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Sample records for salicylic acid accumulation

  1. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  2. Expression of the inactive ZmMEK1 induces salicylic acid accumulation and salicylic acid-dependent leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Chang, Ying; Zhao, Chongchong; Yang, Hailian; Ren, Dongtao

    2016-08-01

    Leaf senescence is the final leaf developmental process that is regulated by both intracellular factors and environmental conditions. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades have been shown to play important roles in regulating leaf senescence; however, the component(s) downstream of the MAPK cascades in regulating leaf senescence are not fully understood. Here we showed that the transcriptions of ZmMEK1, ZmSIMK1, and ZmMPK3 were induced during dark-induced maize leaf senescence. Furthermore, in-gel kinase analysis revealed the 42 kDa MAPK was activated. ZmMEK1 interacted with ZmSIMK1 in yeast and maize mesophyll protoplasts and ZmSIMK1 was activated by ZmMEK1 in vitro. Expression of a dominant negative mutant of ZmMEK1 in Arabidopsis transgenic plants induced salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and SA-dependent leaf senescence. ZmMEK1 interacted with Arabidopsis MPK4 in yeast and activated MPK4 in vitro. SA treatment accelerated dark-induced maize leaf senescence. Moreover, blockage of MAPK signaling increased endogenous SA accumulation in maize leaves. These findings suggest that ZmMEK1-ZmSIMK1 cascade and its modulating SA levels play important roles in regulating leaf senescence.

  3. Pipecolic acid enhances resistance to bacterial infection and primes salicylic acid and nicotine accumulation in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Vogel-Adghough, Drissia; Stahl, Elia; Návarová, Hana; Zeier, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Distinct amino acid metabolic pathways constitute integral parts of the plant immune system. We have recently identified pipecolic acid (Pip), a lysine-derived non-protein amino acid, as a critical regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and basal immunity to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis, Pip acts as an endogenous mediator of defense amplification and priming. For instance, Pip conditions plants for effective biosynthesis of the phenolic defense signal salicylic acid (SA), accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin, and expression of defense-related genes. Here, we show that tobacco plants respond to leaf infection by the compatible bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci (Pstb) with a significant accumulation of several amino acids, including Lys, branched-chain, aromatic, and amide group amino acids. Moreover, Pstb strongly triggers, alongside the biosynthesis of SA and increases in the defensive alkaloid nicotine, the production of the Lys catabolites Pip and α-aminoadipic acid. Exogenous application of Pip to tobacco plants provides significant protection to infection by adapted Pstb or by non-adapted, hypersensitive cell death-inducing P. syringae pv maculicola. Pip thereby primes tobacco for rapid and strong accumulation of SA and nicotine following bacterial infection. Thus, our study indicates that the role of Pip as an amplifier of immune responses is conserved between members of the rosid and asterid groups of eudicot plants and suggests a broad practical applicability for Pip as a natural enhancer of plant disease resistance. PMID:24025239

  4. Pipecolic acid enhances resistance to bacterial infection and primes salicylic acid and nicotine accumulation in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Vogel-Adghough, Drissia; Stahl, Elia; Návarová, Hana; Zeier, Juergen

    2013-11-01

    Distinct amino acid metabolic pathways constitute integral parts of the plant immune system. We have recently identified pipecolic acid (Pip), a lysine-derived non-protein amino acid, as a critical regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and basal immunity to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis, Pip acts as an endogenous mediator of defense amplification and priming. For instance, Pip conditions plants for effective biosynthesis of the phenolic defense signal salicylic acid (SA), accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin, and expression of defense-related genes. Here, we show that tobacco plants respond to leaf infection by the compatible bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci (Pstb) with a significant accumulation of several amino acids, including Lys, branched-chain, aromatic, and amide group amino acids. Moreover, Pstb strongly triggers, alongside the biosynthesis of SA and increases in the defensive alkaloid nicotine, the production of the Lys catabolites Pip and α-aminoadipic acid. Exogenous application of Pip to tobacco plants provides significant protection to infection by adapted Pstb or by non-adapted, hypersensitive cell death-inducing P. syringae pv maculicola. Pip thereby primes tobacco for rapid and strong accumulation of SA and nicotine following bacterial infection. Thus, our study indicates that the role of Pip as an amplifier of immune responses is conserved between members of the rosid and asterid groups of eudicot plants and suggests a broad practical applicability for Pip as a natural enhancer of plant disease resistance.

  5. Intercellular salicylic acid accumulation during compatible and incompatible Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Daniel C; Carella, Philip; Cameron, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in several disease resistance responses. During the Age-Related Resistance (ARR) response that occurs in mature Arabidopsis responding to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst), SA accumulates in the intercellular space where it may act as an antimicrobial agent. Recently we measured intracellular and intercellular SA levels in young, ARR-incompetent plants responding to virulent and avirulent strains of Pst to determine if intercellular SA accumulation is a component of additional defense responses to Pst. In young plants virulent Pst suppressed both intra- and intercellular SA accumulation in a coronatine-dependent manner. In contrast, high levels of intra- and intercellular SA accumulated in response to avirulent Pst. Our results support the idea that SA accumulation in the intercellular space is an important component of multiple defense responses. Future research will include understanding how mature plants counteract the effects of coronatine during the ARR response. PMID:25763618

  6. Intercellular salicylic acid accumulation during compatible and incompatible Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae interactions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel C; Carella, Philip; Cameron, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in several disease resistance responses. During the Age-Related Resistance (ARR) response that occurs in mature Arabidopsis responding to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst), SA accumulates in the intercellular space where it may act as an antimicrobial agent. Recently we measured intracellular and intercellular SA levels in young, ARR-incompetent plants responding to virulent and avirulent strains of Pst to determine if intercellular SA accumulation is a component of additional defense responses to Pst. In young plants virulent Pst suppressed both intra- and intercellular SA accumulation in a coronatine-dependent manner. In contrast, high levels of intra- and intercellular SA accumulated in response to avirulent Pst. Our results support the idea that SA accumulation in the intercellular space is an important component of multiple defense responses. Future research will include understanding how mature plants counteract the effects of coronatine during the ARR response.

  7. A large-scale genetic screen for mutants with altered salicylic acid accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yezhang; Shaholli, Danjela; Mou, Zhonglin

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key defense signal molecule against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens in plants, but how SA is synthesized in plant cells still remains elusive. Identification of new components involved in pathogen-induced SA accumulation would help address this question. To this end, we performed a large-scale genetic screen for mutants with altered SA accumulation during pathogen infection in Arabidopsis using a bacterial biosensor Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux-based SA quantification method. A total of 35,000 M2 plants in the npr1-3 mutant background have been individually analyzed for the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) ES4326-induced SA accumulation. Among the mutants isolated, 19 had SA levels lower than npr1 (sln) and two exhibited increased SA accumulation in npr1 (isn). Complementation tests revealed that seven of the sln mutants are new alleles of eds5/sid1, two are sid2/eds16 alleles, one is allelic to pad4, and the remaining seven sln and two isn mutants are new non-allelic SA accumulation mutants. Interestingly, a large group of mutants (in the npr1-3 background), in which Psm ES4326-induced SA levels were similar to those in the wild-type Columbia plants, were identified, suggesting that the signaling network fine-tuning pathogen-induced SA accumulation is complex. We further characterized the sln1 single mutant and found that Psm ES4326-induced defense responses were compromised in this mutant. These defense response defects could be rescued by exogenous SA, suggesting that SLN1 functions upstream of SA. The sln1 mutation was mapped to a region on the north arm of chromosome I, which contains no known genes regulating pathogen-induced SA accumulation, indicating that SLN1 likely encodes a new regulator of SA biosynthesis. Thus, the new sln and isn mutants identified in this genetic screen are valuable for dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen-induced SA accumulation in plants.

  8. Endogenous salicylic acid accumulation is required for chilling tolerance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao; Liu, Xin-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone, and its exogenous application can induce tolerance to multiple environmental stresses in plants. In this study, we examine the potential involvement of endogenous SA in response to chilling in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. A low temperature of 8 °C induces a moderate increase in endogenous SA levels. Chilling stimulates the enzymatic activities and the expression of genes for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid-2-hydroxylase rather than isochorismate synthase. This indicates that the PAL enzymatic pathway contributes to chilling-induced SA production. Cucumber seedlings pretreated with SA biosynthesis inhibitors accumulate less endogenous SA and suffer more from chilling damage. The expression of cold-responsive genes is also repressed by SA inhibitors. The reduction in stress tolerance and in gene expression can be restored by the exogenous application of SA, confirming the critical roles of SA in chilling responses in cucumber seedlings. Furthermore, the inhibition of SA biosynthesis under chilling stress results in a prolonged and enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. The application of exogenous SA and the chemical scavenger of H2O2 reduces the excess H2O2 and alleviates chilling injury. In contrast, the protective effects of SA are negated by foliar spraying with high concentrations of H2O2 and an inhibitor of the antioxidant enzyme. These results suggest that endogenous SA is required in response to chilling stress in cucumber seedlings, by modulating the expression of cold-responsive genes and the precise induction of cellular H2O2 levels.

  9. Overexpression of BAK1 causes salicylic acid accumulation and deregulation of cell death control genes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Young; Shang, Yun; Joo, Se-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Ki; Nam, Kyoung Hee

    2017-03-18

    Since the BRI1-Associated Receptor Kinase 1 (BAK1) was firstly identified as a co-receptor of BRI1 that mediates brassinosteroids (BR) signaling, the functional roles of BAK1, as a versatile co-receptor for various ligand-binding leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing receptor-like kinase (RLKs), are being extended to involvement with plant immunity, cell death, stomatal development and ABA signaling in plants. During more than a decade of research on the BAK1, it has been known that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing BAK1 tagged with various reporters do not fully represent its natural functions. Therefore, in this study, we characterized the transgenic plants in which native BAK1 is overexpressed driven by its own promoter. We found that those transgenic plants were more sensitive to BR signaling but showed reduced growth patterns accompanied with spontaneous cell death features that are different from those seen in BR-related mutants. We demonstrated that more salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide were accumulated and that expressions of the genes that are known to regulate cell death, such as BONs, BIRs, and SOBIR, were increased in the BAK1-overexpressing transgenic plants. These results suggest that pleiotropic phenotypic alterations shown in the BAK1- overexpressing transgenic plants result from the constitutive activation of SA-mediated defense responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Accumulation of wound-inducible ACC synthase transcript in tomato fruit is inhibited by salicylic acid and polyamines.

    PubMed

    Li, N; Parsons, B L; Liu, D R; Mattoo, A K

    1992-02-01

    Regulation of wound-inducible 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase expression was studied in tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Pik-Red). A 70 base oligonucleotide probe homologous to published ACC synthase cDNA sequences was successfully used to identify and analyze regulation of a wound-inducible transcript. The 1.8 kb ACC synthase transcript increased upon wounding the fruit as well as during fruit ripening. Salicylic acid, an inhibitor of wound-responsive genes in tomato, inhibited the wound-induced accumulation of the ACC synthase transcript. Further, polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) that have anti-senescence properties and have been shown to inhibit the development of ACC synthase activity, inhibited the accumulation of the wound-inducible ACC synthase transcript. The inhibition by spermine was greater than that caused by putrescine or spermidine. The transcript level of a wound-repressible glycine-rich protein gene and that of the constitutively expressed rRNA were not affected as markedly by either salicylic acid or polyamines. These data suggest that salicylic acid and polyamines may specifically regulate ethylene biosynthesis at the level of ACC synthase transcript accumulation.

  11. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Propa pH® Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  12. Evaluation of physicochemical properties, skin permeation and accumulation profiles of salicylic acid amide prodrugs as sunscreen agent.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yi-Dong; Sung, Jun Ho; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Jung Sun; Jeon, Eun-Mi; Kim, Dae-Duk; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Jong Oh; Piao, Ming Guan; Li, Dong Xun; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han Gon

    2011-10-31

    Various amide prodrugs of salicylic acid were synthesised, and their physicochemical properties including lipophilicity, chemical stability and enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. In vivo skin permeation and accumulation profiles were also evaluated using a combination of common permeation enhancing techniques such as the use of a supersaturated solution of permeants in an enhancer vehicle, a lipophilic receptor solution, removal of the stratum corneum and delipidisation of skin. Their capacity factor values were proportional to the degree of carbon-carbon saturation in the side chain. All these amides were highly stable in acetonitrile and glycerine. Amide prodrugs were converted to salicylic acid both in hairless mouse liver and skin homogenates. N-dodecyl salicylamide (C12SM) showed the lowest permeation of salicylic acid in skin compared to the other prodrugs, probably due to its low aqueous solubility. It had a high affinity for the stratum corneum and its accumulation was restricted to only the uppermost layer of skin. Thus, this amide prodrug could be a safer topical sunscreen agent with minimum potential for systemic absorption.

  13. Parthenolide accumulation and expression of genes related to parthenolide biosynthesis affected by exogenous application of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid in Tanacetum parthenium.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Mohammad; Abdollahi, Mohammad Reza; Maroufi, Asad

    2015-11-01

    Up-regulation of germacrene A synthase and down-regulation of parthenolide hydroxylase genes play key role in parthenolide accumulation of feverfew plants treated with methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid. Parthenolide is an important sesquiterpene lactone due to its anti-migraine and anti-cancer properties. Parthenolide amount was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography after foliar application of methyl jasmonate (100 µM) or salicylic acid (1.0 mM) on feverfew leaves in time course experiment (3-96 h). Results indicate that exogenous application of methyl jasmonate or salicylic acid activated parthenolide biosynthesis. Parthenolide content reached its highest amount at 24 h after methyl jasmonate or salicylic acid treatments, which were 3.1- and 1.96-fold higher than control plants, respectively. Parthenolide transiently increased due to methyl jasmonate or salicylic acid treatments until 24 h, but did not show significant difference compared with control plants at 48 and 96 h time points in both treatments. Also, the transcript levels of early pathway (upstream) genes of terpene biosynthesis including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase and hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and the biosynthetic genes of parthenolide including germacrene A synthase, germacrene A oxidase, costunolide synthase and parthenolide synthase were increased by methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid treatments, but with different intensity. The transcriptional levels of these genes were higher in methyl jasmonate-treated plants than salicylic acid-treated plants. Parthenolide content measurements along with expression pattern analysis of the aforementioned genes and parthenolide hydroxylase as side branch gene of parthenolide suggest that the expression patterns of early pathway genes were not directly consistent with parthenolide accumulation pattern; hence, parthenolide accumulation is

  14. Silencing of RBOHF2 Causes Leaf Age-Dependent Accelerated Senescence, Salicylic Acid Accumulation, and Powdery Mildew Resistance in Barley.

    PubMed

    Torres, Denise Pereira; Proels, Reinhard K; Schempp, Harald; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2017-09-11

    Plant RBOH (RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGS)-type NADPH oxidases produce superoxide radical anions and have a function in developmental processes and in response to environmental challenges. Barley RBOHF2 has diverse reported functions in interaction with the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Here, we analyzed, in detail, plant leaf level- and age-specific susceptibility of stably RBOHF2-silenced barley plants. This revealed enhanced susceptibility to fungal penetration of young RBOHF2-silenced leaf tissue but strongly reduced susceptibility of older leaves when compared with controls. Loss of susceptibility in old RBOHF2-silenced leaves was associated with spontaneous leaf-tip necrosis and constitutively elevated levels of free and conjugated salicylic acid. Additionally, these leaves more strongly expressed pathogenesis-related genes, both constitutively and during interaction with B. graminis f. sp. hordei. Together, this supports the idea that barley RBOHF2 contributes to basal resistance to powdery mildew infection in young leaf tissue but is required to control leaf cell death, salicylic acid accumulation, and defense gene expression in older leaves, explaining leaf age-specific resistance of RBOHF2-silenced barley plants.

  15. Pathogen-inducible CaUGT1 is involved in resistance response against TMV infection by controlling salicylic acid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boo-Ja; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Choi, Soo Bok; Bae, Jungdon; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Young-Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2009-07-07

    Capsicum annuum L. Bugang exhibits a hypersensitive response against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) P(0) infection. The C. annuumUDP-glucosyltransferase 1 (CaUGT1) gene was upregulated during resistance response to TMV and by salicylic acid, ethephon, methyl viologen, and sodium nitroprusside treatment. When the gene was downregulated by virus-induced gene silencing, a delayed HR was observed. In addition, free and total SA concentrations in the CaUGT1-downregulated hot pepper were decreased by 52% and 48% compared to that of the control plants, respectively. This suggested that the CaUGT1 gene was involved in resistance response against TMV infection by controlling the accumulation of SA.

  16. Safety assessment of Salicylic Acid, Butyloctyl Salicylate, Calcium Salicylate, C12-15 Alkyl Salicylate, Capryloyl Salicylic Acid, Hexyldodecyl Salicylate, Isocetyl Salicylate, Isodecyl Salicylate, Magnesium Salicylate, MEA-Salicylate, Ethylhexyl Salicylate, Potassium Salicylate, Methyl Salicylate, Myristyl Salicylate, Sodium Salicylate, TEA-Salicylate, and Tridecyl Salicylate.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Salicylic Acid is an aromatic acid used in cosmetic formulations as a denaturant, hair-conditioning agent, and skin-conditioning agent--miscellaneous in a wide range of cosmetic products at concentrations ranging from 0.0008% to 3%. The Calcium, Magnesium, and MEA salts are preservatives, and Potassium Salicylate is a cosmetic biocide and preservative, not currently in use. Sodium Salicylate is used as a denaturant and preservative (0.09% to 2%). The TEA salt of Salicylic Acid is used as an ultraviolet (UV) light absorber (0.0001% to 0.75%). Several Salicylic Acid esters are used as skin conditioning agents--miscellaneous (Capryloyl, 0.1% to 1%; C12-15 Alkyl, no current use; Isocetyl, 3% to 5%; Isodecyl, no current use; and Tridecyl, no current use). Butyloctyl Salicylate (0.5% to 5%) and Hexyldodecyl Salicylate (no current use) are hair-conditioning agents and skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous. Ethylhexyl Salicylate (formerly known as Octyl Salicylate) is used as a fragrance ingredient, sunscreen agent, and UV light absorber (0.001% to 8%), and Methyl Salicylate is used as a denaturant and flavoring agent (0.0001% to 0.6%). Myristyl Salicylate has no reported function. Isodecyl Salicylate is used in three formulations, but no concentration of use information was reported. Salicylates are absorbed percutaneously. Around 10% of applied salicylates can remain in the skin. Salicylic Acid is reported to enhance percutaneous penetration of some agents (e.g., vitamin A), but not others (e.g., hydrocortisone). Little acute toxicity (LD(50) in rats; >2 g/kg) via a dermal exposure route is seen for Salicylic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, Tridecyl Salicylate, and Butyloctyl Salicylate. Short-term oral, inhalation, and parenteral exposures to salicylates sufficient to produce high blood concentrations are associated primarily with liver and kidney damage. Subchronic dermal exposures to undiluted Methyl Salicylate were associated with kidney damage. Chronic oral exposure to

  17. Some things get better with age: differences in salicylic acid accumulation and defense signaling in young and mature Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Carella, Philip; Wilson, Daniel C; Cameron, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, much of what we know about the phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) and its role in plant defense comes from experiments using young plants. We are interested in understanding why young plants are susceptible to virulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae, while mature plants exhibit a robust defense response known as age-related resistance (ARR). SA-mediated signaling is important for defense in young plants, however, ARR occurs independently of the defense regulators NPR1 and WHY1. Furthermore, intercellular SA accumulation is an important component of ARR, and intercellular washing fluids from ARR-competent plants exhibit antibacterial activity, suggesting that SA acts as an antimicrobial agent in the intercellular space. Young plants accumulate both intracellular and intercellular SA during PAMP- and effector-triggered immunity, however, virulent P. syringae promotes susceptibility by suppressing SA accumulation using the phytotoxin coronatine. Here we outline the hypothesis that mature, ARR-competent Arabidopsis alleviates coronatine-mediated suppression of SA accumulation. We also explore the role of SA in other mature-plant processes such as flowering and senescence, and discuss their potential impact on ARR.

  18. Some things get better with age: differences in salicylic acid accumulation and defense signaling in young and mature Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Carella, Philip; Wilson, Daniel C.; Cameron, Robin K.

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, much of what we know about the phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) and its role in plant defense comes from experiments using young plants. We are interested in understanding why young plants are susceptible to virulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae, while mature plants exhibit a robust defense response known as age-related resistance (ARR). SA-mediated signaling is important for defense in young plants, however, ARR occurs independently of the defense regulators NPR1 and WHY1. Furthermore, intercellular SA accumulation is an important component of ARR, and intercellular washing fluids from ARR-competent plants exhibit antibacterial activity, suggesting that SA acts as an antimicrobial agent in the intercellular space. Young plants accumulate both intracellular and intercellular SA during PAMP- and effector-triggered immunity, however, virulent P. syringae promotes susceptibility by suppressing SA accumulation using the phytotoxin coronatine. Here we outline the hypothesis that mature, ARR-competent Arabidopsis alleviates coronatine-mediated suppression of SA accumulation. We also explore the role of SA in other mature-plant processes such as flowering and senescence, and discuss their potential impact on ARR. PMID:25620972

  19. Effects of salicylic acid on Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin B₁ accumulation in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Panahirad, Sima; Zaare-Nahandi, Fariborz; Mohammadi, Nilufar; Alizadeh-Salteh, Saeedeh; Safaie, Naser

    2014-07-01

    One of the most important saprophytic infections in fresh pistachio fruits after harvesting is Aspergillus flavus colonization, which significantly reduces fruit quality. Salicylic acid plays a crucial role in plant tissues and has a suppression effect on some fungi. The inhibitory effect of salicylic acid on the growth of A. flavus was assessed in vitro and in vivo. For this purpose, seven concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 mmol L(-1)) of salicylic acid were used in both experiments. Also, aflatoxin B1 contents of the samples were analysed using immunoaffinity chromatography. The results obtained from in vitro experiments showed that salicylic acid significantly reduced Aspergillus growth at all concentrations, and at 9 mmol L(-1) growth was completely suppressed. In vivo evaluation showed relatively high levels of inhibition, though the intact treated fruits as compared with the injured treated fruits demonstrated higher inhibitory effects. Regarding the inhibitory effects of salicylic acid on the control of A. flavus contamination, its application on pistachio fruits after harvesting could be a promising approach to control the fungus infection and reduce aflatoxin production in treated fruits. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates are essential for systemic activation of salicylic acid-induced protein kinase and accumulation of jasmonic acid in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Hettenhausen, Christian; Heinrich, Maria; Baldwin, Ian T; Wu, Jianqiang

    2014-11-28

    Herbivory induces the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the accumulation of jasmonates and defensive metabolites in damaged leaves and in distal undamaged leaves. Previous studies mainly focused on individual responses and a limited number of systemic leaves, and more research is needed for a better understanding of how different plant parts respond to herbivory. In the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, FACs (fatty acid-amino acid conjugates) in Manduca sexta oral secretions (OS) are the major elicitors that induce herbivory-specific signaling but their role in systemic signaling is largely unknown. Here, we show that simulated herbivory (adding M. sexta OS to fresh wounds) dramatically increased SIPK (salicylic acid-induced protein kinase) activity and jasmonic acid (JA) levels in damaged leaves and in certain (but not all) undamaged systemic leaves, whereas wounding alone had no detectable systemic effects; importantly, FACs and wounding are both required for activating these systemic responses. In contrast to the activation of SIPK and elevation of JA in specific systemic leaves, increases in the activity of an important anti-herbivore defense, trypsin proteinase inhibitor (TPI), were observed in all systemic leaves after simulated herbivory, suggesting that systemic TPI induction does not require SIPK activation and JA increases. Leaf ablation experiments demonstrated that within 10 minutes after simulated herbivory, a signal (or signals) was produced and transported out of the treated leaves, and subsequently activated systemic responses. Our results reveal that N. attenuata specifically recognizes herbivore-derived FACs in damaged leaves and rapidly send out a long-distance signal to phylotactically connected leaves to activate MAPK and JA signaling, and we propose that FACs that penetrated into wounds rapidly induce the production of another long-distance signal(s) which travels to all systemic leaves and activates TPI defense.

  1. Effects of salicylic acid on thermotolerance and cardenolide accumulation under high temperature stress in Digitalis trojana Ivanina.

    PubMed

    Cingoz, Gunce Sahin; Gurel, Ekrem

    2016-08-01

    Long periods of high temperature or transitory increased temperature, a widespread agricultural problem, may lead to a drastic reduction in economic yield, affecting plant growth and development in many areas of the world. Heat stress causes many anatomical and physiological changes in plants. Its unfavorable effects can be alleviated by thermotolerance induced by exogenous application of plant growth regulators and osmoprotectants or by gradual application of temperature stress. Digitalis trojana Ivanina is an important medicinal plant species well known mainly for its cardenolides. The production of cardenolides via traditional agriculture is commercially inadequate. In this study, elicitation strategies were employed for improving crop thermotolerance and accumulation of cardenolides. For these purposes, the effects of salicylic acid (SA) and/or high temperature treatments in inducing cardenolide accumulation and thermotolerance were tested in callus cultures of D. trojana. Considerable increases in the production of cardenolides (up to 472.28 μg.g(-1) dry weight, dw) and induction of thermotolerance capacity were observed when callus cultures were exposed to high temperature for 2 h after pretreating with SA. High temperature treatments (2 h and 4 h) caused a marked reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) activities, while SA pretreatment increased their activities. High temperature and/or SA appeared to increase the levels of proline, total phenolic, and flavonoid content. Elevated phenolic accumulation could be associated with increased stress protection. These results indicated that SA treatments induced synthesis of antioxidants and cardenolides, which may play a significant role in resistance to high temperature stress.

  2. Phosphorus derivatives of salicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chvertkina, L. V.; Khoklov, P. S.; Mironov, Vladimir F.

    1992-10-01

    The present state of work on the methods of synthesis, chemical properties, and practical applications of phosphorus-containing derivatives of salicylic acid has been reviewed. The characteristics of the chemical transformations of cyclic and acyclic phosphorus derivatives of salicylic acid related to the coordination state of the phosphorus atom have been examined. The bibliography includes 158 references.

  3. Induction of salicylic acid (SA) on transcriptional expression of eight carotenoid genes and astaxanthin accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong; Miao, Xuexia; Wang, Yitao; Yang, Liming; Lv, Hongxin; Chen, Lingling; Ye, Naihao

    2012-09-10

    The green alga Haematococcus pluvialis can produce large amounts of pink carotenoid astaxanthin which is a high value ketocarotenoid. In our study, transcriptional expression patterns of eight carotenoid genes in H. pluvialis in response to SA were measured using qRT-PCR. Results indicated that both 25 and 50 mg/L salicylic acid (SA) could increase astaxanthin productivity and enhance transcriptional expression of eight carotenoid genes in H. pluvialis. But these genes exhibited different expression profiles. Moreover, SA25 (25 mg/L SA) induction had a greater effect on the transcriptional expression of ipi-1, psy, pds, crtR-B and lyc (more than 6-fold up-regulation) than on ipi-2, bkt and crtO, but SA50 (50 mg/L SA) treatment had a greater impact on the transcriptional expression of ipi-1, ipi-2, pds, crtR-B and lyc than on psy, bkt and crtO. Furthermore, astaxanthin biosynthesis under SA was up-regulated mainly by ipi-1, ipi-2, psy, crtR-B, bkt and crtO at transcriptional level, lyc at post-transcriptional level and pds at both levels. Summarily, these results suggest that SA constitute molecular signals in the network of astaxanthin biosynthesis. Induction of astaxanthin accumulation by SA without any other stimuli presents an attractive application potential in astaxanthin production with H. pluvialis.

  4. Endogenous salicylic acid levels correlate with accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins and virus resistance in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Yalpani, N.; Shulaev, V.; Raskin, I. )

    1993-07-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is hypothesized to be an endogenous regulator of local and systemic disease resistance and an inducer of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins among plants. High levels of PR proteins have been observed in an uninoculated amphidiploid hybrid of Nicotiana glutinosa [times] N. debneyi, which is highly resistant to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Fluoresence, UV, and mass spectral analysis established that the levels of SA in healthy N. glutinosa [times] N. debneyi leaves were 30 times greater than in N. tabacum [open quotes]Xanthi-nc[close quotes] tobacco, which does not constitutively express PR proteins and is less resistant to TMV. Upon TMV-inoculation SA levels increased at least 70-fold leaves of Xanthi-nc but role only slightly in the hybrid. Phloem exudates of N. glutinosa [times] N. debneyi contained at least 500 times more SA than those of Xanthi-nc. SA treatment caused the appearance of PR-1 protein in Xanthi-nc but did not affect constitutively high levels of PR-1 protein in N. glutinosa [times] N. debneyi. In contrast to Xanthi-nc tobacco, TMV-inoculated N. glutinosa [times] N. debneyi kept at 32 C accumulated more than 0.5 [mu]g SA/g fresh weight, maintained high levels of PR proteins, and developed a hypersensitive response to TMV. PR proteins have previously been shown to accumulate in the lower leaves of healthy, flowering Xanthi-nc tobacco, which exhibited increased resistance to TMV. These developmentally induced increases in resistance and PR-1 proteins positively correlated with tissue levels of SA. These results affirm the regulatory role of SA in disease resistance and PR protein production. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Sweating treatment enhances citrus fruit disease resistance by inducing the accumulation of amino acids and salicylic acid-induced resistance pathway.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ze; Zhu, Feng; Liu, Ping; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-04-20

    To clarify the mechanism of fruit disease resistance activated by sweating treatment, 'Guoqing NO.1' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruits were treated by sweating, which is a traditional prestorage treatment in China. Subsequently, we performed inoculation and physiological characterization, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) proteomics analysis and metabonomics analysis based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-qTOF-MS). The results showed that sweating treatment significantly inhibited pathogen infection without negatively affecting the fruit commercial quality. In addition, sweating treatment rapidly promoted the accumulation of amino acids (such as proline and serine). Meanwhile, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and salicylic acid (SA) were significantly accumulated in the sweating-treated fruit. Thereafter, some stress-response proteins and metabolites [such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), β-1,3-glucanase, vanillic acid and rutin] which can be induced by SA were also significantly increased in the sweating-treated fruit. Taken together, the disease resistance induced by sweating treatment might be attributed to: (1) the induction of the accumulation of amino acids; and (2) the accumulation of SA and subsequent activation of SA-induced resistance pathway, which can induce the stress-response proteins and metabolites that can directly inhibit pathogen development.

  6. Hypersensitive Cell Death and Papilla Formation in Barley Attacked by the Powdery Mildew Fungus Are Associated with Hydrogen Peroxide but Not with Salicylic Acid Accumulation1

    PubMed Central

    Hückelhoven, Ralph; Fodor, József; Preis, Christine; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    1999-01-01

    We analyzed the pathogenesis-related generation of H2O2 using the microscopic detection of 3,3-diaminobenzidine polymerization in near-isogenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines carrying different powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) resistance genes, and in a line expressing chemically activated resistance after treatment with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (DCINA). Hypersensitive cell death in Mla12 and Mlg genotypes or after chemical activation by DCINA was associated with H2O2 accumulation throughout attacked cells. Formation of cell wall appositions (papillae) mediated in Mlg and mlo5 genotypes and in DCINA-activated plants was paralleled by H2O2 accumulation in effective papillae and in cytosolic vesicles of up to 2 μm in diameter near the papillae. H2O2 was not detected in ineffective papillae of cells that had been successfully penetrated by the fungus. These findings support the hypothesis that H2O2 may play a substantial role in plant defense against the powdery mildew fungus. We did not detect any accumulation of salicylic acid in primary leaves after inoculation of the different barley genotypes, indicating that these defense responses neither relied on nor provoked salicylic acid accumulation in barley. PMID:10198083

  7. Free and Conjugated Benzoic Acid in Tobacco Plants and Cell Cultures. Induced Accumulation upon Elicitation of Defense Responses and Role as Salicylic Acid Precursors1

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Julie; Pierrel, Marie-Agnès; Atanassova, Rossitza; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Fritig, Bernard; Saindrenan, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key endogenous component of local and systemic disease resistance in plants. In this study, we investigated the role of benzoic acid (BA) as precursor of SA biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Samsun NN) plants undergoing a hypersensitive response following infection with tobacco mosaic virus or in tobacco cell suspensions elicited with β-megaspermin, an elicitor from Phytophthora megasperma. We found a small pool of conjugated BA in healthy leaves and untreated cell suspensions of tobacco, whereas free BA levels were barely detectable. Infection of plants with tobacco mosaic virus or elicitation of cells led to a rapid de novo synthesis and accumulation of conjugated BA, whereas free BA was weakly induced. In presence of diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of superoxide anion formation, SA accumulation was abolished in elicited cells and much higher BA levels were concomitantly induced, mainly as a conjugated form. Furthermore, piperonylic acid, an inhibitor of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase was used as a powerful tool to redirect the metabolic flow from the main phenylpropanoid pathway into the SA biosynthetic branch. Under these conditions, in vivo labeling and radioisotope dilution experiments with [14C]trans-cinnamic acid as precursor clearly indicated that the free form of BA produced in elicited tobacco cells is not the major precursor of SA biosynthesis. The main conjugated form of BA accumulating after elicitation of tobacco cells was identified for the first time as benzoyl-glucose. Our data point to the likely role of conjugated forms of BA in SA biosynthesis. PMID:11154339

  8. 21 CFR 556.590 - Salicylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salicylic acid. 556.590 Section 556.590 Food and... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.590 Salicylic acid. A tolerance of zero is established for residues of salicylic acid in milk from dairy animals. ...

  9. Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, D'Maris Amick; Vlot, A. Corina; Wildermuth, Mary C.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to regulate various aspects of growth and development; it also serves as a critical signal for activating disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species. This review surveys the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of this critical plant hormone. While a complete biosynthetic route has yet to be established, stressed Arabidopsis appear to synthesize SA primarily via an isochorismate-utilizing pathway in the chloroplast. A distinct pathway utilizing phenylalanine as the substrate also may contribute to SA accumulation, although to a much lesser extent. Once synthesized, free SA levels can be regulated by a variety of chemical modifications. Many of these modifications inactivate SA; however, some confer novel properties that may aid in long distance SA transport or the activation of stress responses complementary to those induced by free SA. In addition, a number of factors that directly or indirectly regulate the expression of SA biosynthetic genes or that influence the rate of SA catabolism have been identified. An integrated model, encompassing current knowledge of SA metabolism in Arabidopsis, as well as the influence other plant hormones exert on SA metabolism, is presented. PMID:22303280

  10. A review of toxicity from topical salicylic acid preparations.

    PubMed

    Madan, Raman K; Levitt, Jacob

    2014-04-01

    Topical salicylic acid is often used in dermatologic conditions because of its keratolytic, bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and photoprotective properties. The bioavailability of salicylic acid differs depending on the vehicle used and pH of transcellular fluids. Although rare, salicylic acid toxicity (salicylism) can occur from topical application. Physicians should be mindful of the potential for salicylism or even death from topically applied salicylic acid.

  11. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms.

  12. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms. PMID:27490102

  13. The potato suberin feruloyl transferase FHT which accumulates in the phellogen is induced by wounding and regulated by abscisic and salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Marçal; Molinas, Marisa; Figueras, Mercè

    2013-01-01

    The present study provides new insights on the role of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) suberin feruloyl transferase FHT in native and wound tissues, leading to conclusions about hitherto unknown properties of the phellogen. In agreement with the enzymatic role of FHT, it is shown that its transcriptional activation and protein accumulation are specific to tissues that undergo suberization such as the root boundary layers of the exodermis and the endodermis, along with the tuber periderm. Remarkably, FHT expression and protein accumulation within the periderm is restricted to the phellogen derivative cells with phellem identity. FHT levels in the periderm are at their peak near harvest during periderm maturation, with the phellogen becoming meristematically inactive and declining thereafter. However, periderm FHT levels remain high for several months after harvest, suggesting that the inactive phellogen retains the capacity to synthesize ferulate esters. Tissue wounding induces FHT expression and the protein accumulates from the first stages of the healing process onwards. FHT is up-regulated by abscisic acid and down-regulated by salicylic acid, emphasizing the complex regulation of suberin synthesis and wound healing. These findings open up new prospects important for the clarification of the suberization process and yield important information with regard to the skin quality of potatoes. PMID:23918964

  14. The potato suberin feruloyl transferase FHT which accumulates in the phellogen is induced by wounding and regulated by abscisic and salicylic acids.

    PubMed

    Boher, Pau; Serra, Olga; Soler, Marçal; Molinas, Marisa; Figueras, Mercè

    2013-08-01

    The present study provides new insights on the role of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) suberin feruloyl transferase FHT in native and wound tissues, leading to conclusions about hitherto unknown properties of the phellogen. In agreement with the enzymatic role of FHT, it is shown that its transcriptional activation and protein accumulation are specific to tissues that undergo suberization such as the root boundary layers of the exodermis and the endodermis, along with the tuber periderm. Remarkably, FHT expression and protein accumulation within the periderm is restricted to the phellogen derivative cells with phellem identity. FHT levels in the periderm are at their peak near harvest during periderm maturation, with the phellogen becoming meristematically inactive and declining thereafter. However, periderm FHT levels remain high for several months after harvest, suggesting that the inactive phellogen retains the capacity to synthesize ferulate esters. Tissue wounding induces FHT expression and the protein accumulates from the first stages of the healing process onwards. FHT is up-regulated by abscisic acid and down-regulated by salicylic acid, emphasizing the complex regulation of suberin synthesis and wound healing. These findings open up new prospects important for the clarification of the suberization process and yield important information with regard to the skin quality of potatoes.

  15. Overexpression of salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase reduces salicylic acid-mediated pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Koo, Yeon Jong; Kim, Myeong Ae; Kim, Eun Hye; Song, Jong Tae; Jung, Choonkyun; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Kim, Jeong-Han; Seo, Hak Soo; Song, Sang Ik; Kim, Ju-Kon; Lee, Jong Seob; Cheong, Jong-Joo; Choi, Yang Do

    2007-05-01

    We cloned a salicylic acid/benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase gene, OsBSMT1, from Oryza sativa. A recombinant OsBSMT1 protein obtained by expressing the gene in Escherichia coli exhibited carboxyl methyltransferase activity in reactions with salicylic acid (SA), benzoic acid (BA), and de-S-methyl benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid (dSM-BTH), producing methyl salicylate (MeSA), methyl benzoate (MeBA), and methyl dSM-BTH (MeBTH), respectively. Compared to wild-type plants, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing OsBSMT1 accumulated considerably higher levels of MeSA and MeBA, some of which were vaporized into the environment. Upon infection with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae or the fungal pathogen Golovinomyces orontii, transgenic plants failed to accumulate SA and its glucoside (SAG), becoming more susceptible to disease than wild-type plants. OsBSMT1-overexpressing Arabidopsis showed little induction of PR-1 when treated with SA or G. orontii. Notably, incubation with the transgenic plant was sufficient to trigger PR-1 induction in neighboring wild-type plants. Together, our results indicate that in the absence of SA, MeSA alone cannot induce a defense response, yet it serves as an airborne signal for plant-to-plant communication. We also found that jasmonic acid (JA) induced AtBSMT1, which may contribute to an antagonistic effect on SA signaling pathways by depleting the SA pool in plants.

  16. Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induce Subspecies-Specific Patterns of Glucosinolate Accumulation and Gene Expression in Brassica oleracea L.

    PubMed

    Yi, Go-Eun; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Hwang, Byung Ho; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-10-24

    Glucosinolates have anti-carcinogenic properties. In the recent decades, the genetics of glucosinolate biosynthesis has been widely studied, however, the expression of specific genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis under exogenous phytohormone treatment has not been explored at the subspecies level in Brassica oleracea. Such data are vital for strategies aimed at selective exploitation of glucosinolate profiles. This study quantified the expression of 38 glucosinolate biosynthesis-related genes in three B. oleracea subspecies, namely cabbage, broccoli and kale, and catalogued associations between gene expression and increased contents of individual glucosinolates under methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) treatments. Glucosinolate accumulation and gene expression in response to phytohormone elicitation was subspecies specific. For instance, cabbage leaves showed enhanced accumulation of the aliphatic glucoiberin, progoitrin, sinigrin and indolic neoglucobrassicin under both MeJA and SA treatment. MeJA treatment induced strikingly higher accumulation of glucobrassicin (GBS) in cabbage and kale and of neoglucobrassicin (NGBS) in broccoli compared to controls. Notably higher expression of ST5a (Bol026200), CYP81F1 (Bol028913, Bol028914) and CYP81F4 genes was associated with significantly higher GBS accumulation under MeJA treatment compared to controls in all three subspecies. CYP81F4 genes, trans-activated by MYB34 genes, were expressed at remarkably high levels in all three subspecies under MeJA treatment, which also induced in higher indolic NGBS accumulation in all three subspecies. Remarkably higher expression of MYB28 (Bol036286), ST5b, ST5c, AOP2, FMOGS-OX5 (Bol031350) and GSL-OH (Bol033373) was associated with much higher contents of aliphatic glucosinolates in kale leaves compared to the other two subspecies. The genes expressed highly could be utilized in strategies to selectively increase glucosinolate compounds in B. oleracea subspecies

  17. The Arabidopsis Mitochondrial Protease FtSH4 Is Involved in Leaf Senescence via Regulation of WRKY-Dependent Salicylic Acid Accumulation and Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengchun; Li, Cui; Wang, Rui; Chen, Yaxue; Shu, Si; Huang, Ruihua; Zhang, Daowei; Li, Jian; Xiao, Shi; Yao, Nan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondria and autophagy play important roles in the networks that regulate plant leaf senescence and cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between mitochondrial signaling and autophagy are currently not well understood. This study characterized the function of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mitochondrial AAA-protease gene FtSH4 in regulating autophagy and senescence, finding that FtSH4 mediates WRKY-dependent salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and signaling. Knockout of FtSH4 in the ftsh4-4 mutant resulted in severe leaf senescence, cell death, and high autophagy levels. The level of SA increased dramatically in the ftsh4-4 mutant. Expression of nahG in the ftsh4-4 mutant led to decreased SA levels and suppressed the leaf senescence and cell death phenotypes. The transcript levels of several SA synthesis and signaling genes, including SALICYLIC ACIDINDUCTION DEFICIENT2 (SID2), NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE1 (NDR1), and NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1), increased significantly in the ftsh4-4 mutants compared with the wild type. Loss of function of SID2, NDR1, or NPR1 in the ftsh4-4 mutant reversed the ftsh4-4 senescence and autophagy phenotypes. Furthermore, ftsh4-4 mutants had elevated levels of transcripts of several WRKY genes, including WRKY40, WRKY46, WRKY51, WRKY60, WRKY63, and WRKY75; all of these WRKY proteins can bind to the promoter of SID2 Loss of function of WRKY75 in the ftsh4-4 mutants decreased the levels of SA and reversed the senescence phenotype. Taken together, these results suggest that the mitochondrial ATP-dependent protease FtSH4 may regulate the expression of WRKY genes by modifying the level of reactive oxygen species and the WRKY transcription factors that control SA synthesis and signaling in autophagy and senescence.

  18. Salicylic acid treatment reduces the rot of postharvest citrus fruit by inducing the accumulation of H2O2, primary metabolites and lipophilic polymethoxylated flavones.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Chen, Jiajing; Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Mingfei; Yun, Ze; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-09-15

    To comprehensively analyze the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the storability of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu), fruits were treated with 2mM SA. The disease incidence of control/SA-treated fruit at 50d and 120d after treatment was 23.3%/10% and 67.3%/23.3%, respectively, suggesting that SA treatment can significantly reduce the rot rate of postharvest citrus fruit. Fruit quality assays revealed that the treatment can maintain fruit firmness without affecting the inner quality. Furthermore, the contents of H2O2 and some defense-related metabolites, such as ornithine and threonine, in citrus pericarp, were significantly increased by SA treatment. Moreover, it was lipophilic polymethoxylated flavones, rather than flavanone glycosides, that accumulated in SA-treated fruits and these can directly inhibit pathogen development. These results suggest that the effects of SA on postharvest citrus fruit may be attributed to the accumulation of H2O2 and defense-related metabolites.

  19. Functional Analysis of Arabidopsis Mutants Points to Novel Roles for Glutathione in Coupling H2O2 to Activation of Salicylic Acid Accumulation and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yi; Chaouch, Sejir; Mhamdi, Amna; Queval, Guillaume; Zechmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Through its interaction with H2O2, glutathione is a candidate for transmission of signals in plant responses to pathogens, but identification of signaling roles is complicated by its antioxidant function. Using a genetic approach based on a conditional catalase-deficient Arabidopsis mutant, cat2, this study aimed at establishing whether GSH plays an important functional role in the transmission of signals downstream of H2O2. Results: Introducing the cad2 or allelic mutations in the glutathione synthesis pathway into cat2 blocked H2O2-triggered GSH oxidation and accumulation. While no effects on NADP(H) or ascorbate were observed, and H2O2-induced decreases in growth were maintained, blocking GSH modulation antagonized salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and SA-dependent responses. Other novel double and triple mutants were produced and compared with cat2 cad2 at the levels of phenotype, expression of marker genes, nontargeted metabolite profiling, accumulation of SA, and bacterial resistance. Most of the effects of the cad2 mutation on H2O2-triggered responses were distinct from those produced by mutations for GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE1 (GR1) or NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1), and were linked to compromised induction of ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE1 (ICS1) and ICS1-dependent SA accumulation. Innovation: A novel genetic approach was used in which GSH content or antioxidative capacity was independently modified in an H2O2 signaling background. Analysis of new double and triple mutants allowed us to infer previously undescribed regulatory roles for GSH. Conclusion: In parallel to its antioxidant role, GSH acts independently of NPR1 to allow increased intracellular H2O2 to activate SA signaling, a key defense response in plants. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2106–2121. PMID:23148658

  20. Wet oxidation of salicylic acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Diaz, Mario

    2010-11-15

    Salicylic acid is a frequent pollutant in several industrial wastewaters. Uncatalyzed wet air oxidation, which is a promising technique for the treatment of phenolic effluents, has not been analyzed yet for the removal of salicylic acid. The effect of different conditions of pH (1.3-12.3), pressure (1.0-4.1 MPa), temperature (413-443 K), and initial concentrations (1.45-14.50 mM) on the wet oxidation of salicylate/salicylic acid solutions have here been investigated. The pH value of the reaction media was found to be a key parameter for the rate of the oxidation process with an optimum at pH 3.1, when the concentrations of salicylic acid and salicylate were similar. The oxidation reaction followed pseudofirst-order kinetics with respect to salicylic acid and 0.82 order with respect to dissolved oxygen. Additionally, the evolution of the color during the wet oxidation was analyzed and discussed in relation with the formation of intermediate compounds. Then, a reaction pathway for the noncatalytic wet oxidation of the salicylic acid was proposed.

  1. Leptosphaeria maculans effector AvrLm4-7 affects salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ET) signalling and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Miroslava; Šašek, Vladimír; Trdá, Lucie; Krutinová, Hana; Mongin, Thomas; Valentová, Olga; Balesdent, Marie-HelEne; Rouxel, Thierry; Burketová, Lenka

    2016-08-01

    To achieve host colonization, successful pathogens need to overcome plant basal defences. For this, (hemi)biotrophic pathogens secrete effectors that interfere with a range of physiological processes of the host plant. AvrLm4-7 is one of the cloned effectors from the hemibiotrophic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans 'brassicaceae' infecting mainly oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Although its mode of action is still unknown, AvrLm4-7 is strongly involved in L. maculans virulence. Here, we investigated the effect of AvrLm4-7 on plant defence responses in a susceptible cultivar of B. napus. Using two isogenic L. maculans isolates differing in the presence of a functional AvrLm4-7 allele [absence ('a4a7') and presence ('A4A7') of the allele], the plant hormone concentrations, defence-related gene transcription and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were analysed in infected B. napus cotyledons. Various components of the plant immune system were affected. Infection with the 'A4A7' isolate caused suppression of salicylic acid- and ethylene-dependent signalling, the pathways regulating an effective defence against L. maculans infection. Furthermore, ROS accumulation was decreased in cotyledons infected with the 'A4A7' isolate. Treatment with an antioxidant agent, ascorbic acid, increased the aggressiveness of the 'a4a7' L. maculans isolate, but not that of the 'A4A7' isolate. Together, our results suggest that the increased aggressiveness of the 'A4A7' L. maculans isolate could be caused by defects in ROS-dependent defence and/or linked to suppressed SA and ET signalling. This is the first study to provide insights into the manipulation of B. napus defence responses by an effector of L. maculans. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. A novel prodrug of salicylic acid, salicylic acid-glutamic acid conjugate utilizing hydrolysis in rabbit intestinal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Asai, K; Nishida, K; Sasaki, H

    1992-08-01

    The fate of salicylic acid-glutamic acid conjugate (salicyl-glutamic acid) following oral, intravenous, intracecal and rectal administration (60, 10, 5 and 5 mg/kg, respectively: salicylic acid equivalent) was examined in rabbits. Salicylic acid was detected in the blood 2 h after oral administration of salicyl-glutamic acid and it reached the maximum level (69.4 micrograms/ml) at 18 h after the dose. A high blood concentration of salicylic acid (24.8 micrograms/ml) was observed up to 36 h. But only a small amount of salicyl-glutamic acid was detected in the blood (less than 2.5 micrograms/ml, as salicylic acid). In contrast, unchanged salicyl-glutamic acid was found mainly in the blood following intravenous administration of salicyl-glutamic acid, suggesting that presystemic de-conjugation of salicyl-glutamic acid predominantly occurred. The intestinal mucosal de-conjugation of salicyl-glutamic acid was negligible in the in situ intestinal sac preparation with complete mesenteric venous blood collection. Immediate and very extensive salicylic acid formation in the cecum was found following intracecal administration of salicyl-glutamic acid. After oral pretreatment of rabbits with kanamycin sulfate (6 x 400 mg), a significant inhibition of salicylic acid formation following intracecal administration of salicyl-glutamic acid was observed, indicating that the intestinal microorganisms were responsible for the biotransformation of salicyl-glutamic acid. Also, in vitro incubation of salicyl-glutamic acid with gut contents showed that the primary location of hydrolysis was the hind gut.

  3. Development of a prodrug of salicylic acid, salicylic acid-L-alanine conjugate, utilizing hydrolysis by rabbit intestinal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Tagami, C; Nishida, K; Sasaki, H

    1992-04-01

    The hydrolysis of salicylic acid-L-alanine conjugate (salicyl-L-alanine) following oral, intravenous, intracaecal and rectal administration (60, 10, 5 and 5 mg kg-1, respectively: salicylic acid equivalent) was examined in rabbits. Salicylic acid was detected in the blood 2 h after oral administration of salicyl-L-alanine and reached a maximum concentration at 10 h, whereas salicyl-L-alanine was rapidly eliminated. In contrast, unchanged salicyl-L-alanine only was found following intravenous administration of salicyl-L-alanine, suggesting that presystemic de-conjugation of salicyl-L-alanine was involved. The intestinal mucosal de-conjugation of salicyl-L-alanine was not recognized in the in-situ intestinal sac preparation with complete mesenteric venous blood collection. Immediate and very extensive salicylic acid formation in the caecum was found following intracaecal administration of salicyl-L-alanine. After oral pretreatment of rabbits with kanamycin sulphate, a significant inhibition of salicylic acid formation following intracaecal administration of salicyl-L-alanine was observed, indicating that the intestinal microorganisms were responsible for the biotransformation of salicyl-L-alanine. In-vitro incubation of salicyl-L-alanine with gut contents showed that the major source of its hydrolysis was the hind gut. Consequently, the blood concentration of salicylic acid was prolonged extensively following rectal administration of salicyl-L-alanine, suggesting the usefulness of salicyl-L-alanine as a prodrug of salicylic acid.

  4. Infrared spectra of hydrogen-bonded salicylic acid and its derivatives : Salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, Marek J.

    1981-11-01

    Infrared spectra of hydrogen-bonded salicylic acid, O-deutero-salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid crystals have been studied experimentally and theoretically. Interpretation of these spectra was based on the Witkowski-Maréchal model. Semi-quantitative agreement between experimental and theoretical spectra can be achieved with the simplest form of this model, with values of interaction parameters transferable for equivalent intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  5. Sugar Accumulation in Leaves of Arabidopsis sweet11/sweet12 Double Mutants Enhances Priming of the Salicylic Acid-Mediated Defense Response

    PubMed Central

    Gebauer, Pierre; Korn, Martin; Engelsdorf, Timo; Sonnewald, Uwe; Koch, Christian; Voll, Lars M.

    2017-01-01

    sweet11/sweet12 leaves were highly significantly enriched for several GO terms associated with SA signaling and response compared to mock treated wild-type leaves, indicating sugar-mediated priming of the SA pathway in the double mutant. Infection assays with salicylic acid deficient sweet11/sweet12/sid2 triple mutants demonstrated that reduced susceptibility observed in sweet11/sweet12 was entirely dependent on the SA pathway. We suggest a model how defects in phloem loading of sucrose can influence SA priming and hence, compatibility. PMID:28848581

  6. Potentiation by salicylate and salicyl alcohol of cadmium toxicity and accumulation in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Rosner, J.L.; Aumercier, M. )

    1990-12-01

    The toxicity of Cd{sub 2+} in Escherichia coli K-12 was potentiated by salicylate and several related compounds. The efficiency of plating on Luria broth plates was reduced by more than 10(5)-fold when 10 mM salicylate and 200 microM CdCl{sub 2} were present simultaneously but was unaffected when either compound was present by itself. Synergistic effects were found at pH 7.4 with certain other weak acids (acetyl salicylate (aspirin), benzoate, and cinnamate) and with a nonacidic salicylate analog, salicyl alcohol, but not with acetate or p-hydroxy benzoate. Thus, the synergism with Cd{sub 2+} is determined by the structure of the compounds and not merely by their acidity. The kinetics of {sup 109}Cd{sub 2+} uptake by cells grown and assayed in broth indicated the presence of two uptake systems with Kms of 1 and 52 microM Cd{sub 2+} and Vmaxs of 0.059 and 1.5 mumol of Cd{sub 2+} per min per g of cells, respectively. The kinetics of uptake for cells grown and assayed with 20 mM salicyl alcohol showed 2.5-fold increases in the Vmaxs of both systems but no change in the Kms. Salicylate-grown cells also exhibited increased rates of {sup 109}Cd{sub 2+} uptake by both systems. Thus, enhanced uptake of Cd{sub 2+} may be responsible for the potentiation of Cd{sub 2+} toxicity by salicylate and salicyl alcohol.

  7. The second acidic constant of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Porto, Raffaella; De Tommaso, Gaetano; Furia, Emilia

    2005-01-01

    The second dissociation constant of salicylic acid (H2L) has been determined, at 25 degrees C, in NaCl ionic media by UV spectrophotometric measurements. The investigated ionic strength values were 0.16, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 M. The protolysis constants calculated at the different ionic strengths yielded, with the Specific Interaction Theory, the infinite dilution constant, log beta1(0) = 13.62 +/- 0.03, for the equilibrium L2- + H+ <==> HL-. The interaction coefficient between Na+ and L2-, b(Na+, L2-) = 0.02 +/- 0.07, has been also calculated.

  8. Physcomitrella patens activates reinforcement of the cell wall, programmed cell death and accumulation of evolutionary conserved defence signals, such as salicylic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, but not jasmonic acid, upon Botrytis cinerea infection.

    PubMed

    Ponce De León, Inés; Schmelz, Eric A; Gaggero, Carina; Castro, Alexandra; Álvarez, Alfonso; Montesano, Marcos

    2012-10-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens is an evolutionarily basal model system suitable for the analysis of plant defence responses activated after pathogen assault. Upon infection with the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea, several defence mechanisms are induced in P. patens, including the fortification of the plant cell wall by the incorporation of phenolic compounds and the induced expression of related genes. Botrytis cinerea infection also activates the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and cell death with hallmarks of programmed cell death in moss tissues. Salicylic acid (SA) levels also increase after fungal infection, and treatment with SA enhances transcript accumulation of the defence gene phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in P. patens colonies. The expression levels of the genes involved in 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) synthesis, including lipoxygenase (LOX) and allene oxide synthase (AOS), increase in P. patens gametophytes after pathogen assault, together with a rise in free linolenic acid and OPDA concentrations. However, jasmonic acid (JA) could not be detected in healthy or infected tissues of this plant. Our results suggest that, although conserved defence signals, such as SA and OPDA, are synthesized and are probably involved in the defence response of P. patens against B. cinerea infection, JA production appears to be missing. Interestingly, P. patens responds to OPDA and methyl jasmonate by reducing moss colony growth and rhizoid length, suggesting that jasmonate perception is present in mosses. Thus, P. patens can provide clues with regard to the evolution of different defence pathways in plants, including signalling and perception of OPDA and jasmonates in nonflowering and flowering plants.

  9. A novel prodrug of salicylic acid, salicylic acid-glycylglycine conjugate, utilizing the hydrolysis in rabbit intestinal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Asai, K; Nishida, K; Sasaki, H

    1992-09-01

    The hydrolysis of salicylic acid-glycylglycine conjugate (salicyl-glycylglycine) following oral, intravenous, intracaecal and rectal administration (434, 72, 36 and 36 mumol kg-1, respectively: equivalent to salicylic acid) was examined in rabbits to develop a novel prodrug of salicylic acid. Salicylic acid was detected in the blood 2 h after oral administration of salicyl-glycylglycine and it reached a maximum level (55.6 micrograms mL-1) at 15 h, whereas a small amount of salicyl-glycylglycine was found in the blood. In contrast, unchanged salicyl-glycylglycine was found mainly in the blood following its intravenous administration, suggesting the involvement of presystemic deconjugation in the hydrolysis of salicyl-glycylglycine. Immediate and very extensive salicyclic acid formation in the caecum was observed following intracaecal administration of salicyl-glycylglycine, suggesting that the intestinal microorganisms were responsible for the biotransformation of this compound. In-vitro incubation of salicyl-glycylglycine with caecal content showed that salicyl-glycylglycine was hydrolysed efficiently in the caecum. Consequently, the blood concentration of salicylic acid was prolonged extensively following rectal administration of salicyl-glycylglycine, indicating the usefulness of salicyl-glycylglycine as a prodrug of salicylic acid.

  10. Priming of seeds with methyl jasmonate induced resistance to hemi-biotroph Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in tomato via 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, salicylic acid, and flavonol accumulation.

    PubMed

    Król, P; Igielski, R; Pollmann, S; Kępczyńska, E

    2015-05-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was tested by seed treatment for its ability to protect tomato seedlings against fusarium wilt caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. Isolated from Solanum lycopersicon L. seeds, cv. Beta fungus was identified as F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici Race 3 fungus by using phytopathological and molecular methods. MeJA applied at 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM reduced spore germination and mycelial growth in vitro. Soaking of tomato seeds in MeJA solution at 0.1 mM for 1 h significantly enhanced the resistance level against the tested fungus in tomato seedlings 4 weeks after inoculation. The extracts from leaves of 15-day-old seedlings obtained from previously MeJA soaked seeds had the ability to inhibit in vitro spore germination of tested fungus. In these seedlings a significant increase in the levels phenolic compounds such as salicylic acid (SA), kaempferol and quercetin was observed. Up-regulation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL5) and benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (BSMT) genes and down-regulation of the isochorysmate synthase (ICS) gene in response to exogenous MeJA application indicate that the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), not the isochorismate (IC) pathway, is the primary route for SA production in tomato. Moreover, the increased accumulation of the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol appears closely related to the increase of PAL5, chalcone synthase (CHS) and flavonol synthase/flavanone 3-hydroxylase-like (FLS) genes. Elevated levels of salicylic acid in seedlings raised from MeJA-soaked seeds were simultaneously accompanied by a decrease of jasmonic acid, the precursor of MeJA, and an increase of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), the precursor of jasmonic acid. The present results indicate that the priming of tomato seeds with 0.1mM MeJA before sowing enables the seedlings grown from these seeds to reduce the attack of the soil-borne fungal pathogen F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici

  11. Salicylic acid-induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sudhamoy; Mallick, Nirupama; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2009-07-01

    We demonstrated that exogenous application of 200 microM salicylic acid through root feeding and foliar spray could induce resistance against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici (Fol) in tomato. Endogenous accumulation of free salicylic acid in tomato roots was detected by HPLC and identification was confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. At 168h of salicylic acid treatment through roots, the endogenous salicylic acid level in the roots increased to 1477ngg(-1) FW which was 10 times higher than control plants. Similarly, the salicylic acid content was 1001ngg(-1) FW at 168h of treatment by foliar spray, which was 8.7 times higher than control plants. The activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) were 5.9 and 4.7 times higher, respectively than the control plants at 168h of salicylic acid feeding through the roots. The increase in PAL and POD activities was 3.7 and 3.3 times higher, respectively at 168h of salicylic acid treatments through foliar spray than control plants. The salicylic acid-treated tomato plants challenged with Fol exhibited significantly reduced vascular browning and leaf yellowing wilting. The mycelial growth of Fol was not significantly affected by salicylic acid. Significant increase in basal level of salicylic acid in noninoculated plants indicated that tomato root system might have the capacity to assimilate and distribute salicylic acid throughout the plant. The results indicated that the induced resistance observed in tomato against Fol might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  12. Involvement of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Kalachova, Tetiana; Iakovenko, Oksana; Kretinin, Sergii; Kravets, Volodymyr

    2013-05-01

    Salicylic acid is associated with the primary defense responses to biotic stress and formation of systemic acquired resistance. However, molecular mechanisms of early cell reactions to phytohormone application are currently undisclosed. The present study investigates the participation of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signal transduction cascade. The activation of lipid signaling enzymes within 15 min of salicylic acid application was shown in Arabidopsis thaliana plants by measuring the phosphatidic acid accumulation. Adding of primary alcohol (1-butanol) to the incubation medium led to phosphatidylbutanol accumulation as a result of phospholipase D (PLD) action in wild-type and NADPH-oxidase RbohD deficient plants. Salicylic acid induced rapid increase in NADPH-oxidase activity in histochemical assay with nitroblue tetrazolium but the reaction was not observed in presence of 1-butanol and NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodide (DPI). The further physiological effect of salicylic acid and inhibitory analysis of the signaling cascade were made in the guard cell model. Stomatal closure induced by salicylic acid was inhibited by 1-butanol and DPI treatment. rbohD transgenic plants showed impaired stomatal reaction upon phytohormone effect, while the reaction to H2O2 did not differ from that of wild-type plants. Thus a key role of NADPH-oxidase D-isoform in the process of stomatal closure in response to salicylic acid has been postulated. It has enabled to predict a cascade implication of PLD and NADPH oxidase to salicylic acid signaling pathway.

  13. Evaluation of salicylic acid fatty ester prodrugs for UV protection.

    PubMed

    Im, Jong Seob; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jung Sun; Jeon, Eun-Mi; Kim, Dae-Duk; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and in vitro evaluation of fatty ester prodrugs of salicylic acid for ultraviolet (UV) protection. The physicochemical properties such as lipophilicity, chemical stability and enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated with the following fatty ester prodrugs of salicylic acid: octanoyl (C8SA), nonanoyl (C9SA), decanoyl (C10SA), lauroyl (C12SA), myristoyl (C14SA) and palmitoyl oxysalicylate (C16SA). Furthermore, their skin permeation and accumulation were evaluated using a combination of common permeation enhancing techniques such as the use of a lipophilic receptor solution, removal of stratum corneum and delipidization of skin. Their k' values were proportional to the degree of carbon-carbon saturation in the side chain. All these fatty esters were highly stable in 2-propanol, acetonitrile and glycerin, but unstable in methanol and ethanol. They were relatively unstable in liver and skin homogenates. In particular, C16SA was mostly hydrolyzed to its parent compound in hairless mouse liver and skin homogenates, suggesting that it might be converted to salicylic acid after its topical administration. In the skin permeation and accumulation study, C16SA showed the poorest permeation in all skins, suggesting that it could not be permeated in the skin. Furthermore, C14SA and C16SA were less accumulated in delipidized skin compared with normal skin or stripped skin, suggesting that these esters had relatively strong affinities for lipids compared with the other prodrugs in the skin. C16SA showed significantly higher dermal accumulation in all skins compared with its parent salicylic acid. Thus, the palmitoyl oxysalicylate (C16SA) might be a potential candidate for UV protection due to its absence of skin permeation, smaller uptake in the lipid phase and relatively lower skin accumulation.

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Li; Shi, Bao-Lin; Wei, Dong; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Su-Li; Gao, Bao-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB), the contents of signal compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the level of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate increased remarkably in U. pumila once infected by T. akinire Sasaki, but the maximums of these four compounds occurred at different times. Salicylic acid level reached the highest at the early stage, and jasmonic acid level went to the maximum in the middle stage; by contrast, change of content of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate was the quite opposite.

  15. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhi-hong; Wang, Zhi-li; Shi, Bao-lin; Wei, Dong; Chen, Jian-xin; Wang, Su-li; Gao, Bao-jia

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB), the contents of signal compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the level of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate increased remarkably in U. pumila once infected by T. akinire Sasaki, but the maximums of these four compounds occurred at different times. Salicylic acid level reached the highest at the early stage, and jasmonic acid level went to the maximum in the middle stage; by contrast, change of content of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate was the quite opposite. PMID:26457083

  16. The response of Escherichia coli biofilm to salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Cattò, Cristina; Grazioso, Giovanni; Dell'Orto, Silvia; Gelain, Arianna; Villa, Stefania; Marzano, Valeria; Vitali, Alberto; Villa, Federica; Cappitelli, Francesca; Forlani, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    In this research, salicylic acid is proposed as an alternative biocide-free agent suitable for a preventive or integrative anti-biofilm approach. Salicylic acid has been proved to: (1) reduce bacterial adhesion up to 68.1 ± 5.6%; (2) affect biofilm structural development, reducing viable biomass by 97.0 ± 0.7% and extracellular proteins and polysaccharides by 83.9 ± 2.5% and 49.5 ± 5.5% respectively; and (3) promote biofilm detachment 3.4 ± 0.6-fold. Moreover, salicylic acid treated biofilm showed an increased amount of intracellular (2.3 ± 0.2-fold) and extracellular (2.1 ± 0.3-fold) reactive oxygen species, and resulted in increased production of the quorum sensing signal indole (7.6 ± 1.4-fold). For the first time, experiments revealed that salicylic acid interacts with proteins that play a role in quorum sensing, reactive oxygen species accumulation, motility, extracellular polymeric matrix components, transport and metabolism.

  17. Mutational Analysis of a Role for Salicylic Acid in Iron Metabolism of Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Adilakshmi, Tadepalli; Ayling, Peter D.; Ratledge, Colin

    2000-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in iron metabolism was examined in two wild-type strains (mc2155 and NCIMB 8548) and three mutant strains (mc21292 [lacking exochelin], SM3 [lacking iron-dependent repressor protein IdeR] and S99 [a salicylate-requiring auxotroph derived in this study]) of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Synthesis of salicylate in SM3 was derepressed even in the presence of iron, as was synthesis of the siderophores exochelin, mycobactin, and carboxymycobactin. S99 was dependent on salicylate for growth and failed to grow with the three ferrisiderophores, suggesting that salicylate fulfills an additional function(s) other than being a precursor of mycobactin and carboxymycobactin. Salicylic acid at 100 μg/ml repressed the formation of a 29-kDa cell envelope protein (putative exochelin receptor protein) in S99 grown both iron deficiently and iron sufficiently. In contrast, synthesis of this protein was affected only under iron-limited conditions in the parent strain, mc2155, and remained unaltered in SM3, suggesting an interaction between the IdeR protein and salicylate. Thus, salicylate may also function as a signal molecule for recognition of cellular iron status. Growth of all strains and mutants with p-aminosalicylate (PAS) at 100 μg/ml increased salicylate accumulation between three- and eightfold under both iron-limited and iron-sufficient growth conditions and decreased mycobactin accumulation by 40 to 80% but increased carboxymycobactin accumulation by 50 to 55%. Thus, although PAS inhibited salicylate conversion to mycobactin, presumptively by blocking salicylate AMP kinase, PAS also interferes with the additional functions of salicylate, as its effect was heightened in S99 when the salicylate concentration was minimal. PMID:10629169

  18. Salicylic acid is important for basal defense of Solanum tuberosum against Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Halim, Vincentius A; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Altmann, Simone; Birschwilks, Mandy; Scheel, Dierk; Rosahl, Sabine

    2007-11-01

    The importance of the signaling compound salicylic acid for basal defense of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) against Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease, was assessed using transgenic NahG potato plants which are unable to accumulate salicylic acid. Although the size of lesions caused by P. infestans was not significantly different in wild-type and transgenic NahG plants, real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed a drastic enhancement of pathogen growth in potato plants depleted of salicylic acid. Increased susceptibility of NahG plants correlated with compromised callose formation and reduced early defense gene expression. NahG plants pretreated with the salicylic acid analog 2,6-dichloro-isonicotinic acid allowed pathogen growth to a similar extent as did wild-type plants, indicating that salicylic acid is an important compound required for basal defense of potato against P. infestans.

  19. [Free and conjugated forms of salicylic acid: content and role in potato].

    PubMed

    Panina, Ia S; Vasiukova, N I; Ozeretskovskaia, O L

    2005-01-01

    Hydrolysis of conjugated forms of salicylic acid and accumulation of its free form was observed after infection of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) with an incompatible race of phytophthora or treatment with an elicitor (chitosan). Infection of tubers with a compatible race of the pathogen or treatment with a suppressor (laminarin) decreased both the degree of hydrolysis of conjugated forms of salicylic acid and the accumulation of its free form.

  20. Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Leon, J.; Raskin, I.

    1995-05-09

    Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-{beta}-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35), which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance. 62 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H I; León, J; Raskin, I

    1995-01-01

    Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-beta-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35), which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance. PMID:11607533

  2. Unequal hydrolysis of salicylic acid-D-alanine and salicylic acid-L-alanine conjugate in rabbit intestinal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Tagami, C; Nishida, K; Sasaki, H

    1992-02-01

    The behavior of salicylic acid-D-alanine conjugate (salicyl-D-alanine) following intravenous, oral and intracecal administration was examined in rabbits, then compared with that of salicylic acid-L-alanine conjugate (salicyl-L-alanine) as reported previously. Following intravenous administration, salicyl-D-alanine eliminated rapidly from the blood, and its blood concentration was almost identical with that of salicyl-L-alanine. In both cases, salicylic acid could not be detected in the blood, indicating that systemic de-conjugation of D-alanine might not occur. Unchanged salicyl-D-alanine was found in the blood mainly following oral and intracecal administration of salicyl-D-alanine. On the other hand, salicylic acid formed extensively following oral and intracecal administration of salicyl-L-alanine, suggesting that the presystemic de-conjugation of D-alanine and L-alanine was unequal. Furthermore, in vitro incubation of salicyl-D-alanine with cecal content, in which the major source of salicyl-L-alanine hydrolysis is found, showed that the hydrolysis of salicyl-D-alanine was negligible in rabbit intestinal microorganisms.

  3. Salicylic acid improves acclimation to salt stress by stimulating abscisic aldehyde oxidase activity and abscisic acid accumulation, and increases Na+ content in leaves without toxicity symptoms in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    PubMed

    Szepesi, Agnes; Csiszár, Jolán; Gémes, Katalin; Horváth, Edit; Horváth, Ferenc; Simon, Mária L; Tari, Irma

    2009-06-01

    Pre-treatment with 10(-4)M salicylic acid (SA) in hydroponic culture medium provided protection against salinity stress in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Rio Fuego). The effect of 10(-7) or 10(-4)M SA on the water status of plants was examined in relation to the biosynthesis and accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) in order to reveal the role of SA in the subsequent response to salt stress. Both pre-treatments inhibited the K+(86Rb+) uptake of plants, reduced the K+ content of leaves, and caused a decrease in leaf water potential (psi(w)). Due to the changes in the cellular water status, SA triggered the accumulation of ABA. Since the decrease in psi(w) proved to be transient, the effect of SA on ABA synthesis may also develop via other mechanisms. In spite of osmotic adaptation, the application of 10(-4)M, but not 10(-7)M SA, led to prolonged ABA accumulation and to enhanced activity of aldehyde oxidase (AO1, EC.1.2.3.1.), an enzyme responsible for the conversion of ABA-aldehyde to ABA, both in root and leaf tissues. AO2-AO4 isoforms from the root extracts also exhibited increased activities. The fact that the activities of AO are significantly enhanced both in the leaves and roots of plants exposed to 10(-4)M SA, may indicate a positive feedback regulation of ABA synthesis by ABA in this system. Moreover, during a 100mM NaCl treatment, higher levels of free putrescine or spermine were found in these leaves or roots, respectively, than in the salt-stressed controls, suggesting that polyamines may be implicated in the protection response of the cells. As a result, Na+ could be transported to the leaf mesophyll cells without known symptoms of salt toxicity.

  4. Investigation of Intercellular Salicylic Acid Accumulation during Compatible and Incompatible Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae Interactions Using a Fast Neutron-Generated Mutant Allele of EDS5 Identified by Genetic Mapping and Whole-Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Catana, Vasile; Golding, Brian; Weretilnyk, Elizabeth A.; Cameron, Robin K.

    2014-01-01

    A whole-genome sequencing technique developed to identify fast neutron-induced deletion mutations revealed that iap1-1 is a new allele of EDS5 (eds5-5). RPS2-AvrRpt2-initiated effector-triggered immunity (ETI) was compromised in iap1-1/eds5-5 with respect to in planta bacterial levels and the hypersensitive response, while intra- and intercellular free salicylic acid (SA) accumulation was greatly reduced, suggesting that SA contributes as both an intracellular signaling molecule and an antimicrobial agent in the intercellular space during ETI. During the compatible interaction between wild-type Col-0 and virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), little intercellular free SA accumulated, which led to the hypothesis that Pst suppresses intercellular SA accumulation. When Col-0 was inoculated with a coronatine-deficient strain of Pst, high levels of intercellular SA accumulation were observed, suggesting that Pst suppresses intercellular SA accumulation using its phytotoxin coronatine. This work suggests that accumulation of SA in the intercellular space is an important component of basal/PAMP-triggered immunity as well as ETI to pathogens that colonize the intercellular space. PMID:24594657

  5. Drug interactions involving aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Miners, J O

    1989-11-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is metabolically converted to salicyclic acid by the action of carboxylesterases. Although metabolic drug interactions involving aspirin are theoretically possible, there appear to have been no studies to date which have shown conclusively that aspirin hydrolysis is altered by coadministered drugs. However, a number of treatments are known to affect the rate or extent of aspirin absorption, including activated charcoal, antacids, cholestyramine and metoclopramide. Caffeine and metoprolol have been reported to increase peak salicylic acid concentration following aspirin administration, and coadministration of dipyridamole and aspirin results in higher plasma aspirin concentrations. The mechanism(s) responsible for these latter observations remains unknown. Salicylic acid is extensively bound to plasma albumin, and many of the reported drug interactions involve displacement of the coadministered drug from plasma protein. Protein binding displacement appears to be the basis of salicylic acid interactions with diclofenac, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, isoxicam, ketoprofen, naproxen, phenytoin and tolmetin. Following displacement of these agents increased clearance of total drug occurs, and consequently the plasma concentration of total drug decreases. Although generally not measured, unbound concentration of the interacting drug should not be markedly altered. Salicylic acid also increases total plasma clearance of fenoprofen but, unlike the interactions with the other propionic acid non-steroidals, plasma protein binding displacement does not appear to be involved. Induction of fenoprofen metabolism is a possibility, although there is no firm evidence from other studies that salicylate is able to induce the metabolism of coadministered drugs. Since salicylic acid is extensively metabolised, it is not surprising that it is able to inhibit the metabolism of certain coadministered drugs and chemicals, an effect which has been reported for

  6. Effect of salicylic acid and structurally related compounds in the accumulation of phytoalexins in cotyledons of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Durango, Diego; Pulgarin, Natalia; Echeverri, Fernando; Escobar, Gustavo; Quiñones, Winston

    2013-09-02

    In the present work, isoflavonoid phytoalexin production in response to the application of salicylic acid in cotyledons of four common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars (SA) was evaluated. The time-course and dose-response profiles of the induction process were established by quantifying the isoflavonoids by HPLC. Cotyledons of anthracnose-resistant cultivars induced by SA produced substantially higher phytoalexin contents as compared to the susceptible ones. In addition, maximum levels of phytoalexins (50-100 fold increases) were reached between 96 and 144 h, and when a concentration of SA from 3.62 to 14.50 mM was used. The observations also indicate that there was a relatively good correlation between the phytoalexin contents and the inhibitory effect against C. lindemuthianum; the higher antifungal activity was observed during the first 48 hours for extracts from cotyledons treated with SA at 1.45 and 3.62 mM, and between 96 and 144 h after induction. Finally, compounds structurally related to SA (dihydro-quinazolinones and some imines) showed a strong elicitor effect. Moreover, induced extracts from cotyledons treated with these potential elicitors, besides the properly elicitors, displayed a weak to moderated antifungal activity. These compounds may be considered good candidates for developing of new phytoprotectants. Furthermore, phytoalexin-eliciting substances may contribute for selecting disease resistant cultivars.

  7. Arabidopsis leaf necrosis caused by simulated acid rain is related to the salicylic acid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngmi; Park, Jongbum; Im, Kyunghoan; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Jungwoo; Lee, Kyungyeoll; Park, Jung-An; Lee, Taek-Kyun; Park, Dae-Sup; Yang, Joo-Sung; Kim, Donggiun; Lee, Sukchan

    2006-01-01

    Arabidopsis leaves treated with simulated acid rain (SiAR) showed phenotypes similar to necrotic lesions caused by biotic stresses like Pseudomonad infiltration. Exposure of Arabidopsis to SiAR resulted in the up-regulation of genes known to be induced by the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated pathogen resistance response. The expression of enhanced disease susceptibility (EDS), nonexpressor of PR (NPR) and pathogen-related 1 (PR1), all of which are involved in the salicylic acid signaling pathway, were increased after SiAR exposure. However, vegetative storage protein (VSP), a member of the jasmonic acid pathway did not show a significant change in transcript level. SiAR treatment of transgenic plants expressing salicylate hydroxylase (Nah-G), which prevents the accumulation of salicylic acid, underwent more extensive necrosis than wild-type plants, indicating that the signaling pathway activated by SiAR may overlap with the SA-dependent, systemic acquired resistance pathway. Both Col-0 and Nah-G plants showed sensitivity to SiAR and sulfuric SiAR (S-SiAR) by developing necrotic lesions. Neither Col-0 plants nor Nah-G plants showed sensitivity to nitric SiAR (N-SiAR). These results suggest that SiAR activates at least the salicylic acid pathway and activation of this pathway is sensitive to sulfuric acid.

  8. Salicylic acid 3-hydroxylase regulates Arabidopsis leaf longevity by mediating salicylic acid catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kewei; Halitschke, Rayko; Yin, Changxi; Liu, Chang-Jun; Gan, Su-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays critical roles in plant defense, stress responses, and senescence. Although SA biosynthesis is well understood, the pathways by which SA is catabolized remain elusive. Here we report the identification and characterization of an SA 3-hydroxylase (S3H) involved in SA catabolism during leaf senescence. S3H is associated with senescence and is inducible by SA and is thus a key part of a negative feedback regulation system of SA levels during senescence. The enzyme converts SA (with a Km of 58.29 µM) to both 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA in vitro but only 2,3-DHBA in vivo. The s3h knockout mutants fail to produce 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates, accumulate very high levels of SA and its sugar conjugates, and exhibit a precocious senescence phenotype. Conversely, the gain-of-function lines contain high levels of 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates and extremely low levels of SA and its sugar conjugates and display a significantly extended leaf longevity. This research reveals an elegant SA catabolic mechanism by which plants regulate SA levels by converting it to 2,3-DHBA to prevent SA overaccumulation. The research also provides strong molecular genetic evidence for an important role of SA in regulating the onset and rate of leaf senescence. PMID:23959884

  9. Salicylic acid 3-hydroxylase regulates Arabidopsis leaf longevity by mediating salicylic acid catabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kewei; Halitschke, Rayko; Yin, Changxi; Liu, Chang-Jun; Gan, Su-Sheng

    2013-09-03

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays critical roles in plant defense, stress responses, and senescence. Although SA biosynthesis is well understood, the pathways by which SA is catabolized remain elusive. Here we report the identification and characterization of an SA 3-hydroxylase (S3H) involved in SA catabolism during leaf senescence. S3H is associated with senescence and is inducible by SA and is thus a key part of a negative feedback regulation system of SA levels during senescence. The enzyme converts SA (with a Km of 58.29 µM) to both 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA in vitro but only 2,3-DHBA in vivo. The s3h knockout mutants fail to produce 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates, accumulate very high levels of SA and its sugar conjugates, and exhibit a precocious senescence phenotype. Conversely, the gain-of-function lines contain high levels of 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates and extremely low levels of SA and its sugar conjugates and display a significantly extended leaf longevity. This research reveals an elegant SA catabolic mechanism by which plants regulate SA levels by converting it to 2,3-DHBA to prevent SA overaccumulation. The research also provides strong molecular genetic evidence for an important role of SA in regulating the onset and rate of leaf senescence.

  10. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in s...

  11. Salicylic acid content of spices and its implications.

    PubMed

    Paterson, John R; Srivastava, Rajeev; Baxter, Gwen J; Graham, Alan B; Lawrence, James R

    2006-04-19

    This work was done to determine the salicylate content of a variety of commonly used spices and to assess whether this potential dietary source of salicylate was bioavailable. Spices, Indian cooked dishes, and blood and urine samples taken after ingestion of a test meal were investigated for their salicylate content using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The serum salicylic acid concentrations in samples from villagers in southern India were also measured and have been compared with typical European values. Salicylic acid was determined in all spices (up to 1.5 wt %) and cooked dishes. The salicylate content of blood and urine was shown to increase following consumption of the meal, indicating that this dietary source of salicylic acid was bioavailable. Salicylic acid levels in the serum from rural Indians were significantly (median almost 3-fold) higher than values previously measured in Western vegetarians. Chemoprotective aspirin is rapidly hydrolyzed to salicylic acid, and this phytochemical may contribute to the low cancer incidence in rural India.

  12. Iron(III) and aluminium(III) complexes with substituted salicyl-aldehydes and salicylic acids.

    PubMed

    Nurchi, Valeria M; Crespo-Alonso, Miriam; Toso, Leonardo; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Crisponi, Guido; Alberti, Giancarla; Biesuz, Raffaela; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; Niclós-Gutíerrez, Juan; González-Pérez, Josefa M; Zoroddu, M Antonietta

    2013-11-01

    The chelating properties toward iron(III) and aluminium(III) of variously substituted salicyl-aldehydes and salicylic acids have been evaluated, together with the effect of methoxy and nitro substituents in ortho and para position with respect to the phenolic group. The protonation and iron and aluminium complex formation equilibria have been studied by potentiometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The overall results highlight that salicyl-aldehydes present good chelating properties toward iron(III), with pFe ranging from 14.2 with nitro to 15.7 with methoxy substituent, being ineffective toward aluminium; the pFe values for salicylic acids are generally lower than those for salicyl-aldehydes, and about 4 units higher than the corresponding pAl values. The effect of the two substituents on the chelating properties of the ligands can be rationalized in terms of the Swain-Lupton treatment which accounts for the field and resonance effects. The structural characterization of the 1:2 iron complex with p-nitro salicylic acid shows that iron(III) ion exhibits an octahedral surrounding where two salicylate chelating ligands supply two O-phenolate and two O-carboxylate donor atoms in a roughly equatorial plane. The trans-apical sites are occupied by two aqua ligands. © 2013.

  13. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Tasleem

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of salicylic acid as a desmolytic agent, because of its ability to disrupt cellular junctions rather than breaking or lysing intercellular keratin filaments, is now recognized and is discussed here. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent has a number of indications, including acne vulgaris, melasma, photodamage, freckles, and lentigines. The efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peeling in Fitzpatrick skin types I–III as well as in skin types V and VI have been well documented in the literature. This paper reviews the available data and literature on salicylic acid as a peeling agent and its possible indications. Its properties, efficacy and safety, the peeling procedure, and possible side effects are discussed in detail. An account of salicylism is also included. PMID:26347269

  14. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Arif, Tasleem

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of salicylic acid as a desmolytic agent, because of its ability to disrupt cellular junctions rather than breaking or lysing intercellular keratin filaments, is now recognized and is discussed here. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent has a number of indications, including acne vulgaris, melasma, photodamage, freckles, and lentigines. The efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peeling in Fitzpatrick skin types I-III as well as in skin types V and VI have been well documented in the literature. This paper reviews the available data and literature on salicylic acid as a peeling agent and its possible indications. Its properties, efficacy and safety, the peeling procedure, and possible side effects are discussed in detail. An account of salicylism is also included.

  15. Abscisic acid modulates salicylic acid biosynthesis for systemic acquired resistance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Kusajima, Miyuki; Okumura, Yasuko; Fujita, Moeka; Nakashita, Hideo

    2017-09-01

    Among the regulatory mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in tomato, antagonistic interaction between salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways was investigated. Treatment with 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one1,1-dioxide (BIT) induced SAR in tomato thorough SA biosynthesis. Pretreatment of ABA suppressed BIT-induced SAR including SA accumulation, suggesting that ABA suppressed SAR by inhibiting SA biosynthesis.

  16. Hydrogen Peroxide from the Oxidative Burst Is Neither Necessary Nor Sufficient for Hypersensitive Cell Death Induction, Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Stimulation, Salicylic Acid Accumulation, or Scopoletin Consumption in Cultured Tobacco Cells Treated with Elicitin

    PubMed Central

    Dorey, Stéphan; Kopp, Marguerite; Geoffroy, Pierrette; Fritig, Bernard; Kauffmann, Serge

    1999-01-01

    H2O2 from the oxidative burst, cell death, and defense responses such as the production of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), salicylic acid (SA), and scopoletin were analyzed in cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells treated with three proteinaceous elicitors: two elicitins (α-megaspermin and β-megaspermin) and one glycoprotein. These three proteins have been isolated from Phytophthora megasperma H20 and have been previously shown to be equally efficient in inducing a hypersensitive response (HR) upon infiltration into tobacco leaves. However, in cultured tobacco cells these elicitors exhibited strikingly different biological activities. β-Megaspermin was the only elicitor that caused cell death and induced a strong, biphasic H2O2 burst. Both elicitins stimulated PAL activity similarly and strongly, while the glycoprotein caused only a slight increase. Only elicitins induced SA accumulation and scopoletin consumption, and β-megaspermin was more efficient. To assess the role of H2O2 in HR cell death and defense response expression in elicitin-treated cells, a gain and loss of function strategy was used. Our results indicated that H2O2 was neither necessary nor sufficient for HR cell death, PAL activation, or SA accumulation, and that extracellular H2O2 was not a direct cause of intracellular scopoletin consumption. PMID:10482671

  17. Determination of benzoic acid and salicylic acid in commercial benzoic and salicylic acids ointments by spectrophotometric method.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iqbal; Vaid, Faiyaz Hm

    2009-01-01

    Commercial benzoic acid and salicylic acid ointments have been analyzed for benzoic acid and salicylic acid content by using a spectrophotometric method. Since benzoic acid and salicylic acid exhibit overlapping spectra, absorbance measurements are made at two wavelengths, i.e. 271 nm and 303 nm in ethanol (96%v/v) for simultaneous determination of the two compounds. The method is direct and involves only one step of absorbance measurement in the assay. The precision of the method, based on the analysis of synthetic mixtures of the two compounds, is within 2%. The recoveries of benzoic acid and salicylic acid in the ointments range from 99.9 to 100.6% and 99.5 to 101.3%, respectively and are comparable with those of the USP method (99.8 to 100.5% and 100.2 to 101.7%, respectively). The proposed method is simple, rapid, precise and convenient for the assay of benzoic acid and salicylic acid in commercial preparations.

  18. Development of Inhibitors of Salicylic Acid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kai; Kurimoto, Tetsuya; Seo, Eun-kyung; Miyazaki, Sho; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Asami, Tadao

    2015-08-19

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays important roles in the induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants. Determining the mechanism of SAR will extend our understanding of plant defenses against pathogens. We recently reported that PAMD is an inhibitor of SA signaling, which suppresses the expression of the pathogenesis-related PR genes and is expected to facilitate the understanding of SA signaling. However, PAMD strongly inhibits plant growth. To minimize the side effects of PAMD, we synthesized a number of PAMD derivatives, and identified compound 4 that strongly suppresses the expression of the PR genes with fewer adverse effects on plant growth than PAMD. We further showed that the adverse effects on plant growth were partially caused the stabilization of DELLA, which is also related to the pathogen responses. These results indicate that compound 4 would facilitate our understanding of SA signaling and its cross talk with other plant hormones.

  19. Effect of oral pretreatment with antibiotics on the hydrolysis of salicylic acid-tyrosine and salicylic acid-methionine prodrugs in rabbit intestinal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Kido, M; Nishida, K; Sasaki, H

    1992-09-01

    We examined the hydrolysis mechanism of salicylic acid-tyrosine (salicyl-tyrosine) and salicylic acid-methionine conjugate (salicyl-methionine) in rabbits by exploring their behavior following intraduodenal and intracecal administration (72 and 36 mumol/kg, respectively: salicylic acid equivalent). A large amount of salicyl-methionine was absorbed following intraduodenal administration of salicyl-methionine, without being metabolized to salicylic acid in the small intestinal mucosa. On the contrary, salicylic acid was detected in the blood following intraduodenal administration of salicyl-tyrosine, suggesting that salicyl-tyrosine was metabolized in the small intestinal mucosa. After oral pretreatment of rabbits with kanamycin sulfate (6 x 400 mg) or tinidazole (6 x 160 mg), the hydrolysis of salicyl-tyrosine and salicyl-methionine following intracecal administration was inhibited significantly, indicating that the intestinal microorganisms were responsible for the biotransformation of these prodrugs. Furthermore, in rabbits orally pretreated with both kanamycin sulfate and tinidazole, a significant inhibition of salicylic acid formation from salicyl-tyrosine and salicyl-methionine following intracecal administration was observed.

  20. Functional analysis of a tomato salicylic acid methyl transferase and its role in synthesis of the flavor volatile methyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Tieman, Denise; Zeigler, Michelle; Schmelz, Eric; Taylor, Mark G; Rushing, Sarah; Jones, Jeffrey B; Klee, Harry J

    2010-04-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile plant secondary metabolite that is an important contributor to taste and scent of many fruits and flowers. It is synthesized from salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone that contributes to plant pathogen defense. MeSA is synthesized by members of a family of O-methyltransferases. In order to elaborate the mechanism of MeSA synthesis in tomato, we screened a set of O-methyltransferases for activity against multiple substrates. An enzyme that specifically catalyzes methylation of SA, SlSAMT, as well as enzymes that act upon jasmonic acid and indole-3-acetic acid were identified. Analyses of transgenic over- and under-producing lines validated the function of SlSAMT in vivo. The SlSAMT gene was mapped to a position near the bottom of chromosome 9. Analysis of MeSA emissions from an introgression population derived from a cross with Solanum pennellii revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) linked to higher fruit methyl salicylate emissions. The higher MeSA emissions associate with significantly higher SpSAMT expression, consistent with SAMT gene expression being rate limiting for ripening-associated MeSA emissions. Transgenic plants that constitutively over-produce MeSA exhibited only slightly delayed symptom development following infection with the disease-causing bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv). Unexpectedly, pathogen-challenged leaves accumulated significantly higher levels of SA as well as glycosylated forms of SA and MeSA, indicating a disruption in control of the SA-related metabolite pool. Taken together, the results indicate that SlSAMT is critical for methyl salicylate synthesis and methyl salicylate, in turn, likely has an important role in controlling SA synthesis.

  1. Interactions of salicylic acid derivatives with calcite crystals.

    PubMed

    Ukrainczyk, Marko; Gredičak, Matija; Jerić, Ivanka; Kralj, Damir

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of basic interactions between the active pharmaceutical compounds and calcium carbonates is of great importance because of the possibility to use the carbonates as a mineral carrier in drug delivery systems. In this study the mode and extent of interactions of salicylic acid and its amino acid derivates, chosen as pharmaceutically relevant model compounds, with calcite crystals are described. Therefore, the crystal growth kinetics of well defined rhombohedral calcite seed crystals in the systems containing salicylic acid (SA), 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA), N-salicyloil-l-aspartic acid (N-Sal-Asp) or N-salicyloil-l-glutamic acid (N-Sal-Glu), were investigated. The precipitation systems were of relatively low initial supersaturation and of apparently neutral pH. The data on the crystal growth rate reductions in the presence of the applied salicylate molecules were analyzed by means of Cabrera & Vermileya's, and Kubota & Mullin's models of interactions of the dissolved additives and crystal surfaces. The crystal growth kinetic experiments were additionally supported with the appropriate electrokinetic, spectroscopic and adsorption measurements. The Langmuir adsorption constants were determined and they were found to be in a good correlation with values obtained from crystal growth kinetic analyses. The results indicated that salicylate molecules preferentially adsorb along the steps on the growing calcite surfaces. The values of average spacing between the adjacent salicylate adsorption active sites and the average distance between the neighboring adsorbed salicylate molecules were also estimated.

  2. Spectroscopic structural studies of salicylic acid, salicylamide and aspirin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shahawy, Anwar S.

    The electronic absorption spectra of the salicylic acid and the salicylamide molecules have been studied using SCF—CL calculations. The singlet and the triplet electronic transition energies have been calculated. The state functions of eight excited states for these molecules have been calculated in addition to the oscillator strengths, charge densities, ionization potentials and electron affinities. Our calculations lead to the presence of salicylic acid and salicylamide in the β-forms in which the carboxylic hydroxyl group or the amino group is directed toward the enolic hydroxyl group. The salicylic acid and the salicylamide molecules have the Cs point group symmetry, but the aspirin molecule has the C1 point group symmetry, in which the acetyl group does not lie in the plane of the salicylic acid molecule.

  3. Salicylic acid induces mitochondrial injury by inhibiting ferrochelatase heme biosynthesis activity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vipul; Liu, Shujie; Ando, Hideki; Ishii, Ryohei; Tateno, Shumpei; Kaneko, Yuki; Yugami, Masato; Sakamoto, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Nureki, Osamu; Handa, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Salicylic acid is a classic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Although salicylic acid also induces mitochondrial injury, the mechanism of its antimitochondrial activity is not well understood. In this study, by using a one-step affinity purification scheme with salicylic acid-immobilized beads, ferrochelatase (FECH), a homodimeric enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis in mitochondria, was identified as a new molecular target of salicylic acid. Moreover, the cocrystal structure of the FECH-salicylic acid complex was determined. Structural and biochemical studies showed that salicylic acid binds to the dimer interface of FECH in two possible orientations and inhibits its enzymatic activity. Mutational analysis confirmed that Trp301 and Leu311, hydrophobic amino acid residues located at the dimer interface, are directly involved in salicylic acid binding. On a gel filtration column, salicylic acid caused a shift in the elution profile of FECH, indicating that its conformational change is induced by salicylic acid binding. In cultured human cells, salicylic acid treatment or FECH knockdown inhibited heme synthesis, whereas salicylic acid did not exert its inhibitory effect in FECH knockdown cells. Concordantly, salicylic acid treatment or FECH knockdown inhibited heme synthesis in zebrafish embryos. Strikingly, the salicylic acid-induced effect in zebrafish was partially rescued by FECH overexpression. Taken together, these findings illustrate that FECH is responsible for salicylic acid-induced inhibition of heme synthesis, which may contribute to its antimitochondrial and anti-inflammatory function. This study establishes a novel aspect of the complex pharmacological effects of salicylic acid.

  4. Dissection of salicylic acid-mediated defense signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The small phenolic molecule salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant defense. Significant progress has been made recently in understanding SA-mediated defense signaling networks. Functional analysis of a large number of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and regulation of SA accumulation and signal transduction has revealed distinct but interconnecting pathways that orchestrate the control of plant defense. Further studies utilizing combinatorial approaches in genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry and genomics will uncover finer details of SA-mediated defense networks as well as further insights into the crosstalk of SA with other defense signaling pathways. The complexity of defense networks illustrates the capacity of plants to integrate multiple developmental and environmental signals into a tight control of the costly defense responses. PMID:19820324

  5. Salicylic acid: a link between aspirin, diet and the prevention of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Paterson, J R; Lawrence, J R

    2001-08-01

    Aspirin was introduced into clinical practice more than 100 years ago. This unique drug belongs to a family of compounds called the salicylates, the simplest of which is salicylic acid, the principal metabolite of aspirin. Salicylic acid is responsible for the anti-inflammatory action of aspirin, and may cause the reduced risk of colorectal cancer observed in those who take aspirin. Yet salicylic acid and other salicylates occur naturally in fruits and plants, while diets rich in these are believed to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Serum salicylic acid concentrations are greater in vegetarians than non-vegetarians, and there is overlap between concentrations in vegetarians and those taking low-dose aspirin. We propose that the cancer-preventive action of aspirin is due to its principal metabolite, salicylic acid, and that dietary salicylates can have the same effect. It is also possible that natural salicylates contribute to the other recognized benefits of a healthy diet.

  6. Effects of mixing procedure itself on the structure, viscosity, and spreadability of white petrolatum and salicylic acid ointment and the skin permeation of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Shuji; Fujiwara, Megumi; Okinaka, Yuta; Yutani, Reiko; Teraoka, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    White petrolatum is a mixture of solid and liquid hydrocarbons and its structure can be affected by shear stress. Thus, it might also induce changes in its rheological properties. In this study, we used polarization microscopy to investigate how different mixing methods affect the structure of white petrolatum. We used two different mixing methods, mixing using a rotation/revolution mixer and mixing using an ointment slab and an ointment spatula. The extent of the fragmentation and dispersal of the solid portion of white petrolatum depended on the mixing conditions. Next, we examined the changes in the structure of a salicylic acid ointment, in which white petrolatum was used as a base, induced by mixing and found that the salicylic acid solids within the ointment were also dispersed. In addition to these structural changes, the viscosity and thixotropic behavior of both test substances also decreased in a mixing condition-dependent manner. The reductions in these parameters were most marked after mixing with a rotation/revolution mixer, and similar results were obtained for spreadability. We also investigated the effects of mixing procedure on the skin accumulation and permeation of salicylic acid. They were increased by approximately three-fold after mixing. Little difference in skin accumulation or permeation was detected between the two mixing methods. These findings indicate that mixing procedures themselves affect the utility and physiological effects of white petrolatum-based ointments. Therefore, these effects should be considered when mixing is required for the clinical use of petrolatum-based ointments.

  7. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  8. Enzymatic Kolbe-Schmitt reaction to form salicylic acid from phenol: enzymatic characterization and gene identification of a novel enzyme, Trichosporon moniliiforme salicylic acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Kirimura, Kohtaro; Gunji, Hiroaki; Wakayama, Rumiko; Hattori, Takasumi; Ishii, Yoshitaka

    2010-04-02

    Salicylic acid decarboxylase (Sdc) can produce salicylic acid from phenol; it was found in the yeast Trichosporon moniliiforme WU-0401 and was for the first time enzymatically characterized, with the sdc gene heterologously expressed. Sdc catalyzed both reactions: decarboxylation of salicylic acid to phenol and the carboxylation of phenol to form salicylic acid without any byproducts. Both reactions were detected without the addition of any cofactors and occurred even in the presence of oxygen, suggesting that this Sdc is reversible, nonoxidative, and oxygen insensitive. Therefore, it is readily applicable in the selective production of salicylic acid from phenol, the enzymatic Kolbe-Schmitt reaction. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene, sdc, encoding Sdc comprises 350 amino acid residues corresponding to a 40-kDa protein. The recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) expressing sdc converted phenol to salicylic acid with a 27% (mol/mol) yield at 30 degrees C for 9h.

  9. Functional analysis of a tomato salicylic acid methyl transferase and its role in synthesis of the flavor volatile methyl salicylate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile plant secondary metabolite that is an important contributor to taste and scent of many fruits and flowers. It is synthesized from salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone that contributes to plant pathogen defense. MeSA is synthesized by members of a family of O-met...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is subject to reporting under this...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is subject to reporting under...

  15. Salicylic acid and heat acclimation pretreatment protects Laminaria japonica sporophyte (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You

    2010-07-01

    Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were recorded. Activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system was drastically affected by heat stress. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased while peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were greatly inhibited and, simultaneously, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was activated while polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was inhibited. Both heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous application of salicylic acid alleviated oxidative damage in kelp blades. Blades receiving heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous salicylic acid prior to heat stress exhibited a reduced increase in H2O2 and MDA content, and a lower reduction in chlorophyll a content. Pretreatment with heat acclimation and salicylic acid elevated activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GPX and PPO. Considering these results collectively, we speculate that the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes is a possible cause of the heat-stress-induced oxidative stress in L. japonica, and enhanced thermotolerance may be associated, at least in part, with the elevated activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system.

  16. Thermodynamics of cosolvent action: phenacetin, salicylic acid and probenecid.

    PubMed

    Peña, M A; Escalera, B; Reíllo, A; Sánchez, A B; Bustamante, P

    2009-03-01

    The solubility of phenacetin, salicylic acid, and probenecid in ethanol-water and ethanol-ethyl acetate mixtures at several temperatures (15-40 degrees C) was measured. The solubility profiles are related to medium polarity changes. The apparent thermodynamic magnitudes and enthalpy-entropy relationships are related to the cosolvent action. Salicylic acid and probenecid show a single peak against the solubility parameter delta(1) of both solvent mixtures, at 40% (delta(1) = 21.70 MPa(1/2)) and 30% (delta(1) = 20.91 MPa(1/2)) ethanol in ethyl acetate, respectively. Phenacetin displays two peaks at 60% ethanol in ethyl acetate (23.30 MPa(1/2)) and 90% ethanol in water (delta(1) = 28.64 MPa(1/2)). The apparent enthalpies of solution display a maximum at 30% (phenacetin and salicylic acid) and 40% (probenecid) ethanol in water, respectively. Two different mechanisms, entropy at low ethanol ratios, and enthalpy at high ethanol ratios control the solubility enhancement in the aqueous mixture. In the nonaqueous mixture (ethanol-ethyl acetate) enthalpy is the driving force throughout the whole solvent composition for salicylic acid and phenacetin. For probenecid, the dominant mechanism shifts from entropy to enthalpy as the ethanol in ethyl acetate concentration increases. The enthalpy-entropy compensation plots corroborate the different mechanisms involved in the solubility enhancement by cosolvents. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  17. Salicylic acid retention impairs aspirin reactivity in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haowen; Xie, Hao; Zheng, Xiao; Chai, Yingying; Tang, Zhiyuan; Chen, Hanyu; Li, Feiyan; Christoph, Heier; Chen, Jiandong; Sun, Weixin; Ye, Hui; Wang, Shiguang; Hao, Haiping; Chen, Xiaohu

    2017-01-05

    High on-aspirin platelet reactivity (HAPR) has been associated with compromised aspirin efficacy in patients with diabetes suffering from acute cardiovascular events, but the key mechanisms remain elusive. The objective of this study was to uncover the potential link between pathogenic accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), the major metabolite of aspirin, and HAPR in diabetic state. Aspirin failed to inhibit platelet CD62P expression and thromboxane (TX) B2/6-keto-prostaglandin(PG)F1α ratio in a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice model, particularly in the female, which were unanimously accompanied by significantly higher plasma SA concentrations. Pre-administration with SA increased both platelet CD62P expression and TXB2/6-keto-PGF1α ratio in female T2DM mice, while pretreatment with NaHCO3 caused the opposite effect. On the in vitro human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)-platelet interaction assay, SA suppressed inflammation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 upregulation on HUVECs and attenuated their inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. The prolonged retention of SA in diabetes may be partially explained by the downregulation of various SA efflux transporters in the kidney and the decreased urine pH. Importantly, in female aspirin non-responsive patients, the trough plasma concentration of SA are markedly increased with T2DM treated with long-term aspirin, and TXB2/6-keto-PGF1α ratio and uric acid level in plasma are positively correlated with SA concentration. Our findings support that the accumulation of SA represents an important factor in causing HAPR in diabetes, and that targeting impaired SA excretion may become a novel intervention strategy to diabetes-associated HAPR.

  18. The protective effect of salicylic acid on lysozyme against riboflavin-mediated photooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun; Wang, Hongbao; Cheng, Lingli; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Mei; Wang, Shi-Long

    2011-06-01

    As a metabolite of aspirin in vivo, salicylic acid was proved to protect lysozyme from riboflavin-mediated photooxidation in this study. The antioxidative properties of salicylic acid were further studied by using time-resolved laser flash photolysis of 355 nm. It can quench the triplet state of riboflavin via electron transfer from salicylic acid to the triplet state of riboflavin with a reaction constant of 2.25 × 10 9 M -1 s -1. Mechanism of antioxidant activities of salicylic acid on lysozyme oxidation was discussed. Salicylic acid can serve as a potential antioxidant to quench the triplet state of riboflavin and reduce oxidative pressure.

  19. Beyond plant defense: insights on the potential of salicylic and methylsalicylic acid to contain growth of the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Dieryckx, Cindy; Gaudin, Vanessa; Dupuy, Jean-William; Bonneu, Marc; Girard, Vincent; Job, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Using Botrytis cinerea we confirmed in the present work several previous studies showing that salicylic acid, a main plant hormone, inhibits fungal growth in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect was also observed for the two salicylic acid derivatives, methylsalicylic and acetylsalicylic acid. In marked contrast, 5-sulfosalicylic acid was totally inactive. Comparative proteomics from treated vs. control mycelia showed that both the intracellular and extracellular proteomes were affected in the presence of salicylic acid or methylsalicylic acid. These data suggest several mechanisms that could potentially account for the observed fungal growth inhibition, notably pH regulation, metal homeostasis, mitochondrial respiration, ROS accumulation and cell wall remodeling. The present observations support a role played by the phytohormone SA and derivatives in directly containing the pathogen. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002873. PMID:26528317

  20. Perception of the plant immune signal salicylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shunping; Dong, Xinnian

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a central role in plant innate immunity. The diverse functions of this simple phenolic compound suggest that plants may have multiple SA receptors. Several SA-binding proteins have been identified using biochemical approaches. However, genetic evidence supporting that they are the bona fide SA receptors has not been forthcoming. Mutant screens revealed that NPR1 is a master regulator of SA-mediated responses. Although NPR1 cannot bind SA in a conventional ligand-binding assay, its homologs NPR3 and NPR4 bind SA and function as SA receptors. During pathogen challenge, the SA gradient generated at the infection site is sensed by NPR3 and NPR4, which serve as the adaptors for the Cullin 3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase to regulate NPR1 degradation. Consequently, NPR1 is degraded at the infection site to remove its inhibition on effector-triggered cell death and defense, whereas NPR1 accumulates in neighboring cells to promote cell survival and SA-mediated resistance. PMID:24840293

  1. Perception of the plant immune signal salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shunping; Dong, Xinnian

    2014-08-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a central role in plant innate immunity. The diverse functions of this simple phenolic compound suggest that plants may have multiple SA receptors. Several SA-binding proteins have been identified using biochemical approaches. However, genetic evidence supporting that they are the bona fide SA receptors has not been forthcoming. Mutant screens revealed that NPR1 is a master regulator of SA-mediated responses. Although NPR1 cannot bind SA in a conventional ligand-binding assay, its homologs NPR3 and NPR4 bind SA and function as SA receptors. During pathogen challenge, the SA gradient generated at the infection site is sensed by NPR3 and NPR4, which serve as the adaptors for the Cullin 3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase to regulate NPR1 degradation. Consequently, NPR1 is degraded at the infection site to remove its inhibition on effector-triggered cell death and defense, whereas NPR1 accumulates in neighboring cells to promote cell survival and SA-mediated resistance.

  2. 1-Acetylpyrene-salicylic acid: photoresponsive fluorescent organic nanoparticles for the regulated release of a natural antimicrobial compound, salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Barman, Shrabani; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav K; Behara, Krishna Kalyani; Dey, Satyahari; Singh, N D Pradeep

    2014-05-28

    Photoresponsive 1-acetylpyrene-salicylic acid (AcPy-SA) nanoparticles (NPs) were developed for the regulated release of a natural antimicrobial compound, salicylic acid. The strong fluorescent properties of AcPy-SA NPs have been extensively used for potential in vitro cell imaging. The phototrigger capability of our newly prepared AcPy-SA NPs was utilized for the efficient release of an antimicrobial compound, salicylic acid. The photoregulated drug release of AcPy-SA NPs has been shown by the subsequent switching off and on of a visible-light source. In vitro biological studies reveal that AcPy-SA NPs of ∼68 nm size deliver the antimicrobial drug salicylic acid into the bacteria cells (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and efficiently kill the cells upon exposure to visible light (≥410 nm). Such photoresponsive fluorescent organic NPs will be highly beneficial for targeted and regulated antimicrobial drug release because of their biocompatible nature, efficient cellular uptake, and light-induced drug release ability.

  3. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2012-04-15

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 {mu}M SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid does

  4. AHL-priming functions via oxylipin and salicylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Sebastian T.; Schikora, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative action between the host plant and associated bacteria is crucial for the establishment of an efficient interaction. In bacteria, the synchronized behavior of a population is often achieved by a density-dependent communication called quorum sensing. This behavior is based on signaling molecules, which influence bacterial gene expression. N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are such molecules in many Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, some AHLs are responsible for the beneficial effect of bacteria on plants, for example the long chain N-3-oxo-tetradecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (oxo-C14-HSL) can prime Arabidopsis and barley plants for an enhanced defense. This AHL-induced resistance phenomenon, named AHL-priming, was observed in several independent laboratories during the last two decades. Very recently, the mechanism of priming with oxo-C14-HSL was shown to depend on an oxylipin and salicylic acid (SA). SA is a key element in plant defense, it accumulates during different plant resistance responses and is the base of systemic acquired resistance. In addition, SA itself can prime plants for an enhanced resistance against pathogen attack. On the other side, oxylipins, including jasmonic acid (JA) and related metabolites, are lipid-derived signaling compounds. Especially the oxidized fatty acid derivative cis-OPDA, which is the precursor of JA, is a newly described player in plant defense. Unlike the antagonistic effect of SA and JA in plant–microbe interactions, the recently described pathway functions through a synergistic effect of oxylipins and SA, and is independent of the JA signaling cascade. Interestingly, the oxo-C14-HSL-induced oxylipin/SA signaling pathway induces stomata defense responses and cell wall strengthening thus prevents pathogen invasion. In this review, we summarize the findings on AHL-priming and the related signaling cascade. In addition, we discuss the potential of AHL-induced resistance in new strategies of plant protection. PMID

  5. Salicylic acid in soups prepared from organically and non-organically grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Baxter, G J; Graham, A B; Lawrence, J R; Wiles, D; Paterson, J R

    2001-12-01

    Salicylic acid is a chemical signal in plants infected by pathogens and it is responsible for the anti-inflammatory action of aspirin. Patients who take aspirin have a reduced risk of developing atherosclerosis and colorectal cancer, both of these pathologies having an inflammatory component. Dietary salicylic acid may help to prevent these conditions. We wondered if foods made from organically-reared plants might have a higher content of salicylic acid than those made from non-organic plants, since the latter are more likely to be protected from infection by the application of pesticides. To determine if organic vegetable soups have a higher salicylic acid content than non-organic vegetable soups. The contents of salicylic acid in organic and non-organic vegetable soups purchased from supermarkets were determined. Salicylic acid was identified by varying the chromatographic conditions and comparing the retention times of the unknown substance in the extracts with salicylic acid; by treating extracts of the soups with salicylate hydroxylase; and by using GCMS. Salicylic acid was determined by using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Salicylic acid was present in all of the organic and most of the non-organic vegetable soups. The median contents of salicylic acid in the organic and non-organic vegetable soups were 117 (range, 8-1040) ng x g(-1) and 20 (range, 0-248) ng x g(-1) respectively. The organic soups had a significantly higher content of salicylic acid (p=0.0032 Mann Whitney U test), with a median difference of 59 ng g(-1) (95 % confidence interval, 18-117ng x g(-1)). Organic vegetable soups contained more salicylic acid than non-organic ones, suggesting that the vegetables and plants used to prepare them contained greater amounts of the phenolic acid than the corresponding non-organic ingredients. Consumption of organic foods may result in a greater intake of salicylic acid.

  6. Salicylic acid differently impacts ethylene and polyamine synthesis in the glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum and the wild-related halophyte Solanum chilense exposed to mild salt stress.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Emna; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Benahmed, Hela; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Lutts, Stanley; Quinet, Muriel

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) on the toxic effects of salt in relation to ethylene and polyamine synthesis, and to correlate these traits with the expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism in two tomato species differing in their sensitivity to salt stress, Solanum lycopersicum cv Ailsa Craig and its wild salt-resistant relative Solanum chilense. In S. chilense, treatment with 125 mM NaCl improved plant growth, increased production of ethylene, endogenous salicylic acid and spermine. The production was related to a modification of expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism. In contrast, salinity decreased plant growth in S. lycopersicum without affecting endogenous ethylene, salicylic or polyamine concentrations. Exogenous application of salicylic acid at 0.01 mM enhanced shoot growth in both species and affected ethylene and polyamine production in S. chilense. Concomitant application of NaCl and salicylic acid improved osmotic adjustment, thus suggesting that salt and SA may act in synergy on osmolyte synthesis. However, the beneficial impact of exogenous application of salicylic acid was mitigated by salt stress since NaCl impaired endogenous SA accumulation in the shoot and salicylic acid did not improve plant growth in salt-treated plants. Our results thus revealed that both species respond differently to salinity and that salicylic acid, ethylene and polyamine metabolisms are involved in salt resistance in S. chilense. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  7. Formulation of salicylate-based poly(anhydride-ester) microspheres for short- and long-term salicylic acid delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Ouimet, Michelle A.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    The formulation of salicylate-based poly(anhydride-ester) (PAE) microspheres was optimized by altering polymer concentration and homogenization speed to improve the overall morphology. The microspheres were prepared using three salicylate-based PAEs with different chemical compositions comprised of either a heteroatomic, linear aliphatic, or branched aliphatic moiety. These PAEs broadened the range of complete salicylic acid release to now include days, weeks and months. The molecular weight (Mw), polydispersity index (PDI) and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the formulated polymers were compared to the unformulated polymers. In general, the Mw and PDI exhibited decreased and increased values, respectively, after formulation, whereas the Tg changes did not follow a specific trend. Microsphere size and morphology were determined using scanning electron microscopy. These microspheres exhibited smooth surfaces, no aggregation, and size distributions ranging from 2-34 m in diameter. In vitro release studies of the chemically incorporated salicylic acid displayed widely tunable release profiles. PMID:23420391

  8. Concurrent release of admixed antimicrobials and salicylic acid from salicylate-based poly(anhydride-esters)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Michelle L.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2008-01-01

    A polymer blend consisting of antimicrobials (chlorhexidine, clindamycin, and minocycline) physically admixed at 10% by weight into a salicylic acid-based poly (anhydride-ester) (SA-based PAE) was developed as an adjunct treatment for periodontal disease. The SA-based PAE/antimicrobial blends were characterized by multiple methods, including contact angle measurements and differential scanning calorimetry. Static contact angle measurements showed no significant differences in hydrophobicity between the polymer and antimicrobial matrix surfaces. Notable decreases in the polymer glass transition temperature (Tg) and the antimicrobials' melting points (Tm) were observed indicating that the antimicrobials act as plasticizers within the polymer matrix. In vitro drug release of salicylic acid from the polymer matrix and for each physically admixed antimicrobial was concurrently monitored by high pressure liquid chromatography during the course of polymer degradation and erosion. Although the polymer/antimicrobial blends were immiscible, the initial 24 h of drug release correlated to the erosion profiles. The SA-based PAE/antimicrobial blends are being investigated as an improvement on current localized drug therapies used to treat periodontal disease. PMID:19180627

  9. Cross-linked, biodegradable, cytocompatible salicylic acid based polyesters for localized, sustained delivery of salicylic acid: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Chandorkar, Yashoda; Bhagat, Rajesh K; Madras, Giridhar; Basu, Bikramjit

    2014-03-10

    In order to suppress chronic inflammation while supporting cell proliferation, there has been a continuous surge toward development of polymers with the intention of delivering anti-inflammatory molecules in a sustained manner. In the above backdrop, we report the synthesis of a novel, stable, cross-linked polyester with salicylic acid (SA) incorporated in the polymeric backbone and propose a simple synthesis route by melt condensation. The as-synthesized polymer was hydrophobic with a glass transition temperature of 1 °C, which increases to 17 °C upon curing. The combination of NMR and FT-IR spectral techniques established the ester linkages in the as-synthesized SA-based polyester. The pH-dependent degradation rate and the rate of release of salicylic acid from the as-synthesized SA-based polymer were studied at physiological conditions in vitro. The polyester underwent surface erosion and exhibited linear degradation kinetics in which a change in degradation rate is observed after 4-10 days and 24% mass loss was recorded after 4 months at 37 °C and pH 7.4. The delivery of salicylic acid also showed a similar change in slopes, with a sustained release rate of 3.5% in 4 months. The cytocompatibility studies of these polyesters were carried out with C2C12 murine myoblast cells using techniques like MTT assay and flow cytometry. Our results strongly suggest that SA-based polyester supports cell proliferation for 3 days in culture and do not cause cell death (<7%), as quantified by propidium iodide (PI) stained cells. Hence, these polyesters can be used as implant materials for localized, sustained delivery of salicylic acid and have applications in adjuvant cancer therapy, chronic wound healing, and as an alternative to commercially available polymers like poly(lactic acid) and poly(glycolic acid) or their copolymers.

  10. Simultaneous determination of salicylic acid and salicylamide in biological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Pulgarín, J. A.; Alañón Molina, A.; Sánchez-Ferrer Robles, I.

    2011-09-01

    A new methodology for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid and salicylamide in biological fluids is proposed. The strong overlapping of the fluorescence spectra of both analytes makes impossible the conventional fluorimetric determination. For that reason, the use of fluorescence decay curves to resolve mixtures of analytes is proposed; this is a novel technique that provides the benefits in selectivity and sensitivity of the fluorescence decay curves. In order to assess the goodness of the proposed method, a prediction set of synthetic samples were analyzed obtaining recuperation percentages between 98.2 and 104.6%. Finally, a study of the detection limits was done using a new criterion resulting in values for the detection limits of 8.2 and 11.6 μg L -1 for salicylic acid and salicylamide respectively. The validity of the method was tested in human serum and human urine spiked with aliquots of the analytes. Recoveries obtained were 96.2 and 94.5% for salicylic acid and salicylamide respectively.

  11. Influence of gender and oral contraceptive steroids on the metabolism of salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Miners, J O; Grgurinovich, N; Whitehead, A G; Robson, R A; Birkett, D J

    1986-08-01

    Salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) disposition after an oral dose of aspirin, 900 mg (equivalent to 689.7 mg of salicylic acid) was studied in eight males, eight females and eight females receiving oral contraceptive steroids (OCS). Salicylic acid clearance was 61% higher in males compared to the control female group, an effect due largely to enhanced activity of the glycine conjugation pathway (salicyluric acid formation) in males. Salicylic acid clearance was 41% higher in OCS-users compared to the control female group due to increases in both the glycine and glucuronic acid conjugation pathways in the pill users. There was no difference in any salicylic acid disposition parameter between males and OCS-users. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and elimination half-life of aspirin was significantly greater and aspirin plasma hydrolysis rate was significantly lower in both female groups compared to males. There was no difference between OCS-users and the control female group in any of these parameters. Aspirin AUC and elimination half-life were significantly correlated with aspirin plasma hydrolysis rate. These data confirm the importance of hormonal factors in the regulation of drug conjugation reactions in humans and suggest that sex-related differences in salicylic acid and aspirin disposition may be of clinical importance.

  12. Radiation chemistry of salicylic and methyl substituted salicylic acids: Models for the radiation chemistry of pharmaceutical compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayatollahi, Shakiba; Kalnina, Daina; Song, Weihua; Turks, Maris; Cooper, William J.

    2013-11-01

    Salicylic acid and its derivatives are components of many medications and moieties found in numerous pharmaceutical compounds. They have been used as models for various pharmaceutical compounds in pharmacological studies, for the treatment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and, reactions with natural organic matter (NOM). In this study, the radiation chemistry of benzoic acid, salicylic acid and four methyl substituted salicylic acids (MSA) is reported. The absolute bimolecular reaction rate constants for hydroxyl radical reaction with benzoic and salicylic acids as well as 3-methyl-, 4-methyl-, 5-methyl-, and 6-methyl-salicylic acid were determined (5.86±0.54)×109, (1.07±0.07)×1010, (7.48±0.17)×109, (7.31±0.29)×109, (5.47±0.25)×109, (6.94±0.10)×109 (M-1 s-1), respectively. The hydrated electron reaction rate constants were measured (3.02±0.10)×109, (8.98±0.27)×109, (5.39±0.21)×109, (4.33±0.17)×109, (4.72±0.15)×109, (1.42±0.02)×109 (M-1 s-1), respectively. The transient absorption spectra for the six model compounds were examined and their role as model compounds for the radiation chemistry of pharmaceuticals investigated.

  13. Folic acid induces salicylic acid-dependent immunity in Arabidopsis and enhances susceptibility to Alternaria brassicicola.

    PubMed

    Wittek, Finni; Kanawati, Basem; Wenig, Marion; Hoffmann, Thomas; Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Schwab, Wilfried; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Vlot, A Corina

    2015-08-01

    Folates are essential for one-carbon transfer reactions in all organisms and contribute, for example, to de novo DNA synthesis. Here, we detected the folate precursors 7,8-dihydropteroate (DHP) and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) in extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana plants by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry. The accumulation of DHP, but not ADC, was induced after infection of plants with Pseudomonas syringae delivering the effector protein AvrRpm1. Application of folic acid or the DHP precursor 7,8-dihydroneopterin (DHN) enhanced resistance in Arabidopsis to P. syringae and elevated the transcript accumulation of the salicylic acid (SA) marker gene pathogenesis-related1 in both the treated and systemic untreated leaves. DHN- and folic acid-induced systemic resistance was dependent on SA biosynthesis and signalling. Similar to SA, folic acid application locally enhanced Arabidopsis susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Together, the data associate the folic acid pathway with innate immunity in Arabidopsis, simultaneously activating local and systemic SA-dependent resistance to P. syringae and suppressing local resistance to A. brassicicola.

  14. Synthetic nanoparticles of bovine serum albumin with entrapped salicylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Bronze-Uhle, ES; Costa, BC; Ximenes, VF; Lisboa-Filho, PN

    2017-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is highly water soluble and binds drugs or inorganic substances noncovalently for their effective delivery to various affected areas of the body. Due to the well-defined structure of the protein, containing charged amino acids, albumin nanoparticles (NPs) may allow electrostatic adsorption of negatively or positively charged molecules, such that substantial amounts of drug can be incorporated within the particle, due to different albumin-binding sites. During the synthesis procedure, pH changes significantly. This variation modifies the net charge on the surface of the protein, varying the size and behavior of NPs as the drug delivery system. In this study, the synthesis of BSA NPs, by a desolvation process, was studied with salicylic acid (SA) as the active agent. SA and salicylates are components of various plants and have been used for medication with anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal properties. However, when administered orally to adults (usual dose provided by the manufacturer), there is 50% decomposition of salicylates. Thus, there has been a search for some time to develop new systems to improve the bioavailability of SA and salicylates in the human body. Taking this into account, during synthesis, the pH was varied (5.4, 7.4, and 9) to evaluate its influence on the size and release of SA of the formed NPs. The samples were analyzed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. Through fluorescence, it was possible to analyze the release of SA in vitro in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The results of chemical morphology characterization and in vitro release studies indicated the potential use of these NPs as drug carriers in biological systems requiring a fast release of SA. PMID:28096662

  15. Effect of salicylic acid on morphological and biochemical attributes in cowpea.

    PubMed

    Chandra, A; Anand, A; Dubey, A

    2007-04-01

    Effects of salicylic acid (SA) on seed germination, seedling growth, flowering and biochemical activities were studied out in four cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes in control environments. The results revealed that both germination and seedling growth were negatively affected by 0.02%. SA application, however did not affect the size of full expanded buds, time of 50% flowering and date of flower initiation. A maximum increase in peroxidase (EC1.11.1.7) activity was observed in UPC 4200 over other genotypes. No significant change in the content of total soluble and intercellular fluid proteins was observed except in UPC 4200 genotype. SA induced accumulation of total soluble sugars more at flowering stage than at seed setting stage. It is evident from the present study that UPC 4200 genotype was more responsive to salicylic acid both in terms of increased peroxidase activity and less negative effect on morphological attributes, thus suggesting its wider use without negative impact on environment as salicylic acid has been reported in plants.

  16. Untargeted metabolomics analysis reveals dynamic changes in azelaic acid- and salicylic acid derivatives in LPS-treated Nicotiana tabacum cells.

    PubMed

    Mhlongo, M I; Tugizimana, F; Piater, L A; Steenkamp, P A; Madala, N E; Dubery, I A

    2017-01-22

    To counteract biotic stress factors, plants employ multilayered defense mechanisms responsive to pathogen-derived elicitor molecules, and regulated by different phytohormones and signaling molecules. Here, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecule, was used to induce defense responses in Nicotiana tabacum cell suspensions. Intracellular metabolites were extracted with methanol and analyzed using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-qTOF-MS/MS) platform. The generated data were processed and examined with multivariate and univariate statistical tools. The results show time-dependent dynamic changes and accumulation of glycosylated signaling molecules, specifically those of azelaic acid, salicylic acid and methyl-salicylate as contributors to the altered metabolomic state in LPS-treated cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 μM of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Interactive Effects of Jasmonic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Gibberellin on Induction of Trichomes in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Traw, M. Brian; Bergelson, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Leaf trichomes protect plants from attack by insect herbivores and are often induced following damage. Hormonal regulation of this plant induction response has not been previously studied. In a series of experiments, we addressed the effects of artificial damage, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and gibberellin on induction of trichomes in Arabidopsis. Artificial damage and jasmonic acid caused significant increases in trichome production of leaves. The jar1-1 mutant exhibited normal trichome induction following treatment with jasmonic acid, suggesting that adenylation of jasmonic acid is not necessary. Salicylic acid had a negative effect on trichome production and consistently reduced the effect of jasmonic acid, suggesting negative cross-talk between the jasmonate and salicylate-dependent defense pathways. Interestingly, the effect of salicylic acid persisted in the nim1-1 mutant, suggesting that the Npr1/Nim1 gene is not downstream of salicylic acid in the negative regulation of trichome production. Last, we found that gibberellin and jasmonic acid had a synergistic effect on the induction of trichomes, suggesting important interactions between these two compounds. PMID:14551332

  19. Pericarp browning and quality management of litchi fruit by antioxidants and salicylic acid during ambient storage.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Mishra, Daya Shankar; Chakraborty, Binayak; Kumar, Prabhat

    2013-08-01

    Different antioxidants and salicylic acid were tested to overcome pericarp browning and to maintain the postharvest quality of the litchi fruits at ambient storage. It was found that 0.5% salicylic acid, 1% isoascorbic acid and 1% N-acetyl cysteine performed better over sulphur dioxide (SO2) fumigation for most of the parameters under study. Application of 0.5% salicylic acid found superior to reduce the pericarp browning, relative leakage rate, and decay percentage. It was effective in reduction of polyphenol oxidase activity and improvement of anthocyanin pigments of the fruit pericarp over other treatments. Total soluble solid, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid of the litchi fruits were recorded highest with the application of 1% isoascorbic acid followed by 0.5% salicylic acid treatment. Therefore, 0.5% salicylic acid and 1% isoascorbic could be used as an alternative of SO2 fumigation for quality retention of litchi fruits.

  20. Further studies on the hydrolysis of salicyluric acid in intestinal microorganisms and prolonged blood concentration of salicylic acid following rectal administration of salicyluric acid in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Shiota, H; Haraguchi, Y; Sasaki, H; Shibasaki, J

    1988-01-01

    The blood concentrations of salicyluric acid and salicylic acid following intracecal and rectal administration of salicyluric acid were determined in rabbits. Immediate and very extensive salicylic acid formation in the cecum was found following intracecal administration. After rectal administration, a small amount of salicyluric acid was absorbed in intact form. The rest was rapidly hydrolyzed to salicylic acid, which was subsequently absorbed. The blood concentration of salicylic acid was maintained at 1.3-1.8 micrograms/ml from 2 to 12 h. Three doses of salicyluric acid were administered rectally. The peak level of salicyluric acid increased with dose. However, salicylic acid concentration in the blood following administration of salicyluric acid at 10.0 mg/kg (salicylic acid equivalent) was not double that observed following administration of salicyluric acid at 5.0 mg/kg (salicylic acid equivalent). It appears that a larger amount of salicyluric acid in the rectal lumen may have saturated the glycine deconjugation system.

  1. Analysis of Valproic Acid, Salicylic Acid and Ibuprofen in Whole Blood by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Jon B; Flater, Melanie L; Bain, Lisa T

    2016-10-01

    The Georgia Bureau of Investigation utilized a silylation method of analysis for low molecular weight carboxylic acids in the past. Due to the negative impact such derivatizations can have on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) systems an alternative means of analysis was investigated. The described method is a whole blood solid phase extraction of valproic acid, salicylic acid and ibuprofen utilizing butylation for sensitivity and improved chromatography by GC-MS. The method produced a limit of detection and limit of quantitation at 1 mg/L for valproic acid, 2 mg/L for salicylic acid and 0.25 mg/L for ibuprofen. The variability based upon the middle of the calibration curve estimated to be 7% for valproic acid, 8% for salicylic acid and 11% for ibuprofen established upon a 95% confidence interval, with the highest percent coefficient of variation being 5.3% for ibuprofen.

  2. Effect of foliar-applied salicylic acid on cotton flowering, boll retention, and yield

    Treesearch

    J.J. Heitholt; J.H. Schmidt; Joseph E. Mulrooney

    2001-01-01

    Salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid) may help regulate several plant functions, including systemic acquired resistance to pathogens and the formation of flowers. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of foliar-applied salicylic acid on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) flowering, boll retention, and yield. Field experiments were...

  3. Salicylic acid promotes seed germination under high salinity by modulating antioxidant activity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Park, Chung-Mo

    2010-10-01

    • Findings regarding the role of salicylic acid (SA) in seed germination are somewhat variable, depending on the plant genotypes and experimental conditions used, and thus the molecular mechanisms underlying SA regulation of germination are still unclear. Here, we report that physiological concentrations of SA promote germination under high salinity by modulating antioxidant activity in Arabidopsis. • Germination of SA induction deficient 2 (sid2) seeds was hypersensitive to high salinity. While the inhibitory effect of high salinity was exaggerated in the presence of higher concentrations of SA (> 100 μM), it was significantly reduced in the presence of lower concentrations of SA (< 50 μM). Under high salinity, the endogenous contents of H(2) O(2) were elevated in wild-type and sid2 seeds but reduced to original concentrations after treatment with 1 μM SA. • Germination of NahG transgenic plants was influenced to a lesser degree by high salinity (NahG is a bacterial gene encoding salicylate hydroxylase that converts salicylic acid to catechol). We found that catechol, an SA degradation product accumulated in the transgenic plants, acts as an antioxidant that compromises the inhibitory effects of high salinity. • Our observations indicate that, although SA is not essential for germination under normal growth conditions, it plays a promotive role in seed germination under high salinity by reducing oxidative damage.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Fatty Acid Conjugates of Niacin and Salicylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Vu, Chi B; Bemis, Jean E; Benson, Ericka; Bista, Pradeep; Carney, David; Fahrner, Richard; Lee, Diana; Liu, Feng; Lonkar, Pallavi; Milne, Jill C; Nichols, Andrew J; Picarella, Dominic; Shoelson, Adam; Smith, Jesse; Ting, Amal; Wensley, Allison; Yeager, Maisy; Zimmer, Michael; Jirousek, Michael R

    2016-02-11

    This report describes the synthesis and preliminary biological characterization of novel fatty acid niacin conjugates and fatty acid salicylate conjugates. These molecular entities were created by covalently linking two bioactive molecules, either niacin or salicylic acid, to an omega-3 fatty acid. This methodology allows the simultaneous intracellular delivery of two bioactives in order to elicit a pharmacological response that could not be replicated by administering the bioactives individually or in combination. The fatty acid niacin conjugate 5 has been shown to be an inhibitor of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), a key regulator of cholesterol metabolism proteins such as PCSK9, HMG-CoA reductase, ATP citrate lyase, and NPC1L1. On the other hand, the fatty acid salicylate conjugate 11 has been shown to have a unique anti-inflammatory profile based on its ability to modulate the NF-κB pathway through the intracellular release of the two bioactives.

  5. Kinetic and safety assessment for salicylic acid nitration by nitric acid/acetic acid system.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, R; Caprio, V; Di Somma, I; Sanchirico, R

    2006-06-30

    The nitration process of salicylic acid for the production of the important intermediate 5-nitrosalicylic acid is studied from thermokinetic and safety points of view. Investigations carried out by considering, as process deviations, the loss of the thermal control point out the possibility of runaway phenomena due to the occurrence of polynitration reactions. Isothermal experiments are carried out in various conditions to assess the involved reaction network and reaction kinetics.

  6. PeaT1-induced systemic acquired resistance in tobacco follows salicylic acid-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Xiufen; Qiu, Dewen; Guo, Lihua; Zeng, Hongmei; Mao, Jianjun; Gao, Qiufeng

    2011-04-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an inducible defense mechanism which plays a central role in protecting plants from pathogen attack. A new elicitor, PeaT1 from Alternaria tenuissima, was expressed in Escherichia coil and characterized with systemic acquired resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). PeaT1-treated plants exhibited enhanced systemic resistance with a significant reduction in number and size of TMV lesions on wild tobacco leaves as compared with control. The quantitative analysis of TMV CP gene expression with real-time quantitative PCR showed there was reduction in TMV virus concentration after PeaT1 treatment. Similarly, peroxidase (POD) activity and lignin increased significantly after PeaT1 treatment. The real-time quantitative PCR revealed that PeaT1 also induced the systemic accumulation of pathogenesis-related gene, PR-1a and PR-1b which are the markers of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), NPR1 gene for salicylic acid (SA) signal transduction pathway and PAL gene for SA synthesis. The accumulation of SA and the failure in development of similar level of resistance as in wild type tobacco plants in PeaT1 treated nahG transgenic tobacco plants indicated that PeaT1-induced resistance depended on SA accumulation. The present work suggested that the molecular mechanism of PeaT1 inducing disease resistance in tobacco was likely through the systemic acquired resistance pathway mediated by salicylic acid and the NPR1 gene.

  7. Postharvest chitosan-g-salicylic acid application alleviates chilling injury and preserves cucumber fruit quality during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youzuo; Zhang, Meiling; Yang, Huqing

    2015-05-01

    The effect of salicylic acid with and without chitosan, or a chitosan-g-salicylic acid complex, on chilling injury and post-harvest quality of cucumber stored at 2 °C for 12 days plus 2 days at 20 °C was investigated. The results showed the chitosan-g-salicylic acid coating inhibited chilling injury better than salicylic acid alone or with chitosan. Chitosan-g-salicylic acid also reduced weight loss and respiration rate, limited increases in malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage, and maintained higher total soluble solids, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content. Furthermore, this coating increased the endogenous salicylic acid concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cucumber during storage. Our study suggests that chitosan-g-salicylic acid alleviated chilling injury in cucumber through sustained-release of salicylic acid and the higher antioxidant enzymes concentrations.

  8. [Distribution of salicylic acid and hydrolysis of acetylsalicylic acid in the human fetus in early pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Amon, I; Zschiesche, A; Amon, K

    1983-01-01

    The materno-fetal transfer of salicylic acid and its distribution in the fetal organism was investigated in women of early pregnancy. Acetylsalicylic acid (Acesal) was administered orally in a single dose or in repeated doses at different times before legal interruption. The mean passage rates were about 6-15%. They were independent of the maternal serum concentrations of salicylic acid. The distribution of salicylic acid on the fetal liver, intestine, kidneys, lungs and brain was different. All fetal organs (9th to 15th week of gestation) studied exhibit an acetylsalicylic acid-splitting esterase activity. The esterase activity of the fetal liver was about 30% of the hydrolytic activity of the adult liver. The esterase activity was mainly located in the 105 000 X g-supernatant of cell homogenates.

  9. A rapid biosensor-based method for quantification of free and glucose-conjugated salicylic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signalling molecule in plant defenses against biotrophic pathogens. It is also involved in several other processes such as heat production, flowering, and germination. SA exists in the plant as free SA and as an inert glucose conjugate (salicylic acid 2-O-ß-D-...

  10. Ethylene-dependent salicylic acid regulates an expanded cell death response to a plant pathogen.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, P J; Jones, J B; Antoine, F R; Ciardi, J; Klee, H J

    2001-02-01

    The molecular events associated with susceptible plant responses to disease-causing organisms are not well understood. We have previously shown that ethylene-insensitive tomato plants infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria have greatly reduced disease symptoms relative to wild-type cultivars. Here we show that salicylic acid (SA) is also an important component of the susceptible disease response. SA accumulates in infected wild-type tissues and is correlated with necrosis but does not accumulate in ethylene-insensitive plants. Exogenous feeding of SA to ethylene-deficient plants restores necrosis, indicating that reduced disease symptoms are associated with failure to accumulate SA. These results indicate a mechanism for co-ordination of phytohormone signals that together constitute a susceptible response to pathogens.

  11. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of salicylic acid and its metabolites in urine by direct injection.

    PubMed

    Mallikaarjun, S; Wood, J H; Karnes, H T

    1989-08-25

    A direct injection method has been developed for the determination of salicylic acid and its metabolites in urine. Urine samples are treated with hydroxylamine to convert salicyl acyl glucuronide to salicylhydroxamic acid, which can be accurately quantitated by direct injection into a high-performance liquid chromatographic system along with salicylic acid, gentisic acid and salicyluric acid. Salicyl phenolic glucuronide is quantitated by difference after hydrochloric acid hydrolysis at 65 degrees C with no loss of salicylic acid by sublimation or hydrolytic loss of salicyluric acid. This method has been applied to urine samples from human subjects and the results are discussed.

  12. Aluminum Chloride Hexahydrate in a Salicylic Acid Gel

    PubMed Central

    Valins, Whitney

    2009-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a common dermatological condition that has a tremendous impact on the quality of life of affected patients. Aluminum chloride hexahydrate is considered first-line therapy for patients with mild-to-moderate hyperhidrosis. This treatment has been proven to be effective in the treatment of hyperhidrosis; however, its use has been limited by significant irritation. In many patients, the irritant dermatitis is so severe that, despite clinical efficacy, this therapy must be discontinued. There are many topical aluminum chloride therapies available. Observations from a busy hyperhidrosis practice revealed decreased irritation and increased efficacy with a novel therapy that combines 15% aluminum chloride hexahydrate with 2% salicylic acid in a gel base. This combination of 15% aluminum chloride hexahydrate with 2% salicylic acid offers patients who have failed aluminum chloride hexahydrate in the past excellent efficacy with minimal irritation. We report seven cases of patients with a history of severe irritation from aluminum chloride who maintained excellent results with this new topical without any significant irritation. PMID:20729946

  13. Identification of genes regulated by UV/salicylic acid.

    SciTech Connect

    Paunesku, T.; Chang-Liu, C.-M.; Shearin-Jones, P.; Watson, C.; Milton, J.; Oryhon, J.; Salbego, D.; Milosavljevic, A.; Woloschak, G. E.; CuraGen Corp.

    2000-02-01

    Purpose : Previous work from the authors' group and others has demonstrated that some of the effects of UV irradiation on gene expression are modulated in response to the addition of salicylic acid to irradiated cells. The presumed effector molecule responsible for this modulation is NF-kappaB. In the experiments described here, differential-display RT-PCR was used to identify those cDNAs that are differentially modulated by UV radiation with and without the addition of salicylic acid. Materials and methods : Differential-display RT-PCR was used to identify differentially expressed genes. Results : Eight such cDNAs are presented: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-beta), nuclear encoded mitochondrial NADH ubiquinone reductase 24kDa (NDUFV2), elongation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B), nuclear dots protein SP100, nuclear encoded mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor (IF1), a cDNA similar to a subunit of yeast CCAAT transcription factor HAP5, and two expressed sequence tags (AA187906 and AA513156). Conclusions : Sequences of four of these genes contained NF-kappaB DNA binding sites of the type that may attract transrepressor p55/p55 NF-kappaB homodimers. Down-regulation of these genes upon UV irradiation may contribute to increased cell survival via suppression of p53 independent apoptosis.

  14. Simultaneous determination of salicylic, 3-methyl salicylic, 4-methyl salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in fruit, vegetables and derived beverages by SPME-LC-UV/DAD.

    PubMed

    Aresta, Antonella; Zambonin, Carlo

    2016-03-20

    Salicylic and benzoic acid are phenolic acids occurring in plant cells, thus they can be present in fruit and vegetables at various levels. They possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, however they may induce symptoms and health problems in a small percentage of the population. Therefore, a low phenolic acid diet may be of clinical benefit to such individuals. In order to achieve this goal, the concentration of these substances in different food and beverages should be assessed. The present work describes for the first time a new method, based on solid phase microextraction (polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber) coupled to liquid chromatography with UV diode array detection, for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, 3-methyl salicylic acid, 4-methyl salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid and benzoic acid in selected fruit, vegetables and beverages. All the aspects influencing fiber adsorption (time, temperature, pH, salt addition) and desorption (desorption and injection time, desorption solvent mixture composition) of the analytes have been investigated. An isocratic separation was performed using an acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 2.8; 2 mM) mixture (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase. The estimated LOD and LOQ values (μg/mL) were in the range 0.002-0.028 and 0.007-0.095. The within-day and day-to-day precision values (RSD%) were between 4.7-6.1 and 6.6-9.4, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of fava beans, blueberries, kiwi, tangerines, lemons, oranges and fruit juice (lemon and blueberry) samples. The major advantage of the method is that it only requires simple homogenization and/or centrifugation and dilution steps prior to SPME and injection in the LC system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of topical petrolatum and salicylic acid upon skin photoreaction to UVA.

    PubMed

    Birgin, Bahar; Fetil, Emel; Ilknur, Turna; Tahsin Güneş, Ali; Ozkan, Sebnem

    2005-01-01

    Various agents which can be used in combination can also interfere with phototherapy. In this study, the effects of topical petrolatum and 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum upon skin photoreaction to UVA were investigated, in an in vivo test. Minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) test was performed on 31 volunteers and the test was repeated with thin (0.1 cc/25 cm(2)) petrolatum, thick (0.3 cc/25 cm(2)) petrolatum, thin 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum, thick 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum and sunscreen. The effect of each agent on MPD was investigated. MPD was increased with thin and thick applications of all agents. Also, MPD was increased with 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum when compared with pure petrolatum, in the same thickness. The application of petrolatum and salicylic acid in petrolatum just before PUVA therapy is not recommended because of their blocking effects.

  16. Effect of Salicylic Acid on the Membrane Proteome and Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Bandara, Mahesh; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Zhu, Hua; Hume, Emma; Willcox, Mark

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of salicylic acid on the membrane proteome, sensitivity to antibiotics, and production of microbial keratitis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa 6294 was grown in the presence or absence of 30 mM salicylic acid. Bacterial membrane proteins were extracted in carbonate buffer, separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of various antibiotics was determined using P. aeruginosa 6294 grown in presence or absence of salicylic acid. The scratch mouse model of microbial keratitis was used to determine whether treatment with 30 mM salicylic acid could improve the outcome of infection. Growth in salicylic acid altered the membrane proteome of P. aeruginosa 6294. Eighteen proteins, including OprF, OprD, MexA, OprG, PilQ, and flagellin-type A protein, were downregulated, six proteins, including OprM and OprB, were upregulated, and nine proteins were unaffected by growth in salicylic acid. Growth in salicylic acid slightly increased the resistance to carbapenem antibiotics but did not affect MICs of the other antibiotics tested. Salicylic acid treatment significantly reduced the clinical score of eyes and bacterial load in eyes during microbial keratitis but had no effect on numbers of infiltrating neutrophils. Salicylic acid altered the membrane proteins of P. aeruginosa, slightly increased the resistance of the bacterium to carbapenem antibiotics only, and was able to reduce the pathogenicity associated with P. aeruginosa infection of mouse corneas. Salicylic acid may be useful as an antimicrobial agent in the treatment of Pseudomonas keratitis.

  17. Use of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid to inhibit growth of sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are endogenous plant hormones that induce native plant defense responses and provide protection against a wide range of diseases. Previously, JA, applied after harvest, was shown to protect sugarbeet roots against the storage pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, P...

  18. Determination of salicylic acid by HPLC in plasma and saliva from children with juvenile chronic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Legaz, M E; Acitores, E; Valverde, F

    1992-12-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for measuring salicylic acid in the plasma and saliva of children with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). Samples were extracted with diethyl ether and, after drying, redissolved in methanol to be chromatographed. Quantitation of salicylic acid was performed by reverse phase HPLC on a spherisorb ODS-2 column, using methanol: water: acetic acid as mobile phase. Phenolic was monitored by absorbance at 237 nm. Linearity between the amount of mass injected and the response in the detector was determined. This method was applied to compare concentrations of salivary and plasma salicylic acid. The method also permitted the quantitation of salivary salicylate as a non-invasive, indirect method for monitoring the concentration of plasma salicylate in patients with JCA.

  19. Antibiotic effect of exogenously applied salicylic acid on in vitro soilborne pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.niveum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong-Sheng; Raza, Waseem; Fan, Jia-Qin; Sun, Yong-Gang; Bao, Wei; Liu, Dong-Yang; Huang, Qi-Wei; Mao, Ze-Sheng; Shen, Qi-Rong; Miao, Wei-Guo

    2008-12-01

    Salicylic acid, which is biosynthesized inside plant and is often found and accumulated in soil due to plant debris decaying, is considered as a signaling substance during plant-microbe interactions. It is involved in the cycling of biogeochemistry and related to plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. The antibiotic effect of salicylic acid on Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.niveum (FON) was studied to investigate the relationships between the salicylic acid and the fungus in the ecological interaction of plant-microbe. Results showed that the biomass, colony diameter, number of conidium germination and conidium production of FON were decreased by 52.0%, 25.7%, 100% and 100% at concentrations of 800 mg L(-1). However, mycotoxin yield was increased by 233%, pectinase activity raised by 168.0% and cellulase activity increased by 1325% compared to control at higher concentrations. It was concluded that salicylic acid as an allelochemical greatly inhibited FON growth and conidia formation and germination, though stimulated mycotoxin production and activities of hydrolytic enzymes by FON.

  20. Salicylic Acid Induction of Flavonoid Biosynthesis Pathways in Wheat Varies by Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gondor, Orsolya K; Janda, Tibor; Soós, Vilmos; Pál, Magda; Majláth, Imre; Adak, Malay K; Balázs, Ervin; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid is a promising compound for the reduction of stress sensitivity in plants. Although several biochemical and physiological changes have been described in plants treated with salicylic acid, the mode of action of the various treatments has not yet been clarified. The present work reports a detailed comparative study on the effects of different modes of salicylic acid application at the physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic levels. Seed soaking and hydroponic treatments were found to induce various changes in the protective mechanisms of wheat plants. The possible involvement of the flavonoid metabolism in salicylic acid-related stress signaling was also demonstrated. Different salicylic acid treatments were shown to induce different physiological and biochemical processes, with varying responses in the leaves and roots. Hydroponic treatment enhanced the level of oxidative stress, the expression of genes involved in the flavonoid metabolism and the amount of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds, namely ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and the flavonol quercetin in the leaves, while it decreased the ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and flavonol contents and enhanced ascorbate peroxidase activity in the roots. In contrast, seed soaking only elevated the gene expression level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots and caused a slight increase in the amount of flavonols. These results draw attention to the fact that the effects of exogenous salicylic acid application cannot be generalized in different experimental systems and that the flavonoid metabolism may be an important part of the action mechanisms induced by salicylic acid.

  1. Salicylic Acid Induction of Flavonoid Biosynthesis Pathways in Wheat Varies by Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gondor, Orsolya K.; Janda, Tibor; Soós, Vilmos; Pál, Magda; Majláth, Imre; Adak, Malay K.; Balázs, Ervin; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid is a promising compound for the reduction of stress sensitivity in plants. Although several biochemical and physiological changes have been described in plants treated with salicylic acid, the mode of action of the various treatments has not yet been clarified. The present work reports a detailed comparative study on the effects of different modes of salicylic acid application at the physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic levels. Seed soaking and hydroponic treatments were found to induce various changes in the protective mechanisms of wheat plants. The possible involvement of the flavonoid metabolism in salicylic acid-related stress signaling was also demonstrated. Different salicylic acid treatments were shown to induce different physiological and biochemical processes, with varying responses in the leaves and roots. Hydroponic treatment enhanced the level of oxidative stress, the expression of genes involved in the flavonoid metabolism and the amount of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds, namely ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and the flavonol quercetin in the leaves, while it decreased the ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and flavonol contents and enhanced ascorbate peroxidase activity in the roots. In contrast, seed soaking only elevated the gene expression level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots and caused a slight increase in the amount of flavonols. These results draw attention to the fact that the effects of exogenous salicylic acid application cannot be generalized in different experimental systems and that the flavonoid metabolism may be an important part of the action mechanisms induced by salicylic acid. PMID:27733857

  2. A GC-ECD method for estimation of free and bound amino acids, gamma-aminobutyric acid, salicylic acid, and acetyl salicylic acid from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).

    PubMed

    Meher, Hari Charan; Gajbhiye, Vijay T; Singh, Ghanendra

    2011-01-01

    A gas chromatograph with electron capture detection method for estimation of selected metabolites--amino acids (free and bound), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), salicylic acid (SA), and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) from tomato--is reported. The method is based on nitrophenylation of the metabolites by 1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene under aqueous alkaline conditions to form dinitophenyl derivatives. The derivatives were stable under the operating conditions of GC. Analysis of bound amino acids comprised perchloric acid precipitation of protein, alkylation (carboxymethylation) with iodoacetic acid, vapor-phase hydrolysis, and derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in that order. The metabolites were resolved in 35 min, using a temperature-programmed run. The method is rapid, sensitive, and precise. It easily measured the typical amino acids (aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, alanine, leucine, lysine, and phenylalanine) used for identification and quantification of a protein, resolved amino acids of the same mass (leucine and isoleucine), satisfactorily measured sulfur amino acid (methionine, cystine, and cysteine), and quantified GABA, SA, and ASA, as well. The developed method was validated for specificity, linearity, and precision. It has been applied and recommended for estimation of 25 metabolites from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).

  3. Specific domain structures control abscisic acid-, salicylic acid-, and stress-mediated SIZ1 phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Mi Sun; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Hong, Mi Ju; Lee, Jiyoung; Choi, Wonkyun; Jin, Jing Bo; Bohnert, Hans J; Lee, Sang Yeol; Bressan, Ray A; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2009-12-01

    SIZ1 (for yeast SAP and MIZ1) encodes the sole ortholog of mammalian PIAS (for protein inhibitor of activated STAT) and yeast SIZ SUMO (for small ubiquitin-related modifier) E3 ligases in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Four conserved motifs in SIZ1 include SAP (for scaffold attachment factor A/B/acinus/PIAS domain), PINIT (for proline-isoleucine-asparagine-isoleucine-threonine), SP-RING (for SIZ/PIAS-RING), and SXS (for serine-X-serine, where X is any amino acid) motifs. SIZ1 contains, in addition, a PHD (for plant homeodomain) typical of plant PIAS proteins. We determined phenotypes of siz1-2 knockout mutants transformed with SIZ1 alleles carrying point mutations in the predicted domains. Domain SP-RING is required for SUMO conjugation activity and nuclear localization of SIZ1. Salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and SA-dependent phenotypes of siz1-2, such as diminished plant size, heightened innate immunity, and abscisic acid inhibition of cotyledon greening, as well as SA-independent basal thermotolerance were not complemented by the altered SP-RING allele of SIZ1. The SXS domain also controlled SA accumulation and was involved in greening and expansion of cotyledons of seedlings germinated in the presence of abscisic acid. Mutations of the PHD zinc finger domain and the PINIT motif affected in vivo SUMOylation. Expression of the PHD and/or PINIT domain mutant alleles of SIZ1 in siz1-2 promoted hypocotyl elongation in response to sugar and light. The various domains of SIZ1 make unique contributions to the plant's ability to cope with its environment.

  4. Salicylic acid determination in cow urine and drugs using a bienzymatic sensor.

    PubMed

    Campanella, L; Gregori, E; Tomassetti, M

    2006-09-11

    An enzymatic biosensor was developed for salicylic acid (salicylate ion) determined using a Clark type gas diffusion electrode and two enzymes (tyrosinase and salicylate hydroxylase) entrapped in a cellulose triacetate membrane. After optimization, the method was applied to the determination of salicylic acid in cow urine. Relatively good recoveries were achieved, between about 83% and 109%, using the calibration curve, and acceptable precision (R.S.D. about 8%). The method is now being tested for the determination of salicylic acid contained in commercially available drug specialities or galenic products. So far agreement with nominal values has been found to be between 75% and 110% with a R.S.D. of less than 8%.

  5. Chitosan signaling in guard cells requires endogenous salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Prodhan, Md Yeasin; Issak, Mohammad; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Munemasa, Shintaro; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2017-08-01

    An elicitor chitosan (CHT) induces stomatal closure but the mechanism remains to be clarified. A phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) is crucial for elicitor-induced defense signaling in plants. Here we investigated whether endogenous SA is required for CHT signaling in guard cells. In the SA-deficient nahG mutant, treatment of CHT did not induce either apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production or stomatal closure but co-treatment of CHT and SA induced both apoplastic ROS production and stomatal closure, indicating the involvement of endogenous SA in CHT-induced apoplastic ROS production and CHT-induced stomatal closure. Furthermore, CHT induced transient cytosolic free calcium concentration increments in the nahG mutant in the presence of exogenous SA but not in the absence of exogenous SA. These results provide evidence that endogenous SA is a crucial element in CHT-induced stomatal closure.

  6. Salicylic Acid Activates DNA Damage Responses to Potentiate Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shunping; Wang, Wei; Marqués, Jorge; Mohan, Rajinikanth; Saleh, Abdelaty; Durrant, Wendy E.; Song, Junqi; Dong, Xinnian

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY DNA damage is normally detrimental to living organisms. Here we show that it can also serve as a signal to promote immune responses in plants. We found that the plant immune hormone salicylic acid (SA) can trigger DNA damage in the absence of a genotoxic agent. The DNA damage sensor proteins, RAD17 and ATR, are required for effective immune responses. These sensor proteins are negatively regulated by a key immune regulator SNI1 (suppressor of npr1-1, inducible 1), which we discovered as a missing subunit of the Structural Maintenance of Chromosome (SMC) 5/6 complex required for controlling DNA damage. Elevated DNA damage caused by the sni1 mutation or treatment with a DNA-damaging agent markedly enhances SA-mediated defense gene expression. Our study suggests that activation of DNA damage responses is an intrinsic component of the plant immune responses. PMID:24207055

  7. Lysine acetyl salicylic acid in acute renal pain.

    PubMed

    Youssef, H A; Hanafi, A

    1989-01-01

    The effect of repeated doses of 1.8 g lysine acetyl salicylic acid (LAS) i.v. on severe pain secondary to acute renal colic (ARC) was studied in 45 consecutive patients. Clinically acceptable analgesia was obtained in 65% of the cases. No additional pain relief was achieved with the combination of pethidine 100 mg i.v. + metoclopramide 10 mg, i.m. (narcotics). Pain relief occurred within five minutes in one third of the patients while in the rest within 30 minutes. Significant reduction of systolic blood pressure (mean +/- S.D.) 23.8 +/- 19.5, pulse rate (mean +/- S.D.) 19.5 +/- 10.1 and vomiting were noted in patients who had pain relief. The incidence of nausea has increased after LAS administration. No other side effects were observed. LAS might therefore be applied as a first-hand alternative to narcotics for the treatment of ARC.

  8. Physiological and antioxidant responses of winter wheat cultivars to strigolactone and salicylic acid in drought.

    PubMed

    Sedaghat, Mojde; Tahmasebi-Sarvestani, Zeinolabedin; Emam, Yahya; Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, Ali

    2017-10-01

    Strigolactones are considered as important regulators of plant growth and development. Recently positive regulatory influence of strigolactones in plant in response to drought and salt stress has been revealed. Salicylic acid, a phytohormone, has reported to be involved in a number of stress responses such as pathogen infection, UV irradiation, salinity and drought. Considering the concealed role of strigolactones in agronomic crops drought tolerance and possible interaction among salicylic acid and strigolactone, we investigated the effects of exogenous application of GR24 and salicylic acid on two winter wheat cultivars under drought conditions. Foliar GR24 and salicylic acid were applied on drought sensitive and drought tolerant winter wheat cultivars at tillering and anthesis stages in 40% and 80% of field capacity moisture levels. Strigolactones and salicylic acid treated plants showed higher tolerance to drought stress with regard to lower electrolyte leakage and higher relative water content, leaf stomatal limitation, membrane stability index and antioxidant enzyme activities. Salicylic acid application dampened malondialdehyde content in wheat plants. Drought tolerance of wheat plants were intensified in most of the cases when theses phytohormones were used together, suggesting a possible interaction between salicylic acid and strigolactones in drought situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Paper-based electroanalytical devices for in situ determination of salicylic acid in living tomato leaves.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Jun; Feng, Qiu-Mei; Yan, Yong-Feng; Pan, Zhong-Qin; Li, Xiao-Hui; Song, Feng-Ming; Yang, Haibing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying

    2014-10-15

    Detection of phytohormones in situ has gained significant attention due to their critical roles in regulating developmental processes and signaling for defenses in plants at low concentration. As one type of plant hormones, salicylic acid has recently been found to be one of pivotal signal molecules for physiological behaviors of plants. Here we report the application of paper-based electroanalytical devices for sensitively in situ detection of salicylic acid in tomato leaves with the sample volume of several microliters. Specifically, disposable working electrodes were fabricated by coating carbon tape with the mixture of multiwall carbon nanotubes and nafion. We observed that the treatment of the modified carbon tape electrodes with oxygen plasma could significantly improve electrochemical responses of salicylic acid. The tomato leaves had a punched hole of 1.5mm diameter to release salicylic acid with minor influence on continuous growth of tomatoes. By incorporating the tomato leaf with the paper-based analytical device, we were able to perform in situ determination of salicylic acid based on its electrocatalytic oxidation. Our experimental results demonstrated that the amounts of salicylic acid differed statistically in normal, phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene silent and diseased (infected by Botrytis cinerea) tomato leaves. By quantifying salicylic acid at the level of several nanograms in situ, the simple paper-based electroanalytical devices could potentially facilitate the study of defense mechanism of plants under biotic and abiotic stresses. This study might also provide a sensitive method with spatiotemporal resolution for mapping of chemicals released from living organisms.

  10. Investigation of competitive binding of ibuprofen and salicylic acid with serum albumin by affinity capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhu-Mei; Wei, Chuan-Wan; Zhang, Yintang; Wang, Di-Shan; Liu, You-Nian

    2011-07-01

    Ibuprofen and salicylic acid, two typical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, are used commonly as analgesic drug in clinical medicine and sometimes are co-administered. When the drugs are co-administered, the drug-drug interactions may occur, and can lead to alter the safety and efficacy of drugs, resulting in variations in drug response of the co-administered drugs. Affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) was employed to investigate the competitive binding of ibuprofen and salicylic acid on serum albumin. Mobility ratio, derivatives from mobility shift method, was used to deduce the binding constant (K(b)). The binding constants of ibuprofen with HSA are 2.97×10⁶ M⁻¹ and 7.07×10⁴ M⁻¹, respectively; while for salicylic acid, the binding constant is 5.99×10⁴ M⁻¹. The competitive binding of the two drugs was investigated by addition of excessive ibuprofen into the solutions containing constant concentrations of salicylic acid and serum albumin. The results confirmed that ibuprofen and salicylic acid have different high-affinity binding site, but share some low-affinity binding sites on the serum albumin; and ibuprofen is able to partially replace salicylic acid from the preformed binary complexes of serum albumin and salicylic acid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation and investigation of acetyl salicylic acid-caffeine complex for rectal administration.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Ehab A; El-Badry, Mahmoud; Alanazi, Fars K; Arafah, Maha M; Al-Ashban, Riyadh; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2009-07-30

    An acetyl salicylic acid-caffeine complex was prepared and evaluated for the potential use in rectal administration. The results revealed the formation of a complex between acetyl salicylic acid and caffeine in a 1:1 molar ratio by a charge transfer mechanism. The effects of acetyl salicylic acid and complex on the rectal tissues showed destruction in the mucosal epithelium in case of acetyl salicylic acid; however, no change in the rectal tissues was noticed upon the administration of the complex. The effect of suppository bases on the release of the complex was studied using Witepsol H15 as fatty base and polyethylene glycols (PEG) 1000 and 4000 as a water soluble suppository base. The release profiles of acetyl salicylic acid and the complex were faster from PEG than from that of Witepsol H15. The percent release for the complex and acetyl salicylic acid from PEG base were 45.8, and 34.9%, respectively. However, it was 8.7 and 7.8%, respectively, from Witepsol H15 fatty base. The release kinetic was found to follow the non-Fickian diffusion model for complex from the suppository bases. It was concluded that acetyl salicylic acid caffeine complex can be used safely for rectal administration.

  12. Preparation and investigation of acetyl salicylic acid-caffeine complex for rectal administration.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Ehab A; El-Badry, Mahmoud; Alanazi, Fars K; Arafah, Maha M; Al-Ashban, Riyadh; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2010-06-01

    An acetyl salicylic acid-caffeine complex was prepared and evaluated for the potential use in rectal administration. The results revealed the formation of a complex between acetyl salicylic acid and caffeine in a 1:1 molar ratio by a charge transfer mechanism. The effects of acetyl salicylic acid and complex on the rectal tissues showed destruction in the mucosal epithelium in case of acetyl salicylic acid; however, no change in the rectal tissues was noticed upon the administration of the complex. The effect of suppository bases on the release of the complex was studied using Witepsol H15 as fatty base and polyethylene glycols (PEG) 1000 and 4000 as a water soluble suppository base. The release profiles of acetyl salicylic acid and the complex were faster from PEG than from that of Witepsol H15. The percent release for the complex and acetyl salicylic acid from PEG base were 45.8, and 34.9%, respectively. However, it was 8.7 and 7.8%, respectively, from Witepsol H15 fatty base. The release kinetic was found to follow the non-Fickian diffusion model for complex from the suppository bases. It was concluded that acetyl salicylic acid caffeine complex can be used safely for rectal administration.

  13. Alleviation of salt stress in lemongrass by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Khan, M Nasir; Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the key factors adversely affecting the growth, yield, and quality of crops. A pot study was conducted to find out whether exogenous application of salicylic acid could ameliorate the adverse effect of salinity in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. Wats.). Two Cymbopogon varieties, Krishna and Neema, were used in the study. Three salinity levels, viz, 50, 100, and 150 mM of NaCl, were applied to 30-day-old plants. Salicylic acid (SA) was applied as foliar spray at 10(-5) M concentration. Totally, six SA-sprays were carried out at 10-day intervals, following the first spray at 30 days after sowing. The growth parameters were progressively reduced with the increase in salinity level; however, growth inhibition was significantly reduced by the foliar application of SA. With the increase in salt stress, a gradual decrease in the activities of carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase was observed in both the varieties. SA-treatment not only ameliorated the adverse effects of NaCl but also showed a significant improvement in the activities of these enzymes compared with the untreated stressed-plants. The plants supplemented with NaCl exhibited a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, proline content, and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase activity. Content and yield of essential oil was also significantly decreased in plants that received salinity levels; however, SA overcame the unfavorable effects of salinity stress to a considerable extent. Lemongrass variety Krishna was found to be more adapted to salt stress than Neema, as indicated by the overall performance of the two varieties under salt conditions.

  14. Pathway of salicylic acid biosynthesis in healthy and virus-inoculated tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Yalpani, N.; Leon, J.; Lawton, M.A.; Raskin, I. )

    1993-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a likely endogenous regulator of localized and systemic disease resistance in plants. During the hypersensitive response of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), SA levels rise dramatically. We studied Sa biosynthesis in healthy and TMV-inoculated tobacco by monitoring the levels of SA and its likely precursors in extracts of leaves and cell suspensions. In TMV-inoculated leaves, stimulation of Sa accumulation is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the levels of benzoic acid. [sup 14]C-Tracer studies with cell suspensions and mock- or TMV-inoculated leaves indicate that the label moves from trans-cinnamic acid to SA via benzoic acid. In healthy and TMV-inoculated tobacco leaves, benzoic acid induced SA accumulation. o-Coumaric acid, which was previously reported as a possible precursor of SA in other species, did not increase SA levels in tobacco. In healthy tobacco tissue, the specific activity of newly formed SA was equal to that of the supplied [[sup 14]C] benzoic acid, whereas in TMV-inoculated leaves some isotope dilution was observed, presumably because of the increase in the pool of endogenous benzoic acid. We observed accumulation of pathogenesis-related-1 proteins and increased resistance to TMV in benzoic acid but no in 0-coumaric acid-treated tobacco leaves. This is consistent with benzoic acid being the immediate precursor of SA. We conclude that in healthy and virus-inoculated tobacco, SA is formed from cinnamic acid via benzoic acid. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Silverleaf whitefly induces salicylic acid defenses and suppresses effectual jasmonic acid defenses.

    PubMed

    Zarate, Sonia I; Kempema, Louisa A; Walling, Linda L

    2007-02-01

    The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF.

  16. Silverleaf Whitefly Induces Salicylic Acid Defenses and Suppresses Effectual Jasmonic Acid Defenses1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Sonia I.; Kempema, Louisa A.; Walling, Linda L.

    2007-01-01

    The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF. PMID:17189328

  17. Potentiometric membrane electrode for salicylate based on an organotin complex with a salicylal Schiff base of amino acid.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lan; Yuan, Ruo; Fu, Ying-Zi; Chai, Ya-Qin

    2005-03-01

    A novel salicylate-selective electrode based on an organotin complex with a salicylal Schiff base of amino acid salicylaldehydeaminoacid-di-n-butyl-Sn(IV) [Sn(IV)-SAADB] as ionophore is described, which exhibits high selectivity for salicylate over many other common anions with an anti-Hofmeister selectivity sequence: Sal- > PhCOO- > SCN- > Cl04- > I- > NO3- > NO2- > Br- > Cl- > CH3COO-. The electrode, based on Sn(IV)-SAADB, with a 30.44 wt% PVC, a 65.45 wt% plasticizer (dioctyl phthalate, DOP), a 3.81 wt% ionophore and a 0.3 wt% anionic additive is linear in 6.0 x 10(-6) - 1.0 x 10(-1) mol l(-1) with a detection limit of 2.0 x 10(-6) mol l(-1) and a slope of 62.0 +/- 1.2 mV/decade of salicylate concentration in a phosphate buffer solution of pH 5.5 at 25 degrees C. The influence on the electrode performances by lipophilic charged additives was studied, and the possible response mechanism was investigated by UV spectra. The electrode was applied to medicine analysis and the result obtained has been satisfactory.

  18. SIZ1 controls cell growth and plant development in Arabidopsis through salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kenji; Lee, Jiyoung; Miura, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    The post-translational conjugation of small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs) to other proteins is involved in regulation of many processes in eukaryotic development; although its role in plant development is beginning to be dissected. Previously, we demonstrated that the siz1 mutant, which is impaired in SUMO E3 ligase, showed a dwarf-like shoot phenotype with accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), and the expression of nahG, a bacterial salicylate hydroxylase that catabolizes SA, in siz1 reduced the SA level and suppressed dwarfism. Herein, we provide evidence that the SIZ1 gene controls cell division and elongation through regulation of the SA level. Mature siz1-2 and siz1-3 plants exhibited a dwarf-like shoot phenotype that is attributable to decreased leaf cell volume and number relative to the wild type. Cell division and expansion defects caused by siz1 were also suppressed by the expression of nahG. Expression of XTH8 and XTH31, encoding xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase, which are thought to facilitate leaf cell expansion, was down-regulated in siz1 leaves. However, reduced XTH8 and XTH31 expression in siz1 plants was restored in nahG siz1-2 plants. These results indicate that SIZ1 regulates cell growth and plant development with regulation of SA accumulation. Also, XTH8 and XTH31 genes may be responsible for reduced leaf cell expansion.

  19. Salicylic acid and some of its derivatives as antibacterial agents for viscose fabric.

    PubMed

    Kantouch, A; El-Sayed, A Atef; Salama, M; El-Kheir, A Abou; Mowafi, S

    2013-11-01

    Salicylic acid and three of its derivatives were used to provide antibacterial properties to viscose fabrics. The four bactericides used were bonded to the viscose fabrics using epichlorohydrin or polymer binders. Optimization of the salicylic acid and its derivatives as well as the concentration of polymers was reported. The ability of the polymer binders to attract and bind the four bactericides was observed. The overall results show that the antibacterial reactivity of salicylic acid and its derivatives are in the following order 5-bromosalicylic acid>salicylic acid>5-chlorosalicylic acid>4-chlorosalicylic acid. Using epichlorohydrin as a binding agent, unfortunately, inhibits the bactericidal activity of the four bactericides. The FTIR study concludes that the reaction between salicylic acid as well as its derivatives with epichlorohydrin takes place through the phenolic group of the acids. The unexpected deterioration in the bactericidal properties of salicylic acid and its derivatives as a result of the treatment with epichlorohydrin could be due to the nature of interaction between the epichlorohydrin molecule and the acids molecules. PVP and PU show superior ability to sustain the four bactericides used even after 10 washing cycles.

  20. Simultaneous determination of acetylsalicylic and salicylic acids by first derivative spectrometry in pharmaceutical preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogić, Dunja

    1993-03-01

    A multicomponent first derivative UV spectrometric procedure for determination of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and salicylic acid in the solution containing 1 % (w/v) of citric acid in some pharmaceutical preparations is presented. The method is based on the use of the first derivative minimum spectrometric measurements at 286 nm for aspirin and at 318 nm for salicylic acid. Four kinds of cmmercial Aspirin tablets were assayed without a long pretreatment of the pharmaceuticals from the tablet additives. Beer's law is obeyed from 13.62-68.1 μg ml -1 of aspirin and from 2.723-13.616 μg ml -1 of salicylic acid. Detection limits at the 0.05 level of significance were calculated to be 1.24 and 0.25 μg ml -1 with relative standard deviations of 1.09 % and 1.2 % of aspirin and salicylic acid, respectively.

  1. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jingyu; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Junwei J; Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Wusheng; Pantalone, Vincent R; Arelli, Prakash R; Stewart, Charles N; Chen, Feng

    2013-12-01

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in soybean defence against soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN). GmSAMT1 was identified as a candidate SCN defence-related gene in our previous analysis of soybean defence against SCN using GeneChip microarray experiments. The current study started with the isolation of the full-length cDNAs of GmSAMT1 from a SCN-resistant soybean line and from a SCN-susceptible soybean line. The two cDNAs encode proteins of identical sequences. The GmSAMT1 cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli. Using in vitro enzyme assays, E. coli-expressed GmSAMT1 was confirmed to function as salicylic acid methyltransferase. The apparent Km value of GmSAMT1 for salicylic acid was approximately 46 μM. To determine the role of GmSAMT1 in soybean defence against SCN, transgenic hairy roots overexpressing GmSAMT1 were produced and tested for SCN resistance. Overexpression of GmSAMT1 in SCN-susceptible backgrounds significantly reduced the development of SCN, indicating that overexpression of GmSAMT1 in the transgenic hairy root system could confer resistance to SCN. Overexpression of GmSAMT1 in transgenic hairy roots was also found to affect the expression of selected genes involved in salicylic acid biosynthesis and salicylic acid signal transduction.

  2. Determination of aspirin and salicylic acid by reverse-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Heidemann, D R; Schulenberg, E S; Smith, W H

    1987-01-01

    Buffered solid dosage forms containing aspirin, magnesium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide are blended with acidic ethanol to extract the aspirin and salicylic acid rapidly. The resulting preparation is then immediately injected onto a 4.6 mm x 3 cm 5 micron reverse-phase column. Aspirin and free salicylic acid are determined simultaneously. The run time is less than 2 min. The total time from the initiation of sample extraction to completion of the separation is less than 5 min.

  3. Study on the kinetics and transformation products of salicylic acid in water via ozonation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruikang; Zhang, Lifeng; Hu, Jiangyong

    2016-06-01

    As salicylic acid is one of widely used pharmaceuticals, its residue has been found in various environmental water systems e.g. wastewater, surface water, treated water and drinking water. It has been reported that salicylic acid can be efficiently removed by advanced oxidation processes, but there are few studies on its transformation products and ozonation mechanisms during ozonation process. The objective of this study is to characterize the transformation products, investigate the degradation mechanisms at different pH, and propose the ozonation pathways of salicylic acid. The results showed that the rate of degradation was about 10 times higher at acidic condition than that at alkaline condition in the first 1 min when 1 mg L(-1) of ozone solution was added into 1 mg L(-1) of salicylic acid solution. It was proposed that ozone direct oxidation mechanism dominates at acidic condition, while indirect OH radical mechanism dominates at alkaline condition. A two stages pseudo-first order reaction was proposed at different pH conditions. Various hydroxylation products, carbonyl compounds and carboxylic acids, such as 2,5-dihydroxylbenzoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxylbenzoic acid, catechol, formaldehyde, glyoxal, acetaldehyde, maleic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid etc. were identified as ozonation transformation products. In addition, acrylic acid was identified, for the first time, as ozonation transformation products through high resolution liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometer. The information demonstrated in this study will help us to better understand the possible effects of ozonation products on the water quality. The degradation pathways of salicylic acid by ozonation in water sample were proposed. As both O3 and OH radical were important in the reactions, the degradation pathways of salicylic acid by ozonation in water sample were proposed at acidic and basic conditions. To our knowledge, there was no integrated study reported on the ozonation of

  4. HPLC analysis of in vivo intestinal absorption and oxidative metabolism of salicylic acid in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kuzma, Mónika; Nyúl, Eszter; Mayer, Mátyás; Fischer, Emil; Perjési, Pál

    2016-12-01

    In vivo absorption and oxidative metabolism of salicylic acid in rat small intestine was studied by luminal perfusion experiment. Perfusion through the lumen of proximal jejunum with isotonic medium containing 250 μm sodium salicylate was carried out. Absorption of salicylate was measured by a validated HPLC-DAD method which was evaluated for a number of validation characteristics (specificity, repeatability and intermediate precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity and accuracy). The method was linear over the concentration range 0.5-50 μg/mL. After liquid-liquid extraction of the perfusion samples oxidative biotransformation of salicylate was also investigated by HPLC-MS. The method was linear over the concentration range 0.25-5.0 μg/mL. Two hydroxylated metabolites of salicylic acid (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid) were detected and identified. The mean recovery of extraction was 72.4% for 2,3-DHB, 72.5% for 2,5-DHB and 50.1% for salicylic acid, respectively. The methods were successfully applied to investigate jejunal absorption and oxidative metabolism of sodium salicylate in experimental animals. The methods provide analytical background for further metabolic studies of salycilates under modified physiological conditions.

  5. Fe3O4/Salicylic acid nanoparticles behavior on chick CAM vasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihaiescu, Dan Eduard; Buteică, Alice Sandra; Neamţu, Johny; Istrati, Daniela; Mîndrilă, Ion

    2013-08-01

    A modified ferrite co-precipitation synthesis was used to obtain core-shell Fe3O4/salicylic acid magnetic nanoparticles (Sa-MNP) with well-dispersed aqueous solution properties. The newly developed iron oxide nanoparticles properties were investigated with X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and laser light scattering for their characteristic establishment. The resulting Sa-MNPs have spherical morphology, homogenous size distribution around 60 nm (35 nm FWHM), and a 67 mV Zeta potential value (15.5 mV STDV). In vivo biocompatibility and intravascular behavior of the 60 nm diameter size range synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated on chick chorioallantoic membrane model. The results show a reversible and good controlled intravascular accumulation under static magnetic field, a low risk of embolisation with nanoparticle aggregates detached from venous intravascular nanoblocked areas, a persistent blocking of the arterioles and dependent capillaries network, a good circulating life time and biocompatibility. The beneficial effects of salicylic acid (SA) and in vivo demonstrated capacity of Sa-MNPs to cutoff regional vascular supply under static magnetic field control suggest a possible biomedical application of these MNPs in targeted cancer therapy through magnetic controlled blood flow nanoblocking mechanism.

  6. A novel methyltransferase from the intracellular pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae methylates salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Jülke, Sabine; Geiß, Kathleen; Richter, Franziska; Mithöfer, Axel; Šola, Ivana; Rusak, Gordana; Keenan, Sandi; Bulman, Simon

    2015-05-01

    The obligate biotrophic pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot disease in Arabidopsis thaliana, which is characterized by large root galls. Salicylic acid (SA) production is a defence response in plants, and its methyl ester is involved in systemic signalling. Plasmodiophora brassicae seems to suppress plant defence reactions, but information on how this is achieved is scarce. Here, we profile the changes in SA metabolism during Arabidopsis clubroot disease. The accumulation of SA and the emission of methylated SA (methyl salicylate, MeSA) were observed in P. brassicae-infected Arabidopsis 28 days after inoculation. There is evidence that MeSA is transported from infected roots to the upper plant. Analysis of the mutant Atbsmt1, deficient in the methylation of SA, indicated that the Arabidopsis SA methyltransferase was not responsible for alterations in clubroot symptoms. We found that P. brassicae possesses a methyltransferase (PbBSMT) with homology to plant methyltransferases. The PbBSMT gene is maximally transcribed when SA production is highest. By heterologous expression and enzymatic analyses, we showed that PbBSMT can methylate SA, benzoic and anthranilic acids.

  7. Cytosolic and chloroplastic DHARs cooperate in oxidative stress-driven activation of the salicylic acid pathway.

    PubMed

    Rahantaniaina, Marie-Sylviane; Li, Shengchun; Chatel-Innocenti, Gilles; Tuzet, Andrée; Issakidis-Bourguet, Emmanuelle; Mhamdi, Amna; Noctor, Graham

    2017-04-05

    The complexity of plant antioxidative systems gives rise to many unresolved questions. One relates to the functional importance of dehydroascorbate reductases (DHARs) in interactions between ascorbate and glutathione. To investigate this issue, we produced a complete set of loss-of-function mutants for the three annotated Arabidopsis DHARs. The combined loss of DHAR1 and DHAR3 expression decreased extractable activity to very low levels but had little effect on phenotype or ascorbate and glutathione pools in standard conditions. An analysis of the subcellular localization of the DHARs in Arabidopsis lines stably transformed with GFP fusion proteins revealed that DHAR1 and DHAR2 are cytosolic while DHAR3 is chloroplastic, with no evidence for peroxisomal or mitochondrial localizations. When the mutations were introduced into an oxidative stress genetic background (cat2), the dhar1 dhar2 combination decreased glutathione oxidation and inhibited cat2-triggered induction of the salicylic acid pathway. These effects were reversed in cat2 dhar1 dhar2 dhar3 complemented with any of the three DHARs. The data suggest that (1) DHAR can be decreased to negligible levels without marked effects on ascorbate pools; (2) the cytosolic isoforms are particularly important in coupling intracellular H2O2 metabolism to glutathione oxidation; (3) DHAR-dependent glutathione oxidation influences redox-driven salicylic acid accumulation.

  8. Methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid are able to modify cell wall but only salicylic acid alters biomass digestibility in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Napoleão, Thiago Alves; Soares, Giuliana; Vital, Camilo Elber; Bastos, Carla; Castro, Robson; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Giordano, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    In addition to playing a key role in the response to environmental changes, cell walls are also considered as a valuable feedstock for cellulosic ethanol. Here we explored the effects of the stress-response hormones, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, on cell wall biosynthesis and biomass digestibility in Brachypodium distachyon, a species recently considered as a suitable model for biomass conversion. We found that in response to salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate treatment, plant growth was reduced coupled with significant changes in cell wall composition. Cellulose content increased in response to methyl jasmonate whereas a reduction in lignin content was found after salicylic acid application. Moreover, hemicellulose composition was altered and increases in caffeic acid, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid content were detected in response to both treatments. The hormonal profile and the expression pattern of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis were also modified. Biomass digestibility was reduced in leaf tissue after salicylic acid treatment and was negatively correlated with ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid content. The results obtained here aid in our understanding of cell wall dynamics in response to stress and will enable the development of new strategies to improve cell wall digestibility in bioenergy feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermodynamics of the complexation of arabinogalactan with salicylic and p-aminobenzoic acids in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudarisova, R. Kh.; Badykova, L. A.

    2016-03-01

    The thermodynamics of complexation of arabinogalactan with salicylic and p-aminobenzoic acids in aqueous solutions is studied by means spectroscopy. The standard thermodynamic characteristics (Δ H°; Δ G°; Δ S°) of complexation are calculated.

  10. Alleviation of postharvest chilling injury of tomato fruit by salicylic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani; Asghari, Mohammadreza; Khorsandi, Orojali; Mohayeji, Mehdi

    2014-10-01

    Tomato fruit at the mature green stage were treated with salicylic acid at different concentration (0, 1 and 2 mM) and analyzed for chilling injury (CI), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents and phospholipase D (PLD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities during cold storage. PLD and LOX activities were significantly reduced by salicylic acid treatment. Compared with the control fruit, salicylic acid treatment alleviated chilling injury, reduced electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content and increased proline content. Our result suggest that the reduce activity of PLD and LOX, by salicylic acid may be a chilling tolerance strategy in tomato fruit. Inhibition of PLD and LOX activity during low temperature storage could ameliorate chilling injury and oxidation damage and enhance membrane integrity in tomato fruit.

  11. Physical insights into salicylic acid release from poly(anhydrides).

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Queeny; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madras, Giridhar

    2016-01-21

    Salicylic acid (SA) based biodegradable polyanhydrides (PAHs) are of great interest for drug delivery in a variety of diseases and disorders owing to the multi-utility of SA. There is a need for the design of SA-based PAHs for tunable drug release, optimized for the treatment of different diseases. In this study, we devised a simple strategy for tuning the release properties and erosion kinetics of a family of PAHs. PAHs incorporating SA were derived from related aliphatic diacids, varying only in the chain length, and prepared by simple melt condensation polymerization. Upon hydrolysis induced erosion, the polymer degrades into cytocompatible products, including the incorporated bioactive SA and diacid. The degradation follows first order kinetics with the rate constant varying by nearly 25 times between the PAH obtained with adipic acid and that with dodecanedioic acid. The release profiles have been tailored from 100% to 50% SA release in 7 days across the different PAHs. The release rate constants of these semi-crystalline, surface eroding PAHs decreased almost linearly with an increase in the diacid chain length, and varied by nearly 40 times between adipic acid and dodecanedioic acid PAH. The degradation products with SA concentration in the range of 30-350 ppm were used to assess cytocompatibility and showed no cytotoxicity to HeLa cells. This particular strategy is expected to (a) enable synthesis of application specific PAHs with tunable erosion and release profiles; (b) encompass a large number of drugs that may be incorporated into the PAH matrix. Such a strategy can potentially be extended to the controlled release of other drugs that may be incorporated into the PAH backbone and has important implications for the rational design of drug eluting bioactive polymers.

  12. Quantification of jasmonic and salicylic acids in rice seedling leaves.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyoungwon; Han, Oksoo; Tamogami, Shigeru; Shibato, Junko; Kubo, Akihiro; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are critical signaling components involved in various aspects of plant growth, development, and defense. Their constitutive levels vary from plant to plant and also from tissue to tissue within the same plant. Moreover, their quantitative levels change when plant is exposed to biotic and abiotic stresses. To better understand the JA- and SA-mediated signaling and metabolic pathways, it is important to precisely quantify their levels in plants/tissues/organs. However, their extraction and quantification are not trivial and still technically challenging. An effort has been made in various laboratories to develop a simple and standard procedure that can be utilized for quantification of JA and SA. Here, we present the experimental procedure and our decade of experience on extracting and quantifying them in an absolute manner in leaves of rice seedlings. We must mention that this method has been applied to both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants for absolute quantification of JA and SA. As collaboration is the key towards rapid progress in science and technology, we are always open to sharing our experience in this field with any active research group with an aim to improve the procedure further and eventually to connect the importance of their (JA and SA) quantitative levels with networks of signaling and metabolic pathways in plants.

  13. Salicylic acid signaling inhibits apoplastic reactive oxygen species signaling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are used by plants as signaling molecules during stress and development. Given the amount of possible challenges a plant face from their environment, plants need to activate and prioritize between potentially conflicting defense signaling pathways. Until recently, most studies on signal interactions have focused on phytohormone interaction, such as the antagonistic relationship between salicylic acid (SA)-jasmonic acid and cytokinin-auxin. Results In this study, we report an antagonistic interaction between SA signaling and apoplastic ROS signaling. Treatment with ozone (O3) leads to a ROS burst in the apoplast and induces extensive changes in gene expression and elevation of defense hormones. However, Arabidopsis thaliana dnd1 (defense no death1) exhibited an attenuated response to O3. In addition, the dnd1 mutant displayed constitutive expression of defense genes and spontaneous cell death. To determine the exact process which blocks the apoplastic ROS signaling, double and triple mutants involved in various signaling pathway were generated in dnd1 background. Simultaneous elimination of SA-dependent and SA-independent signaling components from dnd1 restored its responsiveness to O3. Conversely, pre-treatment of plants with SA or using mutants that constitutively activate SA signaling led to an attenuation of changes in gene expression elicited by O3. Conclusions Based upon these findings, we conclude that plants are able to prioritize the response between ROS and SA via an antagonistic action of SA and SA signaling on apoplastic ROS signaling. PMID:24898702

  14. Jasmonic and salicylic acids enhanced phytochemical production and biological activities in cell suspension cultures of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb).

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2017-03-01

    In vitro cell suspension culture was established for the production of commercially valuable phytochemicals in Momordica dioica. The influence of elicitors in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) increased their effect on phytochemical production and biomass accumulation in M. dioica. The results indicate that compared with non-elicited cultures, JA- and SA-elicited cell suspension cultures had significantly enhanced phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid production, as well as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, elicited cultures produced 22 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and hydroxybenzoic acids. Greater biomass production, phytochemical accumulation, and biological activity occurred in JA- than in SA-elicited cell cultures. This study is the first to successfully establish M. dioica cell suspension cultures for the production of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, as well as for biomass accumulation.

  15. The chromatin remodeler DDM1 promotes hybrid vigor by regulating salicylic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingzhu; Li, Yanqiang; Xu, Tao; Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; Wang, Dong; Zeng, Liang; Yang, Lan; He, Li; Zhang, Heng; Zheng, Zhimin; Yang, Dong-Lei; Zhao, Cheng; Dong, Juan; Gong, Zhizhong; Liu, Renyi; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    In plants, hybrid vigor is influenced by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms; however, the molecular pathways are poorly understood. We investigated the potential contributions of epigenetic regulators to heterosis in Arabidposis and found that the chromatin remodeler DECREASED DNA METHYLATION 1 (DDM1) affects early seedling growth heterosis in Col/C24 hybrids. ddm1 mutants showed impaired heterosis and increased expression of non-additively expressed genes related to salicylic acid metabolism. Interestingly, our data suggest that salicylic acid is a hormetic regulator of seedling growth heterosis, and that hybrid vigor arises from crosses that produce optimal salicylic acid levels. Although DNA methylation failed to correlate with differential non-additively expressed gene expression, we uncovered DDM1 as an epigenetic link between salicylic acid metabolism and heterosis, and propose that the endogenous salicylic acid levels of parental plants can be used to predict the heterotic outcome. Salicylic acid protects plants from pathogens and abiotic stress. Thus, our findings suggest that stress-induced hormesis, which has been associated with increased longevity in other organisms, may underlie specific hybrid vigor traits.

  16. [Effect of calcium on medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid in Salvia miltiorrhiza suspension cultures].

    PubMed

    Liu, Liancheng; Wang, Cong; Dong, Juan'e; Su, Hui; Zhuo, Zequn; Xue, Yaxin

    2013-07-01

    We studied medium alkalinization in Salvia miltiorrhiza suspension cultures treated with salicylic acid and the effect of Ca2+ in this process through application of calcium channel antagonists (Verapamil, LaCl3, LiCl, 2-APB) and ionophore A23187. The results show that salicylic acid could induce significant medium alkalinization in S. miltiorrhiza culture. Verapamil and LaCl3 or LiCl and 2-APB, two different groups of calcium channel antagonist, significantly inhibited the medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid. However, the suppression effect of verapamil or LaCl3 on medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid was higher than that of LiCl or 2-APB. When two types of calcium channel inhibitor (LaCl3 and 2-APB) were used together, the medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid was completely suppressed and even reduced the pH in medium. On the other hand, A23187 could promote the medium alkalinization. Based on the results above, we speculated that salicylic acid could induce significant medium alkalinization in S. miltiorrhiza culture, depending on the calcium from both extracell and intracell. Moreover, calcium from extracell plays a more dominant role in this process. Reveal of relationship in this research between Ca2+ and medium alkalinization can provide theory evidence for mechanism of the plant secondary metabolism.

  17. Effects of topical petrolatum and salicylic acid on the erythemogenicity of UVB.

    PubMed

    Fetil, Emel; Ozka, Sebnem; Soyal, Mahmut Cüneyt; Ilknur, Turna; Erdem, Yasemin; Güneş, Ali Tahsin

    2002-01-01

    Various topical agents used in combination with phototherapy have blocking effects, however in contrast to in vitro studies there were not enough in vivo studies about this subject. Our purpose was to examine the photoprotective effects of white petrolatum and salicylic acid which can be used before UVB therapy in psoriasis patients. In 35 volunteers, a phototest was performed to determine the minimal erythema dose (MED) and the test was repeated with thin (0.1 cc/25 cm2) and thick (0.3 cc/25 cm2) petrolatum, thin and thick salicylic acid (20%) in petrolatum and sunscreen. After 24 hrs, the effects of each agent on MED was investigated. MED values detected after pure UVB and after application of topical agents were compared one by one, and the differences between all of them have been found statistically significant. These showed that MED values were increased by thin or thick petrolatum and also by thin and thick salicylic acid (20%) in petrolatum. The highest MED values were detected with thick salicylic acid in petrolatum followed by thin salicylic acid in petrolatum, thick petrolatum and thin petrolatum. The application of petrolatum and salicylic acid, which can block UVB, before phototherapy is not recommended.

  18. The chromatin remodeler DDM1 promotes hybrid vigor by regulating salicylic acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingzhu; Li, Yanqiang; Xu, Tao; Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; Wang, Dong; Zeng, Liang; Yang, Lan; He, Li; Zhang, Heng; Zheng, Zhimin; Yang, Dong-Lei; Zhao, Cheng; Dong, Juan; Gong, Zhizhong; Liu, Renyi; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    In plants, hybrid vigor is influenced by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms; however, the molecular pathways are poorly understood. We investigated the potential contributions of epigenetic regulators to heterosis in Arabidposis and found that the chromatin remodeler DECREASED DNA METHYLATION 1 (DDM1) affects early seedling growth heterosis in Col/C24 hybrids. ddm1 mutants showed impaired heterosis and increased expression of non-additively expressed genes related to salicylic acid metabolism. Interestingly, our data suggest that salicylic acid is a hormetic regulator of seedling growth heterosis, and that hybrid vigor arises from crosses that produce optimal salicylic acid levels. Although DNA methylation failed to correlate with differential non-additively expressed gene expression, we uncovered DDM1 as an epigenetic link between salicylic acid metabolism and heterosis, and propose that the endogenous salicylic acid levels of parental plants can be used to predict the heterotic outcome. Salicylic acid protects plants from pathogens and abiotic stress. Thus, our findings suggest that stress-induced hormesis, which has been associated with increased longevity in other organisms, may underlie specific hybrid vigor traits. PMID:27551435

  19. Comparison the effectiveness of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% in the treatment of acne

    PubMed Central

    Jaffary, Fariba; Faghihi, Gita; Saraeian, Sara; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicles and one of the most common skin diseases. The peeling method has been recently found to be effective for acne treatment. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% peeling in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. Materials and Methods: In a prospective single-blinded clinical trial, 86 patients with acne were randomly assigned into two groups. In both groups, the routine treatment of acne (topical solution of erythromycin 4%, triclorocarban soap, and sunscreen) were used twice a day for 8 weeks. In addition, salicylic acid 30% for the control group and pyruvic acid 50% for the case group were used. In both groups, acne severity index (ASI) was calculated before and at week 2, 4, 6, and 8 of the treatment. Patient satisfaction was assessed at the end of the treatment. Side effects were recorded using a checklist. Results: In both groups, the reduction in the number of comedones, papules, and ASI were statistically significant (P < 0.001) in the course of treatment. However, it was not significant regarding the number of pustules (P = 0.09). None of the number of comedone, papules, pustules, and ASI was statistically different between study groups. Both treatment groups had similar side effects except for scaling in the fifth session, which was significantly lower in salicylic acid – treated patients (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Both pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% are effective in the improvement of mild to moderate acne with no significant difference in efficacy and side effects. PMID:27904577

  20. Comparison the effectiveness of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% in the treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Jaffary, Fariba; Faghihi, Gita; Saraeian, Sara; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicles and one of the most common skin diseases. The peeling method has been recently found to be effective for acne treatment. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% peeling in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. In a prospective single-blinded clinical trial, 86 patients with acne were randomly assigned into two groups. In both groups, the routine treatment of acne (topical solution of erythromycin 4%, triclorocarban soap, and sunscreen) were used twice a day for 8 weeks. In addition, salicylic acid 30% for the control group and pyruvic acid 50% for the case group were used. In both groups, acne severity index (ASI) was calculated before and at week 2, 4, 6, and 8 of the treatment. Patient satisfaction was assessed at the end of the treatment. Side effects were recorded using a checklist. In both groups, the reduction in the number of comedones, papules, and ASI were statistically significant (P < 0.001) in the course of treatment. However, it was not significant regarding the number of pustules (P = 0.09). None of the number of comedone, papules, pustules, and ASI was statistically different between study groups. Both treatment groups had similar side effects except for scaling in the fifth session, which was significantly lower in salicylic acid - treated patients (P = 0.015). Both pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% are effective in the improvement of mild to moderate acne with no significant difference in efficacy and side effects.

  1. Comparison of clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel to a novel composition containing salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Leslie S; Oresajo, Christian; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Figueras, Kristian

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the tolerance and efficacy of 2 facial skin products in subjects with acne using the following acne treatments: 1) treatment A, a combination of salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid, and 2) treatment B (BenzaClin®, clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel). The treatment design included the split-face application of treatment A and treatment B and the full-face application of the cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Data were collected through physician visual assessments, subject irritation questionnaires and assessments, along with clinical photography. Results showed similar tolerance and efficacy for both treatments.

  2. Proline induces calcium-mediated oxidative burst and salicylic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiugeng; Zhang, Yueqin; Wang, Cuiping; Lü, Weitao; Jin, Jing Bo; Hua, Xuejun

    2011-05-01

    Although free proline accumulation is a well-documented phenomenon in many plants in response to a variety of environmental stresses, and is proposed to play protective roles, high intracellular proline content, by either exogenous application or endogenous over-production, in the absence of stresses, is found to be inhibitory to plant growth. We have shown here that exogenous application of proline significantly induced intracellular Ca(2+) accumulation in tobacco and calcium-dependent ROS production in Arabidopsis seedlings, which subsequently enhanced salicylic acid (SA) synthesis and PR genes expression. This suggested that proline can promote a reaction similar to hypersensitive response during pathogen infection. Other amino acids, such as glutamate, but not arginine and phenylalanine, were also found to be capable of inducing PR gene expression. In addition, proline at concentration as low as 0.5 mM could induce PR gene expression. However, proline could not induce the expression of PDF1.2 gene, the marker gene for jasmonic acid signaling pathway. Furthermore, proline-induced SA production is mediated by NDR1-dependent signaling pathway, but not that mediated by PAD4. Our data provide evidences that exogenous proline, and probably some other amino acids can specifically induce SA signaling and defense response.

  3. Salicylic acid-releasing polyurethane acrylate polymers as anti-biofilm urological catheter coatings.

    PubMed

    Nowatzki, Paul J; Koepsel, Richard R; Stoodley, Paul; Min, Ke; Harper, Alan; Murata, Hironobu; Donfack, Joseph; Hortelano, Edwin R; Ehrlich, Garth D; Russell, Alan J

    2012-05-01

    Biofilm-associated infections are a major complication of implanted and indwelling medical devices like urological and venous catheters. They commonly persist even in the presence of an oral or intravenous antibiotic regimen, often resulting in chronic illness. We have developed a new approach to inhibiting biofilm growth on synthetic materials through controlled release of salicylic acid from a polymeric coating. Herein we report the synthesis and testing of a ultraviolet-cured polyurethane acrylate polymer composed, in part, of salicyl acrylate, which hydrolyzes upon exposure to aqueous conditions, releasing salicylic acid while leaving the polymer backbone intact. The salicylic acid release rate was tuned by adjusting the polymer composition. Anti-biofilm performance of the coatings was assessed under several biofilm forming conditions using a novel combination of the MBEC Assay™ biofilm multi-peg growth system and bioluminescence monitoring for live cell quantification. Films of the salicylic acid-releasing polymers were found to inhibit biofilm formation, as shown by bioluminescent and GFP reporter strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Urinary catheters coated on their inner lumens with the salicylic acid-releasing polymer significantly reduced biofilm formation by E. coli for up to 5 days under conditions that simulated physiological urine flow. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Salicylic acid enhances Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adhesin protein expression.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Lucía P; Barbagelata, María S; Cheung, Ambrose L; Sordelli, Daniel O; Buzzola, Fernanda R

    2011-11-01

    One of the virulence factors required by Staphylococcus aureus at the early stages of infection is Eap, a secreted adhesin that binds many host proteins and is upregulated by the two-component regulatory system saeRS. The S. aureus Newman strain harbors a mutation in saeS that is thought to be responsible for the high level of Eap expression in this strain. This study was designed to ascertain whether salicylic acid (SAL) affects the expression of Eap and the internalization of S. aureus into epithelial cells. The strain Newman treated with SAL exhibited increased levels of eap transcription and protein expression. Furthermore, SAL treatment increased the eap promoter activity. SAL treatment enhanced Eap expression in the Newman and in other S. aureus strains that do not carry the mutation in saeS. Internalization of S. aureus eap and sae mutants into the MAC-T epithelial cells was significantly decreased compared with the wild-type counterparts. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a low concentration of SAL increased S. aureus Eap expression possibly due to enhancement of sae. SAL may create the conditions for S. aureus persistence in the host, not only by decreasing the capsular polysaccharide expression as shown before, but also by enhancing Eap expression.

  5. Salicylic acid attenuates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Randjelovic, Pavle; Veljkovic, Slavimir; Stojiljkovic, Nenad; Jankovic-Velickovic, Ljubinka; Sokolovic, Dusan; Stoiljkovic, Milan; Ilic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Gentamicin (GM) is a widely used antibiotic against serious and life-threatening infections, but its usefulness is limited by the development of nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of salicylic acid (SA) in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Quantitative evaluation of gentamicin-induced structural alterations and degree of functional alterations in the kidneys were performed by histopathological and biochemical analyses in order to determine potential beneficial effects of SA coadministration with gentamicin. Gentamicin was observed to cause a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by an elevation of serum urea and creatinine levels. The significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and protein carbonyl groups indicated that GM-induced tissue injury was mediated through oxidative reactions. On the other hand, simultaneous SA administration protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect caused by GM treatment. Exposure to GM caused necrosis of tubular epithelial cells. Necrosis of tubules was found to be prevented by SA pretreatment. The results from our study indicate that SA supplement attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation in gentamicin-treated rats.

  6. Salicylic acid may indirectly influence the photosynthetic electron transport.

    PubMed

    Janda, Katalin; Hideg, Eva; Szalai, Gabriella; Kovács, László; Janda, Tibor

    2012-07-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic phytohormone with important roles in plant development, transpiration, endogenous signaling and defense against pathogens. One of the pathways of SA biosynthesis is located in the chloroplasts. The aim of the present work was to investigate the possible regulatory effects of SA on photosynthetic electron transport processes. Here we show that SA also affects leaf photosynthesis, via inducing stomatal closure and also by slowing down Photosystem II (PS II) electron transport. Photosynthetic CO₂ incorporation and stomatal conductivity (measured with an infrared gas analyzer) were much lower in SA-infiltrated tobacco leaves than in untreated or water-infiltrated controls. PS II electron transport (calculated from PAM chlorophyll fluorescence data) was more sensitive to SA than Photosystem I (PS I) (measured with far red absorption). Direct probing of PS II charge separation and stabilization (measured with thermoluminescence), however, showed that these events were less affected in isolated thylakoid membranes than in leaves, suggesting that the effect of SA on PS II is indirect and different from similar effects of phenolic herbicides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcriptome Sequencing in Response to Salicylic Acid in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoru; Dong, Juane; Liu, Hailong; Wang, Jiao; Qi, Yuexin; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, whose quality and yield are often affected by diseases and environmental stresses during its growing season. Salicylic acid (SA) plays a significant role in plants responding to biotic and abiotic stresses, but the involved regulatory factors and their signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. In order to identify the genes involved in SA signaling, the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) strategy was employed to evaluate the transcriptional profiles in S. miltiorrhiza cell cultures. A total of 50,778 unigenes were assembled, in which 5,316 unigenes were differentially expressed among 0-, 2-, and 8-h SA induction. The up-regulated genes were mainly involved in stimulus response and multi-organism process. A core set of candidate novel genes coding SA signaling component proteins was identified. Many transcription factors (e.g., WRKY, bHLH and GRAS) and genes involved in hormone signal transduction were differentially expressed in response to SA induction. Detailed analysis revealed that genes associated with defense signaling, such as antioxidant system genes, cytochrome P450s and ATP-binding cassette transporters, were significantly overexpressed, which can be used as genetic tools to investigate disease resistance. Our transcriptome analysis will help understand SA signaling and its mechanism of defense systems in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:26808150

  8. Salicylic acid interferes with GFP fluorescence in vivo.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Jennifer; Hofius, Daniel; Hennig, Lars

    2017-03-29

    Fluorescent proteins have become essential tools for cell biologists. They are routinely used by plant biologists for protein and promoter fusions to infer protein localization, tissue-specific expression and protein abundance. When studying the effects of biotic stress on chromatin, we unexpectedly observed a decrease in GFP signal intensity upon salicylic acid (SA) treatment in Arabidopsis lines expressing histone H1-GFP fusions. This GFP signal decrease was dependent on SA concentration. The effect was not specific to the linker histone H1-GFP fusion but was also observed for the nucleosomal histone H2A-GFP fusion. This result prompted us to investigate a collection of fusion proteins, which included different promoters, subcellular localizations and fluorophores. In all cases, fluorescence signals declined strongly or disappeared after SA application. No changes were detected in GFP-fusion protein abundance when fluorescence signals were lost indicating that SA does not interfere with protein stability but GFP fluorescence. In vitro experiments showed that SA caused GFP fluorescence reduction only in vivo but not in vitro, suggesting that SA requires cellular components to cause fluorescence reduction. Together, we conclude that SA can interfere with the fluorescence of various GFP-derived reporter constructs in vivo. Assays that measure relocation or turnover of GFP-tagged proteins upon SA treatment should therefore be evaluated with caution.

  9. Hydrogen Peroxide Is Involved in Salicylic Acid-Elicited Rosmarinic Acid Production in Salvia miltiorrhiza Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Wenfang; Zhang, Jingyi; Hu, Gege; Yao, Yaqin; Dong, Juane

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an elicitor to induce the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in plant cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays an important role as a key signaling molecule in response to various stimuli and is involved in the accumulation of secondary metabolites. However, the relationship between them is unclear and their synergetic functions on accumulation of secondary metabolites are unknown. In this paper, the roles of SA and H2O2 in rosmarinic acid (RA) production in Salvia miltiorrhiza cell cultures were investigated. The results showed that SA significantly enhanced H2O2 production, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, and RA accumulation. Exogenous H2O2 could also promote PAL activity and enhance RA production. If H2O2 production was inhibited by NADPH oxidase inhibitor (IMD) or scavenged by quencher (DMTU), RA accumulation would be blocked. These results indicated that H2O2 is secondary messenger for signal transduction, which can be induced by SA, significantly and promotes RA accumulation. PMID:24995364

  10. In search of pure liquid salt forms of aspirin: ionic liquid approaches with acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Bica, Katharina; Rijksen, Christiaan; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; Rogers, Robin D

    2010-02-28

    We present an ionic liquid (IL) approach towards a dual functional liquid salt form of aspirin using different pharmaceutically active cations composed of antibacterials, analgesics, local anesthetics, and antiarrhythmic drugs in combination with acetylsalicylic acid or its metabolite salicylic acid and discuss stability of these ILs in comparison to solid salts. Several low-melting or liquid salts of salicylic acid with dual functionality and promising properties were isolated and characterized; however, although such ILs with aspirin could be prepared, they suffer from limited stability and slowly decompose into the corresponding salicylate ILs when exposed to moisture.

  11. Imperative roles of salicylic acid and nitric oxide in improving salinity tolerance in Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Yadu, Shrishti; Dewangan, Teman Lal; Chandrakar, Vibhuti; Keshavkant, S

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to scrutinize efficacy of salicylic acid (SA) and/or sodium nitroprusside [SNP, source of nitric oxide (NO)] to mitigate injury symptoms of saline stress in Pisum sativum L. Exposure to sodium chloride (NaCl) was found to be injurious to germinating P. sativum L. (var. Shubhra IM-9101) and a direct correlation between severity of toxicity and NaCl-concentrations could be discernible. Both SA and NO serves as signal molecules in plant stress responses, and play crucial roles in key regulatory pathways of growth, development and metabolism. The limiting effects of salinity on radicle length and biomass accumulation were considerably released by SA and/or SNP and among which their combined application was found to be the most promising. Supplemented SA and/or SNP, particularly their cocktail, resulted in a substantial decline in reactive oxygen species accumulation, which later caused reduced accumulations of malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and protein carbonyl, in NaCl subjected germinating P. sativum L. seeds. SA and/or SNP had significant inducing effects on activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase. Additionally, exogenous SA and/or SNP led to the higher proline, sugar and glycinebetaine contents, than that of the control. On the basis of accumulated results, it could be concluded that the cocktail of SA and SNP may be efficiently used to overcome the adverse signatures of salinity stress.

  12. Radiation- and photo-induced formation of salicylic acid from phenol and CO{sub 2} in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Krapfenbauer, K.; Getoff, N.

    1996-12-31

    The concentration of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is steady increasing because of the combustion of fossil fuels and the industrial pollution. As a result, global warming has occurred. In the present study the formation of the salicylic acid and other products, originating from the carboxylation of phenol is investigated. It has been found that the formation of salicylic acid strongly depend on several experimental conditions: pH of the solution, concentration of phenol and CO{sub 2}, and absorbed dose. The formation of salicylic acid was also studied in the presence of catalysts. Photo-induced carboxylation of phenol to salicylic acid will be also reported. Probable reaction mechanisms for the salicylic acid formation are suggested. Finally, a comparison is made between the well known industrial Kolbe-Schmitt process for salicylic acid production and the aspects of the present new method for CO{sub 2} utilization.

  13. Linoleic acid isomerase gene FgLAI12 affects sensitivity to salicylic acid, mycelial growth and virulence of Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Zhou; Wei, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Cai-Hong; Chen, Qing; Xu, Bin-Jie; Guo, Zhen-Ru; Cao, Yong-Li; Wang, Yan; Han, Ya-Nan; Chen, Chen; Feng, Xiang; Qiao, Yuan-Yuan; Zong, Lu-Juan; Zheng, Ting; Deng, Mei; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Li, Wei; Zheng, You-Liang; Wei, Yu-Ming; Qi, Peng-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the major causal agent of fusarium head blight in wheat, a serious disease worldwide. Linoleic acid isomerase (LAI) catalyses the transformation of linoleic acid (LA) to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is beneficial for human health. We characterised a cis-12 LAI gene of F. graminearum (FGSG_02668; FgLAI12), which was downregulated by salicylic acid (SA), a plant defence hormone. Disruption of FgLAI12 in F. graminearum resulted in decreased accumulation of cis-9,trans-11 CLA, enhanced sensitivity to SA, and increased accumulation of LA and SA in wheat spikes during infection. In addition, mycelial growth, accumulation of deoxynivalenol, and pathogenicity in wheat spikes were reduced. Re-introduction of a functional FgLAI12 gene into ΔFgLAI12 recovered the wild-type phenotype. Fluorescent microscopic analysis showed that FgLAI12 protein was usually expressed in the septa zone of conidia and the vacuole of hyphae, but was expressed in the cell membrane of hyphae in response to exogenous LA, which may be an element of LA metabolism during infection by F. graminearum. The cis-12 LAI enzyme encoded by FgLAI12 is critical for fungal response to SA, mycelial growth and virulence in wheat. The gene FgLAI12 is potentially valuable for biotechnological synthesis of cis-9,trans-11 CLA. PMID:28387243

  14. Cyanide restores N gene-mediated resistance to tobacco mosaic virus in transgenic tobacco expressing salicylic acid hydroxylase

    PubMed

    Chivasa; Carr

    1998-09-01

    Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), an inhibitor of alternative oxidase (AOX), blocks salicylic acid-induced resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) but does not inhibit pathogenesis-related PR-1 protein synthesis or resistance to fungal and bacterial pathogens. We found that the synthetic resistance-inducing chemical 2, 6-dichloroisonicotinic acid also induced Aox transcript accumulation and SHAM-sensitive resistance to TMV. The respiratory inhibitors antimycin A and KCN also induced Aox transcript accumulation and resistance to TMV but did not induce PR-1 accumulation. Tobacco plants of the TMV-resistant cultivar Samsun NN transformed with the salicylic acid hydroxylase (nahG) gene could no longer restrict virus to the inoculation site, resulting in spreading necrosis instead of discrete necrotic lesions. Treatment with KCN restored TMV localization and normal lesion morphology. SHAM antagonized this effect, allowing virus escape and spreading necrosis to resume. The results demonstrate the importance of the SHAM-sensitive (potentially AOX-dependent) signal transduction pathway in mediating virus localization early in the hypersensitive response.

  15. Aromatic hydroxylation of salicylic acid and aspirin by human cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Bojić, Mirza; Sedgeman, Carl A; Nagy, Leslie D; Guengerich, F Peter

    2015-06-20

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a well-known and widely-used analgesic. It is rapidly deacetylated to salicylic acid, which forms two hippuric acids-salicyluric acid and gentisuric acid-and two glucuronides. The oxidation of aspirin and salicylic acid has been reported with human liver microsomes, but data on individual cytochromes P450 involved in oxidation is lacking. In this study we monitored oxidation of these compounds by human liver microsomes and cytochrome P450 (P450) using UPLC with fluorescence detection. Microsomal oxidation of salicylic acid was much faster than aspirin. The two oxidation products were 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid, documented by its UV and mass spectrum) and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Formation of neither product was inhibited by desferrioxamine, suggesting a lack of contribution of oxygen radicals under these conditions. Although more liphophilic, aspirin was oxidized less efficiently, primarily to the 2,5-dihydroxy product. Recombinant human P450s 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 all catalyzed the 5-hydroxylation of salicylic acid. Inhibitor studies with human liver microsomes indicated that all six of the previously mentioned P450s could contribute to both the 5- and 3-hydroxylation of salicylic acid and that P450s 2A6 and 2B6 have contributions to 5-hydroxylation. Inhibitor studies indicated that the major human P450 involved in both 3- and 5-hydroxylation of salicylic acid is P450 2E1.

  16. Salicylic acid-induced changes to growth and phenolic metabolism in Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Grúz, Jirí; Backor, Martin; Strnad, Miroslav; Repcák, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    The influence of salicylic acid (SA) doses of 50 and 250 microM, for a period of up to 7 days, on selected physiological aspects and the phenolic metabolism of Matricaria chamomilla plants was studied. SA exhibited both growth-promoting (50 microM) and growth-inhibiting (250 microM) properties, the latter being correlated with decrease of chlorophylls, water content and soluble proteins. In terms of phenolic metabolism, it seems that the higher SA dose has a toxic effect, based on the sharp increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity (24 h after application), which is followed by an increase in total soluble phenolics, lignin accumulation and the majority of the 11 detected phenolic acids. Guaiacol-peroxidase activity was elevated throughout the experiment in 250 microM SA-treated plants. In turn, some responses can be explained by mechanisms associated with oxidative stress tolerance; these mitigate acute SA stress (which is indicated by an increase in malondialdehyde content). However, PAL activity decreased with prolonged exposure to SA, indicating its inhibition. Accumulation of coumarin-related compounds (umbelliferone and herniarin) was not affected by SA treatments, while (Z)- and (E)-2-beta-D: -glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acids increased in the 250 microM SA-treated rosettes. Free SA content in the rosettes increased significantly only in the 250 microM SA treatment, with levels tending to decrease towards the end of the experiment and the opposite trend was observed in the roots.

  17. Anacardic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Oleic Acid Differentially Alter Cellular Bioenergetic Function in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Radde, Brandie N; Alizadeh-Rad, Negin; Price, Stephanie M; Schultz, David J; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2016-11-01

    Anacardic acid is a dietary and medicinal phytochemical that inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Since mitochondrial-targeted anticancer therapy (mitocans) may be useful in breast cancer, we examined the effect of anacardic acid on cellular bioenergetics and OXPHOS pathway proteins in breast cancer cells modeling progression to endocrine-independence: MCF-7 estrogen receptor α (ERα)+ endocrine-sensitive; LCC9 and LY2 ERα+, endocrine-resistant, and MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. At concentrations similar to cell proliferation IC50 s, anacardic acid reduced ATP-linked oxygen consumption rate (OCR), mitochondrial reserve capacity, and coupling efficiency while increasing proton leak, reflecting mitochondrial toxicity which was greater in MCF-7 compared to endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells. These results suggest tolerance in endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells to mitochondrial stress induced by anacardic acid. Since anacardic acid is an alkylated 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, the effects of salicylic acid (SA, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety) and oleic acid (OA, monounsaturated alkyl moiety) were tested. SA inhibited whereas OA stimulated cell viability. In contrast to stimulation of basal OCR by anacardic acid (uncoupling effect), neither SA nor OA altered basal OCR- except OA inhibited basal and ATP-linked OCR, and increased ECAR, in MDA-MB-231 cells. Changes in OXPHOS proteins correlated with changes in OCR. Overall, neither the 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety nor the monounsaturated alky moiety of anacardic acid is solely responsible for the observed mitochondria-targeted anticancer activity in breast cancer cells and hence both moieties are required in the same molecule for the observed effects. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2521-2532, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased heat tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants via salicylic acid pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Ming; Yue, Meng-Meng; Yang, Dong-Yue; Zhu, Shao-Bo; Ma, Na-Na; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased the accumulation of SA, which resulted in significant physiological and gene expression changes in transgenic tobacco plants, leading to the decreased heat tolerance of transgenic tobacco. NAC family, the largest transcription factors in plants, responses to different environmental stimuli. Here, we isolated a typical NAC transcription factor (SlJA2) from tomato and got transgenic tobacco with SlJA2 over-expression. Expression of SlJA2 was induced by heat stress (42 °C), chilling stress (4 °C), drought stress, osmotic stress, abscisic acid, and salicylic acid. Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased the accumulation of salicylic acid by regulating expression of salicylic acid degradation gene under heat stress. Compared to WT plants, stomatal apertures and water loss increased in transgenic plants, and the damage of photosynthetic apparatus and chlorophyll breakdown were more serious in transgenic plants under heat stress. Meanwhile, more H2O2 and O2(·-) were accumulated transgenic plants and proline synthesis was restricted, which resulted in more serious oxidative damage compared to WT. qRT-PCR analysis showed that over-expression of SlJA2 could down-regulate genes involved in reactive oxygen species scavenging, proline biosynthesis, and response to heat stress. All the above results indicated that SlJA2 may be a negative regulator responded to plant's heat tolerance. Thus, this study provides new insight into roles of NAC family member in plant response to abiotic stress.

  19. New approach in the treatment of refractory vitiligo: CO2 laser combined with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Paulo Rowilson; Scabine Pessotti, Nabila; Bonati Mattos, Camila; Salai, Ana Flavia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of fractional carbon dioxide laser (CO2 ) with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution in the treatment of patients with refractory vitiligo in hands. Each hand of the patient was randomly assigned to one of two groups: lesion treated with fractional carbon dioxide laser associated with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution administration or lesion treated only with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution. We conclude that combined treatment with fractional carbon dioxide laser and betamethasone associated with salicylic acid solution could effectively and safely be used in the treatment of refractory vitiligo.

  20. Aromatic Hydroxylation of Salicylic Acid and Aspirin by Human Cytochromes P450

    PubMed Central

    Bojić, Mirza; Sedgeman, Carl A.; Nagy, Leslie D.; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a well-known and widely-used analgesic. It is rapidly deacetylated to salicylic acid, which forms two hippuric acids—salicyluric acid and gentisuric acid—and two glucuronides. The oxidation of aspirin and salicylic acid has been reported with human liver microsomes, but data on individual cytochromes P450 involved in oxidation is lacking. In this study we monitored oxidation of these compounds by human liver microsomes and cytochrome P450 (P450) using UPLC with fluorescence detection. Microsomal oxidation of salicylic acid was much faster than aspirin. The two oxidation products were 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid, documented by its UV and mass spectrum) and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Formation of neither product was inhibited by desferrioxamine, suggesting a lack of contribution of oxygen radicals under these conditions. Although more liphophilic, aspirin was oxidized less efficiently, primarily to the 2,5-dihydroxy product. Recombinant human P450s 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 all catalyzed the 5-hydroxylation of salicylic acid. Inhibitor studies with human liver microsomes indicated that all six of the previously mentioned P450s could contribute to both the 5- and 3-hydroxylation of salicylic acid and that P450s 2A6 and 2B6 have contributions to 5-hydroxylation. Inhibitor studies indicated that the major human P450 involved in both 3- and 5-hydroxylation of salicylic acid is P450 2E1. PMID:25840124

  1. Formation of molecular complexes of salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, and methyl salicylate in a mixture of supercritical carbon dioxide with a polar cosolvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, V. E.; Antipova, M. L.; Gurina, D. L.; Odintsova, E. G.

    2015-08-01

    The solvate structures formed by salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, and methyl salicylate in supercritical (SC) carbon dioxide with a polar cosolvent (methanol, 0.03 mole fractions) at a density of 0.7 g/cm3 and a temperature of 318 K were studied by the molecular dynamics method. Salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids were found to form highly stable hydrogen-bonded complexes with methanol via the hydrogen atom of the carboxyl group. For methyl salicylate in which the carboxyl hydrogen is substituted by a methyl radical, the formation of stable hydrogen bonds with methanol was not revealed. The contribution of other functional groups of the solute to the interactions with the cosolvent was much smaller. An analysis of correlations between the obtained data and the literature data on the cosolvent effect on the solubility of the compounds in SC CO2 showed that the dissolving ability of SC CO2 with respect to a polar organic substance in the presence of a cosolvent increased only when stable hydrogen-bonded complexes are formed between this substance and the cosolvent.

  2. Acetyl salicylic acid attenuates cardiac hypertrophy through Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Gitau, Samuel Chege; Li, Xuelian; Zhao, Dandan; Guo, Zhenfeng; Liang, Haihai; Qian, Ming; Lv, Lifang; Li, Tianshi; Xu, Bozhi; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Chaoqian; Lu, Yanjie; Du, Zhiming; Shan, Hongli; Yang, Baofeng

    2015-12-01

    Ventricular hypertrophy is a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular morbid events. The vascular properties of low-dose acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) provide cardiovascular benefits through the irreversible inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase 1; however, the possible anti-hypertrophic properties and potential mechanism of aspirin have not been investigated in detail. In this study, healthy wild-type male mice were randomly divided into three groups and subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operation. The TAC-operated mice were treated with the human equivalent of low-dose aspirin (10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)); the remaining mice received an equal amount of phosphate buffered saline with 0.65% ethanol, which was used as a vehicle. A cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model induced by angiotensin II (10 nmol·L(-1)) was treated with the human equivalent of low (10 or 100 μmol·L(-1)) and high (1000 μmol·L(-1)) aspirin concentrations in plasma. Changes in the cardiac structure and function were assessed through echocardiography and transmission electron microscopy. Gene expression was determined through RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Results indicated that aspirin treatment abrogated the increased thickness of the left ventricular anterior and posterior walls, the swelling of mitochondria, and the increased surface area in in vivo and in vitro hypertrophy models. Aspirin also normalized the upregulated hypertrophic biomarkers, β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Aspirin efficiently reversed the upregulation of β-catenin and P-Akt expression and the TAC- or ANG II-induced downregulation of GSK-3β. Therefore, low-dose aspirin possesses significant anti-hypertrophic properties at clinically relevant concentrations for anti-thrombotic therapy. The downregulation of β-catenin and Akt may be the underlying signaling mechanism of the effects of aspirin.

  3. The interaction of salicylic acid and Ca(2+) alleviates aluminum toxicity in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    PubMed

    Lan, Tu; You, Jiangfeng; Kong, Lingnan; Yu, Miao; Liu, Minghui; Yang, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    Both calcium ion (Ca(2+)) and salicylic acid (SA) influence various stress responses in plants. In acidic soils, aluminum (Al) toxicity adversely affects crop yield. In this study, we determined the influences of Ca(2+) and SA on root elongation, Al accumulation, and citrate secretion in soybean plant. We also investigated the activity of antioxidative enzymes in Al-exposed soybean roots. Root elongation was severally inhibited when the roots were exposed to 30 μM Al. The Al-induced inhibition of root elongation was ameliorated by Ca(2+) and SA but aggravated by Ca(2+) channel inhibitor (VP), CaM antagonists (TFP), Ca(2+) chelator (EGTA), and SA biosynthesis inhibitor (PAC). Furthermore, 1.0 mM CaCl2 and 10 μM SA reduced the accumulation of Al in roots, but their inhibitors stimulated the accumulation of Al in roots. Citrate secretion from these roots increased with the addition of either 1.0 mM CaCl2 or 10 μM SA but did not increase significantly when treated with higher Ca(2+) concentration. Enzymatic analysis showed that Ca(2+) and SA stimulated the activities of superoxidase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in Al-treated roots. In addition, SA restored the inhibition of Ca(2+) inhibitors on root elongation and Al content. Thus, both Ca(2+) and SA contribute to Al tolerance in soybean. Furthermore, Ca(2+) supplements rapidly increased Al-induced accumulation of free-SA or conjugated SA (SAG), while Ca(2+) inhibitors delayed the accumulation of SA for more than 8 h. Within 4 h of treatment, SA increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in Al-treated roots, and upregulated the expression of four genes that possibly encode calmodulin-like (CML) proteins. These findings indicate that SA is involved in Ca(2+)-mediated signal transduction pathways in Al tolerance.

  4. Cadmium and nickel uptake are differentially modulated by salicylic acid in Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Grúz, Jirí; Hedbavny, Josef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Strnad, Miroslav

    2009-10-28

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) is a widely used medicinal plant which also accumulates heavy metals in its above-ground organs. We investigated the effect of the important plant signaling molecule, salicylic acid (SA), on the accumulation of Ni or Cd, by exposing plants over 7 days to 60 microM solutions of individual heavy metals with or without 50 microM SA. Special emphasis was focused on phenolic metabolism-related parameters, not only because of their importance for growth and stress tolerance but also because phenolics are potent antioxidants in human diet. In combined treatments, SA stimulated an increase in soluble proteins of roots and reduced their water content. SA reduced total Cd in the shoot and increased Ni. Total and "intraroot" Ni decreased in Ni + SA treatment, while in the case of Cd, only "intraroot" content decreased in Cd + SA treatment, being correlated with cell wall-bound phenolic acids and lignin. SA was strongly accumulated in roots from the Ni + SA treatment, being correlated with an increase in hydrogen peroxide. In both Cd + SA and Ni + SA treatments, SA enhanced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and accumulation of total soluble phenols, particularly in the roots. Here, we report for the first time that soluble phenols may be involved in Cd shoot-to-root translocation. In the case of Ni, it seems that phenols serve as a root barrier in order to prevent Ni from reaching the above-ground organs. The effects of SA on phenolic metabolism, and the signaling role of ROS in the accumulation of phenols, are discussed.

  5. Metabolic pathways regulated by abscisic acid, salicylic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid in association with improved drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are known to play roles in regulating plant stress responses. This study was conducted to determine metabolites and associated pathways regulated by ABA, SA and GABA that could contribute to drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Plants were foliar sprayed with ABA (5 μM), GABA (0.5 mM) and SA (10 μM) or water (untreated control) prior to 25 days drought stress in controlled growth chambers. Application of ABA, GABA or SA had similar positive effects on alleviating drought damages, as manifested by the maintenance of lower electrolyte leakage and greater relative water content in leaves of treated plants relative to the untreated control. Metabolic profiling showed that ABA, GABA and SA induced differential metabolic changes under drought stress. ABA mainly promoted the accumulation of organic acids associated with tricarboxylic acid cycle (aconitic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid and malic acid). SA strongly stimulated the accumulation of amino acids (proline, serine, threonine and alanine) and carbohydrates (glucose, mannose, fructose and cellobiose). GABA enhanced the accumulation of amino acids (GABA, glycine, valine, proline, 5-oxoproline, serine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and organic acids (malic acid, lactic acid, gluconic acid, malonic acid and ribonic acid). The enhanced drought tolerance could be mainly due to the enhanced respiration metabolism by ABA, amino acids and carbohydrates involved in osmotic adjustment (OA) and energy metabolism by SA, and amino acid metabolism related to OA and stress-defense secondary metabolism by GABA. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  6. Salicylic acid alters antioxidant and phenolics metabolism in Catharanthus roseus grown under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Misra, Neelam; Misra, Rahul; Mariam, Ajiboye; Yusuf, Kafayat; Yusuf, Lateefat

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) acts as a potential non-enzymatic antioxidant and a plant growth regulator, which plays a major role in regulating various plant physiological mechanisms. The effects of salicylic acid (SA; 0.05 mM) on physiological parameters, antioxidative capacity and phenolic metabolism, lignin, alkaloid accumulation in salt stressed Catharanthus roseus were investigated. Catharanthus roseus seeds were grown for two months in a glass house at 27-30°C in sunlight, and then divided into four different groups and transplanted with each group with the following solutions for one month: group I (non-saline control), group II, 100 mM NaCl, group III, 0.05 mM SA, group IV, 100 mM NaCl+0.05 mM SA and to determine the physiological parameters (DW, FW, WC), chlorophyll contents, carotenoid contents, lipid peroxidation, phenolics, lignin, alkaloid and enzymatic assays in each leaf pairs and roots. SA exhibited growth-promoting property, which correlated with the increase of dry weight, water content, photosynthetic pigments and soluble proteins. SA has additive effect on the significant increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, which is followed by an increase in total soluble phenolics and lignin contents in all leaf pairs and root of C. roseus. SA enhances malondialdehyde content in all leaf pairs and root. The antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-tranferase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase) as well as alkaloid accumulation increased in all treatments over that of non-saline control but the magnitude of increase was found more in root. Further, the magnitude of increase of alkaloid accumulation was significantly higher in 100 mM NaCl, but highly significant was found in presence of 0.05 mM SA and intermediate in presence of both 0.05 mM SA+100 mM NaCl. We concluded that applied SA to salt stress, antioxidant and phenolic metabolism, and alkaloid accumulation were significantly altered and the extent of alteration varied

  7. The Arabidopsis thaliana At4g13040 gene, a unique member of the AP2/EREBP family, is a positive regulator for salicylic acid accumulation and basal defense against bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Giri, Mrunmay Kumar; Swain, Swadhin; Gautam, Janesh Kumar; Singh, Subaran; Singh, Nidhi; Bhattacharjee, Lipika; Nandi, Ashis Kumar

    2014-06-15

    The Arabidopsis genome contains a large number of putative transcription factors, containing a DNA binding domain similar to APETALA2/ethylene response element binding protein (AP2/EREBP), for most of which a function is not known. Phylogenetic analysis divides the Apetala 2 (AP2) super-family into 5 major groups: AP2, RAV, ethylene response factor (ERF), dehydration response element binding protein (DREB) and At4g13040. Similar to ERF and DREB, the At4g13040 protein contains only one AP2 domain; however, its structural uniqueness places it into a distinct group. In this article, we report that At4g13040 (referred herein as Apetala 2 family protein involved in SA mediated disease defense 1 - APD1) is an important regulator for SA mediated plant defense. The APD1 gene is upregulated upon pathogen inoculation, exogenous SA application and in the mutant that constitutively activates SA signaling. The T-DNA insertion lines (inserted in the APD1 promoter), which fail to induce expression upon pathogen inoculation, are compromised for resistance against virulent bacterial pathogens and show reduced induction of pathogenesis related 1 gene. Our results suggest that APD1 functions downstream of PAD4 in Arabidopsis and promotes pathogen-induced SA accumulation. Exogenous SA application completely restores the loss-of-resistance phenotype of the apd1 mutant. Thus, APD1 is a positive regulator of disease defense that functions upstream of SA accumulation.

  8. LSD1 regulates salicylic acid induction of copper zinc superoxide dismutase in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kliebenstein, D J; Dietrich, R A; Martin, A C; Last, R L; Dangl, J L

    1999-11-01

    We characterized the accumulation patterns of Arabidopsis thaliana proteins, two CuZnSODs, FeSOD, MnSOD, PR1, PR5, and GST1, in response to various pathogen-associated treatments. These treatments included inoculation with virulent and avirulent Pseudomonas syringae strains, spontaneous lesion formation in the lsd1 mutant, and treatment with the salicylic acid (SA) analogs INA (2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid) and BTH (benzothiadiazole). The PR1, PR5, and GST1 proteins were inducible by all treatments tested, as expected from previous mRNA blot analysis. The two CuZnSOD proteins were induced by SA analogs and in conjunction with lsd1-mediated spreading cell death. Additionally, LSD1 is a part of a signaling pathway for the induction of the CuZnSOD proteins in response to SA but not in lsd1-mediated cell death. We suggest that the spreading lesion phenotype of lsd1 results from a lack of up-regulation of a CuZnSOD responsible for detoxification of accumulating superoxide before the reactive oxygen species can trigger a cell death cascade.

  9. Effect of salicylic acid on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Zivna, Dana; Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Prokes, Miroslav; Divisova, Lenka; Stancova, Vlasta; Dobsikova, Radka; Tichy, Frantisek; Siroka, Zuzana; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2015-07-01

    Environmental concentrations of pharmaceutical residues are often low; nevertheless, they are designed to have biological effects at low doses. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of salicylic acid on the growth and development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) early life stages with respect to antioxidant defence enzymes. An embryo-larval toxicity test lasting 34 days was performed according to OECD guidelines 210 (Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test). The tested concentrations were 0.004, 0.04, 0.4, 4 and 20mg/l of salicylic acid. Hatching, early ontogeny, and both morphometric and condition characteristics were significantly influenced by subchronic exposure to salicylic acid. Also, changes in antioxidant enzyme activity and an increase in lipid peroxidation were observed. The LOEC value was found to be 0.004 mg/l salicylic acid. The results of our study confirm the suggestion that subchronic exposure to salicylic acid at environmental concentrations can have significant effects on aquatic vertebrates.

  10. Amelioration of Cd toxicity by pretreatment of salicylic acid in Cicer arietinum L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Canakci, Songül; Dursun, Bahar

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the ameliorating effect of salicylic acid (SA), serving as a mediator for protecting plants, against cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Cicer arietinum was investigated. The seedlings of Cicer arietinum treated with increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 microM ) inhibited seedling length, reduced fresh and dry weight, total chlorophyll, carotenoid content and fatty acid methyl ester content. Furthermore, the level of some important parameters like MDA, proline and GSH content related to oxidative stress increased in Cd treated seedlings. Leaves of seedlings pretreated with salicylic acid (0.5 mM), alleviated the toxic effects of Cd by increasing the growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, GSH and FAME content and decreasing proline and MDA content respectively. The result of the present study reveals the protective role of salicylic acid against Cd toxicity in C. arietinum.

  11. Electrochemical assisted photocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid with highly ordered TiO2 nanotube electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Jinwei; Wang, Ying; Feng, Jiangtao; Yan, Wei; Xu, Hao

    2014-07-01

    To explore the kinetics of photoelectrocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid, one of the important PPCPs, highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTs) were prepared by the electrochemical anodization and characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The effect of TiO2 NTs properties, bias potential, initial salicylic acid concentration and solution pH on the degradation efficiency was studied and carefully analyzed. The results revealed that the salicylic acid degradation follows quasi-first order kinetics in the photoelectrocatalytic process, and the fastest decay kinetics was achieved in acidic environment (pH 2). The result was further interpreted through the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is confirmed that the electrochemical assisted photocatalysis is a synergetic approach to combat stable organic substances with improved efficiency.

  12. Percutaneous Absorption of Salicylic Acid after Administration of Trolamine Salicylate Cream in Rats with Transcutol® and Eucalyptus Oil Pre-Treated Skin

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Paniz; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Sharif Makhmalzadeh, Behzad; Rezaee, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to assess the effect of skin pre-treatment with Transcutol® and eucalyptus oil on systemic absorption of topical trolamine salicylate in rat. Methods: Pharmacokinetic parameters of salicylic acid following administration of trolamine salicylate on rat skin pre-treated with either Transcutol® or eucalyptus oil were determined using both non-compartmental and non-linear mixed effect modeling approaches and compared with those of control group. Results: Median (% of interquartile range/median) of salicylic acid AUC0-8hr (ng/mL/hr) values in Transcutol® or eucalyptus oil treated rats were 2522(139%) and 58976(141%), respectively as compared to the 3023(327%) of the control group. Skin pre-treatment with eucalyptus oil could significantly decrease extravascular volume of distribution (V/F) and elimination rate constant (k) of salicylic acid. Conclusion: Unlike Transcutol®, eucalyptus oil lead to enhanced transdermal absorption of trolamine salicylate through rat skin. PMID:24312851

  13. Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid are essential for systemic resistance against tobacco mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Xi, De-Hui; Yuan, Shu; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2014-06-01

    Systemic resistance is induced by pathogens and confers protection against a broad range of pathogens. Recent studies have indicated that salicylic acid (SA) derivative methyl salicylate (MeSA) serves as a long-distance phloem-mobile systemic resistance signal in tobacco, Arabidopsis, and potato. However, other experiments indicate that jasmonic acid (JA) is a critical mobile signal. Here, we present evidence suggesting both MeSA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are essential for systemic resistance against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), possibly acting as the initiating signals for systemic resistance. Foliar application of JA followed by SA triggered the strongest systemic resistance against TMV. Furthermore, we use a virus-induced gene-silencing-based genetics approach to investigate the function of JA and SA biosynthesis or signaling genes in systemic response against TMV infection. Silencing of SA or JA biosynthetic and signaling genes in Nicotiana benthamiana plants increased susceptibility to TMV. Genetic experiments also proved the irreplaceable roles of MeSA and MeJA in systemic resistance response. Systemic resistance was compromised when SA methyl transferase or JA carboxyl methyltransferase, which are required for MeSA and MeJA formation, respectively, were silenced. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that JA and MeJA accumulated in phloem exudates of leaves at early stages and SA and MeSA accumulated at later stages, after TMV infection. Our data also indicated that JA and MeJA could regulate MeSA and SA production. Taken together, our results demonstrate that (Me)JA and (Me)SA are required for systemic resistance response against TMV.

  14. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid activate a common defense system in rice

    PubMed Central

    Tamaoki, Daisuke; Seo, Shigemi; Yamada, Shoko; Kano, Akihito; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Shishido, Hodaka; Miyoshi, Seika; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense systems. JA and SA signaling pathways interact antagonistically in dicotyledonous plants, but, the status of crosstalk between JA and SA signaling is unknown in monocots. Our rice microarray analysis showed that more than half of the genes upregulated by the SA analog BTH are also upregulated by JA, suggesting that a major portion of the SA-upregulated genes are regulated by JA-dependent signaling in rice. A common defense system that is activated by both JA and SA is thus proposed which plays an important role in pathogen defense responses in rice. PMID:23518581

  15. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid activate a common defense system in rice.

    PubMed

    Tamaoki, Daisuke; Seo, Shigemi; Yamada, Shoko; Kano, Akihito; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Shishido, Hodaka; Miyoshi, Seika; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2013-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense systems. JA and SA signaling pathways interact antagonistically in dicotyledonous plants, but, the status of crosstalk between JA and SA signaling is unknown in monocots. Our rice microarray analysis showed that more than half of the genes upregulated by the SA analog BTH are also upregulated by JA, suggesting that a major portion of the SA-upregulated genes are regulated by JA-dependent signaling in rice. A common defense system that is activated by both JA and SA is thus proposed which plays an important role in pathogen defense responses in rice.

  16. Salicylic acid alleviates aluminum toxicity in rice seedlings better than magnesium and calcium by reducing aluminum uptake, suppressing oxidative damage and increasing antioxidative defense.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Poonam; Srivastava, Rajneesh Kumar; Dubey, R S

    2013-05-01

    Aluminum toxicity is a major constraint to crop production in acid soils. The present study was undertaken to examine the comparative ameliorating effects of salicylic acid, Ca and Mg on Al toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings grown in hydroponics. Al treatment (0.5 mM AlCl3) caused decrease in plant vigour, loss of root plasma membrane integrity, increased contents of O 2 (∙-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and decline in the level of protein thiol. Al treatment caused significant changes in activity of antioxidative enzymes in rice seedlings. Exogenously added salicylic acid (60 μM), Ca (1 mM) and Mg (0.25 mM) significantly alleviated Al toxicity effects in the seedlings marked by restoration of growth, suppression of Al uptake, restoration of root plasma membrane integrity and decline in O 2 (∙-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl contents. Salicylic acid, Ca and Mg suppressed Al-induced increase in SOD, GPX and APX activities while it elevated Al-induced decline in CAT activity. By histochemical staining of O 2 (∙-) using NBT and H2O2 using DAB, it was further confirmed that added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg decreased Al-induced accumulation of O 2 (∙-) and H2O2 in the leaf tissues. Results indicate that exogenously added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg alleviates Al toxicity in rice seedlings by suppressing Al uptake, restoring root membrane integrity, reducing ROS level and ROS induced oxidative damage and regulating the level of antioxidative enzyme activities. Further salicylic appears to be superior to Mg and Ca in alleviating Al toxicity effects in rice plants.

  17. Controlled Release of Salicylic Acid from Biodegradable Cross-Linked Polyesters.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Queeny; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-09-08

    The purpose of this work was to develop a family of cross-linked poly(xylitol adipate salicylate)s with a wide range of tunable release properties for delivering pharmacologically active salicylic acid. The synthesis parameters and release conditions were varied to modulate polyester properties and to understand the mechanism of release. Varying release rates were obtained upon longer curing (35% in the noncured polymer to 10% in the cured polymer in 7 days). Differential salicylic acid loading led to the synthesis of polymers with variable cross-linking and the release could be tuned (100% release for the lowest loading to 30% in the highest loading). Controlled release was monitored by changing various factors, and the release profiles were dependent on the stoichiometric composition, pH, curing time, and presence of enzyme. The polymer released a combination of salicylic acid and disalicylic acid, and the released products were found to be nontoxic. Minimal hemolysis and platelet activation indicated good blood compatibility. These polymers qualify as "bioactive" and "resorbable" and can, therefore, find applications as immunomodulatory resorbable biomaterials with tunable release properties.

  18. Salicylic acid attenuates virulence in endovascular infections by targeting global regulatory pathways in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kupferwasser, Leon Iri; Yeaman, Michael R.; Nast, Cynthia C.; Kupferwasser, Deborah; Xiong, Yan-Qiong; Palma, Marco; Cheung, Ambrose L.; Bayer, Arnold S.

    2003-01-01

    Aspirin has been previously shown to reduce the in vivo virulence of Staphylococcus aureus in experimental endocarditis, through antiplatelet and antimicrobial mechanisms. In the present study, salicylic acid, the major in vivo metabolite of aspirin, mitigated two important virulence phenotypes in both clinical and laboratory S. aureus strains: α-hemolysin secretion and fibronectin binding in vitro. In addition, salicylic acid reduced the expression of the α-hemolysin gene promoter, hla, and the fibronectin gene promoter, fnbA. Transcriptional analysis, fluorometry, and flow cytometry revealed evidence of salicylic acid–mediated activation of the stress-response gene sigB. Expression of the sigB-repressible global regulon sarA and the global regulon agr were also mitigated by salicylic acid, corresponding to the reduced expression of the hla and fnbA genes in vitro. Studies in experimental endocarditis confirmed the key roles of both sarA and sigB in mediating the antistaphylococcal effects of salicylic acid in vivo. Therefore, aspirin has the potential to be an adjuvant therapeutic agent against endovascular infections that result from S. aureus, by downmodulating key staphylococcal global regulons and structural genes in vivo, thus abrogating relevant virulence phenotypes. PMID:12865410

  19. Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Ryuma; Aonuma, Hiroka; Kojima, Mikiko; Tahara, Michiru; Andrabi, Syed Bilal Ahmad; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2015-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces the plant hormone abscisic acid, but it is unclear if phytohormones are produced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium spp., the most important parasite of this phylum. Here, we report detection of salicylic acid, an immune-related phytohormone of land plants, in P. berghei ANKA and T. gondii cell lysates. However, addition of salicylic acid to P. falciparum and T. gondii culture had no effect. We transfected P. falciparum 3D7 with the nahG gene, which encodes a salicylic acid-degrading enzyme isolated from plant-infecting Pseudomonas sp., and established a salicylic acid-deficient mutant. The mutant had a significantly decreased concentration of parasite-synthesized prostaglandin E2, which potentially modulates host immunity as an adaptive evolution of Plasmodium spp. To investigate the function of salicylic acid and prostaglandin E2 on host immunity, we established P. berghei ANKA mutants expressing nahG. C57BL/6 mice infected with nahG transfectants developed enhanced cerebral malaria, as assessed by Evans blue leakage and brain histological observation. The nahG-transfectant also significantly increased the mortality rate of mice. Prostaglandin E2 reduced the brain symptoms by induction of T helper-2 cytokines. As expected, T helper-1 cytokines including interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were significantly elevated by infection with the nahG transfectant. Thus, salicylic acid of Plasmodium spp. may be a new pathogenic factor of this threatening parasite and may modulate immune function via parasite-produced prostaglandin E2. PMID:26466097

  20. Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Ryuma; Aonuma, Hiroka; Kojima, Mikiko; Tahara, Michiru; Andrabi, Syed Bilal Ahmad; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2015-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces the plant hormone abscisic acid, but it is unclear if phytohormones are produced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium spp., the most important parasite of this phylum. Here, we report detection of salicylic acid, an immune-related phytohormone of land plants, in P. berghei ANKA and T. gondii cell lysates. However, addition of salicylic acid to P. falciparum and T. gondii culture had no effect. We transfected P. falciparum 3D7 with the nahG gene, which encodes a salicylic acid-degrading enzyme isolated from plant-infecting Pseudomonas sp., and established a salicylic acid-deficient mutant. The mutant had a significantly decreased concentration of parasite-synthesized prostaglandin E2, which potentially modulates host immunity as an adaptive evolution of Plasmodium spp. To investigate the function of salicylic acid and prostaglandin E2 on host immunity, we established P. berghei ANKA mutants expressing nahG. C57BL/6 mice infected with nahG transfectants developed enhanced cerebral malaria, as assessed by Evans blue leakage and brain histological observation. The nahG-transfectant also significantly increased the mortality rate of mice. Prostaglandin E2 reduced the brain symptoms by induction of T helper-2 cytokines. As expected, T helper-1 cytokines including interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were significantly elevated by infection with the nahG transfectant. Thus, salicylic acid of Plasmodium spp. may be a new pathogenic factor of this threatening parasite and may modulate immune function via parasite-produced prostaglandin E2.

  1. Cytotoxic Activity of Salicylic Acid-Containing Drug Models with Ionic and Covalent Binding.

    PubMed

    Egorova, Ksenia S; Seitkalieva, Marina M; Posvyatenko, Alexandra V; Khrustalev, Victor N; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2015-11-12

    Three different types of drug delivery platforms based on imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) were synthesized in high preparative yields, namely, the models involving (i) ionic binding of drug and IL; (ii) covalent binding of drug and IL; and (iii) dual binding using both ionic and covalent approaches. Seven ionic liquids containing salicylic acid (SA-ILs) in the cation or/and in the anion were prepared, and their cytotoxicity toward the human cell lines CaCo-2 (colorectal adenocarcinoma) and 3215 LS (normal fibroblasts) was evaluated. Cytotoxicity of SA-ILs was significantly higher than that of conventional imidazolium-based ILs and was comparable to the pure salicylic acid. It is important to note that the obtained SA-ILs dissolved in water more readily than salicylic acid, suggesting benefits of possible usage of traditional nonsoluble active pharmaceutical ingredients in an ionic liquid form.

  2. Cytotoxic Activity of Salicylic Acid-Containing Drug Models with Ionic and Covalent Binding

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Three different types of drug delivery platforms based on imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) were synthesized in high preparative yields, namely, the models involving (i) ionic binding of drug and IL; (ii) covalent binding of drug and IL; and (iii) dual binding using both ionic and covalent approaches. Seven ionic liquids containing salicylic acid (SA-ILs) in the cation or/and in the anion were prepared, and their cytotoxicity toward the human cell lines CaCo-2 (colorectal adenocarcinoma) and 3215 LS (normal fibroblasts) was evaluated. Cytotoxicity of SA-ILs was significantly higher than that of conventional imidazolium-based ILs and was comparable to the pure salicylic acid. It is important to note that the obtained SA-ILs dissolved in water more readily than salicylic acid, suggesting benefits of possible usage of traditional nonsoluble active pharmaceutical ingredients in an ionic liquid form. PMID:26617961

  3. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P) supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin. PMID:21871058

  4. Solid-state 17O NMR of pharmaceutical compounds: salicylic acid and aspirin.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xianqi; Shan, Melissa; Terskikh, Victor; Hung, Ivan; Gan, Zhehong; Wu, Gang

    2013-08-22

    We report solid-state NMR characterization of the (17)O quadrupole coupling (QC) and chemical shift (CS) tensors in five site-specifically (17)O-labeled samples of salicylic acid and o-acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin). High-quality (17)O NMR spectra were obtained for these important pharmaceutical compounds under both static and magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions at two magnetic fields, 14.0 and 21.1 T. A total of 14 (17)O QC and CS tensors were experimentally determined for the seven oxygen sites in salicylic acid and Aspirin. Although both salicylic acid and Aspirin form hydrogen bonded cyclic dimers in the solid state, we found that the potential curves for the concerted double proton transfer in these two compounds are significantly different. In particular, while the double-well potential curve in Aspirin is nearly symmetrical, it is highly asymmetrical in salicylic acid. This difference results in quite different temperature dependencies in (17)O MAS spectra of the two compounds. A careful analysis of variable-temperature (17)O MAS NMR spectra of Aspirin allowed us to obtain the energy asymmetry (ΔE) of the double-well potential, ΔE = 3.0 ± 0.5 kJ/mol. We were also able to determine a lower limit of ΔE for salicylic acid, ΔE > 10 kJ/mol. These asymmetrical features in potential energy curves were confirmed by plane-wave DFT computations, which yielded ΔE = 3.7 and 17.8 kJ/mol for Aspirin and salicylic acid, respectively. To complement the solid-state (17)O NMR data, we also obtained solid-state (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra for salicylic acid and Aspirin. Using experimental NMR parameters obtained for all magnetic nuclei present in salicylic acid and Aspirin, we found that plane-wave DFT computations can produce highly accurate NMR parameters in well-defined crystalline organic compounds.

  5. Salicylic Acid-Based Polymers for Guided Bone Regeneration Using Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sangeeta; Mitchell, Ashley; Yu, Weiling; Snyder, Sabrina; Uhrich, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is used clinically to promote spinal fusion, treat complex tibia fractures, and to promote bone formation in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Excessive bone formation at sites where BMP-2 has been applied is an established complication and one that could be corrected by guided tissue regeneration methods. In this study, anti-inflammatory polymers containing salicylic acid [salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-ester), SAPAE] were electrospun with polycaprolactone (PCL) to create thin flexible matrices for use as guided bone regeneration membranes. SAPAE polymers hydrolyze to release salicylic acid, which is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. PCL was used to enhance the mechanical integrity of the matrices. Two different SAPAE-containing membranes were produced and compared: fast-degrading (FD-SAPAE) and slow-degrading (SD-SAPAE) membranes that release salicylic acid at a faster and slower rate, respectively. Rat femur defects were treated with BMP-2 and wrapped with FD-SAPAE, SD-SAPAE, or PCL membrane or were left unwrapped. The effects of different membranes on bone formation within and outside of the femur defects were measured by histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Bone formation within the defect was not affected by membrane wrapping at BMP-2 doses of 12 μg or more. In contrast, the FD-SAPAE membrane significantly reduced bone formation outside the defect compared with all other treatments. The rapid release of salicylic acid from the FD-SAPAE membrane suggests that localized salicylic acid treatment during the first few days of BMP-2 treatment can limit ectopic bone formation. The data support development of SAPAE polymer membranes for guided bone regeneration applications as well as barriers to excessive bone formation. PMID:25813520

  6. Salicylic Acid-Based Polymers for Guided Bone Regeneration Using Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sangeeta; Mitchell, Ashley; Yu, Weiling; Snyder, Sabrina; Uhrich, Kathryn; O'Connor, J Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is used clinically to promote spinal fusion, treat complex tibia fractures, and to promote bone formation in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Excessive bone formation at sites where BMP-2 has been applied is an established complication and one that could be corrected by guided tissue regeneration methods. In this study, anti-inflammatory polymers containing salicylic acid [salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-ester), SAPAE] were electrospun with polycaprolactone (PCL) to create thin flexible matrices for use as guided bone regeneration membranes. SAPAE polymers hydrolyze to release salicylic acid, which is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. PCL was used to enhance the mechanical integrity of the matrices. Two different SAPAE-containing membranes were produced and compared: fast-degrading (FD-SAPAE) and slow-degrading (SD-SAPAE) membranes that release salicylic acid at a faster and slower rate, respectively. Rat femur defects were treated with BMP-2 and wrapped with FD-SAPAE, SD-SAPAE, or PCL membrane or were left unwrapped. The effects of different membranes on bone formation within and outside of the femur defects were measured by histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Bone formation within the defect was not affected by membrane wrapping at BMP-2 doses of 12 μg or more. In contrast, the FD-SAPAE membrane significantly reduced bone formation outside the defect compared with all other treatments. The rapid release of salicylic acid from the FD-SAPAE membrane suggests that localized salicylic acid treatment during the first few days of BMP-2 treatment can limit ectopic bone formation. The data support development of SAPAE polymer membranes for guided bone regeneration applications as well as barriers to excessive bone formation.

  7. Salicylic Acid sans Aspirin in Animals and Man: Persistence in Fasting and Biosynthesis from Benzoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), which is central to defense mechanisms in plants and the principal metabolite of aspirin, occurs naturally in man with higher levels of SA and its urinary metabolite salicyluric acid (SU) in vegetarians overlapping with levels in patients on low-dose aspirin regimens. SA is widely distributed in animal blood. Fasting for major colorectal surgery did not cause disappearance of SA from plasma, even in patients following total proctocolectomy. A 13C6 benzoic acid load ingested by six volunteers led, between 8 and 16 h, to a median 33.9% labeling of urinary salicyluric acid. The overall contribution of benzoic acid (and its salts) to the turnover of circulating SA thus requires further assessment. However, that SA appears to be, at least partially, an endogenous compound should lead to reassessment of its role in human (and animal) pathophysiology. PMID:19053387

  8. Salicylic acid sans aspirin in animals and man: persistence in fasting and biosynthesis from benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Paterson, John R; Baxter, Gwendoline; Dreyer, Jacob S; Halket, John M; Flynn, Robert; Lawrence, James R

    2008-12-24

    Salicylic acid (SA), which is central to defense mechanisms in plants and the principal metabolite of aspirin, occurs naturally in man with higher levels of SA and its urinary metabolite salicyluric acid (SU) in vegetarians overlapping with levels in patients on low-dose aspirin regimens. SA is widely distributed in animal blood. Fasting for major colorectal surgery did not cause disappearance of SA from plasma, even in patients following total proctocolectomy. A (13)C(6) benzoic acid load ingested by six volunteers led, between 8 and 16 h, to a median 33.9% labeling of urinary salicyluric acid. The overall contribution of benzoic acid (and its salts) to the turnover of circulating SA thus requires further assessment. However, that SA appears to be, at least partially, an endogenous compound should lead to reassessment of its role in human (and animal) pathophysiology.

  9. Interconversion of the salicylic acid signal and its glucoside in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Hennig, J; Malamy, J; Grynkiewicz, G; Indulski, J; Klessig, D F

    1993-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been proposed to play a role in the induction of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in tobacco. Since SA is rapidly converted to salicylic acid beta-glucoside (SAG) in tobacco, we have attempted to assess the role of SAG in pathogenesis by application of chemically synthesized SAG to tobacco leaves. SAG was as active as SA in induction of PR-1 gene expression. This induction was preceded by a transient release of SA, which occurred in the extracellular spaces. The existence of a mechanism that releases SA from SAG suggests a possible role for SAG in SAR.

  10. Guanosine tetraphosphate modulates salicylic acid signalling and the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana to Turnip mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Abdelkefi, Hela; Sugliani, Matteo; Ke, Hang; Harchouni, Seddik; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Citerne, Sylvie; Mouille, Gregory; Fakhfakh, Hatem; Robaglia, Christophe; Field, Ben

    2017-02-21

    Chloroplasts can act as key players in the perception and acclimatization of plants to incoming environmental signals. A growing body of evidence indicates that chloroplasts play a critical role in plant immunity. Chloroplast function can be regulated by the nucleotides guanosine tetraphosphate and pentaphosphate [(p)ppGpp]. In plants, (p)ppGpp levels increase in response to abiotic stress and to plant hormones which are involved in abiotic and biotic stress signalling. In this study, we analysed the transcriptome of Arabidopsis plants that over-accumulate (p)ppGpp, and unexpectedly found a decrease in the levels of a broad range of transcripts for plant defence and immunity. To determine whether (p)ppGpp is involved in the modulation of plant immunity, we analysed the susceptibility of plants with different levels of (p)ppGpp to Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) carrying a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. We found that (p)ppGpp accumulation was associated with increased susceptibility to TuMV and reduced levels of the defence hormone salicylic acid (SA). In contrast, plants with lower (p)ppGpp levels showed reduced susceptibility to TuMV, and this was associated with the precocious up-regulation of defence-related genes and increased SA content. We have therefore demonstrated a new link between (p)ppGpp metabolism and plant immunity in Arabidopsis. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  11. Salicylic acid in the machinery of hypersensitive cell death and disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M E

    2000-10-01

    Although extensive data has described the key role of salicylic acid (SA) in signaling pathogen-induced disease resistance, its function in physiological processes related to cell death is still poorly understood. Recent studies have explored the requirement of SA for mounting the hypersensitive response (HR) against an invading pathogen, where a particular cell death process is activated at the site of attempted infection causing a confined lesion. Biochemical data suggest that SA potentiates the signal pathway for HR by affecting an early phosphorylation-sensitive step preceding the generation of pro-death signals, including those derived from the oxidative burst. Accordingly, the epistatic relationship between cell death and SA accumulation, analyzed in crosses between lesion-mimic mutants (spontaneous lesion formation) and the transgenic nahG line (depleted in SA) places the SA activity in a feedback loop downstream and upstream of cell death. Exciting advances have been made in the identification of cellular protective functions and cell death suppressors that might operate in HR. Moreover, the spatio-temporal patterns of the SA accumulation (non-homogeneous distribution, biphasic kinetics) described in some HR lesions, may also reveal important clues for unraveling the complex cellular network that tightly balances pro- and anti-death functions in the hypersensitive cell death.

  12. Acceleration of the herbicide isoproturon degradation in wheat by glycosyltransferases and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Isoproturon (IPU) is a herbicide widely used to prevent weeds in cereal production. Due to its extensive use in agriculture, residues of IPU are often detected in soils and crops. Overload of IPU to crops is associated with human health risks. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop an approach to mitigate its accumulation in crops. In this study, the IPU residues and its degradation products in wheat were characterized using ultra performance liquid chromatography-time of fight tandem-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (UPLC-TOF-MS/MS). Most detected IPU-derivatives were sugar-conjugated. Degradation and glycosylation of IPU-derivatives could be enhanced by applying salicylic acid (SA). While more sugar-conjugated IPU-derivatives were identified in wheat with SA application, lower levels of IPU were detected, indicating that SA is able to accelerate intracellular IPU catabolism. All structures of IPU-derivatives and sugar-conjugated products were characterized. Comparative data were provided with specific activities and gene expression of certain glucosyltransferases. A pathway with IPU degradation and glucosylation was discussed. Our work indicates that SA-accelerated degradation is practically useful for wheat crops growing in IPU-contaminated soils because such crops with SA application can potentially lower or minimize IPU accumulation in levels below the threshold for adverse effects.

  13. Involvement of endogenous salicylic acid in iron-deficiency responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chenjia; Yang, Yanjun; Liu, Kaidong; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Hong; Sun, Tao; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-07-01

    Several phytohormones have been demonstrated to be involved in iron (Fe) homeostasis. We took advantage of a salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis defective mutant phytoalexin deficient 4 (pad4: T-DNA Salk_089936) to explore the possible effects of endogenous SA on the morphological and physiological responses to Fe deprivation. The morphological and physiological analysis was carried out between Col-0 and the pad4 mutant. Under an Fe-deficiency treatment, Col-0 showed more severe leaf chlorosis and root growth inhibition compared with the pad4 mutant. The soluble Fe concentrations were significantly higher in pad4 than in Col-0 under the Fe-deficiency treatment. Fe deficiency significantly induced SA accumulation in Col-0 and the loss-of-function of PAD4 blocked this process. The requirement of endogenous SA accumulation for Fe-deficiency responses was confirmed using a series of SA biosynthetic mutants and transgenic lines. Furthermore, a comparative RNA sequencing analysis of the whole seedling transcriptomes between Col-0 and the pad4 mutant was also performed. Based on the transcriptome data, the expression levels of many auxin- and ethylene-response genes were altered in pad4 compared with Col-0. Fe deficiency increases SA contents which elevates auxin and ethylene signalling, thereby activating Fe translocation via the bHLH38/39-mediated transcriptional regulation of downstream Fe genes.

  14. Hydrolysis of salicyluric acid in intestinal microorganisms and prolonged blood concentration of salicylic acid following rectal administration of salicyluric acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Shiota, H; Sasaki, H; Shibasaki, J

    1988-09-01

    The blood concentrations of salicyluric acid and salicylic acid following oral, intravenous, intracecal and rectal administration of salicyluric acid were determined in rats. After oral administration of salicyluric acid, salicyluric acid was rapidly absorbed. Salicylic acid was detected at low concentration. Following intravenous administration of salicyluric acid, salicyluric acid was detected in the blood and was rapidly eliminated. A trace amount of salicylic acid was detected, suggesting that systemic deconjugation of glycine was involved. Furthermore, in vitro incubation of salicyluric acid with contents of the gut showed that the major source of the hydrolysis was the hind gut. Immediate and very extensive salicylic acid formation in the cecum was found following intracecal administration of salicyluric acid. The blood concentration of salicylic acid was maintained at 2.6-4.0 micrograms/ml from 4 to 12 h following rectal administration of salicyluric acid (10 mg/kg: salicylic acid equivalent). Species difference in the metabolic fate of salicyluric acid in rats and rabbits reported previously is discussed.

  15. Ascorbic acid and salicylic acid mitigate nacl stress in Caralluma tuberculata Calli.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Riaz Ur; Zia, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Lu, Gang; Chaudhary, Muhammad Fayyaz

    2014-06-01

    Plants exposed to salt stress undergo biochemical and morphological changes even at cellular level. Such changes also include activation of antioxidant enzymes to scavenge reactive oxygen species, while morphological changes are determined as deformation of membranes and organelles. Present investigation substantiates this phenomenon for Caralluma tuberculata calli when exposed to NaCl stress at different concentrations. Elevated levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) in NaCl-stressed calli dwindled upon application of non-enzymatic antioxidants; ascorbic acid (AA) and salicylic acid (SA). Many fold increased enzymes concentrations trimmed down even below as present in the control calli. Electron microscopic images accentuated several cellular changes upon NaCl stress such as plasmolysed plasma membrane, disruption of nuclear membrane, increased numbers of nucleoli, alteration in shape and lamellar membrane system in plastid, and increased number of plastoglobuli. The cells retrieved their normal structure upon exposure to non-enzymatic antioxidants. The results of the present experiments conclude that NaCl aggravate oxidative molecules that eventually alleviate antioxidant enzymatic system. Furthermore, the salt stress knocked down by applying ascorbic acid and salicylic acid manifested by normal enzyme level and restoration of cellular structure.

  16. Incorporation of salicylic acid derivatives to hydrophilic copolymer systems with biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Elvira, C; Gallardo, A; Lacroix, N; Schacht, E; San Román, J

    2001-06-01

    Hydrogels based on polymeric derivatives of salicylic acid have been prepared for biomedical applications by free radical copolymerization of 2-hydroxy-4-methacrylamidobenzoic acid, 4HMA, and 2-hydroxy-5-methacrylamidobenzoic acid, 5HMA, with 2- hydroxyethylmethacrylate, HEMA, in a wide range of compositions. The reactivity ratios of 4HMA and 5HMA with HEMA in radical copolymerization processes have been determined from their 1H NMR spectra by applying linearization methods and non-linear least square treatments. Tgs of the corresponding copolymers were analyzed by DSC. The swelling behavior in water of the prepared copolymers was studied in comparison to poly-(HEMA), poly-(4HMA) and poly-(5HMA) hydration degrees, being in all cases superior to 35%. The hydrolytical behavior of the synthesized copolymers was studied at three different pHs (2, 7.4 and 10) determining the release percentage of the salicylic acid derivatives, 4-amino salicylic acid, 4ASA, and 5-amino salicylic acid, 5ASA, analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The release analysis was followed during 230 days and a pH dependence was observed obtaining the highest release percentages at pH=10, whereas at physiological pH (7.4) the release percentages were in range from 2 to 5% at that time for all copolymer systems. The hydrolytical stability is enough for long-term applications like bone cements, ionomers, etc.

  17. Plant immunity induced by COS-OGA elicitor is a cumulative process that involves salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    van Aubel, Géraldine; Cambier, Pierre; Dieu, Marc; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Plant innate immunity offers considerable opportunities for plant protection but beside flagellin and chitin, not many molecules and their receptors have been extensively characterized and very few have successfully reached the field. COS-OGA, an elicitor that combines cationic chitosan oligomers (COS) with anionic pectin oligomers (OGA), efficiently protected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in greenhouse against powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica). Leaf proteomic analysis of plants sprayed with COS-OGA showed accumulation of Pathogenesis-Related proteins (PR), especially subtilisin-like proteases. qRT-PCR confirmed upregulation of PR-proteins and salicylic acid (SA)-related genes while expression of jasmonic acid/ethylene-associated genes was not modified. SA concentration and class III peroxidase activity were increased in leaves and appeared to be a cumulative process dependent on the number of sprayings with the elicitor. These results suggest a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) mechanism of action of the COS-OGA elicitor and highlight the importance of repeated applications to ensure efficient protection against disease.

  18. Salicylic-acid elicited phospholipase D responses in Capsicum chinense cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Rodas-Junco, B A; Muñoz-Sánchez, J A; Vázquez-Flota, F; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M T

    2015-05-01

    The plant response to different stress types can occur through stimulus recognition and the subsequent signal transduction through second messengers that send information to the regulation of metabolism and the expression of defense genes. The phospholipidic signaling pathway forms part of the plant response to several phytoregulators, such as salicylic acid (SA), which has been widely used to stimulate secondary metabolite production in cell cultures. In this work, we studied the effects of SA treatment on [(32)-P]Pi phospholipid turnover and phospholipase D (PLD) activity using cultured Capsicum chinense cells. In cultured cells, the PIP2 turnover showed changes after SA treatment, while the most abundant phospholipids (PLs), such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), did not show changes during the temporal course. SA treatment significantly increased phosphatidic acid (PA) turnover over time compared to control cells. The PA accumulation in cells treated with 1-butanol showed a decrease in messengers; at the same time, there was a 1.5-fold increase in phosphatidylbutanol. These results suggest that the participation of the PLD pathway is a source of PA production, and the activation of this mechanism may be important in the cell responses to SA treatment.

  19. Efficacy of salicylic acid to reduce Penicillium expansum inoculum and preserve apple fruits.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Neto, Argus Cezar; Luiz, Caroline; Maraschin, Marcelo; Di Piero, Robson Marcelo

    2016-03-16

    Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide. Blue mold (Penicillium expansum) is one of the major diseases in apples postharvest, leading to wide use of fungicides and the search for alternative products to control the pathogen. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of salicylic acid (SA) as an alternative product to control blue mold and to preserve the physicochemical characteristics of apple fruit postharvest. The antimicrobial effect of SA was determined both in vitro and in situ, by directly exposing conidia to solutions of different concentrations SA or by inoculating the fruit with P. expansum and treating them curatively, eradicatively, or preventively with a 2.5mM SA solution. The physiological effects of SA on fruit were determined by quantifying the weight loss, total soluble solids content, and titratable acidity. In addition, the accumulation of SA in the fruit was determined by HPLC. SA (2.5mM) inhibited 100% of fungal germination in vitro and also controlled blue mold in situ when applied eradicatively. In addition, HPLC analysis demonstrated that SA did not persist in apple fruit. SA also maintained the physicochemical characteristics of fruit of different quality categories. Thus, SA may be an alternative to the commercial fungicides currently used against P. expansum.

  20. Salicylic acid receptors activate jasmonic acid signalling through a non-canonical pathway to promote effector-triggered immunity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lijing; Sonbol, Fathi-Mohamed; Huot, Bethany; Gu, Yangnan; Withers, John; Mwimba, Musoki; Yao, Jian; He, Sheng Yang; Dong, Xinnian

    2016-01-01

    It is an apparent conundrum how plants evolved effector-triggered immunity (ETI), involving programmed cell death (PCD), as a major defence mechanism against biotrophic pathogens, because ETI-associated PCD could leave them vulnerable to necrotrophic pathogens that thrive on dead host cells. Interestingly, during ETI, the normally antagonistic defence hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) associated with defence against biotrophs and necrotrophs respectively, both accumulate to high levels. In this study, we made the surprising finding that JA is a positive regulator of RPS2-mediated ETI. Early induction of JA-responsive genes and de novo JA synthesis following SA accumulation is activated through the SA receptors NPR3 and NPR4, instead of the JA receptor COI1. We provide evidence that NPR3 and NPR4 may mediate this effect by promoting degradation of the JA transcriptional repressor JAZs. This unique interplay between SA and JA offers a possible explanation of how plants can mount defence against a biotrophic pathogen without becoming vulnerable to necrotrophic pathogens. PMID:27725643

  1. Polymeric prodrug-functionalized polypropylene films for sustained release of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Magaña, Hector; Palomino, Kenia; Cornejo-Bravo, Jose M; Díaz-Gómez, Luis; Concheiro, Angel; Zavala-Lagunes, Edgar; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Bucio, Emilio

    2016-09-10

    Medical devices decorated with salicylic acid-based polymer chains (polymeric prodrug) that slowly release this anti-inflammatory and anti-biofilm drug at the implantation site were designed. A "grafting from" method was implemented to directly grow chains of a polymerizable derivative of salicylic acid (2-methacryloyloxy-benzoic acid, 2MBA) onto polypropylene (PP). PP was modified both at bulk and on the surface with poly(2MBA) by means of an oxidative pre-irradiation method ((60)Co source), in order to obtain a grafted polymer in which salicylic acid units were linked by means of labile ester bonds. The grafting percent depended on absorbed dose, reaction time, temperature and monomer concentration. The functionalized films were analyzed regarding structure (FTIR-ATR, SEM-EDX, fluorescence microscopy), temperature stability (TGA), interaction with aqueous medium (water contact angle and swelling), pH-responsive release and cytocompatibility (fibroblasts). In the obtained poly(2MBA)-grafted biomaterial, poly(2MBA) behaved as a polymeric prodrug that regulates salicylic acid release once in contact with aqueous medium, showing pH-dependent release rate.

  2. Dynamics of Responses in Compatible Potato - Potato virus Y Interaction Are Modulated by Salicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Baebler, Špela; Stare, Katja; Kovač, Maja; Blejec, Andrej; Prezelj, Nina; Stare, Tjaša; Kogovšek, Polona; Pompe-Novak, Maruša; Rosahl, Sabine; Ravnikar, Maja; Gruden, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the dynamics of the potato – Potato virus Y (PVY) compatible interaction in relation to salicylic acid - controlled pathways we performed experiments using non-transgenic potato cv. Désirée, transgenic NahG-Désirée, cv. Igor and PVYNTN, the most aggressive strain of PVY. The importance of salicylic acid in viral multiplication and symptom development was confirmed by pronounced symptom development in NahG-Désirée, depleted in salicylic acid, and reversion of the effect after spraying with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (a salicylic acid - analogue). We have employed quantitative PCR for monitoring virus multiplication, as well as plant responses through expression of selected marker genes of photosynthetic activity, carbohydrate metabolism and the defence response. Viral multiplication was the slowest in inoculated potato of cv. Désirée, the only asymptomatic genotype in the study. The intensity of defence-related gene expression was much stronger in both sensitive genotypes (NahG-Désirée and cv. Igor) at the site of inoculation than in asymptomatic plants (cv. Désirée). Photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism gene expression differed between the symptomatic and asymptomatic phenotypes. The differential gene expression pattern of the two sensitive genotypes indicates that the outcome of the interaction does not rely simply on one regulatory component, but similar phenotypical features can result from distinct responses at the molecular level. PMID:22194976

  3. Salicylic Acid Is an Uncoupler and Inhibitor of Mitochondrial Electron Transport1

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Christel; Howell, Katharine A.; Millar, A. Harvey; Whelan, James M.; Day, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of salicylic acid (SA) on respiration and mitochondrial function was examined in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cell cultures in the range of 0.01 to 5 mm. Cells rapidly accumulated SA up to 10-fold of the externally applied concentrations. At the lower concentrations, SA accumulation was transitory. When applied at 0.1 mm or less, SA stimulated respiration of whole cells and isolated mitochondria in the absence of added ADP, indicating uncoupling of respiration. However, at higher concentrations, respiration was severely inhibited. Measurements of ubiquinone redox poise in isolated mitochondria suggested that SA blocked electron flow from the substrate dehydrogenases to the ubiquinone pool. This inhibition could be at least partially reversed by re-isolating the mitochondria. Two active analogs of SA, benzoic acid and acetyl-SA, had the same effect as SA on isolated tobacco mitochondria, whereas the inactive p-hydroxybenzoic acid was without effect at the same concentration. SA induced an increase in Aox protein levels in cell suspensions, and this was correlated with an increase in Aox1 transcript abundance. However, when applied at 0.1 mm, this induction was transient and disappeared as SA levels in the cells declined. SA at 0.1 mm also increased the expression of other SA-responsive genes, and this induction was dependent on active mitochondria. The results indicate that SA is both an uncoupler and an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport and suggest that this underlies the induction of some genes by SA. The possible implications of this for the interpretation of SA action in plants are discussed. PMID:14684840

  4. Analysis of salicylic acid-dependent pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana following infection with Plasmodiophora brassicae and the influence of salicylic acid on disease.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, David A; Šola, Ivana; Marschollek, Sabine; Donald, Caroline E; Rusak, Gordana; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Cahill, David M

    2016-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis, the expression of SA-related genes and the effect of SA on the Arabidopsis-Plasmodiophora brassicae interaction were examined. Biochemical analyses revealed that, in P. brassicae-infected Arabidopsis, the majority of SA is synthesized from chorismate. Real-time monitored expression of a gene for isochorismate synthase was induced on infection. SA can be modified after accumulation, either by methylation, improving its mobility, or by glycosylation, as one possible reaction for inactivation. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) confirmed the induction of an SA methyltransferase gene, whereas SA glucosyltransferase expression was not changed after infection. Col-0 wild-type (wt) did not provide a visible phenotypic resistance response, whereas the Arabidopsis mutant dnd1, which constitutively activates the immune system, showed reduced gall scores. As dnd1 showed control of the pathogen, exogenous SA was applied to Arabidopsis in order to test whether it could suppress clubroot. In wt, sid2 (SA biosynthesis), NahG (SA-deficient) and npr1 (SA signalling-impaired) mutants, SA treatment did not alter the gall score, but positively affected the shoot weight. This suggests that SA alone is not sufficient for Arabidopsis resistance against P. brassicae. Semi-quantitative PCR revealed that wt, cpr1, dnd1 and sid2 showed elevated PR-1 expression on P. brassicae and SA + P. brassicae inoculation at 2 and 3 weeks post-inoculation (wpi), whereas NahG and npr1 showed no expression. This work contributes to the understanding of SA involvement in the Arabidopsis-P. brassicae interaction.

  5. DL-beta-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance of potato against Phytophthora infestans requires salicylic acid but not oxylipins.

    PubMed

    Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Altmann, Simone; Rosahl, Sabine

    2010-05-01

    Inducing systemic resistance responses in crop plants is a promising alternative way of disease management. To understand the underlying signaling events leading to induced resistance, functional analyses of plants defective in defined signaling pathway steps are required. We used potato, one of the economically most-important crop plants worldwide, to examine systemic resistance against the devastating late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans, induced by treatment with dl-beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA). Transgenic plants impaired in either the 9-lipoxygenase pathway, which produces defense-related compounds, or the 13-lipoxygenase pathway, which generates jasmonic acid-derived signals, expressed wild-type levels of BABA-induced resistance. Plants incapable of accumulating salicylic acid (SA), on the other hand, failed to mount this type of induced resistance. Consistently, treatment of these plants with the SA analog 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid restored BABA-induced resistance. Together, these results demonstrate the indispensability of a functional SA pathway for systemic resistance in potato induced by BABA.

  6. [Effect of salicylic acid on cell growth and polysaccharide production in suspension cultures of protocorm-like bodies from Dendrobium huoshanense].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Pan, Lihua; Luo, Jianping; Zha, Xueqiang

    2009-07-01

    Polysaccharides from Dendrobium huoshanense possess immunostimulating activity, antioxidant activity and anticataract activity. In order to produce the active polysaccharides from Dendrobium huoshanense through cell culture, we investigated the effects of salicylic acid on cell growth, accumulation of polysaccharides and utilization of carbon source in suspension cultures of protocorm-like bodies from Dendrobium huoshanense. Although salicylic acid slightly inhibited the cell growth, it was beneficial to the utilization of carbon source, thus leading to significant increase in the contents of polysaccharides. The highest polysaccharide production occurred on the medium supplied with 100 micromoI/L salicylic acid. After 18 days of culture the production of polysaccharides reached 3.129 g/L, which was 1.63 times that of the control. Further, we established the kinetic models describing cell growth, polysaccharide production and carbon source utilization based on Logistic equation, Luedeking-Piret equation and Luedeking-Piret-Like equation. The calculated values from the kinetic models showed a good fit to the experimental values, suggesting that salicylic acid could be an effective compound to enhance the production of active polysaccharides from protcorm-like bodies from Dendrobium huoshanense.

  7. Methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity prevented owing to the neuroprotective effects of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Thrash-Williams, Bessy; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S; Bhattacharya, Dwipayan; Ahuja, Manuj; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan

    2016-06-01

    Methamphetamine (Schedule-II drug, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration) is one of the most abused illicit drug following cocaine, marijuana, and heroin in the USA. There are numerous health impairments and substantial economic burden caused by methamphetamine abuse. Salicylic acid, potent anti-inflammatory drug and a known neuroprotectant has shown to protect against toxicity-induced by other dopaminergic neurotoxins. Hence, in this study we investigated the neuroprotective effects of salicylic acid against methamphetamine-induced toxicity in mice. The current study investigated the effects of sodium salicylate and/or methamphetamine on oxidative stress, monoamine oxidase, mitochondrial complex I & IV activities using spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods. Behavioral analysis evaluated the effect on movement disorders-induced by methamphetamine. Monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels were evaluated using high pressure liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection. Methamphetamine caused significant generation of reactive oxygen species and decreased complex-I activity leading to dopamine depletion. Striatal dopamine depletion led to significant behavioral changes associated with movement disorders. Sodium salicylate (50 & 100mg/kg) significantly scavenged reactive oxygen species, blocked mitochondrial dysfunction and exhibited neuroprotection against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. In addition, sodium salicylate significantly blocked methamphetamine-induced behavioral changes related to movement abnormalities. One of the leading causative theories in nigral degeneration associated with movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease is exposure to stimulants, drugs of abuse, insecticide and pesticides. These neurotoxic substances can induce dopaminergic neuronal insult by oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. Salicylic acid due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects could provide neuroprotection against the

  8. Effect of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, Headline and Stadium on sucrose yield and storage properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) have been reported to enhance yield and protect crop plants and products against abiotic stresses and diseases. The effect of these compounds on sugarbeets, however, is unknown. Research was initiated in 2014 to investigate the effects of an early seas...

  9. In vitro skin decontamination model: comparison of salicylic acid and aminophylline.

    PubMed

    Noury, Barbara; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Maibach, Howard

    2015-01-01

    This study compared three model decontaminant solutions (distilled water, 10% distilled water and soap and methanol) for their ability to remove salicylic acid and aminophylline from an in vitro skin model. Human abdominal skin was dosed with 20 µL of either [(14)C]-aminophylline or [(14)C]-salicylic acid on 1 cm(2) per skin. After each exposure time (5, 30 and 60 min post-dosing, respectively), surface skin was washed three times with each solution and tape stripped 10 times. Wash solutions, tape strips, receptor fluid and remaining skin were then analyzed with liquid scintillation counting to quantify the amount of salicylic acid and aminophylline. Total mass balance recovery for each chemical at three time exposure points was between 73.6 and 101.5%, except at 60 min where aminophylline was only 42.5%. Majority of salicylic acid and aminophylline were recovered from washing solution when compared to stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis, surrounding skin and receptor fluid. The three tested decontaminates possessed similar effectiveness in removing lipophilic and hydrophilic chemicals from the skin. Due to diminishing decontamination efficacy with time, it is suggested that skin should be washed as soon as possible following contamination to minimize percutaneous penetration and the deleterious effects associated with skin reservoir content.

  10. ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 and SALICYLIC ACID act redundantly to regulate resistance gene-mediated signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistance (R) protein–associated pathways are well known to participate in defense against a variety of microbial pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) and its associated proteinaceous signaling components, including enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1), non–race-specific disease resistance 1 (NDR1), ...

  11. Effect of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, Headline and Stadium on sucrose yield and storage properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) have been reported to enhance yield and protect crop plants and products against abiotic stresses and diseases. The effect of these compounds on sugarbeets, however, is unknown. Research was conducted in 2015 and 2016 to investigate the effects of an e...

  12. Postharvest salicylic acid treatment reduces storage rots in water-stressed but no unstressed sugarbeet roots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) reduces storage rots in a number of postharvest crops. SA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots from common storage rot pathogens, however, is unknown. To determine the potential of SA to reduce storage losses caused by three common...

  13. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Hedychium bousigonianum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to induce somatic embryogenesis in Hedychium bousigonianum Pierre ex Gagnepain and assess the influence of salicylic acid (S) on somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryos and subsequently regenerated plants were successfully obtained 30 days after transfer of embryogenic...

  14. Salicylic Acid Improved In Viro Meristem Regeneration and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to induce abiotic stress, including salt tolerance in plants. The objective of this study was to determine whether application of various exogenous SA concentrations to in vitro grown meristem shoots could induce salt tolerance in two Hibiscus species. The effec...

  15. A rapid biosensor-based method for quantification of free and glucose-conjugated salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Defraia, Christopher T; Schmelz, Eric A; Mou, Zhonglin

    2008-12-31

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signalling molecule in plant defenses against biotrophic pathogens. It is also involved in several other processes such as heat production, flowering, and germination. SA exists in the plant as free SA and as an inert glucose conjugate (salicylic acid 2-O-beta-D-glucoside or SAG). Recently, Huang et al. developed a bacterial biosensor that responds to free SA but not SAG, designated as Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux. In this paper we describe an improved methodology for Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux-based free SA quantification, enabling high-throughput analysis, and present an approach for the quantification of SAG from crude plant extracts. On the basis of the original biosensor-based method, we optimized extraction and quantification. SAG content was determined by treating crude extracts with beta-glucosidase, then measuring the released free SA with the biosensor. beta-glucosidase treatment released more SA in acetate buffer extract than in Luria-Bertani (LB) extract, while enzymatic hydrolysis in either solution released more free SA than acid hydrolysis. The biosensor-based method detected higher amounts of SA in pathogen-infected plants than did a GC/MS-based method. SA quantification of control and pathogen-treated wild-type and sid2 (SA induction-deficient) plants demonstrated the efficacy of the method described. Using the methods detailed here, we were able to detect as little as 0.28 mug SA/g FW. Samples typically had a standard deviation of up to 25% of the mean. The ability of Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux to detect SA in a complex mixture, combined with the enzymatic hydrolysis of SAG in crude extract, allowed the development of a simple, rapid, and inexpensive method to simultaneously measure free and glucose-conjugated SA. This approach is amenable to a high-throughput format, which would further reduce the cost and time required for biosensor-based SA quantification. Possible applications of this approach include

  16. Salicylic acid in the serum of subjects not taking aspirin. Comparison of salicylic acid concentrations in the serum of vegetarians, non-vegetarians, and patients taking low dose aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Blacklock, C; Lawrence, J; Wiles, D; Malcolm, E; Gibson, I; Kelly, C; Paterson, J

    2001-01-01

    Aims—To determine serum salicylic acid concentrations in non-vegetarians and vegetarians not taking salicylate drugs, and to compare these concentrations with those found in patients taking aspirin, 75 mg daily. Methods—Serum samples were obtained from vegetarians (n = 37) and non-vegetarians (n = 39) not taking salicylate drugs. Non-vegetarians and vegetarians were recruited from the community and from a Buddhist monastery, respectively, in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. Patients (n = 14) taking aspirin (75 mg daily) were recruited from the Dumfries diabetic clinic. Serum salicylic acid concentrations were determined using a high performance liquid chromatography method with electrochemical detection. Results—Salicylic acid was detected in every serum sample analysed. Higher serum concentrations of salicylic acid were found in vegetarians than non-vegetarians: median concentrations of 0.11 (range, 0.04–2.47) µmol/litre and 0.07 (range, 0.02–0.20) µmol/litre, respectively; the median of the difference was 0.05 µmol/litre (95% confidence interval for difference, 0.03 to 0.08; p < 0.0001). The median serum concentration of salicylic acid in patients taking aspirin (75 mg daily) was 10.03 (range, 0.23–25.40) µmol/litre, which was significantly higher than that found in non-vegetarians and vegetarians. There was overlap in serum salicylic acid concentrations between the vegetarians and patients taking aspirin. Conclusions—Salicylic acid, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is present in fruits and vegetables and is found in higher concentrations in vegetarians than non-vegetarians. This suggests that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables contributes to the presence of salicylic acid in vivo. There is overlap between the serum concentrations of salicylic acid in vegetarians and patients taking aspirin, 75 mg daily. These findings may explain, in part, the health promoting effects of dietary fruits and vegetables. Key Words: salicylic acid

  17. Characterization of Withania somnifera Leaf Transcriptome and Expression Analysis of Pathogenesis – Related Genes during Salicylic Acid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh Dasgupta, Modhumita; George, Blessan Santhosh; Bhatia, Anil; Sidhu, Om Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is a valued medicinal plant with pharmaceutical applications. The present study was undertaken to analyze the salicylic acid induced leaf transcriptome of W. somnifera. A total of 45.6 million reads were generated and the de novo assembly yielded 73,523 transcript contig with average transcript contig length of 1620 bp. A total of 71,062 transcripts were annotated and 53,424 of them were assigned GO terms. Mapping of transcript contigs to biological pathways revealed presence of 182 pathways. Seventeen genes representing 12 pathogenesis-related (PR) families were mined from the transcriptome data and their pattern of expression post 17 and 36 hours of salicylic acid treatment was documented. The analysis revealed significant up-regulation of all families of PR genes by 36 hours post treatment except WsPR10. The relative fold expression of transcripts ranged from 1 fold to 6,532 fold. The two families of peroxidases including the lignin-forming anionic peroxidase (WsL-PRX) and suberization-associated anionic peroxidase (WsS-PRX) recorded maximum expression of 377 fold and 6532 fold respectively, while the expression of WsPR10 was down-regulated by 14 fold. Additionally, the most stable reference gene for normalization of qRT-PCR data was also identified. The effect of SA on the accumulation of major secondary metabolites of W. somnifera including withanoside V, withaferin A and withanolide A was also analyzed and an increase in content of all the three metabolites were detected. This is the first report on expression patterns of PR genes during salicylic acid signaling in W. somnifera. PMID:24739900

  18. Role of salicylic acid in induction of plant defense system in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; War, Mohd Yousf; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2011-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), a plant hormone plays an important role in induction of plant defense against a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses through morphological, physiological and biochemical mechanisms. A series of experiments were carried out to evaluate the biochemical response of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants to a range of SA concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM). Water treated plants were maintained as control. Activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated and amounts of total phenols, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and proteins were calculated after 96 h of treatment. Plants responded very quickly to SA at 1.5 mM and showed higher induction of POD and PPO activities, besides the higher accumulation of phenols, H2O2 and proteins. Plants treated with SA at 2 mM showed phytotoxic symptoms. These results suggest that SA at 1.5 mM is safe to these plants and could be utilized for the induction of plant defense. PMID:22057329

  19. PAD4 functions upstream from salicylic acid to control defense responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, N; Tootle, T L; Tsui, F; Klessig, D F; Glazebrook, J

    1998-01-01

    The Arabidopsis PAD4 gene was previously shown to be required for synthesis of camalexin in response to infection by the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 but not in response to challenge by the non-host fungal pathogen Cochliobolus carbonum. In this study, we show that pad4 mutants exhibit defects in defense responses, including camalexin synthesis and pathogenesis-related PR-1 gene expression, when infected by P. s. maculicola ES4 326. No such defects were observed in response to infection by an isogenic avirulent strain carrying the avirulence gene avrRpt2. In P. s. maculicola ES4 326-infected pad4 plants, synthesis of salicylic acid (SA) was found to be reduced and delayed when compared with SA synthesis in wild-type plants. Moreover, treatment of pad4 plants with SA partially reversed the camalexin deficiency and PR-1 gene expression phenotypes of P. s. maculicola ES4 326-infected pad4 plants. These findings support the hypothesis that PAD4 acts upstream from SA accumulation in regulating defense response expression in plants infected with P. s. maculicola ES4 326. A working model of the role of PAD4 in governing expression of defense responses is presented. PMID:9634589

  20. Exogenous salicylic acid alleviates the toxicity of chlorpyrifos in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Wang, Caixia; Zhang, Qingming

    2017-03-01

    The role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in protecting wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) from contamination by the insecticide chlorpyrifos was investigated in this study. The wheat plants were grown in soils with different concentrations (5, 10, 20, and 40mgkg(-1)) of chlorpyrifos. When the third leaf emerged, the wheat leaves were sprayed with 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16mgL(-1) of SA once a day for 6 days. The results showed that wheat exposed to higher concentrations of chlorpyrifos (≥20mgkg(-1)) caused declines in growth and chlorophyll content and altered the activities of a series of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Interestingly, treatments with different concentrations of SA mitigated the stress generated by chlorpyrifos and improved the measured parameters to varying degrees. Furthermore, a reverse transcription and quantitative PCR experiment revealed that the activities of SOD and CAT can be regulated by their target gene in wheat when treated with SA. We also found that SA is able to block the accumulation of chlorpyrifos in wheat. However, the effect of SA was related to its concentration. In this study, the application of 2mgL(-1) of SA had the greatest ameliorating effect on chlorpyrifos toxicity in wheat plants.

  1. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Eva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-09-15

    Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress.

  2. Exogenous application of salicylic acid to alleviate the toxic effects of insecticides in Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aradhana; Srivastava, Anjil Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) in protecting plants from insecticides toxicity. The seeds of Vicia faba var IIVR Selection-1 were treated with different concentrations (1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 ppm) of the insecticides alphamethrin (AM) and endosulfan (ES) for 6 h with and without 12 h conditioning treatment of SA (0.01 mM). Insecticides treatment caused a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) and induction of different types of chromosomal abnormalities in the meristematic cells of broad bean roots. Pretreatment of seeds with SA resulted in increased MI and significant reduction of chromosomal abnormalities. SA application also regulated proline accumulation and carotenoid content in the leaf tissues. SA resulted in the decrement of insecticides induced increase in proline content and increased the carotenoids content. These results illustrate the ameliorating effect of SA under stress conditions and reveal that SA is more effective in alleviating the toxic effects of insecticides at higher concentrations than that at lower concentrations.

  3. Potential role of salicylic acid in modulating diacylglycerol homeostasis in response to freezing temperatures in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei-Juan; Xiao, Shi; Chen, Qin-Fang

    2015-01-01

    In our recent article in Molecular Plant, we reported that 3 lipase-like defense regulators SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE101 (SAG101), ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) are involved in the regulation of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. The transcripts of SAG101, EDS1 and PAD4 were inducible by cold stress and their knockout or knockdown mutants exhibited enhanced chilling and freezing tolerance in comparison to the wild type. The freezing tolerance phenotype showed in the sag101, eds1 and pad4 mutants was correlated with the transcriptional upregulation of C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTORs (CBFs) and their regulons as well as increased levels of proline. Upon cold exposure, the sag101, eds1 and pad4 mutants showed ameliorated cell death and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, which were highly induced by freezing stress in the wild-type leaves. Moreover, the contents of salicylic acid (SA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) were significantly decreased in the sag101, eds1 and pad4 mutants compared to the wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that the SAG101, EDS1 and PAD4 are negative regulators in the freezing response and function, at least in part, by modulating the homeostasis of SA and DAG in Arabidopsis.

  4. Salicylic acid and calcium-induced protection of wheat against salinity.

    PubMed

    Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Siddiqui, Manzer H; Basalah, Mohammed O

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the important environmental factors that produce serious agricultural problems. The objective of the present study was to determine the interactive effect of salicylic acid (SA) and calcium (Ca) on plant growth, photosynthetic pigments, proline (Pro) concentration, carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity and activities of antioxidant enzymes of Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Samma) under salt stress. Application of 90 mM of NaCl reduced plant growth (plant height, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW), chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, CA activity) and enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) and Pro concentration. However, the application of SA or Ca alone as well as in combination markedly improved plant growth, photosynthetic pigments, Pro concentration, CA activity and activities of antioxidant enzymes peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) under salt stress. It was, therefore, concluded that application of SA and Ca alone as well as in combination ameliorated the adverse effect of salinity, while combined application proved more effective to reduce the oxidative stress generated by NaCl through reduced MDA accumulation, Chl a/b ratio and Chls degradation and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  5. Two-Component Elements Mediate Interactions between Cytokinin and Salicylic Acid in Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Argueso, Cristiana T.; Ferreira, Fernando J.; Epple, Petra; To, Jennifer P. C.; Hutchison, Claire E.; Schaller, G. Eric; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Kieber, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed an important role for hormones in plant immunity. We are now beginning to understand the contribution of crosstalk among different hormone signaling networks to the outcome of plant–pathogen interactions. Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate development and responses to the environment. Cytokinin signaling involves a phosphorelay circuitry similar to two-component systems used by bacteria and fungi to perceive and react to various environmental stimuli. In this study, we asked whether cytokinin and components of cytokinin signaling contribute to plant immunity. We demonstrate that cytokinin levels in Arabidopsis are important in determining the amplitude of immune responses, ultimately influencing the outcome of plant–pathogen interactions. We show that high concentrations of cytokinin lead to increased defense responses to a virulent oomycete pathogen, through a process that is dependent on salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and activation of defense gene expression. Surprisingly, treatment with lower concentrations of cytokinin results in increased susceptibility. These functions for cytokinin in plant immunity require a host phosphorelay system and are mediated in part by type-A response regulators, which act as negative regulators of basal and pathogen-induced SA–dependent gene expression. Our results support a model in which cytokinin up-regulates plant immunity via an elevation of SA–dependent defense responses and in which SA in turn feedback-inhibits cytokinin signaling. The crosstalk between cytokinin and SA signaling networks may help plants fine-tune defense responses against pathogens. PMID:22291601

  6. Chlorogenic Acids Biosynthesis in Centella asiatica Cells Is not Stimulated by Salicylic Acid Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Ncube, E N; Steenkamp, P A; Madala, N E; Dubery, I A

    2016-07-01

    Exogenous application of synthetic and natural elicitors of plant defence has been shown to result in mass production of secondary metabolites with nutraceuticals properties in cultured cells. In particular, salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been reported to induce the production of phenylpropanoids, including cinnamic acid derivatives bound to quinic acid (chlorogenic acids). Centella asiatica is an important medicinal plant with several therapeutic properties owing to its wide spectrum of secondary metabolites. We investigated the effect of SA on C. asiatica cells by monitoring perturbation of chlorogenic acids in particular. Different concentrations of SA were used to treat C. asiatica cells, and extracts from both treated and untreated cells were analysed using an optimised UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS method. Semi-targeted multivariate data analyses with the aid of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed a concentration-dependent metabolic response. Surprisingly, a range of chlorogenic acid derivatives were found to be downregulated as a consequence of SA treatment. Moreover, irbic acid (3,5-O-dicaffeoyl-4-O-malonilquinic acid) was found to be a dominant CGA in C. asiatica cells, although the SA treatment also had a negative effect on its concentration. Overall SA treatment was found to be an ineffective elicitor of CGA production in cultured C. asiatica cells.

  7. Voltammetric determination of salicylic acid in pharmaceuticals formulations of acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Torriero, Angel A J; Luco, Juan M; Sereno, Leonides; Raba, Julio

    2004-02-06

    The electrochemical oxidation of salicylic acid (SA) has been studied on a glassy carbon electrode using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) method. SA gives a single irreversible oxidation wave over the wide pH range studied. The irreversibility of the electrode process was verified by different criteria. The mechanism of oxidation is discussed. Using differential pulse voltammetry, SA yielded a well-defined voltammetric response in Britton-Robinson buffer solution, pH 2.37 at 1.088V (versus Ag/AgCl). The method was linear over the SA concentration range: 1-60mugml(-1). The method was successfully applied for the analysis of SA as a hydrolysis product, in solid pharmaceutical formulations containing acetylsalicylic acid (ASA).

  8. Effect of urinary pH on the pharmacokinetics of salicylic acid, with its glycine and glucuronide conjugates in human.

    PubMed

    Vree, T B; Van Ewijk-Beneken Kolmer, E W; Verwey-Van Wissen, C P; Hekster, Y A

    1994-10-01

    We studied the effects of urinary pH on the kinetics of salicylic acid (SA) with its metabolites and assessed the contribution of alkaline hydrolysis of salicylic acid acyl glucuronide to the renal clearance of salicylic acid. Hydrolysis of SAAG in alkaline urine contributes marginally to the high renal clearance and excretion of salicylic acid, validating alkalinization of a patient with SA overdose. Under acidic urine conditions, salicylic acid (SA) had a terminal plasma t1/2 value of 3.29 +/- 0.52 hours while under alkaline urine conditions this t1/2 was significantly reduced to 2.50 +/- 0.41 hours (p = 0.0156). The total oral body clearance of salicylic acid under acidic conditions (1.38 +/- 0.43 l/h) is significantly lower than under alkaline urine conditions (2.27 +/- 0.83 l/h; p = 0.0410). The Km and Vmax values of SA, and its conjugates salicylic acid phenolic glucuronide (SAPG), salicyluric acid (SU) and salicyluric acid phenolic glucuronide (SUPG) did not differ statistically under acidic and alkaline urine conditions. The protein binding of SA was 93.8 +/- 1.0% and that of SU was 89.7 +/- 2.2% in vivo and in vitro. SUPG had a protein binding of 84.8 +/- 1.8%, while SAPG showed no protein binding at all. The renal excretion of salicylic acid depends strongly on the urinary pH. The percentage of the dose excreted unchanged increased from 2.3 +/- 1.5% under acidic conditions to 30.5 +/- 9.1% under alkaline conditions (p = 0.0006). Alkaline urine lowered by 50% the percentage of the dose excreted as SU (p = 0.0028), SAAG (p = 0.0013), and SUPG (p = 0.0296), while SAPG is only marginally lowered (p = 0.0589).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Biodegradation of phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and iomeprol by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the capillary fringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, Norman; Reinwand, Christian; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald; Frimmel, Fritz H.

    2015-12-01

    Mass transfer and biological transformation phenomena in the capillary fringe were studied using phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and the iodinated X-ray contrast agent iomeprol as model organic compounds and the microorganism strain Pseudomonas fluorescens. Three experimental approaches were used: Batch experiments (uniform water saturation and transport by diffusion), in static columns (with a gradient of water saturation and advective transport in the capillaries) and in a flow-through cell (with a gradient of water saturation and transport by horizontal and vertical flow: 2-dimension flow-through microcosm). The reactors employed for the experiments were filled with quartz sand of defined particle size distribution (dp = 200…600 μm, porosity ε = 0.42). Batch experiments showed that phenol and salicylic acid have a high, whereas benzenesulfonic acid and iomeprol have a quite low potential for biodegradation under aerobic conditions and in a matrix nearly close to water saturation. Batch experiments under anoxic conditions with nitrate as electron acceptor revealed that the biodegradation of the model compounds was lower than under aerobic conditions. Nevertheless, the experiments showed that the moisture content was also responsible for an optimized transport in the liquid phase of a porous medium. Biodegradation in the capillary fringe was found to be influenced by both the moisture content and availability of the dissolved substrate, as seen in static column experiments. The gas-liquid mass transfer of oxygen also played an important role for the biological activity. In static column experiments under aerobic conditions, the highest biodegradation was found in the capillary fringe (e.g. βt/β0 (phenol) = 0 after t = 6 d) relative to the zone below the water table and unsaturated zone. The highest biodegradation occurred in the flow-through cell experiment where the height of the capillary fringe was largest.

  10. Biodegradation of phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and iomeprol by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the capillary fringe.

    PubMed

    Hack, Norman; Reinwand, Christian; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2015-12-01

    Mass transfer and biological transformation phenomena in the capillary fringe were studied using phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and the iodinated X-ray contrast agent iomeprol as model organic compounds and the microorganism strain Pseudomonas fluorescens. Three experimental approaches were used: Batch experiments (uniform water saturation and transport by diffusion), in static columns (with a gradient of water saturation and advective transport in the capillaries) and in a flow-through cell (with a gradient of water saturation and transport by horizontal and vertical flow: 2-dimension flow-through microcosm). The reactors employed for the experiments were filled with quartz sand of defined particle size distribution (dp=200...600 μm, porosity ε=0.42). Batch experiments showed that phenol and salicylic acid have a high, whereas benzenesulfonic acid and iomeprol have a quite low potential for biodegradation under aerobic conditions and in a matrix nearly close to water saturation. Batch experiments under anoxic conditions with nitrate as electron acceptor revealed that the biodegradation of the model compounds was lower than under aerobic conditions. Nevertheless, the experiments showed that the moisture content was also responsible for an optimized transport in the liquid phase of a porous medium. Biodegradation in the capillary fringe was found to be influenced by both the moisture content and availability of the dissolved substrate, as seen in static column experiments. The gas-liquid mass transfer of oxygen also played an important role for the biological activity. In static column experiments under aerobic conditions, the highest biodegradation was found in the capillary fringe (e.g. βt/β0 (phenol)=0 after t=6 d) relative to the zone below the water table and unsaturated zone. The highest biodegradation occurred in the flow-through cell experiment where the height of the capillary fringe was largest.

  11. Specific Domain Structures Control Abscisic Acid-, Salicylic Acid-, and Stress-Mediated SIZ1 Phenotypes1[W

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Mi Sun; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Hong, Mi Ju; Lee, Jiyoung; Choi, Wonkyun; Jin, Jing Bo; Bohnert, Hans J.; Lee, Sang Yeol; Bressan, Ray A.; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2009-01-01

    SIZ1 (for yeast SAP and MIZ1) encodes the sole ortholog of mammalian PIAS (for protein inhibitor of activated STAT) and yeast SIZ SUMO (for small ubiquitin-related modifier) E3 ligases in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Four conserved motifs in SIZ1 include SAP (for scaffold attachment factor A/B/acinus/PIAS domain), PINIT (for proline-isoleucine-asparagine-isoleucine-threonine), SP-RING (for SIZ/PIAS-RING), and SXS (for serine-X-serine, where X is any amino acid) motifs. SIZ1 contains, in addition, a PHD (for plant homeodomain) typical of plant PIAS proteins. We determined phenotypes of siz1-2 knockout mutants transformed with SIZ1 alleles carrying point mutations in the predicted domains. Domain SP-RING is required for SUMO conjugation activity and nuclear localization of SIZ1. Salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and SA-dependent phenotypes of siz1-2, such as diminished plant size, heightened innate immunity, and abscisic acid inhibition of cotyledon greening, as well as SA-independent basal thermotolerance were not complemented by the altered SP-RING allele of SIZ1. The SXS domain also controlled SA accumulation and was involved in greening and expansion of cotyledons of seedlings germinated in the presence of abscisic acid. Mutations of the PHD zinc finger domain and the PINIT motif affected in vivo SUMOylation. Expression of the PHD and/or PINIT domain mutant alleles of SIZ1 in siz1-2 promoted hypocotyl elongation in response to sugar and light. The various domains of SIZ1 make unique contributions to the plant's ability to cope with its environment. PMID:19837819

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy and Tolerability of Glycolic Acid, Salicylic Mandelic Acid, and Phytic Acid Combination Peels in Melasma.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay; Bansal, Shivani; Sethi, Sumit; Gupta, Chitra

    2016-03-01

    Melasma is acquired symmetric hypermelanosis characterized by light-to-deep brown pigmentation over cheeks, forehead, upper lip, and nose. Treatment of this condition is difficult and associated with high recurrence rates. Chemical peels have become a popular modality in the treatment of melasma. To compare the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of glycolic acid (35%) versus salicylic-mandelic (SM) acid (20% salicylic/10% mandelic acid) versus phytic combination peels in Indian patients with melasma. Ninety patients diagnosed with melasma were randomly assigned into 3 groups of 30 patients each. Group A received glycolic acid (GA-35%) peel, Group B received SM acid, and Group C received phytic combination peels. Each group was primed with 4% hydroquinone and 0.05% tretinoin cream for 4 weeks before treatment. Chemical peeling was done after every 14 days in all groups until 12 weeks. Clinical evaluation using melasma area and severity index (MASI) score and photography was recorded at every visit and follow-up was done until 20 weeks. There was a decrease in MASI score in all 3 groups but it was statistically significantly lower in Group A than Group C (p = .00), and it was also statistically significantly lower in Group B than Group C (p = .00) but there was no statistically significant difference between Groups A and B (p = .876). Objective response to treatment evaluated by reduction in MASI scoring after 12 weeks was 62.36% reduction in GA group, 60.98% reduction in SM group, and 44.71% in phytic acid group. It is concluded that GA (35%) and SM acid peels are both equally efficacious and a safe treatment modality for melasma in Indian skin, and are more effective than phytic acid peels. Salicylic-mandelic peels are better tolerated and more suitable for Indian skin.

  13. Acetyl salicylic acid usage and mortality in critically ill patients with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Damon P; Reid, David; McBryde, Emma S

    2012-06-01

    Low doses of acetyl salicylic acid, acting through 15-epi-lipoxin A4, have been shown to be anti-inflammatory in human studies. The manifold effects of acetyl salicylic acid on human physiology potentially may benefit patients with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome after sepsis or tissue trauma. We sought to determine whether acetyl salicylic acid administration at the time of development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome is associated with reduced mortality. Retrospective cohort study of consecutive intensive care unit admissions between April 2000 and November 2009. Australian tertiary referral center. Seven-thousand nine-hundred forty-five intensive care unit admissions examined. The probability of in-hospital death during admissions in which individuals were identified as having systemic inflammatory response syndrome or sepsis was analyzed according to whether they were administered acetyl salicylic acid. Propensity analysis that matched all patients for their probability of being prescribed acetyl salicylic acid was undertaken. Among 5523 patients with a first episode of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, 2082 were administered acetyl salicylic acid in a 24-hr period around the time of systemic inflammatory response syndrome recognition. Propensity analysis showed a 10.9% mortality for acetyl salicylic acid users and 17.2% mortality in the propensity-matched nonusers (absolute risk difference -6.2%; 95% confidence interval -9.5% to -3.5%). Propensity matching also found that acetyl salicylic acid administration was associated with increased risk of renal injury (6.2% vs. 2.9%; absolute risk difference 13.3%; 95% confidence interval 2.5% to 5.0%). In the 970 patients with proven sepsis, acetyl salicylic acid administration was associated with a lower mortality (27.4% vs. 42.2%; absolute risk difference -14.8%; 95% confidence interval -18.9% to -8.6%) after propensity matching. This quasi-experimental study cannot establish a causal

  14. Hardening with salicylic acid induces concentration-dependent changes in abscisic acid biosynthesis of tomato under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Edit; Csiszár, Jolán; Gallé, Ágnes; Poór, Péter; Szepesi, Ágnes; Tari, Irma

    2015-07-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) in the control of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis is controversial although both plant growth regulators may accumulate in tissues under abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Hardening of tomato plants to salinity stress with 10(-4)M SA ("high SA") resulted in an up-regulation of ABA biosynthesis genes, zeaxanthin epoxidase (SlZEP1), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (SlNCED1) and aldehyde oxidases (SlAO1 and SlAO2) in the roots and led to ABA accumulation both in root and leaf tissues. In plants pre-treated with lower concentration of SA (10(-7)M, "low SA"), the up-regulation of SlNCED1 in the roots promoted ABA accumulation in the root tissues but the hormone concentration remained at control level in the leaves. Salt stress induced by 100mM NaCl reduced the transcript abundance of ABA biosynthetic genes and inhibited SlAO activity in plants hardened with "high SA", but the tissues maintained root ABA level over the untreated control. The combined effect of "high SA" and ABA under salt stress led to partially recovered photosynthetic activity, reduced ethylene production in root apices, and restored root growth, which is one of the main features of salt tolerance. Unlike "high SA", hardening with "low SA" had no influence on ethylene production, and led to reduced elongation of roots in plants exposed to 100mM NaCl. The up-regulation of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases SlCCD1A and SlCCD1B by SA, which produce apocarotenoids, may open new pathways in SA sensing and signalling processes.

  15. Pipecolic Acid Orchestrates Plant Systemic Acquired Resistance and Defense Priming via Salicylic Acid-Dependent and -Independent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bernsdorff, Friederike; Döring, Anne-Christin; Gruner, Katrin; Schuck, Stefan; Bräutigam, Andrea; Zeier, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationships of the two immune-regulatory plant metabolites, salicylic acid (SA) and pipecolic acid (Pip), in the establishment of plant systemic acquired resistance (SAR), SAR-associated defense priming, and basal immunity. Using SA-deficient sid2, Pip-deficient ald1, and sid2 ald1 plants deficient in both SA and Pip, we show that SA and Pip act both independently from each other and synergistically in Arabidopsis thaliana basal immunity to Pseudomonas syringae. Transcriptome analyses reveal that SAR establishment in Arabidopsis is characterized by a strong transcriptional response systemically induced in the foliage that prepares plants for future pathogen attack by preactivating multiple stages of defense signaling and that SA accumulation upon SAR activation leads to the downregulation of photosynthesis and attenuated jasmonate responses systemically within the plant. Whereas systemic Pip elevations are indispensable for SAR and necessary for virtually the whole transcriptional SAR response, a moderate but significant SA-independent component of SAR activation and SAR gene expression is revealed. During SAR, Pip orchestrates SA-dependent and SA-independent priming of pathogen responses in a FLAVIN-DEPENDENT-MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1)-dependent manner. We conclude that a Pip/FMO1 signaling module acts as an indispensable switch for the activation of SAR and associated defense priming events and that SA amplifies Pip-triggered responses to different degrees in the distal tissue of SAR-activated plants. PMID:26672068

  16. Benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, a soluble oxygenase from tobacco, catalyzes salicylic acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, J.; Shulaev, V.; Yalpani, N.

    1995-10-24

    Benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H) catalyzes the biosynthesis of salicylic acid from benzoic acid. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized as a soluble protein of 160 kDa. High-efficiency in vivo labeling of salicyclic acid with {sup 18}O{sub 2} suggested that BA2H is an oxygenase that specifically hydroxylates the ortho position of benzoic acid. The enzyme was strongly induced by either tobacco mosaic virus inoculation of benzoic acid infiltration of tobacco leaves and it was inhibited by CO and other inhibitors of cytochrome P450 hydroxylases. The BA2H activity was immunodepleted by antibodies raised against SU2, a soluble cytochrome P450 from Streptomyces griseolus. The anti-SU2 antibodies immunoprecipitated a radiolabeled polypeptide of around 160 kDa from the soluble protein extracts of L-[{sup 35}S]-methionine-fed tobacco leaves. Purified BA2H showed CO-difference spectra with a maximum at 457 nm. These data suggest that BA2H belongs to a novel class of soluble, high molecular weight cytochrome P450 enzymes. 21 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fister, Andrew S.; O’Neil, Shawn T.; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M.; Guiltinan, Mark J.; Maximova, Siela N.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes. PMID:26163705

  18. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Fister, Andrew S; O'Neil, Shawn T; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J; Maximova, Siela N

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes.

  19. Development of a Controlled Release of Salicylic Acid Loaded Stearic Acid-Oleic Acid Nanoparticles in Cream for Topical Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J. O.; Misran, M.; Lee, P. F.; Tan, L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are colloidal carrier systems that have extensively been investigated for controlled drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, a cost effective stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles (SONs) with high loading of salicylic acid, was prepared by melt emulsification method combined with ultrasonication technique. The physicochemical properties, thermal analysis and encapsulation efficiency of SONs were studied. TEM micrographs revealed that incorporation of oleic acid induces the formation of elongated spherical particles. This observation is in agreement with particle size analysis which also showed that the mean particle size of SONs varied with the amount of OA in the mixture but with no effect on their zeta potential values. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the SONs prepared in this method have lower crystallinity as compared to pure stearic acid. Different amount of oleic acid incorporated gave different degree of perturbation to the crystalline matrix of SONs and hence resulted in lower degrees of crystallinity, thereby improving their encapsulation efficiencies. The optimized SON was further incorporated in cream and its in vitro release study showed a gradual release for 24 hours, denoting the incorporation of salicylic acid in solid matrix of SON and prolonging the in vitro release. PMID:24578624

  20. Induction of UDP-glucose:salicylic acid glucosyltransferase activity in tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Enyedi, A.J.; Raskin, I. )

    1993-04-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a putative signal that activates plant resistance to pathogens. SA levels increase systemically following the hypersensitive response produced by tobacco masaic virus (TMV) inoculation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc) leaves. The SA increase in the inoculated leaf coincided with the appearance of a [beta]-glucosidase-hydrolyzable SA conjugate identified as [beta]-O-D-glucosylsalicylic acid (GSA). SA and GSA accumulation in the TMV-inoculated leaf paralleled the increase in the activity of a UDP-glucose:salicylic acid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35) ([beta]-GTase) capable of converting SA to GSA. Healthy tissues had constitutive [beta]-GTase activity of 0.076 milliunits g[sup [minus]1] fresh weight. This activity started to increase 48 h after TMV inoculation, reaching its maximum (6.7-fold induction over the basal levels) 72 h after TMV inoculation. No significant GSA or elevated [beta]-GTase activity could be detected in the healthy leaf immediately above the TMV-inoculated leaf. The effect of TMV inoculation on the [beta]-GTase and GSA accumulation could be duplicated by infiltrating tobacco leaf discs with SA at the levels naturally produced in TMV-inoculated leaves (2.7--27.0 [mu]g g[sup [minus]1] fresh weight). Pretreatment of leaf discs with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide inhibited the induction of [beta]GTase by SA and prevented the formation of GSA. Of 12 analogs of SA tested, only 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid induced [beta]-GTase activity. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts (verrucae): a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Catherine; Hicks, Kate; Jayakody, Shalmini; Kang’ombe, Arthur Ricky; Stamuli, Eugena; Turner, Gwen; Thomas, Kim; Curran, Mike; Denby, Gary; Hashmi, Farina; McIntosh, Caroline; McLarnon, Nichola; Torgerson, David; Watt, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts. Design A multicentre, open, two arm randomised controlled trial. Setting University podiatry school clinics, NHS podiatry clinics, and primary care in England, Scotland, and Ireland. Participants 240 patients aged 12 years and over, with a plantar wart that in the opinion of the healthcare professional was suitable for treatment with both cryotherapy and salicylic acid. Interventions Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen delivered by a healthcare professional, up to four treatments two to three weeks apart. Patient self treatment with 50% salicylic acid (Verrugon) daily up to a maximum of eight weeks. Main outcome measures Complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes were (a) complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks controlling for age, whether the wart had been treated previously, and type of wart, (b) patient self reported clearance of plantar warts at six months, (c) time to clearance of plantar wart, (d) number of plantar warts at 12 weeks, and (e) patient satisfaction with the treatment. Results There was no evidence of a difference between the salicylic acid and cryotherapy groups in the proportions of participants with complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks (17/119 (14%) v 15/110 (14%), difference 0.65% (95% CI –8.33 to 9.63), P=0.89). The results did not change when the analysis was repeated but with adjustment for age, whether the wart had been treated previously, and type of plantar wart or for patients’ preferences at baseline. There was no evidence of a difference between the salicylic acid and cryotherapy groups in self reported clearance of plantar warts at six months (29/95 (31%) v 33/98 (34%), difference –3.15% (–16.31 to 10.02), P=0.64) or in time to clearance (hazard ratio 0.80 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.25), P=0.33). There was also no evidence of a difference in the number of plantar

  2. Cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts (verrucae): a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cockayne, Sarah; Hewitt, Catherine; Hicks, Kate; Jayakody, Shalmini; Kang'ombe, Arthur Ricky; Stamuli, Eugena; Turner, Gwen; Thomas, Kim; Curran, Mike; Denby, Gary; Hashmi, Farina; McIntosh, Caroline; McLarnon, Nichola; Torgerson, David; Watt, Ian

    2011-06-07

    To compare the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts. A multicentre, open, two arm randomised controlled trial. University podiatry school clinics, NHS podiatry clinics, and primary care in England, Scotland, and Ireland. 240 patients aged 12 years and over, with a plantar wart that in the opinion of the healthcare professional was suitable for treatment with both cryotherapy and salicylic acid. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen delivered by a healthcare professional, up to four treatments two to three weeks apart. Patient self treatment with 50% salicylic acid (Verrugon) daily up to a maximum of eight weeks. Complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes were (a) complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks controlling for age, whether the wart had been treated previously, and type of wart, (b) patient self reported clearance of plantar warts at six months, (c) time to clearance of plantar wart, (d) number of plantar warts at 12 weeks, and (e) patient satisfaction with the treatment. There was no evidence of a difference between the salicylic acid and cryotherapy groups in the proportions of participants with complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks (17/119 (14%) v 15/110 (14%), difference 0.65% (95% CI -8.33 to 9.63), P=0.89). The results did not change when the analysis was repeated but with adjustment for age, whether the wart had been treated previously, and type of plantar wart or for patients' preferences at baseline. There was no evidence of a difference between the salicylic acid and cryotherapy groups in self reported clearance of plantar warts at six months (29/95 (31%) v 33/98 (34%), difference -3.15% (-16.31 to 10.02), P=0.64) or in time to clearance (hazard ratio 0.80 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.25), P=0.33). There was also no evidence of a difference in the number of plantar warts at 12 weeks (incident rate ratio 1.08 (0.81 to 1.43), P=0.62). Salicylic acid and

  3. Changes in actin dynamics are involved in salicylic acid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Matoušková, Jindřiška; Janda, Martin; Fišer, Radovan; Sašek, Vladimír; Kocourková, Daniela; Burketová, Lenka; Dušková, Jiřina; Martinec, Jan; Valentová, Olga

    2014-06-01

    Changes in actin cytoskeleton dynamics are one of the crucial players in many physiological as well as non-physiological processes in plant cells. Positioning of actin filament arrays is necessary for successful establishment of primary lines of defense toward pathogen attack, depolymerization leads very often to the enhanced susceptibility to the invading pathogen. On the other hand it was also shown that the disruption of actin cytoskeleton leads to the induction of defense response leading to the expression of PATHOGENESIS RELATED proteins (PR). In this study we show that pharmacological actin depolymerization leads to the specific induction of genes in salicylic acid pathway but not that involved in jasmonic acid signaling. Life imaging of leafs of Arabidopsis thaliana with GFP-tagged fimbrin (GFP-fABD2) treated with 1 mM salicylic acid revealed rapid disruption of actin filaments resembling the pattern viewed after treatment with 200 nM latrunculin B. The effect of salicylic acid on actin filament fragmentation was prevented by exogenous addition of phosphatidic acid, which binds to the capping protein and thus promotes actin polymerization. The quantitative evaluation of actin filament dynamics is also presented.

  4. Flow-through UV spectrophotometric sensor for determination of (acetyl)salicylic acid in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Medina, A; Fernández-de Córdova, M L; Ortega-Barrales, P; Molina-Díaz, A

    2001-03-23

    The solid phase spectrophotometry technique, in which the absorbance of the species of interest sorbed on a solid support is measured directly, was applied to the determination of salicylic acid using flow injection-analysis. Salicylic acid was determined by monitoring of its intrinsic absorbance at 297 nm sorbed on Sephadex QAE A-25 resin placed in an appropriate flow-through cell. The method proposed improves the selectivity compared with the corresponding solution-phase method and the sensitivity is increased by a factor of 30 or more. The flow-through sensor proposed allows working with several calibration lines simply by varying the sample volume injected. Thus, linear dynamic ranges from 1 to 20 and from 2 to 40 microg ml(-1) can be obtained by using 1000 and 300 microl, respectively, with detection limits being 0.064 and 0.135 microg ml(-1). Relative Standard Deviations (RSDs) of 0.52 and 0.38%, and sampling frequencies of 18 and 25 h(-1), respectively, were also achieved. The sensor also allows the indirect determination of acetylsalicylic acid previous hydrolysis on-line to salicylic acid. For acetylsalicylic acid, a linear dynamic range from 5 to 120 microg ml(-1) and 25 h(-1) of sampling frequency (300 microl of sample volume) were obtained. The proposed flow-through sensor has been successfully applied to the determination of both analytes in pharmaceutical preparations.

  5. Lipoxygenase in Caragana jubata responds to low temperature, abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Kaur, Jagdeep; Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Kumar, Sanjay

    2011-09-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX) catalyses oxygenation of free polyunsaturated fatty acids into oxylipins, and is a critical enzyme of the jasmonate signaling pathway. LOX has been shown to be associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses in diverse plant species, though limited data is available with respect to low temperature and the associated cues. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends, a full-length cDNA (CjLOX) encoding lipoxygenase was cloned from apical buds of Caragana jubata, a temperate plant species that grows under extreme cold. The cDNA obtained was 2952bp long consisting of an open reading frame of 2610bp encoding 869 amino acids protein. Multiple alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence with those of other plants demonstrated putative LH2/ PLAT domain, lipoxygenase iron binding catalytic domain and lipoxygenase_2 signature sequences. CjLOX exhibited up- and down-regulation of gene expression pattern in response to low temperature (LT), abscisic acid (ABA), methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA). Among all the treatments, a strong up-regulation was observed in response to MJ. Data suggests an important role of jasmonate signaling pathway in response to LT in C. jubata.

  6. Stimulation of the Salicylic Acid Pathway Aboveground Recruits Entomopathogenic Nematodes Belowground

    PubMed Central

    Filgueiras, Camila Cramer; Willett, Denis S.; Junior, Alcides Moino; Pareja, Martin; Borai, Fahiem El; Dickson, Donald W.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.; Duncan, Larry W.

    2016-01-01

    Plant defense pathways play a critical role in mediating tritrophic interactions between plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. While the impact of plant defense pathway stimulation on natural enemies has been extensively explored aboveground, belowground ramifications of plant defense pathway stimulation are equally important in regulating subterranean pests and still require more attention. Here we investigate the effect of aboveground stimulation of the salicylic acid pathway through foliar application of the elicitor methyl salicylate on belowground recruitment of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema diaprepesi. Also, we implicate a specific root-derived volatile that attracts S. diaprepesi belowground following aboveground plant stimulation by an elicitor. In four-choice olfactometer assays, citrus plants treated with foliar applications of methyl salicylate recruited S. diaprepesi in the absence of weevil feeding as compared with negative controls. Additionally, analysis of root volatile profiles of citrus plants receiving foliar application of methyl salicylate revealed production of d-limonene, which was absent in negative controls. The entomopathogenic nematode S. diaprepesi was recruited to d-limonene in two-choice olfactometer trials. These results reinforce the critical role of plant defense pathways in mediating tritrophic interactions, suggest a broad role for plant defense pathway signaling belowground, and hint at sophisticated plant responses to pest complexes. PMID:27136916

  7. Stimulation of the Salicylic Acid Pathway Aboveground Recruits Entomopathogenic Nematodes Belowground.

    PubMed

    Filgueiras, Camila Cramer; Willett, Denis S; Junior, Alcides Moino; Pareja, Martin; Borai, Fahiem El; Dickson, Donald W; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Duncan, Larry W

    2016-01-01

    Plant defense pathways play a critical role in mediating tritrophic interactions between plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. While the impact of plant defense pathway stimulation on natural enemies has been extensively explored aboveground, belowground ramifications of plant defense pathway stimulation are equally important in regulating subterranean pests and still require more attention. Here we investigate the effect of aboveground stimulation of the salicylic acid pathway through foliar application of the elicitor methyl salicylate on belowground recruitment of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema diaprepesi. Also, we implicate a specific root-derived volatile that attracts S. diaprepesi belowground following aboveground plant stimulation by an elicitor. In four-choice olfactometer assays, citrus plants treated with foliar applications of methyl salicylate recruited S. diaprepesi in the absence of weevil feeding as compared with negative controls. Additionally, analysis of root volatile profiles of citrus plants receiving foliar application of methyl salicylate revealed production of d-limonene, which was absent in negative controls. The entomopathogenic nematode S. diaprepesi was recruited to d-limonene in two-choice olfactometer trials. These results reinforce the critical role of plant defense pathways in mediating tritrophic interactions, suggest a broad role for plant defense pathway signaling belowground, and hint at sophisticated plant responses to pest complexes.

  8. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Early and Late Responses to Salicylic Acid in Cucumber Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important phytohormone that plays vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, studies on the molecular mechanism of SA, especially during the early SA responses, are lagging behind. In this study, we initiated a comprehensive isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis to explore the early and late SA-responsive proteins in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. Upon SA application through the roots, endogenous SA accumulated in cucumber leaves. By assaying the changes in marker gene expression and photosynthetic rate, we collected samples at 12 h and 72 h post treatment (hpt) to profile the early and late SA responsiveness, respectively. The iTRAQ assay followed by tandem mass spectrometry revealed 135 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) at 12 hpt and 301 DEPs at 72 hpt. The functional categories for these SA-responsive proteins included in a variety of biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, transport, protein folding and modification, proteolysis, cell wall organization, and the secondary phenylpropanoid pathway. Conclusively, based on the abundant changes of these DEPs, together with their putative functions, we proposed a possible SA-responsive protein network. It appears that SA could elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via enhancing the photosynthetic electron transferring, and then confer some growth-promoting and stress-priming effects on cells during the late phase, including enhanced photosynthesis and ROS scavenging, altered carbon metabolic flux for the biosynthesis of amino acids and nucleotides, and cell wall reorganization. Overall, the present iTRAQ assay provides higher proteome coverage and deepened our understanding of the molecular basis of SA-responses. PMID:27551830

  9. The Effects of Salicylic Acid on Juvenile Zebrafish Danio rerio Under Flow-Through Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zivna, Dana; Blahova, Jana; Siroka, Zuzana; Plhalova, Lucie; Marsalek, Petr; Doubkova, Veronika; Zelinska, Gabriela; Vecerek, Vladimir; Tichy, Frantisek; Sehonova, Pavla; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-09-01

    The aquatic environment is becoming increasingly contaminated with pharmaceuticals. Salicylic acid (SA), which can be used individually or appear as a degradation product of the widely used acetylsalicylic acid was chosen for testing. Juvenile zebrafish Danio rerio were subjected to OECD test No. 215 (fish, juvenile growth test) with salicylic acid concentrations of 0.004; 0.04; 0.4; 4 and 40 mg/L. Specific growth rate (SGR), histological changes, and parameters of oxidative stress were evaluated. SA had no effects on histological changes, SGR, glutathione reductase, and lipid peroxidation. Increased catalytic activity of GPx was found at 0.04 mg/L compared to control, increased catalytic activity of catalase was found at 0.04 and 4 mg/L compared to control, and increased catalytic activity of glutathione-S-transferase was found at 0.004 and 0.04 mg/L compared to control (P < 0.05). Juvenile zebrafish turned out to be relatively insensitive to both environmentally relevant (0.004 mg/L) and higher concentrations of salicylic acid.

  10. Cyclin A2 and CDK2 as Novel Targets of Aspirin and Salicylic acid: a Potential Role in Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Dachineni, Rakesh; Ai, Guoqiang; Kumar, D. Ramesh; Sadhu, Satya S.; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G. Jayarama

    2015-01-01

    Data emerging from the past 10 years have consolidated the rationale for investigating the use of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent; however, the mechanisms leading to its anti-cancer effects are still being elucidated. We hypothesized that aspirin’s chemopreventive actions may involve cell cycle regulation through modulation of the levels or activity of cyclin A2/cyclin dependent kinase-2 (CDK2). In this study, HT-29 and other diverse panel of cancer cells were used to demonstrate that both aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decreased cyclin A2 (CCNA2) and CDK2 protein and mRNA levels. The down regulatory effect of either drugs on cyclin A2 levels was prevented by pretreatment with lactacystin, an inhibitor of proteasomes, suggesting the involvement of 26S proteasomes. In-vitro kinase assays showed that lysates from cells treated with salicylic acid had lower levels of CDK2 activity. Importantly, three independent experiments revealed that salicylic acid directly binds to CDK2. Firstly, inclusion of salicylic acid in naïve cell lysates, or in recombinant CDK2 preparations, increased the ability of the anti-CDK2 antibody to immunoprecipitate CDK2, suggesting that salicylic acid may directly bind and alter its conformation. Secondly, in 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonate (ANS)-CDK2 fluorescence assays, pre-incubation of CDK2 with salicylic acid, dose-dependently quenched the fluorescence due to ANS. Thirdly, computational analysis using molecular docking studies identified Asp145 and Lys33 as the potential sites of salicylic acid interactions with CDK2. These results demonstrate that aspirin and salicylic acid down-regulate cyclin A2/CDK2 proteins in multiple cancer cell lines, suggesting a novel target and mechanism of action in chemoprevention. Implications Biochemical and structural studies indicate that the anti-proliferative actions of aspirin are mediated through cyclin A2/CDK2. PMID:26685215

  11. Cyclin A2 and CDK2 as Novel Targets of Aspirin and Salicylic Acid: A Potential Role in Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Dachineni, Rakesh; Ai, Guoqiang; Kumar, D Ramesh; Sadhu, Satya S; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-03-01

    Data emerging from the past 10 years have consolidated the rationale for investigating the use of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent; however, the mechanisms leading to its anticancer effects are still being elucidated. We hypothesized that aspirin's chemopreventive actions may involve cell-cycle regulation through modulation of the levels or activity of cyclin A2/cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2). In this study, HT-29 and other diverse panel of cancer cells were used to demonstrate that both aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decreased cyclin A2 (CCNA2) and CDK2 protein and mRNA levels. The downregulatory effect of either drugs on cyclin A2 levels was prevented by pretreatment with lactacystin, an inhibitor of proteasomes, suggesting the involvement of 26S proteasomes. In-vitro kinase assays showed that lysates from cells treated with salicylic acid had lower levels of CDK2 activity. Importantly, three independent experiments revealed that salicylic acid directly binds to CDK2. First, inclusion of salicylic acid in naïve cell lysates, or in recombinant CDK2 preparations, increased the ability of the anti-CDK2 antibody to immunoprecipitate CDK2, suggesting that salicylic acid may directly bind and alter its conformation. Second, in 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonate (ANS)-CDK2 fluorescence assays, preincubation of CDK2 with salicylic acid dose-dependently quenched the fluorescence due to ANS. Third, computational analysis using molecular docking studies identified Asp145 and Lys33 as the potential sites of salicylic acid interactions with CDK2. These results demonstrate that aspirin and salicylic acid downregulate cyclin A2/CDK2 proteins in multiple cancer cell lines, suggesting a novel target and mechanism of action in chemoprevention. Biochemical and structural studies indicate that the antiproliferative actions of aspirin are mediated through cyclin A2/CDK2. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Salicylic acid reduces the production of several potential virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with microbial keratitis.

    PubMed

    Bandara, Mahesh B K; Zhu, Hua; Sankaridurg, Padmaja R; Willcox, Mark D P

    2006-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of contact-lens-related microbial keratitis. This bacterium is becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics, and even if the infection can be treated with antibiotics, damage to the cornea resulting from the combined effect of bacteria and host factors can lead to loss of vision. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of salicylic acid on the production of potential virulence factors during the growth of P. aeruginosa. Bacterial cells were grown in a subinhibitory concentration of salicylic acid, and supernatants were collected and analyzed for presence of proteases by using zymography and hydrolysis of chromogenic substrates. The supernatants were also analyzed for the amount of acetylated homoserine lactones by using bacterial reporter strains. Pseudomonas cells from salicylic acid cultures were analyzed for their twitching and swimming motility as well as their ability to invade or cause the death of corneal epithelial cells. Growth in a subinhibitory concentration of salicylic acid resulted in a significant reduction in the number of bacterial cells and a reduction in the rate of the number of bacteria increasing during logarithmic growth, but the time to reach the stationary phase of growth was unchanged. These changes in growth pattern affected the amount of acylated homoserine lactones produced by P. aeruginosa 6294. Also affected by growth in salicylic acid was the ability of strain 6294 to show twitching or swimming motility. Salicylic acid also reduced the invasion of strain 6294 into corneal epithelial cells and the epithelial cell death caused by strain 6206. Furthermore, production of proteases by P. aeruginosa was significantly reduced by growth in salicylic acid. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that salicylic acid has a significant impact on several potential virulence factors of P. aeruginosa that may be involved in the production of microbial keratitis. These effects were probably

  13. [Effects of peeling agents (resorcinol, crystalline sulfur, salicylic acid) on the epidermis of guinea pig (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Windhager, K; Plewig, G

    1977-08-22

    The mode of action of "classical peeling agents" such as resorcinol, crystalline sulfur, and salicylic acid on the epidermis is almost unknown. There are only a few experimental data available. Therefore the effects of resorcinol, crystalline sulfur, and salicylic acid were studied. A 1% and 3% concentration of these chemicals in vaselinum flavum or Unguentum Cordes was applied to the ears and flanks of adult male guinea pigs up to 14 days. Prior to biopsies at various time intervals, 3H-thymidine was injected intradermally. Specimens were paraffin embedded and routinely processed for autoradiographical analysis. The following parameters were assessed: Labelling index (L.I. in %); number of labelled basal cells per unit length of basement membrane; papillomatosis-index; and acanthosis-factor (projection histoplanimetry). The data were statistically analysed. The peeling agents induced a concentration-dependent increase of the L.I., acanthosis, and papillomatosis. Crystalline sulfur caused the most pronounced effect, followed by resorcinol. In contrast salicylic acid caused only a minute acanthosis factor and a slight increase in labelling. The correlation coefficient r of epidermal thickness to the L.I. for all concentrations and peeling agents used reaches the high figure of 0.978 for the ear. The 1% and 3% salicylic acid has a lower acanthosis factor than vaselinum flavum by itself. Preliminary autoradiographical studies in humans with 1% and 10% salicylic acid confirm these data. Salicylic acid counteracts acanthosis. These experiments show that crystalline sulfur and resorcinol have a potent effect on cell proliferation and acanthosis. They peel via proliferation hyperkeratosis. The mode of peeling by salicylic acid must be different, as cell proliferation and acanthosis are barely enhanced. The clinically known "keratolytic" effect of salicylic acid may be due to a direct action on the intercellular cement substance of the horny cells.

  14. The Pseudomonas syringae phytotoxin coronatine promotes virulence by overcoming salicylic acid-dependent defences in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Brooks, David M; Bender, Carol L; Kunkel, Barbara N

    2005-11-01

    SUMMARY Successful pathogen infection likely involves the suppression of general antimicrobial host defences. One Pseudomonas syringae virulence factor proposed to act in this manner is coronatine (COR), a phytotoxin believed to function as an analogue of one or more jasmonates, a family of plant growth regulators. COR biosynthetic (COR(-)) mutants of P. syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 exhibit reduced virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato. In the present study, three genetically and biochemically defined COR(-) mutants of DC3000 were used to explore potential effects of COR and its precursors, coronafacic acid (CFA) and coronamic acid (CMA), on defence signalling pathways in A. thaliana. Inoculation with wild-type DC3000 resulted in the accumulation of several jasmonate-responsive transcripts, whereas infection with a mutant strain that accumulates CFA, which is structurally similar to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), did not. Thus, COR, but not CFA, stimulates jasmonate signalling during P. syringae infection of A. thaliana. The ability of the COR(-) mutants to grow to high levels in planta was fully restored in A. thaliana lines deficient for salicylic acid (SA) accumulation. Although the COR(-) mutants grew to high levels in SA-deficient plants, disease symptoms were reduced in these plants. Collectively, these results indicate that COR is required both for overcoming or suppressing SA-dependent defences during growth in plant tissue and for normal disease symptom development in A. thaliana.

  15. Salicylic Acid-Based Organic Dyes Acting as the Photosensitizer for Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungjun; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Han, Ah-Reum; Ko, Kwan-Woo; Eom, Jin Hee; Namgoong, Sung Keon; Lo, Alvie S V; Gordon, Keith C; Yoon, Sungho; Han, Chi-Hwan

    2016-05-01

    A D-π-A metal-free organic dye, featuring salicylic acid as a novel acceptor/anchoring unit, has been designed, synthesized and applied to dye-sensitized solar cell. The detailed photophysical, electrochemical, photovoltaic and sensitizing properties of the organic dye were investigated, in addition to the computational studies of the dye and dye-(TiO2)6 system. A solar cell device using this new organic dye as a sensitizer produced a solar to electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.49% (J(sc) = 6.69 mAcm-2, V(oc) = 0.74 V and ff = 0.70) under 100 mWcm(-2) simulated AM 1.5 G solar irradiation, demonstrating that the salicylic acid-based organic dye is a suitable alternative to currently used organometallic dyes.

  16. Salicylic Acid Conjugated Dendrimers Are a Tunable, High Performance CEST MRI NanoPlatform.

    PubMed

    Lesniak, Wojciech G; Oskolkov, Nikita; Song, Xiaolei; Lal, Bachchu; Yang, Xing; Pomper, Martin; Laterra, John; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; McMahon, Michael T

    2016-04-13

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a novel MRI contrast mechanism that is well suited for imaging, however, existing small molecule CEST agents suffer from low sensitivity. We have developed salicylic acid conjugated dendrimers as a versatile, high performance nanoplatform. In particular, we have prepared nanocarriers based on generation 5-poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers with salicylic acid covalently attached to their surface. The resulting conjugates produce strong CEST contrast 9.4 ppm from water with the proton exchange tunable from ∼1000 s(-1) to ∼4500 s(-1) making these dendrimers well suited for sensitive detection. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these conjugates can be used for monitoring convection enhanced delivery into U87 glioblastoma bearing mice, with the contrast produced by these nanoparticles persisting for over 1.5 h and distributed over ∼50% of the tumors. Our results demonstrate that SA modified dendrimers present a promising new nanoplatform for medical applications.

  17. Salicylic acid enhances Jaceosidin and Syringin production in cell cultures of Saussurea medusa.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhen-Zhen; Fu, Chun-Xiang; Han, Ying-Shan; Li, Yong-Xing; Zhao, De-Xiu

    2006-07-01

    Addition of 20 muM salicylic acid to Saussurea medusa cell cultures at day 6 resulted in jaceosidin and syringin productions up to 95 mg l(-1 )and 631 mg l(-1) which were, respectively, about 2.5- and 2.7-fold higher than in the control. The biomass was increased from 8 to 12 g l(-1). Expression of chalcone synthase gene (chs) increased sharply after 12 h treatment and was sustained up to 48 h; chalcone isomerase gene (chi) expression reached a peak at 24 h and decreased after 48 h; and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity increased by 7.5-fold (96 U mg(-1) protein) higher than in the control after 24 h. These results indicate that salicylic acid enhances the production of jaceosidin and syringin which is accompanied by induction of the related phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes.

  18. Synthesis and degradation characteristics of salicylic acid-derived poly(anhydride-esters).

    PubMed

    Erdmann, L; Uhrich, K E

    2000-10-01

    A biodegradable poly(anhydride-ester) was synthesized by melt condensation polymerization of the acetylated monomer to yield a novel polymeric prodrug. The polymer we have synthesized is composed of alkyl chains linked by ester bonds to aromatic moieties, specifically salicylic acid--the active component of aspirin. With the medicinal properties attributed to salicylic acid and the ease of metabolism, the incorporation of this compound into a polymer backbone yields a polymeric prodrug that may have potential in a variety of applications (i.e., inflammatory bowel disease). For these reasons, we have designed a synthetic scheme that yields the desired poly(anhydride-ester). The in vitro hydrolytic degradation of these polymers has been performed and results indicate that the polymer degradation rate is pH-dependent.

  19. Salicylic acid and gentisic acid induce RNA silencing-related genes and plant resistance to RNA pathogens.

    PubMed

    Campos, Laura; Granell, Pablo; Tárraga, Susana; López-Gresa, Pilar; Conejero, Vicente; Bellés, José María; Rodrigo, Ismael; Lisón, Purificación

    2014-04-01

    We have observed that treatments with salicylic acid (SA) or gentisic acid (GA) induced resistance to RNA pathogens such as ToMV and CEVd in tomato and Gynura auriantiaca, respectively. Accumulation of SA and GA has been found to occur in plants infected by these pathogens, thus pointing out a possible defence role of both molecules. To study the molecular basis of the observed induced resistance to RNA pathogens the induction of silencing-related genes by SA and GA was considered. For that purpose, we searched for tomato genes which were orthologous to those described in Arabidopsis thaliana, such as AtDCL1, AtDCL2, AtDCL4, AtRDR1, AtRDR2 and AtRDR6, and we tracked their induction in tomato along virus and viroid infections. We observed that CEVd significantly induced all these genes in tomato, with the exception of ToRDR6, being the induction of ToDCL4 the most outstanding. Regarding the ToMV asymptomatic infection, with the exception of ToRDR2, we observed a significant induction of all the indicated silencing-related genes, being ToDCL2 the most induced gene. Subsequently, we analyzed their transcriptional activation by SA and at the time when ToMV was inoculated on plants. ToDCL2, ToRDR1 and ToRDR2 were significantly induced by both SA and GA, whereas ToDCL1 was only induced by SA. Such an induction resulted more effective by SA treatment, which is in agreement with the stronger SA-induced resistance observed. Our results suggest that the observed delay in the RNA pathogen accumulation could be due to the pre-induction of RNA silencing-related genes by SA or GA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Passive permeability of salicylic acid in renal proximal S2 and S3 tubules

    SciTech Connect

    Chatton, J.Y.; Roch-Ramel, F. )

    1991-03-01

    The role of nonionic diffusion in the transport of salicylic acid across rabbit proximal S2 and S3 segments was investigated using the in vitro isolated perfused tubule technique. The ({sup 14}C) salicylic acid apparent reabsorptive permeability (P'I-b, 10(-5) cm/s) was measured at 19 degrees C with luminal solutions kept at different pH and bath maintained at pH 7.4. In S2 tubules, P'I-b was 25.0 +/- 3.5 when luminal pH was 6.0; P'I-b decreased to 8.1 +/- 1.4 and to 4.4 +/- 1.2 at a luminal pH of 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. In S3 tubules, P'I-b was 17.6 +/- 2.4, 5.3 +/- 1.1 and 3.4 +/- 1.1 at a luminal pH of 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. There was a close correlation between P'I-b and the calculated proportion of nonionized salicylic acid present at each pH, indicating that only the nonionized molecule could diffuse in our conditions. We calculated the apparent permeability of nonionic salicylic acid and found 0.248 +/- 0.032 cm/s for S2 and 0.176 +/- 0.022 cm/s for S3 tubules. These calculated permeabilities were independent of pH.

  1. ESR study of irradiated single crystals of the cocrystalline complex of cytidine: Salicylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Close, D.M.; Sagstuen, E.

    1983-12-01

    Irradiation at 77 K of single crystals of the 1:1 complex of cytidine and salicylic acid produces a phenoxyl radical formed by oxidation of the salicylic acid. Anisotropic hyperfine coupling tensors have been determined for this radical which are associated with the para and ortho hydrogens. No cytidine oxidation products (alkoxy or hydroxyalkyl radicals) were observed at 77 K. Following the decay of the phenoxyl radical at room temperature, four radicals were detected. These include the cytosine 5--yl and 6--yl radicals, formed by H addition to the cytosine ring, and an anisotropic doublet. By UV irradiation at room temperature, it is possible to convert a significant fraction of 6-yl radicals into 5-yl radicals. Hyperfine coupling and g tensors determined for the anisotropic doublet indicate that this radical is formed in the C/sub 1'/-C/sub 2'/ region of the sugar moiety. These results indicate a shift in radiation damage away from the salicylic acid upon warming, and show that the radiation chemistry of the cocrystalline complex is different from that of the isolated bases.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis spherical TiO2 and its photo-degradation property on salicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wenlu; Liu, Xiaolin; Huo, Pengwei; Gao, Xun; Wu, Di; Lu, Ziyang; Yan, Yongsheng

    2012-07-01

    Anatase TiO2 spheres have been prepared using hydrothermal synthesis. The prepared spheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS). The TiO2 consisted of well-defined spheres with size of 3-5 μm. The photocatalytic activity of spherical TiO2 was determined by degradation of salicylic acid under visible light irradiation. It was revealed that the degradation rate of the spherical TiO2 which was processed at 150 °C for 48 h could reach 81.758%. And the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation obeyed first-order kinetic, which the rate constant value was 0.01716 S-1 of the salicylic acid onto TiO2 (temperature: 150, time: 48 h). The kinetics of adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order model and the rate constant was 1.2695 g mg-1 of the salicylic acid onto TiO2 (temperature: 150, time: 48 h).

  3. DFT computational study on decarboxylation mechanism of salicylic acid and its derivatives in the anionic state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lu; Hu, Yanying; Zhang, Huitu; Liu, Yanchun; Song, Zhidan; Dai, Yujie

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms of the decarboxylation of salicylic acid anion and its ortho substituted derivatives in gas phase and aqueous solution have been investigated by B3LYP method of DFT theory using the 6-31++G (d,p) basis set. The decarboxylation process includes hydrogen transfers from hydroxyl to carboxyl group and from carboxyl to the α-C of the aryl ring. The mechanism suggested is a pseudo-unimolecular decomposition of the salicylic acid anion and the hydrogen transfer from carboxyl to the α-C of the aryl ring is the rate determining step. Compared with the decarboxylation process in gas phase, the energy barriers in aqueous solution approximately declined by 25%-31%with the water mediation of the hydrogen transfer from carboxyl to the α-C of the aryl ring. The effects of substituents at the ortho position on the decarboxylation process were also investigated. Both the electron donating CH3 and withdrawing group NO2 at the ortho position of carboxyl group can further reduce the reaction energy barriers of the decarboxylation of salicylic acid anions.

  4. Pharmacokinetics and in vitro efficacy of salicylic acid after oral administration of acetylsalicylic acid in horses.

    PubMed

    Buntenkötter, Kathrin; Osmers, Maren; Schenk, Ina; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Machnik, Marc; Düe, Michael; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2017-01-19

    Although acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is not frequently used as a therapeutic agent in horses, its metabolite SA is of special interest in equestrianism since it is a natural component of many plants used as horse feed. This led to the establishment of thresholds by horse sport organizations for SA in urine and plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma and urine concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) after oral administration of three different single dosages (12.5 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) to eight horses in a cross-over designed study. In the 12.5 mg/kg group, SA concentrations in urine peaked 2 h after oral administration (2675 μg/mL); plasma concentrations peaked at 1.5 h (17 μg/mL). In the 25 mg/kg group, maximum concentrations were detected after 2 h (urine, 2785 μg/mL) and 1.5 h (plasma, 23 μg/mL). In the 50 mg/kg group, maximum concentrations were observed after 5 h (urine, 3915 μg/mL) and 1.5 h (plasma, 45 μg/mL). The plasma half-life calculated for SA varied between 5.0 and 5.7 h. The urine concentration of SA fell below the threshold of 750 μg/mL (set by the International Equestrian Federation FEI and most of the horseracing authorities) between 7 and 26 h after administration of 12.5 and 25 mg/kg ASA and between 24 and 36 h after administration of 50 mg/kg ASA. For ASA, IC50 were 0.50 μg/mL (COX-1) and 5.14 μg/mL (COX-2). For salicylic acid, it was not possible to calculate an IC50 for either COX due to insufficient inhibition of both cyclooxygenases. The established SA thresholds of 750 μg//mL urine and 6.5 μg/mL plasma appear too generous and are leaving space for misuse of the anti-inflammatory and analgetic compound ASA in horses.

  5. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner. PMID:25289020

  6. Altered cultivar resistance of kimchi cabbage seedlings mediated by salicylic Acid, jasmonic Acid and ethylene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  7. Novel plant immune-priming compounds identified via high-throughput chemical screening target salicylic acid glucosyltransferases in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Okazaki, Masateru; Kida, Tatsuya; Nishina, Yuta; Morishita, Yoshihiko; Ogawa, Takumi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Hanada, Atsushi; Kamiya, Yuji; Shirasu, Ken

    2012-09-01

    Plant activators are compounds, such as analogs of the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA), that protect plants from pathogens by activating the plant immune system. Although some plant activators have been widely used in agriculture, the molecular mechanisms of immune induction are largely unknown. Using a newly established high-throughput screening procedure that screens for compounds that specifically potentiate pathogen-activated cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana cultured suspension cells, we identified five compounds that prime the immune response. These compounds enhanced disease resistance against pathogenic Pseudomonas bacteria in Arabidopsis plants. Pretreatments increased the accumulation of endogenous SA, but reduced its metabolite, SA-O-β-d-glucoside. Inducing compounds inhibited two SA glucosyltransferases (SAGTs) in vitro. Double knockout plants that lack both SAGTs consistently exhibited enhanced disease resistance. Our results demonstrate that manipulation of the active free SA pool via SA-inactivating enzymes can be a useful strategy for fortifying plant disease resistance and may identify useful crop protectants.

  8. Enhanced glucosinolates in root exudates of Brassica rapa ssp. rapa mediated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2011-02-23

    Elicitation studies with salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) inducing a targeted rhizosecretion of high levels of anticarcinogenic glucosinolates in Brassica rapa ssp. rapa plants were conducted. Elicitor applications not only led to an accumulation of individual indole glucosinolates and the aromatic 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate in the turnip organs but also in turnip root exudates. This indicates an extended systemic response, which comprises the phyllosphere with all aboveground plant organs and the rhizosphere including the belowground root system and also root exudates. Both elicitor applications induced a doubling in 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate in root exudates, whereas application of MJ enhanced rhizosecreted indole glucosinolates up to 4-fold. In addition, the time course study revealed that maximal elicitation was observed on the 10th day of SA and MJ treatment. This study may provide an essential contribution using these glucosinolates as bioactive additives in functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  9. Regulation of growth and photosynthetic parameters by salicylic acid and calcium in Brassica juncea under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Shamsul; Ahmad, Abrar; Wani, Arif Shafi; Alyemeni, Mohammed Nasser; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium, a non-essential and toxic metal, negatively affects plant growth and productivity, and alters the plant's physiological processes necessary for its survival. The present study was designed to explore the individual and combined effects of calcium and salicylic acid (SA) on the morphology and physiology of Brassica juncea L. cv. Varuna under cadmium stress. The application of calcium (2 mM) through the soil and/or SA (10-5 M) as foliar spray enhanced the growth, photosynthetic parameters, and proline content determined after 45 days of treatment. The application of cadmium (6 mg kg-1) through the soil was toxic and decreased both growth and the photosynthetic parameters. The application of calcium and SA in combination was most effective in alleviating the harmful effects of cadmium on growth and photosynthesis. Calcium and SA clearly induced plant protection mechanisms by enhancing proline and chlorophyll accumulation in the leaves.

  10. Positive effects of salicylic acid pretreatment on the composition of flax plastidial membrane lipids under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Belkadhi, Aïcha; De Haro, Antonio; Obregon, Sara; Chaïbi, Wided; Djebali, Wahbi

    2015-01-01

    Interest in use of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as cadmium (Cd)-accumulating plant for phytoextraction of contaminated soils opened up a new and promising avenue toward improving tolerance of its varieties and cultivars to Cd stress. The aim of this study is to get insights into the mechanisms of Cd detoxification in cell membranes, by exploring the effects of salicylic acid (SA)-induced priming on fatty acids and lipid composition of flax plantlets, grown for 10 days with 50 and 100 μM Cd. At leaf level, levels of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and neutral lipids (NL) have shifted significantly in flax plantlets exposed to toxic CdCl2 concentrations, as compared to that of the control. At 100 μM Cd, the linoleic acid (C18:2) decreases mainly in digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and all phospholipid species, while linolenic acid (C18:3) declines mostly in MGDG and NL. Conversely, at the highest concentration of the metal, SA significantly enhances the levels of MGDG, PG and phosphatidic acid (PA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids mainly C18:2 and C18:3. Furthermore, SA pretreatment seems to reduce the Cd-induced alterations in both plastidial and extraplastidial lipid classes, but preferentially preserves the plastidial lipids by acquiring higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that flax plantlets pretreated with SA exhibits more stability of their membranes under Cd-stress conditions.

  11. Salicylic acid and ascorbic acid retrieve activity of antioxidative enzymes and structure of Caralluma tuberculata calli on PEG stress.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Riaz U; Zia, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Muhammad F

    2017-02-02

    Biochemical adaptations and morphological changes are cellular aptitude originated on biotic and abiotic stresses. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) induces drought stress in the nutrient solution. In the present investigation, Caralluma tuberculata calli is exposed to PEG and antioxidative molecules. By increasing the level of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT, APX, and GR), the PEG-stressed calli falls off upon exposure to non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and salicylic acid). Under PEG-stress, several cellular and sub-cellular changes such as alteration in plasma membrane thickness, change in nucleus shape, increase in nucleoli, deformation of thylakoid membranes, and increase in plastoglobuli are observed through electron microscopic images. From our results we conclude that application of PEG (a drought causative agent) leads to an increase in the level of antioxidative enzymes and also deformation of cellular organelles. However, application of ascorbic acid and salicylic acid eradicate drought effect induced by PEG.

  12. Transport of two naphthoic acids and salicylic acid in soil: experimental study and empirical modeling.

    PubMed

    Hanna, K; Lassabatere, L; Bechet, B

    2012-09-15

    In contrast to the parent compounds, the mechanisms responsible for the transport of natural metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in contaminated soils have been scarcely investigated. In this study, the sorption of three aromatic acids (1-naphthoic acid (NA), 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNA) and salicylic acid (SA)) was examined on soil, in a batch equilibrium single-system, with varying pH and acid concentrations. Continuous flow experiments were also carried out under steady-state water flow. The adsorption behavior of naphthoic and benzoic acids was affected by ligand functionality and molecular structure. All modeling options (equilibrium, chemical nonequilibrium, i.e. chemical kinetics, physical nonequilibrium, i.e. surface sites in the immobile water fraction, and both chemical and physical nonequilibrium) were tested in order to describe the breakthrough behavior of organic compounds in homogeneously packed soil columns. Tracer experiments showed a small fractionation of flow into mobile and immobile compartments, and the related hydrodynamic parameters were used for the modeling of reactive transport. In all cases, the isotherm parameters obtained from column tests differed from those derived from the batch experiments. The best accurate modeling was obtained considering nonequilibrium for the three organic compounds. Both chemical and physical nonequilibrium led to appropriate modeling for HNA and NA, while chemical nonequilibrium was the sole option for SA. SA sorption occurs mainly in mobile water and results from the concomitancy of instantaneous and kinetically limited sites. For all organic compounds, retention is contact condition dependent and differs between batch and column experiments. Such results show that preponderant mechanisms are solute dependent and kinetically limited, which has important implications for the fate and transport of carboxylated aromatic compounds in contaminated soils.

  13. Salicylic acid negatively affects the response to salt stress in pea plants.

    PubMed

    Barba-Espín, G; Clemente-Moreno, M J; Alvarez, S; García-Legaz, M F; Hernández, J A; Díaz-Vivancos, P

    2011-11-01

    We studied the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment on the response of pea plants to salinity. Sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced damage to leaves was increased by SA, which was correlated with a reduction in plant growth. The content of reduced ascorbate and glutathione in leaves of salt-treated plants increased in response to SA, although accumulation of the respective oxidised forms occurred. An increase in hydrogen peroxide also occurred in leaves of salt-exposed plants treated with SA. In the absence of NaCl, SA increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX; 100 μm) and glutathione-S transferase (GST; 50 μm) activities and increased catalase (CAT) activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Salinity decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity, but increased GST and CAT activity. In salt-stressed plants, SA also produced changes in antioxidative enzymes: 100 μm SA decreased APX but increased GST. Finally, a concentration-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was induced by SA treatment in salt-stressed plants. Induction of PR-1b was observed in NaCl-stressed plants treated with SA. The treatment with SA, as well as the interaction between salinity and SA treatment, had a significant effect on PsMAPK3 expression. The expression of PsMAPK3 was not altered by 70 mm NaCl, but was statistically higher in the absence than in the presence of SA. Overall, the results show that SA treatment negatively affected the response of pea plants to NaCl, and this response correlated with an imbalance in antioxidant metabolism. The data also show that SA treatment could enhance the resistance of salt-stressed plants to possible opportunistic pathogen attack, as suggested by increased PR-1b gene expression. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Salicylic Acid Regulates Pollen Tip Growth through an NPR3/NPR4-Independent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Rong, Duoyan; Luo, Nan; Mollet, Jean Claude; Liu, Xuanming; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2016-11-07

    Tip growth is a common strategy for the rapid elongation of cells to forage the environment and/or to target to long-distance destinations. In the model tip growth system of Arabidopsis pollen tubes, several small-molecule hormones regulate their elongation, but how these rapidly diffusing molecules control extremely localized growth remains mysterious. Here we show that the interconvertible salicylic acid (SA) and methylated SA (MeSA), well characterized for their roles in plant defense, oppositely regulate Arabidopsis pollen tip growth with SA being inhibitory and MeSA stimulatory. The effect of SA and MeSA was independent of known NPR3/NPR4 SA receptor-mediated signaling pathways. SA inhibited clathrin-mediated endocytosis in pollen tubes associated with an increased accumulation of less stretchable demethylated pectin in the apical wall, whereas MeSA did the opposite. Furthermore, SA and MeSA alter the apical activation of ROP1 GTPase, a key regulator of tip growth in pollen tubes, in an opposite manner. Interestingly, both MeSA methylesterase and SA methyltransferase, which catalyze the interconversion between SA and MeSA, are localized at the apical region of pollen tubes, indicating of the tip-localized production of SA and MeSA and consistent with their effects on the apical cellular activities. These findings suggest that local generation of a highly diffusible signal can regulate polarized cell growth, providing a novel mechanism of cell polarity control apart from the one involving protein and mRNA polarization.

  15. Cytokinins act synergistically with salicylic acid to activate defense gene expression in rice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chang-Jie; Shimono, Masaki; Sugano, Shoji; Kojima, Mikiko; Liu, Xinqiong; Inoue, Haruhiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Hormone crosstalk is pivotal in plant-pathogen interactions. Here, we report on the accumulation of cytokinins (CK) in rice seedlings after infection of blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and its potential significance in rice-M. oryzae interaction. Blast infection to rice seedlings increased levels of N(6)-(Δ(2)-isopentenyl) adenine (iP), iP riboside (iPR), and iPR 5'-phosphates (iPRP) in leaf blades. Consistent with this, CK signaling was activated around the infection sites, as shown by histochemical staining for β-glucuronidase activity driven by a CK-responsive OsRR6 promoter. Diverse CK species were also detected in the hyphae (mycelium), conidia, and culture filtrates of blast fungus, indicating that M. oryzae is capable of production as well as hyphal secretion of CK. Co-treatment of leaf blades with CK and salicylic acid (SA), but not with either one alone, markedly induced pathogenesis-related genes OsPR1b and probenazole-induced protein 1 (PBZ1). These effects were diminished by RNAi-knockdown of OsNPR1 or WRKY45, the key regulators of the SA signaling pathway in rice, indicating that the effects of CK depend on these two regulators. Taken together, our data imply a coevolutionary rice-M. oryzae interaction, wherein M. oryzae probably elevates rice CK levels for its own benefits such as nutrient translocation. Rice plants, on the other hand, sense it as an infection signal and activate defense reactions through the synergistic action with SA.

  16. Fermentation Products of Solvent Tolerant Marine Bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and Its Biotechnological Applications in Salicylic Acid Bioconversion

    PubMed Central

    Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N.; Devi, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3–8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9–12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and β-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment. PMID:24391802

  17. Fermentation products of solvent tolerant marine bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and its biotechnological applications in salicylic acid bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N; Devi, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3-8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9-12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and β-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment.

  18. Lipid metabolism is differentially modulated by salicylic acid and heptanoyl salicylic acid during the induction of resistance in wheat against powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Tayeh, Christine; Randoux, Béatrice; Bourdon, Natacha; Reignault, Philippe

    2013-12-15

    Heptanoyl salicylic acid (HSA) is a salicylic acid (SA) derivative obtained by esterification of 2-OH benzoic acid with heptanoic acid. In wheat, the protection levels obtained against Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) increased from 50% with SA to 95% with HSA. Using molecular, biochemical and cytological approaches, we investigated here how wheat lipid metabolism is differentially activated by SA and HSA in both infectious and non-infectious conditions, and how Bgt infectious process is altered by both inducers. First, in the absence of Bgt, continuous lipoxygenase (LOX)-encoding gene expression and corresponding activity were specifically induced by HSA. Moreover, compared to SA, HSA treatment resulted in earlier up-regulations of the phospholipase C2-encoding gene expression and it specifically affected the expression of a lipid transfer protein-encoding gene. In infectious context, both HSA and SA sprayings impaired penetration events and therefore haustorium formation, leading to less frequent fungal colonies. While this alteration only slowed down the evolution of Bgt infectious process in SA-sprayed leaves, it completely impaired the establishment of successful infectious events in HSA-sprayed leaves. In addition, HSA induced continuous increases of a LOX-encoding gene expression and of the corresponding LOX activity when compared to SA-sprayed leaves. Lipid metabolism is therefore overall highly responsive to HSA spraying and could represent effective defence mechanism triggered during the induction of resistance in wheat toward Bgt. The concepts of priming and energy costs of the defences induced by SA and HSA are also discussed.

  19. Binding of diazepam, salicylic acid and digitoxin to albumin isolated from fetal and adult serum.

    PubMed

    Viani, A; Cappiello, M; Pacifici, G M

    1991-01-01

    Albumin was isolated from pooled fetal serum obtained at normal delivery at term and from pooled adult plasma. Albumin isolation was carried out by means of PEG precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A 50 and then on SP-Sephadex C 50. The binding of diazepam (1 microM), salicylic acid (2 mM) and digitoxin (6 nM) to albumin (40 g/l) was measured by equilibrium dialysis at 37 degrees C. The unbound fraction (mean +/- SD) for fetal and adult albumin of diazepam was 1.86 +/- 0.24 and 1.82 +/- 0.15% (NS), that of digitoxin was 3.18 +/- 0.27 and 3.36 +/- 0.04% (NS) and that of salicylic acid was 11.65 +/- 0.99 and 9.47 +/- 0.75% (p less than 0.05), respectively. With both fetal and adult albumin, a single class of binding sites was observed for diazepam and digitoxin, whereas two classes of binding sites were observed for salicylic acid. The number of binding sites (n, moles of drug per mole of albumin) for fetal and adult albumin was 0.83 and 1.02 for diazepam and 0.014 and 0.018 for digitoxin, respectively. For salicylic acid, n was 1.45 (fetal albumin) and 1.55 (adult albumin) for the higher affinity site, and 3.06 (fetal albumin) and 3.27 (adult albumin) for the lower affinity site. The association constant (Ka, M-1) for diazepam was 1.36 x 10(5) (fetal albumin) and 1.00 x 10(5) (adult albumin) and that for digitoxin was 4.12 x 10(6) (fetal albumin) and 2.7 x 10(6) (adult albumin). For salicylic acid, Ka was 38.4 x 10(3) (fetal albumin) and 35.8 x 10(3) (adult albumin) for the higher affinity site, and 2.7 x 10(3) (fetal albumin) and 4.3 x 10(3) (adult albumin) for the lower affinity site. This work shows that fetal and adult albumin have similar binding properties and corroborates our previous findings with furosemide.

  20. Hexanoic acid is a resistance inducer that protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by priming the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.

    PubMed

    Scalschi, Loredana; Vicedo, Begonya; Camañes, Gemma; Fernandez-Crespo, Emma; Lapeña, Leonor; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2013-05-01

    Hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) is effective against several pathogens in tomato plants. Our study of the mechanisms implicated in Hx-IR against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suggests that hexanoic acid (Hx) treatment counteracts the negative effect of coronatine (COR) and jasmonyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) on the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. In Hx-treated plants, an increase in the expression of jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) and the SA marker genes PR1 and PR5 indicates a boost in this signalling pathway at the expense of a decrease in JA-Ile. Moreover, Hx treatment potentiates 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid accumulation, which suggests that this molecule might play a role per se in Hx-IR. These results support a positive relationship between the SA and JA pathways in Hx-primed plants. Furthermore, one of the mechanisms of virulence mediated by COR is stomatal re-opening on infection with P. syringae. In this work, we observed that Hx seems to inhibit stomatal opening in planta in the presence of COR, which suggests that, on infection in tomato, this treatment suppresses effector action to prevent bacterial entry into the mesophyll.

  1. AtWRKY22 promotes susceptibility to aphids and modulates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signalling

    PubMed Central

    Kloth, Karen J.; Wiegers, Gerrie L.; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline; van Haarst, Jan C.; Kruijer, Willem; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Dicke, Marcel; Jongsma, Maarten A.

    2016-01-01

    Aphids induce many transcriptional perturbations in their host plants, but the signalling cascades responsible and the effects on plant resistance are largely unknown. Through a genome-wide association (GWA) mapping study in Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified WRKY22 as a candidate gene associated with feeding behaviour of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. The transcription factor WRKY22 is known to be involved in pathogen-triggered immunity, and WRKY22 gene expression has been shown to be induced by aphids. Assessment of aphid population development and feeding behaviour on knockout mutants and overexpression lines showed that WRKY22 increases susceptibility to M. persicae via a mesophyll-located mechanism. mRNA sequencing analysis of aphid-infested wrky22 knockout plants revealed the up-regulation of genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) signalling and down-regulation of genes involved in plant growth and cell-wall loosening. In addition, mechanostimulation of knockout plants by clip cages up-regulated jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes, resulting in substantial negative JA–SA crosstalk. Based on this and previous studies, WRKY22 is considered to modulate the interplay between the SA and JA pathways in response to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stimuli. Its induction by aphids and its role in suppressing SA and JA signalling make WRKY22 a potential target for aphids to manipulate host plant defences. PMID:27107291

  2. Modulation of human stratum corneum properties by salicylic acid and all-trans-retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Goffin, V; Piérard, G E

    1998-01-01

    Topical all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) has been reported to decrease the in vivo skin response to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). The converse was also shown with a synergistic effect of RA following prior applications of SLS. The reason for such effects is not clear. We employed measures of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), squamometry and sequential corneosurfametry to explore the protective activity of a 0.05% RA cream at the level of the stratum corneum. Nonionic oil-in-water emulsions with or without 5% salicylic acid (SA) served as test product references. Data indicated that the RA formulation was responsible for a stochastic impairment in the TEWL and for an increased intercorneocyte cohesion. SA and the unmedicated emulsion did not lead to similar TEWL changes. The squamometry test proved to be very sensitive to disclose the effects of SA and RA without, however, allowing to distinguish the difference in the physiological processes involved. The corneosurfametry bioassay did not show any protection or synergistic effect between RA or SA and SLS challenge on the stratum corneum. This is in contrast to a previous work showing a positive protective effect afforded by retinol against SLS. The combined effects of irritant compounds affecting the stratum corneum are complex. The precise reason for some of their biological consequences remains a conundrum. On balance, products such as SA and RA do not appear to afford protection or impairment to a surfactant challenge at the level of the stratum corneum.

  3. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ ethylene plant defense pathways.

    PubMed

    Mur, Luis A J; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra; Hall, Michael A; Hebelstrup, Kim H

    2013-01-01

    Plant defense against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defense responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signaling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signaling along each pathway. NO will initiate SA biosynthesis and nitrosylate key cysteines on TGA-class transcription factors to aid in the initiation of SA-dependent gene expression. Against this, S-nitrosylation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1) will promote the NPR1 oligomerization within the cytoplasm to reduce TGA activation. In JA biosynthesis, NO will initiate the expression of JA biosynthetic enzymes, presumably to over-come any antagonistic effects of SA on JA-mediated transcription. NO will also initiate the expression of ET biosynthetic genes but a suppressive role is also observed in the S-nitrosylation and inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine transferases which provides methyl groups for ET production. Based on these data a model for NO action is proposed but we have also highlighted the need to understand when and how inductive and suppressive steps are used.

  4. Spectrofluorimetry at zero angle: determination of salicylic acid in an acetylsalicylic acid pharmaceutical formulation.

    PubMed

    Villari, A; Micali, N; Fresta, M; Puglisi, G

    1994-07-01

    In this work, a solid-state spectrofluorimetric method for drug assays was developed. In particular, we report the determination of salicylic acid (SA), as a hydrolysis product, in solid pharmaceutical formulations containing acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Recently, we described a sensitive and accurate fluorescence method that provided, through a mathematical application, the simultaneous determination of ASA and SA. By means of the spectrofluorimetric method reported herein it was possible to carry out the SA determination, without any mathematical calculation and with a sensitivity 100 times that of our previous method. The intra- and inter-day reproducibility of the spectrofluorimetric method, expressed as the relative standard deviation, ranged from 0.1 to 0.3%. The present method requires a fluorescence apparatus with the excitation and detection systems in-line (zero angle). The detection system was not sensitive to the excitation wavelength, but was highly sensitive to emission wavelengths from 350 to 800 nm. The results obtained were compared with those of our previous spectrofluorimetric method, together with those of a high-performance liquid chromatography method and a US Pharmacopeia method. The sensitivity of the method was of the order of 10(-8) g.

  5. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ ethylene plant defense pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mur, Luis A. J.; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra; Hall, Michael A.; Hebelstrup, Kim H.

    2013-01-01

    Plant defense against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defense responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signaling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signaling along each pathway. NO will initiate SA biosynthesis and nitrosylate key cysteines on TGA-class transcription factors to aid in the initiation of SA-dependent gene expression. Against this, S-nitrosylation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1) will promote the NPR1 oligomerization within the cytoplasm to reduce TGA activation. In JA biosynthesis, NO will initiate the expression of JA biosynthetic enzymes, presumably to over-come any antagonistic effects of SA on JA-mediated transcription. NO will also initiate the expression of ET biosynthetic genes but a suppressive role is also observed in the S-nitrosylation and inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine transferases which provides methyl groups for ET production. Based on these data a model for NO action is proposed but we have also highlighted the need to understand when and how inductive and suppressive steps are used. PMID:23818890

  6. Salicylic acid antagonizes abscisic acid inhibition of shoot growth and cell cycle progression in rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meguro, Ayano; Sato, Yutaka

    2014-04-01

    We analysed effects of abscisic acid (ABA, a negative regulatory hormone), alone and in combination with positive or neutral hormones, including salicylic acid (SA), on rice growth and expression of cell cycle-related genes. ABA significantly inhibited shoot growth and induced expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6. A yeast two-hybrid assay showed that OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6 interacted with OsCDKA;1 and/or OsCDKA;2. When SA was simultaneously supplied with ABA, the antagonistic effect of SA completely blocked ABA inhibition. SA also blocked ABA inhibition of DNA replication and thymidine incorporation in the shoot apical meristem. These results suggest that ABA arrests cell cycle progression by inducing expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6, which inhibit the G1/S transition, and that SA antagonizes ABA by blocking expression of OsKRP genes.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Li, Yan; Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis.

  8. Abscisic acid interacts antagonistically with salicylic acid signaling pathway in rice-Magnaporthe grisea interaction.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chang-Jie; Shimono, Masaki; Sugano, Shoji; Kojima, Mikiko; Yazawa, Katsumi; Yoshida, Riichiro; Inoue, Haruhiko; Hayashi, Nagao; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    Plant hormones play pivotal signaling roles in plant-pathogen interactions. Here, we report characterization of an antagonistic interaction of abscisic acid (ABA) with salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathways in the rice-Magnaporthe grisea interaction. Exogenous application of ABA drastically compromised the rice resistance to both compatible and incompatible M. grisea strains, indicating that ABA negatively regulates both basal and resistance gene-mediated blast resistance. ABA markedly suppressed the transcriptional upregulation of WRKY45 and OsNPR1, the two key components of the SA signaling pathway in rice, induced by SA or benzothiadiazole or by blast infection. Overexpression of OsNPR1 or WRKY45 largely negated the enhancement of blast susceptibility by ABA, suggesting that ABA acts upstream of WRKY45 and OsNPR1 in the rice SA pathway. ABA-responsive genes were induced during blast infection in a pattern reciprocal to those of WRKY45 and OsPR1b in the compatible rice-blast interaction but only marginally in the incompatible one. These results suggest that the balance of SA and ABA signaling is an important determinant for the outcome of the rice-M. grisea interaction. ABA was detected in hyphae and conidia of M. grisea as well as in culture media, implying that blast-fungus-derived ABA could play a role in triggering ABA signaling at host infection sites.

  9. AtWRKY22 promotes susceptibility to aphids and modulates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Kloth, Karen J; Wiegers, Gerrie L; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline; van Haarst, Jan C; Kruijer, Willem; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Dicke, Marcel; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2016-05-01

    Aphids induce many transcriptional perturbations in their host plants, but the signalling cascades responsible and the effects on plant resistance are largely unknown. Through a genome-wide association (GWA) mapping study in Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified WRKY22 as a candidate gene associated with feeding behaviour of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae The transcription factor WRKY22 is known to be involved in pathogen-triggered immunity, and WRKY22 gene expression has been shown to be induced by aphids. Assessment of aphid population development and feeding behaviour on knockout mutants and overexpression lines showed that WRKY22 increases susceptibility to M. persicae via a mesophyll-located mechanism. mRNA sequencing analysis of aphid-infested wrky22 knockout plants revealed the up-regulation of genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) signalling and down-regulation of genes involved in plant growth and cell-wall loosening. In addition, mechanostimulation of knockout plants by clip cages up-regulated jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes, resulting in substantial negative JA-SA crosstalk. Based on this and previous studies, WRKY22 is considered to modulate the interplay between the SA and JA pathways in response to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stimuli. Its induction by aphids and its role in suppressing SA and JA signalling make WRKY22 a potential target for aphids to manipulate host plant defences. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Disposable terbium (III) salicylate complex imprinted membrane using solid phase surface fluorescence method for fast separation and detection of salicylic acid in pharmaceuticals and human urine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianxiang; Hu, Yufei; Hu, Yuling; Li, Gongke

    2013-03-30

    In this work, a simple, low cost, selective and sensitive complex imprinted membrane (CIM) for solid-phase fluorescent detection was developed with terbium (III) salicylate as complex template. Terbium-sensitized luminescence was employed for monitoring salicylic acid (SA) based on the fluorescence enhancement effect of benzoic acid derivatives on lanthanide ion Tb (III). The resulting CIM showed good fluorescent response and high selectivity towards SA with Tb as pivot in protic solvents, while demonstrating better analytical performance than the controlled membranes. The optimized adsorption time was 10 min, indicating rapid kinetics of the imprinted membrane. The linear response of CIM to SA was from 0.20 to 10mg/L with limit of detection (LOD) of 0.040 mg/L. The prepared CIM was successfully applied to the analysis of salicylic acid in pharmaceuticals and spiked human urine with recoveries of 80.6%-88.1%. The analytical results of the proposed method were in good agreement with those obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, indicating that the developed membrane has acceptable practicability for fast determination of SA in real samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression Analysis of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene and Rosmarinic Acid Production in Salvia officinalis and Salvia virgata Shoots Under Salicylic Acid Elicitation.

    PubMed

    Ejtahed, Roghayeh Sadat; Radjabian, Tayebeh; Hoseini Tafreshi, Sayed Ali

    2015-08-01

    Partial fragments of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) genes were cloned and characterized from Salvia officinalis (SoPAL) and Salvia virgata (SvPAL). Different concentrations (250 and 500 μM) of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) were used when correlation between PAL expression and rosmarinic acid (RA) accumulation was compared. The results showed that the deduced cDNA sequences of the partial genes had high similarities with those of known PAL gene from other plant species. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that exogenous application of SA led to up-regulating of the PAL expression. Further analysis showed that in S. virgata, at higher concentration of SA, higher accumulation of RA was achieved, while in S. officinalis, the higher RA accumulation was observed at lower concentration of SA. It was concluded that there was no positive correlation between the intensity of PAL transcription and the RA accumulation in the studied species. Therefore, despite of the increase in transcription rate of the PAL at the higher concentration of SA, the lower amounts of RA were accumulated in the case of S. officinalis. Consequently, the hypothesis that PAL is the rate-determining step in RA biosynthesis is not always valid and probably some other unknown factors participate in the synthesis of phenolics.

  12. Cross-talk between gibberellins and salicylic acid in early stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Ramírez, Ana; Rodríguez, Dolores; Reyes, David; Jiménez, Jesús Angel; Nicolás, Gregorio; López-Climent, María; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2009-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant hormone mainly associated with the induction of defense mechanism in plants, although in the last years there is increasing evidence on the role of SA in plant responses to abiotic stress. We recently reported that an increase in endogenous SA levels are able to counteract the inhibitory effects of several abiotic stress conditions during germination and seedling establishment of Arabidopsis thaliana and that this effect is modulated by gibberellins (GAs) probably through a member of the GASA (Giberellic Acid Stimulated in Arabidopsis) gene family, clearly showing the existence of a cross talk between these two plant hormones in Arabidopsis. PMID:19820299

  13. Effects of salicylic acid and putrescine on storability, quality attributes and antioxidant activity of plum cv. 'Santa Rosa'.

    PubMed

    Davarynejad, Gholam Hossein; Zarei, Mehdi; Nasrabadi, Mohamad Ebrahim; Ardakani, Elham

    2015-04-01

    Plum fruit has a short shelf life with a rapid deterioration in quality after harvest. The primary goal of this study is to investigate and compare the effect of putrescine and salicylic acid on quality properties and antioxidant activity of plum during storage. The plum fruits (cv. 'Santa Rosa') were harvested at the mature ripe stage, and dipped in different concentrations of putrescine (1, 2, 3 and 4 mmol/L) and salicylic acid (1, 2, 3 and 4 mmol/L), as well as distilled water (control) for 5 min. The fruits were then packed in boxes with polyethylene covers and stored at 4 °C with 95 % relative humidity for 25 days. A factorial trial based on completely randomized block design with 4 replications was carried out. The weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, maturity index, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and antioxidant activity at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days after harvest were recorded. During the storage period, the weight loss, total soluble solids, pH and maturity index increased significantly while the fruit firmness, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and antioxidant activity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) for all treatments. Statistically significant differences were observed between different treatments (putrescine, salicylic acid and control) in all measured parameters. The data showed that the weight loss and softening of the plum fruits were decreased significantly by the use of putrescine and salicylic acid. Also, exogenous treatments of putrescine and salicylic acid are found to be effective in maintaining titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and antioxidant activity in plum fruits during storage at 4 °C. It was concluded that postharvest treatment of plum fruit with putrescine and salicylic acid were effective on delaying the ripening processes and can be used commercially to extend the shelf life of plum fruit with acceptable fruit quality.

  14. Differential effects of some natural compounds on the transdermal absorption and penetration of caffeine and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Faqir; Riviere, Jim E

    2015-04-10

    Many natural products have the potential to modulate the dermal penetration of topically applied drugs and chemicals. We studied the effect of five natural compounds (hydroxycitronellal, limonene 1,2-epoxide, terpinyl acetate, p-coumaric acid, transferrulic acid) and ethanol on the transdermal penetration of two marker drugs ((14)C-caffeine and (14)C-salicylic acid) in a flow through in vitro porcine skin diffusion system. The parameters of flux, permeability, diffusivity, and percent dose absorbed/retained were calculated and compared. The dermal absorption of (14)C-caffeine was significantly higher with terpinyl acetate and limonene 1,2-epoxide as compared to ethanol; while dermal absorption of (14)C-salicylic acid was significantly greater with hydroxycitronellal and limonene 1,2-epoxide as compared to ethanol. A 10-fold increase in flux and permeability of caffeine with terpinyl acetate was observed while limonene increased flux of caffeine by 4-fold and permeability by 3-fold. Hydroxycitronellal and limonene increased salicylic acid's flux and permeability over 2-fold. The other natural compounds tested did not produce statistically significant effects on dermal penetration parameters for both caffeine and salicylic acid (p≥0.05). These results emphasize the differential effects of natural substances on the transdermal penetration of hydrophilic (caffeine) and hydrophobic (salicylic acid) drugs.

  15. Structure of a rice beta-glucanase gene regulated by ethylene, cytokinin, wounding, salicylic acid and fungal elicitors.

    PubMed

    Simmons, C R; Litts, J C; Huang, N; Rodriguez, R L

    1992-01-01

    A rice beta-glucanase gene was sequenced and its expression analyzed at the level of mRNA accumulation. This gene (Gns1) is expressed at relatively low levels in germinating seeds, shoots, leaves, panicles and callus, but it is expressed at higher levels in roots. Expression in the roots appears to be constitutive. Shoots express Gns1 at much higher levels when treated with ethylene, cytokinin, salicylic acid, and fungal elicitors derived from the pathogen Sclerotium oryzae or from the non-pathogen Saccharomyces cereviseae. Shoots also express Gns1 at higher levels in response to wounding. Expression in the shoots is not significantly affected by auxin, gibberellic acid or abscisic acid. The beta-glucanase shows 82% amino acid similarity to the barley 1,3;1,4-beta-D-glucanases, and from hybridization studies it is the beta-glucanase gene in the rice genome closest to the barley 1,3;1,4-beta-glucanase EI gene. The mature peptide has a calculated molecular mass of 32 kDa. The gene has a large 3145 bp intron in the codon for the 25th amino acid of the signal peptide. The gene exhibits a very strong codon bias of 99% G + C in the third position of the codon in the mature peptide coding region, but only 61% G + C in the signal peptide region.

  16. Expression of salicylic acid-related genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) is an important vegetable crop in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. Cabbage production is severely affected by clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. During clubroot development, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is biosynthesized from salicylic acid (SA) by methyltransferase. In addition, methyl salicylate esterase (MES) plays a major role in the conversion of MeSA back into free SA. The interrelationship between MES and methytransferases during clubroot development has not been fully explored. To begin to examine these relationships, we investigated the expression of MES genes in disease-susceptible and disease-resistant plants during clubroot development. We identified three MES-encoding genes potentially involved in the defense against pathogen attack. We found that SS1 was upregulated in both the leaves and roots of B. oleracea during P. brassicae infection. These results support the conclusion that SA biosynthesis is suppressed during pathogen infection in resistant plants. We also characterized the expression of a B. oleracea BSMT gene, which appears to be involved in glycosylation rather than MeSA biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the functions and interactions of genes for MES and methyltransferase during infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that MES genes are important candidates for use to control clubroot diseases.

  17. The Salicylic Acid-Mediated Release of Plant Volatiles Affects the Host Choice of Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaobin; Chen, Gong; Tian, Lixia; Peng, Zhengke; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) causes serious crop losses worldwide by transmitting viruses. We have previously shown that salicylic acid (SA)-related plant defenses directly affect whiteflies. In this study, we applied exogenous SA to tomato plants in order to investigate the interaction between SA-induced plant volatiles and nonviruliferous B. tabaci B and Q or B- and Q-carrying tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The results showed that exogenous SA caused plants to repel nonviruliferous whiteflies, but the effect was reduced when the SA concentration was low and when the whiteflies were viruliferous. Exogenous SA increased the number and quantity of plant volatiles—especially the quantity of methyl salicylate and δ-limonene. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, methyl salicylate and δ-limonene repelled the whiteflies, but the repellency was reduced for viruliferous Q. We suggest that the release of plant volatiles as mediated by SA affects the interaction between whiteflies, plants, and viruses. Further studies are needed to determine why viruliferous Q is less sensitive than nonviruliferous Q to repellent plant volatiles. PMID:27376280

  18. Relation between acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity in canine gastric mucosa: Effects of salicylate and prostaglandin

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The stomach is thought to be protected from luminal acid by a gastric mucosal barrier that restricts the diffusion of acid into tissue. This study tested the hypothesis that the hydrophobic luminal surface of canine gastric mucosa incubated in Ussing chambers, impedes the back-diffusion of luminal acid into the tissue. Isolated sheets of mucosa were treated with cimetidine to inhibit spontaneous acid secretion, and incubated under conditions that prevented significant secretion of luminal bicarbonate. By measuring acid loss from the luminal compartment using the pH-stat technique, acid back-diffusion was continuously monitored; potential difference (PD) was measured as an index of tissue viability. Tissue luminal surface hydrophobicity was estimated by contact angle analysis at the end of each experiment. Addition of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E{sub 2} to the nutrient compartment enhanced luminal surface hydrophobicity, but did not reduce acid back-diffusion in tissues that maintained a constant PD. 10 mM salicylate at pH 4.00 in the luminal compartment reduced surface hydrophobicity, but this decrease did not occur if 1 ug/ml prostaglandin was present in the nutrient solution. Despite possessing relatively hydrophilic and relatively hydrophobic surface properties, respectively, acid back-diffusion in the absence of salicylate was not significantly different between these two groups. Neither group maintained a PD after incubation with salicylate. Lastly, radiolabeled salicylate was used to calculate the free (non-salicylate associated) acid loss in tissues incubated with salicylate and/or prostaglandin. No significant correlation was found between free acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity. These data do not support the hypothesis that acid back-diffusion in impeded by the hydrophobic surface presented by isolated canine gastric mucosa.

  19. Thermodynamics of sodium dodecyl sulphate-salicylic acid based micellar systems and their potential use in fruits postharvest.

    PubMed

    Cid, A; Morales, J; Mejuto, J C; Briz-Cid, N; Rial-Otero, R; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-05-15

    Micellar systems have excellent food applications due to their capability to solubilise a large range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances. In this work, the mixed micelle formation between the ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and the phenolic acid salicylic acid have been studied at several temperatures in aqueous solution. The critical micelle concentration and the micellization degree were determined by conductometric techniques and the experimental data used to calculate several useful thermodynamic parameters, like standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy of micelle formation. Salicylic acid helps the micellization of SDS, both by increasing the additive concentration at a constant temperature and by increasing temperature at a constant concentration of additive. The formation of micelles of SDS in the presence of salicylic acid was a thermodynamically spontaneous process, and is also entropically controlled. Salicylic acid plays the role of a stabilizer, and gives a pathway to control the three-dimensional water matrix structure. The driving force of the micellization process is provided by the hydrophobic interactions. The isostructural temperature was found to be 307.5 K for the mixed micellar system. This article explores the use of SDS-salicylic acid based micellar systems for their potential use in fruits postharvest.

  20. Nanocarrier-based hydrogel of betamethasone dipropionate and salicylic acid for treatment of psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Baboota, Sanjula; Alam, Md Sarfaraz; Sharma, Shrestha; Sahni, Jasjeet K; Kumar, Anil; Ali, Javed

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Betamethasone dipropionate (BD) has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antiproliferative activity. The aim of the current work was to test the hypothesis that the addition of corticosteroid such as BD and a keratolytic agent such as salicylic acid in nanocarrier based microemulsions formulation would result in enhancement and sustaining of corticosteroid delivery rate leading to better anti-psoriatic activity. Clinical use of BD is restricted to some extent due to its poor permeability across the skin. So to increase its permeation across the skin, microemulsion-based gel formulations were prepared and characterised. Materials and Methods: Microemulsions were prepared by aqueous phase titration method, using oleic acid:sefsol (1.5:1), Tween 20, isopropyl alcohol, and distilled water as the oil phase, surfactant, cosurfactant and aqueous phase, respectively. Selected formulations were subjected to physical stability studies and consequently in vitro skin permeation studies. Surface studies of optimized formulation were done by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was done by carageenan-induced raw paw edema method. Results: The droplet size of microemulsions ranged from 60 to 190 nm. The optimized formulation exhibited viscosity 28.55 ± 2.03 mP, refractive index 1.409, pH 6.4, and conductivity 10-4 scm-1. The optimized microemulsion was converted into hydrogel using carbopol 934, and salicylic acid was incorporated into it. Drug deposition in skin was found to be 29.73 μg/mg. Assessment of skin permeation was done by histopathology studies which indicated changes in the structure of epidermal membrane of skin. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity indicated 72.11% and 43.96% inhibition of inflammation in case of developed microemulsion gel and marketed gel, respectively. Conclusions: The developed microemulsion gel containing BD and salicylic acid provided sustained and good anti-inflammatory activity for the

  1. Salicylic acid modulates arsenic toxicity by reducing its root to shoot translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit P; Dixit, Garima; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tiwari, Manish; Mallick, Shekhar; Pandey, Vivek; Trivedi, Prabodh K; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra D

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is posing serious health concerns in South East Asia where rice, an efficient accumulator of As, is prominent crop. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signaling molecule and plays a crucial role in resistance against biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In present study, ameliorative effect of SA against arsenate (As(V)) toxicity has been investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Arsenate stress hampered the plant growth in terms of root, shoots length, and biomass as well as it enhanced the level of H2O2 and MDA in dose dependent manner in shoot. Exogenous application of SA, reverted the growth, and oxidative stress caused by As(V) and significantly decreased As translocation to the shoots. Level of As in shoot was positively correlated with the expression of OsLsi2, efflux transporter responsible for root to shoot translocation of As in the form of arsenite (As(III)). SA also overcame As(V) induced oxidative stress and modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a differential manner in shoots. As treatment hampered the translocation of Fe in the shoot which was compensated by the SA treatment. The level of Fe in root and shoot was positively correlated with the transcript level of transporters responsible for the accumulation of Fe, OsNRAMP5, and OsFRDL1, in the root and shoot, respectively. Co-application of SA was more effective than pre-treatment for reducing As accumulation as well as imposed toxicity.

  2. Detection of Salicylic Acid in Willow Bark: An Addition to a Classic Series of Experiments in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Matthew D.; McLeod, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid and its derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, are often encountered in introductory organic chemistry experiments, and mention is often made that salicylic acid was originally isolated from the bark of the willow tree. This biological connection, however, is typically not further pursued, leaving students with an impression that biology…

  3. Detection of Salicylic Acid in Willow Bark: An Addition to a Classic Series of Experiments in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Matthew D.; McLeod, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid and its derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, are often encountered in introductory organic chemistry experiments, and mention is often made that salicylic acid was originally isolated from the bark of the willow tree. This biological connection, however, is typically not further pursued, leaving students with an impression that biology…

  4. Export of salicylic acid from the chloroplast requires the multidrug and toxin extrusion-like transporter EDS5.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Mario; Wang, Bangjun; Aryal, Bibek; Garcion, Christophe; Abou-Mansour, Eliane; Heck, Silvia; Geisler, Markus; Mauch, Felix; Nawrath, Christiane; Métraux, Jean-Pierre

    2013-08-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is central for the defense of plants to pathogens and abiotic stress. SA is synthesized in chloroplasts from chorismic acid by an isochorismate synthase (ICS1); SA biosynthesis is negatively regulated by autoinhibitory feedback at ICS1. Genetic studies indicated that the multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY5 (EDS5) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is necessary for SA accumulation after biotic and abiotic stress, but so far it is not understood how EDS5 controls the biosynthesis of SA. Here, we show that EDS5 colocalizes with a marker of the chloroplast envelope and that EDS5 functions as a multidrug and toxin extrusion-like transporter in the export of SA from the chloroplast to the cytoplasm in Arabidopsis, where it controls the innate immune response. The location at the chloroplast envelope supports a model of the effect of EDS5 on SA biosynthesis: in the eds5 mutant, stress-induced SA is trapped in the chloroplast and inhibits its own accumulation by autoinhibitory feedback.

  5. Loss of function of FATTY ACID DESATURASE7 in tomato enhances basal aphid resistance in a salicylate-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Avila, Carlos A; Arévalo-Soliz, Lirio M; Jia, Lingling; Navarre, Duroy A; Chen, Zhaorigetu; Howe, Gregg A; Meng, Qing-Wei; Smith, Jonathon E; Goggin, Fiona L

    2012-04-01

    We report here that disruption of function of the ω-3 FATTY ACID DESATURASE7 (FAD7) enhances plant defenses against aphids. The suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2) mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which eliminates the function of FAD7, reduces the settling behavior, survival, and fecundity of the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae). Likewise, the antisense suppression of LeFAD7 expression in wild-type tomato plants reduces aphid infestations. Aphid resistance in the spr2 mutant is associated with enhanced levels of salicylic acid (SA) and mRNA encoding the pathogenesis-related protein P4. Introduction of the Naphthalene/salicylate hydroxylase transgene, which suppresses SA accumulation, restores wild-type levels of aphid susceptibility to spr2. Resistance in spr2 is also lost when we utilize virus-induced gene silencing to suppress the expression of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1), a positive regulator of many SA-dependent defenses. These results indicate that FAD7 suppresses defenses against aphids that are mediated through SA and NPR1. Although loss of function of FAD7 also inhibits the synthesis of jasmonate (JA), the effects of this desaturase on aphid resistance are not dependent on JA; other mutants impaired in JA synthesis (acx1) or perception (jai1-1) show wild-type levels of aphid susceptibility, and spr2 retains aphid resistance when treated with methyl jasmonate. Thus, FAD7 may influence JA-dependent defenses against chewing insects and SA-dependent defenses against aphids through independent effects on JA synthesis and SA signaling. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants Atfad7-2 and Atfad7-1fad8 also show enhanced resistance to the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) compared with wild-type controls, indicating that FAD7 influences plant-aphid interactions in at least two plant families.

  6. Salicylic acid changes the properties of extracellular peroxidase activity secreted from wounded wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots.

    PubMed

    Minibayeva, F; Mika, A; Lüthje, S

    2003-05-01

    Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) roots released proteins showing peroxidase activity in the apoplastic solution in response to wound stress. Preincubation of excised roots with 1 mM salicylic acid at pH 7.0 enhanced the guaiacol peroxidase activity of the extracellular solution (so-called extracellular peroxidase). The soluble enzymes were partially purified by precipitation with ammonium sulfate followed by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. Despite an increase in the total activity of secreted peroxidase induced by pretreatment of excised roots with salicylic acid, the specific activity of the partially purified protein was significantly lower compared to that of the control. Purification of the corresponding proteins by ion exchange chromatography indicates that several isoforms of peroxidase occurred in both control and salicylic acid-treated samples. The activities of the extracellular peroxidases secreted by the salicylic acid-treated roots responded differently to calcium and lectins compared with those from untreated roots. Taken together, our data suggest that salicylic acid changes the isoforms of peroxidase secreted by wounded wheat roots.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and adsorption properties of diethylenetriamine-modified hypercrosslinked resins for efficient removal of salicylic acid from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianhan; Jin, Xiaoying; Mao, Jinglin; Yuan, Bin; Deng, Rujie; Deng, Shuguang

    2012-05-30

    We report an effective approach for tailoring the pore textural properties and surface polarity of a hypercrosslinked resin to enhance its adsorption capacity and selectivity for removing salicylic acid from aqueous solution. Four hypercrosslinked resins were synthesized by controlling the reaction time of the self Friedel-Crafts reaction of chloromethylated polystyrene-co-divinylbenzene, and then modified with diethylenetriamine to adjust their surface polarity. The resins were characterized with N(2) adsorption for pore textural properties, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) for surface functional groups, chemical analysis for residual chlorine content and weak basic exchange capacity. Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and breakthrough performance were determined for the removal of salicylic acid from aqueous solution on a selected resin HJ-M01. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of salicylic acid on HJ-M01 is significantly higher than that on its precursor HJ-11 and a few commercial adsorbents including AB-8, XAD-4 and XAD-7. The dynamic adsorption capacity of salicylic acid on HJ-M01 was found to be 456.4 mg/L at a feed concentration of 1000 mg/L and 294 K. The used resin could be fully regenerated with 1% sodium hydroxide solution. The hypercrosslinked resins being developed were promising alternatives to commercial adsorbents for removing salicylic acid and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from aqueous solution.

  8. Salicylic acid deficiency in NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants increases seed yield in the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Maria Elizabeth; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2009-01-01

    Salicylic acid-deficient NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants were used to evaluate the role of this compound in the development of the short-lived, annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana, with a particular focus on the interplay between salicylic acid and other phytohormones. Low salicylic acid levels led to increased growth, as well as to smaller abscisic acid levels and reduced damage to PSII (as indicated by F(v)/F(m) ratios) during the reproductive stages in rosette leaves of NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants, compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, salicylic acid deficiency highly influenced seed yield and composition. Seed production increased by 4.4-fold and 3.5-fold in NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants, respectively, compared to the wild type. Salicylic acid deficiency also improved seed composition in terms of antioxidant vitamin concentrations, seeds of salicylic acid-deficient plants showing higher levels of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol (vitamin E) and beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A) than seeds of wild-type plants. Seeds of salicylic acid-deficient plants also showed higher nitrogen concentrations than seeds of wild-type plants. It is concluded that (i) the sid2 gene, which encodes for isochorismate synthase, plays a central role in salicylic acid biosynthesis during plant development in A. thaliana, (ii) salicylic acid plays a role in the regulation of growth, senescence, and seed production, (iii) there is a cross-talk between salicylic acid and other phytohormones during plant development, and (iv) the concentrations of antioxidant vitamins in seeds may be influenced by the endogenous levels of salicylic acid in plants.

  9. Removal of salicylic acid on perovskite-type oxide LaFeO3 catalyst in catalytic wet air oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Xu, Aihua; Du, Hongzhang; Sun, Chenglin; Li, Can

    2007-01-02

    It has been found that salicylic acid can be removal effectively at the lower temperature of 140 degrees C on perovskite-type oxide LaFeO3 catalyst in the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) process. Under the same condition, the activities for the CWAO of phenol, benzoic acid and sulfonic salicylic acid have been also investigated. The results indicated that, with compared to the very poor activities for phenol and benzoic acid, the activities for salicylic acid and sulfonic salicylic acid were very high, which are attributed to their same intramolecular H-bonding structures. With the role of hard acidity of intramolecular H-bonding, salicylic acid and sulfonic salicylic acid can be adsorbed effectively on the basic center of LaFeO3 catalyst and are easy to take place the total oxidation reaction. However, at temperatures higher than 140 degrees C, the intramolecular H-bonding structure of salicylic acid was destroyed and the activities at 160 and 180 degrees C decreased greatly, which confirms further the key role of intramolecular H-bonding in the CWAO. Moreover, the LaFeO3 catalyst also indicated a superior stability of activity and structure in CWAO of salicylic acid.

  10. Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Schultz, N; Capion, N

    2013-11-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored M0 to M4) were evaluated on days 3, 14 and 34 post-treatment. A change to M0 was defined as healing, while changes of M2 or M4 to M1 or M3 were classified as clinical improvements. Healing rates did not differ significantly between treatment groups at days 3 and 14. By day 34 the healing rate was fivefold better (P=0.01) for the treatment vs. the control group, with healing rates of 13.6% and 3.1%, respectively. By day 3, the rate of improvement was 2.5-fold better (P=0.02) for the controls. By day 34 the overall positive effect (i.e. healing and improvement) was 1.75-fold better (P=0.05) for the treatment group. Lesions from the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P=0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P<0.08) for the treatment vs. the control group. The findings suggest salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative to chlortetracycline for the treatment of DD as it appears more efficacious and would assist in reducing antibiotic use.

  11. Spatio-temporal appearance of α-amylase and limit dextrinase in barley aleurone layer in response to gibberellic acid, abscisic acid and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Shahpiri, Azar; Talaei, Nasim; Finnie, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Cereal seed germination involves mobilization of storage reserves in the starchy endosperm to support seedling growth. In response to gibberellin produced by the embryo the aleurone layer synthesizes hydrolases that are secreted to the endosperm for degradation of storage products. In this study analysis of intracellular protein accumulation and release from barley aleurone layers is presented for the important enzymes in starch degradation: α-amylase and limit dextrinase (LD). Proteins were visualized by immunoblotting in aleurone layers and culture supernatants from dissected aleurone layers incubated up to 72 h with either gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA) or salicylic acid (SA). The results show that α-amylase is secreted from aleurone layer treated with GA soon after synthesis but the release of LD to culture supernatants was significantly delayed and coincided with a general loss of proteins from aleurone layers. Release of LD was found to differ from that of amylase and was suggested to depend on programmed cell death (PCD). Despite detection of intracellular amylase in untreated aleurone layers or aleurone layers treated with ABA or SA, α-amylase was not released from these samples. Nevertheless, the release of α-amylase was observed from aleurone layers treated with GA+ABA or GA+SA. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Batch salicylic acid nitration by nitric acid/acetic acid mixture under isothermal, isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, R; Canterino, M; Caprio, V; Di Somma, I; Sanchirico, R

    2006-12-01

    Runaway phenomena and thermal explosions can originate during the nitration of salicylic acid by means of a nitric acid/acetic acid mixture when the thermal control is lost, mainly as a result of the formation and thermal decomposition of picric acid. The prediction of the behaviour of this system is thus of great importance in view of possible industrial applications and the need to avoid the occurrence of unwanted dangerous events. During a previous investigation a model was developed to simulate its behaviour when the starting concentration of the substrate is too low, thus, preventing the precipitation of poor soluble intermediates. In this work this model is extended to deal with more concentrated systems even in case of a solid phase separating during the process. To this purpose the previously assessed dependence of the solubility of 3-nitro and 5-nitrosalicylic acids upon temperature and nitric acid concentration is included in the model. It is assumed that when 3-nitro and 5-nitrosalicylic acids are partially suspended in the reacting medium a kinetic regime of "dissolution with reaction" is established; that is, the redissolution of these species is a fast process compared to the successive nitration to give dinitroderivatives. Good results are obtained in the comparison of the experimental data with those calculated both in isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions when the revised model is used.

  13. One-stop genomic DNA extraction by salicylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongwu; Kadam, Ulhas S; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2013-11-15

    Salicylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles were prepared via a modified one-step synthesis and used for a one-stop extraction of genomic DNA from mammalian cells. The synthesized magnetic particles were used for magnetic separation of cells from the media by nonspecific binding of the particles as well as extraction of genomic DNA from the lysate. The quantity and quality were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction. The entire process of extraction and isolation can be completed within 30 min. Compared with traditional methods based on centrifugation and filtration, the established method is fast, simple, reliable, and environmentally friendly.

  14. Treatment of solar keratoses with a 5-fluorouracil and salicylic acid varnish.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, J C

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to avoid the side-effects of treating solar keratoses with 5% 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) ointment, a new pharmacological varnish containing 5% 5-FU and 5-10% salicylic acid to collodium was tried. Twenty patients with such lesions were treated. A drop of the varnish was applied on each lesion every 3 weeks. Only one to five applications on facial lesions were necessary to obtain apparent cure in all patients. Lesions reappeared in four patients, but were cured after a second and similar treatment. The keratoses of the hands were more resistant and needed seven applications in one patient and nine in the other.

  15. Cotton S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase-mediated spermine biosynthesis is required for salicylic acid- and leucine-correlated signaling in the defense response to Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Mo, Hui-Juan; Sun, Yan-Xiang; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xing-Fen; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jun; Yan, Gui-Jun; Ma, Zhi-Ying

    2016-04-01

    Cotton S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase-, rather than spermine synthase-, mediated spermine biosynthesis is required for salicylic acid- and leucine-correlated signaling in the defense response to Verticillium dahliae. Spermine (Spm) signaling is correlated with plant resistance to the fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae. We identified genes for key rate-limiting enzymes in the biosynthesis of Spm, namely S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (GhSAMDC) and Spm synthase (GhSPMS). These were found by screening suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA libraries of cotton (Gossypium) species tolerant to Verticillium wilt. Both were induced early and strongly by inoculation with V. dahliae and application of plant hormones. Silencing of GhSPMS or GhSAMDC in cotton leaves led to a significant accumulation of upstream substrates and, ultimately, enhanced plant susceptibility to Verticillium infection. Exogenous supplementation of Spm to the silenced cotton plants improved resistance. When compared with the wild type (WT), constitutive expression of GhSAMDC in Arabidopsis thaliana was associated with greater Verticillium wilt resistance and higher accumulations of Spm, salicylic acid, and leucine during the infection period. By contrast, transgenic Arabidopsis plants that over-expressed GhSPMS were unexpectedly more susceptible than the WT to V. dahliae and they also had impaired levels of putrescine (Put) and salicylic acid (SA). The susceptibility exhibited in GhSPMS-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants was partially reversed by the exogenous supply of Put or SA. In addition, the responsiveness of those two transgenic Arabidopsis lines to V. dahliae was associated with an alteration in transcripts of genes involved in plant resistance to epidermal penetrations and amino acid signaling. Together, these results suggest that GhSAMDC-, rather than GhSPMS-, mediated spermine biosynthesis contributes to plant resistance against V. dahliae through SA- and leucine

  16. Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillén, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-González, Miriam; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulates SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. Salicylic acid was found to elicit PAL activity and consequently vanillin production, which was diminished or reversed upon exposure to the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) signaling inhibitors neomycin and U73122. Exposure to the phosphatidic acid inhibitor 1-butanol altered PLD activity and prevented SA-induced vanillin production. Our results suggest that PLC and PLD-generated secondary messengers may be modulating SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of key biosynthetic pathway enzymes.

  17. Fast and single solid phase fluorescence spectroscopic batch procedure for (acetyl) salicylic acid determination in drug formulations.

    PubMed

    Ortega Algar, S; Ramos Martos, N; Molina Díaz, A

    2003-03-10

    A solid phase fluorescence spectroscopic batch procedure for (acetyl) salicylic acid in drug formulations have been developed. The procedure is based on the sorption of salicylic acid (SA) on Sephadex DEAE A-25 anion exchanger gel (100 mg) by equilibration from an aqueous solution (10 or 25 ml) for 5 min; the equilibrated gel is transferred into an 1 mm quartz cell and the native fluorescence of SA sorbed on it is directly measured (lambda(ex)=297 nm; lambda(em)=405 nm). Good linearity was found in the 10-200 and 5-100 microg l(-1) ranges (for 10 and 25 ml sample volume, respectively) with R.S.D. (%) of 2.8 and 1.1. The procedure was successfully applied to the determination of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) in drug formulations after alkaline hydrolysis to yield SA.

  18. The effects of surface-applied jasmonic and salicylic acids on caterpillar growth and damage to tomato plants

    Treesearch

    Aaron L. Iverson; Louis R. Iverson; Steve Eshita

    2001-01-01

    We tested the role of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in altering the tomato plant's defense against herbivory by tobacco hornworm. Treatments of SA or JA were topically applied to tomato plants, hornworm consumption was allowed to proceed for 12 days, and harvest analyses were performed Measurements taken included a subjective plant rating (1-10 score...

  19. Salicylic acid (SA) bioaccessibility from SA-based poly(anhydride-ester).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michael A; Yan, Yim-Fan; Ben-Elazar, Karen; Lan, Yaqi; Faig, Jonathan; Smith, Kervin; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2014-09-08

    The bioaccessibility of salicylic acid (SA) can be effectively modified by incorporating the pharmacological compound directly into polymers such as poly(anhydride-esters). After simulated digestion conditions, the bioaccessibility of SA was observed to be statistically different (p < 0.0001) in each sample: 55.5 ± 2.0% for free SA, 31.2 ± 2.4% the SA-diglycolic acid polymer precursor (SADG), and 21.2 ± 3.1% for SADG-P (polymer). The release rates followed a zero-order release rate that was dependent on several factors, including (1) solubilization rate, (2) macroscopic erosion of the powdered polymer, (3) hydrolytic cleavage of the anhydride bonds, and (4) subsequent hydrolysis of the polymer precursor (SADG) to SA and diglycolic acid.

  20. [Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on membrane lipid peroxidation and photosynthetic characteristics of Cucumis sativus seedlings under drought stress].

    PubMed

    Hao, Jing-Hong; Yi, Yang; Shang, Qing-Mao; Dong, Chun-Juan; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2012-03-01

    To approach the related mechanisms of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in improving plant drought-resistance, this paper studied the effects of applying exogenous SA to the rhizosphere on the plant growth, membrane lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation, water use efficiency, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings under drought stresses (60% and 50% of saturated water capacity). Applying SA relieved the inhibitory effects of drought stress on plant growth, Pn, and water use efficiency, decreased membrane lipid peroxidation, and promoted proline accumulation. Meanwhile, the SA decreased the decrements of the maximum photochemical efficiency of PS II, actual photochemical efficiency of PS II, potential activity of PS II, effective photochemical efficiency of PS II, and photochemical quenching coefficient under drought stress significantly, and limited the increase of non-photochemical quenching coefficient. All the results suggested that applying exogenous SA could alleviate the oxidation damage of cell membrane resulted from the drought-caused membrane lipid peroxidation, improve the Pn by increasing PS II activity to benefit water utilization, enhance the regulation capability of osmosis to decrease water loss and increase water use efficiency, and thereby, improve the plant drought-resistance.

  1. A protective role for nitric oxide and salicylic acid for arsenite phytotoxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit Pal; Dixit, Garima; Kumar, Amit; Mishra, Seema; Kumar, Navin; Dixit, Sameer; Singh, Pradyumna Kumar; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Dhankher, Om Prakash; Norton, Gareth J; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2017-02-24

    Nitric oxide (NO) and salicylic acid (SA) are important signaling molecules in plant system. In the present study both NO and SA showed a protective role against arsenite (As(III)) stress in rice plants when supplied exogenously. The application of NO and SA alleviated the negative impact of As(III) on plant growth. Nitric oxide supplementation to As(III) treated plants greatly decreased arsenic (As) accumulation in the roots as well as shoots/roots translocation factor. Arsenite exposure in plants decreased the endogenous levels of NO and SA. Exogenous supplementation of SA not only enhanced endogenous level of SA but also the level of NO through enhanced nitrate reductase (NR) activity, whether As(III) was present or not. Exogenously supplied NO decreased the NR activity and level of endogenous NO. Arsenic accumulation was positively correlated with the expression level of OsLsi1, a transporter responsible for As(III) uptake. The endogenous level of NO and SA were positively correlated to each other either when As(III) was present or not. This close relationship indicates that NO and SA work in harmony to modulate the signaling response in As(III) stressed plants.

  2. Proteomic investigation of the effect of salicylic acid on Arabidopsis seed germination and establishment of early defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rajjou, Loïc; Belghazi, Maya; Huguet, Romain; Robin, Caroline; Moreau, Adrien; Job, Claudette; Job, Dominique

    2006-07-01

    The influence of salicylic acid (SA) on elicitation of defense mechanisms in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds and seedlings was assessed by physiological measurements combined with global expression profiling (proteomics). Parallel experiments were carried out using the NahG transgenic plants expressing the bacterial gene encoding SA hydroxylase, which cannot accumulate the active form of this plant defense elicitor. SA markedly improved germination under salt stress. Proteomic analyses disclosed a specific accumulation of protein spots regulated by SA as inferred by silver-nitrate staining of two-dimensional gels, detection of carbonylated (oxidized) proteins, and neosynthesized proteins with [35S]-methionine. The combined results revealed several processes potentially affected by SA. This molecule enhanced the reinduction of the late maturation program during early stages of germination, thereby allowing the germinating seeds to reinforce their capacity to mount adaptive responses in environmental water stress. Other processes affected by SA concerned the quality of protein translation, the priming of seed metabolism, the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes, and the mobilization of seed storage proteins. All the observed effects are likely to improve seed vigor. Another aspect revealed by this study concerned the oxidative stress entailed by SA in germinating seeds, as inferred from a characterization of the carbonylated (oxidized) proteome. Finally, the proteomic data revealed a close interplay between abscisic signaling and SA elicitation of seed vigor.

  3. Biochemical and proteomic analysis of grape berries (Vitis labruscana) during cold storage upon postharvest salicylic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Cai, Han; Yuan, Xiaozhuan; Pan, Jiaojiao; Li, Huan; Wu, Ziming; Wang, Yun

    2014-10-15

    Salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been widely used to maintain fruit quality during postharvest storage. To elucidate the molecular mechanism related to this treatment, the effect of SA treatment on fruit quality as well as protein expression profiles of grape berries (Vitis labruscana cv. Kyoho) during the subsequent cold storage was evaluated. As expected, SA treatment inhibited postharvest loss and chilling damage by reducing fruit softening and membrane damage and slowing weight loss. A gel-based proteomic approach was designed to screen for differentially expressed proteins in SA-treated and control grape berries. A total of 69 differentially accumulated proteins were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, which can be functionally classified into eight categories. Among these proteins, antioxidant enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase, oxidoreductase, and glutathione S-transferase were induced, and the abundances of several defense-related proteins, such as heat shock protein (HSP) and temperature-induced lipocalin, were up-regulated by SA treatment. In addition, proteins involved in carbohydrate catabolism and energy production were also induced by SA treatment. Interpretation of the data for differential accumulation of proteins revealed that the effect of SA on reducing postharvest losses and chilling damage of grape berries during cold storage may be due to activated defense responses and carbohydrate metabolism and higher levels of energy status.

  4. Effect of ca2+ to salicylic acid release in pectin based controlled drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistriyani, L.; Wirawan, S. K.; Sediawan, W. B.

    2016-01-01

    Wastes from orange peel are potentially be utilized to produce pectin, which are currently an import commodity. Pectin can be used in making edible film. Edible films are potentially used as a drug delivery system membrane after a tooth extraction. Drug which is used in the drug delivery system is salicylic acid. It is an antiseptic. In order to control the drug release rate, crosslinking process is added in the manufacturing of membrane with CaCl2.2H2O as crosslinker. Pectin was diluted in water and mixed with a plasticizer and CaCl2.2H2O solution at 66°C to make edible film. Then the mixture was dried in an oven at 50 °C. After edible film was formed, it was coated using plasticizer and CaCl2.2H2O solution with various concentration 0, 0.015, 0.03 and 0.05g/mL. This study showed that the more concentration of crosslinker added, the slower release of salicylic acid would be. This was indicated by the value of diffusivites were getting smaller respectively. The addition of crosslinker also caused smaller gels swelling value,which made the membrane is mechanically stronger

  5. Electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid by a cobalt hydrotalcite-like compound modified Pt electrode.

    PubMed

    Gualandi, Isacco; Scavetta, Erika; Zappoli, Sergio; Tonelli, Domenica

    2011-03-15

    In this paper a study of the electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid (SA) at a Pt electrode coated with a Co/Al hydrotalcite-like compound (Co/Al HTLC coated-Pt) film is presented. The voltammetric behaviour of the modified electrode in 0.1M NaOH shows two different redox couples: Co(II)/Co(III) and Co(III)/Co(IV). The electrocatalysis occurs at the same potential of the latter couple, showing that Co(IV) centers act as the oxidant. The CV investigation demonstrates that the process is controlled both by mass and charge transfer and that the Co(IV) centers involved in the oxidation are two for each SA molecule. The estimated value of the catalytic constant is 4×10(4) M(-1) s(-1). The determination of salicylic acid was performed both by DPV and chronoamperometry. The linearity ranges and the LOD values resulted 1×10(-5) to 5×10(-4), 5×10(-7) to 1×10(-4), 6×10(-6) and 2×10(-7) M, respectively. The Co/Al HTLC electrode has been used for SA determination in BAYER Aspirina® and the obtained results are consistent with an independent HPLC analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Combination photodynamic therapy of human breast cancer using salicylic acid and methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Khorsandi, Khatereh; Jahanshiri, Maryam

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of combination therapy with methylene blue (MB) assisted photodynamic therapy (PDT) and salicylic acid (SA) as chemo-therapy anticancer agent. The binding of salicylic acid to methylene blue was studied using spectrophotometric method. The results show the 1:2 complex formation between SA and MB. The binding constants and related Gibbs free energies o are obtained (Kb1 = 183.74, Kb2 = 38.13 and ∆ Gb1° = 12.92 kJ·mol- 1, ∆ Gb2° =9.02 kJ·mol- 1). The spectrophotometric results show the improvement in solubilization and reduction prevention for SA and MB in the complex form. These results are in agreements with cellular experiments. The dark toxicity measurements represent the improve efficacy of chemotherapy using combination of SA and MB. The photodynamic therapy results (using red LED as light source (630 nm; power density: 30 mW cm- 2)) show that the cancer cell killing efficiency of MB increases in the combination with SA due to reduction prevention and stabilization of monomeric form of MB.

  7. Role of salicylic acid in resistance to cadmium stress in plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhouping; Ding, Yanfei; Wang, Feijuan; Ye, Yaoyao; Zhu, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    We review and introduce the importance of salicylic acid in plants under cadmium stress, and provide insights into potential regulatory mechanisms for alleviating cadmium toxicity. Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread and potentially toxic environmental pollutant, originating mainly from rapid industrial processes, the application of fertilizers, manures and sewage sludge, and urban activities. It is easily taken up by plants, resulting in obvious toxicity symptoms, including growth retardation, leaf chlorosis, leaf and root necrosis, altered structures and ultrastructures, inhibition of photosynthesis, and cell death. Therefore, alleviating Cd toxicity in plants is a major aim of plant research. Salicylic acid (SA) is a ubiquitous plant phenolic compound that has been used in many plant species to alleviate Cd toxicity by regulating plant growth, reducing Cd uptake and distribution in plants, protecting membrane integrity and stability, scavenging reactive oxygen species and enhancing antioxidant defense system, improving photosynthetic capacity. Furthermore, SA functions as a signaling molecule involved in the expression of several important genes. Significant amounts of research have focused on understanding SA functions and signaling in plants under Cd stress, but several questions still remain unanswered. In this article, the influence of SA on Cd-induced stress in plants and the potential regulation mechanism for alleviating Cd toxicity are reviewed.

  8. Locally delivered salicylic acid from a poly(anhydride-ester): impact on diabetic bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wada, Keisuke; Yu, Weiling; Elazizi, Mohamad; Barakat, Sandrine; Ouimet, Michelle A; Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Fiorellini, Joseph P; Graves, Dana T; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2013-10-10

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) involves metabolic changes that can impair bone repair, including a prolonged inflammatory response. A salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-ester) (SA-PAE) provides controlled and sustained release of salicylic acid (SA) that locally resolves inflammation. This study investigates the effect of polymer-controlled SA release on bone regeneration in diabetic rats where enhanced inflammation is expected. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: diabetic group induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection or normoglycemic controls injected with citrate buffer alone. Three weeks after hyperglycemia development or vehicle injection, 5mm critical sized defects were created at the rat mandibular angle and treated with SA-PAE/bone graft mixture or bone graft alone. Rats were euthanized 4 and 12weeks after surgery, then bone fill percentage in the defect region was assessed by micro-computed tomography (CT) and histomorphometry. It was observed that bone fill increased significantly at 4 and 12weeks in SA-PAE/bone graft-treated diabetic rats compared to diabetic rats receiving bone graft alone. Accelerated bone formation in normoglycemic rats caused by SA-PAE/bone graft treatment was observed at 4weeks but not at 12weeks. This study shows that treatment with SA-PAE enhances bone regeneration in diabetic rats and accelerates bone regeneration in normoglycemic animals.

  9. Synthesis and cofluorescence of Eu(Y) complexes with salicylic acid and o-phenanthroline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Cun-Jin; Xie, Fei; Guo, Xing-Zhong; Yang, Hui

    2005-07-01

    A series of dinuclear complexes of salicylic acid (HSal) and o-phenanthroline (Phen) with different molar ratios of Eu 3+ to Y 3+ have been synthesized. Their compositions are Eu xY 1-x (Sal) 3(Phen) ( x = 0 ˜ 1). Their UV spectra, IR spectra, and fluorescence spectra were studied. The UV spectra of the complexes reflect essentially absorption of the ligands for the fact that no obvious change of wavelength and band shape is found between the spectra of the complexes and that of the ligands except slight red shift. The IR absorption spectra indicate that salicylic acid is coordinated to the rare earth ions and chemical bonds are formed between rare earth ions and nitrogen atoms of o-phenanthroline. The fluorescence spectra of the complexes indicate that the fluorescence emission intensity of europium ion was enhanced by the addition of Y 3+, which is referred to as cofluorescence. These facts show that not only the ligands but also the yttrium complex can transfer the absorbed energy to Eu 3+ ion in the complexes. Formation of polynuclear complexes appears to be responsible for cofluorescence.

  10. Locally Delivered Salicylic Acid from a Poly(anhydride-ester): Impact on Diabetic Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Keisuke; Yu, Weiling; Elazizi, Mohamad; Barakat, Sandrine; Ouimet, Michelle A.; Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Fiorellini, Joseph P.; Graves, Dana T.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) involves metabolic changes that can impair bone repair, including a prolonged inflammatory response. A salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-ester) (SA-PAE) provides controlled and sustained release of salicylic acid (SA) that locally resolves inflammation. This study investigates the effect of polymer-controlled SA release on bone regeneration in diabetic rats where enhanced inflammation is expected. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: diabetic group induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection or normoglycemic controls injected with citrate buffer alone. Three weeks after hyperglycemia development or vehicle injection, 5 mm critical sized defects were created at the rat mandibular angle and treated with SA-PAE/bone graft mixture or bone graft alone. Rats were euthanized 4 and 12 weeks after surgery, then bone fill percentage in the defect region was assessed by micro-computed tomography (CT) and histomorphometry. It was observed that bone fill increased significantly at 4 and 12 weeks in SA-PAE/bone graft-treated diabetic rats compared to diabetic rats receiving bone graft alone. Accelerated bone formation in normoglycemic rats caused by SA-PAE/bone graft treatment was observed at 4 weeks but not at 12 weeks. This study shows that treatment with SA-PAE enhances bone regeneration in diabetic rats and accelerates bone regeneration in normoglycemic animals. PMID:23827476

  11. Solid phase extraction-spectrophotometric determination of salicylic acid using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as extractor.

    PubMed

    Parham, Hooshang; Rahbar, Nadereh

    2009-08-15

    This method shows a novel, fast and simple solid phase extraction-spectrophotometric procedure for preconcentration and determination of salicylic acid (SA) in blood serum using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) as extractor. It is shown that the novel magnetic nano-adsorbent is quite efficient for fast adsorption of SA at 25 degrees C. Various parameters affecting the adsorption of SA on MIONs, such as pH of solution, type, volume and concentration of desorbing reagent and amount of adsorbent and matrix effects, have been investigated. The calibration graph for the determination of SA was linear in the range of 0.025-1.250microgmL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) based on three times the standard deviation of the blank (3S(b)) was 5.5x10(-3)microgmL(-1) (n=10) for SA. The intra-day precision (R.S.D.) was below 10.1% and inter-day R.S.D. was less than 17.5%, while accuracy (relative error R.E.) was within +/-3.6 determined from quality control samples for salicylic acid (SA) which corresponded to requirement of the guidance of Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The preconcentration factor of 100 was achieved in this method. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied to the determination of SA in blood serum.

  12. Derivatives of Salicylic Acid as Inhibitors of YopH in Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zunnan; He, Yantao; Zhang, Xian; Gunawan, Andrea; Wu, Li; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Wong, Chung F.

    2010-01-01

    Yersinia pestis causes diseases ranging from gastrointestinal syndromes to bubonic plague and could be misused as a biological weapon. As its protein tyrosine phosphatase YopH has already been demonstrated as a potential drug target, we have developed two series of forty salicylic acid derivatives and found sixteen to have micromolar inhibitory activity. We designed these ligands to have two chemical moieties connected by a flexible hydrocarbon linker to target two pockets in the active site of the protein to achieve binding affinity and selectivity. One moiety possessed the salicylic acid core intending to target the phosphotyrosine-binding pocket. The other moiety contained different chemical fragments meant to target a nearby secondary pocket. The two series of compounds differed by having hydrocarbon linkers with different lengths. Before experimental co-crystal structures are available, we have performed molecular docking to predict how these compounds might bind to the protein and to generate structural models for performing binding affinity calculation to aid future optimization of these series of compounds. PMID:20560978

  13. Study of supramolecular frameworks having aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, N,N‧-bis(salicyl)ethylenediamine and N,N‧-bis(salicyl)butylenediamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Nidhi; Kumar, Naresh

    2014-08-01

    The reaction of bases (L1 and L2) (where L1 = N,N‧-bis(salicyl)ethylenediamine, L2 = N,N‧-bis(salicyl)butylenediamine) with dicarboxylic acids [adipic acid (1,6-Hexanedioic acid, AA), pimelic acid (1,7-Heptanedioic acid, PA) and suberic acid (1,8-Octanedioic acid, SUA] yielded the corresponding six new ionic salts viz., [1/2L1H+ṡ1/2AA-ṡ1/2AA] (1), [2 × 1/2L1H+ṡPA2-ṡCHCl3] (2) [1/2L1H+ṡ1/2SUA-] (3), [1/2L2H+ṡ1/2AA-ṡ2CH3OH] (4), [1/2L2H+ṡ1/2PA-] (5) and [1/2L2H+ṡ1/2SUA-] (6), respectively. Theses salts were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, NMR, X-ray crystallography, and theoretically by means of Gaussian 09. The X-ray crystallographic studies revealed that the proton transfer occurred from acid to base. It also demonstrated that different type of hydrogen bond interactions between cations and anions were responsible for the supramolecular frameworks. The optimized structures of these salts were calculated in terms of the density functional theory. The curve fitting analysis between experimental and simulated data of structural parameters was done, and found statistically close. The orientation of molecules was remained same in both the gas and solid phases. The thermal studies of these salts were investigated by TG-DTG.

  14. Down Regulation of Virulence Factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Salicylic Acid Attenuates Its Virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana and Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Prithiviraj, B.; Bais, H. P.; Weir, T.; Suresh, B.; Najarro, E. H.; Dayakar, B. V.; Schweizer, H. P.; Vivanco, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic metabolite produced by plants and is known to play an important role in several physiological processes, such as the induction of plant defense responses against pathogen attack. Here, using the Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathosystem, we provide evidence that SA acts directly on the pathogen, down regulating fitness and virulence factor production of the bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 showed reduced attachment and biofilm formation on the roots of the Arabidopsis mutants lox2 and cpr5-2, which produce elevated amounts of SA, as well as on wild-type Arabidopsis plants primed with exogenous SA, a treatment known to enhance endogenous SA concentration. Salicylic acid at a concentration that did not inhibit PA14 growth was sufficient to significantly affect the ability of the bacteria to attach and form biofilm communities on abiotic surfaces. Furthermore, SA down regulated three known virulence factors of PA14: pyocyanin, protease, and elastase. Interestingly, P. aeruginosa produced more pyocyanin when infiltrated into leaves of the Arabidopsis transgenic line NahG, which accumulates less SA than wild-type plants. This finding suggests that endogenous SA plays a role in down regulating the synthesis and secretion of pyocyanin in vivo. To further test if SA directly affects the virulence of P. aeruginosa, we used the Caenorhabiditis elegans-P. aeruginosa infection model. The addition of SA to P. aeruginosa lawns significantly diminished the bacterium's ability to kill the worms, without affecting the accumulation of bacteria inside the nematodes' guts, suggesting that SA negatively affects factors that influence the virulence of P. aeruginosa. We employed microarray technology to identify SA target genes. These analyses showed that SA treatment affected expression of 331 genes. It selectively repressed transcription of exoproteins and other virulence factors, while it had no effect on expression of housekeeping

  15. Method for the extraction of the volatile compound salicylic acid from tobacco leaf material.

    PubMed

    Verberne, Marianne C; Brouwer, Nynke; Delbianco, Federica; Linthorst, Huub J M; Bol, John F; Verpoorte, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a signalling compound in plants which is able to induce systemic acquired resistance. In the analysis of SA in plant tissues, the extraction recovery is often very low and variable. This is mainly caused by sublimation of SA, especially during evaporation of organic solvents. Techniques have been designed in order to overcome this problem. In the first part of the extraction procedure, sublimation of SA was prevented by addition of 0.2 M sodium hydroxide. At a later stage of the extraction procedure, sublimation of SA during solvent evaporation was controlled by the addition of a small amount of HPLC eluent. In this way, recoveries in the range of 71-91% for free SA and 65-79% for acid-hydrolysed SA were obtained. Recoveries could be further optimised by the use of an internal standard to correct for volume changes after the addition of the HPLC eluent.

  16. Cadmium Toxicity and Alleviating Effects of Exogenous Salicylic Acid in Iris hexagona.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Chen, Gang; Chen, Yahua; Shen, Zhenguo

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) toxictity and possible role of salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating Cd-induced toxicity were investigated on ornamental hydrophyte Iris hexagona. Compared to the control, treatments with 100 and 500 µM Cd for 7 days significantly decreased dry weight, the contents of chlorophyll, photosynthetic parameters, and increased the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. Pretreatment of the roots of I. hexagona seedlings with 1 µM SA before Cd exposure may increase dry weight, photosynthetic rate, activities of antioxidant enzymes, improve the cell ultrastructure and protect plants from Cd-induced oxidative stress damage. However, SA pretreatment had no significant effect on Cd concentrations in the leaves and roots. It is suggested that SA-induced Cd tolerances in I. hexagona are likely associated with increases in antioxidant enzyme activities and vacuolar compartmentation, rather than Cd uptake.

  17. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    PubMed

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers.

  18. Chitosan oligosaccharide induces resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus in Arabidopsis via the salicylic acid-mediated signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaochen; Meng, Qingshan; Zeng, Haihong; Wang, Wenxia; Yin, Heng

    2016-05-18

    Chitosan is one of the most abundant carbohydrate biopolymers in the world, and chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), which is prepared from chitosan, is a plant immunity regulator. The present study aimed to validate the effect of COS on inducing resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Arabidopsis and to investigate the potential defence-related signalling pathways involved. Optimal conditions for the induction of TMV resistance in Arabidopsis were COS pretreatment at 50 mg/L for 1 day prior to inoculation with TMV. Multilevel indices, including phenotype data, and TMV coat protein expression, revealed that COS induced TMV resistance in wild-type and jasmonic acid pathway- deficient (jar1) Arabidopsis plants, but not in salicylic acid pathway deficient (NahG) Arabidopsis plants. Quantitative-PCR and analysis of phytohormone levels confirmed that COS pretreatment enhanced the expression of the defence-related gene PR1, which is a marker of salicylic acid signalling pathway, and increased the amount of salicylic acid in WT and jar1, but not in NahG plants. Taken together, these results confirm that COS induces TMV resistance in Arabidopsis via activation of the salicylic acid signalling pathway.

  19. Chitosan oligosaccharide induces resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus in Arabidopsis via the salicylic acid-mediated signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiaochen; Meng, Qingshan; Zeng, Haihong; Wang, Wenxia; Yin, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan is one of the most abundant carbohydrate biopolymers in the world, and chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), which is prepared from chitosan, is a plant immunity regulator. The present study aimed to validate the effect of COS on inducing resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Arabidopsis and to investigate the potential defence-related signalling pathways involved. Optimal conditions for the induction of TMV resistance in Arabidopsis were COS pretreatment at 50 mg/L for 1 day prior to inoculation with TMV. Multilevel indices, including phenotype data, and TMV coat protein expression, revealed that COS induced TMV resistance in wild-type and jasmonic acid pathway- deficient (jar1) Arabidopsis plants, but not in salicylic acid pathway deficient (NahG) Arabidopsis plants. Quantitative-PCR and analysis of phytohormone levels confirmed that COS pretreatment enhanced the expression of the defence-related gene PR1, which is a marker of salicylic acid signalling pathway, and increased the amount of salicylic acid in WT and jar1, but not in NahG plants. Taken together, these results confirm that COS induces TMV resistance in Arabidopsis via activation of the salicylic acid signalling pathway. PMID:27189192

  20. The Arabidopsis pi4kIIIβ1β2 double mutant is salicylic acid-overaccumulating: a new example of salicylic acid influence on plant stature

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Martin; Šašek, Vladimír; Ruelland, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Growth is the best visible sign of plant comfort. If plants are under stress, a difference in growth with control conditions can indicate that something is going wrong (or better). Phytohormones such as auxin, cytokinins, brassinosteroids or giberellins, are important growth regulators and their role in plant growth was extensively studied. On the other hand the role of salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone commonly connected with plant defense responses, in plant growth is under-rated. However, studies with SA-overaccumulating mutants directly showed an influence of SA on plant growth. Recently we characterized an Arabidopsis SA-overaccumulating mutant impaired in phosphatidylinositol-4-kinases (pi4kIIIβ1β2). This mutant is dwarf. The crossing with mutants impaired in SA signaling revealed that pi4kIIIβ1β2 stunted rosette is due to high SA, while the short root length is not. This brings into evidence that upper and lower parts of the plants, even though they may share common phenotypes, are differently regulated. PMID:25482755

  1. Salicylic acid transport in Ricinus communis involves a pH-dependent carrier system in addition to diffusion.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Françoise; Chollet, Jean-François; Legros, Sandrine; Jousse, Cyril; Lemoine, Rémi; Faucher, Mireille; Bush, Daniel R; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis

    2009-08-01

    Despite its important functions in plant physiology and defense, the membrane transport mechanism of salicylic acid (SA) is poorly documented due to the general assumption that SA is taken up by plant cells via the ion trap mechanism. Using Ricinus communis seedlings and modeling tools (ACD LogD and Vega ZZ softwares), we show that phloem accumulation of SA and hydroxylated analogs is completely uncorrelated with the physicochemical parameters suitable for diffusion (number of hydrogen bond donors, polar surface area, and, especially, LogD values at apoplastic pHs and Delta LogD between apoplast and phloem sap pH values). These and other data (such as accumulation in phloem sap of the poorly permeant dissociated form of monohalogen derivatives from apoplast and inhibition of SA transport by the thiol reagent p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid [pCMBS]) lead to the following conclusions. As in intestinal cells, SA transport in Ricinus involves a pH-dependent carrier system sensitive to pCMBS; this carrier can translocate monohalogen analogs in the anionic form; the efficiency of phloem transport of hydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives is tightly dependent on the position of the hydroxyl group on the aromatic ring (SA corresponds to the optimal position) but moderately affected by halogen addition in position 5, which is known to increase plant defense. Furthermore, combining time-course experiments and pCMBS used as a tool, we give information about the localization of the SA carrier. SA uptake by epidermal cells (i.e. the step preceding the symplastic transport to veins) insensitive to pCMBS occurs via the ion-trap mechanism, whereas apoplastic vein loading involves a carrier-mediated mechanism (which is targeted by pCMBS) in addition to diffusion.

  2. Salicylic Acid Transport in Ricinus communis Involves a pH-Dependent Carrier System in Addition to Diffusion1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Rocher, Françoise; Chollet, Jean-François; Legros, Sandrine; Jousse, Cyril; Lemoine, Rémi; Faucher, Mireille; Bush, Daniel R.; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    Despite its important functions in plant physiology and defense, the membrane transport mechanism of salicylic acid (SA) is poorly documented due to the general assumption that SA is taken up by plant cells via the ion trap mechanism. Using Ricinus communis seedlings and modeling tools (ACD LogD and Vega ZZ softwares), we show that phloem accumulation of SA and hydroxylated analogs is completely uncorrelated with the physicochemical parameters suitable for diffusion (number of hydrogen bond donors, polar surface area, and, especially, LogD values at apoplastic pHs and Δ LogD between apoplast and phloem sap pH values). These and other data (such as accumulation in phloem sap of the poorly permeant dissociated form of monohalogen derivatives from apoplast and inhibition of SA transport by the thiol reagent p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid [pCMBS]) lead to the following conclusions. As in intestinal cells, SA transport in Ricinus involves a pH-dependent carrier system sensitive to pCMBS; this carrier can translocate monohalogen analogs in the anionic form; the efficiency of phloem transport of hydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives is tightly dependent on the position of the hydroxyl group on the aromatic ring (SA corresponds to the optimal position) but moderately affected by halogen addition in position 5, which is known to increase plant defense. Furthermore, combining time-course experiments and pCMBS used as a tool, we give information about the localization of the SA carrier. SA uptake by epidermal cells (i.e. the step preceding the symplastic transport to veins) insensitive to pCMBS occurs via the ion-trap mechanism, whereas apoplastic vein loading involves a carrier-mediated mechanism (which is targeted by pCMBS) in addition to diffusion. PMID:19493970

  3. Novel derivatives of nitro-substituted salicylic acids: Synthesis, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulos, Georgios; Krátký, Martin; Mandíková, Jana; Trejtnar, František; Stolaříková, Jiřina; Pávek, Petr; Besra, Gurdyal; Vinšová, Jarmila

    2015-11-15

    Inspired by the high antituberculous activity of novel nitro-substituted derivatives and based on promising predicted ADMET properties we have synthesized a series of 33 salicylanilides containing nitro-group in their salicylic part and evaluated them for their in vitro antimycobacterial, antimicrobial and antifungal activities. The presence of nitro-group in position 4 of the salicylic acid was found to be beneficial and the resulting molecules exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 2 to 32 μM against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The best activity was found for 2-hydroxy-4-nitro-N-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]benzamide (MIC=2 μM). 4-Nitrosalicylanilides were also found to be active against all Staphylococcus species tested while for MRSA strain 2-hydroxy-4-nitro-N-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]benzamide's MIC was 0.98 μM. None of the nitrosalicylanilides was active against Enterococcus sp. J 14365/08 and no considerable activity was found against Gram-negative bacteria or fungi. The hepatotoxicity of all nitrosalicylanilides was found to be in the range of their MICs for HepG2 cells.

  4. First derivative spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatographic simultaneous determination of benzoic and salicylic acids in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Silva, B O

    2008-01-01

    Two methods are presented for the simultaneous determination of benzoic and salicylic acids in pharmaceutical preparations using first (1D) derivative spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Benzoic and salicylic acids were determined by measurement of first derivative amplitude at the zero crossing points 283 and 310 nm respectively. Methanolic solutions obeyed Beer's law in the concentration range of 20-60 and 10-30 microg/ml for benzoic and salicylic acids respectively. The HPLC method depends upon using a Vydac reversed-phase column at ambient temperature with a mobile phase consisting of 20:80 (ACN:H2O) at a flow rate 0.5 ml min(-1) Quantitation was achieved with UV detection of 230 nm at 0 min and 204 nm at 4 min based on peak area. For the two methods the regression line equations were derived with correlation coefficient better than 0.995. The two methods were successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of benzoic and salicylic acids in laboratory-prepared mixtures and in creams with good accuracy and precision. No significant differences were found between the results obtained both by the HPLC and derivative procedures.

  5. Solubility and phase separation of benzocaine and salicylic acid in 1,4-dioxane-water mixtures at several temperatures.

    PubMed

    Peña, M Angeles; Bustamante, Pilar; Escalera, Begoña; Reíllo, Aurora; Bosque-Sendra, Juan Manuel

    2004-11-15

    The solubilities of benzocaine and salicylic acid were determined in water-dioxane mixtures at several temperatures (5-40 degrees C for benzocaine and 10-40 degrees C for salicylic acid). The solubility curves as a function of dioxane ratio showed a maximum at 90% dioxane at all temperatures. Above 25 degrees C, the homogeneous mixture splits into two liquid immiscible phases. For benzocaine, the initial dioxane concentration range at which phase separation takes place increased with temperature (50-60% at 25 degrees C, 50-70% at 30-35 degrees C and 40-70% at 40 degrees C). For salicylic acid, the dioxane concentration required for phase separation (40-60% dioxane) did not change with temperature. Phase separation was not related to solid phase changes (polymorphism or solvates). The phase composition and drug extraction at the drug-rich phase were determined. The apparent enthalpies of the solution process were a nonlinear function of the dioxane ratio for both drugs. The apparent enthalpy of solution of benzocaine was larger than that expected at the upper limit of phase separation (70% dioxane), whereas for salicylic acid the apparent enthalpy of solution decreased abruptly at the region corresponding to phase separation (40-70% dioxane). Both drugs showed a nonlinear pattern of enthalpy-entropy compensation.

  6. Salicylic Acid 6% in an ammonium lactate emollient foam vehicle in the treatment of mild-to-moderate scalp psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon

    2011-03-01

    Scalp psoriasis is a common life-altering skin condition causing a great deal of distress. It significantly affects quality of life and is difficult to manage. Treatment can provide variable results, often impacting patient compliance with therapy. Salicylic acid is used as adjunctive therapy to other topical treatments because of its marked keratolytic effect. Its effectiveness as a monotherapy is not fully understood. An emollient foam formulation of 6% salicylic acid (Salkera) in an ammonium lactate vehicle has recently become available. Efficacy, tolerability and patient acceptability of salicylic acid 6% emollient foam were assessed in an open-label pilot study of 10 subjects with scalp psoriasis. All psoriasis severity parameters were reduced with a significant decrease in Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI) score from 15.3 to 3.0 after four weeks of monotherapy (P<0.001). Sixty percent of subjects were either "completely cleared" or "almost cleared" of their psoriasis. No adverse events (AEs) were reported. All signs and symptom tolerability measures demonstrated statistically significant score decreases with the exception of oiliness severity and patient-reported burning tolerability. Salicylic acid 6% emollient foam provides a useful option in the treatment of psoriasis that is highly effective, well tolerated and acceptable to patients.

  7. The use of salicylic acid in a new delivery system as a co-adjuvant topical treatment for acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Alex; Christiansen, Carroll; Jamie, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Topical preparations in the form of creams or ointments are the usual treatment for acne. These agents do not seem to penetrate the skin barrier deeply enough to produce the desired effect. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, prospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of salicylic acid in a new delivery system, the Crown Carrier System (CCS, Trivitaderm LLC, Asheville, NC) for the treatment of acne. Thirty-seven patients with homogenous backgrounds were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group A was treated with salicylic acid in CCS, Group B was treated with CCS without salicylic acid, and Group C received salicylic acid alone. Patients were evaluated at 2 weeks and 8 weeks post-treatment. Twenty-five patients completed the evaluation. Most patients in Group A presented with no changes in the number of acne lesions but with significant improvement of inflammatory signs. Their overall skin condition was remarkably better. Our study is unique in that it focused on the delivery system used in the treatment of acne, rather than on the active agent. The technology of the Crown Carrier System appears to be a breakthrough that may give physicians the opportunity to administer topical treatment of skin problems in a more efficient way.

  8. Characterisation of SalRAB a Salicylic Acid Inducible Positively Regulated Efflux System of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841

    PubMed Central

    Tett, Adrian J.; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Poole, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants. PMID:25133394

  9. Cooperative functioning between phenylalanine ammonia lyase and isochorishmate synthase activities contributes to salicylic acid biosynthesis in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salicylic acid (SA), an essential regulator of plant defense, is derived from chorismate via either the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), or the isochorishmate synthase (ICS) catalyzed steps. The ICS pathway is thought to be the primary contributor of defense-related SA, at least in Arabidopsis. We...

  10. Exogenous salicylic acid enhances the resistance of wheat seedlings to hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infestation under heat stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat stress exerts significant impact on plant-parasite interactions. Phytohormones, such as salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense against parasite attacks. Here we studied the impact of a combination of heat stress and exogenous SA on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plant resistanc...

  11. Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.

    PubMed

    Tett, Adrian J; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Poole, Philip S

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants.

  12. Salicylic acid and cysteine contribute to arbutin-induced alleviation of angular leaf spot disease development in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Kuźniak, Elżbieta; Wielanek, Marzena; Chwatko, Grażyna; Głowacki, Rafał; Libik-Konieczny, Marta; Piątek, Milena; Gajewska, Ewa; Skłodowska, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Arbutin induced suppression of angular leaf spot disease in cucumber resulting from lower populations of Pseudomonas syringae pv lachrymans in the infected tissues. This study provides insight into mechanisms that may potentially account for this effect. In the absence of the pathogen, exogenous arbutin-induced expression of PR1, the marker of salicylic acid signaling, increased the content of salicylic acid and modulated the cysteine pool. This suggested that arbutin promoted cucumber plants to a "primed" state. When challenged with the pathogen, the arbutin-treated plants showed strongly reduced infection symptoms 7 days after inoculation. At this time point, they were characterized by higher contents of free and protein-bound cysteine due to higher cysteine biosynthetic capacity related to increased activities of serine acetyltransferase and cysteine synthase when compared with plants infected without arbutin treatment. Moreover, in the arbutin-treated and infected plants the contents of free salicylic acid and its conjugates were also increased, partly owing to its biosynthesis via the phenylpropanoid pathway. We suggest that arbutin-induced abrogation of angular leaf spot disease in cucumber could be mediated by salicylic acid and cysteine-based signaling.

  13. Application of a radiometric method for evaluation of loss of salicylic acid during isolation from biologic material.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, A

    1983-01-01

    A radiometric method for evaluation of loss of salicylic acid in the process of isolation from biologic material is described. According to this study the mean loss during the total process of isolation amounts to 33.59%, the specific values being 19.47% during protein precipitation, 10.68% during extraction, and 3.44% during evaporation of solvent.

  14. Effect of multiple washing in salicylic acid on the bacterial flora of the skin of processed broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experiments were conducted to determine changes in the bacterial flora of the skin of processed broilers after each of five consecutive washings in solutions of the keratolytic agent, salicylic acid. Skin samples from commercially processed broiler carcasses were divided into 3 groups and washed in ...

  15. Changes in the bacterial flora of skin of processed broiler chickens washed in solutions of salicylic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Changes in the number of bacteria recovered from the skin of processed broilers after each of five consecutive washings in salicylic acid (SA) solutions was examined. Skin samples from commercially processed broiler carcasses were divided into 3 groups and washed in distilled water (control), 10% S...

  16. Influence of salicylic acid on H2O2 production, oxidative stress, and H2O2-metabolizing enzymes. Salicylic acid-mediated oxidative damage requires H2O2.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, M V; Paliyath, G; Ormrod, D P; Murr, D P; Watkins, C B

    1997-01-01

    We investigated how salicylic acid (SA) enhances H2O2 and the relative significance of SA-enhanced H2O2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. SA treatments enhanced H2O2 production, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative damage to proteins, and resulted in the formation of chlorophyll and carotene isomers. SA-enhanced H2O2 levels were related to increased activities of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase and were independent of changes in catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities. Prolonging SA treatments inactivated catalase and ascorbate peroxidase and resulted in phytotoxic symptoms, suggesting that inactivation of H2O2-degrading enzymes serves as an indicator of hypersensitive cell death. Treatment of leaves with H2O2 alone failed to invoke SA-mediated events. Although leaves treated with H2O2 accumulated in vivo H2O2 by 2-fold compared with leaves treated with SA, the damage to membranes and proteins was significantly less, indicating that SA can cause greater damage than H2O2. However, pretreatment of leaves with dimethylthiourea, a trap for H2O2, reduced SA-induced lipid peroxidation, indicating that SA requires H2O2 to initiate oxidative damage. The relative significance of the interaction among SA, H2O2, and H2O2-metabolizing enzymes with oxidative damage and cell death is discussed. PMID:9306697

  17. Effects of salicylic-lactic acid conditioner on the shear bond strength of brackets and enamel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chang, W-G; Lim, B-S; Yoon, T-H; Lee, Y-K; Kim, C-W

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of salicylic-lactic (SL) acid conditioner on the shear bond strength of brackets. Fluoride releasing (Light-bond) and non-fluoride releasing (Enlight) composite adhesives were used after conditioning with 0.22% salicylic + 9% lactic acid or 34% phosphoric acid. Composite adhesives were light cured with either a halogen light curing (HLC) unit for 30-50 s or a plasma arc curing (PAC) unit for 4 s. The shear bond strength was measured with an Instron. Failure modes of debonded brackets were identified based on adhesive remnants on the bracket and tooth. Salicylic-lactic acid conditioning was found to provide adequate shear bond strength. Groups conditioned with SL acid were debonded mainly at the enamel-resin interface and comparatively clean enamel surface after debonding was observed than those conditioned with phosphoric acid. Using confocal laser scanning microscopic examinations, it was found that demineralization patterns between SL acid and phosphoric acid conditioned groups were not different when the same adhesive was used. The SL acid conditioner did not reduce the demineralization. Light-bond adhesive showed less demineralization than Enlight adhesive. The PAC unit can be recommended as an alterative to the HLC unit because it significantly reduces the irradiation time.

  18. Salicylic Acid Is Involved in the Basal Resistance of Tomato Plants to Citrus Exocortis Viroid and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

    PubMed Central

    López-Gresa, M. Pilar; Lisón, Purificación; Yenush, Lynne; Conejero, Vicente; Rodrigo, Ismael; Bellés, José María

    2016-01-01

    Tomato plants expressing the NahG transgene, which prevents accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA), were used to study the importance of the SA signalling pathway in basal defence against Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd) or Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). The lack of SA accumulation in the CEVd- or TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants led to an early and dramatic disease phenotype, as compared to that observed in the corresponding parental Money Maker. Addition of acibenzolar-S-methyl, a benzothiadiazole (BTH), which activates the systemic acquired resistance pathway downstream of SA signalling, improves resistance of NahG tomato plants to CEVd and TSWV. CEVd and TSWV inoculation induced the accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic amides p-coumaroyltyramine, feruloyltyramine, caffeoylputrescine, and feruloylputrescine, and the defence related proteins PR1 and P23 in NahG plants earlier and with more intensity than in Money Maker plants, indicating that SA is not essential for the induction of these plant defence metabolites and proteins. In addition, NahG plants produced very high levels of ethylene upon CEVd or TSWV infection when compared with infected Money Maker plants, indicating that the absence of SA produced additional effects on other metabolic pathways. This is the first report to show that SA is an important component of basal resistance of tomato plants to both CEVd and TSWV, indicating that SA-dependent defence mechanisms play a key role in limiting the severity of symptoms in CEVd- and TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants. PMID:27893781

  19. Hydrogen peroxide is a second messenger in the salicylic acid-triggered adventitious rooting process in mung bean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Xiaoling; Li, Guijun; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Xia, Kai

    2013-01-01

    In plants, salicylic acid (SA) is a signaling molecule that regulates disease resistance responses, such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and hypertensive response (HR). SA has been implicated as participating in various biotic and abiotic stresses. This study was conducted to investigate the role of SA in adventitious root formation (ARF) in mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L) hypocotyl cuttings. We observed that hypocotyl treatment with SA could significantly promote the adventitious root formation, and its effects were dose and time dependent. Explants treated with SA displayed a 130% increase in adventitious root number compared with control seedlings. The role of SA in mung bean hypocotyl ARF as well as its interaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were also elucidated. Pretreatment of mung bean explants with N, N'-dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger for H2O2, resulted in a significant reduction of SA-induced ARF. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a specific inhibitor of membrane-linked NADPH oxidase, also inhibited the effect of adventitious rooting triggered by SA treatment. The determination of the endogenous H2O2 level indicated that the seedlings treated with SA could induce H2O2 accumulation compared with the control treatment. Our results revealed a distinctive role of SA in the promotion of adventitious rooting via the process of H2O2 accumulation. This conclusion was further supported by antioxidant enzyme activity assays. Based on these results, we conclude that the accumulation of free H2O2 might be a downstream event in response to SA-triggered adventitious root formation in mung bean seedlings.

  20. Hydrogen Peroxide Is a Second Messenger in the Salicylic Acid-Triggered Adventitious Rooting Process in Mung Bean Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Xiaoling; Li, Guijun; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Xia, Kai

    2013-01-01

    In plants, salicylic acid (SA) is a signaling molecule that regulates disease resistance responses, such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and hypertensive response (HR). SA has been implicated as participating in various biotic and abiotic stresses. This study was conducted to investigate the role of SA in adventitious root formation (ARF) in mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L) hypocotyl cuttings. We observed that hypocotyl treatment with SA could significantly promote the adventitious root formation, and its effects were dose and time dependent. Explants treated with SA displayed a 130% increase in adventitious root number compared with control seedlings. The role of SA in mung bean hypocotyl ARF as well as its interaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were also elucidated. Pretreatment of mung bean explants with N, N’-dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger for H2O2, resulted in a significant reduction of SA-induced ARF. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a specific inhibitor of membrane-linked NADPH oxidase, also inhibited the effect of adventitious rooting triggered by SA treatment. The determination of the endogenous H2O2 level indicated that the seedlings treated with SA could induce H2O2 accumulation compared with the control treatment. Our results revealed a distinctive role of SA in the promotion of adventitious rooting via the process of H2O2 accumulation. This conclusion was further supported by antioxidant enzyme activity assays. Based on these results, we conclude that the accumulation of free H2O2 might be a downstream event in response to SA-triggered adventitious root formation in mung bean seedlings. PMID:24386397

  1. Salicylic acid modulates arsenic toxicity by reducing its root to shoot translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit P.; Dixit, Garima; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tiwari, Manish; Mallick, Shekhar; Pandey, Vivek; Trivedi, Prabodh K.; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra D.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is posing serious health concerns in South East Asia where rice, an efficient accumulator of As, is prominent crop. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signaling molecule and plays a crucial role in resistance against biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In present study, ameliorative effect of SA against arsenate (AsV) toxicity has been investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Arsenate stress hampered the plant growth in terms of root, shoots length, and biomass as well as it enhanced the level of H2O2 and MDA in dose dependent manner in shoot. Exogenous application of SA, reverted the growth, and oxidative stress caused by AsV and significantly decreased As translocation to the shoots. Level of As in shoot was positively correlated with the expression of OsLsi2, efflux transporter responsible for root to shoot translocation of As in the form of arsenite (AsIII). SA also overcame AsV induced oxidative stress and modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a differential manner in shoots. As treatment hampered the translocation of Fe in the shoot which was compensated by the SA treatment. The level of Fe in root and shoot was positively correlated with the transcript level of transporters responsible for the accumulation of Fe, OsNRAMP5, and OsFRDL1, in the root and shoot, respectively. Co-application of SA was more effective than pre-treatment for reducing As accumulation as well as imposed toxicity. PMID:26042132

  2. Modulation of heat shock factors accompanies salicylic acid-mediated potentiation of Hsp70 in tomato seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Snyman, M.; Cronjé, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    In plants, salicylic acid (SA) is a signalling molecule regulating disease resistance responses such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and the hypersensitive response (HR), and has been implicated in both basal and acquired thermotolerance. It has been shown that SA enhances heat-induced Hsp/Hsc70 accumulation in plants. To investigate the mechanism of how SA influences the heat shock response (HSR) in plants, tomato seedlings were treated with SA alone, heat shock, or a combination of both before analyses of hsp70 mRNA, heat shock factor (Hsf)–DNA binding, and gene expression of hsp70, hsfA1, hsfA2, and hsfB1. SA alone led to activation of Hsf–DNA binding, but not induction or transcription of hsp70 mRNA. SA had no significant effect on hsfA2 and hsfB1 gene expression, but potentiated the basal levels of hsfA1. In heat-shocked plants, Hsf–DNA binding was established, and increased hsfA1, hsfA2, and hsfB1 expression was followed by accumulation of Hsp70. SA plus heat shock showed enhanced Hsf–DNA binding, enhanced induction of hsp70 mRNA transcription, and gene expression of hsfA1, hsfA2, and hsfB1, resulting in potentiated levels of Hsp/Hsc70. Since increased hsp70 and hsf gene expression coincide with increased levels of Hsp70 accumulation, it is concluded that SA-mediated potentiation of Hsp70 is due to modulation of these Hsfs by SA. In our efforts to understand the role of Hsp70 in heat-related disease susceptibility, the degree of the complexity of the cross-talk between the pathways in which SA is involved, inter alia, the plant defence response, the HSR and thermotolerance, was further underscored. PMID:18468986

  3. Salicylic Acid Is Involved in the Basal Resistance of Tomato Plants to Citrus Exocortis Viroid and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus.

    PubMed

    López-Gresa, M Pilar; Lisón, Purificación; Yenush, Lynne; Conejero, Vicente; Rodrigo, Ismael; Bellés, José María

    2016-01-01

    Tomato plants expressing the NahG transgene, which prevents accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA), were used to study the importance of the SA signalling pathway in basal defence against Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd) or Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). The lack of SA accumulation in the CEVd- or TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants led to an early and dramatic disease phenotype, as compared to that observed in the corresponding parental Money Maker. Addition of acibenzolar-S-methyl, a benzothiadiazole (BTH), which activates the systemic acquired resistance pathway downstream of SA signalling, improves resistance of NahG tomato plants to CEVd and TSWV. CEVd and TSWV inoculation induced the accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic amides p-coumaroyltyramine, feruloyltyramine, caffeoylputrescine, and feruloylputrescine, and the defence related proteins PR1 and P23 in NahG plants earlier and with more intensity than in Money Maker plants, indicating that SA is not essential for the induction of these plant defence metabolites and proteins. In addition, NahG plants produced very high levels of ethylene upon CEVd or TSWV infection when compared with infected Money Maker plants, indicating that the absence of SA produced additional effects on other metabolic pathways. This is the first report to show that SA is an important component of basal resistance of tomato plants to both CEVd and TSWV, indicating that SA-dependent defence mechanisms play a key role in limiting the severity of symptoms in CEVd- and TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants.

  4. Salicylic acid improves the salinity tolerance of Medicago sativa in symbiosis with Sinorhizobium meliloti by preventing nitrogen fixation inhibition.

    PubMed

    Palma, F; López-Gómez, M; Tejera, N A; Lluch, C

    2013-07-01

    In this work we have investigated the contribution of pretreatment with 0.1 and 0.5mM salicylic acid (SA) to the protection against salt stress in root nodules of Medicago sativa in symbiosis with Sinorhizobium meliloti. SA alleviated the inhibition induced by salinity in the plant growth and photosynthetic capacity of M. sativa-S. meliloti symbiosis. In addition, SA prevented the inhibition of the nitrogen fixation capacity under salt stress since nodule biomass was not affected by salinity in SA pretreated plants. Antioxidant enzymes peroxidase (POX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehidroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR), key in the main pathway that scavenges H2O2 in plants, were induced by SA pretreatments which suggest that SA may participate in the redox balance in root nodules under salt stress. Catalase activity (CAT) was inhibited around 40% by SA which could be behind the increase of H2O2 detected in nodules of plants pretreated with SA. The accumulation of polyamines (PAs) synthesized in response to salinity was prevented by SA which together with the induction of 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC) content suggest the prevalence of the ethylene signaling pathway induced by SA in detriment of the synthesis of PAs. In conclusion, SA alleviated the negative effect of salt stress in the M. sativa-S. meliloti symbiosis through the increased level of nodule biomass and the induction of the nodular antioxidant metabolism under salt stress. The H2O2 accumulation and the PAs inhibition induced by SA in nodules of M. sativa suggest that SA activates a hypersensitive response dependent on ethylene.

  5. Aspirin and salicylic acid decrease c-Myc expression in cancer cells: a potential role in chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Muley, Pratik; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between regular aspirin use and reduced colon cancer incidence and mortality; however, the pathways by which it exerts its anti-cancer effects are still not fully explored. We hypothesized that aspirin's anti-cancer effect may occur through downregulation of c-Myc gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decrease the c-Myc protein levels in human HCT-116 colon and in few other cancer cell lines. In total cell lysates, both drugs decreased the levels of c-Myc in a concentration-dependent fashion. Greater inhibition was observed in the nucleus than the cytoplasm, and immunofluorescence studies confirmed these observations. Pretreatment of cells with lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, partially prevented the downregulatory effect of both aspirin and salicylic acid, suggesting that 26S proteasomal pathway is involved. Both drugs failed to decrease exogenously expressed DDK-tagged c-Myc protein levels; however, under the same conditions, the endogenous c-Myc protein levels were downregulated. Northern blot analysis showed that both drugs caused a decrease in c-Myc mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that aspirin taken up by cells was rapidly metabolized to salicylic acid, suggesting that aspirin's inhibitory effect on c-Myc may occur through formation of salicylic acid. Our result suggests that salicylic acid regulates c-Myc level at both transcriptional and post-transcription levels. Inhibition of c-Myc may represent an important pathway by which aspirin exerts its anti-cancer effect and decrease the occurrence of cancer in epithelial tissues.

  6. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen versus topical salicylic acid application for cutaneous warts in primary care: randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bruggink, Sjoerd C.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Zaaijer, Krista; Assendelft, Willem J.J.; de Waal, Margot W.M.; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; Koes, Bart W.; Eekhof, Just A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cryotherapy is widely used for the treatment of cutaneous warts in primary care. However, evidence favours salicylic acid application. We compared the effectiveness of these treatments as well as a wait-and-see approach. Methods Consecutive patients with new cutaneous warts were recruited in 30 primary care practices in the Netherlands between May 1, 2006, and Jan. 26, 2007. We randomly allocated eligible patients to one of three groups: cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen every two weeks, self-application of salicylic acid daily or a wait-and-see approach. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants whose warts were all cured at 13 weeks. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes included treatment adherence, side effects and treatment satisfaction. Research nurses assessed outcomes during home visits at 4, 13 and 26 weeks. Results Of the 250 participants (age 4 to 79 years), 240 were included in the analysis at 13 weeks (loss to follow-up 4%). Cure rates were 39% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29%–51%) in the cryotherapy group, 24% (95% CI 16%–35%) in the salicylic acid group and 16% (95% CI 9.5%–25%) in the wait-and-see group. Differences in effectiveness were most pronounced among participants with common warts (n = 116): cure rates were 49% (95% CI 34%–64%) in the cryotherapy group, 15% (95% CI 7%–30%) in the salicylic acid group and 8% (95% CI 3%–21%) in the wait-and-see group. Cure rates among the participants with plantar warts (n = 124) did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Interpretation For common warts, cryotherapy was the most effective therapy in primary care. For plantar warts, we found no clinically relevant difference in effectiveness between cryotherapy, topical application of salicylic acid or a wait-and-see approach after 13 weeks. (ClinicalTrial.gov registration no. ISRCTN42730629) PMID:20837684

  7. Combined patch containing salicylic acid and nicotinamide: role of drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Padula, Cristina; Ferretti, Chiara; Nicoli, Sara; Santi, Patrizia

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate a combined patch containing salicylic (SA) acid and nicotinamide (NA), useful for the treatment of mild acne, and to verify their mutual effect on drug permeation and skin retention. The performance of the patch was tested in vitro in permeation experiments using pig ear skin as barrier. To better understand the data obtained from the film, permeation from solutions and isopropyl myristate/water partition coefficient were also determined. The results obtained in the present work suggest a mutual influence of NA and SA on their permeation across the skin from an innovative transdermal film. The partition coefficient obtained when the two molecules were simultaneously present was typically lower than the respective value obtained with NA and SA alone.

  8. Microbial effectors target multiple steps in the salicylic acid production and signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shigeyuki; Han, Xiaowei; Kahmann, Regine

    2015-01-01

    Microbes attempting to colonize plants are recognized through the plant immune surveillance system. This leads to a complex array of global as well as specific defense responses, which are often associated with plant cell death and subsequent arrest of the invader. The responses also entail complex changes in phytohormone signaling pathways. Among these, salicylic acid (SA) signaling is an important pathway because of its ability to trigger plant cell death. As biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens need to invade living plant tissue to cause disease, they have evolved efficient strategies to downregulate SA signaling by virulence effectors, which can be proteins or secondary metabolites. Here we review the strategies prokaryotic pathogens have developed to target SA biosynthesis and signaling, and contrast this with recent insights into how plant pathogenic eukaryotic fungi and oomycetes accomplish the same goal. PMID:26042138

  9. Determination of salicylic acid in human serum with capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Goto, Y; Makino, K; Kataoka, Y; Shuto, H; Oishi, R

    1998-03-20

    The determination of salicylic acid (SA), a metabolite of aspirin, in human serum was developed using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with diode array detection. The reproducibility of separation and quantification with CZE analysis of the extract of SA from human serum was appropriate for the intra- and inter-day assay coefficients. A high correlation was revealed between the serum SA levels in volunteers determined by CZE and those determined by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (r=0.973, n = 12), although the former values were slightly higher than the latter. There were no peaks interfering with the assay of SA by internal standard method. This CZE method could provide a simple and efficient method for monitoring SA in patients.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiromu; Takashima, Yuya; Ishiguri, Futoshi; Yoshizawa, Nobuo; Yokota, Shinso

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1) infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA)-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were identified using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and the sequence tag method. These proteins were malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, diaminopimalate decarboxylase, arginase, chorismate mutase, cyclophilin, aminopeptidase, and unknown function proteins. These proteins are considered to be involved in SAR-establishment mechanisms in the Japanese birch plantlet No 8. PMID:28250384

  11. Determination of hydroxyl radicals with salicylic acid in aqueous nitrate and nitrite solutions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Zhan, Man-jun; Kong, Ling-ren; Wang, Lian-sheng

    2004-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analyses of reactive oxygen species are essential to determine their steady-state concentration and related reaction mechanisms in environmental aquatic systems. In this study, salicylic acid was employed as an innovative molecular probe of hydroxyl radical(OH) generated in aqueous nitrate and nitrite solutions through photochemical reactions. Kinetic studies showed that the steady-state concentrations of OH in aqueous NO3- (10 mmol/L, pH = 5) and NO2- (10 mmol/L, pH = 5) solutions under ultraviolet irradiation were at a same magnitude, 10(-15) mol/L. Apparent quantum yields of OH at 313 nm were measured as 0.011 and 0.07 for NO3- and NO2- respectively, all comparable to the results of previous studies.

  12. Root-fed salicylic acid in grape involves the response caused by aboveground high temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Tao; Liu, Yue-Ping; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2008-06-01

    In order to investigate the transportation and distribution of salicylic acid (SA) from root to aboveground tissues in response to high temperature, the roots of grape plant were fed with (14)C-SA before high temperature treatment. Radioactivity results showed that progressive increase in SA transportation from root to aboveground as compared with the control varied exactly with the heat treatment time. Radioactivity results of leaves at different stem heights indicated that the increase in SA amount at the top and middle leaves during the early period was most significant in comparison with the bottom leaves. The up-transportation of SA from root to aboveground tissues was dependent on xylem rather than phloem. Auto-radiographs of whole grape plants strongly approved the conclusions drawn above. Root-derived SA was believed to be a fundamental source in response to aboveground high temperature.

  13. Regulation of water, salinity, and cold stress responses by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kenji; Tada, Yasuomi

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a naturally occurring phenolic compound. SA plays an important role in the regulation of plant growth, development, ripening, and defense responses. The role of SA in the plant-pathogen relationship has been extensively investigated. In addition to defense responses, SA plays an important role in the response to abiotic stresses, including drought, low temperature, and salinity stresses. It has been suggested that SA has great agronomic potential to improve the stress tolerance of agriculturally important crops. However, the utility of SA is dependent on the concentration of the applied SA, the mode of application, and the state of the plants (e.g., developmental stage and acclimation). Generally, low concentrations of applied SA alleviate the sensitivity to abiotic stresses, and high concentrations of applied induce high levels of oxidative stress, leading to a decreased tolerance to abiotic stresses. In this article, the effects of SA on the water stress responses and regulation of stomatal closure are reviewed.

  14. Efficacy of Myrtus communis L. and Descurainia sophia L. Versus Salicylic Acid for Wart Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ghadami Yazdi, Elham; Minaei, Mohamad Bagher; Hashem Dabaghian, Fataneh; Ebrahim Zadeh Ardakani, Mohamad; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Rastegari, Mohamad; Ghadami Yazdi, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Wart is a skin disease with circular appendages, which is called "suloul" in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). According to ITM literature, warts have different types and causes. The most important mechanism is excretion of materials (Khelt) from body to skin and mucus; its causative material is often phlegm, black bile or a combination of them. To treat warts, it is necessary to consider the patient's life style, modify his dietary intake and moisturize his temperament. This study aimed to compare Myrtus communis L. and Descurainia sophia L. as a method of ITM, versus salicylic acid in treatment of wart. In this study, conducted in Yazd, Iran, 100 patients were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Group 1) salicylic acid, group 2) salicylic acid and D. sophia L. group 3) M. communis L. group 4) M. communis L. and D. sophia L. Numbers, sizes of lesions and symptoms, on days 0, 20, 40 and 90 were examined and analyzed. The relapse rate was investigated three months after. Changes of sizes and numbers of warts in each period of time in each group, compared to baseline, were assessed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. To compare these changes between the groups, Kruskal Wallis test was used. In this study 100 patients participated, 69% of which were female. Compared to baseline, mean ± SD of changes for the number of warts in day 40 were 1.12 ± 4.2, 0.96 ± 2.5, 1.32 ± 5.1 and 0.04 ± 0.2 respectively in the four groups (P = 0.02). Mean ± SD of changes for the number of warts in day 90 were 1.84 ± 4.5, 1.56 ± 2.8, 1.24 ± 5.1 and 0.04 ± 0.6 respectively in the four groups (P = 0.03). In addition mean ± SD of changes for the size of warts in day 40 were 0.96 ± 1.8, 1.03 ± 2.4, 2.47 ± 3.0 and 0.45 ± 1.7 respectively in the four groups (P < 0.001). Mean ± SD of changes for the size of warts in day 90 were 1.24 ± 2.1, 1.3 ± 2.3, 2.45 ± 3.1 and 0.45 ± 1.7 respectively in the four groups (P < 0.001). Relapse was not seen in any groups after three

  15. Efficacy of Myrtus communis L. and Descurainia sophia L. Versus Salicylic Acid for Wart Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ghadami Yazdi, Elham; Minaei, Mohamad Bagher; Hashem Dabaghian, Fataneh; Ebrahim Zadeh Ardakani, Mohamad; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Rastegari, Mohamad; Ghadami Yazdi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wart is a skin disease with circular appendages, which is called “suloul” in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). According to ITM literature, warts have different types and causes. The most important mechanism is excretion of materials (Khelt) from body to skin and mucus; its causative material is often phlegm, black bile or a combination of them. To treat warts, it is necessary to consider the patient’s life style, modify his dietary intake and moisturize his temperament. Objectives: This study aimed to compare Myrtus communis L. and Descurainia sophia L. as a method of ITM, versus salicylic acid in treatment of wart. Patients and Methods: In this study, conducted in Yazd, Iran, 100 patients were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Group 1) salicylic acid, group 2) salicylic acid and D. sophia L. group 3) M. communis L. group 4) M. communis L. and D. sophia L. Numbers, sizes of lesions and symptoms, on days 0, 20, 40 and 90 were examined and analyzed. The relapse rate was investigated three months after. Changes of sizes and numbers of warts in each period of time in each group, compared to baseline, were assessed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. To compare these changes between the groups, Kruskal Wallis test was used. Results: In this study 100 patients participated, 69% of which were female. Compared to baseline, mean ± SD of changes for the number of warts in day 40 were 1.12 ± 4.2, 0.96 ± 2.5, 1.32 ± 5.1 and 0.04 ± 0.2 respectively in the four groups (P = 0.02). Mean ± SD of changes for the number of warts in day 90 were 1.84 ± 4.5, 1.56 ± 2.8, 1.24 ± 5.1 and 0.04 ± 0.6 respectively in the four groups (P = 0.03). In addition mean ± SD of changes for the size of warts in day 40 were 0.96 ± 1.8, 1.03 ± 2.4, 2.47 ± 3.0 and 0.45 ± 1.7 respectively in the four groups (P < 0.001). Mean ± SD of changes for the size of warts in day 90 were 1.24 ± 2.1, 1.3 ± 2.3, 2.45 ± 3.1 and 0.45 ± 1.7 respectively in the four groups

  16. Fluorescence characteristics of 5-amino salicylic acid: An iodide recognition study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Priyanka; Suyal, Kanchan; Joshi, Neeraj K.; Joshi, Hem Chandra; Pant, Sanjay

    In this paper we report the effect of iodide on the fluorescence of 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA). In the absence of iodide, prominent blue green (BG) emission band at ˜465 nm (broad) is observed in aprotic solvents whereas violet (V) emission at ˜408 nm, blue green (BG) at ˜480 nm and green (G) at ˜500 nm are observed in case of protic solvents. On the addition of iodide ion (I-), the intensity of BG fluorescence is enhanced in case of aprotic solvents. On the other hand the G band is enhanced in protic solvents and decrease in the intensity of the V band is observed. The effect of hydrogen bonding as well as the interplay of neutral and ionic species is invoked to explain the observed results. The study projects the application of this system in iodide recognition in protic/aprotic environments.

  17. Fluorescence characteristics of 5-amino salicylic acid: An iodide recognition study.

    PubMed

    Arora, Priyanka; Suyal, Kanchan; Joshi, Neeraj K; Joshi, Hem Chandra; Pant, Sanjay

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we report the effect of iodide on the fluorescence of 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA). In the absence of iodide, prominent blue green (BG) emission band at ∼465nm (broad) is observed in aprotic solvents whereas violet (V) emission at ∼408nm, blue green (BG) at ∼480nm and green (G) at ∼500nm are observed in case of protic solvents. On the addition of iodide ion (I(-)), the intensity of BG fluorescence is enhanced in case of aprotic solvents. On the other hand the G band is enhanced in protic solvents and decrease in the intensity of the V band is observed. The effect of hydrogen bonding as well as the interplay of neutral and ionic species is invoked to explain the observed results. The study projects the application of this system in iodide recognition in protic/aprotic environments.

  18. Spectroscopic studies of solid-state forms of donepezil free base and salt forms with various salicylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittain, Harry G.

    2014-12-01

    The polymorphic forms of donepezil free base have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. None of the free base crystal forms was observed to exhibit detectable fluorescence in the solid state under ambient conditions. Crystalline salt products were obtained by the reaction of donepezil with salicylic and methyl-substituted salicylic acids, with the salicylate and 4-methylsalicylate salts being obtained as non-solvated products, and the 3-methylsalicylate and 5-methylsalicylate salts being obtained as methanol solvated products. The intensity of solid-state fluorescence from donepezil salicylate and donepezil 4-methylsalicylate was found to be reduced relative to the fluorescence intensity of the corresponding free acids, while the solid-state fluorescence intensity of donepezil 3-methylsalicylate methanolate and donepezil 5-methylsalicylate methanolate was greatly increased relative to the fluorescence intensity of the corresponding free acids. Desolvation of the solvated salt products led to formation of glassy solids that exhibited strong green fluorescence.

  19. Enhanced degradation of Herbicide Isoproturon in wheat rhizosphere by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shuang; Miao, Shan Shan; Jiang, Chen; Huang, Meng Tian; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-14

    This study investigated the herbicide isoproturon (IPU) residues in soil, where wheat was cultivated and sprayed with salicylic acid (SA). Provision of SA led to a lower level of IPU residues in rhizosphere soil compared to IPU treatment alone. Root exudation of tartaric acid, malic acid, and oxalic acids was enhanced in rhizosphere soil with SA-treated wheat. We examined the microbial population (e.g., biomass and phospholipid fatty acid), microbial structure, and soil enzyme (catalase, phenol oxidase, and dehydrogenase) activities, all of which are associated with soil activity and were activated in rhizosphere soil of SA-treated wheat roots. We further assessed the correlation matrix and principal component to figure out the association between the IPU degradation and soil activity. Finally, six IPU degraded products (derivatives) in rhizosphere soil were characterized using ultraperformance liquid chromatography with a quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS). A relatively higher level of IPU derivatives was identified in soil with SA-treated wheat than in soil without SA-treated wheat plants.

  20. Salicylic acid for the treatment of melasma: new acquisitions for monitoring the clinical improvement.

    PubMed

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella; De Vita, Valerio; Marasca, Claudio; Palmisano, Franco; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    The Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) and the Melasma Severity Score (MSS) are calculated on the basis of only a subjective clinical assessment. This raises the need to have an objective score, uniform in the evaluation by different clinicians. The purpose of this study was to establish if the images by Canfield Reveal Imager can be correlated to MASI score to better evaluate the clinical efficacy of salicylic acid 33% peeling in the treatment of melasma respect to the clinical observation. The study was a voluntary observational study. Twenty female patients affected with melasma, aged between 30 and 60 years, were included in the study. Treatment with salicylic acid 33% was performed once a month, for a total of four times. The dermatologist (Doc A) examined each patient's melasma areas using MASI score, at the face-to-face observation and at Reveal images evaluation during the first (T0) and the end point time (T4). Digital photographs were also evaluated by another experienced dermatologist (Doc B), who has never seen clinically the patients before and who evaluated MASI score by Reveal images at time T0 and T4. Student's t-test and linear regression test were performed, showing statistically significant values comparing MASI score obtained by digital photo and MASI score obtained clinically. The monitoring of the improvement by Reveal images can optimize the treatment approach and the efficacy of same dermocosmetics procedures can be revised following standard criteria. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Preharvest salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid treatments preserve quality and enhance antioxidant systems during postharvest storage of sweet cherry cultivars.

    PubMed

    Giménez, M José; Serrano, María; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Castillo, Salvador; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián

    2017-03-01

    Sweet cherries are much appreciated by consumers as a result of their organoleptic quality attributes and antioxidant properties, although they deteriorate rapidly after harvest. Different preharvest strategies have been carried out to increase their quality at the time of harvest. We present data regarding the effect of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) treatments on sweet cherry quality during postharvest storage. At harvest and during postharvest storage, sweet cherry fruits ('Sweet Heart', 'Sweet Late' and 'Lapins') from SA (0.5 mmol L(-1) ) and ASA (1 mmol L(-1) ) treated trees had a higher colour (lower chroma index), firmness, total soluble solids, total phenolics, total anthocyanins and hydrophilic total antioxidant activity. In addition, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase was also enhanced in SA- and ASA-treated cherries. Both SA and ASA preharvest treatments could be promising tools for improving sweet cherry quality at harvest and after storage, with an additional effect on delaying the postharvest ripening process by increasing the levels of antioxidant compounds and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Bacteria-Triggered Systemic Immunity in Barley Is Associated with WRKY and ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTORs But Not with Salicylic Acid1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Sanjukta; Wenig, Marion; Langen, Gregor; Sharma, Sapna; Kugler, Karl G.; Knappe, Claudia; Hause, Bettina; Bichlmeier, Marlies; Babaeizad, Valiollah; Imani, Jafargholi; Janzik, Ingar; Stempfl, Thomas; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Mayer, Klaus F.X.

    2014-01-01

    Leaf-to-leaf systemic immune signaling known as systemic acquired resistance is poorly understood in monocotyledonous plants. Here, we characterize systemic immunity in barley (Hordeum vulgare) triggered after primary leaf infection with either Pseudomonas syringae pathovar japonica (Psj) or Xanthomonas translucens pathovar cerealis (Xtc). Both pathogens induced resistance in systemic, uninfected leaves against a subsequent challenge infection with Xtc. In contrast to systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), systemic immunity in barley was not associated with NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 or the local or systemic accumulation of salicylic acid. Instead, we documented a moderate local but not systemic induction of abscisic acid after infection of leaves with Psj. In contrast to salicylic acid or its functional analog benzothiadiazole, local applications of the jasmonic acid methyl ester or abscisic acid triggered systemic immunity to Xtc. RNA sequencing analysis of local and systemic transcript accumulation revealed unique gene expression changes in response to both Psj and Xtc and a clear separation of local from systemic responses. The systemic response appeared relatively modest, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction associated systemic immunity with the local and systemic induction of two WRKY and two ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR (ERF)-like transcription factors. Systemic immunity against Xtc was further associated with transcriptional changes after a secondary/systemic Xtc challenge infection; these changes were dependent on the primary treatment. Taken together, bacteria-induced systemic immunity in barley may be mediated in part by WRKY and ERF-like transcription factors, possibly facilitating transcriptional reprogramming to potentiate immunity. PMID:25332505

  3. Complexation efficiency of differently fixed 8-hydroxyquinoline and salicylic acid ligand groups for labile aluminium species determination in soils--comparison of two methods.

    PubMed

    Matús, Peter; Kubová, Jana

    2006-07-28

    Two methods utilizing the complexation of labile Al species by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQN) and salicylic acid (SA) ligand groups were developed for aluminium operationally defined fractionation in acid soils. First, the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure by a short-term ion-exchange batch reaction with chelating resins Iontosorb Oxin and Iontosorb Salicyl containing both ligand groups was used previously. Second, the 8-hydroxyquinoline, salicylic acid and ammonium salicylate agents with different concentrations by a single extraction protocol were applied in this paper. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma were used for aluminium quantification. The comparison of results from both methods show the possibility to supersede the first laborious method for the second simpler one in Al environmental risk assessment. The use of 1% 8-hydroxyquinoline in 2% acetic acid and 0.2% salicylic acid by a single extraction protocol without a need of sample filtration can supersede the SPE procedure in the Al pollution soil monitoring. Finally, the new scheme usable in a laboratory and moreover, directly in a field was proposed for Al fractionation in solid and liquid environmental samples. The labile Al species in soils and sediments are separated after their single leaching by 8-hydroxyquinoline or salicylic acid without a need of sample filtration. The labile Al species in soil solutions and natural waters are separated after their ultrafiltration followed by the SPE procedure with Iontosorb Oxin or Iontosorb Salicyl.

  4. Research on the adsorption property of supported ionic liquids for ferulic acid, caffeic acid and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Du, Ni; Cao, Shuwen; Yu, Yanying

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, the preparation of new supported ionic liquids (SILs) composed of the N-methylimidazolium cation and the quinoline cation is described. They have been confirmed and evaluated by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Six kinds of different SILs included SiO(2)·Im(+)·Cl(-), SiO(2)·Im(+)·BF(4)(-), SiO(2)·Im(+)·PF(6)(-), SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-), SiO(2)·Qu(+)·BF(4)(-) and SiO(2)·Qu(+)·PF(6)(-). The adsorption characteristics of ferulic acid (FA), caffeic acid (CA) and salicylic acid (SA) on SILs were investigated by static adsorption experiments. It was found that SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) had excellent adsorption and desorption capacity to three tested phenolic compounds. The dynamic adsorption characteristics of FA, CA and SA on SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) were also studied. The saturated adsorption capacity of FA, CA and SA using SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) as adsorbent was 64.6 mg/g, 53.2 mg/g and 72.2 mg/g respectively. Using 70% ethanol as eluent, the saturated desorption efficiencies of FA, CA and SA were 97.2%, 90.3% and 96.5% respectively. Thus, SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) had strong adsorption and separation capacity for FA, CA and SA.

  5. Early membrane events induced by salicylic acid in motor cells of the Mimosa pudica pulvinus.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Saed; Rocher, Françoise; Bonmort, Janine; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Roblin, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Salicylic acid (o-hydroxy benzoic acid) (SA) induced a rapid dose-dependent membrane hyperpolarization (within seconds) and a modification of the proton secretion (within minutes) of Mimosa pudica pulvinar cells at concentrations higher than 0.1mM. Observations on plasma membrane vesicles isolated from pulvinar tissues showed that SA acted directly at the membrane level through a protonophore action as suggested by the inhibition of the proton gradient and the lack of effect on H(+)-ATPase catalytic activity. Comparative data obtained with protonophores (carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and inhibitors of ATPases (vanadate, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and diethylstilbestrol) corroborated this conclusion. Consequently, the collapse of the proton motive force led to an impairment in membrane functioning. This impairment is illustrated by the inhibition of the ion-driven turgor-mediated seismonastic reaction of the pulvinus following SA treatment. SA acted in a specific manner as its biosynthetic precursor benzoic acid induced much milder effects and the m- and p-OH benzoic acid derivatives did not trigger similar characteristic effects. Therefore, SA may be considered both a membrane signal molecule and a metabolic effector following its uptake in the cells.

  6. Exogenous salicylic acid protects phospholipids against cadmium stress in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    PubMed

    Belkadhi, Aïcha; De Haro, Antonio; Obregon, Sara; Chaïbi, Wided; Djebali, Wahbi

    2015-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) promotes plant defense responses against toxic metal stresses. The present study addressed the hypothesis that 8-h SA pretreatment, would alter membrane lipids in a way that would protect against Cd toxicity. Flax seeds were pre-soaked for 8h in SA (0, 250 and 1000µM) and then subjected, at seedling stage, to cadmium (Cd) stress. At 100µM CdCl2, significant decreases in the percentages of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and changes in their relative fatty acid composition were observed in Cd-treated roots in comparison with controls. However, in roots of 8-h SA pretreated plantlets, results showed that the amounts of PC and PE were significantly higher as compared to non-pretreated plantlets. Additionally, in both lipid classes, the proportion of linolenic acid (18:3) increased upon the pretreatment with SA. This resulted in a significant increase in the fatty acid unsaturation ratio of the root PC and PE classes. As the exogenous application of SA was found to be protective of flax lipid metabolism, the possible mechanisms of protection against Cd stress in flax roots were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Anodic oxidation of salicylic acid on BDD electrode: variable effects and mechanisms of degradation.

    PubMed

    Rabaaoui, Nejmeddine; Allagui, Mohamed Salah

    2012-12-01

    The degradation of 100mL of solution with salicylic acid (SA) in the pH range 3.0-10.0 has been studied by anodic oxidation in a cell with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a stainless steel cathode, both of 3 cm(2) area, by applying a current of 100, 300 and 450 mA at 25°C. Completed mineralization is always achieved due to the great concentration of hydroxyl radical (OH) generated at the BDD surface. The mineralization rate increases with increasing applied current, but decreases when drug concentration rises from 200 mg L(-1). Nevertheless, the pH effect was not significant. During oxidation it was observed that catechol, 2,5-dihydroxylated benzoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxylated benzoic acid and hydroquinone were formed as aromatic intermediates. In addition, ion-exclusion chromatography allowed the detection of fumaric, maleic, oxalic and formic as the ultimate carboxylic acid. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis genes encoding salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-related proteins confers partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in transgenic soybean roots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background. Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) an...

  9. Pathogen-induced systemic activation of a plant defensin gene in Arabidopsis follows a salicylic acid-independent pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Penninckx, I A; Eggermont, K; Terras, F R; Thomma, B P; De Samblanx, G W; Buchala, A; Métraux, J P; Manners, J M; Broekaert, W F

    1996-01-01

    A 5-kD plant defensin was purified from Arabidopsis leaves challenged with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola and shown to possess antifungal properties in vitro. The corresponding plant defensin gene was induced after treatment of leaves with methyl jasmonate or ethylene but not with salicylic acid or 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid. When challenged with A. brassicicola, the levels of the plant defensin protein and mRNA rose both in inoculated leaves and in nontreated leaves of inoculated plants (systemic leaves). These events coincided with an increase in the endogenous jasmonic acid content of both types of leaves. Systemic pathogen-induced expression of the plant defensin gene was unaffected in Arabidopsis transformants (nahG) or mutants (npr1 and cpr1) affected in the salicylic acid response but was strongly reduced in the Arabidopsis mutants eln2 and col1 that are blocked in their response to ethylene and methyl jasmonate, respectively. Our results indicate that systemic pathogen-induced expression of the plant defensin gene in Arabidopsis is independent of salicylic acid but requires components of the ethylene and jasmonic acid response. PMID:8989885

  10. Interaction of plant cell signaling molecules, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, with the mitochondria of Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Akbar, S M D; Sharma, H C; Jayalakshmi, S K; Sreeramulu, K

    2012-02-01

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera is a polyphagous pest in Asia, Africa, and the Mediterranean Europe. Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are the cell signaling molecules produced in response to insect attack in plants. The effect of these signaling molecules was investigated on the oxidative phosphorylation and oxidative stress of H. armigera. SA significantly inhibited the state III and state IV respiration, respiratory control index (RCI), respiratory complexes I and II, induced mitochondrial swelling, and cytochrome c release in vitro. Under in vivo conditions, SA induced state IV respiration as well as oxidative stress in time- and dose-dependent manner, and also inhibited the larval growth. In contrast, JA did not affect the mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress. SA affected the growth and development of H. armigera, in addition to its function as signaling molecules involved in both local defense reactions at feeding sites and the induction of systemic acquired resistance in plants.

  11. Salicylic acid induced changes on some physiological parameters symptomatic for oxidative stress and mineral nutrition in maize (Zea mays L.) grown under salinity.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Aydin; Inal, Ali; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Eraslan, Figen; Bagci, Esra Guneri; Cicek, Nuray

    2007-06-01

    It has been proposed that salicylic acid (SA) acts as an endogenous signal molecule responsible for inducing abiotic stress tolerance in plants. The effect of varying salicylic acid (SA) supply (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mM) on growth, mineral uptake, membrane permeability, lipid peroxidation, H(2)O(2) concentration, UV-absorbing substances, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations of NaCl (40 mM) stressed maize (Zea mays L.) was investigated. Exogenously applied SA increased plant growth significantly both in saline and non-saline conditions. As a consequence of salinity stress, lipid peroxidation, measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and membrane permeability was decreased by SA. UV-absorbing substances (UVAS) and H(2)O(2) concentration were increased by increasing levels of SA. SA also strongly inhibited Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulation, but stimulated N, Mg, Fe, Mn and Cu concentrations of salt stressed maize plants. These results suggest that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator to improve plant salinity stress resistance.

  12. Comparison of polyamine metabolism in tomato plants exposed to different concentrations of salicylic acid under light or dark conditions.

    PubMed

    Takács, Zoltán; Poór, Péter; Tari, Irma

    2016-11-01

    In this study the effect of exogenous 0.1 mM and 1 mM salicylic acid (SA) treatments were investigated on polyamine (PA) metabolism in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Ailsa Craig) leaves in illuminated or dark environments. The former proved to be sublethal and the latter lethal concentration for tomato leaf tissues. While PA biosynthetic genes, arginine- and ornitine decarboxylases or spermidine- and spermine synthases were highly up-regulated by 1 mM SA, the enzymes participating in PA catabolism, diamine- (DAOs, EC 1.4.3.6) and polyamine oxidases (PAOs, EC 1.5.3.3) displayed higher transcript abundance and enzyme activity at 0.1 mM SA. As a result, putrescine and spermine content but not that of spermidine increased after 1 mM SA application, which proved to be higher in the dark than in the light. H2O2 content produced on the effect of 1 mM SA was significantly higher than at 0.1 mM SA in the light. Since there was no coincidence between H2O2 accumulation and terminal PA catabolism, reactive oxygen species produced by photosynthesis and by other sources had more pronounced effect on H2O2 generation at tissue level than DAOs and PAOs. Accordingly, H2O2 in the absence of NO accumulation contributed to the initiation of defence reactions after 0.1 mM SA treatment, while high SA concentration generated simultaneous increase in H2O2 and NO production in the light, which induced cell death within 24 h in illuminated leaves. However, the appearance of necrotic lesions was delayed in the absence of NO if these plants were kept in darkness.

  13. Localization, conjugation, and function of salicylic acid in tobacco during the hypersensitive reaction to tobacco mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Enyedi, A J; Yalpani, N; Silverman, P; Raskin, I

    1992-03-15

    Salicylic acid (SA) is hypothesized to be a natural signal that triggers the systemic induction of pathogenesis-related proteins and disease resistance in tobacco. When Xanthi-nc (NN genotype) tobacco was inoculated with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) there was an increase in endogenous SA in both inoculated and virus-free leaves. The highest levels of SA were detected in and around necrotic lesions that formed in response to TMV. Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis of extracts from TMV-inoculated leaves demonstrated the presence of a SA conjugate tentatively identified as O-beta-D-glucosyl-SA. The SA conjugate was detected only in leaves that contained necrotic lesions and was not detected in phloem exudates or uninoculated leaves of TMV-inoculated Xanthi-nc tobacco. When exogenous SA was fed to excised tobacco leaves, it was metabolized within 10 hr. However, this reduction in free SA did not prevent the subsequent accumulation of the PR-1 family of pathogenesis-related proteins. The absence of SA accumulation in TMV-inoculated tobacco plants incubated at 32 degrees C was not a result of the glucosylation of SA. The addition of SA to the medium elevated levels of SA in the leaves of virus-free tobacco grown hydroponically. Increasing the endogenous level of SA in leaves to those naturally observed during systemic acquired resistance resulted in increased resistance to TMV, expressed as a reduction in lesion area. These data further support the hypothesis that SA is a likely natural inducer of pathogenesis-related proteins and systemic acquired resistance in TMV-inoculated Xanthi-nc tobacco.

  14. Salicylic Acid, a Plant Defense Hormone, Is Specifically Secreted by a Molluscan Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Kästner, Julia; von Knorre, Dietrich; Himanshu, Himanshu; Erb, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T.; Meldau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Slugs and snails are important herbivores in many ecosystems. They differ from other herbivores by their characteristic mucus trail. As the mucus is secreted at the interface between the plants and the herbivores, its chemical composition may play an essential role in plant responses to slug and snail attack. Based on our current knowledge about host-manipulation strategies employed by pathogens and insects, we hypothesized that mollusks may excrete phytohormone-like substances into their mucus. We therefore screened locomotion mucus from thirteen molluscan herbivores for the presence of the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). We found that the locomotion mucus of one slug, Deroceras reticulatum, contained significant amounts of SA, a plant hormone that is known to induce resistance to pathogens and to suppress plant immunity against herbivores. None of the other slugs and snails contained SA or any other hormone in their locomotion mucus. When the mucus of D. reticulatum was applied to wounded leaves of A. thaliana, the promotor of the SA-responsive gene pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) was activated, demonstrating the potential of the mucus to regulate plant defenses. We discuss the potential ecological, agricultural and medical implications of this finding. PMID:24466122

  15. Salicylic Acid induces cyanide-resistant respiration in tobacco cell-suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Kapulnik, Y; Yalpani, N; Raskin, I

    1992-12-01

    Cyanide-resistant, alternative respiration in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc was analyzed in liquid suspension cultures using O(2) uptake and calorimetric measurements. In young cultures (4-8 d after transfer), cyanide inhibited O(2) uptake by up to 40% as compared to controls. Application of 20 mum salicylic acid (SA) to young cells increased cyanide-resistant O(2) uptake within 2 h. Development of KCN resistance did not affect total O(2) uptake, but was accompanied by a 60% increase in the rate of heat evolution from cells as measured by calorimetry. This stimulation of heat evolution by SA was not significantly affected by 1 mm cyanide, but was reduced by 10 mm salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), an inhibitor of cyanide-resistant respiration. Treatment of SA-induced or uninduced cells with a combination of cyanide and SHAM blocked most of the O(2) consumption and heat evolution. Fifty percent of the applied SA was taken up within 10 min, with most of the intracellular SA metabolized in 2 h. 2,6-Dihydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids also induced cyanide-resistant respiration. These data indicate that in tobacco cell-suspension culture, SA induces the activity and the capacity of cyanide-resistant respiration without affecting the capacity of the cytochrome c respiration pathway.

  16. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on postharvest quality, antioxidant activities, and free polyamines of asparagus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yunxiao; Liu, Zhenfeng; Su, Yujing; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2011-03-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the quality and antioxidant activity of asparagus stored at 18 ± 2 °C were investigated by analyzing the color, chlorophyll, shear force, and the activity of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and polyamines (PAs). The results showed that SA improved the color and maintained the chlorophyll, phenolic, flavonoid, and ascorbic acid content of asparagus. High concentrations of SA caused a deterioration in asparagus would harm to color and had no effect on shear force within 6 d. SA induced the maximum concentration of phenolics in postharvest asparagus, promoted the increase in total flavonoids before 6 to 9 d, affected the antioxidant activity positively as indicated by the resultant increase in FRAP concentration; however, SA was only active with regard to DPPH scavenging activity within 6 d of treatment. Spermidine (Spd) is the most common form of PA in asparagus, and free putrescine (Put) contents increased over the first 3 d following harvest and then decreased. Spd and Spm concentrations evolved in a similar way and decreased during storage. Higher Spd and Spm contents in the SA pre-treatment Put was inhabited and its peaks appeared later.

  17. Safety in use of cryotherapy and topical salicylic acid with lactic acid combination in treating verruca vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Alam, M; Khondker, L; Ahamed, R S

    2012-10-01

    An interventional study in the treatment of verruca vulgaris was conducted in sixty patients. This study conducted in the out-patient Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh for duration of eight months (From January 2009 to September 2009). Thirty patients treated with cryotherapy, belonged to Group C and rest thirty patients treated with topical salicylic acid with lactic acid, belonged to Group D. The result showed that the highest side effects immediately after therapy for Group C was burning 30(100%), then irritation 29(96.7%), erythema 28(93.7%), blister formation 28(93.7%) and pain 23(76.7%). On the other hand, highest side effect for Group D is irritation 29(96.7%), then burning 22(73.3%), pain 11(36.7%), pruritus 06(20%), blister formation 04(13%) and erythema 01(3.3%). Statistical significant difference was observed between Group C & Group D patients other than irritation. At 2nd visit, erythema 26(86.7%) was evidenced for Group C, whereas in Group D, there was irritation 16(53.3%). After 3rd visit in 4th week for Group C patients, there was burning 13(43.3%) but in Group D patients, hypo-pigmentation 13(43.3%) was evidenced. On 4th visit in 6th week, hypo-pigmentation 09(30%) was seen in Group C, while in Group D, pruritus and irritation were found. Statistical significant difference was observed between Group C & Group D respondents. Both treatments were associated with side-effects but these were higher with cryotherapy. The study recommends the combination of topical salicylic acid with lactic acid is safer than cryotherapy.

  18. TMV-Cg Coat Protein stabilizes DELLA proteins and in turn negatively modulates salicylic acid-mediated defense pathway during Arabidopsis thaliana viral infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant viral infections disturb defense regulatory networks during tissue invasion. Emerging evidence demonstrates that a significant proportion of these alterations are mediated by hormone imbalances. Although the DELLA proteins have been reported to be central players in hormone cross-talk, their role in the modulation of hormone signaling during virus infections remains unknown. Results This work revealed that TMV-Cg coat protein (CgCP) suppresses the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway without altering defense hormone SA or jasmonic acid (JA) levels in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, it was observed that the expression of CgCP reduces plant growth and delays the timing of floral transition. Quantitative RT-qPCR analysis of DELLA target genes showed that CgCP alters relative expression of several target genes, indicating that the DELLA proteins mediate transcriptional changes produced by CgCP expression. Analyses by fluorescence confocal microscopy showed that CgCP stabilizes DELLA proteins accumulation in the presence of gibberellic acid (GA) and that the DELLA proteins are also stabilized during TMV-Cg virus infections. Moreover, DELLA proteins negatively modulated defense transcript profiles during TMV-Cg infection. As a result, TMV-Cg accumulation was significantly reduced in the quadruple-DELLA mutant Arabidopsis plants compared to wild type plants. Conclusions Taken together, these results demonstrate that CgCP negatively regulates the salicylic acid-mediated defense pathway by stabilizing the DELLA proteins during Arabidopsis thaliana viral infection, suggesting that CgCP alters the stability of DELLAs as a mechanism of negative modulation of antiviral defense responses. PMID:25084837

  19. TMV-Cg Coat Protein stabilizes DELLA proteins and in turn negatively modulates salicylic acid-mediated defense pathway during Arabidopsis thaliana viral infection.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Maria Cecilia; Conti, Gabriela; Zavallo, Diego; Manacorda, Carlos Augusto; Asurmendi, Sebastian

    2014-08-03

    Plant viral infections disturb defense regulatory networks during tissue invasion. Emerging evidence demonstrates that a significant proportion of these alterations are mediated by hormone imbalances. Although the DELLA proteins have been reported to be central players in hormone cross-talk, their role in the modulation of hormone signaling during virus infections remains unknown. This work revealed that TMV-Cg coat protein (CgCP) suppresses the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway without altering defense hormone SA or jasmonic acid (JA) levels in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, it was observed that the expression of CgCP reduces plant growth and delays the timing of floral transition. Quantitative RT-qPCR analysis of DELLA target genes showed that CgCP alters relative expression of several target genes, indicating that the DELLA proteins mediate transcriptional changes produced by CgCP expression. Analyses by fluorescence confocal microscopy showed that CgCP stabilizes DELLA proteins accumulation in the presence of gibberellic acid (GA) and that the DELLA proteins are also stabilized during TMV-Cg virus infections. Moreover, DELLA proteins negatively modulated defense transcript profiles during TMV-Cg infection. As a result, TMV-Cg accumulation was significantly reduced in the quadruple-DELLA mutant Arabidopsis plants compared to wild type plants. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CgCP negatively regulates the salicylic acid-mediated defense pathway by stabilizing the DELLA proteins during Arabidopsis thaliana viral infection, suggesting that CgCP alters the stability of DELLAs as a mechanism of negative modulation of antiviral defense responses.

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana GH3.5 acyl acid amido synthetase mediates metabolic crosstalk in auxin and salicylic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Corey S; Sherp, Ashley M; Zubieta, Chloe; Alvarez, Sophie; Schraft, Evelyn; Marcellin, Romain; Ramirez, Loren; Jez, Joseph M

    2016-11-29

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the acyl acid amido synthetase Gretchen Hagen 3.5 (AtGH3.5) conjugates both indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and salicylic acid (SA) to modulate auxin and pathogen response pathways. To understand the molecular basis for the activity of AtGH3.5, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the enzyme in complex with IAA and AMP. Biochemical analysis demonstrates that the substrate preference of AtGH3.5 is wider than originally described and includes the natural auxin phenylacetic acid (PAA) and the potential SA precursor benzoic acid (BA). Residues that determine IAA versus BA substrate preference were identified. The dual functionality of AtGH3.5 is unique to this enzyme although multiple IAA-conjugating GH3 proteins share nearly identical acyl acid binding sites. In planta analysis of IAA, PAA, SA, and BA and their respective aspartyl conjugates were determined in wild-type and overexpressing lines of A thaliana This study suggests that AtGH3.5 conjugates auxins (i.e., IAA and PAA) and benzoates (i.e., SA and BA) to mediate crosstalk between different metabolic pathways, broadening the potential roles for GH3 acyl acid amido synthetases in plants.

  1. Synthesis and activity of the salicylic acid ester of bakuchiol in psoriasis-surrogate keratinocytes and skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Ma, S; Gobis, K; Swindell, W R; Chaudhuri, R; Bojanowski, R; Bojanowski, K

    2017-04-01

    Topical retinoids are effective in retarding skin ageing and restoring homeostasis in skin conditions such as psoriasis. However their adverse effects (AEs), which include irritation (retinoid dermatitis), photosensitivity and teratogenicity, limit their use and patient compliance. Development of retinoid analogues with minimal AEs would allow a broader and more compliant use. To synthesise a novel molecule, bakuchiol salicylate (bakusylan), with a modulatory gene expression profile similar to retinoids, using as reference three prescription retinoids: tretinoin, tazarotene and adapalene. We hypothesized that because bakuchiol salicylate has a structure entirely different from existing retinoids, there would be at least a partial uncoupling of AEs from the skin-normalizing activity of this retinoid. This hypothesis was tested at the transcriptional level in psoriatic cytokine-treated cultures of keratinocytes and organotypic skin substitutes, using DNA microarrays and custom PCR arrays. Evaluation of the gene expression profile of bakuchiol salicylate revealed elimination of several components of the retinoid-like proinflammatory response and teratogenic signature, without a substantial loss of normalizing potential. A possible mechanism of action, consisting of keratinocyte desensitization to psoriatic cytokine signalling through inhibition of the signal transducer and regulator of transcription (STAT)1/3/interferon inflammatory signal transduction axis was also identified. Bipartite materials obtained by merging two skin-active entities with specific, complementary bioactivities, such as bakuchiol and salicylic acid, may yield a new class of functional retinoids. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Salicylic acid-mediated innate immunity in Arabidopsis is regulated by SIZ1 SUMO E3 ligase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyoung; Nam, Jaesung; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Na, Gunnam; Miura, Kenji; Jin, Jing Bo; Yoo, Chan Yul; Baek, Dongwon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Kim, Donggiun; Lee, Sang Yeol; Salt, David E; Mengiste, Tesfaye; Gong, Qingqiu; Ma, Shisong; Bohnert, Hans J; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Bressan, Ray A; Hasegawa, Paul M; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2007-01-01

    Reversible modifications of target proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins are involved in many cellular processes in yeast and animals. Yet little is known about the function of sumoylation in plants. Here, we show that the SIZ1 gene, which encodes an Arabidopsis SUMO E3 ligase, regulates innate immunity. Mutant siz1 plants exhibit constitutive systemic-acquired resistance (SAR) characterized by elevated accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), increased expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, and increased resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Transfer of the NahG gene to siz1 plants results in reversal of these phenotypes back to wild-type. Analyses of the double mutants, npr1 siz1, pad4 siz1 and ndr1 siz1 revealed that SIZ1 controls SA signalling. SIZ1 interacts epistatically with PAD4 to regulate PR expression and disease resistance. Consistent with these observations, siz1 plants exhibited enhanced resistance to Pst DC3000 expressing avrRps4, a bacterial avirulence determinant that responds to the EDS1/PAD4-dependent TIR-NBS-type R gene. In contrast, siz1 plants were not resistant to Pst DC3000 expressing avrRpm1, a bacterial avirulence determinant that responds to the NDR1-dependent CC-NBS-type R gene. Jasmonic acid (JA)-induced PDF1.2 expression and susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea were unaltered in siz1 plants. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SIZ1 is required for SA and PAD4-mediated R gene signalling, which in turn confers innate immunity in Arabidopsis.

  3. Ethylene signaling in salt stress- and salicylic acid-induced programmed cell death in tomato suspension cells.

    PubMed

    Poór, Péter; Kovács, Judit; Szopkó, Dóra; Tari, Irma

    2013-02-01

    Salt stress- and salicylic acid (SA)-induced cell death can be activated by various signaling pathways including ethylene (ET) signaling in intact tomato plants. In tomato suspension cultures, a treatment with 250 mM NaCl increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and ET. The 10(-3) M SA-induced cell death was also accompanied by ROS and NO production, but ET emanation, the most characteristic difference between the two cell death programs, did not change. ET synthesis was enhanced by addition of ET precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, which, after 2 h, increased the ROS production in the case of both stressors and accelerated cell death under salt stress. However, it did not change the viability and NO levels in SA-treated samples. The effect of ET induced by salt stress could be blocked with silver thiosulfate (STS), an inhibitor of ET action. STS reduced the death of cells which is in accordance with the decrease in ROS production of cells exposed to high salinity. Unexpectedly, application of STS together with SA resulted in increasing ROS and reduced NO accumulation which led to a faster cell death. NaCl- and SA-induced cell death was blocked by Ca(2+) chelator EGTA and calmodulin inhibitor W-7, or with the inhibitors of ROS. The inhibitor of MAPKs, PD98059, and the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 reduced cell death in both cases. These results show that NaCl induces cell death mainly by ET-induced ROS production, but ROS generated by SA was not controlled by ET in tomato cell suspension.

  4. Extending shikimate pathway for the production of muconic acid and its precursor salicylic acid in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuheng; Sun, Xinxiao; Yuan, Qipeng; Yan, Yajun

    2014-05-01

    cis,cis-Muconic acid (MA) and salicylic acid (SA) are naturally-occurring organic acids having great commercial value. MA is a potential platform chemical for the manufacture of several widely-used consumer plastics; while SA is mainly used for producing pharmaceuticals (for example, aspirin and lamivudine) and skincare and haircare products. At present, MA and SA are commercially produced by organic chemical synthesis using petro-derived aromatic chemicals, such as benzene, as starting materials, which is not environmentally friendly. Here, we report a novel approach for efficient microbial production of MA via extending shikimate pathway by introducing the hybrid of an SA biosynthetic pathway with its partial degradation pathway. First, we engineered a well-developed phenylalanine producing Escherichia coli strain into an SA overproducer by introducing isochorismate synthase and isochorismate pyruvate lyase. The engineered strain is able to produce 1.2g/L of SA from simple carbon sources, which is the highest titer reported so far. Further, the partial SA degradation pathway involving salicylate 1-monoxygenase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase is established to achieve the conversion of SA to MA. Finally, a de novo MA biosynthetic pathway is assembled by integrating the established SA biosynthesis and degradation modules. Modular optimization enables the production of up to 1.5g/L MA within 48h in shake flasks. This study not only establishes an efficient microbial platform for the production of SA and MA, but also demonstrates a generalizable pathway design strategy for the de novo biosynthesis of valuable degradation metabolites. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Research Advances. Image Pinpoints All 5 Million Atoms in Viral Coat; Bilirubin, "Animals-Only" Pigment, Found in Plants; New Evidence Shows Humans Make Salicylic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Angela G.

    2009-08-01

    Recent "firsts" in chemical research: image of a viral capsid pinpointing 5 million atoms; isolation and identification of an "animal" pigment, bilirubin, from a plant source; evidence that humans make salicylic acid.

  6. Uptake and metabolic effects of salicylic acid on the pulvinar motor cells of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed

    Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Saeedi, Saed; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Roblin, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the salicylic acid (o-hydroxy benzoic acid) (SA) uptake by the pulvinar tissues of Mimosa pudica L. pulvini was shown to be strongly pH-dependent, increasing with acidity of the assay medium. This uptake was performed according to a unique affinity system (K(m) = 5.9 mM, V(m) = 526 pmol mgDW(-1)) in the concentration range of 0.1-5 mM. The uptake rate increased with increasing temperature (5-35 °C) and was inhibited following treatment with sodium azide (NaN3) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), suggesting the involvement of an active component. Treatment with p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS) did not modify the uptake, indicating that external thiol groups were not necessary. KCl, which induced membrane depolarization had no significant effect, and fusicoccin (FC), which hyperpolarized cell membrane, stimulated the uptake, suggesting that the pH component of the proton motive force was likely a driving force. These data suggest that the SA uptake by the pulvinar tissues may be driven by two components: an ion-trap mechanism playing a pivotal role and a putative carrier-mediated mechanism. Unlike other benzoic acid derivatives acting as classical respiration inhibitors (NaN3 and KCN), SA modified the pulvinar cell metabolism by increasing the respiration rate similar to CCCP and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). Furthermore, SA inhibited the osmoregulated seismonastic reaction in a pH dependent manner and induced characteristic damage to the ultrastructural features of the pulvinar motor cells, particularly at the mitochondrial level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and metabolic rates of acetyl salicylic acid and its metabolites in an Otomi ethnic group of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lares-Asseff, Ismael; Juárez-Olguín, Hugo; Flores-Pérez, Janett; Guillé-Pérez, Adrian; Vargas, Arturo

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine pharmacokinetic differences of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and its metabolites: gentisic acid (GA), salicylic acid (SA) and salicyluric acid (SUA) between Otomies and Mesticians healthy subjects. Design. Ten Otomies and 10 Mesticians were included. After a single dose of aspirin given orally (15 mg/kg), blood and urine samples were collected at different times. Results. Pharmacokinetic parameters of salicylates showed significant differences, except distribution volume of SA, and elimination half-life of SUA. Metabolic rates of ASA showed significant differences for all rates between both groups. On the other hand, percentages of dose excreted were more reduced for SA and SUA for the Otomies than for the Mesticians. Conclusion. Results reflect differences in the hydrolysis way i.e. from ASA to SA and aromatic hydroxylation i.e. from SA to GA, which were slower in Otomies subjects, showing a possible pharmacokinetic differences about the capabilities of ASA biotransformation as a consequence of ethnic differences.

  8. Preparation of magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction and analysis of salicylic acid in Actinidia chinensis.

    PubMed

    You, Qing-Ping; Peng, Mi-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Guo, Jun-Fang; Shi, Shu-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Compounds with strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds (e.g., salicylic acid) have weak intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between them and functional monomers in the imprinting process. Consequently, the corresponding molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have no specific adsorption ability. Here, the first magnetic dummy MIPs (MDMIPs) based on benzonic acid as dummy template are successfully developed and evaluated with respect to the applications in selective enrichment and analysis of salicylic acid from complex mixtures. Various parameters affecting absorption/desorption were evaluated for achieving optimal recovery and reducing nonspecific interactions. The prepared MDMIPs showed high adsorption capacity, good selectivity, rapid kinetic binding (40 min) and magnetic separation (5 s), high reproducibility (RSD< 4 % for batch-to-batch evaluation), and stability (only 4 % decrease after 6 cycles). Owing to the efficacy in specific binding and removal of interference, trace level salicylic acid was quantified (0.2 μg/g of fresh mass) in Actinidia chinensis by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  9. Effect of salicylic acid upon trace-metal sorption (Cd, Zn, Co, and Mn) onto alumina, silica, and kaolinite as a function of pH

    SciTech Connect

    Benyahya, L.; Garnier, J.M.

    1999-05-01

    The sorption of four trace metals (Cd, Zn, Co, and Mn) onto alumina, silica, and kaolinite, in the presence or absence of salicylic acid was investigated in batch experiments in the pH range from 4 to 9. The sorption was interpreted in terms of surface complexation using the diffuse layer model (DLM). Equilibrium parameters were optimized using the FITEQL program. The salicylic acid was only significantly sorbed onto the alumina and the sorption was modeled using the anionic monodentate surface complex. In the absence of salicylic acid, the sorption of the trace metals presented different pH edge behaviors, depending on the substrate. Using the cationic monodendate surface complex, the model fitted the experimental data well. In the presence of salicylic acid, at a given pH and depending on the substrate, the sorption of metals was (1) increased, suggesting the occurrence of ternary complexes; (2) reduced (sometimes totally inhibited), due to the complexation with dissolved salicylic acid; or (3) very weakly changed in terms of net effect compared to free-organic-ligand systems. Modeling of the trace-metal sorption in the presence of salicylic acid was performed using ternary surface complexes. In the acidic pH range, this allowed the experimental data to be simulated, but in the alkaline pH range, the model failed to simulate the decrease in sorption. Probable causes of the discrepancies between the experimental data and modeling results are discussed.

  10. [Effects of salicylic acid on sucrose metabolism of tomato seedlings under NaCl stress].

    PubMed

    Su, Yue; Li, Tian-Lai; Li, Nan; Yang, Feng-Jun; Lu, Shao-Wei

    2009-06-01

    A water culture experiment was conducted with the seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivar Liaoyuanduoli to study the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on their sucrose metabolism under NaCl stress. The seedlings were treated with different concentrations (100, 300, and 500 mg x L(-1)) of SA, and the contents of sucrose, glucose, and fructose as well as the related enzyme activities of sucrose metabolism, including acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), and sucrose synthase (SS), in seedling leaves were determined. Under NaCl stress, SA could maintain or enhance the leaf fructose and glucose contents and the leaf AI, NI, SPS and SS activities, with the highest increment of fructose and glucose contents being 30.0% and 31.1% and that of AI, NI, SPS and SS activities being 24.7%, 27.9%, 22.0% and 24.5%, respectively, in comparing with no SA application, while had less effect on the leaf sucrose content, which suggested that SA could play a protective role in the NaCl-tolerance of tomato seedlings via enhancing the leaf invertase activity to increase leaf fructose and glucose contents. The best alleviating effect was observed at 500 mg x L(-1) of SA.

  11. Salicylic Acid and Calcium Treatments Improves Wheat Vigor, Lipids and Phenolics Under High Salinity.

    PubMed

    Yücel Candan, Nilgün; Heybet Elif, Haklı

    2016-12-01

    Seed vigor is a complex physiological trait required to ensure the rapid and uniform emergence of plants in the field under different environmental conditions. Therefore, salicylic acid (SA, 0.5 mM) and calcium (Ca2+, 50 mM) priming were used as exogenous growth enhancers to stimulate wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Yelken) seed vigor under high salinity. The main aim was to address whether priming of wheat with SA, Ca2+ and SA+Ca (SA, 0.5 mM + Ca2+, 50 mM; their combination) could bring about supplementary agronomic benefits particularly under stressful environments such as salinity. Exogenous application of SA or Ca2+ alone improved plant behavior in the presence of salinity stress. Nevertheless, the best results in terms of growth, seed vigor and total phenolic - flavonoids, chlorophyll - carotenoids contents and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), ascorbic acide oxidase (AAO) activities and lipid peroxidation levels (LPO) were obtained in response to the combined SA+Ca treatment.

  12. Necrotrophic pathogens use the salicylic acid signaling pathway to promote disease development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Taha Abd El; Oirdi, Mohamed El; Gonzalez-Lamothe, Rocio; Bouarab, Kamal

    2012-12-01

    Plants use different immune pathways to combat pathogens. The activation of the jasmonic acid (JA)-signaling pathway is required for resistance against necrotrophic pathogens; however, to combat biotrophic pathogens, the plants activate mainly the salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathway. SA can antagonize JA signaling and vice versa. NPR1 (noninducible pathogenesis-related 1) is considered a master regulator of SA signaling. NPR1 interacts with TGA transcription factors, ultimately leading to the activation of SA-dependent responses. SA has been shown to promote disease development caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea through NPR1, by suppressing the expression of two JA-dependent defense genes, proteinase inhibitors I and II. We show here that the transcription factor TGA1.a contributes to dis