the Arafura Sea. On March 29, 2010, the U.S. Navy’s Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) reported that Tropical Cyclone Paul storm had maximum sustained winds of 60 knots (110 kilometers per hour) and gusts up to 75 knots (140 kilometers per hour). The storm was located roughly 315 nautical miles (585 kilometers) east of Darwin. The storm had moved slowly toward the southwest over the previous several hours. The JTWC forecast that the storm would likely maintain its current intensity for several more hours before slowly dissipating over land. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS To learn more about this image go to: modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/individual.php?db_date=2010-0... NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

  19. Ocean barrier layers’ effect on tropical cyclone intensification

    PubMed Central

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, Ping; Saravanan, R.; Leung, L. Ruby; Xu, Zhao; Li, Mingkui; Hsieh, Jen-Shan

    2012-01-01

    Improving a tropical cyclone’s forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone’s path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are “quasi-permanent” features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity. PMID:22891298

  20. Temporal clustering of tropical cyclones and its ecosystem impacts

    PubMed Central

    Mumby, Peter J.; Vitolo, Renato; Stephenson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Tropical cyclones have massive economic, social, and ecological impacts, and models of their occurrence influence many planning activities from setting insurance premiums to conservation planning. Most impact models allow for geographically varying cyclone rates but assume that individual storm events occur randomly with constant rate in time. This study analyzes the statistical properties of Atlantic tropical cyclones and shows that local cyclone counts vary in time, with periods of elevated activity followed by relative quiescence. Such temporal clustering is particularly strong in the Caribbean Sea, along the coasts of Belize, Honduras, Costa Rica, Jamaica, the southwest of Haiti, and in the main hurricane development region in the North Atlantic between Africa and the Caribbean. Failing to recognize this natural nonstationarity in cyclone rates can give inaccurate impact predictions. We demonstrate this by exploring cyclone impacts on coral reefs. For a given cyclone rate, we find that clustered events have a less detrimental impact than independent random events. Predictions using a standard random hurricane model were overly pessimistic, predicting reef degradation more than a decade earlier than that expected under clustered disturbance. The presence of clustering allows coral reefs more time to recover to healthier states, but the impacts of clustering will vary from one ecosystem to another. PMID:22006300

  1. Contribution of Tropical Cyclones to the Interannual Variability of Baiu Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaura, T.; Tomita, T.

    2011-12-01

    This work examines the contribution of tropical cyclones to the interannual variability of Baiu precipitation with the large-scale interannual variations in the tropics, that is, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation (TBO) in the Asian monsoon. The data used are the Global Precipitation Climatology Project, the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis Project/Japan Meteorological Agency Climate Data Assimilation System, and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. The diagnosed months and the time period are June and July, and 30 years from 1979 to 2008. When the negative precipitation anomalies appear in the entire Baiu front with the cold ENSO phase, the number of tropical cyclones increases around the northern part of the Philippines, and a larger-scale anomalous cyclone is formed there. Tropical cyclones contribute to strengthening the anomalous cyclone. Anomalous convective activity in the anomalous cyclone excites Rossby waves that propagate northward within the low-level jet and form an anomalous anticyclone around Japan. The anomalous anticyclone decreases the Baiu precipitation. On the other hand, the number of tropical cyclones decreases, and an anomalous anticyclone is set around the northern part of the Philippines, when the positive precipitation anomalies are observed in the Baiu front with the warm ENSO phase. The contribution of tropical cyclones is insignificant in this phase. The warm and cold TBO phases are judged from sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the equatorial central Pacific that is different from the region for ENSO. In the cold TBO phase with the negative SST anomalies, there appear the negative precipitation anomalies around Kyushu and the positive ones to the southeast of Japan. Concurrently, an anomalous cyclone appears, and the accumulated cyclone energy estimated from the tropical cyclones increases to the southeast of Japan. Tropical cyclones contribute to forming the anomalous cyclone, which

  2. Cyclone tolerance in new world arecaceae: biogeographic variation and abiotic natural selection.

    PubMed

    Griffith, M Patrick; Noblick, Larry R; Dowe, John L; Husby, Chad E; Calonje, Michael A

    2008-10-01

    Consistent abiotic factors can affect directional selection; cyclones are abiotic phenomena with near-discrete geographic limits. The current study investigates selective pressure of cyclones on plants at the species level, testing for possible natural selection. New World Arecaceae (palms) are used as a model system, as plants with monopodial, unbranched arborescent form are most directly affected by the selective pressure of wind load. Living specimens of known provenance grown at a common site were affected by the same cyclone. Data on percentage mortality were compiled and analysed in biogeographic and phylogenetic contexts. Palms of cyclone-prone provenance exhibited a much lower (one order of magnitude) range in cyclone tolerance, and significantly lower (P < 0.001) mean percentage mortality than collections from cyclone-free areas. Palms of cyclone-free provenance had much greater variation in tolerance, and significantly greater mean percentage mortality. A test for serial independence recovered no significant phylogenetic autocorrelation of percentage mortality. Variation in cyclone tolerance in New World Arecaceae correlates with biogeography, and is not confounded with phylogeny. These results suggest natural selection of cyclone tolerance in cyclone-prone areas.

  3. A comparison of explosive cyclone characteristics in recent reanalyses: NCEP CFSR, JRA-55, and ERA-Interim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Y.; Waseda, T.

    2016-12-01

    Explosive cyclones (EXPCs) were investigated in three recent reanalyses. Their tracking methods is diverse among researchers, and additionally reanalysis data they use are various. Reanalysis data are essential as initial conditions to implement a downscale simulation with high accuracy. In this study, characteristics of EXPCs in three recent reanalyses were investigated from several perspectives: track densities, minimum MSLP (Mean Sea Level Pressure), and radius of EXPCs. The tracking method of extratropical cyclones (ECs) is to track local minimum of MSLP. The domain is limited to Eastern Asia and the North Pacific Ocean (lat20°:70°, lon100°:200°), and target period is 2000-2014. Fig.1 shows that the frequencies of EXPCs, which is defined as ECs whose MSLP drops by over 12hPa in 12hours, are greatly different, noting that extracted EXPCs are those whose most deepening phases were located around Japan (lat20°:60°, lon110°:160°). In addition, they are dissimilar to those in a previous EXPCs database (Kawamura et al.) and results in weather map analyses. The differences between each frequency might be caused by MSLP at their centers: there were sometimes small gaps of a few hPa. The minimum MSLP and effective radius were also investigated, but distributions of effective radii of EXPCs did not show significant difference (Fig.2). Thus, the gaps of central MSLP just matter in the differences of their trends. To evaluate the path density of EXPCs, two-dimensional kernel density estimation was conducted. The kernel densities of EXPCs' tracks in three reanalyses seem similar: they accumulated apparently above ocean (not shown). Two-dimensional kernel densities of EXPCs' most deepening points accumulated above Sea of Japan, Kuroshio and Extension. Therefore, it is proved that there are considerable differences in numbers of EXPCs depending on reanalyses, while the general characteristics of EXPCs just have little difference. It is worthwhile to say that careful

  4. Opposed-flow virtual cyclone for particle concentration

    DOEpatents

    Rader, Daniel J.; Torczynski, John R.

    2000-12-05

    An opposed-flow virtual cyclone for aerosol collation which can accurately collect, classify, and concentrate (enrich) particles in a specific size range. The opposed-flow virtual cyclone is a variation on the virtual cyclone and has its inherent advantages (no-impact particle separation in a simple geometry), while providing a more robust design for concentrating particles in a flow-through type system. The opposed-flow virtual cyclone consists of two geometrically similar virtual cyclones arranged such that their inlet jets are inwardly directed and symmetrically opposed relative to a plane of symmetry located between the two inlet slits. A top plate bounds both jets on the "top" side of the inlets, while the other or lower wall curves "down" and away from each inlet jet. Each inlet jet will follow the adjacent lower wall as it turns away, and that particles will be transferred away from the wall and towards the symmetry plane by centrifugal action. After turning, the two jets merge smoothly along the symmetry line and flow parallel to it through the throat. Particles are transferred from the main flows, across a dividing streamline, and into a central recirculating region, where particle concentrations become greatly increased relative to the main stream.

  5. A coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave modeling approach for a Tropical Like Cyclone in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricchi, Antonio; Miglietta, M. Marcello; Barbariol, Francesco; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Falcieri, Francesco; Russo, Aniello; Sclavo, Mauro; Carniel, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    In November 6-8, 2011, in the Balearic islands an extra-tropical depression developed into a Tropical-Like Cyclone (TLC) characterized by a deep-warm core, leading to a mean sea level pressure minimum of about 991 hPa, 10 m wind speeds higher than 28 m/s around the eye, and very intense rainfall, especially in the Gulf of Lion. To explore in detail the effect of the sea surface temperature on the Medicane evolution, we employed the coupled modeling system COAWST, which consists of the ROMS model for the hydrodynamic part, the WRF model for the meteorological part, and the SWAN for the surface wave modeling. All model run over 5 km domain (same domain for ROMS and SWAN). COAWST was used with different configurations: in Stand Alone (SA) mode (that is, with only the atmospheric part), in atmosphere-ocean coupled mode (AO), and in a fully coupled version including also surface waves (AOW). Several sensitivity simulations performed with the SA approach were undertaken to simulate the TLC evolution. Especially in the later stage of the lifetime, when the cyclone was weaker, the predictability appears limited. Sensitivity simulations have considered the effect of the cumulus scheme (using an explicit scheme the Medicane does not develop and remains an extra-tropical depression) and the PBL scheme (using MYJ or MYNN resulting "Medicane" are extremely similar, although the roughness appears rather different among the two experiments). Comparing the three runs, the effects of different simulations on the Medicane tracks are significant only in the later stage of the cyclone lifetime. In the overall modeled basin, wind intensity is higher in the SA case w.r.t. both coupled runs. When compared to case AO, winds are about 1 m/s larger, even though the spatial distribution is very similar (possibly because of the lower SST produced by case AO). Case AOW produces less intense winds then SA and AO case in the areas where the wave is most developed (differences are about 2-4 m

  6. Large-scale dynamics associated with clustering of extratropical cyclones affecting Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Joaquim G.; Gómara, Iñigo; Masato, Giacomo; Dacre, Helen F.; Woollings, Tim; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Some recent winters in Western Europe have been characterized by the occurrence of multiple extratropical cyclones following a similar path. The occurrence of such cyclone clusters leads to large socio-economic impacts due to damaging winds, storm surges, and floods. Recent studies have statistically characterized the clustering of extratropical cyclones over the North Atlantic and Europe and hypothesized potential physical mechanisms responsible for their formation. Here we analyze 4 months characterized by multiple cyclones over Western Europe (February 1990, January 1993, December 1999, and January 2007). The evolution of the eddy driven jet stream, Rossby wave-breaking, and upstream/downstream cyclone development are investigated to infer the role of the large-scale flow and to determine if clustered cyclones are related to each other. Results suggest that optimal conditions for the occurrence of cyclone clusters are provided by a recurrent extension of an intensified eddy driven jet toward Western Europe lasting at least 1 week. Multiple Rossby wave-breaking occurrences on both the poleward and equatorward flanks of the jet contribute to the development of these anomalous large-scale conditions. The analysis of the daily weather charts reveals that upstream cyclone development (secondary cyclogenesis, where new cyclones are generated on the trailing fronts of mature cyclones) is strongly related to cyclone clustering, with multiple cyclones developing on a single jet streak. The present analysis permits a deeper understanding of the physical reasons leading to the occurrence of cyclone families over the North Atlantic, enabling a better estimation of the associated cumulative risk over Europe.

  7. Tropical cyclone rainfall area controlled by relative sea surface temperature

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yanluan; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Minghua

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclone rainfall rates have been projected to increase in a warmer climate. The area coverage of tropical cyclones influences their impact on human lives, yet little is known about how tropical cyclone rainfall area will change in the future. Here, using satellite data and global atmospheric model simulations, we show that tropical cyclone rainfall area is controlled primarily by its environmental sea surface temperature (SST) relative to the tropical mean SST (that is, the relative SST), while rainfall rate increases with increasing absolute SST. Our result is consistent with previous numerical simulations that indicated tight relationships between tropical cyclone size and mid-tropospheric relative humidity. Global statistics of tropical cyclone rainfall area are not expected to change markedly under a warmer climate provided that SST change is relatively uniform, implying that increases in total rainfall will be confined to similar size domains with higher rainfall rates. PMID:25761457

  8. Model finds bigger, stronger tropical cyclones with warming seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-03-01

    In the wake of powerful tropical cyclones such as Hurricanes Sandy and Katrina and Typhoon Haiyan, questions about the likely effect of climate change on tropical cyclone activity are on the public's mind. The interactions between global warming and cyclone activity, however, are complex, with rising sea surface temperatures, changing energy distributions, and altered atmospheric dynamics all having some effect.

  9. Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Formation and Structure Change in TCS-08 and TCS-08 Field Experiment Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    TRMM Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager observations have been collected for the developing and non-developing pre-tropical cyclone disturbances...The ELDORA radar sampled the deep convection (Fig. 3a) and the radar -relative winds (Fig. 3b) define low-level convergence and upper-level...locations of dropsondes. The yellow line defines the flight track of the NRL P-3 aircraft. The white star defines the location of the radar reflectivity

  10. A Subtropical Cyclone in the Canary Islands: the October 2014 event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quitian, Lara; Martin, Maria Luisa; Jesús González-Alemán, Juan; Santos-Muñoz, Daniel; Valero Rodríguez, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Depending on the thermal structure and dynamics, there are different types of cyclones in the troposphere. Subtropical cyclones (STC) are low pressure systems that share tropical and extratropical characteristics, having hybrid thermal structures. In October 2014, a cyclonic system landfall the Canary Islands, causing widespread damages. The system began to develop in October 18 and its effects lasted until October 21. Here, the diagnosis and identification of such cyclone as STC is carried out, examining its dynamical and thermal evolution. Diverse fields have been obtained from three different numerical models, and several diagnostic tools and cyclone phase space diagrams have been used. The cyclone evolved from a typical extratropical cyclone, detached from the atmospheric circulation which was highly meridional and became a stationary cut-off low. The meridional intrusion of the trough as well as a low-level baroclinic zone favored the formation of a STC northwestern of the Canary Islands. Several cyclone phase space diagrams are used to classify the cyclone as a STC, highlighting a deep cold core in its early stages that develops into a shallow warm core. High potential vorticity areas associated with the cyclone promoted strong winds and precipitation over the Islands. Throughout the event, an increased conditional instability is observed in the different soundings, leading to strong vertical wind shear. Moreover, relatively warm sea surface temperature is obtained, establishing the conditions to favor the organization of long-lived convective structures.

  11. Studies of saharan dust intrusions over bucharest using ceilometer's measurements and satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urlea, Denisa; Boscornea, Andreea; Nicolae Vâjâiac, Sorin; Ţoancă, Florica; Barbu, Nicu; Ştefan, Sabina; Bunescu, Ionuț

    2018-04-01

    Three case studies of Saharan dust intrusions over southern Romania were performed. For these studies the database from the ceilometers located at Magurele and Strejnic was used. In addition, the meteorological conditions were analyzed using the WLK Catalogue based on the Objektive Wetterlagenklassifikation classification of the weather types [1]. This catalogue uses information from three basic tropospheric levels: 925, 700 and 500 hPa, and information on the precipitable water content over the entire atmosphere column. Geopotential fields at 925hPa and 500hPa are used for establishing the cyclonicity or anticyclonicity, while the U and V components of wind at 700hPa for establishing the dominant direction of the wind flow. For better understanding of the atmospheric parameters we performed HYSPLIT dispersion and trajectories analysis in conjunction with DREAM model output data.

  12. LASE Observations of Interactions Between African Easterly Waves and the Saharan Air Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard; Browell, Edward; Kooi, Susan; Biswas, Mrinal; Krishnamurti, T. N.; Notari, Anthony; Heymsfield, Andrew; Butler, Carolyn; Burton, Sharon; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) participated in the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA) field experiment in 2006 that was conducted from Sal, Cape Verde to study the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) and its influence on the African Easterly Waves (AEWs) and Tropical Cyclones (TCs). During NAMMA, LASE collected simultaneous water vapor and aerosol lidar measurements from 14 flights onboard the NASA DC- 8. In this paper we present three examples of the interaction of the SAL and AEWs regarding: moistening of the SAL and transfer of latent heat; injection of dust in an updraft; and influence of dry air intrusion on an AEW. A brief discussion is also given on activities related to the refurbishment of LASE to enhance its operational performance and plans to participate in the next NASA hurricane field experiment in the summer of 2010.

  13. Tropical Cyclone Indlala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On March 14, 2007, storm-weary Madagascar braced for its fourth land-falling tropical cyclone in as many months. Cyclone Indlala was hovering off the island's northeast coast when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite captured this photo-like image at 1:40 p.m. local time (10:40 UTC). Just over a hundred kilometers offshore, the partially cloudy eye at the heart of the storm seems like a vast drain sucking in a disk of swirling clouds. According to reports from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued less than three hours after MODIS captured this image, Indlala had winds of 115 knots (132 miles per hour), with gusts up to 140 knots (161 mph). Wave heights were estimated to be 36 feet. At the time of the report, the storm was predicted to intensify through the subsequent 12-hour period, to turn slightly southwest, and to strike eastern Madagascar as a Category 4 storm with sustained winds up to 125 knots (144 mph), and gusts up to 150 knots (173 mph). According to Reuters AlertNet news service, Madagascar's emergency response resources were taxed to their limit in early March 2007 as a result of extensive flooding in the North, drought and food shortages in the South, and three previous hits from cyclones in the preceding few months: Bondo in December 2006, Clovis in January 2007, and Gamede in February.

  14. Marine climate influences on interannual variability of tropical cyclones in the eastern Caribbean: 1979-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2015-04-01

    Interannual variability of tropical cyclones (TCs) in the eastern Caribbean is studied using MIT-Hurdat fields during the July-October season from 1979 to 2008. TC intensity shows local climate sensitivity particularly for upper ocean currents, salinity and mixed-layer depth, and 200-850 mb wind shear. Remote influences from the Southern Oscillation, Saharan dust, and the South American monsoon are also identified as important. Ocean currents diminish along the coast of South America, so interbasin transfer between the North Brazil and Caribbean Currents declines in seasons of frequent and intense TCs. This is related to a dipole pattern in the sea surface height formed mainly by reduced trade wind upwelling northeast of Venezuela. A low-salinity plume from the Orinoco River spreads across the eastern Caribbean. It is the weaker currents and shallower mixed layer that conspire with surplus heat to build thermodynamic energy available for TC intensification.

  15. Cyclonic circulation of Saturn's atmosphere due to tilted convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Y. D.; Zhang, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Saturn displays cyclonic vortices at its poles and the general atmospheric circulation at other latitudes is dominated by embedded zonal jets that display cyclonic circulation. The abundance of small-scale convective storms suggests that convection plays a role in producing and maintaining Saturn's atmospheric circulation. However, the dynamical influence of small-scale convection on Saturn's general circulation is not well understood. Here we present laboratory analogue experiments and propose that Saturn's cyclonic circulation can be explained by tilted convection in which buoyancy forces do not align with the planet's rotation axis. In our experiments—conducted with a cylindrical water tank that is heated at the bottom, cooled at the top and spun on a rotating table—warm rising plumes and cold sinking water generate small anticyclonic and cyclonic vortices that are qualitatively similar to Saturn's convective storms. Numerical simulations complement the experiments and show that this small-scale convection leads to large-scale cyclonic flow at the surface and anticyclonic circulation at the base of the fluid layer, with a polar vortex forming from the merging of smaller cyclonic storms that are driven polewards.

  16. Environmental Modeling, Technology, and Communication for Land Falling Tropical Cyclone/Hurricane Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Tuluri, Francis; Reddy, R. Suseela; Anjaneyulu, Y.; Colonias, John; Tchounwou, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Katrina (a tropical cyclone/hurricane) began to strengthen reaching a Category 5 storm on 28th August, 2005 and its winds reached peak intensity of 175 mph and pressure levels as low as 902 mb. Katrina eventually weakened to a category 3 storm and made a landfall in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico, south of Buras on 29th August 2005. We investigate the time series intensity change of the hurricane Katrina using environmental modeling and technology tools to develop an early and advanced warning and prediction system. Environmental Mesoscale Model (Weather Research Forecast, WRF) simulations are used for prediction of intensity change and track of the hurricane Katrina. The model is run on a doubly nested domain centered over the central Gulf of Mexico, with grid spacing of 90 km and 30 km for 6 h periods, from August 28th to August 30th. The model results are in good agreement with the observations suggesting that the model is capable of simulating the surface features, intensity change and track and precipitation associated with hurricane Katrina. We computed the maximum vertical velocities (Wmax) using Convective Available Kinetic Energy (CAPE) obtained at the equilibrium level (EL), from atmospheric soundings over the Gulf Coast stations during the hurricane land falling for the period August 21–30, 2005. The large vertical atmospheric motions associated with the land falling hurricane Katrina produced severe weather including thunderstorms and tornadoes 2–3 days before landfall. The environmental modeling simulations in combination with sounding data show that the tools may be used as an advanced prediction and communication system (APCS) for land falling tropical cyclones/hurricanes. PMID:20623002

  17. Toward Clarity on Understanding Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    forefront of tropical cyclone research for a number of years , espe- cially in the context of the rapid intensification or decay of storms. Rapid...67, 1817 – 1830, doi:10.1175/2010JAS3318.1. Vigh, J. L., and W. H. Schubert, 2009: Rapid development of the tropical cyclone warm core. J. Atmos

  18. Impact on Hurricane Track and Intensity Forecasts of GPS Dropwindsonde Observations from the First-Season Flights of the NOAA Gulfstream-IV Jet Aircraft.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aberson, Sim D.; Franklin, James L.

    1999-03-01

    In 1997, the Tropical Prediction Center (TPC) began operational Gulfstream-IV jet aircraft missions to improve the numerical guidance for hurricanes threatening the continental United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. During these missions, the new generation of Global Positioning System dropwindsondes were released from the aircraft at 150-200-km intervals along the flight track in the environment of the tropical cyclone to obtain profiles of wind, temperature, and humidity from flight level to the surface. The observations were ingested into the global model at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, which subsequently serves as initial and boundary conditions to other numerical tropical cyclone models. Because of a lack of tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic basin, only five such missions were conducted during the inaugural 1997 hurricane season.Due to logistical constraints, sampling in all quadrants of the storm environment was accomplished in only one of the five cases during 1997. Nonetheless, the dropwindsonde observations improved mean track forecasts from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory hurricane model by as much as 32%, and the intensity forecasts by as much as 20% during the hurricane watch period (within 48 h of projected landfall). Forecasts from another dynamical tropical cyclone model (VICBAR) also showed modest improvements with the dropwindsonde observations. These improvements, if confirmed by a larger sample, represent a large step toward the forecast accuracy goals of TPC. The forecast track improvements are as large as those accumulated over the past 20-25 years, and those for forecast intensity provide further evidence that better synoptic-scale data can lead to more skillful dynamical tropical cyclone intensity forecasts.

  19. Tropical Cyclone Genesis: A Dynamician's Point of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouali, Safieddine; Leys, Jos

    The paper focuses the route to the maturity of a cyclone as a twist process of the Hadley cell. The approach is qualified by a "dynamician's viewpoint" since the aerologic mechanism of the cyclone genesis is replicated without the classical tools of the meteorological fluid framework. Indeed, we introduce a pure dynamical model of a 2D vertical rotor of an airparcel to emulate the Hadley cell. Twisted by an appropriate feedback to inject geophysical forcing, the simulation displays two stretched solenoid rolls with clockwise and anticlockwise paths representing the Hadley belts wrapping the Earth. When the forcing parameter is higher, computations simulate overlapped whirlwind funnels revealing strong similarities with the structure of cyclones, hurricanes, and typhoons described in the atmospheric science literature. We conjecture that ocean-atmosphere interactions separate and convert a "slice" of the Hadley rotor into a fully tropical cyclone.

  20. Cloudsat tropical cyclone database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourville, Natalie D.

    CloudSat (CS), the first 94 GHz spaceborne cloud profiling radar (CPR), launched in 2006 to study the vertical distribution of clouds. Not only are CS observations revealing inner vertical cloud details of water and ice globally but CS overpasses of tropical cyclones (TC's) are providing a new and exciting opportunity to study the vertical structure of these storm systems. CS TC observations are providing first time vertical views of TC's and demonstrate a unique way to observe TC structure remotely from space. Since December 2009, CS has intersected every globally named TC (within 1000 km of storm center) for a total of 5,278 unique overpasses of tropical systems (disturbance, tropical depression, tropical storm and hurricane/typhoon/cyclone (HTC)). In conjunction with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), each CS TC overpass is processed into a data file containing observational data from the afternoon constellation of satellites (A-TRAIN), Navy's Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System Model (NOGAPS), European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) model and best track storm data. This study will describe the components and statistics of the CS TC database, present case studies of CS TC overpasses with complementary A-TRAIN observations and compare average reflectivity stratifications of TC's across different atmospheric regimes (wind shear, SST, latitude, maximum wind speed and basin). Average reflectivity stratifications reveal that characteristics in each basin vary from year to year and are dependent upon eye overpasses of HTC strength storms and ENSO phase. West Pacific (WPAC) basin storms are generally larger in size (horizontally and vertically) and have greater values of reflectivity at a predefined height than all other basins. Storm structure at higher latitudes expands horizontally. Higher vertical wind shear (≥ 9.5 m/s) reduces cloud top height (CTH) and the intensity of precipitation cores, especially in HTC strength storms

  1. Global Tropical Moisture Exports and their Influence on Extratropical Cyclone Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knippertz, P.; Wernli, H.; Gläser, G.

    2012-04-01

    . The interannual variability in several regions is significantly modulated by El Niño. A detailed analysis of TME encounters along individual extratropical cyclone tracks reveals several extraordinary cyclone-deepening events associated with TME trajectories (e.g. storm "Klaus" in January 2009). A statistical analysis quantifies the fraction of explosively deepening cyclones that occur with and without a TME influence.

  2. Ensemble Prediction of Tropical Cyclone Genesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-23

    future changes in tropical cyclone (TC) activity around the Hawaiian Islands are investigated using the state-of-the-art climate models1–3. We find that...future warmer climate . This is in contrast to the NA, where BDI increases for all dynamic variables investigated while it shows little change for...Li, and A. Kitoh, 2013: Projected future increase in tropical cyclones near Hawaii. Nature Climate Change , 3, 749-754, doi:10.1038/nclimate1890

  3. Assessing the Regional Frequency, Intensity, and Spatial Extent of Tropical Cyclone Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosma, C.; Wright, D.; Nguyen, P.

    2017-12-01

    While the strength of a hurricane is generally classified based on its wind speed, the unprecedented rainfall-driven flooding experienced in southeastern Texas during Hurricane Harvey clearly highlights the need for better understanding of the hazards associated with extreme rainfall from hurricanes and other tropical systems. In this study, we seek to develop a framework for describing the joint probabilistic and spatio-temporal properties of extreme rainfall from hurricanes and other tropical systems. Furthermore, we argue that commonly-used terminology - such as the "500-year storm" - fail to convey the true properties of tropical cyclone rainfall occurrences in the United States. To quantify the magnitude and spatial extent of these storms, a database consisting of hundreds of unique rainfall volumetric shapes (or "voxels") was created. Each voxel is a four-dimensional object, created by connecting, in both space and time, gridded rainfall observations from the daily, gauge-based NOAA CPC-Unified precipitation dataset. Individual voxels were then associated with concurrent tropical cyclone tracks from NOAA's HURDAT-2 archive, to create distinct representations of the rainfall associated with every Atlantic tropical system making landfall over (or passing near) the United States since 1948. Using these voxels, a series of threshold-excess extreme value models were created to estimate the recurrence intervals of extreme tropical cyclone rainfall, both nationally and locally, for single and multi-day timescales. This voxel database also allows for the "indexing" of past events, placing recent extremes - such as the 50+ inches of rain observed during Hurricane Harvey - into a national context and emphasizing how rainfall totals that are rare at the point scale may be more frequent from a regional perspective.

  4. Sea turtle species vary in their susceptibility to tropical cyclones.

    PubMed

    Pike, David A; Stiner, John C

    2007-08-01

    Severe climatic events affect all species, but there is little quantitative knowledge of how sympatric species react to such situations. We compared the reproductive seasonality of sea turtles that nest sympatrically with their vulnerability to tropical cyclones (in this study, "tropical cyclone" refers to tropical storms and hurricanes), which are increasing in severity due to changes in global climate. Storm surges significantly decreased reproductive output by lowering the number of nests that hatched and the number of hatchlings that emerged from nests, but the severity of this effect varied by species. Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) began nesting earliest and most offspring hatched before the tropical cyclone season arrived, resulting in little negative effect. Loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) nested intermediately, and only nests laid late in the season were inundated with seawater during storm surges. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) nested last, and their entire nesting season occurred during the tropical cyclone season; this resulted in a majority (79%) of green turtle nests incubating in September, when tropical cyclones are most likely to occur. Since this timing overlaps considerably with the tropical cyclone season, the developing eggs and nests are extremely vulnerable to storm surges. Increases in the severity of tropical cyclones may cause green turtle nesting success to worsen in the future. However, published literature suggests that loggerhead turtles are nesting earlier in the season and shortening their nesting seasons in response to increasing sea surface temperatures caused by global climate change. This may cause loggerhead reproductive success to improve in the future because more nests will hatch before the onset of tropical cyclones. Our data clearly indicate that sympatric species using the same resources are affected differently by tropical cyclones due to slight variations in the seasonal timing of nesting, a key life

  5. Observed ocean waves by tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Oey, Leo

    2017-04-01

    Ocean waves produced by tropical cyclones (TC) modify air-sea fluxes which in turn are crucial to the storms' intensity and development, yet they are poorly understood. Here we use 24 years (1992-2015) of observed waves, winds and TC-track information to stratify storm-centered composite maps of waves and winds according to TC intensities and translation speeds (Uh). While the wind field is rightward-asymmetric independent of Uh, the wave field is rightward-symmetric in concert with the wind for slow-translating TCs (Uh ≤ 3 m s-1), but right-rear asymmetric with strongest waves in the 4th quadrant for medium to fast-translating TCs (3 < Uh ≤ 7 m s-1), especially for the very fast storms (Uh > 7 m s-1), all independent of TC-intensity. The dominance of the right-rear asymmetry for fast-translating TCs appears to be related to the development of cross swells as the storms move faster, but further research using models are needed to understand the physical mechanisms.

  6. Effects of cyclone-generated disturbance on a tropical reef foraminifera assemblage.

    PubMed

    Strotz, Luke C; Mamo, Briony L; Dominey-Howes, Dale

    2016-04-29

    The sedimentary record, and associated micropalaeontological proxies, is one tool that has been employed to quantify a region's tropical cyclone history. Doing so has largely relied on the identification of allochthonous deposits (sediments and microfossils), sourced from deeper water and entrained by tropical cyclone waves and currents, in a shallow-water or terrestrial setting. In this study, we examine microfossil assemblages before and after a known tropical cyclone event (Cyclone Hamish) with the aim to better resolve the characteristics of this known signal. Our results identify no allochthonous material associated with Cyclone Hamish. Instead, using a swathe of statistical tools typical of ecological studies but rarely employed in the geosciences, we identify new, previously unidentified, signal types. These signals include a homogenising effect, with the level of differentiation between sample sites greatly reduced immediately following Cyclone Hamish, and discernible shifts in assemblage diversity. In the subsequent years following Hamish, the surface assemblage returns to its pre-cyclone form, but results imply that it is unlikely the community ever reaches steady state.

  7. Testing coral-based tropical cyclone reconstructions: An example from Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilbourne, K. Halimeda; Moyer, Ryan P.; Quinn, Terrence M.; Grottoli, Andrea G.

    2011-01-01

    Complimenting modern records of tropical cyclone activity with longer historical and paleoclimatological records would increase our understanding of natural tropical cyclone variability on decadal to centennial time scales. Tropical cyclones produce large amounts of precipitation with significantly lower δ18O values than normal precipitation, and hence may be geochemically identifiable as negative δ18O anomalies in marine carbonate δ18O records. This study investigates the usefulness of coral skeletal δ18O as a means of reconstructing past tropical cyclone events. Isotopic modeling of rainfall mixing with seawater shows that detecting an isotopic signal from a tropical cyclone in a coral requires a salinity of ~ 33 psu at the time of coral growth, but this threshold is dependent on the isotopic composition of both fresh and saline end-members. A comparison between coral δ18O and historical records of tropical cyclone activity, river discharge, and precipitation from multiple sites in Puerto Rico shows that tropical cyclones are not distinguishable in the coral record from normal rainfall using this approach at these sites.

  8. Characterization of flash floods induced by tropical cyclones in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real-Rangel, R. A.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the role of tropical cyclones (hurricanes, tropical storms and depressions) in the generation of flash floods in Mexico. For this, a severity assessment during several cyclonic events for selected catchments was estimated through the evaluation of a flash flood index recently proposed by Kim and Kim (2014). This classification is revised, considering the forcing and areal extent of torrential rainfall generated by the incidence of tropical cyclones on the studied catchments, enabling the further study of the flood regime in catchments located in tropical regions. The analysis incorporates characteristics of the flood hydrographs such as the hydrograph shape (rising curve gradient, magnitude of the peak discharge and flood response time) in order to identify flash-flood prone areas. Results show the Qp-A scaling relationship in catchments that were impacted by tropical cyclones, enabling their comparison against floods generated by other meteorological events (e.g. convective and orographic storms). Results will inform on how peak flows relationships are modified by cyclonic events and highlighting the contribution of cyclonic precipitation to flash-flooding susceptibility.

  9. On the movement of tropical cyclone LEHAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasari, Hari Prasad; V, Brahmananda Rao; SSVS, Ramakrishna; Gunta, Paparao; N, Nanaji Rao; P, Ramesh Kumar

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to delineate the physical processes which lead to the westward movement of the North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone LEHAR. The Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW) model is used to simulate LEHAR with 27 and 9 km resolutions. The results indicate that the model performed well in simulating the characteristics of cyclone compared with the Satellite and other observations. In addition to that all terms of the complete vorticity equation are computed to obtain the contribution of each term for the vorticity tendency. The vorticity tendency is calculated in four sectors, namely northwest, northeast, southwest and southeast and assumed that the cyclone moves from its existing location to the nearest point where the vortices tendency is maximum. It is noticed that the vorticity stretching term contributes most to the positive vorticity tendency. The second highest contribution is from the horizontal advection thus indicating the secondary importance of steering. The distribution of lightening flash rates also showing that the flash rates are higher in the SW and followed by NW sectors of the cyclone indicate more strong convective clouds are in SW sector. The equivalent potential temperatures ( θ e) at different stages of before, during and after the mature stage of the cyclone are also analysed and the analysis reveals that the wind-induced surface heat (WISH) exchange process is a plausible mechanism for the intensification of LEHAR.

  10. Factors Contributing to Urban Malaria Transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Prathiba M.; Marshall, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa suffers by far the greatest malaria burden worldwide and is currently undergoing a profound demographic change, with a growing proportion of its population moving to urban areas. Urbanisation is generally expected to reduce malaria transmission; however the disease still persists in African cities, in some cases at higher levels than in nearby rural areas. Objective. This paper aims to collate and analyse risk factors for urban malaria transmission throughout sub-Saharan Africa and to discuss their implications for control. Methods. A systematic search on malaria and urbanisation was carried out focusing on sub-Saharan Africa. Particular interest was taken in vector breeding sites in urban and periurban areas. Results. A variety of urban vector breeding sites were catalogued, the majority of which were artificial, including urban agriculture, tyre tracks, and ditches. Natural breeding sites varied according to location. Low socioeconomic status was a significant risk factor for malaria, often present in peri-urban areas. A worrying trend was seen in the adaptation of malaria vector species to the urban environment. Urban malaria is highly focused and control programs should reflect this. Conclusion. As urbanisation continues and vector species adapt, continued monitoring and control of urban malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is essential. PMID:23125863

  11. Upper oceanic response to tropical cyclone Phailin in the Bay of Bengal using a coupled atmosphere-ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Kumar Ravi; Pant, Vimlesh

    2017-01-01

    A numerical simulation of very severe cyclonic storm `Phailin', which originated in southeastern Bay of Bengal (BoB) and propagated northwestward during 10-15 October 2013, was carried out using a coupled atmosphere-ocean model. A Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT) was used to make exchanges of fluxes consistent between the atmospheric model `Weather Research and Forecasting' (WRF) and ocean circulation model `Regional Ocean Modelling System' (ROMS) components of the `Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport' (COAWST) modelling system. The track and intensity of tropical cyclone (TC) Phailin simulated by the WRF component of the coupled model agrees well with the best-track estimates reported by the India Meteorological Department (IMD). Ocean model component (ROMS) was configured over the BoB domain; it utilized the wind stress and net surface heat fluxes from the WRF model to investigate upper oceanic response to the passage of TC Phailin. The coupled model shows pronounced sea surface cooling (2-2.5 °C) and an increase in sea surface salinity (SSS) (2-3 psu) after 06 GMT on 12 October 2013 over the northwestern BoB. Signature of this surface cooling was also observed in satellite data and buoy measurements. The oceanic mixed layer heat budget analysis reveals relative roles of different oceanic processes in controlling the mixed layer temperature over the region of observed cooling. The heat budget highlighted major contributions from horizontal advection and vertical entrainment processes in governing the mixed layer cooling (up to -0.1 °C h-1) and, thereby, reduction in sea surface temperature (SST) in the northwestern BoB during 11-12 October 2013. During the post-cyclone period, the net heat flux at surface regained its diurnal variations with a noontime peak that provided a warming tendency up to 0.05 °C h-1 in the mixed layer. Clear signatures of TC-induced upwelling are seen in vertical velocity (about 2.5 × 10-3 m s-1), rise in isotherms and

  12. Landscape-Scale Analysis of Wetland Sediment Deposition from Four Tropical Cyclone Events

    PubMed Central

    Tweel, Andrew W.; Turner, R. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike deposited large quantities of sediment on coastal wetlands after making landfall in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We sampled sediments deposited on the wetland surface throughout the entire Louisiana and Texas depositional surfaces of Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and the Louisiana portion of Hurricane Ike. We used spatial interpolation to model the total amount and spatial distribution of inorganic sediment deposition from each storm. The sediment deposition on coastal wetlands was an estimated 68, 48, and 21 million metric tons from Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Gustav, respectively. The spatial distribution decreased in a similar manner with distance from the coast for all hurricanes, but the relationship with distance from the storm track was more variable between events. The southeast-facing Breton Sound estuary had significant storm-derived sediment deposition west of the storm track, whereas sediment deposition along the south-facing coastline occurred primarily east of the storm track. Sediment organic content, bulk density, and grain size also decreased significantly with distance from the coast, but were also more variable with respect to distance from the track. On average, eighty percent of the mineral deposition occurred within 20 km from the coast, and 58% was within 50 km of the track. These results highlight an important link between tropical cyclone events and coastal wetland sedimentation, and are useful in identifying a more complete sediment budget for coastal wetland soils. PMID:23185635

  13. Prediction of Winter Storm Tracks and Intensities Using the GFDL fvGFS Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, S.; Boaggio, K.; Marchok, T.; Morin, M.; Lin, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    The GFDL Finite-Volume Cubed-Sphere Dynamical core (FV3) is coupled to a modified version of the Global Forecast System (GFS) physics and initial conditions, to form the fvGFS model. This model is similar to the one being implemented as the next-generation operational weather model for the NWS, which is also FV3-powered. Much work has been done to verify fvGFS tropical cyclone prediction, but little has been done to verify winter storm prediction. These costly and dangerous storms impact parts of the U.S. every year. To verify winter storms we ran the NCEP operational cyclone tracker, developed at GFDL, on semi-real-time 13 km horizontal resolution fvGFS forecasts. We have found that fvGFS compares well to the operational GFS in storm track and intensity, though often predicts slightly higher intensities. This presentation will show the track and intensity verification from the past two winter seasons and explore possible reasons for bias.

  14. Contributions of Tropical Cyclones to the North Atlantic Climatological Rainfall as Observed from Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Edward B.; Adler, Robert F.; Pierce, Harold F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The tropical cyclone rainfall climatology study that was performed for the North Pacific was extended to the North Atlantic. Similar to the North Pacific tropical cyclone study, mean monthly rainfall within 444 km of the center of the North Atlantic tropical cyclones (i.e., that reached storm stage and greater) was estimated from passive microwave satellite observations during, an eleven year period. These satellite-observed rainfall estimates were used to assess the impact of tropical cyclone rainfall in altering the geographical, seasonal, and inter-annual distribution of the North Atlantic total rainfall during, June-November when tropical cyclones were most abundant. The main results from this study indicate: 1) that tropical cyclones contribute, respectively, 4%, 3%, and 4% to the western, eastern, and entire North Atlantic; 2) similar to that observed in the North Pacific, the maximum in North Atlantic tropical cyclone rainfall is approximately 5 - 10 deg poleward (depending on longitude) of the maximum non-tropical cyclone rainfall; 3) tropical cyclones contribute regionally a maximum of 30% of the total rainfall 'northeast of Puerto Rico, within a region near 15 deg N 55 deg W, and off the west coast of Africa; 4) there is no lag between the months with maximum tropical cyclone rainfall and non-tropical cyclone rainfall in the western North Atlantic, while in the eastern North Atlantic, maximum tropical cyclone rainfall precedes maximum non-tropical cyclone rainfall; 5) like the North Pacific, North Atlantic tropical cyclones Of hurricane intensity generate the greatest amount of rainfall in the higher latitudes; and 6) warm ENSO events inhibit tropical cyclone rainfall.

  15. Meningitis in HIV-positive patients in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

    PubMed Central

    Veltman, Jennifer A; Bristow, Claire C; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Meningitis is one of the leading causes of death among patients living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. There is no widespread tracking of the incidence rates of causative agents among patients living with HIV, yet the aetiologies of meningitis are different than those of the general population. Methods We reviewed the scientific literature published in PubMed to determine the incidence rates of meningitis among hospitalized people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and report our findings from seven studies across sub-Saharan Africa. Results We found high rates of cryptococcal meningitis (19–68%). Tuberculous meningitis was lower (1–36%), although some centres included possible cases as “other” meningitis; therefore, this may not be a true representation of the total cases. Pyogenic meningitis ranged from 6 to 30% and “other” meningitis ranged from 7 to 28% of all reported cases of meningitis. Mortality rates ranged from 25 to 68%. This review describes the most common aetiologies and provides practical diagnostic, treatment and prevention considerations as they apply to the individual living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusions Diagnosis is often limited, and wider availability of accurate and low-cost laboratory diagnostics is desperately needed for prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment. Wider acceptance and adoption of available preventative modalities can decrease the incidence of potentially fatal central nervous system infections in African patients living with HIV. PMID:25308903

  16. Initial Assessment of Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKague, D. S.; Ruf, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYNSS) mission provides high temporal resolution observations of cyclones from a constellation of eight low-Earth orbiting satellites. Using the relatively new technique of Global Navigation Satellite System reflectometry (GNSS-R), all-weather observations are possible, penetrating even deep convection within hurricane eye walls. The compact nature of the GNSS-R receivers permits the use of small satellites, which in turn enables the launch of a constellation of satellites from a single launch vehicle. Launched in December of 2016, the eight CYGNSS satellites provide 25 km resolution observations of mean square slope (surface roughness) and surface winds with a 2.8 hour median revisit time from 38 S to 38 N degrees latitude. In addition to the calibration and validation of CYGNSS sea state observations, the CYGNSS science team is assessing the ability of the mission to provide estimates of cyclone size, intensity, and integrated kinetic energy. With its all-weather ability and high temporal resolution, the CYGNSS mission will add significantly to our ability to monitor cyclone genesis and intensification and will significantly reduce uncertainties in our ability to estimate cyclone intensity, a key variable in predicting its destructive potential. Members of the CYGNSS Science Team are also assessing the assimilation of CYGNSS data into hurricane forecast models to determine the impact of the data on forecast skill, using the data to study extra-tropical cyclones, and looking at connections between tropical cyclones and global scale weather, including the global hydrologic cycle. This presentation will focus on the assessment of early on-orbit observations of cyclones with respect to these various applications.

  17. Powerful Tropical Cyclone Ita Making Landfall in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-11

    NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Cyclone Ita as it began making landfall on the Eastern Cape York Peninsula of Queensland, Australia, today, April 11, 2014. Ita officially made landfall at Cape Flattery about 9:00 p.m. local AEST time as a Category 4 storm according to reports from the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer that flies aboard Aqua captured an image of the Category 4 storm on April 11 at 12:00 a.m. EDT (4 a.m. UTC). Satellite imagery indicates the eye is 9.2 miles wide (8 nautical miles, or 14.8 km). Warnings and watches remain in effect as the center of Ita is expected to remain at hurricane strength as it moves in a southerly direction, staying just west of Cairns over the next day. A tropical cyclone warning is in effect between Coen and Innisfail, including Cooktown, Port Douglas, Cairns, extending inland to Kalinga, Palmerville, Mareeba and Chillagoe. A tropical cyclone watch is in effect between Innisfail to Cardwell, extending inland. ABC reported that the strongest maximum sustained winds around the center of circulation were near 142.9 mph (124.2 knots, or 230 kph) and many trees have been downed and homes damaged. According to ABC, preliminary reports suggest that power may be out for a month in some areas. On April 11 at 5 a.m. EDT (9 a.m. UTC), Tropical Cyclone Ita had maximum sustained winds near 143.8 mph (125 knots, or 231.5 kph). It was centered near 14.8 degrees south latitude and 145.3 degrees east longitude, about 168 miles (146 nautical miles, or 288 km) north of Cairns, Australia, and has tracked south-southwestward at 10.3 mph (9 knots, or 16.6 kph). Ita is moving around a subtropical ridge (elongated area) of high pressure and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects Ita to start curving to the southeast around that ridge in the next day before heading back out into the Coral Sea. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team Rob Gutro, NASA

  18. Growing Land-Sea Temperature Contrast and the Intensification of Arctic Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Jonathan J.; Hodges, Kevin I.

    2018-04-01

    Cyclones play an important role in the coupled dynamics of the Arctic climate system on a range of time scales. Modeling studies suggest that storminess will increase in Arctic summer due to enhanced land-sea thermal contrast along the Arctic coastline, in a region known as the Arctic Frontal Zone (AFZ). However, the climate models used in these studies are poor at reproducing the present-day Arctic summer cyclone climatology and so their projections of Arctic cyclones and related quantities, such as sea ice, may not be reliable. In this study we perform composite analysis of Arctic cyclone statistics using AFZ variability as an analog for climate change. High AFZ years are characterized both by increased cyclone frequency and dynamical intensity, compared to low years. Importantly, the size of the response in this analog suggests that General Circulation Models may underestimate the response of Arctic cyclones to climate change, given a similar change in baroclinicity.

  19. Understanding the influence of assimilating satellite-derived observations on mesoscale analyses and forecasts of tropical cyclone track and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ting-Chi

    This dissertation research explores the influence of assimilating satellite-derived observations on mesoscale numerical analyses and forecasts of tropical cyclones (TC). The ultimate goal is to provide more accurate mesoscale analyses of TC and its surrounding environment for superior TC track and intensity forecasts. High spatial and temporal resolution satellite-derived observations are prepared for two TC cases, Typhoon Sinlaku and Hurricane Ike (both 2008). The Advanced Research version of the Weather and Research Forecasting Model (ARW-WRF) is employed and data is assimilated using the Ensemble Adjustment Kalman Filter (EAKF) implemented in the Data Assimilation Research Testbed. In the first part of this research, the influence of assimilating enhanced atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) derived from geostationary satellites is examined by comparing three parallel WRF/EnKF experiments. The control experiment assimilates the same AMV dataset assimilated in NCEP operational analysis along with conventional observations from radiosondes, aircraft, and advisory TC position data. During Sinlaku and Ike, the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) generates hourly AMVs along with Rapid-Scan (RS) AMVs when the satellite RS mode is activated. With an order of magnitude more AMV data assimilated, the assimilation of hourly CIMSS AMV dataset exhibit superior initial TC position, intensity and structure estimates to the control analyses and the subsequent short-range forecasts. When RS AMVs are processed and assimilated, the addition of RS AMVs offers additional modification to the TC and its environment and leads to Sinlaku's recurvature toward Japan, albeit prematurely. The results demonstrate the promise of assimilating enhanced AMV data into regional TC models. The second part of this research continues the work in the first part and further explores the influence of assimilating enhanced AMV datasets by conducting parallel data-denial WRF

  20. Intensity of prehistoric tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, Jonathan F.

    2003-04-01

    Prediction of future tropical cyclone climate scenarios requires identification of quasi-periodicities at a variety of temporal scales. Extension of records to identify trends at century and millennial scales is important, but to date the emerging field of paleotempestology has been hindered by the lack of a suitable methodology to discern the intensity of prehistoric storms. Here a technique to quantify the central pressure of prehistoric tropical cyclones is presented in detail and demonstrated for the tropical southwest Pacific region. The importance of extending records to century time scales is highlighted for northeast Australia, where a virtual absence of category 5 cyclones during the 20th century stands in contrast to an active period of severe cyclogenesis during the previous century. Several land crossing storms during the 19th century achieved central pressures lower than that ever recorded historically and close to the theoretical thermodynamic limit of storms for the region. This technique can be applied to all tropical and subtropical regions globally and will assist in obtaining more realistic predictions for future storm scenarios with implications for insurance premiums, urban and infrastructural design, and emergency planning.

  1. The study of Merydunal and Zonal Index and its relationships with Cyclone Gonu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzatian, Victoria

    2010-05-01

    Distinguish the integrated natural disaster management is basic, also there happens rarely during 100 years. Cyclone Gonu, an unusually strong tropical cyclone, developed in the eastern part of the Arabian Sea on June 1st. The cyclone made landfall in Oman on the 6th with maximum sustained winds near 148 km/hr. A few days prior to landfall, Gonu had intensified to a powerful super cyclonic storm with maximum sustained winds near 260 km/hr on the 5th, becoming the first documented super cyclone in the Arabian Sea and tied for the strongest cyclone in the North Indian Ocean. After making landfall in Oman, Gonu moved through the Gulf of Oman making a second landfall in Iran. Tropical Cyclone Gonu affected more than 20,000 people and was responsible for 49 fatalities and 27 missing people in Oman. Gonu brought heavy rainfall which caused floods and landslides. Meanwhile in Iran 5 fatalities were reported and 9 people remain missing. Tropical cyclones as strong as Gonu are rare in the Arabian Sea. Severe thunderstorms, associated with an outer band of the tropical cyclone Yemyin , produced heavy rains and winds during June 23-25. The storms produced heavy rains which caused floodings and destroyed thousands of homes .Tropical Cyclone Yemyin developed as a depression in the Bay of Bengal on the 21st and made landfall in India's southern state on the 22nd. Yemyin brought heavy rain in the southern parts of India, leaving over 254 mm of rain. After crossing over India, Yemyin moved into the Arabian Sea and began moving towards the northwest. On June 26, the cyclone intensified and maximum sustained winds reached 93 km/hr. The cyclone was responsible for at least 21 fatalities in the Baluchistan province. Meanwhile in Afghanistan, Yemyin produced heavy rainfall which prompted floods that were responsible for 56 deaths and left thousands of people homeless . Because of these happenings we decided surveying the synoptic patterns in this month. Key words: Tropical cyclones

  2. Impact of Moist Physics Complexity on Tropical Cyclone Simulations from the Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalina, E. A.; Biswas, M.; Newman, K.; Grell, E. D.; Bernardet, L.; Frimel, J.; Carson, L.

    2017-12-01

    The parameterization of moist physics in numerical weather prediction models plays an important role in modulating tropical cyclone structure, intensity, and evolution. The Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast system (HWRF), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's operational model for tropical cyclone prediction, uses the Scale-Aware Simplified Arakawa-Schubert (SASAS) cumulus scheme and a modified version of the Ferrier-Aligo (FA) microphysics scheme to parameterize moist physics. The FA scheme contains a number of simplifications that allow it to run efficiently in an operational setting, which includes prescribing values for hydrometeor number concentrations (i.e., single-moment microphysics) and advecting the total condensate rather than the individual hydrometeor species. To investigate the impact of these simplifying assumptions on the HWRF forecast, the FA scheme was replaced with the more complex double-moment Thompson microphysics scheme, which individually advects cloud ice, cloud water, rain, snow, and graupel. Retrospective HWRF forecasts of tropical cyclones that occurred in the Atlantic and eastern Pacific ocean basins from 2015-2017 were then simulated and compared to those produced by the operational HWRF configuration. Both traditional model verification metrics (i.e., tropical cyclone track and intensity) and process-oriented metrics (e.g., storm size, precipitation structure, and heating rates from the microphysics scheme) will be presented and compared. The sensitivity of these results to the cumulus scheme used (i.e., the operational SASAS versus the Grell-Freitas scheme) also will be examined. Finally, the merits of replacing the moist physics schemes that are used operationally with the alternatives tested here will be discussed from a standpoint of forecast accuracy versus computational resources.

  3. The threat to coral reefs from more intense cyclones under climate change.

    PubMed

    Cheal, Alistair J; MacNeil, M Aaron; Emslie, Michael J; Sweatman, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Ocean warming under climate change threatens coral reefs directly, through fatal heat stress to corals and indirectly, by boosting the energy of cyclones that cause coral destruction and loss of associated organisms. Although cyclone frequency is unlikely to rise, cyclone intensity is predicted to increase globally, causing more frequent occurrences of the most destructive cyclones with potentially severe consequences for coral reef ecosystems. While increasing heat stress is considered a pervasive risk to coral reefs, quantitative estimates of threats from cyclone intensification are lacking due to limited data on cyclone impacts to inform projections. Here, using extensive data from Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR), we show that increases in cyclone intensity predicted for this century are sufficient to greatly accelerate coral reef degradation. Coral losses on the outer GBR were small, localized and offset by gains on undisturbed reefs for more than a decade, despite numerous cyclones and periods of record heat stress, until three unusually intense cyclones over 5 years drove coral cover to record lows over >1500 km. Ecological damage was particularly severe in the central-southern region where 68% of coral cover was destroyed over >1000 km, forcing record declines in the species richness and abundance of associated fish communities, with many local extirpations. Four years later, recovery of average coral cover was relatively slow and there were further declines in fish species richness and abundance. Slow recovery of community diversity appears likely from such a degraded starting point. Highly unusual characteristics of two of the cyclones, aside from high intensity, inflated the extent of severe ecological damage that would more typically have occurred over 100s of km. Modelling published predictions of future cyclone activity, the likelihood of more intense cyclones within time frames of coral recovery by mid-century poses a global threat to coral

  4. Extreme cyclone events in the Arctic: Wintertime variability and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinke, A.; Maturilli, M.; Graham, R. M.; Matthes, H.; Handorf, D.; Cohen, L.; Hudson, S. R.; Moore, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme cyclone events often occur during Arctic winters, and are of concern as they transport heat and moisture into the Arctic, which is associated with mixed-phase clouds and increased longwave downward radiation, and can cause temperatures to rise above freezing resulting in wintertime sea-ice melting or retarded sea-ice growth. With Arctic amplification and associated reduced sea-ice cover and warmer sea surface temperatures, the occurrence of extreme cyclones events could be a plausible scenario. We calculate the spatial patterns, and changes and trends of the number of extreme cyclone events in the Arctic based on ERA-Interim six-hourly sea level pressure (SLP) data for winter (November-February) 1979-2015. Further, we analyze the SLP data from the Ny-Ålesund station for the same 37 year period. We define an extreme cyclone event by an extreme low central pressure (SLP below 985 hPa, which is the 5th percentile of the Ny-Ålesund/N-ICE2015 SLP data). Typically 20-40 extreme cyclone events (sometimes called `weather bombs') occur in the Arctic North Atlantic per winter season, with an increasing trend of 6 events/decade, according to the Ny-Ålesund data. This increased frequency of extreme cyclones drive considerable warming in that region, consistent with the observed significant winter warming of 3 K/decade. The positive winter trend in extreme cyclones is dominated by a positive monthly trend of about 3-4 events/decade in November-December, due mainly to an increasing persistence of extreme cyclone events. A negative trend in January opposes this, while there is no significant trend in February. We relate the regional patterns of the trend in extreme cyclones to anomalously low sea-ice conditions in recent years, together with associated large-scale atmospheric circulation changes such as "blocking-like" circulation patterns (e.g. Scandinavian blocking in December and Ural blocking during January-February).

  5. Aerosol midlatitude cyclone indirect effects in observations and high-resolution simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Daniel T.; Field, Paul R.; Schmidt, Anja; Grosvenor, Daniel P.; Bender, Frida A.-M.; Shipway, Ben J.; Hill, Adrian A.; Wilkinson, Jonathan M.; Elsaesser, Gregory S.

    2018-04-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions are a major source of uncertainty in inferring the climate sensitivity from the observational record of temperature. The adjustment of clouds to aerosol is a poorly constrained aspect of these aerosol-cloud interactions. Here, we examine the response of midlatitude cyclone cloud properties to a change in cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC). Idealized experiments in high-resolution, convection-permitting global aquaplanet simulations with constant CDNC are compared to 13 years of remote-sensing observations. Observations and idealized aquaplanet simulations agree that increased warm conveyor belt (WCB) moisture flux into cyclones is consistent with higher cyclone liquid water path (CLWP). When CDNC is increased a larger LWP is needed to give the same rain rate. The LWP adjusts to allow the rain rate to be equal to the moisture flux into the cyclone along the WCB. This results in an increased CLWP for higher CDNC at a fixed WCB moisture flux in both observations and simulations. If observed cyclones in the top and bottom tercile of CDNC are contrasted it is found that they have not only higher CLWP but also cloud cover and albedo. The difference in cyclone albedo between the cyclones in the top and bottom third of CDNC is observed by CERES to be between 0.018 and 0.032, which is consistent with a 4.6-8.3 Wm-2 in-cyclone enhancement in upwelling shortwave when scaled by annual-mean insolation. Based on a regression model to observed cyclone properties, roughly 60 % of the observed variability in CLWP can be explained by CDNC and WCB moisture flux.

  6. Cyclone: A close air support aircraft for tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George; Croulet, Donald; Dunn, James; Graham, Michael; Ip, Phillip; Low, Scott; Vance, Gregg; Volckaert, Eric

    1991-01-01

    To meet the threat of the battlefield of the future, the U.S. ground forces will require reliable air support. To provide this support, future aircrews demand a versatile close air support aircraft capable of delivering ordinance during the day, night, or in adverse weather with pin-point accuracy. The Cyclone aircraft meets these requirements, packing the 'punch' necessary to clear the way for effective ground operations. Possessing anti-armor, missile, and precision bombing capability, the Cyclone will counter the threat into the 21st Century. Here, it is shown that the Cyclone is a realistic, economical answer to the demand for a capable close air support aircraft.

  7. The dynamics of cyclone clustering in re-analysis and a high-resolution climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priestley, Matthew; Pinto, Joaquim; Dacre, Helen; Shaffrey, Len

    2017-04-01

    Extratropical cyclones have a tendency to occur in groups (clusters) in the exit of the North Atlantic storm track during wintertime, potentially leading to widespread socioeconomic impacts. The Winter of 2013/14 was the stormiest on record for the UK and was characterised by the recurrent clustering of intense extratropical cyclones. This clustering was associated with a strong, straight and persistent North Atlantic 250 hPa jet with Rossby wave-breaking (RWB) on both flanks, pinning the jet in place. Here, we provide for the first time an analysis of all clustered events in 36 years of the ERA-Interim Re-analysis at three latitudes (45˚ N, 55˚ N, 65˚ N) encompassing various regions of Western Europe. The relationship between the occurrence of RWB and cyclone clustering is studied in detail. Clustering at 55˚ N is associated with an extended and anomalously strong jet flanked on both sides by RWB. However, clustering at 65(45)˚ N is associated with RWB to the south (north) of the jet, deflecting the jet northwards (southwards). A positive correlation was found between the intensity of the clustering and RWB occurrence to the north and south of the jet. However, there is considerable spread in these relationships. Finally, analysis has shown that the relationships identified in the re-analysis are also present in a high-resolution coupled global climate model (HiGEM). In particular, clustering is associated with the same dynamical conditions at each of our three latitudes in spite of the identified biases in frequency and intensity of RWB.

  8. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Appendix, Book 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    Based on the industry need for a pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, Babcock Wilcox (B&W) designed, fabricated, and installed such a facility at its Alliance Research Center (ARC) in 1985. The project involved conversion of an existing pulverized coal-fired facility to be cyclone-firing capable. Additionally, convective section tube banks were installed in the upper furnace in order to simulate a typical boiler convection pass. The small boiler simulator (SBS) is designed to simulate most fireside aspects of full-size utility boilers such as combustion and flue gas emissions characteristics, fireside deposition, etc. Prior to the design of the pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator,more » the various cyclone boiler types were reviewed in order to identify the inherent cyclone boiler design characteristics which are applicable to the majority of these boilers. The cyclone boiler characteristics that were reviewed include NO{sub x} emissions, furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) carbon loss, and total furnace residence time. Previous pilot-scale cyclone-fired furnace experience identified the following concerns: (1) Operability of a small cyclone furnace (e.g., continuous slag tapping capability). (2) The optimum cyclone(s) configuration for the pilot-scale unit. (3) Compatibility of NO{sub x} levels, carbon burnout, cyclone ash carryover to the convection pass, cyclone temperature, furnace residence time, and FEGT.« less

  9. Infectious Diseases and Tropical Cyclones in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jietao; Han, Weixiao; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    2017-05-07

    Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs) with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Disease data between 2005 and 2011 from four coastal provinces in southeast China, including Guangdong, Hainan, Zhejiang, and Fujian province, were collected. Numbers of cases of 14 infectious diseases were compared between risk periods and reference periods for each tropical cyclone. Risk ratios (RR s ) were calculated to estimate the risks. TCs were more likely to increase the risk of bacillary dysentery, paratyphoid fever, dengue fever and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis ( ps < 0.05) than to decrease the risk, more likely to decrease the risk of measles, mumps, varicella and vivax malaria ( ps < 0.05) than to increase the risk. In conclusion, TCs have mixed effects on the risk of infectious diseases. TCs are more likely to increase the risk of intestinal and contact transmitted infectious diseases than to decrease the risk, and more likely to decrease the risk of respiratory infectious diseases than to increase the risk. Findings of this study would assist in developing public health strategies and interventions for the reduction of the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  10. Extreme cyclone events in the Arctic: Wintertime variability and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinke, A.; Maturilli, M.; Graham, R. M.; Matthes, H.; Handorf, D.; Cohen, L.; Hudson, S. R.; Moore, J. C.

    2017-09-01

    Typically 20-40 extreme cyclone events (sometimes called ‘weather bombs’) occur in the Arctic North Atlantic per winter season, with an increasing trend of 6 events/decade over 1979-2015, according to 6 hourly station data from Ny-Ålesund. This increased frequency of extreme cyclones is consistent with observed significant winter warming, indicating that the meridional heat and moisture transport they bring is a factor in rising temperatures in the region. The winter trend in extreme cyclones is dominated by a positive monthly trend of about 3-4 events/decade in November-December, due mainly to an increasing persistence of extreme cyclone events. A negative trend in January opposes this, while there is no significant trend in February. We relate the regional patterns of the trend in extreme cyclones to anomalously low sea-ice conditions in recent years, together with associated large-scale atmospheric circulation changes such as ‘blockinglike’ circulation patterns (e.g. Scandinavian blocking in December and Ural blocking during January-February).

  11. Baroclinic flows, transports, and kinematic properties in a cyclonic-anticyclonic-cyclonic ring triad in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, VíCtor M. V.; Vidal, Francisco V.; HernáNdez, Abel F.; Meza, Eustorgio; PéRez-Molero, José M.

    1994-04-01

    During October-November 1986 the baroclinic circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico was dominated by an anticyclonic ring that was being bisected by two north and south flanking cyclonic rings. The baroclinic circulation revealed a well-defined cyclonic-anticyclonic-cyclonic triad system. The anticyclone's collision against the western gulf continental slope at 22.5°N, 97°W originated the north and south flanking cyclonic rings. The weakening of the anticyclone's relative vorticity, during the collision, was compensated by along-shelf north (26 cm s-1) and south (58 cm s-1) jet currents and by the anticyclone's flanking water mass's gain of cyclonic vorticity from lateral shear contributed by east (56 cm s-1) and west (42 cm s-1) current jets with individual mass transports of ˜18 Sv. Within the 0-1000 and 0-500 dbar layers and across 96°W the magnitudes of the colliding westward transports were 17.80 and 8.59 Sv, respectively. These corresponding transports were 85 and 94% balanced by along-shelf jet currents north and south of the anticyclone's collision zone. This indicates that only minor amounts (<15%) of the anticyclone's colliding westward transports might have flowed into the western gulf's continental shelf water mass or else they sank into deeper water along the continental slope during the anticyclone's collision event. The resultant effect of the coupled interaction between the anticyclone and the cyclonic pair was the surging of the water mass in the cyclones and its sinking in the anticyclone. This mechanism controlled the magnitude, direction, location of vertical advection, and transfer of kinetic energy from the upper to the deeper water layers. Our vertical transport estimates through the 1000-m-depth surface revealed a net vertical descending transport of 0.4 Sv for the ring triad system. This mass flux occurred primordially within the south central gulf region and most likely constituted a principal mechanism that propelled the

  12. Scale-dependent cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry in a forced rotating turbulence experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallet, B.; Campagne, A.; Cortet, P.-P.; Moisy, F.

    2014-03-01

    We characterize the statistical and geometrical properties of the cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry in a statistically steady forced rotating turbulence experiment. Turbulence is generated by a set of vertical flaps which continuously inject velocity fluctuations towards the center of a tank mounted on a rotating platform. We first characterize the cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry from conventional single-point vorticity statistics. We propose a phenomenological model to explain the emergence of the asymmetry in the experiment, from which we predict scaling laws for the root-mean-square velocity in good agreement with the experimental data. We further quantify the cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry using a set of third-order two-point velocity correlations. We focus on the correlations which are nonzero only if the cyclone-anticyclone symmetry is broken. They offer two advantages over single-point vorticity statistics: first, they are defined from velocity measurements only, so an accurate resolution of the Kolmogorov scale is not required; second, they provide information on the scale-dependence of the cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry. We compute these correlation functions analytically for a random distribution of independent identical vortices. These model correlations describe well the experimental ones, indicating that the cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry is dominated by the large-scale long-lived cyclones.

  13. Compact cyclone filter train for radiological and hazardous environments

    DOEpatents

    Bench, T.R.

    1998-04-28

    A compact cyclone filter train is disclosed for the removal of hazardous and radiological particles from a gaseous fluid medium. This filter train permits a small cyclone separator to be used in a very small space envelope due to the arrangement of the filter housing adjacent to the separator with the cyclone separator and the filters mounted on a plate. The entire unit will have a hoist connection at the center of gravity so that the entire unit including the separator, the filters, and the base can be lifted and repositioned as desired. 3 figs.

  14. Compact cyclone filter train for radiological and hazardous environments

    DOEpatents

    Bench, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    A compact cyclone filter train for the removal of hazardous and radiologi particles from a gaseous fluid medium which permits a small cyclone separator to be used in a very small space envelope due to the arrangement of the filter housing adjacent to the separator with the cyclone separator and the filters mounted on a plate. The entire unit will have a hoist connection at the center of gravity so that the entire unit including the separator, the filters, and the base can be lifted and repositioned as desired.

  15. Predicting Tropical Cyclogenesis with a Global Mesoscale Model: Hierarchical Multiscale Interactions During the Formation of Tropical Cyclone Nargis(2008)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, B.-W.; Tao, W.-K.; Lau, W. K.; Atlas, R.

    2010-01-01

    Very severe cyclonic storm Nargis devastated Burma (Myanmar) in May 2008, caused tremendous damage and numerous fatalities, and became one of the 10 deadliest tropical cyclones (TCs) of all time. To increase the warning time in order to save lives and reduce economic damage, it is important to extend the lead time in the prediction of TCs like Nargis. As recent advances in high-resolution global models and supercomputing technology have shown the potential for improving TC track and intensity forecasts, the ability of a global mesoscale model to predict TC genesis in the Indian Ocean is examined in this study with the aim of improving simulations of TC climate. High-resolution global simulations with real data show that the initial formation and intensity variations of TC Nargis can be realistically predicted up to 5 days in advance. Preliminary analysis suggests that improved representations of the following environmental conditions and their hierarchical multiscale interactions were the key to achieving this lead time: (1) a westerly wind burst and equatorial trough, (2) an enhanced monsoon circulation with a zero wind shear line, (3) good upper-level outflow with anti-cyclonic wind shear between 200 and 850 hPa, and (4) low-level moisture convergence.

  16. Tracking motions from satellite water vapor imagery: Quantitative applications to hurricane track forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velden, Christopher; Nieman, Steve; Aberson, Sim; Franklin, James

    1993-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from GOES satellites has been available for over a decade. These data are used extensively, mainly in a qualitative mode, by forecasters in the United States (Weldon and Holmes, 1991). Some attempts have been made at quantifying the data by tracking features in time sequences of the imagery (Stewart et al., 1985; Hayden and Stewart, 1987). For a variety of reasons, applications of this approach have produced marginal results (Velden, 1990). Recently, METEOSAT-3 (M-3) was repositioned at 50W by the European Space Agency, in order to provide complete coverage of the Atlantic Ocean. Data from this satellite are being transmitted to the U.S. for operational use. Compared with the GOES satellite, the M-3 has a superior resolution and signal-to-noise ratio in its water vapor channel, which translates into improved automated tracking capabilities. During a period in 1992 which included the Atlantic hurricane season, water vapor tracking algorithms were applied to the M-3 data in order to evaluate the coverage, accuracy and model impact of the derived vectors. Data sets were produced during several tropical cyclone cases, including Hurricane Andrew. In this paper, the M-3 water vapor wind sets are assessed, and their impact on a hurricane track forecast model is examined.

  17. Future Changes in Cyclonic Wave Climate in the North Atlantic, with a Focus on the French West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmadani, A.; Palany, P.; Dalphinet, A.; Pilon, R.; Chauvin, F.

    2017-12-01

    . Changes in cyclonic wave climate are discussed in the light of concurrent changes in TC activity, inferred from objective tracking of individual TCs.

  18. Impacts of Tropical Cyclones and Accompanying Precipitation on Infectious Diarrhea in Cyclone Landing Areas of Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhengyi; Xun, Huanmiao; Zhou, Maigeng; Jiang, Baofa; Wang, Songwang; Guo, Qing; Wang, Wei; Kang, Ruihua; Wang, Xin; Marley, Gifty; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zhejiang Province, located in southeastern China, is frequently hit by tropical cyclones. This study quantified the associations between infectious diarrhea and the seven tropical cyclones that landed in Zhejiang from 2005–2011 to assess the impacts of the accompanying precipitation on the studied diseases. Method: A unidirectional case-crossover study design was used to evaluate the impacts of tropical storms and typhoons on infectious diarrhea. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: For all typhoons studied, the greatest impacts on bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea were identified on lag 6 days (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.81–2.93) and lag 5 days (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 2.98–4.25), respectively. For all tropical storms, impacts on these diseases were highest on lag 2 days (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.41–4.33) and lag 6 days (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.69–3.56), respectively. The tropical cyclone precipitation was a risk factor for both bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea when daily precipitation reached 25 mm and 50 mm with the largest OR = 3.25 (95% CI: 1.45–7.27) and OR = 3.05 (95% CI: 2.20–4.23), respectively. Conclusions: Both typhoons and tropical storms could contribute to an increase in risk of bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea in Zhejiang. Tropical cyclone precipitation may also be a risk factor for these diseases when it reaches or is above 25 mm and 50 mm, respectively. Public health preventive and intervention measures should consider the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones. PMID:25622139

  19. An annually-resolved stalagmite tropical cyclone reconstruction from Belize reveals a northward shift in North Atlantic storm track position since 1550 C.E.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, Lisa; Baldini, James; McElwaine, Jim; Frappier, Amy; Asmerom, Yemane; Liu, Kam-biu; Prufer, Keith; Ridley, Harriet; Polyak, Victor; Kennett, Douglas; Macpherson, Colin; Aquino, Valorie; Awe, Jaime; Breitenbach, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    Hurricanes are large-scale atmospheric phenomena that typically produce high volume, high intensity, and isotopically depleted rainfall. Such storms have the ability to alter the isotopic composition of the groundwater reservoir, imparting a uniquely negative isotopic fingerprint to actively growing stalagmites. In regions influenced by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), large volumes of rainfall delivered during the wet season can obscure the tropical cyclone (TC) rainfall proxy signal. Coupled annually resolved carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were used to isolate the low δ18O TC signal from the isotopically more enriched background rainfall associated with seasonal ITCZ migration. The new composite stalagmite proxy record yielded a 99.7% significant correlation with the western Caribbean-filtered HURDAT2 database over the instrumental record based on a non-parametric bootstrap approach. The new annually-resolved TC reconstruction for the western Caribbean spans the last 450 years and reveals a peak in western Caribbean TCs at 1650 C.E. and a gradual decline until a marked decrease is observed at the start of the Industrial Era. Comparison with documentary records of TC occurrence along the US eastern seaboard reveals a clear pattern of north-eastward TC track migration since peak Little Ice Age cooling. This pattern is consistent with natural warming since the Little Ice Age temperature minimum and with anthropogenic influences after industrialisation. Satellite observations reveal Hadley cell expansion has occurred over the last three decades and modelling studies implicate rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations as the driver. Our results suggest that Hadley cell position and width is a major control on hurricane track position and that future emissions scenarios (continued rising greenhouse gases coupled with decreasing Northern Hemisphere aerosol emissions) are likely to increase storm risk to the north-eastern USA.

  20. Numerical simulations of tropical cyclones with assimilation of satellite, radar and in-situ observations: lessons learned from recent field programs and real-time experimental forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Z.; Zhang, L.

    2010-12-01

    The impact of data assimilation on the predictability of tropical cyclones is examined with the cases from recent field programs and real-time hurricane forecast experiments. Mesoscale numerical simulations are performed to simulate major typhoons during the T-PARC/TCS08 field campaign with the assimilation of satellite, radar and in-situ observations. Results confirmed that data assimilation has indeed resulted in improved numerical simulations of tropical cyclones. However, positive impacts from the satellite and radar data are strongly depend on the quality of these data. Specifically, it is found that the overall impacts of assimilating AIRS retrieved atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles on numerical simulations of tropical cyclones are very sensitive to the bias corrections of the data.For instance, the dry biases of moisture profiles can cause the decay of tropical cyclones in the numerical simulations.In addition, the quality of airborne Doppler radar data has strong influence on numerical simulations of tropical cyclones in terms of their track, intensity and precipitation structures. Outcomes from assimilating radar data with various quality thresholds suggest that a trade-off between the quality and area coverage of the radar data is necessary in the practice. Some of those experiences obtained from the field case studies are applied to the near-real time experimental hurricane forecasts during the 2010 hurricane season. Results and issues raised from the case studies and real-time experiments will be discussed.

  1. Classic Maya civilization collapse associated with reduction in tropical cyclone activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, M. A.; Polanco-Martinez, J. M.; Lases-Hernández, F.; Bradley, R. S.; Burns, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    In light of the increased destructiveness of tropical cyclones observed over recent decades one might assume that an increase and not a decrease in tropical cyclone activity would lead to societal stress and perhaps collapse of ancient cultures. In this study we present evidence that a reduction in the frequency and intensity of tropical Atlantic cyclones could have contributed to the collapse of the Maya civilization during the Terminal Classic Period (TCP, AD. 800-950). Statistical comparisons of a quantitative precipitation record from the Yucatan Peninsula (YP) Maya lowlands, based on the stalagmite known as Chaac (after the Mayan God of rain and agriculture), relative to environmental proxy records of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), and tropical Atlantic cyclone counts, suggest that these records share significant coherent variability during the TCP and that summer rainfall reductions between 30 and 50% in the Maya lowlands occurred in association with decreased Atlantic tropical cyclones. Analysis of modern instrumental hydrological data suggests cyclone rainfall contributions to the YP equivalent to the range of rainfall deficits associated with decreased tropical cyclone activity during the collapse of the Maya civilization. Cyclone driven precipitation variability during the TCP, implies that climate change may have triggered Maya civilization collapse via freshwater scarcity for domestic use without significant detriment to agriculture. Pyramid in Tikal, the most prominent Maya Kingdom that collapsed during the Terminal Classic Period (circa C.E. 800-950) Rainfall feeding stalagmites inside Rio Secreto cave system, Yucatan, Mexico.

  2. Contribution of Tropical Cyclones to the North Pacific Climatological Rainfall as Observed from Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Edward B.; Adler, Robert F.; Pierce, Harold F.

    1997-01-01

    Tropical cyclone monthly rainfall amounts are estimated from passive microwave satellite observations for an eleven year period. These satellite-derived rainfall amounts are used to assess the impact of tropical cyclone rainfall in altering the geographical, seasonal, and inter-annual distribution of the North Pacific Ocean total rainfall during June-November when tropical cyclones are most important. To estimate these tropical cyclone rainfall amounts, mean monthly rain rates are derived from passive microwave satellite observations within 444 km radius of the center of those North Pacific tropical cyclones that reached storm stage and greater. These rain rate observations are converted to monthly rainfall amounts and then compared to those for non-tropical cyclone systems. The main results of this study indicate that: 1) tropical cyclones contribute 7% of the rainfall to the entire domain of the North Pacific during the tropical cyclone season and 12%, 3%, and 4% when the study area is limited to, respectively, the western, central, and eastern third of the ocean; 2) the maxima in tropical cyclone rainfall are poleward (5 deg to 10 deg latitude depending on longitude) of the maxima in non-tropical cyclone rainfall; 3) tropical cyclones contribute a maximum of 30% northeast of the Philippine Islands and 40% of the lower Baja California coast; 4) in the western North Pacific, the tropical cyclone rainfall lags the total rainfall by approximately two months and shows seasonal latitudinal variation following the ITCZ; and 5) in general, tropical cyclone rainfall is enhanced during the El Nino years by warm SSTs in the eastern North Pacific and by the monsoon trough in the western and central North Pacific.

  3. Contribution of Tropical Cyclones to the North Pacific Climatological Rainfall as Observed from Satellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Edward B.; Adler, Robert F.; Pierce, Harold F.

    2000-10-01

    Tropical cyclone monthly rainfall amounts are estimated from passive microwave satellite observations for an 11-yr period. These satellite-derived rainfall amounts are used to assess the impact of tropical cyclone rainfall in altering the geographical, seasonal, and interannual distribution of the North Pacific Ocean total rainfall during June-November when tropical cyclones are most important.To estimate these tropical cyclone rainfall amounts, mean monthly rain rates are derived from passive microwave satellite observations within 444-km radius of the center of those North Pacific tropical cyclones that reached storm stage and greater. These rain-rate observations are converted to monthly rainfall amounts and then compared with those for nontropical cyclone systems.The main results of this study indicate that 1) tropical cyclones contribute 7% of the rainfall to the entire domain of the North Pacific during the tropical cyclone season and 12%, 3%, and 4% when the study area is limited to, respectively, the western, central, and eastern third of the ocean; 2) the maximum tropical cyclone rainfall is poleward (5°-10° latitude depending on longitude) of the maximum nontropical cyclone rainfall; 3) tropical cyclones contribute a maximum of 30% northeast of the Philippine Islands and 40% off the lower Baja California coast; 4) in the western North Pacific, the tropical cyclone rainfall lags the total rainfall by approximately two months and shows seasonal latitudinal variation following the Intertropical Convergence Zone; and 5) in general, tropical cyclone rainfall is enhanced during the El Niño years by warm SSTs in the eastern North Pacific and by the monsoon trough in the western and central North Pacific.

  4. Linkages of Remote Sea Surface Temperatures and Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Activity Mediated by the African Monsoon

    SciTech Connect

    Taraphdar, Sourav; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hagos, Samson M.

    2015-01-28

    Warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in North Atlantic and Mediterranean (NAMED) can influence tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the tropical East Atlantic by modulating summer convection over western Africa. Analysis of 30 years of observations show that the NAMED SST is linked to a strengthening of the Saharan heat low and enhancement of moisture and moist static energy in the lower atmosphere over West Africa, which favors a northward displacement of the monsoonal front. These processes also lead to a northward shift of the African easterly jet that introduces an anomalous positive vorticity from western Africa to the main developmentmore » region (50W–20E; 10N–20N) of Atlantic TC. By modulating multiple processes associated with the African monsoon, this study demonstrates that warm NAMED SST explains 8% of interannual variability of Atlantic TC frequency. Thus NAME SST may provide useful predictability for Atlantic TC activity on seasonal-to-interannual time scale.« less

  5. Impact of different climatic flows on typhoon tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Wei-hong; Huang, Jing

    2018-04-01

    A tropical cyclone (TC) vortex is considered to be embedded in and steered by a large-scale environmental flow. The environmental flow can be decomposed into two parts: temporal climatic flow and anomaly. The former is defined according to the calendar climatology with a diurnal cycle and a seasonal cycle. Thus, the temporal climatic flow of the atmosphere, which can be estimated using reanalysis data, varies with regions, altitudes, and hours. The impact of different climatic flows on TC tracks in the Northwest Pacific is examined using a simple generalized beta-advection model. Results show that the predicted tracks of two TC cases have large deviations from their best tracks in the following 1-2 days if the temporal climatic wind is replaced by other hourly climatic winds on the same calendar day or by a several-day-mean climatic wind. The track deviation is more significant when the climatic wind difference is larger than 2 m s-1. This experiment reconfirms that a TC track is influenced by temporal climatic flow and interaction with other disturbances in the vicinity.

  6. Coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO sub x control demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    It is the objective of the Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO{sub x} Control Project to fully establish that the cola reburning clean coal technology offers cost-effective alternatives to cyclone operating electric utilities for overall oxides of nitrogen control. The project will evaluate the applicability of the reburning technology for reducing NO{sub x} emissions in full scale cyclone-fired boilers which use coal as a primary fuel. The performance goals while burning coal are: (1) Greater than 50 percent reduction in NO{sub x} emissions, as referenced to the uncontrolled (baseline) conditions at full load. (2) No serious impact on cyclone combustormore » operation, boiler efficiency or boiler fireside performance (corrosion and deposition), or boiler ash removal system performance.« less

  7. Landfalling characteristics of the tropical cyclones generated in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Wang, D.

    2012-12-01

    Tracks of tropical cyclones (TCs) in the South China Sea (SCS) during 1970-2010 can mainly be divided into two categories: Westward (including west and northwest) and Eastward (east and northeast). TCs moving westward tend to make landfall along the South china or Vietnam coast, while those moving eastward tend to dissipate in the ocean or make landfall on Taiwan, Philippine Islands or occasionally the South China coast. During spring (April-May), there are 17 TCs generated in the SCS, among which 13 moves eastward, but only 4 moves westward. A total of 95 TCs forms in the SCS during TC peak season (June-September), among which 71 TCs move westward, about three times more than that moving eastward (24). During October-December, 33 TCs move westward and 12 eastward. The variability of TC track direction is investigated on intraseasonal, seasonal and inter-annual scale circulation. It is found that TC landfall activities are related to Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), monsoon activities and TC genesis locations.

  8. The Morphology of Cyclonic Windstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewson, Tim

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to help facilitate the correct interpretation and use of model analyses and predictions of windstorms in the extra-tropics, and to show that 'storm detection' does not just depend on the efficacy of the identification/tracking algorithm. Under the auspices of the IMILAST (Intercomparison of MId-LAtitude STorm diagnostics) project, 29 damaging European cyclonic windstorms have been studied in detail, using observational evidence as the main tool. Accordingly a conceptual model of windstorm evolution has been constructed. This usefully has its roots in the evolution one sees on standard synoptic charts, and highlights that three types of damage footprint can be associated. Building on previous work these are referred to as the warm jet, the sting jet and the cold jet footprints. The jet phenomena themselves each relate to the proximity of fronts on the synoptic charts, and accordingly occur in airmasses with different stability characteristics. These characteristics seem to play a large role in determining the magnitude of surface gusts, and how those gusts vary between coastal and inland sites. These aspects will be discussed with examples, showing that one cannot simply characterise or rank cyclones using wind strength on a lower tropospheric level such as 850hPa. A key finding that sets the sting jet apart, and that makes it a particularly dangerous phenomena, is that gust magnitude is relatively unaffected by passage inland, and this seems to relate to the atmosphere in its environment being destabilised from above. For sting jets wind strength may be greatest below 850hPa. Unfortunately neither current generation global re-analyses, nor global climate models seem to be able to simulate sting jets. This is for various reasons, though their low resolution is key. This limitation has been recognised previously, and the standard way to address this has been to use a re-calibration technique. The potential pitfalls of this approach will be

  9. Economics of oversized cyclones in the cotton ginning industry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cost of reducing pollution to meet increasingly stringent air quality standards particularly for the U.S. cotton ginning industry is rising overtime. Most industry participants use cyclones to control air pollutants. These cyclones have no moving parts and their initial investment costs are relative...

  10. The influence of local sea surface temperatures on Australian east coast cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepler, Acacia S.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Evans, Jason P.; Sherwood, Steven C.

    2016-11-01

    Cyclones are a major cause of rainfall and extreme weather in the midlatitudes and have a preference for genesis and explosive development in areas where a warm western boundary current borders a continental landmass. While there is a growing body of work on how extratropical cyclones are influenced by the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Current in the Northern Hemisphere, there is little understanding of similar regions in the Southern Hemisphere including the Australian east coast, where cyclones that develop close to the coast are the main cause of severe weather and coastal flooding. This paper quantifies the impact of east Australian sea surface temperatures (SSTs) on local cyclone activity and behavior, using three different sets of sea surface temperature boundary conditions during the period 2007-2008 in an ensemble of Weather Research and Forecasting Model physics parameterizations. Coastal sea surface temperatures are demonstrated to have a significant impact on the overall frequency of cyclones in this region, with warmer SSTs acting as a trigger for the intensification of weak or moderate cyclones, particularly those of a subtropical nature. However, sea surface temperatures play only a minor role in the most intense cyclones, which are dominated by atmospheric conditions.

  11. Cyclone Activity in the Arctic From an Ensemble of Regional Climate Models (Arctic CORDEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akperov, Mirseid; Rinke, Annette; Mokhov, Igor I.; Matthes, Heidrun; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Adakudlu, Muralidhar; Cassano, John; Christensen, Jens H.; Dembitskaya, Mariya A.; Dethloff, Klaus; Fettweis, Xavier; Glisan, Justin; Gutjahr, Oliver; Heinemann, Günther; Koenigk, Torben; Koldunov, Nikolay V.; Laprise, René; Mottram, Ruth; Nikiéma, Oumarou; Scinocca, John F.; Sein, Dmitry; Sobolowski, Stefan; Winger, Katja; Zhang, Wenxin

    2018-03-01

    The ability of state-of-the-art regional climate models to simulate cyclone activity in the Arctic is assessed based on an ensemble of 13 simulations from 11 models from the Arctic-CORDEX initiative. Some models employ large-scale spectral nudging techniques. Cyclone characteristics simulated by the ensemble are compared with the results forced by four reanalyses (ERA-Interim, National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Version 2, and Japan Meteorological Agency-Japanese 55-year reanalysis) in winter and summer for 1981-2010 period. In addition, we compare cyclone statistics between ERA-Interim and the Arctic System Reanalysis reanalyses for 2000-2010. Biases in cyclone frequency, intensity, and size over the Arctic are also quantified. Variations in cyclone frequency across the models are partly attributed to the differences in cyclone frequency over land. The variations across the models are largest for small and shallow cyclones for both seasons. A connection between biases in the zonal wind at 200 hPa and cyclone characteristics is found for both seasons. Most models underestimate zonal wind speed in both seasons, which likely leads to underestimation of cyclone mean depth and deep cyclone frequency in the Arctic. In general, the regional climate models are able to represent the spatial distribution of cyclone characteristics in the Arctic but models that employ large-scale spectral nudging show a better agreement with ERA-Interim reanalysis than the rest of the models. Trends also exhibit the benefits of nudging. Models with spectral nudging are able to reproduce the cyclone trends, whereas most of the nonnudged models fail to do so. However, the cyclone characteristics and trends are sensitive to the choice of nudged variables.

  12. Risk factors for mortality in the Bangladesh cyclone of 1991.

    PubMed

    Bern, C; Sniezek, J; Mathbor, G M; Siddiqi, M S; Ronsmans, C; Chowdhury, A M; Choudhury, A E; Islam, K; Bennish, M; Noji, E

    1993-01-01

    Cyclones continue to pose a dangerous threat to the coastal populations of Bangladesh, despite improvements in disaster control procedures. After 138,000 persons died in the April 1991 cyclone, we carried out a rapid epidemiological assessment to determine factors associated with cyclone-related mortality and to identify prevention strategies. A nonrandom survey of 45 housing clusters comprising 1123 persons showed that mortality was greatest among under-10-year-olds (26%) and women older than 40 years (31%). Nearly 22% of persons who did not reach a concrete or brick structure died, whereas all persons who sought refuge in such structures survived. Future cyclone-associated mortality in Bangladesh could be prevented by more effective warnings leading to an earlier response, better access to designated cyclone shelters, and improved preparedness in high-risk communities. In particular, deaths among women and under-10-year-olds could be reduced by ensuring that they are given special attention by families, neighbours, local authorities, and especially those in charge of early warnings and emergency evacuation.

  13. Cyclone-induced rapid creation of extreme Antarctic sea ice conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaomin; Turner, John; Sun, Bo; Li, Bingrui; Liu, Chengyan

    2014-01-01

    Two polar vessels, Akademik Shokalskiy and Xuelong, were trapped by thick sea ice in the Antarctic coastal region just to the west of 144°E and between 66.5°S and 67°S in late December 2013. This event demonstrated the rapid establishment of extreme Antarctic sea ice conditions on synoptic time scales. The event was associated with cyclones that developed at lower latitudes. Near the event site, cyclone-enhanced strong southeasterly katabatic winds drove large westward drifts of ice floes. In addition, the cyclones also gave southward ice drift. The arrival and grounding of Iceberg B9B in Commonwealth Bay in March 2011 led to the growth of fast ice around it, forming a northward protruding barrier. This barrier blocked the westward ice drift and hence aided sea ice consolidation on its eastern side. Similar cyclone-induced events have occurred at this site in the past after the grounding of Iceberg B9B. Future events may be predictable on synoptic time scales, if cyclone-induced strong wind events can be predicted. PMID:24937550

  14. Tropical Cyclones and Climate Controls in the Western Atlantic Basin during the First Half of the Nineteenth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, C. J.; Dodds, S. F.; Rodgers, M. D.; Patwardhan, A.

    2008-12-01

    This study describes new comprehensive reconstructions of individual Western Atlantic Basin tropical cyclones for each year of the first half of the nineteenth century in the Western Atlantic Basin that are directly compatible and supplement the National Hurricane Center's HURDAT (Atlantic basin hurricane database). Data used for reconstructing tropical cyclones come from ship logbooks, ship protests, diaries, newspapers, and early instrumental records from more than 50 different archival repositories in the United States and the United Kingdom. Tropical cyclone strength was discriminated among tropical storms, hurricanes, major hurricanes, and non-tropical lows at least at tropical storm strength. The results detail the characteristics of several hundred storms, many of them being newly documented, and tracks for all storms were mapped. Overall, prominent active periods of tropical cyclones are evident along the western Atlantic Ocean in the 1830s but Caribbean and Gulf coasts exhibit active periods as being more evident in the 1810s and 1820s. Differences in decadal variations were even more pronounced when examining time series of activity at the statewide scale. High resolution paleoclimate and historical instrumental records of the AMO, NAO, ENSO, Atlantic SSTs, West African rainfall, and volcanic activity explain how different modes in these forcing mechanisms may explain some of the multidecadal and interannual variations. The early nineteenth century active hurricane activity appears to be particularly unique in corresponding with a low (negative index) AMO period, and as they relate to particular synoptic-scale patterns in the latter part of the Little Ice Age. Model simulations offer some hypotheses on such patterns, perhaps suggesting increased baroclinic-related storms and a slight later possible shift in the seasonal peak of tropical cyclones for some areas at times. Some years, such as 1806, 1837, 1838, 1842, and 1846 have particularly very active

  15. Characteristic Paths of Extratropical Cyclones that Cause High Wind Events in the Northeast United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, J. F.; Rieder, H. E.; Lee, D.; Kushnir, Y.

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzes the association between wintertime high wind events (HWEs) in the northeast United States US and extratropical cyclones. Sustained wind maxima in the Daily Summary Data from the National Climatic Data Center's Integrated Surface Database are analyzed for 1979-2012. For each station, a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) is fit to the upper tail of the daily maximum wind speed data, and probabilistic return levels at intervals of 1, 3 and 5-years are derived from the GPD fit. At each interval, wind events meeting the return level criteria are termed HWEs. The HWEs occurring on the same day are grouped into multi-station events allowing the association with extratropical cyclones, which are tracked in the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast ERA-Interim reanalysis. Using hierarchical clustering analysis, this study finds that the HWEs are most often associated with cyclones travelling from southwest to northeast, usually originating west of the Appalachian Mountains. The results show that a storm approaching from the southwest is four times more likely to cause strong surface winds than a Nor'easter. A series of sensitivity analyses confirms the robustness of this result. Next, the relationship between the strength of the wind events and the corresponding storm minimum sea level pressure is analyzed. No robust relationship between these quantities is found for strong wind events. Nevertheless, subsequent analysis shows that a relationship between deeper storms and stronger winds emerges if the analysis is extended to the entire set of wintertime storms.

  16. Impact of CYGNSS Data on Tropical Cyclone Analyses and Forecasts in a Regional OSSE Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annane, B.; McNoldy, B. D.; Leidner, S. M.; Atlas, R. M.; Hoffman, R.; Majumdar, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System, or CYGNSS, is a planned constellation of micro-satellites that will utilize reflected Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite signals to retrieve ocean surface wind speed along the satellites' ground tracks. The orbits are designed so that there is excellent coverage of the tropics and subtropics, resulting in more thorough spatial sampling and improved sampling intervals over tropical cyclones than is possible with current spaceborne scatterometer and passive microwave sensor platforms. Furthermore, CYGNSS will be able to retrieve winds under all precipitating conditions, and over a large range of wind speeds.A regional Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) framework was developed at NOAA/AOML and University of Miami that features a high-resolution regional nature run (27-km regional domain with 9/3/1 km storm-following nests; Nolan et al., 2013) embedded within a lower-resolution global nature run . Simulated observations are generated by sampling from the nature run and are provided to a data assimilation scheme, which produces analyses for a high-resolution regional forecast model, the 2014 operational Hurricane-WRF model. For data assimilation, NOAA's GSI and EnKF systems are used. Analyses are performed on the parent domain at 9-km resolution. The forecast model uses a single storm-following 3-km resolution nest. Synthetic CYGNSS wind speed data have also been created, and the impacts of the assimilation of these data on the forecasts of tropical cyclone track and intensity will be discussed.In addition to the choice of assimilation scheme, we have also examined a number of other factors/parameters that effect the impact of simulated CYGNSS observations, including frequency of data assimilation cycling (e.g., hourly, 3-hourly and 6-hourly) and the assimilation of scalar versus vector synthetic CYGNSS winds.We have found sensitivity to all of the factors tested and will summarize the methods used for

  17. Tropical Cyclone-Driven Sediment Dynamics Over the Australian North West Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufois, François; Lowe, Ryan J.; Branson, Paul; Fearns, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Owing to their strong forcing at the air-sea interface, tropical cyclones are a major driver of hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics of continental shelves, strongly impacting marine habitats and offshore industries. Despite the North West Shelf of Australia being one of the most frequently impacted tropical cyclone regions worldwide, there is limited knowledge of how tropical cyclones influence the sediment dynamics of this shelf region, including the significance of these episodic extreme events to the normal background conditions that occur. Using an extensive 2 year data set of the in situ sediment dynamics and 14 yearlong calibrated satellite ocean-color data set, we demonstrate that alongshore propagating cyclones are responsible for simultaneously generating both strong wave-induced sediment resuspension events and significant southwestward subtidal currents. Over the 2 year study period, two particular cyclones (Iggy and Narelle) dominated the sediment fluxes resulting in a residual southwestward sediment transport over the southern part of the shelf. By analyzing results from a long-term (37 year) wind and wave hindcast, our results suggest that at least 16 tropical cyclones had a strong potential to contribute to that southwestward sediment pathway in a similar way to Iggy and Narelle.

  18. Properties and circulation of Jupiter's circumpolar cyclones as measured by JunoCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, G. S.; Eichstaedt, G.; Rogers, J. H.; Hansen, C. J.; Caplinger, M.; Momary, T.; Tabataba-Vakili, F.; Intersoll, A. P.

    2017-09-01

    JunoCam has taken the first high-resolution visible images of Jupiter's poles, which show that each pole has a cluster of circumpolar cyclones, each one separated in longitude by roughly equal spacing. There are five at the south pole and eight at the north pole. These configurations, including their asymmetries and the characteristics of individual cyclones, have remained stable over 7 months from perijove 1 to perijove 5 as of this writing. Each cyclone has a circular outline with a prominent system of trailing spiral arms. In the north, the internal morphology of adjacent cyclones alternates from one to the next. Angular motions within each cyclone appear to be similar to each other but quite different from vortices at lower latitudes.

  19. A CFD Study on the Prediction of Cyclone Collection Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimbun, Jolius; Chuah, T. G.; Choong, Thomas S. Y.; Fakhru'L-Razi, A.

    2005-09-01

    This work presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics calculation to predict and to evaluate the effects of temperature, operating pressure and inlet velocity on the collection efficiency of gas cyclones. The numerical solutions were carried out using spreadsheet and commercial CFD code FLUENT 6.0. This paper also reviews four empirical models for the prediction of cyclone collection efficiency, namely Lapple [1], Koch and Licht [2], Li and Wang [3], and Iozia and Leith [4]. All the predictions proved to be satisfactory when compared with the presented experimental data. The CFD simulations predict the cyclone cut-off size for all operating conditions with a deviation of 3.7% from the experimental data. Specifically, results obtained from the computer modelling exercise have demonstrated that CFD model is the best method of modelling the cyclones collection efficiency.

  20. The persistent signature of tropical cyclones in ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualtieri, Lucia; Camargo, Suzana J.; Pascale, Salvatore; Pons, Flavio M. E.; Ekström, Göran

    2018-02-01

    The spectrum of ambient seismic noise shows strong signals associated with tropical cyclones, yet a detailed understanding of these signals and the relationship between them and the storms is currently lacking. Through the analysis of more than a decade of seismic data recorded at several stations located in and adjacent to the northwest Pacific Ocean, here we show that there is a persistent and frequency-dependent signature of tropical cyclones in ambient seismic noise that depends on characteristics of the storm and on the detailed location of the station relative to the storm. An adaptive statistical model shows that the spectral amplitude of ambient seismic noise, and notably of the short-period secondary microseisms, has a strong relationship with tropical cyclone intensity and can be employed to extract information on the tropical cyclones.

  1. A training course on tropical cyclones over the eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfan, L. M.; Pozo, D.; Raga, G.; Romero, R.; Zavala, J.

    2008-05-01

    As part of a research project funded by the Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI), we are performing a short course based on the current understanding of tropical cyclones in the eastern Pacific basin. In particular, we are focused in discussing the formation and intensification off the Mexican coast. Our main goal is to train students from higher-education institutions from selected countries in Latin America. Our approach includes the review of climatological features derived from the best-track dataset issued by the National Hurricane Center. Using this dataset, we built a climatology of relevant positions and storm tracks for the base period 1970-2006. Additionally, we designed hands-on sessions in which students analyze satellite imagery from several platforms (GOES, QuikSCATT and TRMM) along with mesoscale model simulations from the WRF model. Case studies that resulted in landfall over northwestern Mexico are used; this includes Hurricanes John, Lane and Paul all of which developed during the season of 2006. So far, the course has been taught in the Atmospheric Sciences Department at the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and in La Paz, Mexico, with students from Mexico, Chile, Brazil, Costa Rica and Cuba.

  2. Do Tropical Cyclones Shape Shorebird Habitat Patterns? Biogeoclimatology of Snowy Plovers in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Convertino, Matteo; Elsner, James B.; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Kiker, Gregory A.; Martinez, Christopher J.; Fischer, Richard A.; Linkov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Background The Gulf coastal ecosystems in Florida are foci of the highest species richness of imperiled shoreline dependent birds in the USA. However environmental processes that affect their macroecological patterns, like occupancy and abundance, are not well unraveled. In Florida the Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) is resident along northern and western white sandy estuarine/ocean beaches and is considered a state-threatened species. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that favorable nesting areas along the Florida Gulf coastline are located in regions impacted relatively more frequently by tropical cyclones. The odds of Snowy Plover nesting in these areas during the spring following a tropical cyclone impact are seven times higher compared to the odds during the spring following a season without a cyclone. The only intensity of a tropical cyclone does not appear to be a significant factor affecting breeding populations. Conclusions/Significance Nevertheless a future climate scenario featuring fewer, but more extreme cyclones could result in a decrease in the breeding Snowy Plover population and its breeding range. This is because the spatio-temporal frequency of cyclone events was found to significantly affect nest abundance. Due to the similar geographic range and habitat suitability, and no decrease in nest abundance of other shorebirds in Florida after the cyclone season, our results suggest a common bioclimatic feedback between shorebird abundance and tropical cyclones in breeding areas which are affected by cyclones. PMID:21264268

  3. Spatially-explicit valuation of coastal wetlands for cyclone mitigation in Australia and China.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xiaoguang; Lee, Shing Yip; Connolly, Rod M; Kainz, Martin J

    2018-02-14

    Coastal wetlands are increasingly recognised for their pivotal role in mitigating the growing threats from cyclones (including hurricanes) in a changing climate. There is, however, insufficient information about the economic value of coastal wetlands for cyclone mitigation, particularly at regional scales. Analysis of data from 1990-2012 shows that the variation of cyclone frequencies is related to EI Niño strength in the Pacific Ocean adjacent to Australia, but not China. Among the cyclones hitting the two countries, there are significant relationships between the ratio of total economic damage to gross domestic production (TD/GDP) and wetland area within cyclone swaths in Australia, and wetland area plus minimum cyclone pressure despite a weak relationship in China. The TD/GDP ratio is significantly higher in China than in Australia. Despite their extensive and growing occurrence, seawalls in China appear not to play a critical role in cyclone mitigation, and cannot replace coastal wetlands, which provide other efficient ecosystem services. The economic values of coastal wetlands in Australia and China are respectively estimated at US$52.88 billion and 198.67 billion yr -1 for cyclone mitigation, albeit with large within-country geographic variation. This study highlights the urgency to integrate this value into existing valuations of coastal wetlands.

  4. Martian extratropical cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, G. E.; James, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    Physical properties of summer-season baroclinic waves on Mars are discussed on the basis of vidicon images and infrared thermal mapping generated by Viking Orbiter 1. The two northern-hemisphere storm systems examined here appear to be similar to terrestrial mid-latitude cyclonic storms. The Martian storm clouds are probably composed of water ice, rather than dust or CO2 ice particles.

  5. Simulation of Extreme Arctic Cyclones in IPCC AR5 Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavrus, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Although impending Arctic climate change is widely recognized, a wild card in its expression is how extreme weather events in this region will respond to greenhouse warming. Intense polar cyclones represent one type of high-latitude phenomena falling into this category, including very deep synoptic-scale cyclones and mesoscale polar lows. These systems inflict damage through high winds, heavy precipitation, and wave action along coastlines, and their impact is expected to expand in the future, when reduced sea ice cover allows enhanced wave energy. The loss of a buffering ice pack could greatly increase the rate of coastal erosion, which has already been increasing in the Arctic. These and related threats may amplify if extreme Arctic cyclones become more frequent and/or intense in a warming climate with much more open water to fuel them. This possibility has merit on the basis of GCM experiments, which project that greenhouse forcing causes lower mean sea level pressure (SLP) in the Arctic and a strengthening of the deepest storms over boreal high latitudes. In this study, the latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate model output is used to investigate the following questions: (1) What are the spatial and seasonal characteristics of extreme Arctic cyclones? (2) How well do GCMs simulate these phenomena? (3) Are Arctic cyclones already showing the expected response to greenhouse warming in climate models? To address these questions, a retrospective analysis is conducted of the transient 20th century simulations among the CMIP5 GCMs (spanning years 1850-2005). The results demonstrate that GCMs are able to reasonably represent extreme Arctic cyclones and that the simulated characteristics do not depend significantly on model resolution. Consistent with observational evidence, climate models generate these storms primarily during winter and within the climatological Aleutian and Icelandic Low regions. Occasionally the cyclones remain very intense

  6. Monitoring by Control Technique - Cyclone

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about cyclone control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  7. Tropical Cyclone Intensity in Global Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. A.; Wang, W.; Ahijevych, D.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, global prediction and climate models have begun to depict intense tropical cyclones, even up to Category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale. In light of the limitation of horizontal resolution in such models, we examine the how well these models treat tropical cyclone intensity, measured from several different perspectives. The models evaluated include the operational Global Forecast System, with a grid spacing of about 13 km, and the Model for Prediction Across Scales, with a variable resolution of 15 km over the Northwest Pacific transitioning to 60 km elsewhere. We focus on the Northwest Pacific for the period July-October, 2016. Results indicate that discrimination of tropical cyclone intensity is reasonably good up to roughly category 3 storms. The models are able to capture storms of category 4 intensity, but still exhibit a negative intensity bias of 20-30 knots at lead times beyond 5 days. This is partly indicative of the large number of super-typhoons that occurred in 2016. The question arises of how well global models should represent intensity, given that it is unreasonable for them to depict the inner core of many intense tropical cyclones with a grid increment of 13-15 km. We compute an expected "best-case" prediction of intensity based on filtering the observed wind profiles of Atlantic tropical cyclones according to different hypothetical model resolutions. The Atlantic is used because of the significant number of reconnaissance missions and more reliable estimate of wind radii. Results indicate that, even under the most optimistic assumptions, models with horizontal grid spacing of 1/4 degree or coarser should not produce a realistic number of category 4 and 5 storms unless there are errors in spatial attributes of the wind field. Furthermore, models with a grid spacing of 1/4 degree or greater are unlikely to systematically discriminate hurricanes with differing intensity. Finally, for simple wind profiles, it is shown how an accurate

  8. The great 2012 Arctic Ocean summer cyclone enhanced biological productivity on the shelves

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinlun; Ashjian, Carin; Campbell, Robert; Hill, Victoria; Spitz, Yvette H; Steele, Michael

    2014-01-01

    [1] A coupled biophysical model is used to examine the impact of the great Arctic cyclone of early August 2012 on the marine planktonic ecosystem in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean (PSA). Model results indicate that the cyclone influences the marine planktonic ecosystem by enhancing productivity on the shelves of the Chukchi, East Siberian, and Laptev seas during the storm. Although the cyclone's passage in the PSA lasted only a few days, the simulated biological effects on the shelves last 1 month or longer. At some locations on the shelves, primary productivity (PP) increases by up to 90% and phytoplankton biomass by up to 40% in the wake of the cyclone. The increase in zooplankton biomass is up to 18% on 31 August and remains 10% on 15 September, more than 1 month after the storm. In the central PSA, however, model simulations indicate a decrease in PP and plankton biomass. The biological gain on the shelves and loss in the central PSA are linked to two factors. (1) The cyclone enhances mixing in the upper ocean, which increases nutrient availability in the surface waters of the shelves; enhanced mixing in the central PSA does not increase productivity because nutrients there are mostly depleted through summer draw down by the time of the cyclone's passage. (2) The cyclone also induces divergence, resulting from the cyclone's low-pressure system that drives cyclonic sea ice and upper ocean circulation, which transports more plankton biomass onto the shelves from the central PSA. The simulated biological gain on the shelves is greater than the loss in the central PSA, and therefore, the production on average over the entire PSA is increased by the cyclone. Because the gain on the shelves is offset by the loss in the central PSA, the average increase over the entire PSA is moderate and lasts only about 10 days. The generally positive impact of cyclones on the marine ecosystem in the Arctic, particularly on the shelves, is likely to grow with increasing

  9. The great 2012 Arctic Ocean summer cyclone enhanced biological productivity on the shelves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinlun; Ashjian, Carin; Campbell, Robert; Hill, Victoria; Spitz, Yvette H; Steele, Michael

    2014-01-01

    [1] A coupled biophysical model is used to examine the impact of the great Arctic cyclone of early August 2012 on the marine planktonic ecosystem in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean (PSA). Model results indicate that the cyclone influences the marine planktonic ecosystem by enhancing productivity on the shelves of the Chukchi, East Siberian, and Laptev seas during the storm. Although the cyclone's passage in the PSA lasted only a few days, the simulated biological effects on the shelves last 1 month or longer. At some locations on the shelves, primary productivity (PP) increases by up to 90% and phytoplankton biomass by up to 40% in the wake of the cyclone. The increase in zooplankton biomass is up to 18% on 31 August and remains 10% on 15 September, more than 1 month after the storm. In the central PSA, however, model simulations indicate a decrease in PP and plankton biomass. The biological gain on the shelves and loss in the central PSA are linked to two factors. (1) The cyclone enhances mixing in the upper ocean, which increases nutrient availability in the surface waters of the shelves; enhanced mixing in the central PSA does not increase productivity because nutrients there are mostly depleted through summer draw down by the time of the cyclone's passage. (2) The cyclone also induces divergence, resulting from the cyclone's low-pressure system that drives cyclonic sea ice and upper ocean circulation, which transports more plankton biomass onto the shelves from the central PSA. The simulated biological gain on the shelves is greater than the loss in the central PSA, and therefore, the production on average over the entire PSA is increased by the cyclone. Because the gain on the shelves is offset by the loss in the central PSA, the average increase over the entire PSA is moderate and lasts only about 10 days. The generally positive impact of cyclones on the marine ecosystem in the Arctic, particularly on the shelves, is likely to grow with increasing

  10. The role of latent heat in kinetic energy conversions of South Pacific cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kann, Deirdre M.; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1986-01-01

    The four-dimensional behavior of cyclone systems in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) is analyzed. Three cyclone systems, which occurred during the period from January 10-16, 1979, are examined using the data collected during the first special observing period of the FGGE. The effects of latent heating on the life cycles of the cyclones are investigated. Particular attention is given to the conversions of eddy available potential energy to eddy kinetic energy and of mean kinetic energy to eddy kinetic energy. The net radiation profile, sensible heat flux, total field of vertical motion, and latent heat component were computed. The life cycles of the cyclones are described. It is observed that the latent heating component accounts for nearly all the conversion in the three cyclones, and latent heating within the SPCZ is the major source of eddy kinetic energy for the cyclones.

  11. Magnitudes of nearshore waves generated by tropical cyclone Winston, the strongest landfalling cyclone in South Pacific records. Unprecedented or unremarkable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, James P.; Lau, A. Y. Annie

    2018-02-01

    We delimit nearshore storm waves generated by category-5 Tropical Cyclone Winston in February 2016 on the northern Fijian island of Taveuni. Wave magnitudes (heights and flow velocities) are hindcast by inverse modelling, based on the characteristics of large carbonate boulders (maximum 33.8 m3, 60.9 metric tons) that were quarried from reef-front sources, transported and deposited on coral reef platforms during Winston and older extreme events. Results indicate that Winston's storm waves on the seaward-margin of reefs fringing the southeastern coasts of Taveuni reached over 10 m in height and generated flow velocities of 14 m s- 1, thus coinciding with the scale of the biggest ancient storms as estimated from pre-existing boulder evidence. We conclude that although Winston tracked an uncommon path and was described as the most powerful storm on record to make landfall in the Fiji Islands, its coastal wave characteristics were not unprecedented on centennial timescales. At least seven events of comparable magnitude have occurred over the last 400 years.

  12. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad

  13. A Composite Diagnosis of Synoptic-Scale Extratropical Cyclone Development over the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolfson, Donald M.; Smith, Phillip J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a composite diagnosis of synoptic-scale forcing mechanisms associated with extratropical cyclone evolution. Drawn from 12 cyclone cases that occurred over the continental United States during the cool season months, the diagnosis provides a 'climatology' of development mechanisms for difference categories of cyclone evolution ranging from cyclone weakening through three stages of cyclone intensification. Computational results were obtained using an 'extended' form of the Zwack-Okossi equation applied to routine upper-air and surface data analyzed on a 230 km x 230 km grid. Results show that cyclonic vorticity advection, which maximizes in the upper troposphere, was the primary contributor to cyclone development regardless of the stage of development. A second consistent contributor to development was latent heat release. Horizontal temperature advection, often acknowledged as a development mechanism, was found to contribute to development only during more intense stages. During weakening and weaker development stages, temperature advection opposed development, as the warm-air advection invariably found at upper levels was dominated by cold air advection in the lower half of the troposphere. In the more intense stages, development was moderated by dry-adiabatic cooling associated with the ascending vertical motions.

  14. Cyclone reactor with internal separation and axial recirculation

    DOEpatents

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1988-07-19

    A cyclone combustor apparatus contains a circular partition plate containing a central circular aperture is described. The partition plate divides the apparatus into a cylindrical precombustor chamber and a combustor chamber. A coal-water slurry is passed axially into the inlet end of the precombustor chamber, and primary air is passed tangentially into said chamber to establish a cyclonic air flow. Combustion products pass through the partition plate aperture and into the combustor chamber. Secondary air may also be passed tangentially into the combustor chamber adjacent the partition plate to maintain the cyclonic flow. Flue gas is passed axially out of the combustor chamber at the outlet end and ash is withdrawn tangentially from the combustor chamber at the outlet end. A first mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the combustor chamber at the outlet end and recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber with the coal-water slurry. A second mixture may be tangentially withdrawn from the outlet end and passed to a heat exchanger for cooling. Cooled second mixture is then recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber. In another embodiment a single cyclone combustor chamber is provided with both the recirculation streams of the first mixture and the second mixture. 10 figs.

  15. Tropical and Extratropical Cyclone Damages under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranson, M.; Kousky, C.; Ruth, M.; Jantarasami, L.; Crimmins, A.; Tarquinio, L.

    2014-12-01

    This paper provides the first quantitative synthesis of the rapidly growing literature on future tropical and extratropical cyclone losses under climate change. We estimate a probability distribution for the predicted impact of changes in global surface air temperatures on future storm damages, using an ensemble of 296 estimates of the temperature-damage relationship from twenty studies. Our analysis produces three main empirical results. First, we find strong but not conclusive support for the hypothesis that climate change will cause damages from tropical cyclones and wind storms to increase, with most models (84 and 92 percent, respectively) predicting higher future storm damages due to climate change. Second, there is substantial variation in projected changes in losses across regions. Potential changes in damages are greatest in the North Atlantic basin, where the multi-model average predicts that a 2.5°C increase in global surface air temperature would cause hurricane damages to increase by 62 percent. The ensemble predictions for Western North Pacific tropical cyclones and European wind storms (extratropical cyclones) are approximately one third of that magnitude. Finally, our analysis shows that existing models of storm damages under climate change generate a wide range of predictions, ranging from moderate decreases to very large increases in losses.

  16. Tropical Cyclone Intensity Estimation Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskey, Manil; Cecil, Dan; Ramachandran, Rahul; Miller, Jeffrey J.

    2018-01-01

    Estimating tropical cyclone intensity by just using satellite image is a challenging problem. With successful application of the Dvorak technique for more than 30 years along with some modifications and improvements, it is still used worldwide for tropical cyclone intensity estimation. A number of semi-automated techniques have been derived using the original Dvorak technique. However, these techniques suffer from subjective bias as evident from the most recent estimations on October 10, 2017 at 1500 UTC for Tropical Storm Ophelia: The Dvorak intensity estimates ranged from T2.3/33 kt (Tropical Cyclone Number 2.3/33 knots) from UW-CIMSS (University of Wisconsin-Madison - Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies) to T3.0/45 kt from TAFB (the National Hurricane Center's Tropical Analysis and Forecast Branch) to T4.0/65 kt from SAB (NOAA/NESDIS Satellite Analysis Branch). In this particular case, two human experts at TAFB and SAB differed by 20 knots in their Dvorak analyses, and the automated version at the University of Wisconsin was 12 knots lower than either of them. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) estimates about 10-20 percent uncertainty in its post analysis when only satellite based estimates are available. The success of the Dvorak technique proves that spatial patterns in infrared (IR) imagery strongly relate to tropical cyclone intensity. This study aims to utilize deep learning, the current state of the art in pattern recognition and image recognition, to address the need for an automated and objective tropical cyclone intensity estimation. Deep learning is a multi-layer neural network consisting of several layers of simple computational units. It learns discriminative features without relying on a human expert to identify which features are important. Our study mainly focuses on convolutional neural network (CNN), a deep learning algorithm, to develop an objective tropical cyclone intensity estimation. CNN is a supervised learning

  17. A statistical analysis of the association between tropical cyclone intensity change and tornado frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Todd W.

    2016-07-01

    Tropical cyclones often produce tornadoes that have the potential to compound the injury and fatality counts and the economic losses associated with tropical cyclones. These tornadoes do not occur uniformly through time or across space. Multiple statistical methods were used in this study to analyze the association between tropical cyclone intensity change and tornado frequency. Results indicate that there is an association between the two and that tropical cyclones tend to produce more tornadoes when they are weakening, but the association is weak. Tropical cyclones can also produce a substantial number of tornadoes when they are relatively stable or strengthening.

  18. Performance and Characteristics of a Cyclone Gasifier for Gasification of Sawdust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azman Miskam, Muhamad; Zainal, Z. A.; Idroas, M. Y.

    The performance and characteristics of a cyclone gasifier for gasification of sawdust has been studied and evaluated. The system applied a technique to gasify sawdust through the concept of cyclonic motion driven by air injected at atmospheric pressure. This study covers the results obtained for gasification of ground sawdust from local furniture industries with size distribution ranging from 0.25 to 1 mm. It was found that the typical wall temperature for initiating stable gasification process was about 400°C. The heating value of producer gas was about 3.9 MJ m-3 that is sufficient for stable combustion in a dual-fuel engine generator. The highest thermal output from the cyclone gasifier was 57.35 kWT. The highest value of mass conversion efficiency and enthalpy balance were 60 and 98.7%, respectively. The highest efficiency of the cyclone gasifier obtained was 73.4% and this compares well with other researchers. The study has identified the optimum operational condition for gasifying sawdust in a cyclone gasifier and made conclusions as to how the steady gasification process can be achieved.

  19. Interactions between tropical cyclones and mid-latitude systems in the Northeastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, A.; Abarca, S. F.; Raga, G. B.; Vargas, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Major challenges in tropical meteorology include the short-term forecast of tropical cyclone (TC) intensity, which is defined as the maximum tangential wind. Several efforts have been made in order to reach this goal over the last decade: Among these efforts, the study of lightning in the TC inner core (the region inside a disc of 100 km radius from the center) as a proxy to deep convection, has the potential to be used as a predictor to forecast intensity (DeMaria et al, 2012, Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 1828-1842).While most studies focus their objectives in studying the lightning flash density in the inner core, we study the probability of flash occurrence for intensifying and weakening cyclones. We have analyzed the trajectories of the observed 62 tropical cyclones that developed in the basin from 2006 to 2009, and classified them into separate clusters according to their trajectories. These clusters can broadly be described as having trajectories mostly oriented: East-West, towards the central Pacific, NW far from the Mexican coast, parallel to the Mexican coast and recurving towards the Mexican coast.We estimate that probability of inner core lightning occurrence increases as cyclones intensify but the probability rapidly decrease as the systems weaken. This is valid for cyclones in most of the clusters. However, the cyclones that exhibit trajectories that recurve towards the Mexican coast, do not present the same relationship between intensity and inner-core lightning probability, these cyclones show little or no decrease in the lightning occurrence probability as they weaken.We hypothesize that one of the reasons for this anomalous behavior is likely the fact that these cyclones interact with mid-latitude systems. Mid-latitude systems are important in determining the recurving trajectory but they may also influence the TC by advecting mid-level moisture towards the TC inner core. This additional supply of moisture as the system is approaching land may enhance deep

  20. Changes in intense tropical cyclone activity for the western North Pacific during the last decades derived from a regional climate model simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcikowska, Monika; Feser, Frauke; Zhang, Wei; Mei, Wei

    2017-11-01

    An atmospheric regional climate model (CCLM) was employed to dynamically downscale atmospheric reanalyses (NCEP/NCAR 1, ERA 40) over the western North Pacific and South East Asia. This approach is used for the first time to reconstruct a tropical cyclone climatology, which extends beyond the satellite era and serves as an alternative data set for inhomogeneous observation-derived records (Best Track Data sets). The simulated TC climatology skillfully reproduces observations of the recent decades (1978-2010), including spatial patterns, frequency, lifetime, trends, variability on interannual and decadal time scales and their association with the large-scale circulation patterns. These skills, facilitated here with the spectral nudging method, seem to be a prerequisite to understand the factors determining spatio-temporal variability of TC activity over the western North Pacific. Long-term trends (1948-2011 and 1959-2001) in both simulations show a strong increase of intense tropical cyclone activity. This contrasts with pronounced multidecadal variations found in observations. The discrepancy may partly originate from temporal inhomogeneities in atmospheric reanalyses and Best Track Data, which affect both the model-based and observational-based trends. An adjustment, which removes the simulated upward trend, reduces the apparent discrepancy. Ultimately, our observational and modeling analysis suggests an important contribution of multi-decadal fluctuations in the TC activity during the last six decades. Nevertheless, due to the uncertainties associated with the inconsistencies and quality changes of those data sets, we call for special caution when reconstructing long-term TC statistics either from atmospheric reanalyses or Best Track Data.

  1. Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Formation and Structure Change in TCS-08

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    cyclones often transition to a fast-moving and rapidly- developing extratropical cyclone that may contain gale-, storm -, or hurricane-force winds...there is a need to improve understanding and prediction of the extratropical transition phase of a decaying tropical cyclone. The structural evolution...of the transition from a tropical to an extratropical circulation involves rapid changes to the wind, cloud, and precipitation patterns that

  2. Coastal Hazard due to Tropical Cyclones in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Casarin, R.; Mendoza-Baldwin, E.; Marino-Tapia, I.; Enriquez, C.; Ruiz, G.; Escalante-MAncera, E.; Ruíz-Rentería, F.

    2013-05-01

    The Mexican coast is hit every year by at least 3 cyclones and it is affected for nearly 59 hours a year on average; this induces undesirable consequences, such as coastal erosion and flooding. To evaluate the hazard to which the coastal zone is exposes, a historical characterization of atmospheric conditions (surface winds and pressure conditions of the storms), waves (wave heights and their associated wave periods) and flooding levels due to tropical storms for more than 60 years is presented. The atmospheric and wave conditions were evaluated using a modification of the original parametric Hydromet-Rankin Vortex Model by Bretschneider (1990) and Holland (1980) as presented by Silva, et al. (2002). The flooding levels caused by hurricanes were estimated using a two-dimensional, vertically averaged finite volume model to evaluate the storm surge, Posada et al. (2008). The cyclone model was compared to the data series of 29 cyclones recorded by buoys of the National Data Buoy Center-NOAA and some data recorded in shallow waters near Cancun, Mexico and the flooding model was compared with observed data from Cancun, Mexico; both models gave good results. For the extreme analyses of wind, wave heights and maximum flooding levels on the Mexican coasts, maps of the scale and location parameters used in the Weibull cumulative distribution function and numerical results for different return periods are provided. The historical occurrence of tropical storms is also revised as some studies indicate that the average intensity of tropical cyclones is increasing; no definite trends pointing to an increase in storm frequency or intensity were found. What was in fact found is that although there are more cyclones in the Pacific Ocean and these persist longer, the intensity of the cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean is greater affecting. In any case, the strong necessity of avoiding storm induced coastal damage (erosion and flooding) is reflected in numerous works, such as this one

  3. Novel cyclone empirical pressure drop and emissions with heterogeneous particulate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New cyclone designs equally effective at controlling emissions that have smaller pressure losses would reduce both the financial and the environmental cost of procuring electricity. Tests were conducted with novel and industry standard 30.5 cm diameter cyclones at inlet velocities from 8 to 18 m s-...

  4. Public understanding of cyclone warning in India: Can wind be predicted?

    PubMed

    Dash, Biswanath

    2015-11-01

    In spite of meteorological warning, many human lives are lost every year to cyclone mainly because vulnerable populations were not evacuated on time to a safe shelter as per recommendation. It raises several questions, most prominently what explains people's behaviour in the face of such danger from a cyclonic storm? How do people view meteorological advisories issued for cyclone and what role they play in defining the threat? What shapes public response during such situation? This article based on an ethnographic study carried out in coastal state of Odisha, India, argues that local public recognising inherent limitations of meteorological warning, fall back on their own system of observation and forecasting. Not only are the contents of cyclone warning understood, its limitations are accommodated and explained. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Submesoscale cyclones in the Agulhas current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, M.; Swart, S.; Gula, J.

    2017-01-01

    Gliders were deployed for the first time in the Agulhas Current region to investigate processes of interactions between western boundary currents and shelf waters. Continuous observations from the gliders in water depths of 100-1000 m and over a period of 1 month provide the first high-resolution observations of the Agulhas Current's inshore front. The observations collected in a nonmeandering Agulhas Current show the presence of submesoscale cyclonic eddies, generated at the inshore boundary of the Agulhas Current. The submesoscale cyclones are often associated with warm water plumes, which extend from their western edge and exhibit strong northeastward currents. These features are a result of shear instabilities and extract their energy from the mean Agulhas Current jet.

  6. The Life Cycles of Intense Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Circulation Systems Observed over Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip J.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a summary of research accomplished over the past four years under the sponsorship of NASA grant #NAG8-915. Building on previously funded NASA grants, this part of the project focused on the following specific goals relative to cyclone/anticyclone systems: the jet streak link between block formation and upstream cyclone activity; the role of northward warm air advection in block formation; the importance of cooperative participation of several forcing mechanisms during explosive cyclone development; and the significance of the vertical distribution of forcing processes during cyclone/anticyclone development.

  7. Tropical Cyclone Forecasters Reference Guide 2. Tropical Climatology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    stratosphere and discovered three periods of oscillation: 1.3.3 1 Quasi-biennial Oscillation (OBO) The QBO in tropical stratospheric winds is defined as a...The QBO may be associated with the seasonal weather activities. Gray (1984a,b) has used the QBO at the 30-mb level as one of the indexes to predict the...yearly number of tropical cyclones in the Atlantic with some success. However, the physical links between cyclone activity and QBO are not clearly

  8. Emergency Department Presentations following Tropical Cyclone Yasi.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Peter; Franklin, Richard Charles; Lawlor, Jenine; Mitchell, Rob; Watt, Kerrianne; Furyk, Jeremy; Small, Niall; Lovegrove, Leone; Leggat, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Emergency departments see an increase in cases during cyclones. The aim of this study is to describe patient presentations to the Emergency Department (ED) of a tertiary level hospital (Townsville) following a tropical cyclone (Yasi). Specific areas of focus include changes in: patient demographics (age and gender), triage categories, and classification of diseases. Data were extracted from the Townsville Hospitals ED information system (EDIS) for three periods in 2009, 2010 and 2011 to coincide with formation of Cyclone Yasi (31 January 2011) to six days after Yasi crossed the coast line (8 February 2012). The analysis explored the changes in ICD10-AM 4-character classification and presented at the Chapter level. There was a marked increase in the number of patients attending the ED during Yasi, particularly those aged over 65 years with a maximum daily attendance of 372 patients on 4 Feb 2011. The most marked increases were in: Triage categories--4 and 5; and ICD categories--diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (L00-L99), and factors influencing health care status (Z00-Z99). The most common diagnostic presentation across all years was injury (S00-T98). There was an increase in presentations to the ED of TTH, which peaked in the first 24-48 hours following the cyclone and returned to normal over a five-day period. The changes in presentations were mostly an amplification of normal attendance patterns with some altered areas of activity. Injury patterns are similar to overseas experience.

  9. Satellite radiance data assimilation for binary tropical cyclone cases over the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yonghan; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Myong-In; Kim, Joowan; Jin, Chun-Sil; Park, Sang-Hun; Joh, Min-Su

    2017-06-01

    A total of three binary tropical cyclone (TC) cases over the Western North Pacific are selected to investigate the effects of satellite radiance data assimilation on analyses and forecasts of binary TCs. Two parallel cycling experiments with a 6 h interval are performed for each binary TC case, and the difference between the two experiments is whether satellite radiance observations are assimilated. Satellite radiance observations are assimilated using the Weather Research and Forecasting Data Assimilation (WRFDA)'s three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) system, which includes the observation operator, quality control procedures, and bias correction algorithm for radiance observations. On average, radiance assimilation results in slight improvements of environmental fields and track forecasts of binary TC cases, but the detailed effects vary with the case. When there is no direct interaction between binary TCs, radiance assimilation leads to better depictions of environmental fields, and finally it results in improved track forecasts. However, positive effects of radiance assimilation on track forecasts can be reduced when there exists a direct interaction between binary TCs and intensities/structures of binary TCs are not represented well. An initialization method (e.g., dynamic initialization) combined with radiance assimilation and/or more advanced DA techniques (e.g., hybrid method) can be considered to overcome these limitations.

  10. Field theoretical prediction of a property of the tropical cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spineanu, F.; Vlad, M.

    2014-01-01

    The large scale atmospheric vortices (tropical cyclones, tornadoes) are complex physical systems combining thermodynamics and fluid-mechanical processes. The late phase of the evolution towards stationarity consists of the vorticity concentration, a well known tendency to self-organization , an universal property of the two-dimensional fluids. It may then be expected that the stationary state of the tropical cyclone has the same nature as the vortices of many other systems in nature: ideal (Euler) fluids, superconductors, Bose-Einsetin condensate, cosmic strings, etc. Indeed it was found that there is a description of the atmospheric vortex in terms of a classical field theory. It is compatible with the more conventional treatment based on conservation laws, but the field theoretical model reveals properties that are almost inaccessible to the conventional formulation: it identifies the stationary states as being close to self-duality. This is of highest importance: the self-duality is known to be the origin of all coherent structures known in natural systems. Therefore the field theoretical (FT) formulation finds that the cuasi-coherent form of the atmospheric vortex (tropical cyclone) at stationarity is an expression of this particular property. In the present work we examine a strong property of the tropical cyclone, which arises in the FT formulation in a natural way: the equality of the masses of the particles associated to the matter field and respectively to the gauge field in the FT model is translated into the equality between the maximum radial extension of the tropical cyclone and the Rossby radius. For the cases where the FT model is a good approximation we calculate characteristic quantities of the tropical cyclone and find good comparison with observational data.

  11. NASA CYGNSS Tropical Cyclone Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruf, Chris; Atlas, Robert; Majumdar, Sharan; Ettammal, Suhas; Waliser, Duane

    2017-04-01

    The NASA Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) mission consists of a constellation of eight microsatellites that were launched into low-Earth orbit on 15 December 2016. Each observatory carries a four-channel bistatic scatterometer receiver to measure near surface wind speed over the ocean. The transmitter half of the scatterometer is the constellation of GPS satellites. CYGNSS is designed to address the inadequacy in observations of the inner core of tropical cyclones (TCs) that result from two causes: 1) much of the TC inner core is obscured from conventional remote sensing instruments by intense precipitation in the eye wall and inner rain bands; and 2) the rapidly evolving (genesis and intensification) stages of the TC life cycle are poorly sampled in time by conventional polar-orbiting, wide-swath surface wind imagers. The retrieval of wind speed by CYGNSS in the presence of heavy precipitation is possible due to the long operating wavelength used by GPS (19 cm), at which scattering and attenuation by rain are negligible. Improved temporal sampling by CYGNSS is possible due to the use of eight spacecraft with 4 scatterometer channels on each one. Median and mean revisit times everywhere in the tropics are 3 and 7 hours, respectively. Wind speed referenced to 10m height above the ocean surface is retrieved from CYGNSS measurements of bistatic radar cross section in a manner roughly analogous to that of conventional ocean wind scatterometers. The technique has been demonstrated previously from space by the UK-DMC and UK-TDS missions. Wind speed is retrieved with 25 km spatial resolution and an uncertainty of 2 m/s at low wind speeds and 10% at wind speeds above 20 m/s. Extensive simulation studies conducted prior to launch indicate that there will be a significant positive impact on TC forecast skill for both track and intensity with CYGNSS measurements assimilated into HWRF numerical forecasts. Simulations of CYGNSS spatial and temporal sampling

  12. Cyclone reactor with internal separation and axial recirculation

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.

    1989-01-01

    A cyclone combustor apparatus contains a circular partition plate containing a central circular aperture. The partition plate divides the apparatus into a cylindrical precombustor chamber and a combustor chamber. A coal-water slurry is passed axially into the inlet end of the precombustor chamber, and primary air is passed tangentially into said chamber to establish a cyclonic air flow. Combustion products pass through the partition plate aperture and into the combustor chamber. Secondary air may also be passed tangentially into the combustor chamber adjacent the partition plate to maintain the cyclonic flow. Flue gas is passed axially out of the combustor chamber at the outlet end and ash is withdrawn tangentially from the combuston chamber at the outlet end. A first mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the combustor chamber at the outlet end and recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber with the coal-water slurry. A second mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the outlet end of the combustor chamber and passed to a heat exchanger for cooling. Cooled second mixture is then recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber. In another embodiment a single cyclone combustor chamber is provided with both the recirculation streams of the first mixture and the second mixture.

  13. A meridional dipole in premonsoon Bay of Bengal tropical cyclone activity induced by ENSO: TROPICAL CYCLONES, MONSOON AND ENSO

    SciTech Connect

    Balaguru, Karthik; Leung, L. Ruby; Lu, Jian

    2016-06-27

    Analysis of Bay of Bengal tropical cyclone (TC) track data for the month of May during 1980-2013 reveals a meridional dipole in TC intensification: TC intensification rates increased in the northern Bay and decreased in the southern Bay. The dipole was driven by an increase in low-level vorticity and atmospheric humidity in the northern Bay, making the environment more favorable for TC intensification, and enhanced vertical wind shear in the southern Bay, tending to reduce TC development. These environmental changes were associated with a strengthening of the monsoon circulation for the month of May, driven by a La Nin˜a-like shiftmore » in tropical Pacific SSTs andassociated tropical wave dynamics. Analysis of a suite of climate models fromthe CMIP5 archive for the 150-year historical period shows that most models correctly reproduce the link between ENSO and Bay of Bengal TC activity through the monsoon at interannual timescales. Under the RCP 8.5 scenario the same CMIP5 models produce an El Nin˜o like warming trend in the equatorial Pacific, tending to weaken the monsoon circulation. These results suggest« less

  14. Investigation of the Ionsopheric Response to Tropical Cyclones Using Ground and Satellite Based Observations Over Indian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G J, B.; Lal, M.

    2015-12-01

    The present work investigates the equatorial ionospheric response to tropical cyclones which were observed over the Arabian and Bay of Bengal Ocean during the year 2009-2013. The present study utilizes various datasets in order to strengthen the mechanism of troposphere-ionosphere coupling. The tropical cyclone track and data can be obtained from the Indian Meteorological Department, New Delhi. Ionsopheric variations can be monitored from the ground based digisonde located at equatorial station, Trivandrum (8.48oN, 76.95oE), Tirunelveli (8.7oN, 77.8oE) and off equatorial station Allahabad (25.45oN, 81.85oE) and CDAAC COSMIC satellite data. It is believed that tropical cyclone induced convection as the driving agent for the increased gravity wave activity in the lower atmosphere. The convective regions are identified with the help of Outgoing Long wave radiation from NOAA. Gravity wave propagation is mainly depends on the background wind condition, can be examined by using NASA MERRA reanalyses. These Upward propagating gravity waves deposit their energy and momentum into the upper atmosphere as Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs). It is found that the enhancement of this wave activity is increased by orders of 10 at ionospheric level. The Ionospheric variability is measured by examining the variation in the parameters such as, Total Electron Content (TEC), foF2, hmF2, foE, MUF, h'E and h'F. The extensive analysis will be carried out in order to understand the coupling mechanism between troposphere and ionosphere region. The detailed results will be discussed in the meeting.

  15. Interactions Between Vestige Atlantic Tropical Cyclones and Mid-Latitude Storms Over Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Mehta, Amita; Mugnai, Alberto; Tripoli, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    One of the more interesting tropical-mid-latitude interactions is one that has important effects on precipitation within the Mediterranean basin. This interaction consists of an Atlantic tropical cyclone vestige whose original disturbance travels eastward and northward across Atlantic basin, eventually intermingling with a mid-latitude cyclone entering southern Europe and/or the \\bestern Mediterranean Sea. The period for these interactions is from mid-September through November. If the tropical cyclone and its vestige is able to make the eastward Atlantic transit within the low to mid-levels, or if an upper level potential vorticity perturbation Cjet streak) emitted by a Hurricane in its latter stages within the central Atlantic is able to propagate into and along the longwave pattern affecting the western Mediterranean Sea (MED), then there is the prospect for the tropical cyclone remnant to produce a major modification of the mid-latitude storm system preparing to affect the MED region. For such an occurrence to take place, it is necessary for an amplifying baroclinic perturbation to be already situated to the rear of a longwave trough, or to be excited by the emitted jet streak to the rear of a longwave trough -- in either case, preparing to affect the western MED. The Algiers City flood of 9-10 November 2001, which killed some 700 people, was produced by a Mediterranean cyclone that had been influenced by two vestige Atlantic tropical cyclones, 1,orenzo and Noel. A published modeling study involving various of this study's authors has already described the dynamical development of the Algiers storm as it amplified from a developing baroclinic disturbance in the Rossby wave train, into a northern Africa hazardous flood system, then lingered in the western MED as a semi-intense warm core cyclone. In our new modeling experiments, we investigate the impact of what might have happened in the eventual precipitation field. had the main features of the tropical

  16. Cyclone Center: Insights on Historical Tropical Cyclones from Citizen Volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, P.; Hennon, C. C.; Knapp, K. R.; Schreck, C. J., III; Stevens, S. E.; Kossin, J. P.; Rennie, J.; Hennon, P. A.; Kruk, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The cyclonecenter.org project started in fall 2012 and has been collecting citizen scientist volunteer tropical cyclone intensity estimates ever since. The project is hosted by the Citizen Science Alliance (zooniverse) and the platform is supported by a range of scientists. We have over 30 years of satellite imagery of tropical cyclones but the analysis to date has been done on an ocean-basin by ocean-basin basis and worse still practices have changed over time. We therefore do not, presently, have a homogeneous record relevant for discerning climatic changes. Automated techniques can classify many of the images but have a propensity to be challenged during storm transitions. The problem is fundamentally one where many pairs of eyes are invaluable as there is no substitute for human eyes in discerning patterns. Each image is classified by ten unique users before it is retired. This provides a unique insight into the uncertainty inherent in classification. In the three years of the project much useful data has accrued. This presentation shall highlight some of the results and analyses to date and touch on insights as to what has worked and what perhaps has not worked so well. There are still many images left to complete so its far from too late to jump over to www.cyclonecenter.org and help out.

  17. Observed near-surface flows under all tropical cyclone intensity levels using drifters in the northwestern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Chia; Chen, Guan-Yu; Tseng, Ruo-Shan; Centurioni, Luca R.; Chu, Peter C.

    2013-05-01

    Data from drifters of the surface velocity program and tropical cyclones (TCs) of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center during 1985-2009 were analyzed to demonstrate strong currents under various storm intensities such as category-4 to -5, category-2 to -3, and tropical storm to category-1 TCs in the northwestern Pacific. Current speeds over 2.0 m s-1 are observed under major TCs with the strongest mean currents to the right of the storm track. This study provides the characterization of the near-surface velocity response to all recorded TCs, and agrees roughly with Geisler's theory (1970). Our observations also verify earlier modeling results of Price (1983).

  18. North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones: historical simulations and future changes with the new high-resolution Arpege AGCM.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilon, R.; Chauvin, F.; Palany, P.; Belmadani, A.

    2017-12-01

    A new version of the variable high-resolution Meteo-France Arpege atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) has been developed for tropical cyclones (TC) studies, with a focus on the North Atlantic basin, where the model horizontal resolution is 15 km. Ensemble historical AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project)-type simulations (1965-2014) and future projections (2020-2080) under the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario have been produced. TC-like vortices tracking algorithm is used to investigate TC activity and variability. TC frequency, genesis, geographical distribution and intensity are examined. Historical simulations are compared to best-track and reanalysis datasets. Model TC frequency is generally realistic but tends to be too high during the rst decade of the historical simulations. Biases appear to originate from both the tracking algorithm and model climatology. Nevertheless, the model is able to simulate extremely well intense TCs corresponding to category 5 hurricanes in the North Atlantic, where grid resolution is highest. Interaction between developing TCs and vertical wind shear is shown to be contributing factor for TC variability. Future changes in TC activity and properties are also discussed.

  19. Influence of sea-ice coverage, sea-surface temperatures and latent heat release on baroclinic instability of an Arctic cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, A.; Zhang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic sea ice has shrunk drastically and Arctic storm activity has intensified over last decades. To improve understanding air-ice-sea interactions in the context of storm activity, we conducted a modeling study of a selected intense storm that invaded and was persistent for prolonged time in the central Arctic Ocean during March 16-22, 2011. A series of control and sensitivity simulations were carried out by employing the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which was configured using two nested domains at a resolution of 10 km for the inner domain and 30 km for the outer domain. The control simulations well captured the cyclone genesis, regeneration, track and intensity. Diagnostic analysis and a comparison between the and sensitivity experiments suggest that the strong intensity, regeneration, and long-lasting duration of the cyclone were driven by unusually sustained baroclinic instability, which was resulted due to (1) anomalously reduced sea-ice coverage and strong advection of heat, moisture and vorticity from the North Atlantic; and (2) a release of latent heat due to condensation.

  20. Reduced death rates from cyclones in Bangladesh: what more needs to be done?

    PubMed Central

    Hashizume, Masahiro; Kolivras, Korine N; Overgaard, Hans J; Das, Bivash; Yamamoto, Taro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Tropical storms, such as cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons, present major threats to coastal communities. Around two million people worldwide have died and millions have been injured over the past two centuries as a result of tropical storms. Bangladesh is especially vulnerable to tropical cyclones, with around 718 000 deaths from them in the past 50 years. However, cyclone-related mortality in Bangladesh has declined by more than 100-fold over the past 40 years, from 500 000 deaths in 1970 to 4234 in 2007. The main factors responsible for these reduced fatalities and injuries are improved defensive measures, including early warning systems, cyclone shelters, evacuation plans, coastal embankments, reforestation schemes and increased awareness and communication. Although warning systems have been improved, evacuation before a cyclone remains a challenge, with major problems caused by illiteracy, lack of awareness and poor communication. Despite the potential risks of climate change and tropical storms, little empirical knowledge exists on how to develop effective strategies to reduce or mitigate the effects of cyclones. This paper summarizes the most recent data and outlines the strategy adopted in Bangladesh. It offers guidance on how similar strategies can be adopted by other countries vulnerable to tropical storms. Further research is needed to enable countries to limit the risks that cyclones present to public health. PMID:22423166

  1. Modulating Effects of Mesoscale Oceanic Eddies on Sea Surface Temperature Response to Tropical Cyclones Over the Western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhanhong; Fei, Jianfang; Huang, Xiaogang; Cheng, Xiaoping

    2018-01-01

    The impact of mesoscale oceanic eddies on the temporal and spatial characteristics of sea surface temperature (SST) response to tropical cyclones is investigated in this study based on composite analysis of cyclone-eddy interactions over the western North Pacific. The occurrence times of maximum cooling, recovery time, and spatial patterns of SST response are specially evaluated. The influence of cold-core eddies (CCEs) renders the mean occurrence time of maximum SST cooling to become about half a day longer than that in eddy-free condition, while warm-core eddies (WCEs) have little effect on this facet. The recovery time of SST cooling also takes longer in presence of CCEs, being overall more pronounced for stronger or slower tropical cyclones. The effect of WCEs on the recovery time is again not significant. The modulation of maximum SST decrease by WCEs for category 2-5 storms is found to be remarkable in the subtropical region but not evident in the tropical region, while the role of CCEs is remarkable in both regions. The CCEs are observed to change the spatial characteristics of SST response, with enhanced SST decrease initially at the right side of storm track. During the recovery period the strengthened SST cooling by CCEs propagates leftward gradually, with a feature similar as both the westward-propagating eddies and the recovery of cold wake. These results underscore the importance of resolving mesoscale oceanic eddies in coupled numerical models to improve the prediction of storm-induced SST response.

  2. Extratropical Cyclone in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-11-07

    These images acquired on October 11, 2001 by NASA Terra satellite portray an occluded extratropical cyclone situated in the Southern Ocean, about 650 kilometers south of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia.

  3. A Long-lived Cyclone In Saturn's Atmosphere: Observations And Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rio Gaztelurrutia, Teresa; Legarreta, J.; Hueso, R.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2009-09-01

    The atmospheres of the Giant Planets Jupiter and Saturn possess large numbers of atmospheric vortices. On Jupiter, anticyclones are generally long-lived structures while cyclones survive a much shorter time. A long term survey of images of Saturn atmosphere obtained by the Cassini ISS camera has revealed the presence of a long-lived cyclone in Saturn's southern hemisphere during at least four years, making this vortex the longest lived cyclone on either Jupiter or Saturn. We find that the vortex drifts following the wind profile, with changes in velocity following changes of latitude. During the four years of our survey its size remained essentially constant, and there was no other structure of comparable size at its latitude. Internal circulation is cyclonic, with a maximum velocity of 20±5 m/s and an average vorticity of 4·10-5 s-1, an order of magnitude lower than planetary vorticity, but only slightly higher than the ambient vorticity. Photometric analysis shows that the vortex is located at a slightly lower altitude than its surroundings, at an average of 10-20 mbar below adjacent clouds. Finally, EPIC simulations of the vortex that reproduce its behavior imply a Rossby deformation radius of 2000 km in the weather layer (1 - 10 bar), consistent with the size of the cyclone. The long-lifetime of this cyclonic spot is surprising in view of its low tangential velocity and it suggests that low dissipation conditions prevail at mid-latitudes in Saturn's upper troposphere. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. RH acknowledges a "Ramón y Cajal” contract from MEC.

  4. Extreme cyclone events in the Arctic during wintertime: Variability and Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinke, Annette; Maturilli, Marion; Graham, Robert; Matthes, Heidrun; Handorf, Doerthe; Cohen, Lana; Hudson, Stephen; Moore, John

    2017-04-01

    Extreme cyclone events are of significant interest as they can transport much heat, moisture, and momentum poleward. Associated impacts are warming and sea-ice breakup. Recently, several examples of such extreme weather events occurred in winter (e.g. during the N-ICE2015 campaign north of Svalbard and the Frank North Atlantic storm during the end of December 2015). With Arctic amplification and associated reduced sea-ice cover and warmer sea surface temperatures, the occurrence of extreme cyclones events could be a plausible scenario. We calculate the spatial patterns, and changes and trends of the number of extreme cyclone events in the Arctic based on ERA-Interim six-hourly sea level pressure (SLP) data for winter (November-February) 1979-2015. Further, we analyze the SLP data from the Ny Alesund station for the same 37 year period. We define an extreme cyclone event by a extreme low central pressure (SLP below 985 hPa, which is the 5th percentile of the Ny Alesund/N-ICE2015 SLP data) and a deepening of at least 6 hPa/6 hours. Areas of highest frequency of occurrence of extreme cyclones are south/southeast of Greenland (corresponding to the Islandic low), between Norway and Svalbard and in the Barents/Kara Seas. The time series of the number of occurrence of extreme cyclone events for Ny Alesund/N-ICE show considerable interannual variability. The trend is not consistent through the winter, but we detect an increase in early winter and a slight decrease in late winter. The former is due to the increased occurrence of longer events at the expense of short events. Furthermore, the difference patterns of the frequency of events for months following the September with high and low Arctic sea-ice extent ("Low minus high sea ice") conforms with the change patterns of extreme cyclones numbers (frequency of events "2000-2015 minus 1979-1994") and with the trend patterns. This indicates that the changes in extreme cyclone occurrence in early winter are associated with

  5. Sandy retired from list of Atlantic Basin tropical cyclone names

    Science.gov Websites

    2012 Atlantic hurricane season Media Contact Dennis Feltgen 305-229-4404 305-433-1933 (cellular) Share tropical cyclone names April 11, 2013 GOES East image of Hurricane Sandy, Oct. 29, 2012. This NOAA GOES-13 cyclone names by the World Meteorological Organization's hurricane committee because of the extreme

  6. Extreme weather caused by concurrent cyclone, front and thunderstorm occurrences

    PubMed Central

    Dowdy, Andrew J.; Catto, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Phenomena such as cyclones, fronts and thunderstorms can cause extreme weather in various regions throughout the world. Although these phenomena have been examined in numerous studies, they have not all been systematically examined in combination with each other, including in relation to extreme precipitation and extreme winds throughout the world. Consequently, the combined influence of these phenomena represents a substantial gap in the current understanding of the causes of extreme weather events. Here we present a systematic analysis of cyclones, fronts and thunderstorms in combination with each other, as represented by seven different types of storm combinations. Our results highlight the storm combinations that most frequently cause extreme weather in various regions of the world. The highest risk of extreme precipitation and extreme wind speeds is found to be associated with a triple storm type characterized by concurrent cyclone, front and thunderstorm occurrences. Our findings reveal new insight on the relationships between cyclones, fronts and thunderstorms and clearly demonstrate the importance of concurrent phenomena in causing extreme weather. PMID:28074909

  7. A Conceptual Model for Tropical Cyclone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The role of cumulus congestus (shallow and congestus convection) in tropical cyclone (TC) formation is examined in a high-resolution simulation of Tropical Cyclone Fay (2008). It is found that cumulus congestus plays a dominant role in moistening the lower to middle troposphere and spinning up the near-surface circulation before genesis, while deep convection plays a key role in moistening the upper troposphere and intensifying the cyclonic circulation over a deep layer. The transition from the tropical wave stage to the TC stage is marked by a substantial increase in net condensation and potential vorticity generation by deep convection in the inner wave pouch region. This study suggests that TC formation can be regarded as a two-stage process. The first stage is a gradual process of moisture preconditioning and the low-level spinup, in which cumulus congestus plays a dominant role. The second stage commences with the rapid development of deep convection in the inner pouch region after the air column is moistened sufficiently, whereupon the concentrated convective heating near the pouch center strengthens the transverse circulation and leads to the amplification of the cyclonic circulation over a deep layer. The rapid development of deep convection can be explained by the power-law increase of precipitation rate with column water vapor (CWV) above a critical value. The high CWV near the pouch center thus plays an important role in convective organization. It is also shown that cumulus congestus can effectively drive the low-level convergence and provides a direct and simple pathway for the development of the TC proto-vortex near the surface.

  8. Objective classification of historical tropical cyclone intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenoweth, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Preinstrumental records of historical tropical cyclone activity require objective methods for accurately categorizing tropical cyclone intensity. Here wind force terms and damage reports from newspaper accounts in the Lesser Antilles and Jamaica for the period 1795-1879 are compared with wind speed estimates calculated from barometric pressure data. A total of 95 separate barometric pressure readings and colocated simultaneous wind force descriptors and wind-induced damage reports are compared. The wind speed estimates from barometric pressure data are taken as the most reliable and serve as a standard to compare against other data. Wind-induced damage reports are used to produce an estimated wind speed range using a modified Fujita scale. Wind force terms are compared with the barometric pressure data to determine if a gale, as used in the contemporary newspapers, is consistent with the modern definition of a gale. Results indicate that the modern definition of a gale (the threshold point separating the classification of a tropical depression from a tropical storm) is equivalent to that in contemporary newspaper accounts. Barometric pressure values are consistent with both reported wind force terms and wind damage on land when the location, speed and direction of movement of the tropical cyclone are determined. Damage reports and derived wind force estimates are consistent with other published results. Biases in ships' logbooks are confirmed and wind force terms of gale strength or greater are identified. These results offer a bridge between the earlier noninstrumental records of tropical cyclones and modern records thereby offering a method of consistently classifying storms in the Caribbean region into tropical depressions, tropical storms, nonmajor and major hurricanes.

  9. The Structural Changes of Tropical Cyclones Upon Interaction with Vertical Wind Shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, Elizabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    The Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-4) provided a unique opportunity to observe the distributions and document the roles of important atmospheric factors that impact the development of the core asymmetries and core structural changes of tropical cyclones embedded in vertical wind shear. The state-of-the-art instruments flown on the NASA DC-8 and ER-2, in addition to those on the NOAA aircraft, provided a unique set of observations that documented the core structure throughout the depth of the tropical cyclone. These data have been used to conduct a combined observational and modeling study using a state-of-the-art, high- resolution mesoscale model to examine the role of the environmental vertical wind shear in producing tropical cyclone core asymmetries, and the effects on the structure and intensity of tropical cyclones.The scientific objectives of this study were to obtain in situ measurements that would allow documentation of the physical mechanisms that influence the development of the asymmetric convection and its effect on the core structure of the tropical cyclone.

  10. Cyclone shelters and their locational suitability: an empirical analysis from coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Bishawjit

    2014-07-01

    Bangladesh is one of the poorest and the most disaster-prone countries in Asia; it is important, therefore, to know how its disaster reduction strategies are organised and planned. Cyclone shelters comprise a widely acceptable form of infrastructural support for disaster management in Bangladesh. This paper attempts to analyse empirically their use during cyclones in a sample study area along the southwest coastal belt of the country. It shows how the location of a cyclone shelter can determine the social power structure in coastal Bangladesh. The results reveal that the establishment of cyclone shelters in the studied communities is determined by neither a right-based nor a demand-based planning approach; rather, their creation is dependent on the socio-political affluence of local-level decision-makers. The paper goes on to demonstrate that socially vulnerable households (defined, for example, by income or housing conditions) are afforded disproportionately less access to cyclone shelters as compared to less socially vulnerable households. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  11. Monitoring tropical cyclone intensity using wind fields derived from short-interval satellite images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, E. B.; Gentry, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Rapid scan visible images from the Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer sensor on board SMS-2 and GOES-1 were used to derive high resolution upper and lower tropospheric environmental wind fields around three western Atlantic tropical cyclones (1975-78). These wind fields were used to derive upper and lower tropospheric areal mean relative vorticity and their differences, the net relative angular momentum balance and upper tropospheric mass outflow. These kinematic parameters were shown by studies using composite rawinsonde data to be strongly related to tropical cyclone formation and intensity changes. Also, the role of forced synoptic scale subsidence in tropical cyclone formation was examined. The studies showed that satellite-derived lower and upper tropospheric wind fields can be used to monitor and possibly predict tropical cyclone formation and intensity changes. These kinematic analyses showed that future changes in tropical cyclone intensity are mainly related to the "spin-up" of the storms by the net horizontal transport of relative angular momentum caused by convergence of cyclonic vorticity in the lower troposphere and to a lesser extent the divergence of anticyclone vorticity in the upper troposphere.

  12. Variability in tropical cyclone heat potential over the Southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malan, N.; Reason, C. J. C.; Loveday, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical cyclone heat potential (TCHP) has been proposed as being important for hurricane and typhoon intensity. Here, a climatology of TCHP is developed for the Southwest Indian Ocean, a basin that experiences on average 11-12 tropical cyclones per year, many of which impact on Mauritius, Reunion and Madagascar, and Mozambique. SODA data and a regional ocean model forced with the GFDL-CORE v.2b reanalysis winds and heat fluxes are used to derive TCHP values during the 1948-2007 period. The results indicate that TCHP increases through the austral summer, peaking in March. Values of TCHP above 40 kJ cm-2, suggested as the minimum needed for tropical cyclone intensification, are still present in the northern Mozambique Channel in May. A time series of TCHP spatially averaged over the Seychelles-Chagos thermocline ridge (SCTR), an important area for tropical cyclones, is presented. The model time series, which agrees well with XBT-based observations (r = 0.82, p = 0.01), shows considerable interannual variability overlaying an upward tendency that matches with an observed increase in severe tropical cyclone days in the Southwest Indian Ocean. Although an increase in severe storms is seen during 1997-2007, the increasing TCHP tendency time series after 1997 coincides with a decrease in total cyclone numbers, a mismatch that is ascribed to increased atmospheric anticyclonicity over the basin. Seasons of increased (decreased) TCHP over the SCTR appear to be associated with dry (wet) conditions over certain areas of southern and East Africa and are linked with changes in zonal wind and vertical motion in the midtroposphere.

  13. The Intense Arctic Cyclone of Early August 2012: A Dynamically Driven Cyclogenesis Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosart, L. F.; Turchioe, A.; Adamchcik, E.

    2013-12-01

    A series of surface cyclones formed along an anomalously strong northeast-southwest oriented baroclinic zone over north-central Russia on 1-3 August 2012. These cyclones moved northeastward, intensified slowly, and crossed the coast of Russia by 4 August. The last cyclone in the series strengthened rapidly as it moved poleward over the Arctic Ocean on 5-6 August, achieved a minimum sea level pressure of < 965 hPa by 6 August, and was arguably the most intense storm system to impact the Arctic Ocean in the modern data record going back to the International Geophysical Year in 1957-1958. The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate the structure and life cycle of this Arctic Ocean cyclone from a multiscale perspective. Anticyclonic wave breaking in the upper troposphere across Russia in late July and very early August 2012 created an anomalously strong baroclinic zone across northern Asia between 60-80°N. During 1-5 August, negative 850 hPa temperature anomalies between -2° and -4°C were found poleward of 70-75°N between 90°E and the Dateline over the Arctic Ocean while positive 850 hPa temperature anomalies of 8-9°C were found over eastern Russia near 60°N. The associated anomalously strong 850 hPa meridional temperature gradient of ~10°C (2000 km)-1 helped to sustain an anomalously strong (20-30 m s-1) 250 hPa jet along the coast of northeastern Russia. A local wind speed maximum (~50 m s-1 ) embedded in this 250 hPa jet corridor contributed to the extreme intensity of the trailing (last) surface cyclone in the series. Although the dominant surface cyclone in the series of surface cyclones intensified most rapidly over the relatively ice free Arctic Ocean, the impact of surface heat and moisture fluxes appeared to be secondary to jet-driven dynamical processes in the deepening process. Anomalously high observed 1000-500 hPa thickness values between 564-570 dam, precipitable water values between 30-40 mm, and CAPE values between 500-1000 J kg-1 in the

  14. Stable Isotope Anatomy of Tropical Cyclone Ita, North-Eastern Australia, April 2014

    PubMed Central

    Munksgaard, Niels C.; Zwart, Costijn; Kurita, Naoyuki; Bass, Adrian; Nott, Jon; Bird, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    The isotope signatures registered in speleothems during tropical cyclones (TC) provides information about the frequency and intensity of past TCs but the precise relationship between isotopic composition and the meteorology of TCs remain uncertain. Here we present continuous δ18O and δ2H data in rainfall and water vapour, as well as in discrete rainfall samples, during the passage of TC Ita and relate the evolution in isotopic compositions to local and synoptic scale meteorological observations. High-resolution data revealed a close relationship between isotopic compositions and cyclonic features such as spiral rainbands, periods of stratiform rainfall and the arrival of subtropical and tropical air masses with changing oceanic and continental moisture sources. The isotopic compositions in discrete rainfall samples were remarkably constant along the ~450 km overland path of the cyclone when taking into account the direction and distance to the eye of the cyclone at each sampling time. Near simultaneous variations in δ18O and δ2H values in rainfall and vapour and a near-equilibrium rainfall-vapour isotope fractionation indicates strong isotopic exchange between rainfall and surface inflow of vapour during the approach of the cyclone. In contrast, after the passage of spiral rainbands close to the eye of the cyclone, different moisture sources for rainfall and vapour are reflected in diverging d-excess values. High-resolution isotope studies of modern TCs refine the interpretation of stable isotope signatures found in speleothems and other paleo archives and should aim to further investigate the influence of cyclone intensity and longevity on the isotopic composition of associated rainfall. PMID:25742628

  15. The Variation of Tropical Cyclone Rainfall within the North Atlantic and Pacific as Observed from Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Edward; Pierce, Harold; Adler, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Tropical cyclone monthly rainfall amounts are estimated from passive microwave satellite observations in the North Atlantic and in three equal geographical regions of the North Pacific (i.e., Western, Central, and Eastern North Pacific). These satellite-derived rainfall amounts are used to assess the impact of tropical cyclone rainfall in altering the geographical, seasonal, and inter-annual distribution of the 1987-1989, 1991-1998 North Atlantic and Pacific rainfall during June-November when tropical cyclones are most abundant. To estimate these tropical cyclone rainfall amounts, mean monthly rain rates are derived from the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/ Radiometer (SSM/I) observations within 444 km radius of the center of those North Atlantic and Pacific tropical cyclones that reached storm stage and greater. These rain rate observations are then multiplied by the number of hours in a given month. Mean monthly rainfall amounts are also constructed for all the other North Atlantic and Pacific raining systems during this eleven year period for the purpose of estimating the geographical distribution and intensity of rainfall contributed by non-tropical cyclone systems. Further, the combination of the non-tropical cyclone and tropical cyclone (i.e., total) rainfall is constructed to delineate the fractional amount that tropical cyclones contributed to the total North Pacific rainfall.

  16. Role of the Southwest Tropical Indian Ocean on the Modulation of Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, J. M.; Bulusu, S.

    2016-02-01

    The Seychelles-Chagos Thermocline Ridge (SCTR), located in the Indian Ocean and bound by 55°E-65°E and 5°S-12°S, is a key region for air-sea interaction. This feature inhabits one of the seven ocean basins where tropical cyclones regularly form and is unique in that the variability of the subsurface can influence cyclogenesis. Tropical cyclone days for this region span from November through April, with peaks in the months of January and February. The influence of thermocline variation is particularly strong during the months of December through May and it is known that a high correlation exists between the depth of the thermocline and sea surface temperature (key ingredient for cyclogenesis). Past research provides evidence that more tropical cyclone days are observed in Southwest Tropical Indian Ocean (SWTIO) during austral summers with a deep thermocline ridge than in austral summers when a shallow thermocline ridge exists. The formation and thickness of the Barrier layer (BL) have also been shown to impact tropical cyclones in this region. BL formation is an important parameter for surface heat exchange. The amount of salt in the boundary layer may also effect heat exchange and thus cyclones. Other ocean basins have verified that salt-stratified barrier layers influence the intensification of tropical cyclones, however, the role that salinity in SWTIO plays in the modulation of tropical cycles has still yet to be explored. This study further explores how the dynamic properties of the SCTR influence the modulation of cyclones. Primarily Argo observations of salinity and temperature along with Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Aquarius salinity, and Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) simulations are used to examine this influence of the BL and salinity on cyclone formation and intensity in this region. This study is progressed with a particular focus on the austral summer of 2012/2013 when seven tropical cyclones developed in the region.

  17. A Conundrum of Tropical Cyclone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper will address a conundrum that has emerged from recent research on tropical cyclone formation. Composite analyses and case studies suggest that prior to genesis, the atmosphere presents a mid-tropospheric vortex that is strong compared to the cyclonic circulation in the boundary layer. Accompanying this vortex is near saturation from the boundary layer through at least 5 km, sometimes more, and a nearly balanced weak negative temperature anomaly below the vortex and stronger positive temperature anomaly above. This thermodynamic state is one of high moisture but low buoyancy for lifted parcels (i.e. low convective available potential energy). However, observations also suggest that widespread deep convection accompanies genesis, with cloud top temperatures becoming colder near the time of genesis. This is seemingly at odds with in situ observations of thermodynamic characteristics prior to genesis. Progress toward understanding the apparent contradiction can be made by realizing that the existence of a moist, relatively stable vortex, and deep convective clouds are not necessarily coincident in space and time. This is demonstrated by a detailed analysis of the two days leading up to the formation of Atlantic tropical cyclone Karl on 14 September. Karl featured a relatively long gestation period characterized initially by a marked misalignment of mid-tropospheric and surface cyclonic circulations. The mid-tropospheric vortex strengthened due to a pulse of convection earlier on 13 September. Meanwhile, the near-surface vortex underwent a precession around the mid-tropospheric vortex as the separation between the two decreased. The eruption of convection around midnight on 14 September, 18 hours prior to declaration on a TC, occurred in the center of the nearly-aligned vortex, contained a mixture of shallow and deep convection and resulted in spin-up over a deep layer, but particularly at the surface. Prior to genesis, the most intense deep convection was

  18. Dry and Semi-Dry Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, T.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of dynamics in our real moist atmosphere is strongly informed by idealized dry models. It is widely believed that tropical cyclones (TCs) are an intrinsically moist phenomenon - relying fundamentally on evaporation and latent heat release - yet recent numerical modeling work has found formation of dry axisymmetric tropical cyclones from a state of dry radiative-convective equilibrium. What can such "dry hurricanes" teach us about intensity, structure, and size of real moist tropical cyclones in nature? Are dry TCs even stable in 3D? What about surfaces that are nearly dry but have some latent heat flux - can they also support TCs? To address these questions, we use the SAM cloud-system resolving model to simulate radiative-convective equilibrium on a rapidly rotating f-plane, subject to constant tropospheric radiative cooling. We use a homogeneous surface with fixed temperature and with surface saturation vapor pressure scaled by a factor 0-1 relative to that over pure water - allowing for continuous variation between moist and dry limits. We also explore cases with surface enthalpy fluxes that are uniform in space and time, where partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes is specified directly. We find that a completely moist surface yields a TC-world where multiple vortices form spontaneously and persist for tens of days. A completely dry surface can also yield a parallel dry TC-world with many vortices that are even more stable and persistent. Spontaneous cyclogenesis, however, is impeded for a range of low to intermediate surface wetness values, and by the combination of large rotation rates and a dry surface. We discuss whether these constraints on spontaneous cyclogenesis might arise from: 1) rain evaporation in the subcloud layer limiting the range of viable surface wetness values, and 2) a natural convective Rossby number limiting the range of viable rotation rates. Finally, we discuss simulations with uniform surface enthalpy

  19. Arabian Sea tropical cyclones intensified by emissions of black carbon and other aerosols.

    PubMed

    Evan, Amato T; Kossin, James P; Chung, Chul Eddy; Ramanathan, V

    2011-11-02

    Throughout the year, average sea surface temperatures in the Arabian Sea are warm enough to support the development of tropical cyclones, but the atmospheric monsoon circulation and associated strong vertical wind shear limits cyclone development and intensification, only permitting a pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period for cyclogenesis. Thus a recent increase in the intensity of tropical cyclones over the northern Indian Ocean is thought to be related to the weakening of the climatological vertical wind shear. At the same time, anthropogenic emissions of aerosols have increased sixfold since the 1930s, leading to a weakening of the southwesterly lower-level and easterly upper-level winds that define the monsoonal circulation over the Arabian Sea. In principle, this aerosol-driven circulation modification could affect tropical cyclone intensity over the Arabian Sea, but so far no such linkage has been shown. Here we report an increase in the intensity of pre-monsoon Arabian Sea tropical cyclones during the period 1979-2010, and show that this change in storm strength is a consequence of a simultaneous upward trend in anthropogenic black carbon and sulphate emissions. We use a combination of observational, reanalysis and model data to demonstrate that the anomalous circulation, which is radiatively forced by these anthropogenic aerosols, reduces the basin-wide vertical wind shear, creating an environment more favourable for tropical cyclone intensification. Because most Arabian Sea tropical cyclones make landfall, our results suggest an additional impact on human health from regional air pollution.

  20. Impacts of different grades of tropical cyclones on infectious diarrhea in Guangdong, 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ruihua; Xun, Huanmiao; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Guangdong province is one of the most vulnerable provinces to tropical cyclones in China. Most prior studies concentrated on the relationship between tropical cyclones and injuries and mortality. This study aimed to explore the impacts of different grades of tropical cyclones on infectious diarrhea incidence in Guangdong province, from 2005 to 2011. Mann-Whitney U test was firstly used to examine if infectious diarrhea were sensitive to tropical cyclone. Then unidirectional 1:1 case-crossover design was performed to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between daily number of infectious diarrhea and tropical cyclone from 2005 to 2011 in Guangdong, China. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were no significant relationships between tropical cyclone and bacillary dysentery, amebic dysentery, typhoid, and paratyphoid cases. Infectious diarrhea other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid significantly increased after tropical cyclones. The strongest effect were shown on lag 1 day (HRs = 1.95, 95%CI = 1.22, 3.12) and no lagged effect was detected for tropical depression, tropical storm, severe tropical storm and typhoon, with the largest HRs (95%CI) of 2.16 (95%CI = 1.69, 2.76), 2.43 (95%CI = 1.65, 3.58) and 2.21 (95%CI = 1.65, 2.69), respectively. Among children below 5 years old, the impacts of all grades of tropical cyclones were strongest at lag 0 day. And HRs were 2.67 (95%CI = 1.10, 6.48), 2.49 (95%CI = 1.80, 3.44), 4.89 (95%CI = 2.37, 7.37) and 3.18 (95%CI = 2.10, 4.81), respectively. All grades of tropical cyclones could increase risk of other infectious diarrhea. Severe tropical storm has the strongest influence on other infectious diarrhea. The impacts of tropical cyclones on children under 5 years old were higher than total population.

  1. Impacts of Different Grades of Tropical Cyclones on Infectious Diarrhea in Guangdong, 2005-2011

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Guangdong province is one of the most vulnerable provinces to tropical cyclones in China. Most prior studies concentrated on the relationship between tropical cyclones and injuries and mortality. This study aimed to explore the impacts of different grades of tropical cyclones on infectious diarrhea incidence in Guangdong province, from 2005 to 2011. Methods Mann-Whitney U test was firstly used to examine if infectious diarrhea were sensitive to tropical cyclone. Then unidirectional 1:1 case-crossover design was performed to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between daily number of infectious diarrhea and tropical cyclone from 2005 to 2011 in Guangdong, China. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results There were no significant relationships between tropical cyclone and bacillary dysentery, amebic dysentery, typhoid, and paratyphoid cases. Infectious diarrhea other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid significantly increased after tropical cyclones. The strongest effect were shown on lag 1 day (HRs = 1.95, 95%CI = 1.22, 3.12) and no lagged effect was detected for tropical depression, tropical storm, severe tropical storm and typhoon, with the largest HRs (95%CI) of 2.16 (95%CI = 1.69, 2.76), 2.43 (95%CI = 1.65, 3.58) and 2.21 (95%CI = 1.65, 2.69), respectively. Among children below 5 years old, the impacts of all grades of tropical cyclones were strongest at lag 0 day. And HRs were 2.67 (95%CI = 1.10, 6.48), 2.49 (95%CI = 1.80, 3.44), 4.89 (95%CI = 2.37, 7.37) and 3.18 (95%CI = 2.10, 4.81), respectively. Conclusion All grades of tropical cyclones could increase risk of other infectious diarrhea. Severe tropical storm has the strongest influence on other infectious diarrhea. The impacts of tropical cyclones on children under 5 years old were higher than total population

  2. The Navy’s Next-Generation Tropical Cyclone Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    when compared with the Doppler radar observations (Fig. 6c). An example of a real-time COAMPS-TC forecast during T- PARC /TCS-08 initialized on 26...prediction support for the THORPEX-Pacific Asian Campaign (T- PARC ) and the Tropical Cyclone Structure 2008 (TCS-08) (T- PARC /TCS-08) experiments...implemented from the CBLAST project. In support of the T- PARC /TCS-08 campaign, adaptive observing guidance for tropical cyclones has been provided

  3. Analysis of North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Intensify Change Using Data Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TC), especially when their intensity reaches hurricane scale, can become a costly natural hazard. Accurate prediction of tropical cyclone intensity is very difficult because of inadequate observations on TC structures, poor understanding of physical processes, coarse model resolution and inaccurate initial conditions, etc. This…

  4. Dissipative soliton vortices and tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chefranov, S. G.; Chefranov, A. G.

    2017-10-01

    We have obtained a new exact steady-state solution to the hydrodynamic equation for a viscous incompressible liquid, which is a generalization of the well-known Sullivan solution (1959), taking into account additionally the external (Eckman) friction and rotation of the system as a single whole. In contrast to the radial structure of a Sullivan vortex, different circulation directions of velocity field tangential component are possible in the new solution in the inner and outer cells. We have considered the correspondence of this solution to the radial vortex structure observed in tropical cyclones, where the precisely anticyclonic circulation always exists in the inner core (typhoon, hurricane eye), which is associated with descending vertical currents for the cyclonic direction of rotation (as well as ascending currents) outside this core.

  5. Impact of tropical cyclones on aerosol properties over urban region of Hyderabad, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharol, Shailesh Kumar; Badarinath, K. V. S.; Rani Sharma, Anu; Krishna Prasad, V.; Kaskaoutis, Dimitrios G.; Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kambezidis, Harry D.

    2010-05-01

    Fierce tropical cyclones occur in India during the pre-monsoon (spring), early monsoon (early summer), or post-monsoon (fall) periods. Originating in both the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, tropical cyclones often attain velocities of more than 100 kmh-1 and are notorious for causing intense rain and tidal waves as they cross the Indian coast. Cyclones are associated with heavy rainfall, gusty winds, and sometimes, storm surges. In the present study, we have analyzed the changes in aerosol properties at Hyderabad, India, associated with very severe cyclonic storm "Mala" occurred during the last week of April, 2006 over the Central-Eastern part of the Bay of Bengal centered near Lat. 16.0 N and Long. 93.0 E, at 18:00 UTC on 28th April 2006, about 500 Km North of Portblair. This tropical cyclone, packing winds of 240 km/h, slammed into Myanmar on 28th April and 29th April destroying hundreds of houses, two beach resorts and at least five factories as per the reports of the Kyemon daily paper and the International Federation of the Red Cross. Cyclone "Mala" is described as the most severe cyclone in the Bay of Bengal after the 1999 Orissa Super Cyclone. The measurements for the case study were carried out in the premises of the National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC) campus at Balanagar (17o.28' N and 78o.26' E) located within the Hyderabad urban center during cyclone period. Synchronous and continuous observations of columnar Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) were carried out using a handheld multi-channel sun-photometer (Microtops-II, Solar Light Co., USA) at six wavelength bands centered around 380, 440, 500, 675, 870 and 1020 nm. Continuous measurements of particulate matter (PM) grain-size distribution were performed with the GRIMM aerosol spectrometer, model 1-108. The cyclone "Mala" over the Bay of Bengal occurred during 26-29 April, 2006, struck the coast of Myanmar with winds of 115 mph (185 kmh-1), causing severe damage and loss of human life on 29 April, 2006

  6. Statistical Aspects of the North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclones: Trends, Natural Variability, and Global Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Statistical aspects of the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones for the interval 1945- 2005 are examined, including the variation of the yearly frequency of occurrence for various subgroups of storms (all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, major hurricanes, U.S. landfalling hurricanes, and category 4/5 hurricanes); the yearly variation of the mean latitude and longitude (genesis location) of all tropical cyclones and hurricanes; and the yearly variation of the mean peak wind speeds, lowest pressures, and durations for all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and major hurricanes. Also examined is the relationship between inferred trends found in the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclonic activity and natural variability and global warming, the latter described using surface air temperatures from the Armagh Observatory Armagh, Northern Ireland. Lastly, a simple statistical technique is employed to ascertain the expected level of North Atlantic basin tropical cyclonic activity for the upcoming 2007 season.

  7. A preliminary computer pattern analysis of satellite images of mature extratropical cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burfeind, Craig R.; Weinman, James A.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    1987-01-01

    This study has applied computerized pattern analysis techniques to the location and classification of features of several mature extratropical cyclones that were depicted in GOES satellite images. These features include the location of the center of the cyclone vortex core and the location of the associated occluded front. The cyclone type was classified in accord with the scheme of Troup and Streten. The present analysis was implemented on a personal computer; results were obtained within approximately one or two minutes without the intervention of an analyst.

  8. An ensemble Kalman filter with a high-resolution atmosphere-ocean coupled model for tropical cyclone forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunii, M.; Ito, K.; Wada, A.

    2015-12-01

    An ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) using a regional mesoscale atmosphere-ocean coupled model was developed to represent the uncertainties of sea surface temperature (SST) in ensemble data assimilation strategies. The system was evaluated through data assimilation cycle experiments over a one-month period from July to August 2014, during which a tropical cyclone as well as severe rainfall events occurred. The results showed that the data assimilation cycle with the coupled model could reproduce SST distributions realistically even without updating SST and salinity during the data assimilation cycle. Therefore, atmospheric variables and radiation applied as a forcing to ocean models can control oceanic variables to some extent in the current data assimilation configuration. However, investigations of the forecast error covariance estimated in EnKF revealed that the correlation between atmospheric and oceanic variables could possibly lead to less flow-dependent error covariance for atmospheric variables owing to the difference in the time scales between atmospheric and oceanic variables. A verification of the analyses showed positive impacts of applying the ocean model to EnKF on precipitation forecasts. The use of EnKF with the coupled model system captured intensity changes of a tropical cyclone better than it did with an uncoupled atmosphere model, even though the impact on the track forecast was negligibly small.

  9. Tropical Cyclone Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, P. Peggy; Knosp, Brian W.; Vu, Quoc A.; Yi, Chao; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla M.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Infor ma tion System (TCIS) is a Web portal (http://tropicalcyclone.jpl.nasa.gov) that provides researchers with an extensive set of observed hurricane parameters together with large-scale and convection resolving model outputs. It provides a comprehensive set of high-resolution satellite (see figure), airborne, and in-situ observations in both image and data formats. Large-scale datasets depict the surrounding environmental parameters such as SST (Sea Surface Temperature) and aerosol loading. Model outputs and analysis tools are provided to evaluate model performance and compare observations from different platforms. The system pertains to the thermodynamic and microphysical structure of the storm, the air-sea interaction processes, and the larger-scale environment as depicted by ocean heat content and the aerosol loading of the environment. Currently, the TCIS is populated with satellite observations of all tropical cyclones observed globally during 2005. There is a plan to extend the database both forward in time till present as well as backward to 1998. The portal is powered by a MySQL database and an Apache/Tomcat Web server on a Linux system. The interactive graphic user interface is provided by Google Map.

  10. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Cyclone Receiver Weldment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cyclone Receiver Weldment 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT... to Subpart A of Part 1209—Cyclone Receiver Weldment EC03OC91.032 ...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Cyclone Receiver Weldment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cyclone Receiver Weldment 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT... to Subpart A of Part 1209—Cyclone Receiver Weldment EC03OC91.032 ...

  12. A satellite observational and numerical study of precipitation characteristics in western North Atlantic tropical cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Edward B.; Chang, Simon W.; Pierce, Harold F.

    1994-01-01

    Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) observations were used to examine the spatial and temporal changes of the precipitation characteristics of tropical cyclones. SSM/I observations were also combined with the results of a tropical cyclone numerical model to examine the role of inner-core diabatic heating in subsequent intensity changes of tropical cyclones. Included in the SSM/I observations were rainfall characteristics of 18 named western North Atlantic tropical cyclones between 1987 and 1989. The SSM/I rain-rate algorithm that employed the 85-GHz channel provided an analysis of the rain-rate distribution in greater detail. However, the SSM/I algorithm underestimated the rain rates when compared to in situ techniques but appeared to be comparable to the rain rates obtained from other satellite-borne passive microwave radiometers. The analysis of SSM/I observations found that more intense systems had higher rain rates, more latent heat release, and a greater contribution from heavier rain to the total tropical cyclone rainfall. In addition, regions with the heaviest rain rates were found near the center of the most intense tropical cyclones. Observational analysis from SSM/I also revealed that the greatest rain rates in the inner-core regions were found in the right half of fast-moving cyclones, while the heaviest rain rates in slow-moving tropical cyclones were found in the forward half. The combination of SSM/I observations and an interpretation of numerical model simulations revealed that the correlation between changes in the inner core diabetic heating and the subsequent intensity became greater as the tropical cyclones became more intense.

  13. 1999 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    over Gopalpur, India in the Ganjam district at 171730Z October. JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert at 151730Z October based on a Special...collapsed buildings and up- rooted trees from the eastern Indian state of Orissa. The Ganjam district, specifically the port of Gopalpur, received

  14. How Can the Operating Environment for Nutrition Research Be Improved in Sub-Saharan Africa? The Views of African Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Van Royen, Kathleen; Lachat, Carl; Holdsworth, Michelle; Smit, Karlien; Kinabo, Joyce; Roberfroid, Dominique; Nago, Eunice; Garimoi Orach, Christopher; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a much needed prerequisite. We collected data on the barriers and requirements for conducting nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa through semi-structured interviews with 144 participants involved in nutrition research in 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 133 interviews were retained for coding. The main barriers identified for effective nutrition research were the lack of funding due to poor recognition by policymakers of the importance of nutrition research and under-utilisation of research findings for developing policy, as well as an absence of research priority setting from within Africa. Current research topics were perceived to be mainly determined by funding bodies from outside Africa. Nutrition researchers argued for more commitment from policymakers at national level. The low capacity for nutrition research was mainly seen as a consequence of insufficient numbers of nutrition researchers, limited skills and a poor research infrastructure. In conclusion, African nutrition researchers argued how research priorities need to be identified by African stakeholders, accompanied by consensus building to enable creating a problem-driven national research agenda. In addition, it was considered necessary to promote interactions among researchers, and between researchers and policymakers. Multidisciplinary research and international and cross-African collaboration were seen as crucial to build capacity in sub-Saharan nutrition research. PMID:23776663

  15. Simulating the characteristics of tropical cyclones over the South West Indian Ocean using a Stretched-Grid Global Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maoyi, Molulaqhooa L.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Prusa, Joseph M.; Veitch, Jennifer J.

    2018-03-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are one of the most devastating natural phenomena. This study examines the capability of a global climate model with grid stretching (CAM-EULAG, hereafter CEU) in simulating the characteristics of TCs over the South West Indian Ocean (SWIO). In the study, CEU is applied with a variable increment global grid that has a fine horizontal grid resolution (0.5° × 0.5°) over the SWIO and coarser resolution (1° × 1°—2° × 2.25°) over the rest of the globe. The simulation is performed for the 11 years (1999-2010) and validated against the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) best track data, global precipitation climatology project (GPCP) satellite data, and ERA-Interim (ERAINT) reanalysis. CEU gives a realistic simulation of the SWIO climate and shows some skill in simulating the spatial distribution of TC genesis locations and tracks over the basin. However, there are some discrepancies between the observed and simulated climatic features over the Mozambique channel (MC). Over MC, CEU simulates a substantial cyclonic feature that produces a higher number of TC than observed. The dynamical structure and intensities of the CEU TCs compare well with observation, though the model struggles to produce TCs with a deep pressure centre as low as the observed. The reanalysis has the same problem. The model captures the monthly variation of TC occurrence well but struggles to reproduce the interannual variation. The results of this study have application in improving and adopting CEU for seasonal forecasting over the SWIO.

  16. The Relationship Between Tropical Cyclone Frequency and 'Climate Change'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, M.; Mogil, M.

    2013-12-01

    Please note: there have been minor updates to this work since the main author, Matt Bolton, graduated high school, but the majority of the research was compiled by him while he was a high school junior in 2011. Abstract: In recent years, there has been a growing trend by many, in the meteorological community (media and scientist) to predict expected seasonal tropical cyclone frequency in the Atlantic and Pacific Basins. Typically, the numbers are related to seasonal averages. However, these predictions often show a large positive bias (i.e., there are more years in which the expected number of storms exceeds or far exceeds average). Further, observed numbers often come close to bearing out the forecasts (actually a good thing). From a public perspective (and based on extrapolations performed by media and some scientific groups), this peaking of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity is observed globally. In an attempt to determine if such a global trend exists, we set out to collect data from weather agencies around the world and present it in a way that was as unbiased as possible. While there were inconsistencies across the various datasets, especially in regard to wind data, we were still able to construct a realistic global cyclone database. We have concluded that high activity levels in one basin are often balanced by areas of low activity in others. The Atlantic - Eastern Pacific couplet is one such example. This paper will serve as an update to our previous 2011 paper, which introduced our efforts. At that time, we found, on average, 70 named tropical cyclones worldwide. In both this and our original study, we did not address the issue of naming short-lived tropical systems, which was found to be inconsistent across worldwide ocean basins. Our results suggest, that from a global climate change perspective, a growing NUMBER of tropical cyclones is NOT being observed. In the current iteration of our study, we are examining, at least preliminarily, global

  17. The kinetic and available potential energy budget of a winter extratropical cyclone system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. J.; Dare, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    The energy budget of an extratropical cyclone system which traversed North America and intensified through the period January 9-11, 1975 is presented. The objectives of the study are: (1) to document the complete energy budget of a significant winter cyclone event, and (2) to comment on the significance of latent heat release (LHR) in the cyclone's evolution. Results reveal an overall increase in both kinetic (K) and available potential energy (A). K increases are accounted for by boundary flux convergence of K, while A increases are due to generation by LHR and K to A conversion. In addition, the general A increase is accompanied by a 24 h oscillation that is explained largely by the flux quantity in the A budget equation and is correlated with a similar fluctuation in the K to A conversion. LHR does not appear to be critical in the development of this cyclone system. Rather, LHR acts to increase the intensity of the event. It is hypothesized that the direct influence that LHR had on the deepening cyclone's reduced mass was augmented by an indirect influence, in which pre-existing dry dynamical forcing was enhanced by diabatic heating, thus leading to accelerated cyclone development at a later time.

  18. Structures and Evolutions of Explosive Cyclones over the Northwestern and Northeastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuqin; Fu, Gang

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the structures and evolutions of moderate (MO) explosive cyclones (ECs) over the Northwestern Pacific (NWP) and Northeastern Pacific (NEP) are investigated and compared using composite analysis with cyclone-relative coordinates. Final Operational Global Analysis data gathered during the cold seasons (October-April) of the 15 years from 2000 to 2015 are used. The results indicate that MO NWP ECs have strong baroclinicity and abundant latent heat release at low levels and strong upper-level forcing, which favors explosive cyclogenesis. The rapid development of MO NEP ECs results from their interaction with a northern cyclone and a large middle-level advection of cyclonic vorticity. The structural differences between MO NWP ECs and MO NEP ECs are significant. This results from their specific large-scale atmospheric and oceanic environments. MO NWP ECs usually develop rapidly in the east and southeast of the Japan Islands; the intrusion of cold dry air from the East Asian continent leads to strong baroclinicity, and the Kuroshio/Kuroshio Extension provides abundant latent heat release at low levels. The East Asian subtropical westerly jet stream supplies strong upper-level forcing. While MO NEP ECs mainly occur over the NEP, the low-level baroclinicity, upper-level jet stream, and warm ocean currents are relatively weaker. The merged cyclone associated with a strong middle-level trough transports large cyclonic vorticity to MO NEP ECs, which favors their rapid development.

  19. How will precipitation change in extratropical cyclones as the planet warms? Insights from a large initial condition climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yettella, Vineel; Kay, Jennifer E.

    2017-09-01

    The extratropical precipitation response to global warming is investigated within a 30-member initial condition climate model ensemble. As in observations, modeled cyclonic precipitation contributes a large fraction of extratropical precipitation, especially over the ocean and in the winter hemisphere. When compared to present day, the ensemble projects increased cyclone-associated precipitation under twenty-first century business-as-usual greenhouse gas forcing. While the cyclone-associated precipitation response is weaker in the near-future (2016-2035) than in the far-future (2081-2100), both future periods have similar patterns of response. Though cyclone frequency changes are important regionally, most of the increased cyclone-associated precipitation results from increased within-cyclone precipitation. Consistent with this result, cyclone-centric composites show statistically significant precipitation increases in all cyclone sectors. Decomposition into thermodynamic (mean cyclone water vapor path) and dynamic (mean cyclone wind speed) contributions shows that thermodynamics explains 92 and 95% of the near-future and far-future within-cyclone precipitation increases respectively. Surprisingly, the influence of dynamics on future cyclonic precipitation changes is negligible. In addition, the forced response exceeds internal variability in both future time periods. Overall, this work suggests that future cyclonic precipitation changes will result primarily from increased moisture availability in a warmer world, with secondary contributions from changes in cyclone frequency and cyclone dynamics.

  20. Characteristics and development of European cyclones with tropical origin in reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Mark M.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Vries, Hylke de; Baatsen, Michiel; Delden, Aarnout J. van

    2018-01-01

    Major storm systems over Europe frequently have a tropical origin. This paper analyses the characteristics and dynamics of such cyclones in the observational record, using MERRA reanalysis data for the period 1979-2013. By stratifying the cyclones along three key phases of their development (tropical phase, extratropical transition and final re-intensification), we identify four radically different life cycles: the tropical cyclone and extratropical cyclone life cycles, the classic extratropical transition and the warm seclusion life cycle. More than 50% of the storms reaching Europe from low latitudes follow the warm seclusion life cycle. It also contains the strongest cyclones. They are characterized by a warm core and a frontal T-bone structure, with a northwestward warm conveyor belt and the effects of dry intrusion. Rapid deepening occurs in the latest phase, around their arrival in Europe. Both baroclinic instability and release of latent heat contribute to the strong intensification. The pressure minimum occurs often a day after entering Europe, which enhances the potential threat of warm seclusion storms for Europe. The impact of a future warmer climate on the development of these storms is discussed.

  1. On the cyclonic eddy generation in Panay Strait, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flament, P. J.; Repollo, C. L. A.; Flores-vidal, X.; Villanoy, C.

    2016-12-01

    High Frequency Doppler Radar (HFDR), shallow pressure gauges and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) time-series observations during the Philippine Straits Dynamics Experiment (PhilEx) were analyzed to describe the mesoscale currents in Panay Strait, Philippines. Low frequency surface currents inferred from three HFDR (July 2008 { July 2009), revealed a clear seasonal signal in concurrent with the reversal of the Asian monsoon. The mesoscale cyclonic eddy west of Panay Island is generated during the winter northeast (NE) monsoon. This causes changes in the strength, depth and width of the intra-seasonal Panay coastal jet as its eastern limb. Winds from QuikSCAT satellite and from a nearby airport indicate that these flow structures correlate with the strength and direction of the prevailing local wind. An intensive survey of the cyclonic eddy in February 8-9, 2009, obtaining a 24-hour successive cross-shore Conductivity-Temperature- Depth (CTD) sections in conjunction with shipboard ADCP measurements showed a well- developed cyclonic eddy characterized by near-surface velocities reaching 50 cm/s. This observation coincides with the intensification of the wind in between Mindoro and Panay islands generating a positive wind stress curl in the lee of Panay, which in turn induces divergent surface currents. Water column response from the mean transects showed a pronounced signal of upwelling, indicated by the doming of isotherms and isopycnals. A pressure gradient then was sets up, resulting in the spin-up of a cyclonic eddy in geostrophic balance. Evaluation of the surface vorticity balance equation suggests that the wind stress curl via Ekman pumping mechanism provides the necessary input in the formation and evolution of the cyclonic eddy. In particular, the cumulative effect of the wind stress curl plays a key role on the generation of the eddy. The Beta-effect on the other hand may led to propagation of the eddy westward.

  2. Tropical Cyclone Induced Air-Sea Interactions Over Oceanic Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    Recent severe tropical cyclones underscore the inherent importance of warm background ocean fronts and their interactions with the atmospheric boundary layer. Central to the question of heat and moisture fluxes, the amount of heat available to the tropical cyclone is predicated by the initial mixed layer depth and strength of the stratification that essentially set the level of entrainment mixing at the base of the mixed layer. In oceanic regimes where the ocean mixed layers are thin, shear-induced mixing tends to cool the upper ocean to form cold wakes which reduces the air-sea fluxes. This is an example of negative feedback. By contrast, in regimes where the ocean mixed layers are deep (usually along the western part of the gyres), warm water advection by the nearly steady currents reduces the levels of turbulent mixing by shear instabilities. As these strong near-inertial shears are arrested, more heat and moisture transfers are available through the enthalpy fluxes (typically 1 to 1.5 kW m-2) into the hurricane boundary layer. When tropical cyclones move into favorable or neutral atmospheric conditions, tropical cyclones have a tendency to rapidly intensify as observed over the Gulf of Mexico during Isidore and Lili in 2002, Katrina, Rita and Wilma in 2005, Dean and Felix in 2007 in the Caribbean Sea, and Earl in 2010 just north of the Caribbean Islands. To predict these tropical cyclone deepening (as well as weakening) cycles, coupled models must have ocean models with realistic ocean conditions and accurate air-sea and vertical mixing parameterizations. Thus, to constrain these models, having complete 3-D ocean profiles juxtaposed with atmospheric profiler measurements prior, during and subsequent to passage is an absolute necessity framed within regional scale satellite derived fields.

  3. Variability of cyclones over the North Atlantic and Europe since 1871

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, C.; Martius, O.

    2012-04-01

    The scarce availability of long-term atmospheric data series has so far limited the analysis of low-frequency activity and intensity changes of cyclones over the North Atlantic and Europe. A novel reanalysis product, the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR; Compo et al., 2011), spanning 1871 to present, offers potentially a very valuable resource for the analysis of the decadal-scale variability of cyclones over the North Atlantic sector and Europe. In the 20CR, only observations of synoptic surface pressure were assimilated. Monthly sea surface temperature and sea ice distributions served as boundary conditions. An Ensemble Kalman Filter assimilation technique was applied. "First guess" fields were obtained from an ensemble (with 56 members) of short-range numerical weather prediction forecasts. We apply the cyclone identification algorithm of Wernli and Schwierz (2006) to this data set, i.e. to each individual ensemble member. This enables us to give an uncertainty estimation of our findings. We find that 20CR shows a temporally relatively homogeneous representation of cyclone activity over Europe and great parts of the North Atlantic. Pronounced decadal-scale variability is found both in the frequency and intensity of cyclones over the North Atlantic and Europe. The low-frequency variability is consistently represented in all ensemble members. Our analyses indicate that in the past approximately 140 years the variability of cyclone activity and intensity over the North Atlantic and Europe can principally be associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation and secondary with a pattern similar to the East Atlantic pattern. Regionally however, the correlation between cyclone activity and these dominant modes of variability changes over time. Compo, G. P., J. S. Whitaker, P. D. Sardeshmukh, N. Matsui, R. J. Allan, X. Yin, B. E. Gleason, R. S. Vose, G. Rutledge, P. Bessemoulin, S. Brönnimann, M. Brunet, R. I. Crouthamel, A. N. Grant, P. Y. Groisman, P. D. Jones, M. C

  4. Do Tropical Cyclones Shape Shorebird Habitat Patterns? Biogeoclimatology of Snowy Plovers in Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-12

    THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 coastal birds in north-west Europe . Using historical data...cyclone season begins in June and ends in November. A cyclone is classified as a tropical depression, tropical storm or hurricane depending on its lifetime...fledge before the storms arrive and subsequently are able to seek inland protection with the adults during the storms [26,27]. However, tropical cyclones

  5. Resolution Dependence of Future Tropical Cyclone Projections of CAM5.1 in the U.S. CLIVAR Hurricane Working Group Idealized Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, Michael; ., Prabhat; Reed, Kevin A.

    The four idealized configurations of the U.S. CLIVAR Hurricane Working Group are integrated using the global Community Atmospheric Model version 5.1 at two different horizontal resolutions, approximately 100 and 25 km. The publicly released 0.9° × 1.3° configuration is a poor predictor of the sign of the 0.23° × 0.31° model configuration’s change in the total number of tropical storms in a warmer climate. However, it does predict the sign of the higher-resolution configuration’s change in the number of intense tropical cyclones in a warmer climate. In the 0.23° × 0.31° model configuration, both increased CO 2 concentrations and elevatedmore » sea surface temperature (SST) independently lower the number of weak tropical storms and shorten their average duration. Conversely, increased SST causes more intense tropical cyclones and lengthens their average duration, resulting in a greater number of intense tropical cyclone days globally. Increased SST also increased maximum tropical storm instantaneous precipitation rates across all storm intensities. It was found that while a measure of maximum potential intensity based on climatological mean quantities adequately predicts the 0.23° × 0.31° model’s forced response in its most intense simulated tropical cyclones, a related measure of cyclogenesis potential fails to predict the model’s actual cyclogenesis response to warmer SSTs. These analyses lead to two broader conclusions: 1) Projections of future tropical storm activity obtained by a direct tracking of tropical storms simulated by coarse-resolution climate models must be interpreted with caution. 2) Projections of future tropical cyclogenesis obtained from metrics of model behavior that are based solely on changes in long-term climatological fields and tuned to historical records must also be interpreted with caution.« less

  6. Resolution Dependence of Future Tropical Cyclone Projections of CAM5.1 in the U.S. CLIVAR Hurricane Working Group Idealized Configurations

    DOE PAGES

    Wehner, Michael; ., Prabhat; Reed, Kevin A.; ...

    2015-05-12

    The four idealized configurations of the U.S. CLIVAR Hurricane Working Group are integrated using the global Community Atmospheric Model version 5.1 at two different horizontal resolutions, approximately 100 and 25 km. The publicly released 0.9° × 1.3° configuration is a poor predictor of the sign of the 0.23° × 0.31° model configuration’s change in the total number of tropical storms in a warmer climate. However, it does predict the sign of the higher-resolution configuration’s change in the number of intense tropical cyclones in a warmer climate. In the 0.23° × 0.31° model configuration, both increased CO 2 concentrations and elevatedmore » sea surface temperature (SST) independently lower the number of weak tropical storms and shorten their average duration. Conversely, increased SST causes more intense tropical cyclones and lengthens their average duration, resulting in a greater number of intense tropical cyclone days globally. Increased SST also increased maximum tropical storm instantaneous precipitation rates across all storm intensities. It was found that while a measure of maximum potential intensity based on climatological mean quantities adequately predicts the 0.23° × 0.31° model’s forced response in its most intense simulated tropical cyclones, a related measure of cyclogenesis potential fails to predict the model’s actual cyclogenesis response to warmer SSTs. These analyses lead to two broader conclusions: 1) Projections of future tropical storm activity obtained by a direct tracking of tropical storms simulated by coarse-resolution climate models must be interpreted with caution. 2) Projections of future tropical cyclogenesis obtained from metrics of model behavior that are based solely on changes in long-term climatological fields and tuned to historical records must also be interpreted with caution.« less

  7. Statistical Characteristic of Global Tropical Cyclone Looping Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W.; Song, J.; Wang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Statistical characteristic of looping motion of tropical cyclones (TCs) in the Western North Pacific (WPAC), North Atlantic (NATL), Eastern North Pacific (EPAC), Northern Indian Ocean (NIO), Southern Indian Ocean (SIO) and South Pacific (SPAC) basins are investigated by using IBTrACS archive maintained by NOAA. From global perspective, about ten percent TCs experience a looping motion in the above six basins. The southern hemisphere (SH) including SIO and SPAC basins have higher looping percentage than the northern hemisphere (NH), while the EPAC basin has the least looping percentage. The interannual variation of the number of looping TCs are significantly correlated with that of total TCs in the NATL, SIO and SPAC basins, while there are no correlations between the EPAC and NIO basins. The numbers of looping TCs have a higher percentage in the early and late cyclone season in the NH rather than the peak period of cyclone season, while the SIO and SPAC basins have the higher looping percentage in the early and late cyclone season, respectively. The looping motion of TCs mainly concentrates on the scale of tropical depression to category 2 and has its peak value on the scale of tropical storm. The looping motion appears more frequently and has a higher percentage at the pre-mature stage than the post-mature stage of TCs in most basins except EPAC. Comparing the intensity and intensity variation caused by the looping motion, the weaker TCs tend to intensify after looping, while the more intense ones weaken.

  8. Stalled Pulsing Inertial Oscillation Model for a Tornadic Cyclone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costen, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    A supercell storm is a tall, rotating thunderstorm that can generate hail and tornadoes. Two models exist for the development of the storm's rotation or mesocyclone - the conventional splitting-storm model, and the more recent pulsing inertial oscillation (PIO) model, in which a nonlinear pulse represents the supercell. Although data support both models and both could operate in the same supercell, neither model has satisfactorily explained the tornadic cyclone. A tornadic cyclone is an elevated vorticity concentration of Rossby number approximately 1000 that develops within the contracting mesocyclone shortly before a major tornado appears at the surface. We now show that if the internal temperature excess due to latent energy release is limited to the realistic range of -12 K to +12 K, the PIO model can stall part way through the pulse in a state of contraction and spin-up. Should this happen, the stalled-PIO model can evolve into a tornadic cyclone with a central pressure deficit that exceeds 40 mb, which is greater than the largest measured value. This simulation uses data from a major tornadic supercell that occurred over Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, on May 3, 1999. The stalled-PIO mechanism also provides a strategy for human intervention to retard or reverse the development of a tornadic cyclone and its pendant tornado.

  9. An Energetic Perspective on United States Tropical Cyclone Landfall Droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truchelut, Ryan E.; Staehling, Erica M.

    2017-12-01

    The extremely active 2017 Atlantic hurricane season concluded an extended period of quiescent continental United States tropical cyclone landfall activity that began in 2006, commonly referred to as the landfall drought. We introduce an extended climatology of U.S. tropical cyclone activity based on accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) and use this data set to investigate variability and trends in landfall activity. The drought years between 2006 and 2016 recorded an average value of total annual ACE over the U.S. that was less than 60% of the 1900-2017 average. Scaling this landfall activity metric by basin-wide activity reveals a statistically significant downward trend since 1950, with the percentage of total Atlantic ACE expended over the continental U.S. at a series minimum during the recent drought period.

  10. How do beetle assemblages respond to cyclonic disturbance of a fragmented tropical rainforest landscape?

    PubMed

    Grimbacher, Peter S; Stork, Nigel E

    2009-09-01

    There are surprisingly few studies documenting effects of tropical cyclones (including hurricanes and typhoons) on rainforest animals, and especially insects, considering that many tropical forests are frequently affected by cyclonic disturbance. Consequently, we sampled a beetle assemblage inhabiting 18 upland rainforest sites in a fragmented landscape in north-eastern Queensland, Australia, using a standardised sampling protocol in 2002 and again 12 months after the passage of Severe Tropical Cyclone Larry (March 2006). The spatial configuration of sites allowed us to test if the effects of a cyclone and those from fragmentation interact. From all insect samples we extracted 12,568 beetles of 382 species from ten families. Beetle species composition was significantly different pre-and post-cyclone although the magnitude of faunal change was not large with 205 species, representing 96% of all individuals, present in both sampling events. Sites with the greatest changes to structure had the greatest changes in species composition. At the site level, increases in woody debris and wood-feeding beetle (Scolytinae) counts were significantly correlated but changes in the percent of ground vegetation were not mirrored by changes in the abundance of foliage-feeding beetles (Chrysomelidae). The overall direction of beetle assemblage change was consistent with increasing aridity, presumably caused by the loss of canopy cover. Sites with the greatest canopy loss had the strongest changes in the proportion of species previously identified in the pre-cyclone study as preferring arid or moist rainforest environments. The magnitude of fragmentation effects was virtually unaltered by the passage of Cyclone Larry. We postulate that in the short-term the effects of cyclonic disturbance and forest fragmentation both reduce the extent of moist, interior habitat.

  11. Global view of the upper level outflow patterns associated with tropical cyclone intensity changes during FGGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, L.; Gray, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the upper tropospheric outflow patterns which occur with tropical cyclone intensification and weakening over all of the global tropical cyclone basins during the year long period of the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE) are discussed. By intensification is meant the change in the tropical cyclone's maximum wind or central pressure, not the change of the cyclone's outer 1 to 3 deg radius mean wind which we classify as cyclone strength. All the 80 tropical cyclones which existed during the FGGE year are studied. Two-hundred mb wind fields are derived from the analysis of the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) which makes extensive use of upper tropospheric satellite and aircraft winds. Corresponding satellite cloud pictures from the polar orbiting U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and other supplementary polar and geostationary satellite data are also used.

  12. Aerosol Optical Depth Distribution in Extratropical Cyclones over the Northern Hemisphere Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Posselt, Derek J.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and an extratropical cyclone database,the climatological distribution of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in extratropical cyclones is explored based solely on observations. Cyclone-centered composites of aerosol optical depth are constructed for the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude ocean regions, and their seasonal variations are examined. These composites are found to be qualitatively stable when the impact of clouds and surface insolation or brightness is tested. The larger AODs occur in spring and summer and are preferentially found in the warm frontal and in the post-cold frontal regions in all seasons. The fine mode aerosols dominate the cold sector AODs, but the coarse mode aerosols display large AODs in the warm sector. These differences between the aerosol modes are related to the varying source regions of the aerosols and could potentially have different impacts on cloud and precipitation within the cyclones.

  13. High-Resolution Modeling to Assess Tropical Cyclone Activity in Future Climate Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Lackmann, Gary

    2013-06-10

    Applied research is proposed with the following objectives: (i) to determine the most likely level of tropical cyclone intensity and frequency in future climate regimes, (ii) to provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty in these predictions, and (iii) to improve understanding of the linkage between tropical cyclones and the planetary-scale circulation. Current mesoscale weather forecasting models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are capable of simulating the full intensity of tropical cyclones (TC) with realistic structures. However, in order to accurately represent both the primary and secondary circulations in these systems, model simulations must be configured withmore » sufficient resolution to explicitly represent convection (omitting the convective parameterization scheme). Most previous numerical studies of TC activity at seasonal and longer time scales have not utilized such explicit convection (EC) model runs. Here, we propose to employ the moving nest capability of WRF to optimally represent TC activity on a seasonal scale using a downscaling approach. The statistical results of a suite of these high-resolution TC simulations will yield a realistic representation of TC intensity on a seasonal basis, while at the same time allowing analysis of the feedback that TCs exert on the larger-scale climate system. Experiments will be driven with analyzed lateral boundary conditions for several recent Atlantic seasons, spanning a range of activity levels and TC track patterns. Results of the ensemble of WRF simulations will then be compared to analyzed TC data in order to determine the extent to which this modeling setup can reproduce recent levels of TC activity. Next, the boundary conditions (sea-surface temperature, tropopause height, and thermal/moisture profiles) from the recent seasons will be altered in a manner consistent with various future GCM/RCM scenarios, but that preserves the large-scale shear and incipient disturbance

  14. Sensitivity of the simulation of tropical cyclone size to microphysics schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kelvin T. F.; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2016-09-01

    The sensitivity of the simulation of tropical cyclone (TC) size to microphysics schemes is studied using the Advanced Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). Six TCs during the 2013 western North Pacific typhoon season and three mainstream microphysics schemes-Ferrier (FER), WRF Single-Moment 5-class (WSM5) and WRF Single-Moment 6-class (WSM6)-are investigated. The results consistently show that the simulated TC track is not sensitive to the choice of microphysics scheme in the early simulation, especially in the open ocean. However, the sensitivity is much greater for TC intensity and inner-core size. The TC intensity and size simulated using the WSM5 and WSM6 schemes are respectively higher and larger than those using the FER scheme in general, which likely results from more diabatic heating being generated outside the eyewall in rainbands. More diabatic heating in rainbands gives higher inflow in the lower troposphere and higher outflow in the upper troposphere, with higher upward motion outside the eyewall. The lower-tropospheric inflow would transport absolute angular momentum inward to spin up tangential wind predominantly near the eyewall, leading to the increment in TC intensity and size (the inner-core size, especially). In addition, the inclusion of graupel microphysics processes (as in WSM6) may not have a significant impact on the simulation of TC track, intensity and size.

  15. National-Level Multi-Hazard Risk Assessments in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murnane, R. J.; Balog, S.; Fraser, S. A.; Jongman, B.; Van Ledden, M.; Phillips, E.; Simpson, A.

    2017-12-01

    National-level risk assessments can provide important baseline information for decision-making on risk management and risk financing strategies. In this study, multi-hazard risk assessments were undertaken for 9 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cape Verde, Ethiopia, Kenya, Niger, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Senegal and Uganda. The assessment was part of the Building Disaster Resilience in Sub-Saharan Africa Program and aimed at supporting the development of multi-risk financing strategies to help African countries make informed decisions to mitigate the socio-economic, fiscal and financial impacts of disasters. The assessments considered hazards and exposures consistent with the years 2010 and 2050. We worked with multiple firms to develop the hazard, exposure and vulnerability data and the risk results. The hazards include: coastal flood, drought, earthquake, landslide, riverine flood, tropical cyclone wind and storm surge, and volcanoes. For hazards expected to vary with climate, the 2050 hazard is based on the IPCC RCP 6.0. Geolocated exposure data for 2010 and 2050 at a 15 arc second ( 0.5 km) resolution includes: structures as a function of seven development patterns; transportation networks including roads, bridges, tunnels and rail; critical facilities such as schools, hospitals, energy facilities and government buildings; crops; population; and, gross domestic product (GDP). The 2050 exposure values for population are based on the IPCC SSP 2. Values for other exposure data are a function of population change. Vulnerability was based on openly available vulnerability functions. Losses were based on replacement values (e.g., cost/m2 or cost/km). Risk results are provided in terms of annual average loss and a variety of return periods at the national and Admin 1 levels. Assessments of recent historical events are used to validate the model results. In the future, it would be useful to use hazard footprints of historical events for validation purposes. The

  16. An Estimate of North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity for 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    The statistics of North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones for the interval 1945-2007 are examined and estimates are given for the frequencies of occurrence of the number of tropical cyclones, number of hurricanes, number of major hurricanes, number of category 4/5 hurricanes, and number of U.S. land-falling hurricanes for the 2008 hurricane season. Also examined are the variations of peak wind speed, average peak wind speed per storm, lowest pressure, average lowest pressure per storm, recurrence rate and duration of extreme events (El Nino and La Nina), the variation of 10-yr moving averages of parametric first differences, and the association of decadal averages of frequencies of occurrence of North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones against decadal averages of Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, annual mean temperature (found to be extremely important for number of tropical cyclones and number of hurricanes). Because the 2008 hurricane season seems destined to be one that is non-El Nino-related and is a post-1995 season, estimates of the frequencies of occurrence for the various subsets of storms should be above long-term averages.

  17. Health impact assessment of cyclone Bejisa in Reunion Island (France) using syndromic surveillance.

    PubMed

    Vilain, Pascal; Pagès, Frédéric; Combes, Xavier; Marianne Dit Cassou, Pierre-Jean; Mougin-Damour, Katia; Jacques-Antoine, Yves; Filleul, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    On January 2, 2014, Cyclone Bejisa struck Reunion Island (France). This storm led to major material damages, such as power outages, disturbance of drinking water systems, road closures, and the evacuation of residents. In this context, the Regional Office of French Institute for Public Health Surveillance in Indian Ocean (Cire OI) set up an epidemiological surveillance in order to describe short-term health effects of the cyclone. The assessment of the health impact was based mainly on a syndromic surveillance system, including the activity of all emergency departments (EDs) and the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) of the island. From these data, several health indicators were collected and analyzed daily and weekly. To complete this assessment, all medical charts recorded in the EDs of Reunion Island from January 2, 2014 through January 5, 2014 were reviewed in order to identify visits directly and indirectly related to the cyclone, and to determine mechanisms of injuries. The number of calls to the EMS peaked the day of the cyclone, and the number of ED visits increased markedly over the next two days. At the same time, a significant increase in visits for trauma, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning was detected in all EDs. Among 1,748 medical records reviewed, eight visits were directly related to the cyclone and 208 were indirectly related. For trauma, the main mechanisms of injury were falls and injuries by machinery or tools during the clean-up and repair works. Due to prolonged power outages, several patients were hospitalized: some to assure continuity of care, others to take care of an exacerbation of a chronic disease. An increase in leptospirosis cases linked to post-cyclone clean-up was observed two weeks after the cyclone. Information based on the syndromic surveillance system allowed the authors to assess rapidly the health impact of Cyclone Bejisa in Reunion Island; however, an underestimation of this impact was still possible. In the near future

  18. Proxies of Tropical Cyclone Isotope Spikes in Precipitation: Landfall Site Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J. R.; Maddocks, R.

    2011-12-01

    The human experience of climate change is not one of gradual changes in seasonal or yearly changes in temperature or rainfall. Despite that most paleoclimatic reconstructions attempt to provide just such information. Humans experience climate change on much shorter time scales. We remember hurricanes, weeks of drought or overwhelming rainy periods. Tropical cyclones produce very low isotope ratios in both rainfall and in atmospheric water vapor. Thus, climate proxies that potentially record these low isotope ratios offer the most concrete record of climate change to which humans can relate. The oxygen isotopic composition of tropical cyclone rainfall has the potential to be recorded in fresh water carbonate fossil material, cave deposits and corals. The hydrogen isotopic composition of tropical cyclone rainfall has the potential to be recorded in tree ring cellulose and organic matter in fresh water bodies. The Class of carbonate organisms known as Ostracoda form their carapaces very rapidly. Thus fresh water ephemeral ponds in the subtropics are ideal locations for isotopic studies because they commonly are totally dry when tropical cyclones make landfall. The other proxies suffer primarily from a dilution effect. The water from tropical cyclones is mixed with pre-existing water. In cave deposits tropical cyclone rains mix with soil and ground waters. In the near shore coral environment the rain mixes with seawater. For tree rings there are three sources of water: soil water, atmospheric water vapor that exchanges with leaf water and tropical cyclone rain. In lakes because of their large size rainfall runoff mixes with ground water and preexisting water in the lake. A region that shows considerable promise is Texas / Northeast Mexico. In a study of surface waters that developed from the passage of Tropical Storm Allison (2001) in SE Texas both the pond water and Ostracoda that bloomed recorded the low oxygen isotope signal of that storm (Lawrence et al, 2008). In

  19. Impact Factors and Risk Analysis of Tropical Cyclones on a Highway Network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Saini; Hu, Fuyu; Jaeger, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Coastal areas typically have high social and economic development and are likely to suffer huge losses due to tropical cyclones. These cyclones have a great impact on the transportation network, but there have been a limited number of studies about tropical-cyclone-induced transportation network functional damages, especially in Asia. This study develops an innovative measurement and analytical tool for highway network functional damage and risk in the context of a tropical cyclone, with which we explored the critical spatial characteristics of tropical cyclones with regard to functional damage to a highway network by developing linear regression models to quantify their relationship. Furthermore, we assessed the network's functional risk and calculated the return periods under different damage levels. In our analyses, we consider the real-world highway network of Hainan province, China. Our results illustrate that the most important spatial characteristics were location (in particular, the midlands), travel distance, landfalling status, and origin coordinates. However, the trajectory direction did not obviously affect the results. Our analyses indicate that the highway network of Hainan province may suffer from a 90% functional damage scenario every 4.28 years. These results have critical policy implications for the transport sector in reference to emergency planning and disaster reduction. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Opportunities and challenges for extended-range predictions of tropical cyclone impacts on hydrological predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hsiao-Chung; Elsberry, Russell L.

    2013-12-01

    SummaryAn opportunity exists to extend support to the decision-making processes of water resource management and hydrological operations by providing extended-range tropical cyclone (TC) formation and track forecasts in the western North Pacific from the 51-member ECMWF 32-day ensemble. A new objective verification technique demonstrates that the ECMWF ensemble can predict most of the formations and tracks of the TCs during July 2009 to December 2010, even for most of the tropical depressions. Due to the relatively large number of false-alarm TCs in the ECMWF ensemble forecasts that would cause problems for support of hydrological operations, characteristics of these false alarms are discussed. Special attention is given to the ability of the ECMWF ensemble to predict periods of no-TCs in the Taiwan area, since water resource management decisions also depend on the absence of typhoon-related rainfall. A three-tier approach is proposed to provide support for hydrological operations via extended-range forecasts twice weekly on the 30-day timescale, twice-daily on the 15-day timescale, and up to four times a day with a consensus of high-resolution deterministic models.

  1. Role of tropical cyclones in determining the fate of Bay of Bengal vapor contributed rain δ18O values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanyal, Prasanta; Basu, Sayak

    2016-04-01

    The evaluation of robust future climate prediction is well dependent on the cognition of past and present hydrological systems which could be traced through the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of rain. Compared to Peninsular and Southern India, explanation for the variability in δ18O values of monsoonal rain is sparse for the Eastern India. Analysis (and published records) of Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rain at the entry point of Bay of Bengal (BoB) vapor into the continent showed the gradual depletion of 18O in the ISM rain is determined by the surface run-off and location of cyclone generation in BoB. The timing and density of cyclones control the maxima in amount and minima in δ18O value of ISM rain and possibly also responsible for the long-term (last 10 years) decrease in rain δ18O values (and amount). Large spatial variation and temporally robustness of weak and insignificant amount effect suggested reconsideration of reconstructed past climate records along the track of BoB vapor. The memory effect of atmospheric vapor is found to lower the amount effect.

  2. Accumulation in coastal West Antarctic ice core records and the role of cyclone activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosking, J. Scott; Fogt, Ryan; Thomas, Elizabeth R.; Moosavi, Vahid; Phillips, Tony; Coggins, Jack; Reusch, David

    2017-09-01

    Cyclones are an important component of Antarctic climate variability, yet quantifying their impact on the polar environment is challenging. We assess how cyclones which pass through the Bellingshausen Sea affect accumulation over Ellsworth Land, West Antarctica, where we have two ice core records. We use self-organizing maps (SOMs), an unsupervised machine learning technique, to group cyclones into nine SOM nodes differing by their trajectories (1980-2015). The annual frequency of cyclones associated with the first SOM node (SOM1, which generally originate from lower latitudes over the South Pacific Ocean) is significantly (p < 0.001) correlated with annual accumulation, with the highest seasonal correlations (p < 0.001) found during autumn. While significant (p < 0.01) increases in vertically integrated water vapor over the South Pacific Ocean coincide with this same group of cyclones, we find no indication that this has led to an increase in moisture advection into, nor accumulation over, Ellsworth Land over this short time period.

  3. Environmental factors controlling the seasonal variability in particle size distribution of modern Saharan dust deposited off Cape Blanc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friese, Carmen A.; van der Does, Michèlle; Merkel, Ute; Iversen, Morten H.; Fischer, Gerhard; Stuut, Jan-Berend W.

    2016-09-01

    The particle sizes of Saharan dust in marine sediment core records have been used frequently as a proxy for trade-wind speed. However, there are still large uncertainties with respect to the seasonality of the particle sizes of deposited Saharan dust off northwestern Africa and the factors influencing this seasonality. We investigated a three-year time-series of grain-size data from two sediment-trap moorings off Cape Blanc, Mauritania and compared them to observed wind-speed and precipitation as well as satellite images. Our results indicate a clear seasonality in the grain-size distributions: during summer the modal grain sizes were generally larger and the sorting was generally less pronounced compared to the winter season. Gravitational settling was the major deposition process during winter. We conclude that the following two mechanisms control the modal grain size of the collected dust during summer: (1) wet deposition causes increased deposition fluxes resulting in coarser modal grain sizes and (2) the development of cold fronts favors the emission and transport of coarse particles off Cape Blanc. Individual dust-storm events throughout the year could be recognized in the traps as anomalously coarse-grained samples. During winter and spring, intense cyclonic dust-storm events in the dust-source region explained the enhanced emission and transport of a larger component of coarse particles off Cape Blanc. The outcome of our study provides important implications for climate modellers and paleo-climatologists.

  4. Observational Analysis of Cloud and Precipitation in Midlatitude Cyclones: Northern Versus Southern Hemisphere Warm Fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Posselt, Derek J.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Extratropical cyclones are responsible for most of the precipitation and wind damage in the midlatitudes during the cold season, but there are still uncertainties on how they will change in a warming climate. An ubiquitous problem amongst General Circulation Models (GCMs) is a lack of cloudiness over the southern oceans that may be in part caused by a lack of clouds in cyclones. We analyze CloudSat, CALIPSO and AMSR-E observations for 3 austral and boreal cold seasons and composite cloud frequency of occurrence and precipitation at the warm fronts for northern and southern hemisphere oceanic cyclones. We find that cloud frequency of occurrence and precipitation rate are similar in the early stage of the cyclone life cycle in both northern and southern hemispheres. As cyclones evolve and reach their mature stage, cloudiness and precipitation at the warm front increase in the northern hemisphere but decrease in the southern hemisphere. This is partly caused by lower amounts of precipitable water being available to southern hemisphere cyclones, and smaller increases in wind speed as the cyclones evolve. Southern hemisphere cloud occurrence at the warm front is found to be more sensitive to the amount of moisture in the warm sector than to wind speeds. This suggests that cloudiness in southern hemisphere storms may be more susceptible to changes in atmospheric water vapor content, and thus to changes in surface temperature than their northern hemisphere counterparts. These differences between northern and southern hemisphere cyclones are statistically robust, indicating A-Train-based analyses as useful tools for evaluation of GCMs in the next IPCC report.

  5. “Out of our control”: Living through Cyclone Yasi

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Cindy; West, Caryn; Buettner, Petra; Usher, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of people who lived through Cyclone Yasi on 3 February 2011. Data from two open-ended questions (Q1: n=344; and Q2: n=339) within a survey completed by 433 residents of cyclone-affected areas between Cairns and Townsville, Australia, were analysed using a qualitative, thematic approach. Experiences were portrayed in three main themes: (1) living in the mode of existential threat describes survivors’ sense of panic and feeling at the mercy of nature as they feared for their life; (2) unforgettable memories describe feelings of emotional helplessness and the unimaginable chaos that the cyclone wrought; and (3) centrality of others shows how community support and closeness helped alleviate losses and uncertainty. A critical finding from this study was the negative role of the media in escalating fears for life prior to and during the cyclone, highlighting the need for government, community leaders, and health professionals to have a media plan in place to ensure that disaster warnings are taken seriously without inciting unnecessary panic. Although survivors experienced extreme vulnerability and a threat to life, the disaster also brought communities closer together and connected family, friends, and neighbours through the caring, support, and help they offered each other. This highlights the central role of others during the recovery process and underlines the importance of promoting and facilitating social support to aid recovery post disaster. PMID:24434053

  6. 1998 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    1998 ANNUAL TROPICAL CYCLONE REPORT Microwave imagery of Typhoon Rex (06W) as it passed through the Bonin Islands, taken at 0800Z on 28 August... DAVE ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 5.3 TESTING AND RESULTS...weighting the forecasts given by XTRP and CLIM. 5.2.5.2 DYNAMIC AVERAGE ( DAVE ) A simple average of all dynamic forecast aids: NOGAPS (NGPS), Bracknell

  7. Seasonal differences in the response of Arctic cyclones to climate change in CESM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Jonathan J.; Holland, Marika M.; Hodges, Kevin I.

    2017-06-01

    The dramatic warming of the Arctic over the last three decades has reduced both the thickness and extent of sea ice, opening opportunities for business in diverse sectors and increasing human exposure to meteorological hazards in the Arctic. It has been suggested that these changes in environmental conditions have led to an increase in extreme cyclones in the region, therefore increasing this hazard. In this study, we investigate the response of Arctic synoptic scale cyclones to climate change in a large initial value ensemble of future climate projections with the CESM1-CAM5 climate model (CESM-LE). We find that the response of Arctic cyclones in these simulations varies with season, with significant reductions in cyclone dynamic intensity across the Arctic basin in winter, but with contrasting increases in summer intensity within the region known as the Arctic Ocean cyclone maximum. There is also a significant reduction in winter cyclogenesis events within the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian sea region. We conclude that these differences in the response of cyclone intensity and cyclogenesis, with season, appear to be closely linked to changes in surface temperature gradients in the high latitudes, with Arctic poleward temperature gradients increasing in summer, but decreasing in winter.

  8. On the dynamics of synoptic scale cyclones associated with flood events in Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocas, Helena; Katavoutas, George; Tsanis, Ioannis; Iordanidou, Vasiliki

    2015-04-01

    Flood events in the Mediterranean are frequently linked to synoptic scale cyclones, although topographical or anthropogenic factors can play important role. The knowledge of the vertical profile and dynamics of these cyclones can serve as a reliable early flood warning system that can further help in hazard mitigation and risk management planning. Crete is the second largest island in the eastern Mediterranean region, being characterized by high precipitation amounts during winter, frequently causing flood events. The objective of this study is to examine the dynamic and thermodynamic mechanisms at the upper and lower levels responsible for the generation of these events, according to their origin domain. The flooding events were recorded for a period of almost 20 years. The surface cyclones are identified with the aid of MS scheme that was appropriately modified and extensively employed in the Mediterranean region in previous studies. Then, the software VTS, specially developed for the Mediterranean cyclones, was employed to investigate the vertical extension, slope and dynamic/kinematic characteristics of the surface cyclones. Composite maps of dynamic/thermodynamic parameters, such as potential vorticity, temperature advection, divergence, surface fluxes were then constructed before and during the time of the flood. The dataset includes 6-hourly surface and isobaric analyses on a 0.5° x 0.5° regular latitude-longitude grid, as derived from the ERA-INTERIM Reanalysis of the ECMWF. It was found that cyclones associated with flood events in Crete mainly generate over northern Africa or southern eastern Mediterranean region and experience their minimum pressure over Crete or southwestern Greece. About 84% of the cyclones extend up to 500hPa, demonstrating that they are well vertically well-organized systems. The vast majority (almost 84%) of the surface cyclones attains their minimum pressure when their 500 hpa counterparts are located in the NW or SW, confirming

  9. CYGNSS Surface Wind Observations and Surface Flux Estimates within Low-Latitude Extratropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, J.; Posselt, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS), launched in December 2016, aims to improve estimates of surface wind speeds over the tropical oceans. While CYGNSS's core mission is to provide better estimates of surface winds within the core of tropical cyclones, previous research has shown that the constellation, with its orbital inclination of 35°, also has the ability to observe numerous extratropical cyclones that form in the lower latitudes. Along with its high spatial and temporal resolution, CYGNSS can provide new insights into how extratropical cyclones develop and evolve, especially in the presence of thick clouds and precipitation. We will demonstrate this by presenting case studies of multiple extratropical cyclones observed by CYGNSS early on in its mission in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres. By using the improved estimates of surface wind speeds from CYGNSS, we can obtain better estimates of surface latent and sensible heat fluxes within and around extratropical cyclones. Surface heat fluxes, driven by surface winds and strong vertical gradients of water vapor and temperature, play a key role in marine cyclogenesis as they increase instability within the boundary layer and may contribute to extreme marine cyclogenesis. In the past, it has been difficult to estimate surface heat fluxes from space borne instruments, as these fluxes cannot be observed directly from space, and deficiencies in spatial coverage and attenuation from clouds and precipitation lead to inaccurate estimates of surface flux components, such as surface wind speeds. While CYGNSS only contributes estimates of surface wind speeds, we can combine this data with other reanalysis and satellite data to provide improved estimates of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes within and around extratropical cyclones and throughout the entire CYGNSS mission.

  10. Model-Simulated Northern Winter Cyclone and Anticyclone Activity under a Greenhouse Warming Scenario.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Wei-Chyung

    1997-07-01

    Two 100-yr equilibrium simulations from the NCAR Community Climate Model coupled to a nondynamic slab ocean are used to investigate the activity of northern winter extratropical cyclones and anticyclones under a greenhouse warming scenario. The first simulation uses the 1990 observed CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-11, and CFC-12 concentrations, and the second adopts the year 2050 concentrations according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change business-as-usual scenario. Variables that describe the characteristic properties of the cyclone-scale eddies, such as surface cyclone and anticyclone frequency and the bandpassed root-mean-square of 500-hPa geopotential height, along with the Eady growth rate maximum, form a framework for the analysis of the cyclone and anticyclone activity.Objective criteria are developed for identifying cyclone and anticyclone occurrences based on the 1000-hPa geopotential height and vorticity fields and tested using ECMWF analyses. The potential changes of the eddy activity under the greenhouse warming climate are then examined. Results indicate that the activity of cyclone-scale eddies decreases under the greenhouse warming scenario. This is not only reflected in the surface cyclone and anticyclone frequency and in the bandpassed rms of 500-hPa geopotential height, but is also discerned from the Eady growth rate maximum. Based on the analysis, three different physical mechanisms responsible for the decreased eddy activity are discussed: 1) a decrease of the extratropical meridional temperature gradient from the surface to the midtroposphere, 2) a reduction in the land-sea thermal contrast in the east coastal regions of the Asian and North American continents, and 3) an increase in the eddy meridional latent heat fluxes. Uncertainties in the results related to the limitations of the model and the model equilibrium simulations are discussed.

  11. On the Environment of Supercells That Produce Anticyclonic-Cyclonic Tornado Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluestein, H. B.; Snyder, J.; Houser, J.

    2015-12-01

    Anticyclonic tornadoes in supercells are very rare events, which have been documented in anticyclonically rotating, left-moving supercells in the Northern Hemisphere. It is well known that anticyclonic supercells, which can spawn anticyclonic tornadoes, form in an environment in which the vertical shear vector turns in a counterclockwise manner with height. Less rare, however, are anticyclonic tornadoes that appear in cyclonically rotating, right-moving supercells. When these anticyclonic tornadoes have been documented, they have occurred in tandem with a cyclonic tornado or intense mesocyclone. In this talk we will present Doppler radar documentation and photographs and videos of anticyclonic-cyclonic tornado pairs. We will then describe the environmental conditions under which they occur, with emphasis on any special conditions that observationally seem to favor their development.

  12. On the relationship between atmospheric water vapour transport and extra-tropical cyclones development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Juan A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Ramos, Alexandre M.

    2016-08-01

    In this study we seek to investigate the role of atmospheric water vapour on the intensification of extra-tropical cyclones over the North Atlantic Ocean and more specifically to investigate the linkage between atmospheric rivers' conditions leading to the explosive development of extra-tropical cyclones. Several WRF-ARW simulations for three recent extra-tropical storms that had major negative socio-economic impacts in the Iberian Peninsula and south-western Europe (Klaus, 2009; Gong, 2013 and Stephanie, 2014) are performed in which the water vapour content of the initial and boundary conditions are tuned. Analyses of the vertically integrated vapour transport show the dependence of the storms' development on atmospheric water vapour. In addition, results also show changes in the shape of the jet stream resulting in a reduction of the upper wind divergence, which in turn affects the intensification of the extra-tropical cyclones studied. This study suggests that atmospheric rivers tend to favour the conditions for explosive extra-tropical storms' development in the three case studies, as simulations performed without the existence of atmospheric rivers produce shallow mid-latitude cyclones, that is, cyclones that are not so intense as those on the reference simulations.

  13. Tropical cyclones in a stabilized 1.5 and 2 degree warmer world.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, M. F.; Stone, D. A.; Loring, B.; Krishnan, H.

    2017-12-01

    We present an ensemble of very high resolution global climate model simulations of a stabilized 1.5oC and 2oC warmer climate as envisioned by the Paris COP21 agreement. The resolution of this global climate model (25km) permits simulated tropical cyclones up to Category Five on the Saffir-Simpson scale Projected changes in tropical cyclones are significant. Tropical cyclones in the two stabilization scenarios are less frequent but more intense than in simulations of the present. Output data from these simulations is freely available to all interested parties and should prove a useful resource to those interested in studying the impacts of stabilized global warming.

  14. The Human Impact of Tropical Cyclones: a Historical Review of Events 1980-2009 and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Doocy, Shannon; Dick, Anna; Daniels, Amy; Kirsch, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cyclones have significantly affected populations in Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific, and the Americas over the past quarter of a century. Future vulnerability to cyclones will increase due to factors including population growth, urbanization, increasing coastal settlement, and global warming. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of cyclones on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of cyclones were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1980 to 2009 of cyclone events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between cyclone characteristics and mortality using Stata 11.0. Findings. There were 412,644 deaths, 290,654 injured, and 466.1 million people affected by cyclones between 1980 and 2009, and the mortality and injury burden was concentrated in less developed nations of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of the injured and affected populations. The primary cause of cyclone-related mortality is drowning; in developed countries male gender was associated with increased mortality risk, whereas females experienced higher mortality in less developed countries. Conclusions. Additional attention to preparedness and early warning, particularly in Asia, can lessen the impact of future cyclones. PMID:23857074

  15. Maternity health care: The experiences of Sub-Saharan African women in Sub-Saharan Africa and Australia.

    PubMed

    Mohale, Hlengiwe; Sweet, Linda; Graham, Kristen

    2017-08-01

    Increasing global migration is resulting in a culturally diverse population in the receiving countries. In Australia, it is estimated that at least four thousand Sub-Saharan African women give birth each year. To respond appropriately to the needs of these women, it is important to understand their experiences of maternity care. The study aimed to examine the maternity experiences of Sub-Saharan African women who had given birth in both Sub-Saharan Africa and in Australia. Using a qualitative approach, 14 semi-structured interviews with Sub-Saharan African women now living in Australia were conducted. Data was analysed using Braun and Clark's approach to thematic analysis. Four themes were identified; access to services including health education; birth environment and support; pain management; and perceptions of care. The participants experienced issues with access to maternity care whether they were located in Sub-Saharan Africa or Australia. The study draws on an existing conceptual framework on access to care to discuss the findings on how these women experienced maternity care. The study provides an understanding of Sub-Saharan African women's experiences of maternity care across countries. The findings indicate that these women have maternity health needs shaped by their sociocultural norms and beliefs related to pregnancy and childbirth. It is therefore arguable that enhancing maternity care can be achieved by improving women's health literacy through health education, having an affordable health care system, providing respectf