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Sample records for saliency switching attention

  1. Joint attention by gaze interpolation and saliency.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Zeynep; Salah, Albert Ali; Meriçli, Çetin; Meriçli, Tekin; Valenti, Roberto; Gevers, Theo

    2013-06-01

    Joint attention, which is the ability of coordination of a common point of reference with the communicating party, emerges as a key factor in various interaction scenarios. This paper presents an image-based method for establishing joint attention between an experimenter and a robot. The precise analysis of the experimenter's eye region requires stability and high-resolution image acquisition, which is not always available. We investigate regression-based interpolation of the gaze direction from the head pose of the experimenter, which is easier to track. Gaussian process regression and neural networks are contrasted to interpolate the gaze direction. Then, we combine gaze interpolation with image-based saliency to improve the target point estimates and test three different saliency schemes. We demonstrate the proposed method on a human-robot interaction scenario. Cross-subject evaluations, as well as experiments under adverse conditions (such as dimmed or artificial illumination or motion blur), show that our method generalizes well and achieves rapid gaze estimation for establishing joint attention.

  2. Methylphenidate alters selective attention by amplifying salience.

    PubMed

    ter Huurne, Niels; Fallon, Sean James; van Schouwenburg, Martine; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Buitelaar, Jan; Jensen, Ole; Cools, Roshan

    2015-12-01

    Methylphenidate, the most common treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is increasingly used by healthy individuals as a "smart drug" to enhance cognitive abilities like attention. A key feature of (selective) attention is the ability to ignore irrelevant but salient information in the environment (distractors). Although crucial for cognitive performance, until now, it is not known how the use of methylphenidate affects resistance to attentional capture by distractors. The present study aims to clarify how methylphenidate affects distractor suppression in healthy individuals. The effect of methylphenidate (20 mg) on distractor suppression was assessed in healthy subjects (N = 20), in a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. We used a visuospatial attention task with target faces flanked by strong (faces) or weak distractors (scrambled faces). Methylphenidate increased accuracy on trials that required gender identification of target face stimuli (methylphenidate 88.9 ± 1.4 [mean ± SEM], placebo 86.0 ± 1.2 %; p = .003), suggesting increased processing of the faces. At the same time, however, methylphenidate increased reaction time when the target face was flanked by a face distractor relative to a scrambled face distractor (methylphenidate 34.9 ± 3.73, placebo 26.7 ± 2.84 ms; p = .027), suggesting enhanced attentional capture by distractors with task-relevant features. We conclude that methylphenidate amplifies salience of task-relevant information at the level of the stimulus category. This leads to enhanced processing of the target (faces) but also increased attentional capture by distractors drawn from the same category as the target.

  3. Attention shift-based multiple saliency object segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang-Wei; Zhao, Hou-Qiang; Cao, Song-Xiao; Xiang, Ke; Wang, Xuan-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Object segmentation is an important but highly challenging problem in computer vision and image processing. An attention shift-based multiple saliency object segmentation model, called ASMSO, is introduced. The proposed ASMSO could produce a pool of potential object regions for each saliency object and be applicable to multiple saliency object segmentation. The potential object regions are produced by combing the methods of gPb-owt-ucm and min-cut graph, whereas the saliency objects are detected by a visual attention model with an attention shift mechanism. In order to deal with various scenes, the model attention shift-based multiple saliency object segmentation (ASMSO) contains different features which include not only traditional features, such as color, uniform, and texture, but also a new position feature originating from proximity of Gestalt theory. Experiments on the training set of PASCAL VOC2012 segmentation dataset not only show that traditional color feature and the proposed position feature work much better than features of texture and uniformity, but also prove that ASMSO is suitable for multiple object segmentation. In addition, experiments on a traditional saliency dataset show that ASMSO could also be applied to traditional saliency object segmentation and performs much better than the state-of-the-art method.

  4. Mechanisms for allocating auditory attention: an auditory saliency map.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Christoph; Petkov, Christopher I; Lippert, Michael; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2005-11-08

    Our nervous system is confronted with a barrage of sensory stimuli, but neural resources are limited and not all stimuli can be processed to the same extent. Mechanisms exist to bias attention toward the particularly salient events, thereby providing a weighted representation of our environment. Our understanding of these mechanisms is still limited, but theoretical models can replicate such a weighting of sensory inputs and provide a basis for understanding the underlying principles. Here, we describe such a model for the auditory system-an auditory saliency map. We experimentally validate the model on natural acoustical scenarios, demonstrating that it reproduces human judgments of auditory saliency and predicts the detectability of salient sounds embedded in noisy backgrounds. In addition, it also predicts the natural orienting behavior of naive macaque monkeys to the same salient stimuli. The structure of the suggested model is identical to that of successfully used visual saliency maps. Hence, we conclude that saliency is determined either by implementing similar mechanisms in different unisensory pathways or by the same mechanism in multisensory areas. In any case, our results demonstrate that different primate sensory systems rely on common principles for extracting relevant sensory events.

  5. Focusing, Sustaining, and Switching Attention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-12

    task-irrelevant sound features strongly enhances the ability to maintain attention on a stream based on some other, orthogonal feature, and 3...visual cues can be used to direct selective auditory attention. 15. SUBJECT TERMS selective attention, streaming, grouping, sound segregation, auditory...sustaining, and switching attention A. Scientific and Technical Objectives Acoustic information is conveyed by changes in sound over time

  6. Fast and Conspicuous? Quantifying Salience With the Theory of Visual Attention

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Alexander; Tünnermann, Jan; Scharlau, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Particular differences between an object and its surrounding cause salience, guide attention, and improve performance in various tasks. While much research has been dedicated to identifying which feature dimensions contribute to salience, much less regard has been paid to the quantitative strength of the salience caused by feature differences. Only a few studies systematically related salience effects to a common salience measure, and they are partly outdated in the light of new findings on the time course of salience effects. We propose Bundesen’s Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) as a theoretical basis for measuring salience and introduce an empirical and modeling approach to link this theory to data retrieved from temporal-order judgments. With this procedure, TVA becomes applicable to a broad range of salience-related stimulus material. Three experiments with orientation pop-out displays demonstrate the feasibility of the method. A 4th experiment substantiates its applicability to the luminance dimension. PMID:27168868

  7. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  8. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  9. Salience and Attention in Surprisal-Based Accounts of Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig; Demberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range of linguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g., visual salience of objects in the world, acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds) and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g., prominence of recently mentioned or topical referents) have been shown to influence language comprehension and production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates of cognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage using information-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect language processing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequately elucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability is still open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminological inconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalize upon work in visual cognition in order to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguistics and their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects of linguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attention and relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides a unified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levels of processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes and between predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus. PMID:27375525

  10. Modelling saliency attention to predict eye direction by topological structure and earth mover’s distance

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jian; Liu, Wei; Wang, Xinmei; Liu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    A saliency attention model for predicting eye direction is proposed in this paper. This work is inspired by the success of the topological structure and Earth Mover’s Distance (EMD) approach. Firstly, we extract visual saliency features such as color contrast, intensity contrast, orientation, and texture. Then, we eliminate disconnected regions in the feature maps to keep topological structure. Secondly, we calculate center surround difference using across-scale EMD between different scales feature maps, rather than utilizing the Difference of Gaussian (DoG), which is used in many other saliency attention models. Thirdly, we across-scale fuse the feature maps in different scale and same feature. Lastly, we take advantage of competition function to calculate feature maps in same feature to form a saliency map, which is use to predict eye direction. Experimental results demonstrated the proposed model outperformed the state-of-the-art schemes in eye direction prediction community. PMID:28746351

  11. Modelling saliency attention to predict eye direction by topological structure and earth mover's distance.

    PubMed

    Wei, Longsheng; Peng, Jian; Liu, Wei; Wang, Xinmei; Liu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    A saliency attention model for predicting eye direction is proposed in this paper. This work is inspired by the success of the topological structure and Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) approach. Firstly, we extract visual saliency features such as color contrast, intensity contrast, orientation, and texture. Then, we eliminate disconnected regions in the feature maps to keep topological structure. Secondly, we calculate center surround difference using across-scale EMD between different scales feature maps, rather than utilizing the Difference of Gaussian (DoG), which is used in many other saliency attention models. Thirdly, we across-scale fuse the feature maps in different scale and same feature. Lastly, we take advantage of competition function to calculate feature maps in same feature to form a saliency map, which is use to predict eye direction. Experimental results demonstrated the proposed model outperformed the state-of-the-art schemes in eye direction prediction community.

  12. Cannabinoid Modulation of Functional Connectivity within Regions Processing Attentional Salience

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Falkenberg, Irina; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Atakan, Zerrin; Crippa, Jose A; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Mick; McGuire, Philip

    2015-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence to support the hypothesis that psychotic symptoms are the result of abnormal salience attribution, and that the attribution of salience is largely mediated through the prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and the hippocampus. Although these areas show differential activation under the influence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), the two major derivatives of cannabis sativa, little is known about the effects of these cannabinoids on the functional connectivity between these regions. We investigated this in healthy occasional cannabis users by employing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) following oral administration of delta-9-THC, CBD, or a placebo capsule. Employing a seed cluster-based functional connectivity analysis that involved using the average time series from each seed cluster for a whole-brain correlational analysis, we investigated the effect of drug condition on functional connectivity between the seed clusters and the rest of the brain during an oddball salience processing task. Relative to the placebo condition, delta-9-THC and CBD had opposite effects on the functional connectivity between the dorsal striatum, the prefrontal cortex, and the hippocampus. Delta-9-THC reduced fronto-striatal connectivity, which was related to its effect on task performance, whereas this connection was enhanced by CBD. Conversely, mediotemporal-prefrontal connectivity was enhanced by delta-9-THC and reduced by CBD. Our results suggest that the functional integration of brain regions involved in salience processing is differentially modulated by single doses of delta-9-THC and CBD and that this relates to the processing of salient stimuli. PMID:25249057

  13. Selective attention and attention switching: towards a unified developmental approach.

    PubMed

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B

    2010-07-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control during the preschool years. The second literature encompasses a large and robust set of phenomena for the same developmental period that indicates a protracted course of development for selective attention in children. We ask whether developmental changes in processes of selective attention may contribute to more flexible attention switching. We consider the two sets of phenomena with respect to this question and propose an empirical agenda for their joint study that may lead ultimately to a unified account of the development of selective attention and attention switching.

  14. Attentional capture is contingent on the interaction between task demand and stimulus salience.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shena; Han, Shihui

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the potential impacts of task demand and stimulus salience on the stimulus-driven attentional capture effect. The participants performed an inefficient visual search task while an irrelevant luminance singleton was present. In Experiment 1, the task demand was manipulated while the stimulus salience of the irrelevant singleton was fixed. With the same salient singleton, the attentional capture effect was observed in the low-difficulty condition but disappeared in the high-difficulty condition. In Experiment 2, the stimulus salience was manipulated while the task demand was fixed. With the same task, the highly salient singleton captured attention, whereas the relatively lowly salient singleton could not. In Experiment 3, both task demand and stimulus salience were manipulated simultaneously. The stimulus-driven attentional capture effect by the irrelevant singleton increased not only as the task demand decreased but also as the stimulus salience increased. The present study might provide a way to reconcile conflicting findings in the attentional capture literature; the underlying neural mechanism is discussed.

  15. Stimulus saliency modulates pre-attentive processing speed in human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Töllner, Thomas; Zehetleitner, Michael; Gramann, Klaus; Müller, Hermann J

    2011-01-21

    The notion of a saliency-based processing architecture [1] underlying human vision is central to a number of current theories of visual selective attention [e.g., 2]. On this view, focal-attention is guided by an overall-saliency map of the scene, which integrates (sums) signals from pre-attentive sensory feature-contrast computations (e.g., for color, motion, etc.). By linking the Posterior Contralateral Negativity (PCN) component to reaction time (RT) performance, we tested one specific prediction of such salience summation models: expedited shifts of focal-attention to targets with low, as compared to high, target-distracter similarity. For two feature-dimensions (color and orientation), we observed decreasing RTs with increasing target saliency. Importantly, this pattern was systematically mirrored by the timing, as well as amplitude, of the PCN. This pattern demonstrates that visual saliency is a key determinant of the time it takes for focal-attention to be engaged onto the target item, even when it is just a feature singleton.

  16. Remediating deficits of switching attention in patients with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Amos, Andrew

    2002-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the remediating effects of two types of aid on a test of switching attention administered to patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). Based on the separation of cognitive functions suggested by a neural network model, it was hypothesized that external inhibition of obsolete rules, and increased salience of stimuli, would differentially improve the WCST performance of participants with ABI. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) performance of 24 patients with ABI assigned to three treatment groups (no treatment, external inhibition, increased stimulus salience) was compared to normal controls. External inhibition of learned rules reduced perseverative errors, while increased stimuli salience reduced random errors, committed by patients with ABI. The pattern of results supports the separation of functions in switching attention suggested by a neural network model, and establishes minimal aids necessary for remediating deficits associated with ABI.

  17. Characterizing the effects of feature salience and top-down attention in the early visual system.

    PubMed

    Poltoratski, Sonia; Ling, Sam; McCormack, Devin; Tong, Frank

    2017-04-05

    The visual system employs a sophisticated balance of attentional mechanisms: salient stimuli are prioritized for visual processing, yet observers can also ignore such stimuli when their goals require directing attention elsewhere. A powerful determinant of visual salience is local feature contrast: if a local region differs from its immediate surround along one or more feature dimensions, it will appear more salient. Here, we used high-resolution fMRI at 7T to characterize the modulatory effects of bottom-up salience and top-down voluntary attention within multiple sites along the early visual pathway, including visual areas V1-V4 and the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). Observers viewed arrays of spatially distributed gratings, where one of the gratings immediately to the left or right of fixation differed from all other items in orientation or motion direction, making it salient. To investigate the effects of directed attention, observers were cued to attend to the grating to the left or right of fixation, which was either salient or non-salient. Results revealed reliable additive effects of top-down attention and stimulus-driven salience throughout visual areas V1-hV4. In comparison, the LGN exhibited significant attentional enhancement but was not reliably modulated by orientation- or motion-defined salience. Our findings indicate that top-down effects of spatial attention can influence visual processing at the earliest possible site along the visual pathway, including the LGN, while the processing of orientation- and motion-driven salience primarily involves feature-selective interactions that take place in early cortical visual areas.

  18. Social Saliency of the Cue Slows Attention Shifts.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Vassiki; Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Soltani, Alireza; Gobbini, Maria Ida

    2017-01-01

    Eye gaze is a powerful cue that indicates where another person's attention is directed in the environment. Seeing another person's eye gaze shift spontaneously and reflexively elicits a shift of one's own attention to the same region in space. Here, we investigated whether reallocation of attention in the direction of eye gaze is modulated by personal familiarity with faces. On the one hand, the eye gaze of a close friend should be more effective in redirecting our attention as compared to the eye gaze of a stranger. On the other hand, the social relevance of a familiar face might itself hold attention and, thereby, slow lateral shifts of attention. To distinguish between these possibilities, we measured the efficacy of the eye gaze of personally familiar and unfamiliar faces as directional attention cues using adapted versions of the Posner paradigm with saccadic and manual responses. We found that attention shifts were slower when elicited by a perceived change in the eye gaze of a familiar individual as compared to attention shifts elicited by unfamiliar faces at short latencies (100 ms). We also measured simple detection of change in direction of gaze in personally familiar and unfamiliar faces to test whether slower attention shifts were due to slower detection. Participants detected changes in eye gaze faster for familiar faces than for unfamiliar faces. Our results suggest that personally familiar faces briefly hold attention due to their social relevance, thereby slowing shifts of attention, even though the direction of eye movements are detected faster in familiar faces.

  19. The Development of Visual Search in Infancy: Attention to Faces versus Salience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Mee-Kyoung; Setoodehnia, Mielle; Baek, Jongsoo; Luck, Steven J.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments examined how faces compete with physically salient stimuli for the control of attention in 4-, 6-, and 8-month-old infants (N = 117 total). Three computational models were used to quantify physical salience. We presented infants with visual search arrays containing a face and familiar object(s), such as shoes and flowers. Six- and…

  20. The Development of Visual Search in Infancy: Attention to Faces versus Salience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Mee-Kyoung; Setoodehnia, Mielle; Baek, Jongsoo; Luck, Steven J.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments examined how faces compete with physically salient stimuli for the control of attention in 4-, 6-, and 8-month-old infants (N = 117 total). Three computational models were used to quantify physical salience. We presented infants with visual search arrays containing a face and familiar object(s), such as shoes and flowers. Six- and…

  1. Social Saliency of the Cue Slows Attention Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vassiki; Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Soltani, Alireza; Gobbini, Maria Ida

    2017-01-01

    Eye gaze is a powerful cue that indicates where another person’s attention is directed in the environment. Seeing another person’s eye gaze shift spontaneously and reflexively elicits a shift of one’s own attention to the same region in space. Here, we investigated whether reallocation of attention in the direction of eye gaze is modulated by personal familiarity with faces. On the one hand, the eye gaze of a close friend should be more effective in redirecting our attention as compared to the eye gaze of a stranger. On the other hand, the social relevance of a familiar face might itself hold attention and, thereby, slow lateral shifts of attention. To distinguish between these possibilities, we measured the efficacy of the eye gaze of personally familiar and unfamiliar faces as directional attention cues using adapted versions of the Posner paradigm with saccadic and manual responses. We found that attention shifts were slower when elicited by a perceived change in the eye gaze of a familiar individual as compared to attention shifts elicited by unfamiliar faces at short latencies (100 ms). We also measured simple detection of change in direction of gaze in personally familiar and unfamiliar faces to test whether slower attention shifts were due to slower detection. Participants detected changes in eye gaze faster for familiar faces than for unfamiliar faces. Our results suggest that personally familiar faces briefly hold attention due to their social relevance, thereby slowing shifts of attention, even though the direction of eye movements are detected faster in familiar faces. PMID:28555117

  2. Cue-Elicited Increases in Incentive Salience for Marijuana: Craving, Demand, and Attentional Bias

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; McGeary, John E.; Knopik, Valerie S.; MacKillop, James

    2016-01-01

    Background Incentive salience is a multidimensional construct that includes craving, drug value relative to other reinforcers, and implicit motivation such as attentional bias to drug cues. Laboratory cue reactivity (CR) paradigms have been used to evaluate marijuana incentive salience with measures of craving, but not with behavioral economic measures of marijuana demand or implicit attentional processing tasks. Methods This within-subjects study used a new CR paradigm to examine multiple dimensions of marijuana’s incentive salience and to compare CR-induced increases in craving and demand. Frequent marijuana users (N=93, 34% female) underwent exposure to neutral cues then to lit marijuana cigarettes. Craving, marijuana demand via a marijuana purchase task, and heart rate were assessed after each cue set. A modified Stroop task with cannabis and control words was completed after the marijuana cues as a measure of attentional bias. Results Relative to neutral cues, marijuana cues significantly increased subjective craving and demand indices of intensity (i.e., drug consumed at $0) and Omax (i.e., peak drug expenditure). Elasticity significantly decreased following marijuana cues, reflecting sustained purchase despite price increases. Craving was correlated with demand indices (r’s: 0.23–0.30). Marijuana users displayed significant attentional bias for cannabis-related words after marijuana cues. Cue-elicited increases in intensity were associated with greater attentional bias for marijuana words. Conclusions Greater incentive salience indexed by subjective, behavioral economic, and implicit measures was observed after marijuana versus neutral cues, supporting multidimensional assessment. The study highlights the utility of a behavioral economic approach in detecting cue-elicited changes in marijuana incentive salience. PMID:27515723

  3. The development of visual search in infancy: Attention to faces versus salience

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Mee-Kyoung; Setoodehnia, Mielle; Baek, Jongsoo; Luck, Steven J.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments examined how faces compete with physically salient stimuli for the control of attention in 4-month-old, 6-month-old, and 8-month-old infants (N = 117 total). Three computational models were used to quantify physical salience. We presented infants with visual search arrays containing a face and familiar object(s), such as shoes and flowers. Six- and 8-month-old infants looked first and longest at faces; their looking was not strongly influenced by physical salience. In contrast, 4-month-old infants showed a visual preference for the face only when the arrays contained 2 items and the competitor was relatively low in salience. When the arrays contained many items or the only competitor was relatively high in salience, 4-month-old infants’ looks were more often directed at the most salient item. Thus, over ages of 4 to 8 months, physical salience has a decreasing influence and faces have an increasing influence on where and how long infants look. PMID:26866728

  4. Salience in Second Language Acquisition: Physical Form, Learner Attention, and Instructional Focus

    PubMed Central

    Cintrón-Valentín, Myrna C.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the role of physical form, prior experience, and form focused instruction (FFI) in adult language learning. (1) When presented with competing cues to interpretation, learners are more likely to attend to physically more salient cues in the input. (2) Learned attention is an associative learning phenomenon where prior-learned cues block those that are experienced later. (3) The low salience of morphosyntactic cues can be overcome by FFI, which leads learners to attend cues which might otherwise be ignored. Experiment 1 used eye-tracking to investigate how language background influences learners’ attention to morphological cues, as well as the attentional processes whereby different types of FFI overcome low cue salience, learned attention and blocking. Chinese native speakers (no L1 verb-tense morphology) viewed Latin utterances combining lexical and morphological cues to temporality under control conditions (CCs) and three types of explicit FFI: verb grammar instruction (VG), verb salience with textual enhancement (VS), and verb pretraining (VP), and their use of these cues was assessed in a subsequent comprehension test. CC participants were significantly more sensitive to the adverbs than verb morphology. Instructed participants showed greater sensitivity to the verbs. These results reveal attentional processes whereby learners’ prior linguistic experience can shape their attention toward cues in the input, and whereby FFI helps learners overcome the long-term blocking of verb-tense morphology. Experiment 2 examined the role of modality of input presentation – aural or visual – in L1 English learners’ attentional focus on morphological cues and the effectiveness of different FFI manipulations. CC participants showed greater sensitivity toward the adverb cue. FFI was effective in increasing attention to verb-tense morphology, however, the processing of morphological cues was considerably more difficult under aural presentation. From visual

  5. Salience in Second Language Acquisition: Physical Form, Learner Attention, and Instructional Focus.

    PubMed

    Cintrón-Valentín, Myrna C; Ellis, Nick C

    2016-01-01

    We consider the role of physical form, prior experience, and form focused instruction (FFI) in adult language learning. (1) When presented with competing cues to interpretation, learners are more likely to attend to physically more salient cues in the input. (2) Learned attention is an associative learning phenomenon where prior-learned cues block those that are experienced later. (3) The low salience of morphosyntactic cues can be overcome by FFI, which leads learners to attend cues which might otherwise be ignored. Experiment 1 used eye-tracking to investigate how language background influences learners' attention to morphological cues, as well as the attentional processes whereby different types of FFI overcome low cue salience, learned attention and blocking. Chinese native speakers (no L1 verb-tense morphology) viewed Latin utterances combining lexical and morphological cues to temporality under control conditions (CCs) and three types of explicit FFI: verb grammar instruction (VG), verb salience with textual enhancement (VS), and verb pretraining (VP), and their use of these cues was assessed in a subsequent comprehension test. CC participants were significantly more sensitive to the adverbs than verb morphology. Instructed participants showed greater sensitivity to the verbs. These results reveal attentional processes whereby learners' prior linguistic experience can shape their attention toward cues in the input, and whereby FFI helps learners overcome the long-term blocking of verb-tense morphology. Experiment 2 examined the role of modality of input presentation - aural or visual - in L1 English learners' attentional focus on morphological cues and the effectiveness of different FFI manipulations. CC participants showed greater sensitivity toward the adverb cue. FFI was effective in increasing attention to verb-tense morphology, however, the processing of morphological cues was considerably more difficult under aural presentation. From visual exposure

  6. The role of the collicular pathway in the salience-based progression of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Mizzi, Raphaël; Michael, George A

    2014-08-15

    Visual attention has been shown to progress from the most to the least salient item in a given scene. Cognitive and physiological models assume that this orienting of covert attention relies on the collicular pathway, involving the superior colliculus and the pulvinar. Recent studies questioned this statement as they described attentional capture by visual items invisible to the superior colliculus. Electrophysiological studies shown that there is no direct projections from short-wave receptors to the superior colliculus. S-cone stimuli can thus be employed to assess visual processing without the involvement of the collicular pathway. We have attempted to investigate whether this pathway is involved in the salience-based orientation of attention by presenting S-cone stimuli. Volunteers were asked to make a judgment regarding a target among two distractors (all items of unequal sizes). Items' location and size varied randomly, as well as color, randomly black or calibrated for each subject to activate exclusively S-cones. The hierarchical pattern testifying of the salience-based orientation of attention was only found with black stimuli, arguing in favor of an implication of the collicular pathway in salience. In a second experiment, one item was presented at a time in order to test the item-multiplicity effect by comparing experiments. Performance was the most penalized when presenting multiple stimuli in the black condition. Results were interpreted in terms of distinct modes of processing by the collicular and geniculate pathways. The establishment of salience that determines attentional progression appeared to be only possible when the collicular pathway was solicited.

  7. Video attention deviation estimation using inter-frame visual saliency map analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yunlong; Cheung, Gene; Le Callet, Patrick; Ji, Yusheng

    2012-01-01

    A viewer's visual attention during video playback is the matching of his eye gaze movement to the changing video content over time. If the gaze movement matches the video content (e.g., follow a rolling soccer ball), then the viewer keeps his visual attention. If the gaze location moves from one video object to another, then the viewer shifts his visual attention. A video that causes a viewer to shift his attention often is a "busy" video. Determination of which video content is busy is an important practical problem; a busy video is difficult for encoder to deploy region of interest (ROI)-based bit allocation, and hard for content provider to insert additional overlays like advertisements, making the video even busier. One way to determine the busyness of video content is to conduct eye gaze experiments with a sizable group of test subjects, but this is time-consuming and costineffective. In this paper, we propose an alternative method to determine the busyness of video-formally called video attention deviation (VAD): analyze the spatial visual saliency maps of the video frames across time. We first derive transition probabilities of a Markov model for eye gaze using saliency maps of a number of consecutive frames. We then compute steady state probability of the saccade state in the model-our estimate of VAD. We demonstrate that the computed steady state probability for saccade using saliency map analysis matches that computed using actual gaze traces for a range of videos with different degrees of busyness. Further, our analysis can also be used to segment video into shorter clips of different degrees of busyness by computing the Kullback-Leibler divergence using consecutive motion compensated saliency maps.

  8. Altered salience processing in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tegelbeckers, Jana; Bunzeck, Nico; Duzel, Emrah; Bonath, Björn; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Attentional problems in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been linked with deficits in cognitive control. Whether these deficits are associated with increased sensitivity to external salient stimuli remains unclear. To address this issue, we acquired functional brain images (fMRI) in 38 boys with and without ADHD (age: 11–16 years). To differentiate the effects of item novelty, contextual rareness and task relevance, participants performed a visual oddball task including four stimulus categories: a frequent standard picture (62.5%), unique novel pictures (12.5%), one repeated rare picture (12.5%), and a target picture (12.5%) that required a specific motor response. As a main finding, we can show considerable overlap in novelty-related BOLD responses between both groups, but only healthy participants showed neural deactivation in temporal as well as frontal regions in response to novel pictures. Furthermore, only ADHD patients, but not healthy controls, engaged wide parts of the novelty network when processing the rare but familiar picture. Our results provide first evidence that ADHD patients show enhanced neural activity in response to novel but behaviorally irrelevant stimuli as well as reduced habituation to familiar items. These findings suggest an inefficient use of neuronal resources in children with ADHD that could be closely linked to increased distractibility. Hum Brain Mapp 36:2049–2060, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25648705

  9. Advert saliency distracts children's visual attention during task-oriented internet use

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Nils; Sandberg, Helena; Holmqvist, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The general research question of the present study was to assess the impact of visually salient online adverts on children's task-oriented internet use. In order to answer this question, an experimental study was constructed in which 9- and 12-year-old Swedish children were asked to solve a number of tasks while interacting with a mockup website. In each trial, web adverts in several saliency conditions were presented. By both measuring children's task accuracy, as well as the visual processing involved in solving these tasks, this study allows us to infer how two types of visual saliency affect children's attentional behavior, and whether such behavioral effects also impacts their task performance. Analyses show that low-level visual features and task relevance in online adverts have different effects on performance measures and process measures respectively. Whereas task performance is stable with regard to several advert saliency conditions, a marked effect is seen on children's gaze behavior. On the other hand, task performance is shown to be more sensitive to individual differences such as age, gender and level of gaze control. The results provide evidence about cognitive and behavioral distraction effects in children's task-oriented internet use caused by visual saliency in online adverts. The experiment suggests that children to some extent are able to compensate for behavioral effects caused by distracting visual stimuli when solving prospective memory tasks. Suggestions are given for further research into the interdiciplinary area between media research and cognitive science. PMID:24575057

  10. Advert saliency distracts children's visual attention during task-oriented internet use.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Nils; Sandberg, Helena; Holmqvist, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The general research question of the present study was to assess the impact of visually salient online adverts on children's task-oriented internet use. In order to answer this question, an experimental study was constructed in which 9- and 12-year-old Swedish children were asked to solve a number of tasks while interacting with a mockup website. In each trial, web adverts in several saliency conditions were presented. By both measuring children's task accuracy, as well as the visual processing involved in solving these tasks, this study allows us to infer how two types of visual saliency affect children's attentional behavior, and whether such behavioral effects also impacts their task performance. Analyses show that low-level visual features and task relevance in online adverts have different effects on performance measures and process measures respectively. Whereas task performance is stable with regard to several advert saliency conditions, a marked effect is seen on children's gaze behavior. On the other hand, task performance is shown to be more sensitive to individual differences such as age, gender and level of gaze control. The results provide evidence about cognitive and behavioral distraction effects in children's task-oriented internet use caused by visual saliency in online adverts. The experiment suggests that children to some extent are able to compensate for behavioral effects caused by distracting visual stimuli when solving prospective memory tasks. Suggestions are given for further research into the interdiciplinary area between media research and cognitive science.

  11. Does luminance-contrast contribute to a saliency map for overt visual attention?

    PubMed

    Einhäuser, Wolfgang; König, Peter

    2003-03-01

    In natural environments, humans select a subset of visual stimuli by directing their gaze to locations attended. In previous studies it has been found that at fixation points luminance-contrast is higher than average. This led to the hypothesis that luminance-contrast makes a major contribution to a saliency map of visual overt attention, consistent with a computation of stimulus saliency in early visual cortical areas. We re-evaluate this hypothesis by using natural and modified natural images to uncover the causal effects of luminance-contrast to human overt visual attention and: (i) we confirm that when viewing natural images, contrasts are elevated at fixation points. This, however, only holds for low spatial frequencies and in a limited temporal window after stimulus onset; (ii) however, despite this correlation between overt attention and luminance-contrast, moderate modifications of contrast in natural images do not measurably affect the selection of fixation points. Furthermore, strong local reductions of luminance-contrast do not repel but attract fixation; (iii) neither contrast nor contrast modification is correlated to fixation duration; and (iv), even the moderate contrast modifications used fall into the physiologically relevant range, and subjects are well able to detect them in a forced choice paradigm. In summary, no causal contribution of luminance-contrast to a saliency map of human overt attention is detectable. In conjunction with recent results on the relation of contrast sensitivity of neuronal activity to the level in the visual cortical hierarchy, the present study provides evidence that, for natural scenes, saliency is computed not early but late during processing.

  12. Anticipatory processes in brain state switching - evidence from a novel cued-switching task implicating default mode and salience networks.

    PubMed

    Sidlauskaite, Justina; Wiersema, Jan R; Roeyers, Herbert; Krebs, Ruth M; Vassena, Eliana; Fias, Wim; Brass, Marcel; Achten, Eric; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2014-09-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is the core brain system supporting internally oriented cognition. The ability to attenuate the DMN when switching to externally oriented processing is a prerequisite for effective performance and adaptive self-regulation. Right anterior insula (rAI), a core hub of the salience network (SN), has been proposed to control the switching from DMN to task-relevant brain networks. Little is currently known about the extent of anticipatory processes subserved by DMN and SN during switching. We investigated anticipatory DMN and SN modulation using a novel cued-switching task of between-state (rest-to-task/task-to-rest) and within-state (task-to-task) transitions. Twenty healthy adults performed the task implemented in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design. Increases in activity were observed in the DMN regions in response to cues signalling upcoming rest. DMN attenuation was observed for rest-to-task switch cues. Obversely, DMN was up-regulated by task-to-rest cues. The strongest rAI response was observed to rest-to-task switch cues. Task-to-task switch cues elicited smaller rAI activation, whereas no significant rAI activation occurred for task-to-rest switches. Our data provide the first evidence that DMN modulation occurs rapidly and can be elicited by short duration cues signalling rest- and task-related state switches. The role of rAI appears to be limited to certain switch types - those implicating transition from a resting state and to tasks involving active cognitive engagement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Visual Attention Allocation Between Robotic Arm and Environmental Process Control: Validating the STOM Task Switching Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher; Vieanne, Alex; Clegg, Benjamin; Sebok, Angelia; Janes, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Fifty six participants time shared a spacecraft environmental control system task with a realistic space robotic arm control task in either a manual or highly automated version. The former could suffer minor failures, whose diagnosis and repair were supported by a decision aid. At the end of the experiment this decision aid unexpectedly failed. We measured visual attention allocation and switching between the two tasks, in each of the eight conditions formed by manual-automated arm X expected-unexpected failure X monitoring- failure management. We also used our multi-attribute task switching model, based on task attributes of priority interest, difficulty and salience that were self-rated by participants, to predict allocation. An un-weighted model based on attributes of difficulty, interest and salience accounted for 96 percent of the task allocation variance across the 8 different conditions. Task difficulty served as an attractor, with more difficult tasks increasing the tendency to stay on task.

  14. Binding facilitates attention switching within working memory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Min; Li, Zhi-Hao; Zhang, Da-Ren

    2007-09-01

    The authors investigated the units of selective attention within working memory. In Experiment 1, a group of participants kept 1 count and 1 location in working memory and updated them repeatedly in random order. Another group of participants were instructed to achieve the same goal by memorizing the verbal and spatial information in an integrative way as a moving digit. The behavioral data showed that switching attention between properties of an integrated working-memory item was faster than switching between respective properties of different items. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this switching facilitation cannot be simply ascribed to the different amount of working-memory items maintained by the two groups of participants. Finally, by adopting a pure verbal task in Experiment 3, the authors observed the same binding facilitation, with the possibility of "location-based selection" excluded. They summarize the observations of all 3 experiments in the study and suggest both a location- and object-based mechanism for attention selection in working memory. 2007 APA

  15. Terror mismanagement: evidence that mortality salience exacerbates attentional bias in social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Emma C.; Iverach, Lisa; Menzies, Ross G.; Jones, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Death anxiety is a basic fear underlying a range of psychological conditions, and has been found to increase avoidance in social anxiety. Given that attentional bias is a core feature of social anxiety, the aim of the present study was to examine the impact of mortality salience (MS) on attentional bias in social anxiety. Participants were 36 socially anxious and 37 non-socially anxious individuals, randomly allocated to a MS or control condition. An eye-tracking procedure assessed initial bias towards, and late-stage avoidance of, socially threatening facial expressions. As predicted, socially anxious participants in the MS condition demonstrated significantly more initial bias to social threat than non-socially anxious participants in the MS condition and socially anxious participants in the control condition. However, this effect was not found for late-stage avoidance of social threat. These findings suggest that reminders of death may heighten initial vigilance towards social threat. PMID:26211552

  16. Terror mismanagement: evidence that mortality salience exacerbates attentional bias in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Finch, Emma C; Iverach, Lisa; Menzies, Ross G; Jones, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Death anxiety is a basic fear underlying a range of psychological conditions, and has been found to increase avoidance in social anxiety. Given that attentional bias is a core feature of social anxiety, the aim of the present study was to examine the impact of mortality salience (MS) on attentional bias in social anxiety. Participants were 36 socially anxious and 37 non-socially anxious individuals, randomly allocated to a MS or control condition. An eye-tracking procedure assessed initial bias towards, and late-stage avoidance of, socially threatening facial expressions. As predicted, socially anxious participants in the MS condition demonstrated significantly more initial bias to social threat than non-socially anxious participants in the MS condition and socially anxious participants in the control condition. However, this effect was not found for late-stage avoidance of social threat. These findings suggest that reminders of death may heighten initial vigilance towards social threat.

  17. Cholinergic control over attention in rats prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues.

    PubMed

    Paolone, Giovanna; Angelakos, Christopher C; Meyer, Paul J; Robinson, Terry E; Sarter, Martin

    2013-05-08

    Some rats [sign-trackers (STs)] are especially prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues, relative to others [goal-trackers (GTs)]. Thus, reward cues are more likely to promote maladaptive reward-seeking behavior in STs than GTs. Here, we asked whether STs and GTs differ on another trait that can contribute to poor restraint over behavior evoked by reward cues. We report that, relative to GTs, STs have poor control over attentional performance, due in part to insufficient cholinergic stimulation of cortical circuitry. We found that, relative to GTs, STs showed poor performance on a sustained attention task (SAT). Furthermore, their performance fluctuated rapidly between periods of good to near-chance performance. This finding was reproduced using a separate cohort of rats. As demonstrated earlier, performance on the SAT was associated with increases in extracellular levels of cortical acetylcholine (ACh); however, SAT performance-associated increases in ACh levels were significantly attenuated in STs relative to GTs. Consistent with the view that the modulatory effects of ACh involve stimulation of α4β2* nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs), systemic administration of the partial nAChR agonist ABT-089 improved SAT performance in STs and abolished the difference between SAT-associated ACh levels in STs and GTs. Neither the nonselective nAChR agonist nicotine nor the psychostimulant amphetamine improved SAT performance. These findings suggest that individuals who have a propensity to attribute high-incentive salience to reward cues also exhibit relatively poor attentional control. A combination of these traits may render individuals especially vulnerable to disorders, such as obesity and addiction.

  18. Attention and Memory for Faces and Actions in Infancy: The Salience of Actions over Faces in Dynamic Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Gogate, Lakshmi J.; Ruiz, Ivonne

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments investigated discrimination and memory of 5.5-month-olds for videotapes of women performing different activities (blowing bubbles, brushing hair, brushing teeth) or static displays after a 1-minute and a 7-week delay. Findings demonstrate the attentional salience of actions over faces in dynamic events to 5.5-month-olds. Findings…

  19. Attention and Memory for Faces and Actions in Infancy: The Salience of Actions over Faces in Dynamic Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Gogate, Lakshmi J.; Ruiz, Ivonne

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments investigated discrimination and memory of 5.5-month-olds for videotapes of women performing different activities (blowing bubbles, brushing hair, brushing teeth) or static displays after a 1-minute and a 7-week delay. Findings demonstrate the attentional salience of actions over faces in dynamic events to 5.5-month-olds. Findings…

  20. Altered intrinsic organisation of brain networks implicated in attentional processes in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a resting-state study of attention, default mode and salience network connectivity.

    PubMed

    Sidlauskaite, Justina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R

    2016-06-01

    Deficits in task-related attentional engagement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been hypothesised to be due to altered interrelationships between attention, default mode and salience networks. We examined the intrinsic connectivity during rest within and between these networks. Six-minute resting-state scans were obtained. Using a network-based approach, connectivity within and between the dorsal and ventral attention, the default mode and the salience networks was compared between the ADHD and control group. The ADHD group displayed hyperconnectivity between the two attention networks and within the default mode and ventral attention network. The salience network was hypoconnected to the dorsal attention network. There were trends towards hyperconnectivity within the dorsal attention network and between the salience and ventral attention network in ADHD. Connectivity within and between other networks was unrelated to ADHD. Our findings highlight the altered connectivity within and between attention networks, and between them and the salience network in ADHD. One hypothesis to be tested in future studies is that individuals with ADHD are affected by an imbalance between ventral and dorsal attention systems with the former playing a dominant role during task engagement, making individuals with ADHD highly susceptible to distraction by salient task-irrelevant stimuli.

  1. [Motivational processes in addiction: the role of craving, salience and attention].

    PubMed

    Franken, I H A; Wiers, R W

    2013-01-01

    Motivational processes play an important role in addictive behaviours. Craving is mainly an explicit or conscious process that can motivate individuals to continue alcohol, take drugs or smoke cigarettes. Craving also plays a role in relapse; self-reported craving has often been associated with relapse. However, craving cannot explain all addictive behaviours. In addition to craving, implicit cognitive processes play an important part in motivating individuals to become involved in substance use. To describe some of these implicit cognitive processes, namely the role of salience, attention bias, automatic memory associations and action tendencies. A description is given of recent research results and the implications of these implicit processes for clinical practice. Oversensitive/hypersensitive motivational processes and a lack of control over these processes both play an important role in addiction. This can be expressed by an uncontrollable urge to inject the drug or substance again, in spite of the fact that it is unwise for the person in question to do so. Recent research has shown that there are various very promising methods for dealing with these two problems (oversensitive/hypersensitive motivational processes and a lack of control over these processes), either separately or together. The methods involve behavioural training programmes, medication and neural stimulation. The research results are very promising, but more research is needed.

  2. From the optic tectum to the primary visual cortex: migration through evolution of the saliency map for exogenous attentional guidance.

    PubMed

    Zhaoping, Li

    2016-10-01

    Recent data have supported the hypothesis that, in primates, the primary visual cortex (V1) creates a saliency map from visual input. The exogenous guidance of attention is then realized by means of monosynaptic projections to the superior colliculus, which can select the most salient location as the target of a gaze shift. V1 is less prominent, or is even absent in lower vertebrates such as fish; whereas the superior colliculus, called optic tectum in lower vertebrates, also receives retinal input. I review the literature and propose that the saliency map has migrated from the tectum to V1 over evolution. In addition, attentional benefits manifested as cueing effects in humans should also be present in lower vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Selective Attention to Perceptual Dimensions and Switching between Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiran, Nachshon; Dimov, Eduard; Ganel, Tzvi

    2013-01-01

    In the present experiments, the question being addressed was whether switching attention between perceptual dimensions and selective attention to dimensions are processes that compete over a common resource? Attention to perceptual dimensions is usually studied by requiring participants to ignore a never-relevant dimension. Selection failure…

  4. Selective Attention to Perceptual Dimensions and Switching between Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiran, Nachshon; Dimov, Eduard; Ganel, Tzvi

    2013-01-01

    In the present experiments, the question being addressed was whether switching attention between perceptual dimensions and selective attention to dimensions are processes that compete over a common resource? Attention to perceptual dimensions is usually studied by requiring participants to ignore a never-relevant dimension. Selection failure…

  5. A novel algorithm based on visual saliency attention for localization and segmentation in rapidly-stained leukocyte images.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Wang, Yong; Wang, Guoyou; Chen, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast hierarchical framework of leukocyte localization and segmentation in rapidly-stained leukocyte images (RSLI) with complex backgrounds and varying illumination. The proposed framework contains two main steps. First, a nucleus saliency model based on average absolute difference is built, which locates each leukocyte precisely while effectively removes dyeing impurities and erythrocyte fragments. Secondly, two different schemes are presented for segmenting the nuclei and cytoplasm respectively. As for nuclei segmentation, to solve the overlap problem between leukocytes, we extract the nucleus lobes first and further group them. The lobes extraction is realized by the histogram-based contrast map and watershed segmentation, taking into account the saliency and similarity of nucleus color. Meanwhile, as for cytoplasm segmentation, to extract the blurry contour of the cytoplasm under instable illumination, we propose a cytoplasm enhancement based on tri-modal histogram specification, which specifically improves the contrast of cytoplasm while maintaining others. Then, the contour of cytoplasm is quickly obtained by extraction based on parameter-controlled adaptive attention window. Furthermore, the contour is corrected by concave points matching in order to solve the overlap between leukocytes and impurities. The experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed nucleus saliency model, which achieves average localization accuracy with F1-measure greater than 95%. In addition, the comparison of single leukocyte segmentation accuracy and running time has demonstrated that the proposed segmentation scheme outperforms the former approaches in RSLI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Penetrating the fog of the decoupled mind: the effects of visual salience in the sustained attention to response task.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    An absence of coupling between cognition and perception can mean that the mind neglects the careful processing of information relevant to the task at hand and errors can ensue. Given that highly salient perceptual events can automatically capture attention, the current study explored whether the same neglect of task-relevant information was possible for stimuli with high levels of perceptual saliency (e.g., identifiable by colour). In four experiments, participants performed a go/no-go task with a low frequency of no-go events. Across all experiments, response inhibition was more successful for coloured no-go targets than for stimuli that shared the same colour as the go targets. In addition, the response time (reaction time [RT]) for rare, coloured go targets was slower than when the same events were noncolored. Together, these results suggest that in relatively simple go/no-go tasks, highly salient perceptual events capture attention in an automatic fashion. Increased visual salience is argued to be beneficial when associated with no-go targets because it momentarily enforces coupling between attention and perception, disrupting ongoing behaviour at the precise moment when not responding is the correct action to take. These results suggest that although the mind may at times neglect events in the environment, salient perceptual events cannot be ignored in the same way.

  7. Time Sharing Between Robotics and Process Control: Validating a Model of Attention Switching.

    PubMed

    Wickens, Christopher Dow; Gutzwiller, Robert S; Vieane, Alex; Clegg, Benjamin A; Sebok, Angelia; Janes, Jess

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the strategic task overload management (STOM) model that predicts task switching when concurrence is impossible. The STOM model predicts that in overload, tasks will be switched to, to the extent that they are attractive on task attributes of high priority, interest, and salience and low difficulty. But more-difficult tasks are less likely to be switched away from once they are being performed. In Experiment 1, participants performed four tasks of the Multi-Attribute Task Battery and provided task-switching data to inform the role of difficulty and priority. In Experiment 2, participants concurrently performed an environmental control task and a robotic arm simulation. Workload was varied by automation of arm movement and both the phases of environmental control and existence of decision support for fault management. Attention to the two tasks was measured using a head tracker. Experiment 1 revealed the lack of influence of task priority and confirmed the differing roles of task difficulty. In Experiment 2, the percentage attention allocation across the eight conditions was predicted by the STOM model when participants rated the four attributes. Model predictions were compared against empirical data and accounted for over 95% of variance in task allocation. More-difficult tasks were performed longer than easier tasks. Task priority does not influence allocation. The multiattribute decision model provided a good fit to the data. The STOM model is useful for predicting cognitive tunneling given that human-in-the-loop simulation is time-consuming and expensive. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  8. A few of my favorite things: circumscribed interests in autism are not accompanied by increased attentional salience on a personalized selective attention task.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Owen E; Bayliss, Andrew P; Remington, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Autistic individuals commonly show circumscribed or "special" interests: areas of obsessive interest in a specific category. The present study investigated what impact these interests have on attention, an aspect of autistic cognition often reported as altered. In neurotypical individuals, interest and expertise have been shown to result in an automatic attentional priority for related items. Here, we examine whether this change in salience is also seen in autism. Adolescents and young adults with and without autism performed a personalized selective attention task assessing the level of attentional priority afforded to images related to the participant's specific interests. In addition, participants performed a similar task with generic images in order to isolate any effects of interest and expertise. Crucially, all autistic and non-autistic individuals recruited for this study held a strong passion or interest. As such, any differences in attention could not be solely attributed to differing prevalence of interests in the two groups. In both tasks, participants were asked to perform a central target-detection task while ignoring irrelevant distractors (related or unrelated to their interests). The level of distractor interference under various task conditions was taken as an indication of attentional priority. Neurotypical individuals showed the predicted attentional priority for the circumscribed interest images but not generic items, reflecting the impact of their interest and expertise. Contrary to predictions, autistic individuals did not show this priority: processing the interest-related stimuli only when task demands were low. Attention to images unrelated to circumscribed interests was equivalent in the two groups. These results suggest that despite autistic individuals holding an intense interest in a particular class of stimuli, there may be a reduced impact of this prior experience and expertise on attentional processing. The implications of this

  9. Semantic and Affective Salience: The Role of Meaning and Preference in Attentional Capture and Disengagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Adam T.; Kreager, Ryan D.; Gibson, Bradley S.; Villano, Michael; Crowell, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion appears to have a substantial impact on a wide variety of attentional functions. However, stimuli that elicit affective responses also tend to be meaningful. Here we attempted to disentangle the effects of meaning from the effects of affect on attentional capture by irrelevant distractors. Experiment 1 used a previously unfamiliar…

  10. Semantic and Affective Salience: The Role of Meaning and Preference in Attentional Capture and Disengagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Adam T.; Kreager, Ryan D.; Gibson, Bradley S.; Villano, Michael; Crowell, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion appears to have a substantial impact on a wide variety of attentional functions. However, stimuli that elicit affective responses also tend to be meaningful. Here we attempted to disentangle the effects of meaning from the effects of affect on attentional capture by irrelevant distractors. Experiment 1 used a previously unfamiliar…

  11. Semantic and affective salience: the role of meaning and preference in attentional capture and disengagement.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Adam T; Kreager, Ryan D; Gibson, Bradley S; Villano, Michael; Crowell, Charles R

    2012-04-01

    Emotion appears to have a substantial impact on a wide variety of attentional functions. However, stimuli that elicit affective responses also tend to be meaningful. Here we attempted to disentangle the effects of meaning from the effects of affect on attentional capture by irrelevant distractors. Experiment 1 used a previously unfamiliar distractor stimulus, and manipulated the amount of knowledge provided to observers about the distractor. The results suggested that increases in meaning can reduce attentional capture. Experiments 2 and 3 used both familiar and unfamiliar symbols (baseball logos and flags, respectively) as distractors. Critically, of the two familiar symbols, one was rated as affective-positive and the other was rated as affective-negative. As in Experiment 1, the results showed that unfamiliar distractors can capture attention. In addition, the results also suggested that the two affective distractors captured attention (so long as they were sufficiently intense). This finding suggests that while increased knowledge can reduce capture, affect can restore an item's ability to capture attention. Finally, the results of Experiment 4 showed that observers were slower to disengage from a negative item than from a positive item. This evidence emphasizes the differential roles of semantic knowledge versus affect on attentional capture.

  12. Attentional switching forms a genetic link between attention problems and autistic traits in adults.

    PubMed

    Polderman, T J C; Hoekstra, R A; Vinkhuyzen, A A E; Sullivan, P F; van der Sluis, S; Posthuma, D

    2013-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autistic traits often occur together. The pattern and etiology of co-occurrence are largely unknown, particularly in adults. This study investigated the co-occurrence between both traits in detail, and subsequently examined the etiology of the co-occurrence, using two independent adult population samples. Method Data on ADHD traits (Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity) were collected in a population sample (S1, n = 559) of unrelated individuals. Data on Attention Problems (AP) were collected in a population-based family sample of twins and siblings (S2, n = 560). In both samples five dimensions of autistic traits were assessed (social skills, routine, attentional switching, imagination, patterns). Hyperactive traits (S1) did not correlate substantially with the autistic trait dimensions. For Inattention (S1) and AP (S2), the correlations with the autistic trait dimensions were low, apart from a prominent correlation with the attentional switching scale (0.47 and 0.32 respectively). Analyses in the genetically informative S2 revealed that this association could be explained by a shared genetic factor. Our findings suggest that the co-occurrence of ADHD traits and autistic traits in adults is not determined by problems with hyperactivity, social skills, imagination or routine preferences. Instead, the association between those traits is due primarily to shared attention-related problems (inattention and attentional switching capacity). As the etiology of this association is purely genetic, biological pathways involving attentional control could be a promising focus of future studies aimed at unraveling the genetic causes of these disorders.

  13. Detection of Visual Events in Underwater Video Using a Neuromorphic Saliency-based Attention System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgington, D. R.; Walther, D.; Cline, D. E.; Sherlock, R.; Salamy, K. A.; Wilson, A.; Koch, C.

    2003-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) uses high-resolution video equipment on remotely operated vehicles (ROV) to obtain quantitative data on the distribution and abundance of oceanic animals. High-quality video data supplants the traditional approach of assessing the kinds and numbers of animals in the oceanic water column through towing collection nets behind ships. Tow nets are limited in spatial resolution, and often destroy abundant gelatinous animals resulting in species undersampling. Video camera-based quantitative video transects (QVT) are taken through the ocean midwater, from 50m to 4000m, and provide high-resolution data at the scale of the individual animals and their natural aggregation patterns. However, the current manual method of analyzing QVT video by trained scientists is labor intensive and poses a serious limitation to the amount of information that can be analyzed from ROV dives. Presented here is an automated system for detecting marine animals (events) visible in the videos. Automated detection is difficult due to the low contrast of many translucent animals and due to debris ("marine snow") cluttering the scene. Video frames are processed with an artificial intelligence attention selection algorithm that has proven a robust means of target detection in a variety of natural terrestrial scenes. The candidate locations identified by the attention selection module are tracked across video frames using linear Kalman filters. Typically, the occurrence of visible animals in the video footage is sparse in space and time. A notion of "boring" video frames is developed by detecting whether or not there is an interesting candidate object for an animal present in a particular sequence of underwater video -- video frames that do not contain any "interesting" events. If objects can be tracked successfully over several frames, they are stored as potentially "interesting" events. Based on low-level properties, interesting events are

  14. Attention and positive affect: temporal switching or spatial broadening?

    PubMed

    Phaf, R Hans

    2015-04-01

    Evolutionary reasoning and computation suggest that positive affect is associated with higher attentional flexibility than negative affect, even when affectively neutral material is processed. The affective modulation of interference in the Eriksen flanker task seems, however, more readily explained by a spatial broadening of attention due to positive affect. It is argued here that these results should also be interpreted in terms of an increased switching over time between flankers and target (i.e., flexibility). The two hypotheses were contrasted with positive and negative mood inductions in a masked-flanker task. The interval (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony; SOA) with which the masked flankers preceded the target letter was parametrically varied. In contrast to what is found with simultaneous non-masked flanker presentation, masking produced larger interference with negative than with positive moods. In addition, a crossover interaction between mood and SOA emerged. These results seem incompatible with a spatial broadening account and support an affective modulation account in terms of flexibility.

  15. Impaired Activation of Visual Attention Network for Motion Salience Is Accompanied by Reduced Functional Connectivity between Frontal Eye Fields and Visual Cortex in Strabismic Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Crewther, Sheila G.; Liang, Minglong; Laycock, Robin; Yu, Tao; Alexander, Bonnie; Crewther, David P.; Wang, Jian; Yin, Zhengqin

    2017-01-01

    Strabismic amblyopia is now acknowledged to be more than a simple loss of acuity and to involve alterations in visually driven attention, though whether this applies to both stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention has not been explored. Hence we investigated monocular threshold performance during a motion salience-driven attention task involving detection of a coherent dot motion target in one of four quadrants in adult controls and those with strabismic amblyopia. Psychophysical motion thresholds were impaired for the strabismic amblyopic eye, requiring longer inspection time and consequently slower target speed for detection compared to the fellow eye or control eyes. We compared fMRI activation and functional connectivity between four ROIs of the occipital-parieto-frontal visual attention network [primary visual cortex (V1), motion sensitive area V5, intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and frontal eye fields (FEF)], during a suprathreshold version of the motion-driven attention task, and also a simple goal-directed task, requiring voluntary saccades to targets randomly appearing along a horizontal line. Activation was compared when viewed monocularly by controls and the amblyopic and its fellow eye in strabismics. BOLD activation was weaker in IPS, FEF and V5 for both tasks when viewing through the amblyopic eye compared to viewing through the fellow eye or control participants' non-dominant eye. No difference in V1 activation was seen between the amblyopic and fellow eye, nor between the two eyes of control participants during the motion salience task, though V1 activation was significantly less through the amblyopic eye than through the fellow eye and control group non-dominant eye viewing during the voluntary saccade task. Functional correlations of ROIs within the attention network were impaired through the amblyopic eye during the motion salience task, whereas this was not the case during the voluntary saccade task. Specifically, FEF showed reduced functional

  16. Switching auditory attention using spatial and non-spatial features recruits different cortical networks.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric; Lee, Adrian K C

    2014-01-01

    Switching attention between different stimuli of interest based on particular task demands is important in many everyday settings. In audition in particular, switching attention between different speakers of interest that are talking concurrently is often necessary for effective communication. Recently, it has been shown by multiple studies that auditory selective attention suppresses the representation of unwanted streams in auditory cortical areas in favor of the target stream of interest. However, the neural processing that guides this selective attention process is not well understood. Here we investigated the cortical mechanisms involved in switching attention based on two different types of auditory features. By combining magneto- and electro-encephalography (M-EEG) with an anatomical MRI constraint, we examined the cortical dynamics involved in switching auditory attention based on either spatial or pitch features. We designed a paradigm where listeners were cued in the beginning of each trial to switch or maintain attention halfway through the presentation of concurrent target and masker streams. By allowing listeners time to switch during a gap in the continuous target and masker stimuli, we were able to isolate the mechanisms involved in endogenous, top-down attention switching. Our results show a double dissociation between the involvement of right temporoparietal junction (RTPJ) and the left inferior parietal supramarginal part (LIPSP) in tasks requiring listeners to switch attention based on space and pitch features, respectively, suggesting that switching attention based on these features involves at least partially separate processes or behavioral strategies.

  17. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction. PMID:26793078

  18. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction.

  19. More Attention to Attention? An Eye-Tracking Investigation of Selection of Perceptual Attributes during a Task Switch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longman, Cai S.; Lavric, Aureliu; Monsell, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Switching tasks prolongs response times, an effect reduced but not eliminated by active preparation. To explore the role of attentional selection of the relevant stimulus attribute in these task-switch costs, we measured eye fixations in participants cued to identify either a face or a letter displayed on its forehead. With only 200 ms between cue…

  20. More Attention to Attention? An Eye-Tracking Investigation of Selection of Perceptual Attributes during a Task Switch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longman, Cai S.; Lavric, Aureliu; Monsell, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Switching tasks prolongs response times, an effect reduced but not eliminated by active preparation. To explore the role of attentional selection of the relevant stimulus attribute in these task-switch costs, we measured eye fixations in participants cued to identify either a face or a letter displayed on its forehead. With only 200 ms between cue…

  1. Influence of preparation time and pitch separation in switching of auditory attention between streams.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric; Lee, Adrian K C

    2013-08-01

    The ability to consciously switch attention between speakers of interest is necessary for communication in many environments, especially when multiple talkers speak simultaneously. Segregating sounds of interest from the background, which is necessary for selective attention, depends on stimulus acoustics such as differences in spectrotemporal properties of the target and masker. However, the relationship between top-down attention control and bottom-up stimulus segregation is not well understood. Here, two experiments were conducted to examine the time necessary for listeners to switch auditory attention, and how the ability to switch attention relates to the pitch separation cue available for bottom-up stream segregation.

  2. Brain oscillations in switching vs. focusing audio-visual attention.

    PubMed

    Rapela, Joaquin; Gramann, Klaus; Westerfield, Marissa; Townsend, Jeanne; Makeig, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Selective attention contributes to perceptual efficiency by modulating cortical activity according to task demands. The majority of attentional research has focused on the effects of attention to a single modality, and little is known about the role of attention in multimodal sensory processing. Here we employ a novel experimental design to examine the electrophysiological basis of audio-visual attention shifting. We use electroencephalography (EEG) to study differences in brain dynamics between quickly shifting attention between modalities and focusing attention on a single modality for extended periods of time. We also address interactions between attentional effects generated by the attention-shifting cue and those generated by subsequent stimuli. The conclusions from these examinations address key issues in attentional research, including the supramodal theory of attention, or the role of attention in foveal vision. The experimental design and analysis methods used here may suggest new directions in the study of the physiological basis of attention.

  3. 'Trails B or not Trails B?' Is attention-switching a useful outcome measure?

    PubMed

    Tonks, James; Williams, W Huw; Mounce, Luke; Harris, Duncan; Frampton, Ian; Yates, Phil; Slater, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Difficulties with attention contribute to behavioural and cognitive problems during childhood and may reflect subtle deficits in executive functioning (EF). Attention problems in early childhood have also been found to predict higher levels of anxiety and depression symptoms at 10 years old. It has also been reported that attention problems during childhood may be differentially related to later-emerging distinct EF difficulties. Many of these findings, however, rely on teacher-ratings of attention difficulties. This study administered neuropsychological tests of attention-switching and EF to 67 healthy children aged 9-15 years of age. It additionally measured socio-emotional behavioural functioning. A critical phase of improvement was found at 10 years of age. Correlations were found between attention-switching skills and EF. Attention-switching skills were also correlated with socio-emotional functioning. Attention-switching skills have some interdependence with EF, but in paediatric assessment such skills are easier to routinely assess than many of the currently available tests of EF. It is suggested that attention-switching ability may prove to be a useful predictor of EF performance in understanding long-term outcome after a neurological event such as traumatic brain injury.

  4. Common and Distinct Neural Mechanisms of Attentional Switching and Response Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chobok; Johnson, Nathan F.; Gold, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    The human capacities for overcoming prepotent actions and flexibly switching between tasks represent cornerstones of cognitive control. Functional neuroimaging has implicated a diverse set of brain regions contributing to each of these cognitive control processes. However, the extent to which attentional switching and response conflict draw on shared or distinct neural mechanisms remains unclear. The current study examined the neural correlates of response conflict and attentional switching using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a fully randomized 2×2 design. We manipulated an arrow-word version of the Stroop task to measure conflict and switching in the context of a single task decision, in response to a common set of stimuli. Under these common conditions, both behavioral and imaging data showed significant main effects of conflict and switching but no interaction. However, conjunction analyses identified frontal regions involved in both switching and response conflict, including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and left inferior frontal junction. In addition, connectivity analyses demonstrated task-dependent functional connectivity patterns between dACC and inferior temporal cortex for attentional switching and between dACC and posterior parietal cortex for response conflict. These results suggest that the brain makes use of shared frontal regions, but can dynamically modulate the connectivity patterns of some of those regions, to deal with attentional switching and response conflict. PMID:22750124

  5. Cross-Modal Attention-Switching Is Impaired in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Phil; McCarthy, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This investigation aimed to determine if children with ASD are impaired in their ability to switch attention between different tasks, and whether performance is further impaired when required to switch across two separate modalities (visual and auditory). Eighteen children with ASD (9-13 years old) were compared with 18 typically-developing…

  6. Electrophysiological Evidence for Endogenous Control of Attention in Switching between Languages in Overt Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoef, Kim M. W.; Roelofs, Ardi; Chwilla, Dorothee J.

    2010-01-01

    Language switching in bilingual speakers requires attentional control to select the appropriate language, for example, in picture naming. Previous language-switch studies used the color of pictures to indicate the required language thereby confounding endogenous and exogenous control. To investigate endogenous language control, our language cues…

  7. Electrophysiological Evidence for Endogenous Control of Attention in Switching between Languages in Overt Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoef, Kim M. W.; Roelofs, Ardi; Chwilla, Dorothee J.

    2010-01-01

    Language switching in bilingual speakers requires attentional control to select the appropriate language, for example, in picture naming. Previous language-switch studies used the color of pictures to indicate the required language thereby confounding endogenous and exogenous control. To investigate endogenous language control, our language cues…

  8. Saliency Changes Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Kerzel, Dirk; Schönhammer, Josef; Burra, Nicolas; Born, Sabine; Souto, David

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that the deployment of attention is linked to saliency. In contrast, very little is known about how salient objects are perceived. To probe the perception of salient elements, observers compared two horizontally aligned stimuli in an array of eight elements. One of them was salient because of its orientation or direction of motion. We observed that the perceived luminance contrast or color saturation of the salient element increased: the salient stimulus looked even more salient. We explored the possibility that changes in appearance were caused by attention. We chose an event-related potential indexing attentional selection, the N2pc, to answer this question. The absence of an N2pc to the salient object provides preliminary evidence against involuntary attentional capture by the salient element. We suggest that signals from a master saliency map flow back into individual feature maps. These signals boost the perceived feature contrast of salient objects, even on perceptual dimensions different from the one that initially defined saliency. PMID:22162760

  9. Binaural beat salience

    PubMed Central

    Grose, John H.; Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of binaural beats have noted individual variability and response lability, but little attention has been paid to the salience of the binaural beat percept. The purpose of this study was to gauge the strength of the binaural beat percept by matching its salience to that of sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM), and to then compare rate discrimination for the two types of fluctuation. Rate discrimination was measured for standard rates of 4, 8, 16, and 32 Hz – all in the 500-Hz carrier region. Twelve normal-hearing adults participated in this study. The results indicated that discrimination acuity for binaural beats is similar to that for SAM tones whose depths of modulation have been adjusted to provide equivalent modulation salience. The matched-salience SAM tones had relatively shallow depths of modulation, suggesting that the perceptual strength of binaural beats is relatively weak, although all listeners perceived them. The Weber fraction for detection of an increase in binaural beat rate is roughly constant across beat rates, at least for rates above 4 Hz, as is rate discrimination for SAM tones. PMID:22326292

  10. Binaural beat salience.

    PubMed

    Grose, John H; Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies of binaural beats have noted individual variability and response lability, but little attention has been paid to the salience of the binaural beat percept. The purpose of this study was to gauge the strength of the binaural beat percept by matching its salience to that of sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM), and to then compare rate discrimination for the two types of fluctuation. Rate discrimination was measured for standard rates of 4, 8, 16, and 32 Hz - all in the 500-Hz carrier region. Twelve normal-hearing adults participated in this study. The results indicated that discrimination acuity for binaural beats is similar to that for SAM tones whose depths of modulation have been adjusted to provide equivalent modulation salience. The matched-salience SAM tones had relatively shallow depths of modulation, suggesting that the perceptual strength of binaural beats is relatively weak, although all listeners perceived them. The Weber fraction for detection of an increase in binaural beat rate is roughly constant across beat rates, at least for rates above 4 Hz, as is rate discrimination for SAM tones.

  11. Early Development of Subcortical Regions Involved in Non-Cued Attention Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, B. J.; Davidson, Matthew C.; Hara, Yuko; Thomas, Kathleen M.; Martinez, Antigona; Galvan, Adriana; Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Rodriguez-Aranda, Claudia E.; Tottenham, Nim

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive and neural development of attention switching using a simple forced-choice attention task and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fourteen children and adults made discriminations among stimuli based on either shape or color. Performance on these trials was compared to performance during blocked trials…

  12. Early Development of Subcortical Regions Involved in Non-Cued Attention Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, B. J.; Davidson, Matthew C.; Hara, Yuko; Thomas, Kathleen M.; Martinez, Antigona; Galvan, Adriana; Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Rodriguez-Aranda, Claudia E.; Tottenham, Nim

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive and neural development of attention switching using a simple forced-choice attention task and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fourteen children and adults made discriminations among stimuli based on either shape or color. Performance on these trials was compared to performance during blocked trials…

  13. Cluster-based co-saliency detection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huazhu; Cao, Xiaochun; Tu, Zhuowen

    2013-10-01

    Co-saliency is used to discover the common saliency on the multiple images, which is a relatively underexplored area. In this paper, we introduce a new cluster-based algorithm for co-saliency detection. Global correspondence between the multiple images is implicitly learned during the clustering process. Three visual attention cues: contrast, spatial, and corresponding, are devised to effectively measure the cluster saliency. The final co-saliency maps are generated by fusing the single image saliency and multiimage saliency. The advantage of our method is mostly bottom-up without heavy learning, and has the property of being simple, general, efficient, and effective. Quantitative and qualitative experiments result in a variety of benchmark datasets demonstrating the advantages of the proposed method over the competing co-saliency methods. Our method on single image also outperforms most the state-of-the-art saliency detection methods. Furthermore, we apply the co-saliency method on four vision applications: co-segmentation, robust image distance, weakly supervised learning, and video foreground detection, which demonstrate the potential usages of the co-saliency map.

  14. Cluster-based Co-saliency Detection

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Huazhu; Cao, Xiaochun; Tu, Zhuowen

    2013-01-01

    Co-saliency is used to discover the common saliency on the multiple images, which is a relatively under-explored area. In this paper, we introduce a new cluster-based algorithm for co-saliency detection. Global correspondence between the multiple images is implicitly learned during the clustering process. Three visual attention cues: contrast, spatial, and corresponding, are devised to effectively measure the cluster saliency. The final co-saliency maps are generated by fusing the single image saliency and multi-image saliency. The advantage of our method is mostly bottom-up without heavy learning, and has the property of being simple, general, efficient, and effective. Quantitative and qualitative experimental results on a variety of benchmark datasets demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method over the competing co-saliency methods, and our method on single image also outperforms most the state-of-the-art saliency detection methods. Furthermore, we apply the co-saliency method on four vision applications: co-segmentation, robust image distance, weakly supervised learning, and video foreground detection, which demonstrate the potential usages of the co-saliency map. PMID:23629857

  15. Selective attentional enhancement and inhibition of fronto-posterior connectivity by the basal ganglia during attention switching.

    PubMed

    van Schouwenburg, Martine R; den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Cools, Roshan

    2015-06-01

    The prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia interact to selectively gate a desired action. Recent studies have shown that this selective gating mechanism of the basal ganglia extends to the domain of attention. Here, we investigate the nature of this action-like gating mechanism for attention using a spatial attention-switching paradigm in combination with functional neuroimaging and dynamic causal modeling. We show that the basal ganglia guide attention by focally releasing inhibition of task-relevant representations, while simultaneously inhibiting task-irrelevant representations by selectively modulating prefrontal top-down connections. These results strengthen and specify the role of the basal ganglia in attention. Moreover, our findings have implications for psychological theorizing by suggesting that inhibition of unattended sensory regions is not only a consequence of mutual suppression, but is an active process, subserved by the basal ganglia.

  16. Age-Related Changes in the Ability to Switch between Temporal and Spatial Attention.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Eleanor; Holland, Carol; Kessler, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identifying age-related changes in cognition that contribute towards reduced driving performance is important for the development of interventions to improve older adults' driving and prolong the time that they can continue to drive. While driving, one is often required to switch from attending to events changing in time, to distribute attention spatially. Although there is extensive research into both spatial attention and temporal attention and how these change with age, the literature on switching between these modalities of attention is limited within any age group. Methods: Age groups (21-30, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70+ years) were compared on their ability to switch between detecting a target in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream and detecting a target in a visual search display. To manipulate the cost of switching, the target in the RSVP stream was either the first item in the stream (Target 1st), towards the end of the stream (Target Mid), or absent from the stream (Distractor Only). Visual search response times and accuracy were recorded. Target 1st trials behaved as no-switch trials, as attending to the remaining stream was not necessary. Target Mid and Distractor Only trials behaved as switch trials, as attending to the stream to the end was required. Results: Visual search response times (RTs) were longer on "Target Mid" and "Distractor Only" trials in comparison to "Target 1st" trials, reflecting switch-costs. Larger switch-costs were found in both the 40-49 and 60-69 years group in comparison to the 21-30 years group when switching from the Target Mid condition. Discussion: Findings warrant further exploration as to whether there are age-related changes in the ability to switch between these modalities of attention while driving. If older adults display poor performance when switching between temporal and spatial attention while driving, then the development of an intervention to preserve and improve this ability would be

  17. Age-Related Changes in the Ability to Switch between Temporal and Spatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Eleanor; Holland, Carol; Kessler, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identifying age-related changes in cognition that contribute towards reduced driving performance is important for the development of interventions to improve older adults’ driving and prolong the time that they can continue to drive. While driving, one is often required to switch from attending to events changing in time, to distribute attention spatially. Although there is extensive research into both spatial attention and temporal attention and how these change with age, the literature on switching between these modalities of attention is limited within any age group. Methods: Age groups (21–30, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69 and 70+ years) were compared on their ability to switch between detecting a target in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream and detecting a target in a visual search display. To manipulate the cost of switching, the target in the RSVP stream was either the first item in the stream (Target 1st), towards the end of the stream (Target Mid), or absent from the stream (Distractor Only). Visual search response times and accuracy were recorded. Target 1st trials behaved as no-switch trials, as attending to the remaining stream was not necessary. Target Mid and Distractor Only trials behaved as switch trials, as attending to the stream to the end was required. Results: Visual search response times (RTs) were longer on “Target Mid” and “Distractor Only” trials in comparison to “Target 1st” trials, reflecting switch-costs. Larger switch-costs were found in both the 40–49 and 60–69 years group in comparison to the 21–30 years group when switching from the Target Mid condition. Discussion: Findings warrant further exploration as to whether there are age-related changes in the ability to switch between these modalities of attention while driving. If older adults display poor performance when switching between temporal and spatial attention while driving, then the development of an intervention to preserve and

  18. Saliency-aware video compression.

    PubMed

    Hadizadeh, Hadi; Bajić, Ivan V

    2014-01-01

    In region-of-interest (ROI)-based video coding, ROI parts of the frame are encoded with higher quality than non-ROI parts. At low bit rates, such encoding may produce attention-grabbing coding artifacts, which may draw viewer's attention away from ROI, thereby degrading visual quality. In this paper, we present a saliency-aware video compression method for ROI-based video coding. The proposed method aims at reducing salient coding artifacts in non-ROI parts of the frame in order to keep user's attention on ROI. Further, the method allows saliency to increase in high quality parts of the frame, and allows saliency to reduce in non-ROI parts. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is able to improve visual quality of encoded video relative to conventional rate distortion optimized video coding, as well as two state-of-the art perceptual video coding methods.

  19. Cognitive Mechanisms in Chronic Tinnitus: Psychological Markers of a Failure to Switch Attention

    PubMed Central

    Trevis, Krysta J.; McLachlan, Neil M.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive mechanisms underpinning chronic tinnitus (CT; phantom auditory perceptions) are underexplored but may reflect a failure to switch attention away from a tinnitus sound. Here, we investigated a range of components that influence the ability to switch attention, including cognitive control, inhibition, working memory and mood, on the presence and severity of CT. Our participants with tinnitus showed significant impairments in cognitive control and inhibition as well as lower levels of emotional well-being, compared to healthy-hearing participants. Moreover, the subjective cognitive complaints of tinnitus participants correlated with their emotional well-being whereas complaints in healthy participants correlated with objective cognitive functioning. Combined, cognitive control and depressive symptoms correctly classified 67% of participants. These results demonstrate the core role of cognition in CT. They also provide the foundations for a neurocognitive account of the maintenance of tinnitus, involving impaired interactions between the neurocognitive networks underpinning attention-switching and mood. PMID:27605920

  20. Control of working memory: effects of attention training on target recognition and distractor salience in an auditory selection task.

    PubMed

    Melara, Robert D; Tong, Yunxia; Rao, Aparna

    2012-01-09

    Behavioral and electrophysiological measures of target and distractor processing were examined in an auditory selective attention task before and after three weeks of distractor suppression training. Behaviorally, training improved target recognition and led to less conservative and more rapid responding. Training also effectively shortened the temporal distance between distractors and targets needed to achieve a fixed level of target sensitivity. The effects of training on event-related potentials were restricted to the distracting stimulus: earlier N1 latency, enhanced P2 amplitude, and weakened P3 amplitude. Nevertheless, as distractor P2 amplitude increased, so too did target P3 amplitude, connecting experience-dependent changes in distractor processing with greater distinctiveness of targets in working memory. We consider the effects of attention training on the processing priorities, representational noise, and inhibitory processes operating in working memory.

  1. The frontoparietal attention network of the human brain: action, saliency, and a priority map of the environment.

    PubMed

    Ptak, Radek

    2012-10-01

    The dorsal convexity of the human frontal and parietal lobes forms a network that is crucially involved in the selection of sensory contents by attention. This network comprehends cortex along the intraparietal sulcus, the inferior parietal lobe, and dorsal premotor cortex, including the frontal eye field. These regions are richly interconnected with recurrent fibers passing through the superior longitudinal fasciculus. The posterior parietal cortex has several functional characteristics-such as feature-independent coding, enhancement of activity by attention, representation of task-related signals, and access to multiple reference frames-that point to a central role of this region in the computation of a feature- and modality-independent priority map of the environment. The priority map integrates feature information elaborated in sensory cortex and top-down representations of behavioral goals and expectations originating in the dorsolateral prefrontal and premotor cortex. This review presents converging evidence from single-unit studies of the primate brain, functional neuroimaging, and investigations of neuropsychological disorders such as Bálint syndrome and spatial neglect for a decisive role of the frontoparietal attention network in the selection of relevant environmental information.

  2. Effects of state anxiety on performance using a task-switching paradigm: an investigation of attentional control theory.

    PubMed

    Derakshan, Nazanin; Smyth, Sinéad; Eysenck, Michael W

    2009-12-01

    Low- and high-anxious participants performed arithmetical tasks under task-switching or nontask-switching conditions. These tasks were low or high in complexity. The task on each trial was either explicitly cued or not cued. We assumed that demands on attentional control would be greater in the task-switching condition than in the nontask-switching condition, and would be greater with high-complexity tasks than with low-complexity ones. We also assumed that demands on attentional control would be greater when cues were absent rather than present. According to attentional control theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), anxiety impairs attentional control processes required to shift attention optimally within and between tasks. We predicted that there would be greater negative effects of high state anxiety in the task-switching condition than in the nontask-switching condition. Our theoretical predictions were supported, suggesting that state anxiety reduces attentional control.

  3. Assessing the construct validity of aberrant salience.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kristin; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2009-01-01

    We sought to validate the psychometric properties of a recently developed paradigm that aims to measure salience attribution processes proposed to contribute to positive psychotic symptoms, the Salience Attribution Test (SAT). The "aberrant salience" measure from the SAT showed good face validity in previous results, with elevated scores both in high-schizotypy individuals, and in patients with schizophrenia suffering from delusions. Exploring the construct validity of salience attribution variables derived from the SAT is important, since other factors, including latent inhibition/learned irrelevance (LIrr), attention, probabilistic reward learning, sensitivity to probability, general cognitive ability and working memory could influence these measures. Fifty healthy participants completed schizotypy scales, the SAT, a LIrr task, and a number of other cognitive tasks tapping into potentially confounding processes. Behavioural measures of interest from each task were entered into a principal components analysis, which yielded a five-factor structure accounting for approximately 75% of the variance in behaviour. Implicit aberrant salience was found to load onto its own factor, which was associated with elevated "Introvertive Anhedonia" schizotypy, replicating our previous finding. LIrr loaded onto a separate factor, which also included implicit adaptive salience, but was not associated with schizotypy. Explicit adaptive and aberrant salience, along with a measure of probabilistic learning, loaded onto a further factor, though this also did not correlate with schizotypy. These results suggest that the measures of LIrr and implicit adaptive salience might be based on similar underlying processes, which are dissociable both from implicit aberrant salience and explicit measures of salience.

  4. Self-Paced Preparation for a Task Switch Eliminates Attentional Inertia but Not the Performance Switch Cost.

    PubMed

    Longman, Cai S; Lavric, Aureliu; Monsell, Stephen

    2016-12-12

    The performance overhead associated with changing tasks (the "switch cost") usually diminishes when the task is specified in advance but is rarely eliminated by preparation. A popular account of the "residual" (asymptotic) switch cost is that it reflects "task-set inertia": carry-over of task-set parameters from the preceding trial(s). New evidence for a component of "task-set inertia" comes from eye-tracking, where the location associated with the previously (but no longer) relevant task is fixated preferentially over other irrelevant locations, even when preparation intervals are generous. Might such limits in overcoming task-set inertia in general, and "attentional inertia" in particular, result from suboptimal scheduling of preparation when the time available is outside one's control? In the present study, the stimulus comprised 3 digits located at the points of an invisible triangle, preceded by a central verbal cue specifying which of 3 classification tasks to perform, each consistently applied to just 1 digit location. The digits were presented only when fixation moved away from the cue, thus giving the participant control over preparation time. In contrast to our previous research with experimenter-determined preparation intervals, we found no sign of attentional inertia for the long preparation intervals. Self-paced preparation reduced but did not eliminate the performance switch cost-leaving a clear residual component in both reaction time and error rates. That the scheduling of preparation accounts for some, but not all, components of the residual switch cost, challenges existing accounts of the switch cost, even those which distinguish between preparatory and poststimulus reconfiguration processes. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. L-theanine and caffeine improve task switching but not intersensory attention or subjective alertness.

    PubMed

    Einöther, Suzanne J L; Martens, Vanessa E G; Rycroft, Jane A; De Bruin, Eveline A

    2010-04-01

    Tea ingredients L-theanine and caffeine have repeatedly been shown to deliver unique cognitive benefits when consumed in combination. The current randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study compared a combination of L-theanine (97 mg) and caffeine (40 mg) to a placebo on two attention tasks and a self-report questionnaire before, and 10 and 60 min after consumption. The combination of L-theanine and caffeine significantly improved attention on a switch task as compared to the placebo, while subjective alertness and intersensory attention were not improved significantly. The results support previous evidence that L-theanine and caffeine in combination can improve attention.

  6. Attention capture by eye of origin singletons even without awareness--a hallmark of a bottom-up saliency map in the primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Zhaoping, Li

    2008-05-07

    neurons with the eye of origin information are abundant in the primary visual cortex (V1) and scarce in other cortical areas, and since visual awareness is believed to be absent or weaker in V1 than in other cortical areas, our results provide a hallmark of the role of V1 in creating a bottom-up saliency map to guide attentional selection.

  7. Electrophysiological evidence for endogenous control of attention in switching between languages in overt picture naming.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Kim M W; Roelofs, Ardi; Chwilla, Dorothee J

    2010-08-01

    Language switching in bilingual speakers requires attentional control to select the appropriate language, for example, in picture naming. Previous language-switch studies used the color of pictures to indicate the required language thereby confounding endogenous and exogenous control. To investigate endogenous language control, our language cues preceded picture stimuli by 750 msec. Cue-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured while Dutch-English bilingual speakers overtly named pictures. The response language on consecutive trials could be the same (repeat trials) or different (switch trials). Naming latencies were longer on switch than on repeat trials, independent of the response language. Cue-locked ERPs showed an early posterior negativity for switch compared to repeat trials for L2 but not for L1, and a late anterior negativity for switch compared to repeat trials for both languages. The early switch-repeat effect might reflect disengaging from the nontarget native language, whereas the late switch-repeat effect reflects engaging in the target language. Implications for models of bilingual word production are discussed.

  8. ERP Correlates of Encoding Success and Encoding Selectivity in Attention Switching

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Long-term memory encoding depends critically on effective processing of incoming information. The degree to which participants engage in effective encoding can be indexed in electroencephalographic (EEG) data by studying event-related potential (ERP) subsequent memory effects. The current study investigated ERP correlates of memory success operationalised with two different measures—memory selectivity and global memory—to assess whether previously observed ERP subsequent memory effects reflect focused encoding of task-relevant information (memory selectivity), general encoding success (global memory), or both. Building on previous work, the present study combined an attention switching paradigm—in which participants were presented with compound object-word stimuli and switched between attending to the object or the word across trials—with a later recognition memory test for those stimuli, while recording their EEG. Our results provided clear evidence that subsequent memory effects resulted from selective attentional focusing and effective top-down control (memory selectivity) in contrast to more general encoding success effects (global memory). Further analyses addressed the question of whether successful encoding depended on similar control mechanisms to those involved in attention switching. Interestingly, differences in the ERP correlates of attention switching and successful encoding, particularly during the poststimulus period, indicated that variability in encoding success occurred independently of prestimulus demands for top-down cognitive control. These results suggest that while effects of selective attention and selective encoding co-occur behaviourally their ERP correlates are at least partly dissociable. PMID:27907075

  9. ERP Correlates of Encoding Success and Encoding Selectivity in Attention Switching.

    PubMed

    Richter, Franziska R; Yeung, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Long-term memory encoding depends critically on effective processing of incoming information. The degree to which participants engage in effective encoding can be indexed in electroencephalographic (EEG) data by studying event-related potential (ERP) subsequent memory effects. The current study investigated ERP correlates of memory success operationalised with two different measures-memory selectivity and global memory-to assess whether previously observed ERP subsequent memory effects reflect focused encoding of task-relevant information (memory selectivity), general encoding success (global memory), or both. Building on previous work, the present study combined an attention switching paradigm-in which participants were presented with compound object-word stimuli and switched between attending to the object or the word across trials-with a later recognition memory test for those stimuli, while recording their EEG. Our results provided clear evidence that subsequent memory effects resulted from selective attentional focusing and effective top-down control (memory selectivity) in contrast to more general encoding success effects (global memory). Further analyses addressed the question of whether successful encoding depended on similar control mechanisms to those involved in attention switching. Interestingly, differences in the ERP correlates of attention switching and successful encoding, particularly during the poststimulus period, indicated that variability in encoding success occurred independently of prestimulus demands for top-down cognitive control. These results suggest that while effects of selective attention and selective encoding co-occur behaviourally their ERP correlates are at least partly dissociable.

  10. Saliency tree: a novel saliency detection framework.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Zou, Wenbin; Le Meur, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel saliency detection framework termed as saliency tree. For effective saliency measurement, the original image is first simplified using adaptive color quantization and region segmentation to partition the image into a set of primitive regions. Then, three measures, i.e., global contrast, spatial sparsity, and object prior are integrated with regional similarities to generate the initial regional saliency for each primitive region. Next, a saliency-directed region merging approach with dynamic scale control scheme is proposed to generate the saliency tree, in which each leaf node represents a primitive region and each non-leaf node represents a non-primitive region generated during the region merging process. Finally, by exploiting a regional center-surround scheme based node selection criterion, a systematic saliency tree analysis including salient node selection, regional saliency adjustment and selection is performed to obtain final regional saliency measures and to derive the high-quality pixel-wise saliency map. Extensive experimental results on five datasets with pixel-wise ground truths demonstrate that the proposed saliency tree model consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art saliency models.

  11. Dissociable effects of auditory attention switching and stimulus-response compatibility.

    PubMed

    Lawo, Vera; Koch, Iring

    2014-01-01

    Using a task-switching variant of dichotic listening, we examined the ability to intentionally switch auditory attention between two speakers. We specifically focused on possible interactions with stimulus-response compatibility. In each trial, two words, one spoken by a male and another by a female, were presented dichotically via headphones. In one experimental group, two animal names were presented, and the relevant animal had to be judged as smaller or larger than a sheep by pressing a left or right response key. In another group, two number words were presented and had to be judged as smaller or larger than 5. In each trial, a visual cue indicated the gender of the relevant speaker. Performance was worse when the gender of the relevant speaker switched from trial to trial. These switch costs were larger for animal names than for number words, suggesting stronger interference with slower access to semantic categories. Responses were slower if the side of the target stimulus (as defined by the relevant gender) was spatially incompatible with the required response (as defined by the size judgment). This stimulus-response compatibility effect did not differ across stimulus material and did not interact with attentional switch costs. These results indicate that auditory switch costs and stimulus-response compatibility effects are dissociable, referring to target selection and response selection, respectively.

  12. Education Does Not Protect against Age-Related Decline of Switching Focal Attention in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gerven, Pascal W.M.; Meijer, Willemien A.; Jolles, Jelle

    2007-01-01

    In this experimental study, effects of age and education on switching focal attention in working memory were investigated among 44 young (20-30 years) and 40 middle-aged individuals (50-60 years). To this end, a numeric n-back task comprising two lag conditions (1- and 2-back) was administered within groups. The results revealed a comparable…

  13. Effect of arousal increase in predictable and random task switching: evidence for the involvement of the anterior attentional network in random but not in predictable task switching.

    PubMed

    Solano Galvis, César Augusto; Tornay Mejías, Francisco; Gómez Milán, Emilio

    2010-11-01

    Switch cost does not disappear as more preparation time for the next task is allowed. Tornay and Milán showed that the residual cost is smaller when tasks switch randomly than when they alternate in predictable sequences. They proposed that the difference was due to control mechanisms (anterior attentional network) being activated in the random condition because of its overall difficulty. Besides, it has been shown that increasing arousal levels inhibits the anterior attentional network. Therefore, Tornay and Milán's account predicts that high arousal should result in switch cost for the random condition increasing to the levels of predictable switching. In this work, this prediction was tested by assessing the interaction between increased arousal and switch cost with both predictable and random-task switching. The results may help to solve the ongoing controversy about the causes of switch cost.

  14. Regularized feature reconstruction for spatio-temporal saliency detection.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhixiang; Gao, Shenghua; Chia, Liang-Tien; Rajan, Deepu

    2013-08-01

    Multimedia applications such as image or video retrieval, copy detection, and so forth can benefit from saliency detection, which is essentially a method to identify areas in images and videos that capture the attention of the human visual system. In this paper, we propose a new spatio-temporal saliency detection framework on the basis of regularized feature reconstruction. Specifically, for video saliency detection, both the temporal and spatial saliency detection are considered. For temporal saliency, we model the movement of the target patch as a reconstruction process using the patches in neighboring frames. A Laplacian smoothing term is introduced to model the coherent motion trajectories. With psychological findings that abrupt stimulus could cause a rapid and involuntary deployment of attention, our temporal model combines the reconstruction error, regularizer, and local trajectory contrast to measure the temporal saliency. For spatial saliency, a similar sparse reconstruction process is adopted to capture the regions with high center-surround contrast. Finally, the temporal saliency and spatial saliency are combined together to favor salient regions with high confidence for video saliency detection. We also apply the spatial saliency part of the spatio-temporal model to image saliency detection. Experimental results on a human fixation video dataset and an image saliency detection dataset show that our method achieves the best performance over several state-of-the-art approaches.

  15. Relations as Rules: The Role of Attention in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honomichl, Ryan D.; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Preschoolers are typically unable to switch sorting rules during the Dimensional Change Card Sort task. One explanation for this phenomenon is attentional inflexibility (Kirkham, Cruess, & Diamond, 2003). In 4 experiments with 3- to 4-year-olds, we tested this hypothesis by examining the influence of dimensional salience on switching performance.…

  16. Relations as Rules: The Role of Attention in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honomichl, Ryan D.; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Preschoolers are typically unable to switch sorting rules during the Dimensional Change Card Sort task. One explanation for this phenomenon is attentional inflexibility (Kirkham, Cruess, & Diamond, 2003). In 4 experiments with 3- to 4-year-olds, we tested this hypothesis by examining the influence of dimensional salience on switching performance.…

  17. Task switching in video game players: Benefits of selective attention but not resistance to proactive interference.

    PubMed

    Karle, James W; Watter, Scott; Shedden, Judith M

    2010-05-01

    Research into the perceptual and cognitive effects of playing video games is an area of increasing interest for many investigators. Over the past decade, expert video game players (VGPs) have been shown to display superior performance compared to non-video game players (nVGPs) on a range of visuospatial and attentional tasks. A benefit of video game expertise has recently been shown for task switching, suggesting that VGPs also have superior cognitive control abilities compared to nVGPs. In two experiments, we examined which aspects of task switching performance this VGP benefit may be localized to. With minimal trial-to-trial interference from minimally overlapping task set rules, VGPs demonstrated a task switching benefit compared to nVGPs. However, this benefit disappeared when proactive interference between tasks was increased, with substantial stimulus and response overlap in task set rules. We suggest that VGPs have no generalized benefit in task switching-related cognitive control processes compared to nVGPs, with switch cost reductions due instead to a specific benefit in controlling selective attention.

  18. Attention switching during scene perception: how goals influence the time course of eye movements across advertisements.

    PubMed

    Wedel, Michel; Pieters, Rik; Liechty, John

    2008-06-01

    Eye movements across advertisements express a temporal pattern of bursts of respectively relatively short and long saccades, and this pattern is systematically influenced by activated scene perception goals. This was revealed by a continuous-time hidden Markov model applied to eye movements of 220 participants exposed to 17 ads under a free-viewing condition, and a scene-learning goal (ad memorization), a scene-evaluation goal (ad appreciation), a target-learning goal (product learning), or a target-evaluation goal (product evaluation). The model reflects how attention switches between two states--local and global--expressed in saccades of shorter and longer amplitude on a spatial grid with 48 cells overlaid on the ads. During the 5- to 6-s duration of self-controlled exposure to ads in the magazine context, attention predominantly started in the local state and ended in the global state, and rapidly switched about 5 times between states. The duration of the local attention state was much longer than the duration of the global state. Goals affected the frequency of switching between attention states and the duration of the local, but not of the global, state.

  19. Costs of switching auditory spatial attention in following conversational turn-taking

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gaven; Carlile, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Following a multi-talker conversation relies on the ability to rapidly and efficiently shift the focus of spatial attention from one talker to another. The current study investigated the listening costs associated with shifts in spatial attention during conversational turn-taking in 16 normally-hearing listeners using a novel sentence recall task. Three pairs of syntactically fixed but semantically unpredictable matrix sentences, recorded from a single male talker, were presented concurrently through an array of three loudspeakers (directly ahead and +/−30° azimuth). Subjects attended to one spatial location, cued by a tone, and followed the target conversation from one sentence to the next using the call-sign at the beginning of each sentence. Subjects were required to report the last three words of each sentence (speech recall task) or answer multiple choice questions related to the target material (speech comprehension task). The reading span test, attention network test, and trail making test were also administered to assess working memory, attentional control, and executive function. There was a 10.7 ± 1.3% decrease in word recall, a pronounced primacy effect, and a rise in masker confusion errors and word omissions when the target switched location between sentences. Switching costs were independent of the location, direction, and angular size of the spatial shift but did appear to be load dependent and only significant for complex questions requiring multiple cognitive operations. Reading span scores were positively correlated with total words recalled, and negatively correlated with switching costs and word omissions. Task switching speed (Trail-B time) was also significantly correlated with recall accuracy. Overall, this study highlights (i) the listening costs associated with shifts in spatial attention and (ii) the important role of working memory in maintaining goal relevant information and extracting meaning from dynamic multi-talker conversations

  20. Connectionist interpretation of the association between cognitive dissonance and attention switching.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takao

    2014-12-01

    A novel connectionist model accounting for cognitive dissonance is described, in which the concepts of self and attention switching are considered. The model is composed of a unit corresponding to self, a bistable pair comprising two units relevant to two dissonant cognitions, and links whose weights correspond to cognitive evaluations. The model makes it possible to use mathematical formulas to represent the cognitive-dissonance process. Analysis reveals that the model fits experimental data of major paradigms in cognitive dissonance theory. The model shows that attention switching, which is produced by internal and external stimuli, causes building-up of cognitive dissonance and retardation of its reduction. The psychological phenomenon of selective exposure is interpreted on the basis of the operation of the model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Psilocybin links binocular rivalry switch rate to attention and subjective arousal levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Carter, Olivia L; Hasler, Felix; Pettigrew, John D; Wallis, Guy M; Liu, Guang B; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2007-12-01

    Binocular rivalry occurs when different images are simultaneously presented to each eye. During continual viewing of this stimulus, the observer will experience repeated switches between visual awareness of the two images. Previous studies have suggested that a slow rate of perceptual switching may be associated with clinical and drug-induced psychosis. The objective of the study was to explore the proposed relationship between binocular rivalry switch rate and subjective changes in psychological state associated with 5-HT2A receptor activation. This study used psilocybin, the hallucinogen found naturally in Psilocybe mushrooms that had previously been found to induce psychosis-like symptoms via the 5-HT2A receptor. The effects of psilocybin (215 microg/kg) were considered alone and after pretreatment with the selective 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (50 mg) in ten healthy human subjects. Psilocybin significantly reduced the rate of binocular rivalry switching and increased the proportion of transitional/mixed percept experience. Pretreatment with ketanserin blocked the majority of psilocybin's "positive" psychosis-like hallucinogenic symptoms. However, ketanserin had no influence on either the psilocybin-induced slowing of binocular rivalry or the drug's "negative-type symptoms" associated with reduced arousal and vigilance. Together, these findings link changes in binocular rivalry switching rate to subjective levels of arousal and attention. In addition, it suggests that psilocybin's effect on binocular rivalry is unlikely to be mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor.

  2. Why does older adults' balance become less stable when walking and performing a secondary task? Examination of attentional switching abilities.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Teresa D; Siu, Ka-Chun; Silsupadol, Patima; Woollacott, Marjorie H

    2012-01-01

    Previous research using dual-task paradigms indicates balance-impaired older adults (BIOAs) are less able to flexibly shift attentional focus between a cognitive and motor task than healthy older adults (HOA). Shifting attention is a component of executive function. Task switch tests assess executive attention function. This multivariate study asked if BIOAs demonstrate greater task switching deficits than HOAs. A group of 39 HOA (65-80 years) and BIOA (65-87 years) subjects performed a visuo-spatial task switch. A sub-group of subjects performed a dual-task obstacle avoidance paradigm. All participants completed the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Timed Up and Go (TUG). We assessed differences by group for: (1) visuo-spatial task switch reaction times (switch/no-switch), and performance on the BBS and TUG. Our balance groups differed significantly on BBS score (p<.001) and switch reaction time (p=.032), but not the TUG. This confirmed our hypothesis that neuromuscular and executive attention function differs between these two groups. For our BIOA sub-group, gait velocity correlated negatively with performance on the switch condition (p=.036). This suggests that BIOA efficiency of attentional allocation in dual task settings should be further explored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Discrete object representation, attention switching, and task difficulty in the parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Rhodri; Mitchell, Daniel J; Duncan, John

    2010-01-01

    An important component of perception, attention, and memory is the structuring of information into subsets ("objects"), which allows some parts to be considered together but kept separate from others. Portions of the posterior parietal lobe respond proportionally to the number of objects in the scope of attention and short-term memory, up to a capacity limit of around four, suggesting they have a role in this important process. This study investigates the relationship of discrete object representation to other parietal functions. Two experiments and two supplementary analyses were conducted to evaluate responsivity in parietal regions to the number of objects, the number of spatial locations, attention switching, and general task difficulty. Using transparent motion, it was found that a posterior and inferior parietal response to multiple objects persists even in the absence of a change in visual extent or the number of spatial locations. In a monitoring task, it was found that attention switching (or task difficulty) and object representation have distinct neural signatures, with the former showing greater recruitment of an anterior and lateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS) region, but the latter in a posterior and lateral region. A dissociation was also seen between selectivity for object load across tasks in the inferior IPS and feature or object-related memory load in the superior IPS.

  4. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and working memory: a task switching paradigm.

    PubMed

    Wu, K K; Anderson, V; Castiello, U

    2006-11-01

    This study investigated working memory (WM) in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) using a task switching paradigm with Stroop color-word stimuli which required participants to switch from color-naming to word-reading. High and low WM load conditions were compared by manipulation of task reminders as a tempo cue. The sample comprised 83 children with ADHD and 29 normal children comparable in age (aged 7 to 13). Within the ADHD group, participants were divided according to the presence or absence of Learning Disability (LD). Results indicated that children with ADHD had slower response times and less accurate responses in general, however, the ADHD groups were not consistently slower in the high WM load condition. Instead, an impairment in adjusting response speed to cope with higher task demands (i.e., high WM load condition) was found. These results do not support the previously documented association between ADHD and a primary deficit in WM for task switching. However, children with ADHD do demonstrate a specific difficulty in slowing down for a demanding task. Present findings suggest that earlier proposals of under-arousal and poor state regulation in ADHD deserve renewed attention.

  5. Improving Visual Saliency Computing With Emotion Intensity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiying; Xu, Min; Wang, Jinqiao; Rao, Tianrong; Burnett, Ian

    2016-06-01

    Saliency maps that integrate individual feature maps into a global measure of visual attention are widely used to estimate human gaze density. Most of the existing methods consider low-level visual features and locations of objects, and/or emphasize the spatial position with center prior. Recent psychology research suggests that emotions strongly influence human visual attention. In this paper, we explore the influence of emotional content on visual attention. On top of the traditional bottom-up saliency map generation, our saliency map is generated in cooperation with three emotion factors, i.e., general emotional content, facial expression intensity, and emotional object locations. Experiments, carried out on National University of Singapore Eye Fixation (a public eye tracking data set), demonstrate that incorporating emotion does improve the quality of visual saliency maps computed by bottom-up approaches for the gaze density estimation. Our method increases about 0.1 on an average of area under the curve of receiver operation characteristic curve, compared with the four baseline bottom-up approaches (Itti's, attention based on information maximization, saliency using natural, and graph-based vision saliency).

  6. Shape saliency for remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng; Hong, Huo; Fang, Tao; Li, Deren

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, a shape saliency measure for only shape feature of each object in the image is described. Instead biologically-inspired bottom-up Itti model, the dissimilarity is measured by the shape feature. And, Fourier descriptor is used for measuring dissimilarity in this paper. In the model, the object is determined as a salient region, when it is far different from others. Different value of the saliency is ranged to generate a saliency map. It is shown that the attention shift processing can be recorded. Some results from psychological images and remote sensing images are shown and discussed in the paper.

  7. Neuro-Oscillatory Mechanisms of Intersensory Selective Attention and Task Switching in School-Aged Children, Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jeremy W.; Foxe, John J.; Molholm, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The ability to attend to one among multiple sources of information is central to everyday functioning. Just as central is the ability to switch attention among competing inputs as the task at hand changes. Such processes develop surprisingly slowly, such that even into adolescence, we remain slower and more error prone at switching among tasks…

  8. Individuals with Asperger's Disorder Exhibit Difficulty in Switching Attention from a Local Level to a Global Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical…

  9. Neuro-Oscillatory Mechanisms of Intersensory Selective Attention and Task Switching in School-Aged Children, Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jeremy W.; Foxe, John J.; Molholm, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The ability to attend to one among multiple sources of information is central to everyday functioning. Just as central is the ability to switch attention among competing inputs as the task at hand changes. Such processes develop surprisingly slowly, such that even into adolescence, we remain slower and more error prone at switching among tasks…

  10. Individuals with Asperger's Disorder Exhibit Difficulty in Switching Attention from a Local Level to a Global Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical…

  11. Unified Saliency Detection Model Using Color and Texture Features.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Libo; Yang, Lin; Luo, Tiejian

    2016-01-01

    Saliency detection attracted attention of many researchers and had become a very active area of research. Recently, many saliency detection models have been proposed and achieved excellent performance in various fields. However, most of these models only consider low-level features. This paper proposes a novel saliency detection model using both color and texture features and incorporating higher-level priors. The SLIC superpixel algorithm is applied to form an over-segmentation of the image. Color saliency map and texture saliency map are calculated based on the region contrast method and adaptive weight. Higher-level priors including location prior and color prior are incorporated into the model to achieve a better performance and full resolution saliency map is obtained by using the up-sampling method. Experimental results on three datasets demonstrate that the proposed saliency detection model outperforms the state-of-the-art models.

  12. Unified Saliency Detection Model Using Color and Texture Features

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Tiejian

    2016-01-01

    Saliency detection attracted attention of many researchers and had become a very active area of research. Recently, many saliency detection models have been proposed and achieved excellent performance in various fields. However, most of these models only consider low-level features. This paper proposes a novel saliency detection model using both color and texture features and incorporating higher-level priors. The SLIC superpixel algorithm is applied to form an over-segmentation of the image. Color saliency map and texture saliency map are calculated based on the region contrast method and adaptive weight. Higher-level priors including location prior and color prior are incorporated into the model to achieve a better performance and full resolution saliency map is obtained by using the up-sampling method. Experimental results on three datasets demonstrate that the proposed saliency detection model outperforms the state-of-the-art models. PMID:26889826

  13. Individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical stimuli. In both groups, level-repetition was beneficial at both levels. Furthermore, individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibited difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level compared to control individuals. These findings suggested that there is a problem with the inhibitory mechanism that influences the output of enhanced local visual processing in Asperger's disorder.

  14. Decoding successive computational stages of saliency processing.

    PubMed

    Bogler, Carsten; Bode, Stefan; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2011-10-11

    An important requirement for vision is to identify interesting and relevant regions of the environment for further processing. Some models assume that salient locations from a visual scene are encoded in a dedicated spatial saliency map [1, 2]. Then, a winner-take-all (WTA) mechanism [1, 2] is often believed to threshold the graded saliency representation and identify the most salient position in the visual field. Here we aimed to assess whether neural representations of graded saliency and the subsequent WTA mechanism can be dissociated. We presented images of natural scenes while subjects were in a scanner performing a demanding fixation task, and thus their attention was directed away. Signals in early visual cortex and posterior intraparietal sulcus (IPS) correlated with graded saliency as defined by a computational saliency model. Multivariate pattern classification [3, 4] revealed that the most salient position in the visual field was encoded in anterior IPS and frontal eye fields (FEF), thus reflecting a potential WTA stage. Our results thus confirm that graded saliency and WTA-thresholded saliency are encoded in distinct neural structures. This could provide the neural representation required for rapid and automatic orientation toward salient events in natural environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Olfaction spontaneously highlights visual saliency map.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kepu; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Shan; He, Sheng; Zhou, Wen

    2013-10-07

    Attention is intrinsic to our perceptual representations of sensory inputs. Best characterized in the visual domain, it is typically depicted as a spotlight moving over a saliency map that topographically encodes strengths of visual features and feedback modulations over the visual scene. By introducing smells to two well-established attentional paradigms, the dot-probe and the visual-search paradigms, we find that a smell reflexively directs attention to the congruent visual image and facilitates visual search of that image without the mediation of visual imagery. Furthermore, such effect is independent of, and can override, top-down bias. We thus propose that smell quality acts as an object feature whose presence enhances the perceptual saliency of that object, thereby guiding the spotlight of visual attention. Our discoveries provide robust empirical evidence for a multimodal saliency map that weighs not only visual but also olfactory inputs.

  16. Visual saliency computations: mechanisms, constraints, and the effect of feedback.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Alireza; Koch, Christof

    2010-09-22

    The primate visual system continuously selects spatial proscribed regions, features or objects for further processing. These selection mechanisms--collectively termed selective visual attention--are guided by intrinsic, bottom-up and by task-dependent, top-down signals. While much psychophysical research has shown that overt and covert attention is partially allocated based on saliency-driven exogenous signals, it is unclear how this is accomplished at the neuronal level. Recent electrophysiological experiments in monkeys point to the gradual emergence of saliency signals when ascending the dorsal visual stream and to the influence of top-down attention on these signals. To elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying these observations, we construct a biologically plausible network of spiking neurons to simulate the formation of saliency signals in different cortical areas. We find that saliency signals are rapidly generated through lateral excitation and inhibition in successive layers of neural populations selective to a single feature. These signals can be improved by feedback from a higher cortical area that represents a saliency map. In addition, we show how top-down attention can affect the saliency signals by disrupting this feedback through its action on the saliency map. While we find that saliency computations require dominant slow NMDA currents, the signal rapidly emerges from successive regions of the network. In conclusion, using a detailed spiking network model we find biophysical mechanisms and limitations of saliency computations which can be tested experimentally.

  17. Prospective timing, attention and the switch. A response to 'Gating or switching? gating is a better model of prospective timing' by Zakay.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, H

    2000-12-07

    In response to the 'Switching or gating' paper (Lejeune, H., 1998. Switching or gating? The attentional challenge in cognitive models of psychological time. Behav. Proc. 44, 127-145), Zakay argued that attention allocation to time should reflect attentional processes in general and suggested that the attentional gate model (AGM) has more explanatory power than the temporal information processing model (TIP) of Church (Church, R.M., 1984. Properties of the internal clock. In: Gibbon, J., Allan, L., (Eds.), Timing and Time Perception, vol. 423. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 566-582). The first point might not be challenged, provided that the specificity of the temporal stimulus is taken into account. Concerning the second point, we argue that the TIP model can account for human prospective timing and discuss differences between attention versus expectancy or motivation. We prefer a 'satellite' attention allocation process, targeting the switch and reference memory (Meck, W.H., 1983. Selective adjustment of the speed of the internal clock and memory processes. J. Exp. Psychol.: Anim. Behav. Proc. 9, 171-201) to an attentional gate serially included in the TIP model of Church.

  18. Attention Switching and Multimedia Learning: The Impact of Executive Resources on the Integrative Comprehension of Texts and Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baadte, Christiane; Rasch, Thorsten; Honstein, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The ability to flexibly allocate attention to goal-relevant information is pivotal for the completion of high-level cognitive processes. For instance, in comprehending illustrated texts, the reader permanently has to switch the attentional focus between the text and the corresponding picture in order to extract relevant information from both…

  19. Attention Switching and Multimedia Learning: The Impact of Executive Resources on the Integrative Comprehension of Texts and Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baadte, Christiane; Rasch, Thorsten; Honstein, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The ability to flexibly allocate attention to goal-relevant information is pivotal for the completion of high-level cognitive processes. For instance, in comprehending illustrated texts, the reader permanently has to switch the attentional focus between the text and the corresponding picture in order to extract relevant information from both…

  20. Beauty Hinders Attention Switch in Change Detection: The Role of Facial Attractiveness and Distinctiveness

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenfeng; Liu, Chang Hong; Nakabayashi, Kazuyo

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent research has shown that the presence of a task-irrelevant attractive face can induce a transient diversion of attention from a perceptual task that requires covert deployment of attention to one of the two locations. However, it is not known whether this spontaneous appraisal for facial beauty also modulates attention in change detection among multiple locations, where a slower, and more controlled search process is simultaneously affected by the magnitude of a change and the facial distinctiveness. Using the flicker paradigm, this study examines how spontaneous appraisal for facial beauty affects the detection of identity change among multiple faces. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants viewed a display consisting of two alternating frames of four faces separated by a blank frame. In half of the trials, one of the faces (target face) changed to a different person. The task of the participant was to indicate whether a change of face identity had occurred. The results showed that (1) observers were less efficient at detecting identity change among multiple attractive faces relative to unattractive faces when the target and distractor faces were not highly distinctive from one another; and (2) it is difficult to detect a change if the new face is similar to the old. Conclusions/Significance The findings suggest that attractive faces may interfere with the attention-switch process in change detection. The results also show that attention in change detection was strongly modulated by physical similarity between the alternating faces. Although facial beauty is a powerful stimulus that has well-demonstrated priority, its influence on change detection is easily superseded by low-level image similarity. The visual system appears to take a different approach to facial beauty when a task requires resource-demanding feature comparisons. PMID:22393457

  1. Beauty hinders attention switch in change detection: the role of facial attractiveness and distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenfeng; Liu, Chang Hong; Nakabayashi, Kazuyo

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the presence of a task-irrelevant attractive face can induce a transient diversion of attention from a perceptual task that requires covert deployment of attention to one of the two locations. However, it is not known whether this spontaneous appraisal for facial beauty also modulates attention in change detection among multiple locations, where a slower, and more controlled search process is simultaneously affected by the magnitude of a change and the facial distinctiveness. Using the flicker paradigm, this study examines how spontaneous appraisal for facial beauty affects the detection of identity change among multiple faces. Participants viewed a display consisting of two alternating frames of four faces separated by a blank frame. In half of the trials, one of the faces (target face) changed to a different person. The task of the participant was to indicate whether a change of face identity had occurred. The results showed that (1) observers were less efficient at detecting identity change among multiple attractive faces relative to unattractive faces when the target and distractor faces were not highly distinctive from one another; and (2) it is difficult to detect a change if the new face is similar to the old. The findings suggest that attractive faces may interfere with the attention-switch process in change detection. The results also show that attention in change detection was strongly modulated by physical similarity between the alternating faces. Although facial beauty is a powerful stimulus that has well-demonstrated priority, its influence on change detection is easily superseded by low-level image similarity. The visual system appears to take a different approach to facial beauty when a task requires resource-demanding feature comparisons.

  2. Relationships between trait impulsivity and cognitive control: the effect of attention switching on response inhibition and conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    Leshem, Rotem

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between trait impulsivity and cognitive control, as measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and a focused attention dichotic listening to words task, respectively. In the task, attention was manipulated in two attention conditions differing in their cognitive control demands: one in which attention was directed to one ear at a time for a whole block of trials (blocked condition) and another in which attention was switched pseudo-randomly between the two ears from trial to trial (mixed condition). Results showed that high impulsivity participants exhibited more false alarm and intrusion errors as well as a lesser ability to distinguish between stimuli in the mixed condition, as compared to low impulsivity participants. In the blocked condition, the performance levels of the two groups were comparable with respect to these measures. In addition, total BIS scores were correlated with intrusions and laterality index in the mixed but not the blocked condition. The findings suggest that high impulsivity individuals may be less prone to attentional difficulties when cognitive load is relatively low. In contrast, when attention switching is involved, high impulsivity is associated with greater difficulty in inhibiting responses and resolving cognitive conflict than is low impulsivity, as reflected in error-prone information processing. The conclusion is that trait impulsivity in a non-clinical population is manifested more strongly when attention switching is required than during maintained attention. This may have important implications for the conceptualization and treatment of impulsivity in both non-clinical and clinical populations.

  3. Object recognition with hierarchical discriminant saliency networks

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sunhyoung; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of integrating attention and object recognition are investigated. While attention is frequently modeled as a pre-processor for recognition, we investigate the hypothesis that attention is an intrinsic component of recognition and vice-versa. This hypothesis is tested with a recognition model, the hierarchical discriminant saliency network (HDSN), whose layers are top-down saliency detectors, tuned for a visual class according to the principles of discriminant saliency. As a model of neural computation, the HDSN has two possible implementations. In a biologically plausible implementation, all layers comply with the standard neurophysiological model of visual cortex, with sub-layers of simple and complex units that implement a combination of filtering, divisive normalization, pooling, and non-linearities. In a convolutional neural network implementation, all layers are convolutional and implement a combination of filtering, rectification, and pooling. The rectification is performed with a parametric extension of the now popular rectified linear units (ReLUs), whose parameters can be tuned for the detection of target object classes. This enables a number of functional enhancements over neural network models that lack a connection to saliency, including optimal feature denoising mechanisms for recognition, modulation of saliency responses by the discriminant power of the underlying features, and the ability to detect both feature presence and absence. In either implementation, each layer has a precise statistical interpretation, and all parameters are tuned by statistical learning. Each saliency detection layer learns more discriminant saliency templates than its predecessors and higher layers have larger pooling fields. This enables the HDSN to simultaneously achieve high selectivity to target object classes and invariance. The performance of the network in saliency and object recognition tasks is compared to those of models from the biological and

  4. Self-Paced Preparation for a Task Switch Eliminates Attentional Inertia but Not the Performance Switch Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longman, Cai S.; Lavric, Aureliu; Monsell, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The performance overhead associated with changing tasks (the "switch cost") usually diminishes when the task is specified in advance but is rarely eliminated by preparation. A popular account of the "residual" (asymptotic) switch cost is that it reflects "task-set inertia": carry-over of task-set parameters from the…

  5. Neuroelectric and Behavioral Effects of Acute Exercise on Task Switching in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Tsai, Yu-Jung; Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this two-part study was to examine the effects of acute, moderate intensity exercise on task switching in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In Study 1, we compared the task switching performance of children with and without ADHD. Twenty children with ADHD and 20 matched controls performed the task switching paradigm, in which the behavioral indices and P3 component of event-related potentials elicited by task-switching were assessed simultaneously. The amplitude and latency of P3 reflected the amount of attention resource allocated to task-relevant stimulus in the environment and the efficiency of stimulus detection and evaluation, respectively. The task switching included two conditions; the pure condition required participants to perform the task on the same rule (e.g., AAAA or BBBB) whereas the mixed condition required participants to perform the task on two alternating rules (e.g., AABBAA…). The results indicated that children with ADHD had significantly longer RTs, less accuracy, and larger global switch cost for accuracy than controls. Additionally, ADHD participants showed smaller amplitudes and longer P3 latencies in global switch effects. In Study 2, we further examined the effects of an acute aerobic exercise session on task switching in children with ADHD. Thirty-four children with ADHD performed a task switching paradigm after 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on a treadmill and after control sessions (watching videos while seated). The results revealed that following exercise, children with ADHD exhibited smaller global switch costs in RT compared with after control sessions. The P3 amplitude only increased following exercise in the mixed condition relative to the pure condition, whereas no effects were found in the control session. These findings suggest that single bouts of moderate intensity aerobic exercise may have positive effects on the working memory of children with ADHD. PMID

  6. MPEG-4 AVC saliency map computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, M.; Mitrea, M.; Hasnaoui, M.

    2014-02-01

    A saliency map provides information about the regions inside some visual content (image, video, ...) at which a human observer will spontaneously look at. For saliency maps computation, current research studies consider the uncompressed (pixel) representation of the visual content and extract various types of information (intensity, color, orientation, motion energy) which are then fusioned. This paper goes one step further and computes the saliency map directly from the MPEG-4 AVC stream syntax elements with minimal decoding operations. In this respect, an a-priori in-depth study on the MPEG-4 AVC syntax elements is first carried out so as to identify the entities appealing the visual attention. Secondly, the MPEG-4 AVC reference software is completed with software tools allowing the parsing of these elements and their subsequent usage in objective benchmarking experiments. This way, it is demonstrated that an MPEG-4 saliency map can be given by a combination of static saliency and motion maps. This saliency map is experimentally validated under a robust watermarking framework. When included in an m-QIM (multiple symbols Quantization Index Modulation) insertion method, PSNR average gains of 2.43 dB, 2.15dB, and 2.37 dB are obtained for data payload of 10, 20 and 30 watermarked blocks per I frame, i.e. about 30, 60, and 90 bits/second, respectively. These quantitative results are obtained out of processing 2 hours of heterogeneous video content.

  7. Habitual Short Sleep Impacts Frontal Switch Mechanism in Attention to Novelty

    PubMed Central

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Roth, Thomas; Korzyukov, Oleg; Jefferson, Catherine; Bowyer, Susan; Drake, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    individuals and may require longer recovery periods. Citation: Gumenyuk V; Roth T; Korzyukov O; Jefferson C; Bowyer S; Drake CL. Habitual short sleep impacts frontal switch mechanism in attention to novelty. SLEEP 2011;34(12):1659-1670. PMID:22131603

  8. Neuro-oscillatory mechanisms of intersensory selective attention and task switching in school-aged children, adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jeremy W; Foxe, John J; Molholm, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    The ability to attend to one among multiple sources of information is central to everyday functioning. Just as central is the ability to switch attention among competing inputs as the task at hand changes. Such processes develop surprisingly slowly, such that even into adolescence, we remain slower and more error prone at switching among tasks compared to young adults. The amplitude of oscillations in the alpha band (~8-14 Hz) tracks the top-down deployment of attention, and there is growing evidence that alpha can act as a suppressive mechanism to bias attention away from distracting sensory input. Moreover, the amplitude of alpha has also been shown to be sensitive to the demands of switching tasks. To understand the neural basis of protracted development of these executive functions, we recorded high-density electrophysiology from school-aged children (8-12 years), adolescents (13-17), and young adults (18-34) as they performed a cued inter-sensory selective attention task. The youngest participants showed increased susceptibility to distracting inputs that was especially evident when switching tasks. Concordantly, they showed weaker and delayed onset of alpha modulation compared to the older groups. Thus the flexible and efficient deployment of alpha to bias competition among attentional sets remains underdeveloped in school-aged children.

  9. Selective target processing: perceptual load or distractor salience?

    PubMed

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Fox, Elaine

    2005-07-01

    Perceptual load theory (Lavie, 1995) states that participants cannot engage in focused attention when shown displays containing a low perceptual load, because attentional resources are not exhausted, whereas in high-load displays attention is always focused, because attentional resources are exhausted. An alternative "salience" hypothesis holds that the salience of distractors and not perceptual load per se determines selective attention. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the influence that target and distractor onsets and offsets have on selective processing in a standard interference task. Perceptual load theory predicts that, regardless of target or distractor presentation (onset or offset), interference from ignored distractors should occur in low-load displays only. In contrast, the salience hypothesis predicts that interference should occur when the distractor appears as an onset and would occur for distractor offsets only when the target was also an offset. Interference may even occur in highload displays if the distractor is more salient. The results supported the salience hypothesis.

  10. Switches of stimulus tagging frequencies interact with the conflict-driven control of selective attention, but not with inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Scherbaum, Stefan; Frisch, Simon; Dshemuchadse, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention and its adaptation by cognitive control processes are considered a core aspect of goal-directed action. Often, selective attention is studied behaviorally with conflict tasks, but an emerging neuroscientific method for the study of selective attention is EEG frequency tagging. It applies different flicker frequencies to the stimuli of interest eliciting steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) in the EEG. These oscillating SSVEPs in the EEG allow tracing the allocation of selective attention to each tagged stimulus continuously over time. The present behavioral investigation points to an important caveat of using tagging frequencies: The flicker of stimuli not only produces a useful neuroscientific marker of selective attention, but interacts with the adaptation of selective attention itself. Our results indicate that RT patterns of adaptation after response conflict (so-called conflict adaptation) are reversed when flicker frequencies switch at once. However, this effect of frequency switches is specific to the adaptation by conflict-driven control processes, since we find no effects of frequency switches on inhibitory control processes after no-go trials. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding and propose precautions that should be taken into account when studying conflict adaptation using frequency tagging in order to control for the described confounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The coupling between spatial attention and other components of task-set: A task-switching investigation.

    PubMed

    Longman, Cai S; Lavric, Aureliu; Monsell, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    Is spatial attention reconfigured independently of, or in tandem with, other task-set components when the task changes? We tracked the eyes of participants cued to perform one of three digit-classification tasks, each consistently associated with a distinct location. Previously we observed, on task switch trials, a substantial delay in orientation to the task-relevant location and tendency to fixate the location of the previously relevant task-"attentional inertia". In the present experiments the cues specified (and instructions emphasized) the relevant location rather than the current task. In Experiment 1, with explicit spatial cues (arrows or spatial adverbs), the previously documented attentional handicaps all but disappeared, whilst the performance "switch cost" increased. Hence, attention can become decoupled from other aspects of task-set, but at a cost to the efficacy of task-set preparation. Experiment 2 used arbitrary single-letter cues with instructions and a training regime that encouraged participants to interpret the cue as indicating the relevant location rather than task. As in our previous experiments, and unlike in Experiment 1, we now observed clear switch-induced attentional delay and inertia, suggesting that the natural tendency is for spatial attention and task-set to be coupled and that only quasi-exogenous location cues decouple their reconfiguration.

  12. Affective salience can reverse the effects of stimulus-driven salience on eye movements in complex scenes.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yaqing; Todd, Rebecca M; Anderson, A K

    2012-01-01

    In natural vision both stimulus features and cognitive/affective factors influence an observer's attention. However, the relationship between stimulus-driven ("bottom-up") and cognitive/affective ("top-down") factors remains controversial: Can affective salience counteract strong visual stimulus signals and shift attention allocation irrespective of bottom-up features? Is there any difference between negative and positive scenes in terms of their influence on attention deployment? Here we examined the impact of affective factors on eye movement behavior, to understand the competition between visual stimulus-driven salience and affective salience and how they affect gaze allocation in complex scene viewing. Building on our previous research, we compared predictions generated by a visual salience model with measures indexing participant-identified emotionally meaningful regions of each image. To examine how eye movement behavior differs for negative, positive, and neutral scenes, we examined the influence of affective salience in capturing attention according to emotional valence. Taken together, our results show that affective salience can override stimulus-driven salience and overall emotional valence can determine attention allocation in complex scenes. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that cognitive/affective factors play a dominant role in active gaze control.

  13. Affective Salience Can Reverse the Effects of Stimulus-Driven Salience on Eye Movements in Complex Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yaqing; Todd, Rebecca M.; Anderson, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    In natural vision both stimulus features and cognitive/affective factors influence an observer’s attention. However, the relationship between stimulus-driven (“bottom-up”) and cognitive/affective (“top-down”) factors remains controversial: Can affective salience counteract strong visual stimulus signals and shift attention allocation irrespective of bottom-up features? Is there any difference between negative and positive scenes in terms of their influence on attention deployment? Here we examined the impact of affective factors on eye movement behavior, to understand the competition between visual stimulus-driven salience and affective salience and how they affect gaze allocation in complex scene viewing. Building on our previous research, we compared predictions generated by a visual salience model with measures indexing participant-identified emotionally meaningful regions of each image. To examine how eye movement behavior differs for negative, positive, and neutral scenes, we examined the influence of affective salience in capturing attention according to emotional valence. Taken together, our results show that affective salience can override stimulus-driven salience and overall emotional valence can determine attention allocation in complex scenes. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that cognitive/affective factors play a dominant role in active gaze control. PMID:23055990

  14. DISC: Deep Image Saliency Computing via Progressive Representation Learning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianshui; Lin, Liang; Liu, Lingbo; Luo, Xiaonan; Li, Xuelong

    2016-06-01

    Salient object detection increasingly receives attention as an important component or step in several pattern recognition and image processing tasks. Although a variety of powerful saliency models have been intensively proposed, they usually involve heavy feature (or model) engineering based on priors (or assumptions) about the properties of objects and backgrounds. Inspired by the effectiveness of recently developed feature learning, we provide a novel deep image saliency computing (DISC) framework for fine-grained image saliency computing. In particular, we model the image saliency from both the coarse-and fine-level observations, and utilize the deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to learn the saliency representation in a progressive manner. In particular, our saliency model is built upon two stacked CNNs. The first CNN generates a coarse-level saliency map by taking the overall image as the input, roughly identifying saliency regions in the global context. Furthermore, we integrate superpixel-based local context information in the first CNN to refine the coarse-level saliency map. Guided by the coarse saliency map, the second CNN focuses on the local context to produce fine-grained and accurate saliency map while preserving object details. For a testing image, the two CNNs collaboratively conduct the saliency computing in one shot. Our DISC framework is capable of uniformly highlighting the objects of interest from complex background while preserving well object details. Extensive experiments on several standard benchmarks suggest that DISC outperforms other state-of-the-art methods and it also generalizes well across data sets without additional training. The executable version of DISC is available online: http://vision.sysu.edu.cn/projects/DISC.

  15. Testing Saliency Parameters for Automatic Target Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, Sagar

    2012-01-01

    A bottom-up visual attention model (the saliency model) is tested to enhance the performance of Automated Target Recognition (ATR). JPL has developed an ATR system that identifies regions of interest (ROI) using a trained OT-MACH filter, and then classifies potential targets as true- or false-positives using machine-learning techniques. In this project, saliency is used as a pre-processing step to reduce the space for performing OT-MACH filtering. Saliency parameters, such as output level and orientation weight, are tuned to detect known target features. Preliminary results are promising and future work entails a rigrous and parameter-based search to gain maximum insight about this method.

  16. The effects of cannabis use on salience attribution: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wijayendran, Surapi Bhairavi; O'Neill, Aisling; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

    2016-11-21

    The relationship between cannabis use and the onset of psychosis is well established. Aberrant salience processing is widely thought to underpin many of these symptoms. Literature explicitly investigating the relationship between aberrant salience processing and cannabis use is scarce; with those few studies finding that acute tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration (the main psychoactive component of cannabis) can result in abnormal salience processing in healthy cohorts, mirroring that observed in psychosis. Nevertheless, the extent of and mechanisms through which cannabis has a modulatory effect on aberrant salience, following both acute and chronic use, remain unclear. Here, we systematically review recent findings on the effects of cannabis use - either through acute THC administration or in chronic users - on brain regions associated with salience processing (through functional MRI data); and performance in cognitive tasks that could be used as either direct or indirect measures of salience processing. We identified 13 studies either directly or indirectly exploring salience processing. Three types of salience were identified and discussed - incentive/motivational, emotional/affective, and attentional salience. The results demonstrated an impairment of immediate salience processing, following acute THC administration. Amongst the long-term cannabis users, normal salience performance appeared to be underpinned by abnormal neural processes. Overall, the lack of research specifically exploring the effects of cannabis use on salience processing, weaken any conclusions drawn. Additional research explicitly focussed on salience processing and cannabis use is required to advance our understanding of the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the association between cannabis use and development of psychosis.

  17. Combination and switching of stimulants in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in quebec.

    PubMed

    Ben Amor, Leila; Sikirica, Vanja; Cloutier, Martin; Lachaine, Jean; Guerin, Annie; Carter, Valerie; Hodgkins, Paul; van Stralen, Judy

    2014-09-01

    To assess the one-year period prevalence of stimulant combination therapy and switching in children/ adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Quebec, Canada. Patients aged 6-17 years, with at least two ADHD diagnosis codes documented in different visits and at least 30 days' supply of a stimulant during their most recent one-year observation period were selected from the Regie de l'assurance maladie du Quebec database (03/2007-02/2012). Combination therapy was defined as at least 30 consecutive days of concomitant use of multiple stimulants with different active moieties, or use of a stimulant and another psychotropic medication. Therapy switching was defined as a prescription claim for a new psychotropic medication less than 30 days before or after the end of supply of a stimulant. The one-year period prevalence of therapy combination and switching was calculated. The one-year period prevalence of combination therapy and switching among 9,431 children and adolescents with ADHD treated with stimulants was 19.8% and 18.7%, respectively. The most frequent combination categories were atypical antipsychotics (AAP: 10.8%), atomoxetine (ATX: 5.5%) and clonidine (5.3%). The most frequent switched-to categories were other stimulants (7.9%), AAP (5.5%) and ATX (4.7%). Approximately one in five children/adolescents with ADHD on a stimulant experienced combination therapy or therapy switching; however, the majority of the medications used in combination or switching were not label-indicated for the treatment of ADHD in Canada. These results highlight the need for further research to evaluate the risk-benefit of stimulant combination and switching in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  18. Combination and Switching of Stimulants in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Ben Amor, Leila; Sikirica, Vanja; Cloutier, Martin; Lachaine, Jean; Guerin, Annie; Carter, Valerie; Hodgkins, Paul; van Stralen, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the one-year period prevalence of stimulant combination therapy and switching in children/ adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Quebec, Canada. Method: Patients aged 6–17 years, with at least two ADHD diagnosis codes documented in different visits and at least 30 days’ supply of a stimulant during their most recent one-year observation period were selected from the Regie de l’assurance maladie du Quebec database (03/2007–02/2012). Combination therapy was defined as at least 30 consecutive days of concomitant use of multiple stimulants with different active moieties, or use of a stimulant and another psychotropic medication. Therapy switching was defined as a prescription claim for a new psychotropic medication less than 30 days before or after the end of supply of a stimulant. The one-year period prevalence of therapy combination and switching was calculated. Results: The one-year period prevalence of combination therapy and switching among 9,431 children and adolescents with ADHD treated with stimulants was 19.8% and 18.7%, respectively. The most frequent combination categories were atypical antipsychotics (AAP: 10.8%), atomoxetine (ATX: 5.5%) and clonidine (5.3%). The most frequent switched-to categories were other stimulants (7.9%), AAP (5.5%) and ATX (4.7%). Conclusions: Approximately one in five children/adolescents with ADHD on a stimulant experienced combination therapy or therapy switching; however, the majority of the medications used in combination or switching were not label-indicated for the treatment of ADHD in Canada. These results highlight the need for further research to evaluate the risk-benefit of stimulant combination and switching in children and adolescents with ADHD. PMID:25320609

  19. Superior colliculus encodes visual saliency before the primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    White, Brian J; Kan, Janis Y; Levy, Ron; Itti, Laurent; Munoz, Douglas P

    2017-08-29

    Models of visual attention postulate the existence of a bottom-up saliency map that is formed early in the visual processing stream. Although studies have reported evidence of a saliency map in various cortical brain areas, determining the contribution of phylogenetically older pathways is crucial to understanding its origin. Here, we compared saliency coding from neurons in two early gateways into the visual system: the primary visual cortex (V1) and the evolutionarily older superior colliculus (SC). We found that, while the response latency to visual stimulus onset was earlier for V1 neurons than superior colliculus superficial visual-layer neurons (SCs), the saliency representation emerged earlier in SCs than in V1. Because the dominant input to the SCs arises from V1, these relative timings are consistent with the hypothesis that SCs neurons pool the inputs from multiple V1 neurons to form a feature-agnostic saliency map, which may then be relayed to other brain areas.

  20. Packet Switching Networks: An Introduction with Some Attention to Selected Vendors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, James Joseph

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the history, development, and services of the packet switching network services that currently exist in the United States. The character of packet switching, a computerized method of transmitting data, is used as the basis for tracing the development of the industry itself. Contending that the…

  1. Multi-Camera Saliency.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan; Jiang, Ming; Wong, Yongkang; Zhao, Qi

    2015-10-01

    A significant body of literature on saliency modeling predicts where humans look in a single image or video. Besides the scientific goal of understanding how information is fused from multiple visual sources to identify regions of interest in a holistic manner, there are tremendous engineering applications of multi-camera saliency due to the widespread of cameras. This paper proposes a principled framework to smoothly integrate visual information from multiple views to a global scene map, and to employ a saliency algorithm incorporating high-level features to identify the most important regions by fusing visual information. The proposed method has the following key distinguishing features compared with its counterparts: (1) the proposed saliency detection is global (salient regions from one local view may not be important in a global context), (2) it does not require special ways for camera deployment or overlapping field of view, and (3) the key saliency algorithm is effective in highlighting interesting object regions though not a single detector is used. Experiments on several data sets confirm the effectiveness of the proposed principled framework.

  2. Aging and Switching the Focus of Attention in Working Memory: Age Differences in Item Availability But Not in Item Accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Verhaeghen, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate age differences in working memory processing, specifically the accuracy of retrieval of items stored outside the immediate focus of attention. Methods. Younger and older adults were tested on a modified N-Back task with probes presented in an unpredictable order (implying also that some trials necessitated a switch in the focus of attention and others that did not). Results. Older adults showed intact item accessibility, that is, after taking general slowing into account, older adults were as fast as younger adults in locating the item in working memory. We found age differences, however, in item availability: Older adults were less likely to correctly retrieve items stored outside the focus of attention. Smaller age differences in availability were also found for items stored inside the focus of attention. Discussion. These results strongly suggest that item availability is a cognitive primitive that is not reducible to more basic constructs such as item accessibility or simple speed of processing. PMID:21571704

  3. Saliency computation via whitened frequency band selection.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qi; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Liming

    2016-06-01

    Many saliency computational models have been proposed to simulate bottom-up visual attention mechanism of human visual system. However, most of them only deal with certain kinds of images or aim at specific applications. In fact, human beings have the ability to correctly select attentive focuses of objects with arbitrary sizes within any scenes. This paper proposes a new bottom-up computational model from the perspective of frequency domain based on the biological discovery of non-Classical Receptive Field (nCRF) in the retina. A saliency map can be obtained according to the idea of Extended Classical Receptive Field. The model is composed of three major steps: firstly decompose the input image into several feature maps representing different frequency bands that cover the whole frequency domain by utilizing Gabor wavelet. Secondly, whiten the feature maps to highlight the embedded saliency information. Thirdly, select some optimal maps, simulating the response of receptive field especially nCRF, to generate the saliency map. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is able to work with stable effect and outstanding performance in a variety of situations as human beings do and is adaptive to both psychological patterns and natural images. Beyond that, biological plausibility of nCRF and Gabor wavelet transform make this approach reliable.

  4. Feature saliency and feedback information interactively impact visual category learning

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Rubi; Sloutsky, Vladimir; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-01-01

    Visual category learning (VCL) involves detecting which features are most relevant for categorization. VCL relies on attentional learning, which enables effectively redirecting attention to object’s features most relevant for categorization, while ‘filtering out’ irrelevant features. When features relevant for categorization are not salient, VCL relies also on perceptual learning, which enables becoming more sensitive to subtle yet important differences between objects. Little is known about how attentional learning and perceptual learning interact when VCL relies on both processes at the same time. Here we tested this interaction. Participants performed VCL tasks in which they learned to categorize novel stimuli by detecting the feature dimension relevant for categorization. Tasks varied both in feature saliency (low-saliency tasks that required perceptual learning vs. high-saliency tasks), and in feedback information (tasks with mid-information, moderately ambiguous feedback that increased attentional load, vs. tasks with high-information non-ambiguous feedback). We found that mid-information and high-information feedback were similarly effective for VCL in high-saliency tasks. This suggests that an increased attentional load, associated with the processing of moderately ambiguous feedback, has little effect on VCL when features are salient. In low-saliency tasks, VCL relied on slower perceptual learning; but when the feedback was highly informative participants were able to ultimately attain the same performance as during the high-saliency VCL tasks. However, VCL was significantly compromised in the low-saliency mid-information feedback task. We suggest that such low-saliency mid-information learning scenarios are characterized by a ‘cognitive loop paradox’ where two interdependent learning processes have to take place simultaneously. PMID:25745404

  5. Superior colliculus neurons encode a visual saliency map during free viewing of natural dynamic video.

    PubMed

    White, Brian J; Berg, David J; Kan, Janis Y; Marino, Robert A; Itti, Laurent; Munoz, Douglas P

    2017-01-24

    Models of visual attention postulate the existence of a saliency map whose function is to guide attention and gaze to the most conspicuous regions in a visual scene. Although cortical representations of saliency have been reported, there is mounting evidence for a subcortical saliency mechanism, which pre-dates the evolution of neocortex. Here, we conduct a strong test of the saliency hypothesis by comparing the output of a well-established computational saliency model with the activation of neurons in the primate superior colliculus (SC), a midbrain structure associated with attention and gaze, while monkeys watched video of natural scenes. We find that the activity of SC superficial visual-layer neurons (SCs), specifically, is well-predicted by the model. This saliency representation is unlikely to be inherited from fronto-parietal cortices, which do not project to SCs, but may be computed in SCs and relayed to other areas via tectothalamic pathways.

  6. Superior colliculus neurons encode a visual saliency map during free viewing of natural dynamic video

    PubMed Central

    White, Brian J.; Berg, David J.; Kan, Janis Y.; Marino, Robert A.; Itti, Laurent; Munoz, Douglas P.

    2017-01-01

    Models of visual attention postulate the existence of a saliency map whose function is to guide attention and gaze to the most conspicuous regions in a visual scene. Although cortical representations of saliency have been reported, there is mounting evidence for a subcortical saliency mechanism, which pre-dates the evolution of neocortex. Here, we conduct a strong test of the saliency hypothesis by comparing the output of a well-established computational saliency model with the activation of neurons in the primate superior colliculus (SC), a midbrain structure associated with attention and gaze, while monkeys watched video of natural scenes. We find that the activity of SC superficial visual-layer neurons (SCs), specifically, is well-predicted by the model. This saliency representation is unlikely to be inherited from fronto-parietal cortices, which do not project to SCs, but may be computed in SCs and relayed to other areas via tectothalamic pathways. PMID:28117340

  7. Superior colliculus neurons encode a visual saliency map during free viewing of natural dynamic video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Brian J.; Berg, David J.; Kan, Janis Y.; Marino, Robert A.; Itti, Laurent; Munoz, Douglas P.

    2017-01-01

    Models of visual attention postulate the existence of a saliency map whose function is to guide attention and gaze to the most conspicuous regions in a visual scene. Although cortical representations of saliency have been reported, there is mounting evidence for a subcortical saliency mechanism, which pre-dates the evolution of neocortex. Here, we conduct a strong test of the saliency hypothesis by comparing the output of a well-established computational saliency model with the activation of neurons in the primate superior colliculus (SC), a midbrain structure associated with attention and gaze, while monkeys watched video of natural scenes. We find that the activity of SC superficial visual-layer neurons (SCs), specifically, is well-predicted by the model. This saliency representation is unlikely to be inherited from fronto-parietal cortices, which do not project to SCs, but may be computed in SCs and relayed to other areas via tectothalamic pathways.

  8. Mesh saliency with adaptive local patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Anass; Charrier, Christophe; Lézoray, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    3D object shapes (represented by meshes) include both areas that attract the visual attention of human observers and others less or not attractive at all. This visual attention depends on the degree of saliency exposed by these areas. In this paper, we propose a technique for detecting salient regions in meshes. To do so, we define a local surface descriptor based on local patches of adaptive size and filled with a local height field. The saliency of mesh vertices is then defined as its degree measure with edges weights computed from adaptive patch similarities. Our approach is compared to the state-of-the-art and presents competitive results. A study evaluating the influence of the parameters establishing this approach is also carried out. The strength and the stability of our approach with respect to noise and simplification are also studied.

  9. Switching of auditory attention in "cocktail-party" listening: ERP evidence of cueing effects in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Getzmann, Stephan; Jasny, Julian; Falkenstein, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Verbal communication in a "cocktail-party situation" is a major challenge for the auditory system. In particular, changes in target speaker usually result in declined speech perception. Here, we investigated whether speech cues indicating a subsequent change in target speaker reduce the costs of switching in younger and older adults. We employed event-related potential (ERP) measures and a speech perception task, in which sequences of short words were simultaneously presented by four speakers. Changes in target speaker were either unpredictable or semantically cued by a word within the target stream. Cued changes resulted in a less decreased performance than uncued changes in both age groups. The ERP analysis revealed shorter latencies in the change-related N400 and late positive complex (LPC) after cued changes, suggesting an acceleration in context updating and attention switching. Thus, both younger and older listeners used semantic cues to prepare changes in speaker setting.

  10. The Effects of Reinvestment of Conscious Processing on Switching Focus of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of switching focusing strategies on complex motor skill learning were investigated using a dart-throwing task. Participants were screened for reinvestment of conscious processing by completing the Reinvestment Scale (RS) of Masters, Polman, and Hammond (1993). After an initial baseline phase, two focusing strategies were described. Low…

  11. Between-Person and Within-Person Associations among Processing Speed, Attention Switching and Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Hofer, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Study Context Theories of cognitive aging predict associations among processes that transpire within individuals, but are often tested by examining between-person relationships. The authors provide an empirical demonstration of how associations among measures of processing speed, attention switching, and working memory are different when considered between persons versus within persons over time. Methods A sample of 108 older adults (Mage: 80.8, range: 66–95) and 68 younger adults (Mage: 20.2, range:18–24) completed measures of processing speed, attention switching, and working memory on six occasions over a 14-day period. Multilevel modeling was used to examine processing speed and attention switching performance as predictors of working memory performance simultaneously across days (within-person) and across individuals (between-person). Results The findings indicates that simple comparison and response speed predicted working memory better than attention switching between persons, whereas attention switching predicted working memory better than simple comparison and response speed within persons over time. Furthermore, the authors did not observe strong evidence of age differences in these associations either within or between persons. Conclusion The findings of the current study suggest that processing speed is important for understanding between-person and age-related differences in working memory, whereas attention switching is more important for understanding within-person variation in working memory. The authors conclude that theories of cognitive aging should be evaluated by analysis of within-person processes, not exclusively age-related individual differences. PMID:23421639

  12. Dopamine, Salience, and Response Set Shifting in Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Shiner, T; Symmonds, M; Guitart-Masip, M; Fleming, S M; Friston, K J; Dolan, R J

    2015-10-01

    Dopamine is implicated in multiple functions, including motor execution, action learning for hedonically salient outcomes, maintenance, and switching of behavioral response set. Here, we used a novel within-subject psychopharmacological and combined functional neuroimaging paradigm, investigating the interaction between hedonic salience, dopamine, and response set shifting, distinct from effects on action learning or motor execution. We asked whether behavioral performance in response set shifting depends on the hedonic salience of reversal cues, by presenting these as null (neutral) or salient (monetary loss) outcomes. We observed marked effects of reversal cue salience on set-switching, with more efficient reversals following salient loss outcomes. L-Dopa degraded this discrimination, leading to inappropriate perseveration. Generic activation in thalamus, insula, and striatum preceded response set switches, with an opposite pattern in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, the behavioral effect of hedonic salience was reflected in differential vmPFC deactivation following salient relative to null reversal cues. l-Dopa reversed this pattern in vmPFC, suggesting that its behavioral effects are due to disruption of the stability and switching of firing patterns in prefrontal cortex. Our findings provide a potential neurobiological explanation for paradoxical phenomena, including maintenance of behavioral set despite negative outcomes, seen in impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

  13. Dopamine, Salience, and Response Set Shifting in Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Shiner, T.; Symmonds, M.; Guitart-Masip, M.; Fleming, S. M.; Friston, K. J.; Dolan, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine is implicated in multiple functions, including motor execution, action learning for hedonically salient outcomes, maintenance, and switching of behavioral response set. Here, we used a novel within-subject psychopharmacological and combined functional neuroimaging paradigm, investigating the interaction between hedonic salience, dopamine, and response set shifting, distinct from effects on action learning or motor execution. We asked whether behavioral performance in response set shifting depends on the hedonic salience of reversal cues, by presenting these as null (neutral) or salient (monetary loss) outcomes. We observed marked effects of reversal cue salience on set-switching, with more efficient reversals following salient loss outcomes. l-Dopa degraded this discrimination, leading to inappropriate perseveration. Generic activation in thalamus, insula, and striatum preceded response set switches, with an opposite pattern in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, the behavioral effect of hedonic salience was reflected in differential vmPFC deactivation following salient relative to null reversal cues. l-Dopa reversed this pattern in vmPFC, suggesting that its behavioral effects are due to disruption of the stability and switching of firing patterns in prefrontal cortex. Our findings provide a potential neurobiological explanation for paradoxical phenomena, including maintenance of behavioral set despite negative outcomes, seen in impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease. PMID:25246512

  14. What do saliency models predict?

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Kathryn; Guo, Fei; Zhang, Sheng; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2014-01-01

    Saliency models have been frequently used to predict eye movements made during image viewing without a specified task (free viewing). Use of a single image set to systematically compare free viewing to other tasks has never been performed. We investigated the effect of task differences on the ability of three models of saliency to predict the performance of humans viewing a novel database of 800 natural images. We introduced a novel task where 100 observers made explicit perceptual judgments about the most salient image region. Other groups of observers performed a free viewing task, saliency search task, or cued object search task. Behavior on the popular free viewing task was not best predicted by standard saliency models. Instead, the models most accurately predicted the explicit saliency selections and eye movements made while performing saliency judgments. Observers' fixations varied similarly across images for the saliency and free viewing tasks, suggesting that these two tasks are related. The variability of observers' eye movements was modulated by the task (lowest for the object search task and greatest for the free viewing and saliency search tasks) as well as the clutter content of the images. Eye movement variability in saliency search and free viewing might be also limited by inherent variation of what observers consider salient. Our results contribute to understanding the tasks and behavioral measures for which saliency models are best suited as predictors of human behavior, the relationship across various perceptual tasks, and the factors contributing to observer variability in fixational eye movements. PMID:24618107

  15. How yawning switches the default-mode network to the attentional network by activating the cerebrospinal fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Yawning is a behavior to which little research has been devoted. However, its purpose has not yet been demonstrated and remains controversial. In this article, we propose a new theory involving the brain network that is functional during the resting state, that is, the default mode network. When this network is active, yawning manifests a process of switching to the attentional system through its capacity to increase circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), thereby increasing clearance of somnogenic factors (prostaglandin D(2), adenosine, and others) accumulating in the cerebrospinal fluid. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Adaptation and visual salience

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Kyle C.; Malkoc, Gokhan; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Webster, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how the salience of color is affected by adaptation to different color distributions. Observers searched for a color target on a dense background of distractors varying along different directions in color space. Prior adaptation to the backgrounds enhanced search on the same background while adaptation to orthogonal background directions slowed detection. Advantages of adaptation were seen for both contrast adaptation (to different color axes) and chromatic adaptation (to different mean chromaticities). Control experiments, including analyses of eye movements during the search, suggest that these aftereffects are unlikely to reflect simple learning or changes in search strategies on familiar backgrounds, and instead result from how adaptation alters the relative salience of the target and background colors. Comparable effects were observed along different axes in the chromatic plane or for axes defined by different combinations of luminance and chromatic contrast, consistent with visual search and adaptation mediated by multiple color mechanisms. Similar effects also occurred for color distributions characteristic of natural environments with strongly selective color gamuts. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that adaptation may play an important functional role in highlighting the salience of novel stimuli by discounting ambient properties of the visual environment. PMID:21106682

  17. Dynamics of the Eye and Head when Switching Visual Attention Between Two Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    DEPARTMENT OF7- INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING -~C; * UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MADISON Hwn= Systems Program DYNAMICS OF THE EYE AND HEAD WHEN SWITCHING VISUAL ...performance status at the time of the visual search command were examined for possible effects on the visual search patterns. Dependent performance measures... visual processing of the monitor before its foveal fixation. unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICAION OF ?NIB PAGKtUMh" Date Uuleue 9 .E Introduction Most

  18. Behavioral effects of transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS): Speed-accuracy tradeoff in attention switching task.

    PubMed

    Morales-Quezada, Leon; Leite, Jorge; Carvalho, Sandra; Castillo-Saavedra, Laura; Cosmo, Camila; Fregni, Felipe

    2016-08-01

    Transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) has been shown to increase inter-hemispheric coherence of brain oscillatory activity, mainly in fronto-temporal regions, leading to enhancement of functional connectivity across neural networks. The question is whether tPCS can modulate behavior significantly. Our aim was to identify the effects of tPCS on paired associative learning task (PALT) and attention switching task (AST), and to further categorize physiological autonomic responses by heart rate variability and electrodermal activity measurements before and after task performance. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomized to receive a single session of sham or active 2mA tPCS stimulation with a random frequency between 1 and 5Hz. We show that active tPCS significantly improved response time in the AST compared to sham stimulation, so that subjects who received active tPCS significantly exhibit decreased switching cost between repeat and switch trials. No differences were found in response accuracy on AST and PALT. No significant changes were observed in physiological parameters. Based on our results, we suggest that tPCS has a more pronounced effect on tasks that require the increase of functional connectivity across pre-existent neural circuitry, rather than on tasks that require the development of new learning circuits or the creation of new connections.

  19. Attentional Switching in Humans and Flies: Rivalry in Large and Miniature Brains

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Steven Mark; Ngo, Trung Thanh; van Swinderen, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Human perception, and consequently behavior, is driven by attention dynamics. In the special case of rivalry, where attention alternates between competing percepts, such dynamics can be measured and their determinants investigated. A recent study in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, now shows that the origins of attentional rivalry may be quite ancient. Furthermore, individual variation exists in the rate of attentional rivalry in both humans and flies, and in humans this is under substantial genetic influence. In the pathophysiological realm, slowing of rivalry rate is associated with the heritable psychiatric condition, bipolar disorder. Fly rivalry may therefore prove a powerful model to examine genetic and molecular influences on rivalry rate, and may even shed light on human cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. PMID:22279432

  20. Learning-based saliency model with depth information.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chih-Yao; Hang, Hsueh-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Most previous studies on visual saliency focused on two-dimensional (2D) scenes. Due to the rapidly growing three-dimensional (3D) video applications, it is very desirable to know how depth information affects human visual attention. In this study, we first conducted eye-fixation experiments on 3D images. Our fixation data set comprises 475 3D images and 16 subjects. We used a Tobii TX300 eye tracker (Tobii, Stockholm, Sweden) to track the eye movement of each subject. In addition, this database contains 475 computed depth maps. Due to the scarcity of public-domain 3D fixation data, this data set should be useful to the 3D visual attention research community. Then, a learning-based visual attention model was designed to predict human attention. In addition to the popular 2D features, we included the depth map and its derived features. The results indicate that the extra depth information can enhance the saliency estimation accuracy specifically for close-up objects hidden in a complex-texture background. In addition, we examined the effectiveness of various low-, mid-, and high-level features on saliency prediction. Compared with both 2D and 3D state-of-the-art saliency estimation models, our methods show better performance on the 3D test images. The eye-tracking database and the MATLAB source codes for the proposed saliency model and evaluation methods are available on our website.

  1. The interaction between social saliency and perceptual saliency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Minghui; Sui, Jie

    2016-12-01

    The ability to select visual targets in hierarchical stimuli can be affected by both perceptual saliency and social saliency. However, the functional relations between the effects are not understood. Here we examined whether these two factors interact or combine in an additive way. Participants first learnt to associate geometric shapes with three people (e.g., triangle-self, square-stranger). After learning the associations, participants were presented with compound stimuli (e.g., a global triangle formed by a set of local squares) and had to select a target at the global or local level. In Experiment 1 the task was to identify the person associated with the local or global shape. In Experiment 2 the task was simply to identify the shape. We manipulated perceptual saliency by blurring local elements to form perceptually global salient stimuli or by contrasting the colours of neighbouring local elements (red vs. white) to form perceptually local salient stimuli. In Experiment 1 (person discrimination) there was a strong effect of saliency on local targets (there were faster and more accurate responses to high than to low saliency targets) when social and perceptual saliency occurred at same level. However, both perceptual and social saliency effects were eliminated when the effect of saliency at one level competed with that at the other level. In Experiment 2 (shape discrimination), there were only effects of perceptual saliency. The data indicate that social saliency interacts with perceptual saliency when explicit social categorizations are made, consistent with both factors modulating a common process of visual selection.

  2. Saliency Detection by Multiple-Instance Learning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Yan, Pingkun; Li, Xuelong

    2013-04-01

    Saliency detection has been a hot topic in recent years. Its popularity is mainly because of its theoretical meaning for explaining human attention and applicable aims in segmentation, recognition, etc. Nevertheless, traditional algorithms are mostly based on unsupervised techniques, which have limited learning ability. The obtained saliency map is also inconsistent with many properties of human behavior. In order to overcome the challenges of inability and inconsistency, this paper presents a framework based on multiple-instance learning. Low-, mid-, and high-level features are incorporated in the detection procedure, and the learning ability enables it robust to noise. Experiments on a data set containing 1000 images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Its applicability is shown in the context of a seam carving application.

  3. Switching in the Cocktail Party: Exploring Intentional Control of Auditory Selective Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Iring; Lawo, Vera; Fels, Janina; Vorlander, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a novel variant of dichotic selective listening, we examined the control of auditory selective attention. In our task, subjects had to respond selectively to one of two simultaneously presented auditory stimuli (number words), always spoken by a female and a male speaker, by performing a numerical size categorization. The gender of the…

  4. Switching in the Cocktail Party: Exploring Intentional Control of Auditory Selective Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Iring; Lawo, Vera; Fels, Janina; Vorlander, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a novel variant of dichotic selective listening, we examined the control of auditory selective attention. In our task, subjects had to respond selectively to one of two simultaneously presented auditory stimuli (number words), always spoken by a female and a male speaker, by performing a numerical size categorization. The gender of the…

  5. A neural network implementation of a saliency map model.

    PubMed

    de Brecht, Matthew; Saiki, Jun

    2006-12-01

    The saliency map model proposed by Itti and Koch [Itti, L., & Koch, C. (2000). A saliency-based search mechanism for overt and covert shifts of visual attention. Vision Research, 40, 1489-1506] has been a popular model for explaining the guidance of visual attention using only bottom-up information. In this paper we expand Itti and Koch's model and propose how it could be implemented by neural networks with biologically realistic dynamics. In particular, we show that by incorporating synaptic depression into the model, network activity can be normalized and competition within the feature maps can be regulated in a biologically plausible manner. Furthermore, the dynamical nature of our model permits further analysis of the time course of saliency computation, and also allows the model to calculate saliency for dynamic visual scenes. In addition to explaining the high saliency of pop-out targets in visual search tasks, our model explains attentional grab by sudden-onset stimuli, which was not accounted for by previous models.

  6. The Social Perceptual Salience Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inderbitzin, Martin P.; Betella, Alberto; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo P.; Bernardet, Ulysses; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Affective processes appraise the salience of external stimuli preparing the agent for action. So far, the relationship between stimuli, affect, and action has been mainly studied in highly controlled laboratory conditions. In order to find the generalization of this relationship to social interaction, we assess the influence of the salience of…

  7. The Social Perceptual Salience Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inderbitzin, Martin P.; Betella, Alberto; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo P.; Bernardet, Ulysses; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Affective processes appraise the salience of external stimuli preparing the agent for action. So far, the relationship between stimuli, affect, and action has been mainly studied in highly controlled laboratory conditions. In order to find the generalization of this relationship to social interaction, we assess the influence of the salience of…

  8. Salience Is Only Briefly Represented: Evidence from Probe-Detection Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donk, Mieke; Soesman, Leroy

    2010-01-01

    Salient objects in the visual field tend to capture attention. The present study aimed to examine the time-course of salience effects using a probe-detection task. Eight experiments investigated how the salience of different orientation singletons affected probe reaction time as a function of stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the…

  9. A saliency-based approach to detection of infrared target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanfei; Sang, Nong; Dan, Zhiping

    2013-10-01

    Automatic target detection in infrared images is a hot research field of national defense technology. We propose a new saliency-based infrared target detection model in this paper, which is based on the fact that human focus of attention is directed towards the relevant target to interpret the most promising information. For a given image, the convolution of the image log amplitude spectrum with a low-pass Gaussian kernel of an appropriate scale is equivalent to an image saliency detector in the frequency domain. At the same time, orientation and shape features extracted are combined into a saliency map in the spatial domain. Our proposed model decides salient targets based on a final saliency map, which is generated by integration of the saliency maps in the frequency and spatial domain. At last, the size of each salient target is obtained by maximizing entropy of the final saliency map. Experimental results show that the proposed model can highlight both small and large salient regions in infrared image, as well as inhibit repeated distractors in cluttered image. In addition, its detecting efficiency has improved significantly.

  10. A co-saliency model of image pairs.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongliang; Ngan, King Ngi

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a method to detect co-saliency from an image pair that may have some objects in common. The co-saliency is modeled as a linear combination of the single-image saliency map (SISM) and the multi-image saliency map (MISM). The first term is designed to describe the local attention, which is computed by using three saliency detection techniques available in literature. To compute the MISM, a co-multilayer graph is constructed by dividing the image pair into a spatial pyramid representation. Each node in the graph is described by two types of visual descriptors, which are extracted from a representation of some aspects of local appearance, e.g., color and texture properties. In order to evaluate the similarity between two nodes, we employ a normalized single-pair SimRank algorithm to compute the similarity score. Experimental evaluation on a number of image pairs demonstrates the good performance of the proposed method on the co-saliency detection task. © 2011 IEEE

  11. Saliency Detection on Light Field.

    PubMed

    Li, Nianyi; Ye, Jinwei; Ji, Yu; Ling, Haibin; Yu, Jingyi

    2017-08-01

    Existing saliency detection approaches use images as inputs and are sensitive to foreground/background similarities, complex background textures, and occlusions. We explore the problem of using light fields as input for saliency detection. Our technique is enabled by the availability of commercial plenoptic cameras that capture the light field of a scene in a single shot. We show that the unique refocusing capability of light fields provides useful focusness, depths, and objectness cues. We further develop a new saliency detection algorithm tailored for light fields. To validate our approach, we acquire a light field database of a range of indoor and outdoor scenes and generate the ground truth saliency map. Experiments show that our saliency detection scheme can robustly handle challenging scenarios such as similar foreground and background, cluttered background, complex occlusions, etc., and achieve high accuracy and robustness.

  12. Preferential Processing of Social Features and Their Interplay with Physical Saliency in Complex Naturalistic Scenes

    PubMed Central

    End, Albert; Gamer, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    According to so-called saliency-based attention models, attention during free viewing of visual scenes is particularly allocated to physically salient image regions. In the present study, we assumed that social features in complex naturalistic scenes would be processed preferentially irrespective of their physical saliency. Therefore, we expected worse prediction of gazing behavior by saliency-based attention models when social information is present in the visual field. To test this hypothesis, participants freely viewed color photographs of complex naturalistic social (e.g., including heads, bodies) and non-social (e.g., including landscapes, objects) scenes while their eye movements were recorded. In agreement with our hypothesis, we found that social features (especially heads) were heavily prioritized during visual exploration. Correspondingly, the presence of social information weakened the influence of low-level saliency on gazing behavior. Importantly, this pattern was most pronounced for the earliest fixations indicating automatic attentional processes. These findings were further corroborated by a linear mixed model approach showing that social features (especially heads) add substantially to the prediction of fixations beyond physical saliency. Taken together, the current study indicates gazing behavior for naturalistic scenes to be better predicted by the interplay of social and physically salient features than by low-level saliency alone. These findings strongly challenge the generalizability of saliency-based attention models and demonstrate the importance of considering social influences when investigating the driving factors of human visual attention. PMID:28424635

  13. Variations in backward masking with different masking stimuli: I. Local interaction versus attentional switch.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Talis; Luiga, Iiris; Põder, Endel

    2005-01-01

    The types of stimuli used as targets and masks considerably change the masking functions in a way that requires us to abandon any single mechanism of masking as the sole explanation of backward masking. In the first of two reports in which the problem of the mask-dependence of masking is addressed, we explore the role of the relative spatial positioning of targets and masks in order to differentiate between local interaction and attentional models. If single letters were masked by double-letter masks then the relative spatial arrangement of the letters, which was changed in order to vary the involvement of metacontrast-like processes, had an effect at shorter SOAs, but not at longer SOAs where strong masking still persisted. This poses difficulties for proposing local contour interaction as the main mechanism of masking. Similarly, crowding effects alone cannot explain the results. Backward masking also involves attention being directed to working-memory processing of the succeeding object while abandoning the preceding object.

  14. Saliency detection for stereoscopic images.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuming; Wang, Junle; Narwaria, Manish; Le Callet, Patrick; Lin, Weisi

    2014-06-01

    Many saliency detection models for 2D images have been proposed for various multimedia processing applications during the past decades. Currently, the emerging applications of stereoscopic display require new saliency detection models for salient region extraction. Different from saliency detection for 2D images, the depth feature has to be taken into account in saliency detection for stereoscopic images. In this paper, we propose a novel stereoscopic saliency detection framework based on the feature contrast of color, luminance, texture, and depth. Four types of features, namely color, luminance, texture, and depth, are extracted from discrete cosine transform coefficients for feature contrast calculation. A Gaussian model of the spatial distance between image patches is adopted for consideration of local and global contrast calculation. Then, a new fusion method is designed to combine the feature maps to obtain the final saliency map for stereoscopic images. In addition, we adopt the center bias factor and human visual acuity, the important characteristics of the human visual system, to enhance the final saliency map for stereoscopic images. Experimental results on eye tracking databases show the superior performance of the proposed model over other existing methods.

  15. Ecological Origins of Object Salience: Reward, Uncertainty, Aversiveness, and Novelty

    PubMed Central

    Ghazizadeh, Ali; Griggs, Whitney; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2016-01-01

    Among many objects around us, some are more salient than others (i.e., attract our attention automatically). Some objects may be inherently salient (e.g., brighter), while others may become salient by virtue of their ecological relevance through experience. However, the role of ecological experience in automatic attention has not been studied systematically. To address this question, we let subjects (macaque monkeys) view a large number of complex objects (>300), each experienced repeatedly (>5 days) with rewarding, aversive or no outcome association (mere-perceptual exposure). Test of salience was done on separate days using free viewing with no outcome. We found that gaze was biased among the objects from the outset, affecting saccades to objects or fixations within objects. When the outcome was rewarding, gaze preference was stronger (i.e., positive) for objects with larger or equal but uncertain rewards. The effects of aversive outcomes were variable. Gaze preference was positive for some outcome associations (e.g., airpuff), but negative for others (e.g., time-out), possibly due to differences in threat levels. Finally, novel objects attracted gaze, but mere perceptual exposure of objects reduced their salience (learned negative salience). Our results show that, in primates, object salience is strongly influenced by previous ecological experience and is supported by a large memory capacity. Owing to such high capacity for learned salience, the ability to rapidly choose important objects can grow during the entire life to promote biological fitness. PMID:27594825

  16. Transient pupil response is modulated by contrast-based saliency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chin-An; Boehnke, Susan E; Itti, Laurent; Munoz, Douglas P

    2014-01-08

    The sudden appearance of a novel stimulus in the environment initiates a series of orienting responses that include coordinated shifts of gaze and attention, and also transient changes in pupil size. Although numerous studies have identified a significant effect of stimulus saliency on shifts of gaze and attention, saliency effects on pupil size are less understood. To examine salience-evoked pupil responses, we presented visual, auditory, or audiovisual stimuli while monkeys fixated a central visual spot. Transient pupil dilation was elicited after visual stimulus presentation regardless of target luminance relative to background, and auditory stimuli also evoked similar pupil responses. Importantly, the evoked pupil response was modulated by contrast-based saliency, with faster and larger pupil responses following the presentation of more salient stimuli. The initial transient component of pupil dilation was qualitatively similar to that evoked by weak microstimulation of the midbrain superior colliculus. The pupil responses elicited by audiovisual stimuli were well predicted by a linear summation of each modality response. Together, the results suggest that the transient pupil response, as one component of orienting, is modulated by contrast-based saliency, and the superior colliculus is likely involved in its coordination.

  17. Switching Attention Within Working Memory is Reflected in the P3a Component of the Human Event-Related Brain Potential

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The flexible access to information in working memory is crucial for adaptive behavior. It is assumed that this is realized by switching the focus of attention within working memory. Switching of attention is mirrored in the P3a component of the human event-related brain potential (ERP) and it has been argued that the processes reflected by the P3a are also relevant for selecting information within working memory. The aim of the present study was to further evaluate whether the P3a mirrors genuine switching of attention within working memory by applying an object switching task: Participants updated a memory list of four digits either by replacing one item with another digit or by processing the stored digit. ERPs were computed separately for two types of trials: (1) trials in which an object was repeated and (2) trials in which a switch to a new object was required in order to perform the task. Object-switch trials showed increased response times compared with repetition trials in both task conditions. In addition, switching costs were increased in the processing compared with the replacement condition. Pronounced P3a’s were obtained in switching trials but there were no difference between the two updating tasks (replacement or processing). These results were qualified by the finding that the magnitude of the visual location shift also affects the ERPs in the P3a time window. Taken together, the present pattern of results suggest that the P3a reflects an initial process of selecting information in working memory but not the memory updating itself. PMID:26779009

  18. The effect of linguistic and visual salience in visual world studies

    PubMed Central

    Cavicchio, Federica; Melcher, David; Poesio, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Research using the visual world paradigm has demonstrated that visual input has a rapid effect on language interpretation tasks such as reference resolution and, conversely, that linguistic material—including verbs, prepositions and adjectives—can influence fixations to potential referents. More recent research has started to explore how this effect of linguistic input on fixations is mediated by properties of the visual stimulus, in particular by visual salience. In the present study we further explored the role of salience in the visual world paradigm manipulating language-driven salience and visual salience. Specifically, we tested how linguistic salience (i.e., the greater accessibility of linguistically introduced entities) and visual salience (bottom-up attention grabbing visual aspects) interact. We recorded participants' eye-movements during a MapTask, asking them to look from landmark to landmark displayed upon a map while hearing direction-giving instructions. The landmarks were of comparable size and color, except in the Visual Salience condition, in which one landmark had been made more visually salient. In the Linguistic Salience conditions, the instructions included references to an object not on the map. Response times and fixations were recorded. Visual Salience influenced the time course of fixations at both the beginning and the end of the trial but did not show a significant effect on response times. Linguistic Salience reduced response times and increased fixations to landmarks when they were associated to a Linguistic Salient entity not present itself on the map. When the target landmark was both visually and linguistically salient, it was fixated longer, but fixations were quicker when the target item was linguistically salient only. Our results suggest that the two types of salience work in parallel and that linguistic salience affects fixations even when the entity is not visually present. PMID:24624108

  19. Saliency detection using regional histograms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Le Meur, Olivier; Luo, Shuhua; Shen, Liquan

    2013-03-01

    We propose an efficient regional histogram (RH)-based computation model for saliency detection in natural images. First, the global histogram is constructed by performing an adaptive color quantization on the original image. Then multiple RHs are built on the basis of the region segmentation result, and the color-spatial similarity between each pixel and each RH is calculated accordingly. Two efficient measures, distinctiveness and compactness of each RH, are evaluated based on the color difference with the global histogram and the color distribution over the whole image, respectively. Finally, the pixel-level saliency map is generated by integrating the color-spatial similarity measures with the distinctiveness and compactness measures. Experimental results on a dataset containing 1000 test images with ground truths demonstrate that the proposed saliency model consistently outperforms state-of-the-art saliency models.

  20. Salience of the lambs: a test of the saliency map hypothesis with pictures of emotive objects.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Katherine; Underwood, Geoffrey; Lambert, Tony

    2012-01-25

    Humans have an ability to rapidly detect emotive stimuli. However, many emotional objects in a scene are also highly visually salient, which raises the question of how dependent the effects of emotionality are on visual saliency and whether the presence of an emotional object changes the power of a more visually salient object in attracting attention. Participants were shown a set of positive, negative, and neutral pictures and completed recall and recognition memory tests. Eye movement data revealed that visual saliency does influence eye movements, but the effect is reliably reduced when an emotional object is present. Pictures containing negative objects were recognized more accurately and recalled in greater detail, and participants fixated more on negative objects than positive or neutral ones. Initial fixations were more likely to be on emotional objects than more visually salient neutral ones, suggesting that the processing of emotional features occurs at a very early stage of perception.

  1. Effects of salience are both short- and long-lived.

    PubMed

    Orquin, Jacob L; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2015-09-01

    A salient object can attract attention irrespective of its relevance to current goals. However, this bottom up effect tends to be short-lived (e.g. <150 ms) and it is generally assumed that top down processes such as goals or task instructions operating in later time windows override the effect of salience operating in early time windows. While the majority of studies on visual search and scene viewing comply with the assumptions of top down and bottom up processes operating in different time windows and that the former overrides the latter, we point to some possible anomalies in decision research. To explore these anomalies and thereby test the two key assumptions, we manipulate the salience and valence of one information cue in a decision task. Our analyses reveal that in decision tasks top down and bottom up processes do not operate in different time windows as predicted, nor does the former process necessarily override the latter. Instead, we find that the maximum effect of salience on the likelihood of making a saccade to the target cue is delayed until about 20 saccades after stimulus onset and that the effects of salience and valence are additive rather than multiplicative. Further, we find that in the positive and neutral valence conditions, salience continues to exert pressure on saccadic latency, i.e. the interval between saccades to the target with high salience targets being fixated faster than low salience targets. Our findings challenge the assumption that top down and bottom up processes operate in different time windows and the assumption that top down processes necessarily override bottom up processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Superior colliculus encodes visual saliency before the primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    White, Brian J.; Kan, Janis Y.; Levy, Ron; Itti, Laurent; Munoz, Douglas P.

    2017-01-01

    Models of visual attention postulate the existence of a bottom-up saliency map that is formed early in the visual processing stream. Although studies have reported evidence of a saliency map in various cortical brain areas, determining the contribution of phylogenetically older pathways is crucial to understanding its origin. Here, we compared saliency coding from neurons in two early gateways into the visual system: the primary visual cortex (V1) and the evolutionarily older superior colliculus (SC). We found that, while the response latency to visual stimulus onset was earlier for V1 neurons than superior colliculus superficial visual-layer neurons (SCs), the saliency representation emerged earlier in SCs than in V1. Because the dominant input to the SCs arises from V1, these relative timings are consistent with the hypothesis that SCs neurons pool the inputs from multiple V1 neurons to form a feature-agnostic saliency map, which may then be relayed to other brain areas. PMID:28808026

  3. Spatio-Temporal Saliency Perception via Hypercomplex Frequency Spectral Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ce; Xue, Jianru; Zheng, Nanning; Lan, Xuguang; Tian, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    Salient object perception is the process of sensing the salient information from the spatio-temporal visual scenes, which is a rapid pre-attention mechanism for the target location in a visual smart sensor. In recent decades, many successful models of visual saliency perception have been proposed to simulate the pre-attention behavior. Since most of the methods usually need some ad hoc parameters or high-cost preprocessing, they are difficult to rapidly detect salient object or be implemented by computing parallelism in a smart sensor. In this paper, we propose a novel spatio-temporal saliency perception method based on spatio-temporal hypercomplex spectral contrast (HSC). Firstly, the proposed HSC algorithm represent the features in the HSV (hue, saturation and value) color space and features of motion by a hypercomplex number. Secondly, the spatio-temporal salient objects are efficiently detected by hypercomplex Fourier spectral contrast in parallel. Finally, our saliency perception model also incorporates with the non-uniform sampling, which is a common phenomenon of human vision that directs visual attention to the logarithmic center of the image/video in natural scenes. The experimental results on the public saliency perception datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach compared to eleven state-of-the-art approaches. In addition, we extend the proposed model to moving object extraction in dynamic scenes, and the proposed algorithm is superior to the traditional algorithms. PMID:23482090

  4. Spatio-temporal saliency perception via hypercomplex frequency spectral contrast.

    PubMed

    Li, Ce; Xue, Jianru; Zheng, Nanning; Lan, Xuguang; Tian, Zhiqiang

    2013-03-12

    Salient object perception is the process of sensing the salient information from the spatio-temporal visual scenes, which is a rapid pre-attention mechanism for the target location in a visual smart sensor. In recent decades, many successful models of visual saliency perception have been proposed to simulate the pre-attention behavior. Since most of the methods usually need some ad hoc parameters or high-cost preprocessing, they are difficult to rapidly detect salient object or be implemented by computing parallelism in a smart sensor. In this paper, we propose a novel spatio-temporal saliency perception method based on spatio-temporal hypercomplex spectral contrast (HSC). Firstly, the proposed HSC algorithm represent the features in the HSV (hue, saturation and value) color space and features of motion by a hypercomplex number. Secondly, the spatio-temporal salient objects are efficiently detected by hypercomplex Fourier spectral contrast in parallel. Finally, our saliency perception model also incorporates with the non-uniform sampling, which is a common phenomenon of human vision that directs visual attention to the logarithmic center of the image/video in natural scenes. The experimental results on the public saliency perception datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach compared to eleven state-of-the-art approaches. In addition, we extend the proposed model to moving object extraction in dynamic scenes, and the proposed algorithm is superior to the traditional algorithms.

  5. Neural networks supporting switching, hypothesis testing, and rule application

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiya; Braunlich, Kurt; Wehe, Hillary S.; Seger, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    We identified dynamic changes in recruitment of neural connectivity networks across three phases of a flexible rule learning and set-shifting task similar to the Wisconsin Card Sort Task: switching, rule learning via hypothesis testing, and rule application. During fMRI scanning, subjects viewed pairs of stimuli that differed across four dimensions (letter, color, size, screen location), chose one stimulus, and received feedback. Subjects were informed that the correct choice was determined by a simple unidimensional rule, for example “choose the blue letter.” Once each rule had been learned and correctly applied for 4-7 trials, subjects were cued via either negative feedback or visual cues to switch to learning a new rule. Task performance was divided into three phases: Switching (first trial after receiving the switch cue), hypothesis testing (subsequent trials through the last error trial), and rule application (correct responding after the rule was learned). We used both univariate analysis to characterize activity occurring within specific regions of the brain, and a multivariate method, constrained principal component analysis for fMRI (fMRI-CPCA), to investigate how distributed regions coordinate to subserve different processes. As hypothesized, switching was subserved by a limbic network including the ventral striatum, thalamus, and parahippocampal gyrus, in conjunction with cortical salience network regions including the anterior cingulate and frontoinsular cortex. Activity in the ventral striatum was associated with switching regardless of how switching was cued; visually cued shifts were associated with additional visual cortical activity. After switching, as subjects moved into the hypothesis testing phase, a broad fronto-parietal-striatal network (associated with the cognitive control, dorsal attention, and salience networks) increased in activity. This network was sensitive to rule learning speed, with greater extended activity for the slowest

  6. Data Visualization Saliency Model: A Tool for Evaluating Abstract Data Visualizations

    DOE PAGES

    Matzen, Laura E.; Haass, Michael J.; Divis, Kristin M.; ...

    2017-08-29

    Evaluating the effectiveness of data visualizations is a challenging undertaking and often relies on one-off studies that test a visualization in the context of one specific task. Researchers across the fields of data science, visualization, and human-computer interaction are calling for foundational tools and principles that could be applied to assessing the effectiveness of data visualizations in a more rapid and generalizable manner. One possibility for such a tool is a model of visual saliency for data visualizations. Visual saliency models are typically based on the properties of the human visual cortex and predict which areas of a scene havemore » visual features (e.g. color, luminance, edges) that are likely to draw a viewer's attention. While these models can accurately predict where viewers will look in a natural scene, they typically do not perform well for abstract data visualizations. In this paper, we discuss the reasons for the poor performance of existing saliency models when applied to data visualizations. We introduce the Data Visualization Saliency (DVS) model, a saliency model tailored to address some of these weaknesses, and we test the performance of the DVS model and existing saliency models by comparing the saliency maps produced by the models to eye tracking data obtained from human viewers. In conclusion, we describe how modified saliency models could be used as general tools for assessing the effectiveness of visualizations, including the strengths and weaknesses of this approach.« less

  7. Multiscale target extraction using a spectral saliency map for a hyperspectral image.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Geng, Wenhao; Zhuo, Li; Tian, Qi; Cao, Yan

    2016-10-01

    With the rapid growth of the capabilities for hyperspectral imagery acquisition, how to efficiently find the significant target in hyperspectral imagery has become a fundamental task for remote-sensing applications. Existing target extraction methods mainly separate targets from background with a threshold based on pixels and single-scale image information extraction. However, due to the high dimensional characteristics and the complex background of hyperspectral imagery, it is difficult to obtain good extraction results with existing methods. Saliency detection has been a promising topic because saliency features can quickly locate saliency regions from complex backgrounds. Considering the spatial and spectral characteristics of a hyperspectral image, a multiscale target extraction method using a spectral saliency map is proposed for a hyperspectral image, which includes: (1) a spectral saliency model is constructed for detecting spectral saliency map in a hyperspectral image; (2) focus of attention (FOA) as the seed point is competed in the spectral saliency map by the winner-take-all (WTA) network; (3) the multiscale image is segmented by region growing based on the minimum-heterogeneity rule after calculating the heterogeneity of the seed point with its surrounding pixels; (4) the salient target is detected and segmented under the constraint of the spectral saliency map. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the accuracy of target extraction for hyperspectral images.

  8. Data Visualization Saliency Model: A Tool for Evaluating Abstract Data Visualizations.

    PubMed

    Matzen, Laura E; Haass, Michael J; Divis, Kristin M; Wang, Zhiyuan; Wilson, Andrew T

    2017-08-29

    Evaluating the effectiveness of data visualizations is a challenging undertaking and often relies on one-off studies that test a visualization in the context of one specific task. Researchers across the fields of data science, visualization, and human-computer interaction are calling for foundational tools and principles that could be applied to assessing the effectiveness of data visualizations in a more rapid and generalizable manner. One possibility for such a tool is a model of visual saliency for data visualizations. Visual saliency models are typically based on the properties of the human visual cortex and predict which areas of a scene have visual features (e.g. color, luminance, edges) that are likely to draw a viewer's attention. While these models can accurately predict where viewers will look in a natural scene, they typically do not perform well for abstract data visualizations. In this paper, we discuss the reasons for the poor performance of existing saliency models when applied to data visualizations. We introduce the Data Visualization Saliency (DVS) model, a saliency model tailored to address some of these weaknesses, and we test the performance of the DVS model and existing saliency models by comparing the saliency maps produced by the models to eye tracking data obtained from human viewers. Finally, we describe how modified saliency models could be used as general tools for assessing the effectiveness of visualizations, including the strengths and weaknesses of this approach.

  9. The Influence of Spatial Familiarity on the Landmark Salience Sensibility in Pedestrian Navigation Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.,; Wu, X.-Q.; Yin, Z.-H.; Shen, J.

    2017-09-01

    To contribute to a more effective design of landmark navigation guidance, this paper is concerned with the relationship between the spatial familiarity and landmark salience, which includes visual, semantic and structural attributes. The link of those two is the subjective judgment of users, which is called landmark salience sensibility. In order to explore the influence of spatial familiarity on the landmark salience sensibility, we selected two types of experimental area including campus and commercial district and four groups of experimental subject with different spatial familiarity degree. After the whole walking process, subjects are asked to draw a navigation sketch for themselves. Depending on the landmarks remaining in the sketch, we calculated the three attributes of the mean landmark salience to represent the landmark salience sensibility of each group for both paths. The result shows that with the increase of spatial familiarity, the landmark salience sensitivity is gradually reduced and the ascending order of attention degree to the attributes of the landmark salience is visual, semantic and structural salience. This conclusion is supportive to the study of landmark extraction and pedestrian guidance. Because the outdoor landmarks are analysed, we propose that in the future indoor landmarks are needed to be concerned.

  10. Saliency detection via textural contrast.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonjun; Kim, Changick

    2012-05-01

    We present a new approach for visual saliency detection from various natural images. It is inspired by our careful observation that the human visual system (HVS) responds sensitively and quickly to high textural contrast, derived from the discriminative directional pattern from its surroundings as well as the noticeable luminance difference, for understanding a given scene. By formulating such textural contrast within a multiscale framework, we construct a more reliable saliency map even without color information when compared to most previous approaches still suffering from the complex and cluttered background. The proposed method has been extensively tested on a wide range of natural images, and experimental results show that the proposed scheme is effective in detecting visual saliency compared to various state-of-the-art methods.

  11. The relationship between language proficiency and attentional control in Cantonese-English bilingual children: evidence from Simon, Simon switching, and working memory tasks

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    By administering Simon, Simon switching, and operation-span working memory tasks to Cantonese-English bilingual children who varied in their first-language (L1, Cantonese) and second-language (L2, English) proficiencies, as quantified by standardized vocabulary test performance, the current study examined the effects of L1 and L2 proficiency on attentional control performance. Apart from mean performance, we conducted ex-Gaussian analyses to capture the modal and positive-tail components of participants' reaction time distributions in the Simon and Simon switching tasks. Bilinguals' L2 proficiency was associated with higher scores in the operation span task, and a shift of reaction time distributions in incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials (Simon effect in μ), and the tail size of reaction time distributions (τ) regardless of trial types in the Simon task. Bilinguals' L1 proficiency, which was strongly associated with participants' age, showed similar results, except that it was not associated with the Simon effect in μ. In contrast, neither bilinguals' L1 nor L2 proficiency modulated the global switch cost or local switch cost in the Simon switching task. After taking into account potential cognitive maturation by partialling out the participants' age, only (a) scores in the working memory task and (b) RT in incongruent trials and (c) Simon effect in μ in the Simon task could still be predicted by bilinguals' L2 proficiency. Overall, the current findings suggest that bilingual children's L2 proficiency was associated with their conflict resolution and working memory capacity, but not goal maintenance or task-set switching, when they performed the cognitive tasks that demanded attentional control. This was not entirely consistent with the findings of college-age bilinguals reported in previous studies. PMID:25232345

  12. The Social Salience Hypothesis of Oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Abu-Akel, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Oxytocin is a nonapeptide that also serves as a neuromodulator in the human central nervous system. Over the last decade, a sizeable body of literature has examined its effects on social behavior in humans. These studies show that oxytocin modulates various aspects of social behaviors such as empathy, trust, in-group preference, and memory of socially relevant cues. Several theoretical formulations have attempted to explain the effects of oxytocin. The prosocial account argues that oxytocin mainly enhances affiliative prosocial behaviors; the fear/stress theory suggests that oxytocin affects social performance by attenuating stress; and the in-/out-group approach proposes that oxytocin regulates cooperation and conflict among humans in the context of intergroup relations. Nonetheless, accumulating evidence reveals that the effects of oxytocin are dependent on a variety of contextual aspects and the individual's characteristics and can induce antisocial effects including aggression and envy. In an attempt to reconcile these accounts, we suggest a theoretical framework that focuses on the overarching role of oxytocin in regulating the salience of social cues through its interaction with the dopaminergic system. Crucially, the salience effect modulates attention orienting responses to external contextual social cues (e.g., competitive vs. cooperative environment) but is dependent on baseline individual differences such as gender, personality traits, and degree of psychopathology. This view could have important implications for the therapeutic applications of oxytocin in conditions characterized with aberrant social behavior.

  13. Atypical visual saliency in autism spectrum disorder quantified through model-based eye tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Jiang, Ming; Duchesne, Xavier Morin; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Kennedy, Daniel P.; Adolphs, Ralph; Zhao, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The social difficulties that are a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are thought to arise, at least in part, from atypical attention towards stimuli and their features. To investigate this hypothesis comprehensively, we characterized 700 complex natural scene images with a novel 3-layered saliency model that incorporated pixel-level (e.g., contrast), object-level (e.g., shape), and semantic-level attributes (e.g., faces) on 5551 annotated objects. Compared to matched controls, people with ASD had a stronger image center bias regardless of object distribution, reduced saliency for faces and for locations indicated by social gaze, yet a general increase in pixel-level saliency at the expense of semantic-level saliency. These results were further corroborated by direct analysis of fixation characteristics and investigation of feature interactions. Our results for the first time quantify atypical visual attention in ASD across multiple levels and categories of objects. PMID:26593094

  14. Hierarchical Image Saliency Detection on Extended CSSD.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianping; Yan, Qiong; Xu, Li; Jia, Jiaya

    2016-04-01

    Complex structures commonly exist in natural images. When an image contains small-scale high-contrast patterns either in the background or foreground, saliency detection could be adversely affected, resulting erroneous and non-uniform saliency assignment. The issue forms a fundamental challenge for prior methods. We tackle it from a scale point of view and propose a multi-layer approach to analyze saliency cues. Different from varying patch sizes or downsizing images, we measure region-based scales. The final saliency values are inferred optimally combining all the saliency cues in different scales using hierarchical inference. Through our inference model, single-scale information is selected to obtain a saliency map. Our method improves detection quality on many images that cannot be handled well traditionally. We also construct an extended Complex Scene Saliency Dataset (ECSSD) to include complex but general natural images.

  15. Neural representation of pitch salience in the human brainstem revealed by psychophysical and electrophysiological indices.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Bidelman, Gavin M; Gandour, Jackson T

    2010-09-01

    Acoustically, pitch is related to the temporal regularity or periodicity of a sound. Perceptual and electrophysiologic studies have revealed that pitch salience grows systematically with increasing stimulus periodicity. The aim of this study is to show that information relevant to pitch salience is already encoded in the phase-locked neural activity of brainstem neurons in order to demonstrate that the neural manifestation of pitch salience emerges well before cortical involvement. Brainstem frequency following responses (FFRs) were recorded from participants in response to linguistic tones, which varied only in their degree of pitch salience. Neural pitch strength was computed from FFRs using autocorrelation algorithms. In addition, behavioral frequency difference limens (F0 DLs) were measured from each participant to obtain a perceptual estimate related to pitch salience. Brainstem neural pitch strength increased systematically with increasing temporal regularity in stimulus periodicity, indicating more robust encoding for salient pitch. F0 DLs decreased with increasing stimulus periodicity revealing better pitch change detection for more salient stimuli. FFR neural pitch strength and behavioral F0 DLs were negatively correlated suggesting that subcortical processing can, in part, predict an individual's behavioral judgments of pitch salience. These data imply that changes to the acoustic periodicity of a stimulus directly influence brainstem encoding and the corresponding behavioral responses to pitch. We infer that information related to pitch salience may emerge early along the auditory pathway and is likely rooted in pre-attentive, sensory-level processing. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neural representation of pitch salience in the human brainstem revealed by psychophysical and electrophysiological indices

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Bidelman, Gavin M.; Gandour, Jackson T.

    2011-01-01

    Acoustically, pitch is related to the temporal regularity or periodicity of a sound. Perceptual and electrophysiologic studies have revealed that pitch salience grows systematically with increasing stimulus periodicity. The aim of this study is to show that information relevant to pitch salience is already encoded in the phase-locked neural activity of brainstem neurons in order to demonstrate that the neural manifestation of pitch salience emerges well before cortical involvement. Brainstem frequency following responses (FFRs) were recorded from participants in response to linguistic tones, which varied only in their degree of pitch salience. Neural pitch strength was computed from FFRs using autocorrelation algorithms. In addition, behavioral frequency difference limens (F0 DLs) were measured from each participant to obtain a perceptual estimate related to pitch salience. Brainstem neural pitch strength increased systematically with increasing temporal regularity in stimulus periodicity, indicating more robust encoding for salient pitch. F0 DLs decreased with increasing stimulus periodicity revealing better pitch change detection for more salient stimuli. FFR neural pitch strength and behavioral F0 DLs were negatively correlated suggesting that subcortical processing can, in part, predict an individual’s behavioral judgments of pitch salience. These data imply that changes to the acoustic periodicity of a stimulus directly influence brainstem encoding and the corresponding behavioral responses to pitch. We infer that information related to pitch salience may emerge early along the auditory pathway and is likely rooted in pre-attentive, sensory-level processing. PMID:20457239

  17. Visual saliency based on scale-space analysis in the frequency domain.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Levine, Martin D; An, Xiangjing; Xu, Xin; He, Hangen

    2013-04-01

    We address the issue of visual saliency from three perspectives. First, we consider saliency detection as a frequency domain analysis problem. Second, we achieve this by employing the concept of nonsaliency. Third, we simultaneously consider the detection of salient regions of different size. The paper proposes a new bottom-up paradigm for detecting visual saliency, characterized by a scale-space analysis of the amplitude spectrum of natural images. We show that the convolution of the image amplitude spectrum with a low-pass Gaussian kernel of an appropriate scale is equivalent to an image saliency detector. The saliency map is obtained by reconstructing the 2D signal using the original phase and the amplitude spectrum, filtered at a scale selected by minimizing saliency map entropy. A Hypercomplex Fourier Transform performs the analysis in the frequency domain. Using available databases, we demonstrate experimentally that the proposed model can predict human fixation data. We also introduce a new image database and use it to show that the saliency detector can highlight both small and large salient regions, as well as inhibit repeated distractors in cluttered images. In addition, we show that it is able to predict salient regions on which people focus their attention.

  18. Learning to predict where human gaze is using quaternion DCT based regional saliency detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Chongyang

    2014-09-01

    Many current visual attention approaches used semantic features to accurately capture human gaze. However, these approaches demand high computational cost and can hardly be applied to daily use. Recently, some quaternion-based saliency detection models, such as PQFT (phase spectrum of Quaternion Fourier Transform), QDCT (Quaternion Discrete Cosine Transform), have been proposed to meet real-time requirement of human gaze tracking tasks. However, current saliency detection methods used global PQFT and QDCT to locate jump edges of the input, which can hardly detect the object boundaries accurately. To address the problem, we improved QDCT-based saliency detection model by introducing superpixel-wised regional saliency detection mechanism. The local smoothness of saliency value distribution is emphasized to distinguish noises of background from salient regions. Our algorithm called saliency confidence can distinguish the patches belonging to the salient object and those of the background. It decides whether the image patches belong to the same region. When an image patch belongs to a region consisting of other salient patches, this patch should be salient as well. Therefore, we use saliency confidence map to get background weight and foreground weight to do the optimization on saliency map obtained by QDCT. The optimization is accomplished by least square method. The optimization approach we proposed unifies local and global saliency by combination of QDCT and measuring the similarity between each image superpixel. We evaluate our model on four commonly-used datasets (Toronto, MIT, OSIE and ASD) using standard precision-recall curves (PR curves), the mean absolute error (MAE) and area under curve (AUC) measures. In comparison with most state-of-art models, our approach can achieve higher consistency with human perception without training. It can get accurate human gaze even in cluttered background. Furthermore, it achieves better compromise between speed and accuracy.

  19. Defocus cue and saliency preserving video compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Meera Thapar; Chaudhury, Santanu; Lall, Brejesh

    2016-11-01

    There are monocular depth cues present in images or videos that aid in depth perception in two-dimensional images or videos. Our objective is to preserve the defocus depth cue present in the videos along with the salient regions during compression application. A method is provided for opportunistic bit allocation during the video compression using visual saliency information comprising both the image features, such as color and contrast, and the defocus-based depth cue. The method is divided into two steps: saliency computation followed by compression. A nonlinear method is used to combine pure and defocus saliency maps to form the final saliency map. Then quantization values are assigned on the basis of these saliency values over a frame. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme yields good results over standard H.264 compression as well as pure and defocus saliency methods.

  20. Damage to the Salience Network and interactions with the Default Mode Network.

    PubMed

    Jilka, Sagar R; Scott, Gregory; Ham, Timothy; Pickering, Alan; Bonnelle, Valerie; Braga, Rodrigo M; Leech, Robert; Sharp, David J

    2014-08-13

    Interactions between the Salience Network (SN) and the Default Mode Network (DMN) are thought to be important for cognitive control. However, evidence for a causal relationship between the networks is limited. Previously, we have reported that traumatic damage to white matter tracts within the SN predicts abnormal DMN function. Here we investigate the effect of this damage on network interactions that accompany changing motor control. We initially used fMRI of the Stop Signal Task to study response inhibition in humans. In healthy subjects, functional connectivity (FC) between the right anterior insula (rAI), a key node of the SN, and the DMN transiently increased during stopping. This change in FC was not seen in a group of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with impaired cognitive control. Furthermore, the amount of SN tract damage negatively correlated with FC between the networks. We confirmed these findings in a second group of TBI patients. Here, switching rather than inhibiting a motor response: (1) was accompanied by a similar increase in network FC in healthy controls; (2) was not seen in TBI patients; and (3) tract damage after TBI again correlated with FC breakdown. This shows that coupling between the rAI and DMN increases with cognitive control and that damage within the SN impairs this dynamic network interaction. This work provides compelling evidence for a model of cognitive control where the SN is involved in the attentional capture of salient external stimuli and signals the DMN to reduce its activity when attention is externally focused.

  1. The study of randomized visual saliency detection algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuantao; Xu, Weihong; Kuang, Fangjun; Gao, Shangbing

    2013-01-01

    Image segmentation process for high quality visual saliency map is very dependent on the existing visual saliency metrics. It is mostly only get sketchy effect of saliency map, and roughly based visual saliency map will affect the image segmentation results. The paper had presented the randomized visual saliency detection algorithm. The randomized visual saliency detection method can quickly generate the same size as the original input image and detailed results of the saliency map. The randomized saliency detection method can be applied to real-time requirements for image content-based scaling saliency results map. The randomization method for fast randomized video saliency area detection, the algorithm only requires a small amount of memory space can be detected detailed oriented visual saliency map, the presented results are shown that the method of visual saliency map used in image after the segmentation process can be an ideal segmentation results.

  2. The Study of Randomized Visual Saliency Detection Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weihong; Kuang, Fangjun; Gao, Shangbing

    2013-01-01

    Image segmentation process for high quality visual saliency map is very dependent on the existing visual saliency metrics. It is mostly only get sketchy effect of saliency map, and roughly based visual saliency map will affect the image segmentation results. The paper had presented the randomized visual saliency detection algorithm. The randomized visual saliency detection method can quickly generate the same size as the original input image and detailed results of the saliency map. The randomized saliency detection method can be applied to real-time requirements for image content-based scaling saliency results map. The randomization method for fast randomized video saliency area detection, the algorithm only requires a small amount of memory space can be detected detailed oriented visual saliency map, the presented results are shown that the method of visual saliency map used in image after the segmentation process can be an ideal segmentation results. PMID:24382980

  3. Perceptual salience affects the contents of working memory during free-recollection of objects from natural scenes

    PubMed Central

    Pedale, Tiziana; Santangelo, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important issues in the study of cognition is to understand which are the factors determining internal representation of the external world. Previous literature has started to highlight the impact of low-level sensory features (indexed by saliency-maps) in driving attention selection, hence increasing the probability for objects presented in complex and natural scenes to be successfully encoded into working memory (WM) and then correctly remembered. Here we asked whether the probability of retrieving high-saliency objects modulates the overall contents of WM, by decreasing the probability of retrieving other, lower-saliency objects. We presented pictures of natural scenes for 4 s. After a retention period of 8 s, we asked participants to verbally report as many objects/details as possible of the previous scenes. We then computed how many times the objects located at either the peak of maximal or minimal saliency in the scene (as indexed by a saliency-map; Itti et al., 1998) were recollected by participants. Results showed that maximal-saliency objects were recollected more often and earlier in the stream of successfully reported items than minimal-saliency objects. This indicates that bottom-up sensory salience increases the recollection probability and facilitates the access to memory representation at retrieval, respectively. Moreover, recollection of the maximal- (but not the minimal-) saliency objects predicted the overall amount of successfully recollected objects: The higher the probability of having successfully reported the most-salient object in the scene, the lower the amount of recollected objects. These findings highlight that bottom-up sensory saliency modulates the current contents of WM during recollection of objects from natural scenes, most likely by reducing available resources to encode and then retrieve other (lower saliency) objects. PMID:25741266

  4. Spatiochromatic Context Modeling for Color Saliency Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Shengping; Li, Xuelong; Wu, Xindong

    2016-06-01

    Visual saliency is one of the most noteworthy perceptual abilities of human vision. Recent progress in cognitive psychology suggests that: 1) visual saliency analysis is mainly completed by the bottom-up mechanism consisting of feedforward low-level processing in primary visual cortex (area V1) and 2) color interacts with spatial cues and is influenced by the neighborhood context, and thus it plays an important role in a visual saliency analysis. From a computational perspective, the most existing saliency modeling approaches exploit multiple independent visual cues, irrespective of their interactions (or are not computed explicitly), and ignore contextual influences induced by neighboring colors. In addition, the use of color is often underestimated in the visual saliency analysis. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective color saliency model that considers color as the only visual cue and mimics the color processing in V1. Our approach uses region-/boundary-defined color features with spatiochromatic filtering by considering local color-orientation interactions, therefore captures homogeneous color elements, subtle textures within the object and the overall salient object from the color image. To account for color contextual influences, we present a divisive normalization method for chromatic stimuli through the pooling of contrary/complementary color units. We further define a color perceptual metric over the entire scene to produce saliency maps for color regions and color boundaries individually. These maps are finally globally integrated into a one single saliency map. The final saliency map is produced by Gaussian blurring for robustness. We evaluate the proposed method on both synthetic stimuli and several benchmark saliency data sets from the visual saliency analysis to salient object detection. The experimental results demonstrate that the use of color as a unique visual cue achieves competitive results on par with or better than 12 state

  5. A model of proto-object based saliency

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Alexander F.; Mihalaş, Stefan; von der Heydt, Rudiger; Niebur, Ernst; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Organisms use the process of selective attention to optimally allocate their computational resources to the instantaneously most relevant subsets of a visual scene, ensuring that they can parse the scene in real time. Many models of bottom-up attentional selection assume that elementary image features, like intensity, color and orientation, attract attention. Gestalt psychologists, how-ever, argue that humans perceive whole objects before they analyze individual features. This is supported by recent psychophysical studies that show that objects predict eye-fixations better than features. In this report we present a neurally inspired algorithm of object based, bottom-up attention. The model rivals the performance of state of the art non-biologically plausible feature based algorithms (and outperforms biologically plausible feature based algorithms) in its ability to predict perceptual saliency (eye fixations and subjective interest points) in natural scenes. The model achieves this by computing saliency as a function of proto-objects that establish the perceptual organization of the scene. All computational mechanisms of the algorithm have direct neural correlates, and our results provide evidence for the interface theory of attention. PMID:24184601

  6. The salience of a reward cue can outlast reward devaluation.

    PubMed

    De Tommaso, Matteo; Mastropasqua, Tommaso; Turatto, Massimo

    2017-06-01

    Reward cues can be perceived as highly attractive stimuli because of their acquired motivational properties. However, because the motivational value of reward changes after reward receipt, a debated question is whether the attentional salience of reward cues changes accordingly. In Experiment 1, thirsty participants learned 3 cue-reward associations involving different contingencies. Then, while thirsty, participants performed a visual-search task under extinction, during which the previous reward cues appeared as irrelevant stimuli containing target and distractor items. Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1, except that participants drank ad libitum before the visual-search task. In Experiment 3, instead, participants quenched their thirst at the beginning of the learning session. The results of Experiment 1 showed that attention was preferentially deployed toward the cue that best predicted the reward in the previous conditioning phase. Crucially, Experiment 2 revealed that the attentional bias persisted despite reward devaluation. By contrast, no attentional bias was found in Experiment 3. The novelty of our study is that the attentional salience of a reward cue can outlast reward devaluation, suggesting that some incentive properties of the cue can become independent from those of the reward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Involuntary switching of attention mediates differences in event-related responses to complex tones between early and late Spanish-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Choudhury, Naseem; Alvarez, Barbara; Benasich, April A

    2010-11-29

    Most research with bilinguals has used speech stimuli to demonstrate differences in auditory processing abilities. Two main factors have been identified as modulators of such differences: proficiency and age of acquisition of the second language (L2). However, whether the bilingual brain differs from the monolingual in the efficient processing of non-verbal auditory events (known to be critical to the acoustic analysis of the speech stream) remains unclear. In this EEG/ERP study, using the mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and late negativity (LN), we examined differences in discrimination, involuntary switching of attention and reorienting of attention between monolinguals and bilinguals as they processed complex tones. Further, we examined the role that age of acquisition plays in modulating such responses. A group of English monolinguals and a group of proficient Spanish-English bilinguals were presented with a multiple-deviant oddball paradigm with four deviant conditions (duration, frequency, silent gap, and frequency modulation). Late bilinguals, who learned English after age 10, exhibited larger MMN and P3a responses than early bilinguals, across all deviant conditions. Significant associations were found between amplitude of the responses and both age of L2 acquisition and years of L2 experience. Individuals who acquired English at later ages and had fewer years of L2 experience had larger MMN, P3a, and LN responses than those who learned it earlier. These findings demonstrate that age of L2 acquisition is an important modulator of auditory responses in bilinguals even when processing non-speech signals. Involuntary attention switching is suggested as the main factor driving these differences.

  8. Regional principal color based saliency detection.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jing; Ren, Mingwu; Wang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Saliency detection is widely used in many visual applications like image segmentation, object recognition and classification. In this paper, we will introduce a new method to detect salient objects in natural images. The approach is based on a regional principal color contrast modal, which incorporates low-level and medium-level visual cues. The method allows a simple computation of color features and two categories of spatial relationships to a saliency map, achieving higher F-measure rates. At the same time, we present an interpolation approach to evaluate resulting curves, and analyze parameters selection. Our method enables the effective computation of arbitrary resolution images. Experimental results on a saliency database show that our approach produces high quality saliency maps and performs favorably against ten saliency detection algorithms.

  9. Regional Principal Color Based Saliency Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Jing; Ren, Mingwu; Wang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Saliency detection is widely used in many visual applications like image segmentation, object recognition and classification. In this paper, we will introduce a new method to detect salient objects in natural images. The approach is based on a regional principal color contrast modal, which incorporates low-level and medium-level visual cues. The method allows a simple computation of color features and two categories of spatial relationships to a saliency map, achieving higher F-measure rates. At the same time, we present an interpolation approach to evaluate resulting curves, and analyze parameters selection. Our method enables the effective computation of arbitrary resolution images. Experimental results on a saliency database show that our approach produces high quality saliency maps and performs favorably against ten saliency detection algorithms. PMID:25379960

  10. Fixations on objects in natural scenes: dissociating importance from salience

    PubMed Central

    't Hart, Bernard M.; Schmidt, Hannah C. E. F.; Roth, Christine; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The relation of selective attention to understanding of natural scenes has been subject to intense behavioral research and computational modeling, and gaze is often used as a proxy for such attention. The probability of an image region to be fixated typically correlates with its contrast. However, this relation does not imply a causal role of contrast. Rather, contrast may relate to an object's “importance” for a scene, which in turn drives attention. Here we operationalize importance by the probability that an observer names the object as characteristic for a scene. We modify luminance contrast of either a frequently named (“common”/“important”) or a rarely named (“rare”/“unimportant”) object, track the observers' eye movements during scene viewing and ask them to provide keywords describing the scene immediately after. When no object is modified relative to the background, important objects draw more fixations than unimportant ones. Increases of contrast make an object more likely to be fixated, irrespective of whether it was important for the original scene, while decreases in contrast have little effect on fixations. Any contrast modification makes originally unimportant objects more important for the scene. Finally, important objects are fixated more centrally than unimportant objects, irrespective of contrast. Our data suggest a dissociation between object importance (relevance for the scene) and salience (relevance for attention). If an object obeys natural scene statistics, important objects are also salient. However, when natural scene statistics are violated, importance and salience are differentially affected. Object salience is modulated by the expectation about object properties (e.g., formed by context or gist), and importance by the violation of such expectations. In addition, the dependence of fixated locations within an object on the object's importance suggests an analogy to the effects of word frequency on landing positions in

  11. Fusion of multi-sensory saliency maps for automated perception and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, David J.; Khosla, Deepak; Dow, Paul A.

    2009-05-01

    In many real-world situations and applications that involve humans or machines (e.g., situation awareness, scene understanding, driver distraction, workload reduction, assembly, robotics, etc.) multiple sensory modalities (e.g., vision, auditory, touch, etc.) are used. The incoming sensory information can overwhelm processing capabilities of both humans and machines. An approach for estimating what is most important in our sensory environment (bottom-up or goal-driven) and using that as a basis for workload reduction or taking an action could be of great benefit in applications involving humans, machines or human-machine interactions. In this paper, we describe a novel approach for determining high saliency stimuli in multi-modal sensory environments, e.g., vision, sound, touch, etc. In such environments, the high saliency stimuli could be a visual object, a sound source, a touch event, etc. The high saliency stimuli are important and should be attended to from perception, cognition or/and action perspective. The system accomplishes this by the fusion of saliency maps from multiple sensory modalities (e.g., visual and auditory) into a single, fused multimodal saliency map that is represented in a common, higher-level coordinate system. This paper describes the computational model and method for generating multi-modal or fused saliency map. The fused saliency map can be used to determine primary and secondary foci of attention as well as for active control of a hardware/device. Such a computational model of fused saliency map would be immensely useful for a machine-based or robot-based application in a multi-sensory environment. We describe the approach, system and present preliminary results on a real-robotic platform.

  12. Saliency maps for finding changes in visual scenes?

    PubMed

    Liesefeld, Heinrich René; Liesefeld, Anna Marie; Müller, Hermann J; Rangelov, Dragan

    2017-07-17

    Sudden changes in the environment reliably summon attention. This rapid change detection appears to operate in a similar fashion as pop-out in visual search, the phenomenon that very salient stimuli are directly attended, independently of the number of distracting objects. Pop-out is usually explained by the workings of saliency maps, i.e., map-like representations that code for the conspicuity at each location of the visual field. While past research emphasized similarities between pop-out search and change detection, our study highlights differences between the saliency computations in the two tasks: in contrast to pop-out search, saliency computation in change detection (i) operates independently across different stimulus properties (e.g., color and orientation), and (ii) is little influenced by trial history. These deviations from pop-out search are not due to idiosyncrasies of the stimuli or task design, as evidenced by a replication of standard findings in a comparable visual-search design. To explain these results, we outline a model of change detection involving the computation of feature-difference maps, which explains the known similarities and differences with visual search.

  13. Saliency-based gaze prediction based on head direction.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Ryoichi; Fang, Yu; Hatori, Yasuhiro; Hiratani, Akinori; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Despite decades of attempts to create a model for predicting gaze locations by using saliency maps, a highly accurate gaze prediction model for general conditions has yet to be devised. In this study, we propose a gaze prediction method based on head direction that can improve the accuracy of any model. We used a probability distribution of eye position based on head direction (static eye-head coordination) and added this information to a model of saliency-based visual attention. Using empirical data on eye and head directions while observers were viewing natural scenes, we estimated a probability distribution of eye position. We then combined the relationship between eye position and head direction with visual saliency to predict gaze locations. The model showed that information on head direction improved the prediction accuracy. Further, there was no difference in the gaze prediction accuracy between the two models using information on head direction with and without eye-head coordination. Therefore, information on head direction is useful for predicting gaze location when it is available. Furthermore, this gaze prediction model can be applied relatively easily to many daily situations such as during walking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction of visual saliency in video with deep CNNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaabouni, Souad; Benois-Pineau, Jenny; Hadar, Ofer

    2016-09-01

    Prediction of visual saliency in images and video is a highly researched topic. Target applications include Quality assessment of multimedia services in mobile context, video compression techniques, recognition of objects in video streams, etc. In the framework of mobile and egocentric perspectives, visual saliency models cannot be founded only on bottom-up features, as suggested by feature integration theory. The central bias hypothesis, is not respected neither. In this case, the top-down component of human visual attention becomes prevalent. Visual saliency can be predicted on the basis of seen data. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have proven to be a powerful tool for prediction of salient areas in stills. In our work we also focus on sensitivity of human visual system to residual motion in a video. A Deep CNN architecture is designed, where we incorporate input primary maps as color values of pixels and magnitude of local residual motion. Complementary contrast maps allow for a slight increase of accuracy compared to the use of color and residual motion only. The experiments show that the choice of the input features for the Deep CNN depends on visual task:for th eintersts in dynamic content, the 4K model with residual motion is more efficient, and for object recognition in egocentric video the pure spatial input is more appropriate.

  15. Emotional salience, emotional awareness, peculiar beliefs, and magical thinking.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, Howard; Boden, M Tyler; Baker, John P

    2009-04-01

    Two studies with college student participants (Ns = 271 and 185) tested whether peculiar beliefs and magical thinking were associated with (a) the emotional salience of the stimuli about which individuals may have peculiar beliefs or magical thinking, (b) attention to emotion, and (c) clarity of emotion. Study 1 examined belief that a baseball team was cursed. Study 2 measured magical thinking using a procedure developed by P. Rozin and C. Nemeroff (2002). In both studies, peculiar beliefs and magical thinking were associated with Salience x Attention x Clarity interactions. Among individuals for whom the objects of the belief-magical thinking were highly emotionally salient and who had high levels of attention to emotion, higher levels of emotional clarity were associated with increased peculiar beliefs-magical thinking. In contrast, among individuals for whom the objects of the belief-magical thinking were not emotionally salient and who had high levels of attention to emotion, higher levels of emotional clarity were associated with diminished peculiar beliefs-magical thinking.

  16. Computational model of stereoscopic 3D visual saliency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junle; Da Silva, Matthieu Perreira; Le Callet, Patrick; Ricordel, Vincent

    2013-06-01

    Many computational models of visual attention performing well in predicting salient areas of 2D images have been proposed in the literature. The emerging applications of stereoscopic 3D display bring an additional depth of information affecting the human viewing behavior, and require extensions of the efforts made in 2D visual modeling. In this paper, we propose a new computational model of visual attention for stereoscopic 3D still images. Apart from detecting salient areas based on 2D visual features, the proposed model takes depth as an additional visual dimension. The measure of depth saliency is derived from the eye movement data obtained from an eye-tracking experiment using synthetic stimuli. Two different ways of integrating depth information in the modeling of 3D visual attention are then proposed and examined. For the performance evaluation of 3D visual attention models, we have created an eye-tracking database, which contains stereoscopic images of natural content and is publicly available, along with this paper. The proposed model gives a good performance, compared to that of state-of-the-art 2D models on 2D images. The results also suggest that a better performance is obtained when depth information is taken into account through the creation of a depth saliency map, rather than when it is integrated by a weighting method.

  17. A unified spectral-domain approach for saliency detection and its application to automatic object segmentation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chanho; Kim, Changick

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, a visual attention model is incorporated for efficient saliency detection, and the salient regions are employed as object seeds for our automatic object segmentation system. In contrast with existing interactive segmentation approaches that require considerable user interaction, the proposed method does not require it, i.e., the segmentation task is fulfilled in a fully automatic manner. First, we introduce a novel unified spectral-domain approach for saliency detection. Our visual attention model originates from a well-known property of the human visual system that the human visual perception is highly adaptive and sensitive to structural information in images rather than nonstructural information. Then, based on the saliency map, we propose an iterative self-adaptive segmentation framework for more accurate object segmentation. Extensive tests on a variety of cluttered natural images show that the proposed algorithm is an efficient indicator for characterizing the human perception and it can provide satisfying segmentation performance.

  18. Neuronal ensemble bursting in the basal forebrain encodes salience irrespective of valence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Chieh; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2008-07-10

    Both reward- and punishment-related stimuli are motivationally salient and attract the attention of animals. However, it remains unclear how motivational salience is processed in the brain. Here, we show that both reward- and punishment-predicting stimuli elicited robust bursting of many noncholinergic basal forebrain (BF) neurons in behaving rats. The same BF neurons also responded with similar bursting to primary reinforcement of both valences. Reinforcement responses were modulated by expectation, with surprising reinforcement eliciting stronger BF bursting. We further demonstrate that BF burst firing predicted successful detection of near-threshold stimuli. Together, our results point to the existence of a salience-encoding system independent of stimulus valence. We propose that the encoding of motivational salience by ensemble bursting of noncholinergic BF neurons may improve behavioral performance by affecting the activity of widespread cortical circuits and therefore represents a novel candidate mechanism for top-down attention.

  19. Neuronal ensemble bursting in the basal forebrain encodes salience irrespective of valence

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Chieh; Nicolelis, Miguel A.L.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Both reward- and punishment-related stimuli are motivationally salient and attract the attention of animals. However, it remains unclear how motivational salience is processed in the brain. Here we show that both reward- and punishment-predicting stimuli elicited robust bursting of many non-cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) neurons in behaving rats. The same BF neurons also responded with similar bursting to primary reinforcement of both valences. Reinforcement responses were modulated by expectation, with surprising reinforcement eliciting stronger BF bursting. We further demonstrate that BF burst firing predicted successful detection of near-threshold stimuli. Together, our results point to the existence of a salience-encoding system independent of stimulus valence. We propose that the encoding of motivational salience by ensemble bursting of non-cholinergic BF neurons may improve behavioral performance by affecting the activity of widespread cortical circuits, and therefore represents a novel candidate mechanism for top-down attention. PMID:18614035

  20. Exploiting multiple contexts for saliency detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Mengnan; Wu, Xingming; Chen, Weihai; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-11-01

    A salient object detection method by extensively modeling contextual information in both the saliency feature extraction and the saliency optimization procedure is proposed. First, a sequence of multicontext features is extracted for each segmented image region. This multicontext feature encoding effectively represents the characteristics of image regions and is further mapped to the initial saliency value estimation using a nonlinear regressor. Second, contextual information is also utilized to optimize the initial saliency map, which is realized by constructing a region-level conditional random field (CRF). As such, the quality of the initial coarse saliency maps is promoted in a more principled manner. Third, multiple CRFs, defined over different scales of segmentation, are calculated and integrated so that different ranges of contextual information could contribute to the saliency optimization. Eventually, consistent saliency maps with uniformly highlighted salient regions and clear boundaries are generated. The proposed method is extensively evaluated on three public benchmark datasets, and experimental results demonstrate that our method can produce promising performance when compared to state-of-the-art salient object detection approaches.

  1. Salience Assignment for Multiple-Instance Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Lane, Terran

    2007-01-01

    We present a Multiple-Instance Learning (MIL) algorithm for determining the salience of each item in each bag with respect to the bag's real-valued label. We use an alternating-projections constrained optimization approach to simultaneously learn a regression model and estimate all salience values. We evaluate this algorithm on a significant real-world problem, crop yield modeling, and demonstrate that it provides more extensive, intuitive, and stable salience models than Primary-Instance Regression, which selects a single relevant item from each bag.

  2. Salience Assignment for Multiple-Instance Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Lane, Terran

    2007-01-01

    We present a Multiple-Instance Learning (MIL) algorithm for determining the salience of each item in each bag with respect to the bag's real-valued label. We use an alternating-projections constrained optimization approach to simultaneously learn a regression model and estimate all salience values. We evaluate this algorithm on a significant real-world problem, crop yield modeling, and demonstrate that it provides more extensive, intuitive, and stable salience models than Primary-Instance Regression, which selects a single relevant item from each bag.

  3. Mortality Salience and Morality: Thinking about Death Makes People Less Utilitarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremoliere, Bastien; De Neys, Wim; Bonnefon, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    According to the dual-process model of moral judgment, utilitarian responses to moral conflict draw on limited cognitive resources. Terror Management Theory, in parallel, postulates that mortality salience mobilizes these resources to suppress thoughts of death out of focal attention. Consequently, we predicted that individuals under mortality…

  4. Effects of Task Relevance and Stimulus-Driven Salience in Feature-Search Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamy, Dominique; Leber, Andrew; Egeth, Howard E

    2004-01-01

    Attentional allocation in feature-search mode (W. F. Bacon & H. E. Egeth, 1994) is thought to be solely determined by top-down factors, with no role for stimulus-driven salience. The authors reassessed this conclusion using variants of the spatial cuing and rapid serial visual presentation paradigms developed by C. L. Folk and colleagues (C. L.…

  5. Mortality Salience and Morality: Thinking about Death Makes People Less Utilitarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremoliere, Bastien; De Neys, Wim; Bonnefon, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    According to the dual-process model of moral judgment, utilitarian responses to moral conflict draw on limited cognitive resources. Terror Management Theory, in parallel, postulates that mortality salience mobilizes these resources to suppress thoughts of death out of focal attention. Consequently, we predicted that individuals under mortality…

  6. Effects of Task Relevance and Stimulus-Driven Salience in Feature-Search Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamy, Dominique; Leber, Andrew; Egeth, Howard E

    2004-01-01

    Attentional allocation in feature-search mode (W. F. Bacon & H. E. Egeth, 1994) is thought to be solely determined by top-down factors, with no role for stimulus-driven salience. The authors reassessed this conclusion using variants of the spatial cuing and rapid serial visual presentation paradigms developed by C. L. Folk and colleagues (C. L.…

  7. Saliency Mapping Enhanced by Structure Tensor

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhiyong; Chen, Xin; Sun, Lining

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel efficient algorithm for computing visual saliency, which is based on the computation architecture of Itti model. As one of well-known bottom-up visual saliency models, Itti method evaluates three low-level features, color, intensity, and orientation, and then generates multiscale activation maps. Finally, a saliency map is aggregated with multiscale fusion. In our method, the orientation feature is replaced by edge and corner features extracted by a linear structure tensor. Following it, these features are used to generate contour activation map, and then all activation maps are directly combined into a saliency map. Compared to Itti method, our method is more computationally efficient because structure tensor is more computationally efficient than Gabor filter that is used to compute the orientation feature and our aggregation is a direct method instead of the multiscale operator. Experiments on Bruce's dataset show that our method is a strong contender for the state of the art. PMID:26788050

  8. Saliency Mapping Enhanced by Structure Tensor.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiyong; Chen, Xin; Sun, Lining

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel efficient algorithm for computing visual saliency, which is based on the computation architecture of Itti model. As one of well-known bottom-up visual saliency models, Itti method evaluates three low-level features, color, intensity, and orientation, and then generates multiscale activation maps. Finally, a saliency map is aggregated with multiscale fusion. In our method, the orientation feature is replaced by edge and corner features extracted by a linear structure tensor. Following it, these features are used to generate contour activation map, and then all activation maps are directly combined into a saliency map. Compared to Itti method, our method is more computationally efficient because structure tensor is more computationally efficient than Gabor filter that is used to compute the orientation feature and our aggregation is a direct method instead of the multiscale operator. Experiments on Bruce's dataset show that our method is a strong contender for the state of the art.

  9. Salience and dysregulation of the dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Lahera, Guillermo; Freund, Namdev; Sáiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo

    2013-01-01

    Psychosis is a subjective and experiential phenomenon of the mind, influenced by cognitive and socio-cultural patterns of the individual. The neurobiological correlate of this phenomenon is the dysfunction of brain dopaminergic pathways. This article reviews the scientific evidence on the theoretical approaches of the dopaminergic hypothesis of psychosis and its relationship with the reward and salience systems. The aberrant salience occurs when the dysregulation of dopamine transmission produces a mistaken interpretation of neutral or irrelevant stimuli as a source of reward or punishment. Advances in neuroscience achieved in the last decade have led to the conceptualization of the constructs of visual, social and emotional salience, to test the hypothesis of aberrant salience in psychosis. Psychosis appears, therefore, as a trans-nosological pathological process, relatively nonspecific, which alters the attribution system of reality. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Neural activities in V1 create the bottom-up saliency map of natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Xilin; Wang, Yizhou; Zhou, Tiangang; Fang, Fang

    2016-06-01

    A saliency map is the bottom-up contribution to the deployment of exogenous attention. It, as well as its underlying neural mechanism, is hard to identify because of the influence of top-down signals. A recent study showed that neural activities in V1 could create a bottom-up saliency map (Zhang et al. in Neuron 73(1):183-192, 2012). In this paper, we tested whether their conclusion can generalize to complex natural scenes. In order to avoid top-down influences, each image was presented with a low contrast for only 50 ms and was followed by a high contrast mask, which rendered the whole image invisible to participants (confirmed by a forced-choice test). The Posner cueing paradigm was adopted to measure the spatial cueing effect (i.e., saliency) by an orientation discrimination task. A positive cueing effect was found, and the magnitude of the cueing effect was consistent with the saliency prediction of a computational saliency model. In a following fMRI experiment, we used the same masked natural scenes as stimuli and measured BOLD signals responding to the predicted salient region (relative to the background). We found that the BOLD signal in V1, but not in other cortical areas, could well predict the cueing effect. These results suggest that the bottom-up saliency map of natural scenes could be created in V1, providing further evidence for the V1 saliency theory (Li in Trends Cogn Sci 6(1):9-16, 2002).

  11. A Novel GBM Saliency Detection Model Using Multi-Channel MRI.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Subhashis; Mitra, Sushmita; Shankar, B Uma; Hayashi, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The automatic computerized detection of regions of interest (ROI) is an important step in the process of medical image processing and analysis. The reasons are many, and include an increasing amount of available medical imaging data, existence of inter-observer and inter-scanner variability, and to improve the accuracy in automatic detection in order to assist doctors in diagnosing faster and on time. A novel algorithm, based on visual saliency, is developed here for the identification of tumor regions from MR images of the brain. The GBM saliency detection model is designed by taking cue from the concept of visual saliency in natural scenes. A visually salient region is typically rare in an image, and contains highly discriminating information, with attention getting immediately focused upon it. Although color is typically considered as the most important feature in a bottom-up saliency detection model, we circumvent this issue in the inherently gray scale MR framework. We develop a novel pseudo-coloring scheme, based on the three MRI sequences, viz. FLAIR, T2 and T1C (contrast enhanced with Gadolinium). A bottom-up strategy, based on a new pseudo-color distance and spatial distance between image patches, is defined for highlighting the salient regions in the image. This multi-channel representation of the image and saliency detection model help in automatically and quickly isolating the tumor region, for subsequent delineation, as is necessary in medical diagnosis. The effectiveness of the proposed model is evaluated on MRI of 80 subjects from the BRATS database in terms of the saliency map values. Using ground truth of the tumor regions for both high- and low- grade gliomas, the results are compared with four highly referred saliency detection models from literature. In all cases the AUC scores from the ROC analysis are found to be more than 0.999 ± 0.001 over different tumor grades, sizes and positions.

  12. A Novel GBM Saliency Detection Model Using Multi-Channel MRI

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Subhashis; Mitra, Sushmita; Shankar, B. Uma; Hayashi, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The automatic computerized detection of regions of interest (ROI) is an important step in the process of medical image processing and analysis. The reasons are many, and include an increasing amount of available medical imaging data, existence of inter-observer and inter-scanner variability, and to improve the accuracy in automatic detection in order to assist doctors in diagnosing faster and on time. A novel algorithm, based on visual saliency, is developed here for the identification of tumor regions from MR images of the brain. The GBM saliency detection model is designed by taking cue from the concept of visual saliency in natural scenes. A visually salient region is typically rare in an image, and contains highly discriminating information, with attention getting immediately focused upon it. Although color is typically considered as the most important feature in a bottom-up saliency detection model, we circumvent this issue in the inherently gray scale MR framework. We develop a novel pseudo-coloring scheme, based on the three MRI sequences, viz. FLAIR, T2 and T1C (contrast enhanced with Gadolinium). A bottom-up strategy, based on a new pseudo-color distance and spatial distance between image patches, is defined for highlighting the salient regions in the image. This multi-channel representation of the image and saliency detection model help in automatically and quickly isolating the tumor region, for subsequent delineation, as is necessary in medical diagnosis. The effectiveness of the proposed model is evaluated on MRI of 80 subjects from the BRATS database in terms of the saliency map values. Using ground truth of the tumor regions for both high- and low- grade gliomas, the results are compared with four highly referred saliency detection models from literature. In all cases the AUC scores from the ROC analysis are found to be more than 0.999 ± 0.001 over different tumor grades, sizes and positions. PMID:26752735

  13. Emergence of Visual Saliency from Natural Scenes via Context-Mediated Probability Distributions Coding

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinhua; Yang, Zhiyong; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2010-01-01

    Visual saliency is the perceptual quality that makes some items in visual scenes stand out from their immediate contexts. Visual saliency plays important roles in natural vision in that saliency can direct eye movements, deploy attention, and facilitate tasks like object detection and scene understanding. A central unsolved issue is: What features should be encoded in the early visual cortex for detecting salient features in natural scenes? To explore this important issue, we propose a hypothesis that visual saliency is based on efficient encoding of the probability distributions (PDs) of visual variables in specific contexts in natural scenes, referred to as context-mediated PDs in natural scenes. In this concept, computational units in the model of the early visual system do not act as feature detectors but rather as estimators of the context-mediated PDs of a full range of visual variables in natural scenes, which directly give rise to a measure of visual saliency of any input stimulus. To test this hypothesis, we developed a model of the context-mediated PDs in natural scenes using a modified algorithm for independent component analysis (ICA) and derived a measure of visual saliency based on these PDs estimated from a set of natural scenes. We demonstrated that visual saliency based on the context-mediated PDs in natural scenes effectively predicts human gaze in free-viewing of both static and dynamic natural scenes. This study suggests that the computation based on the context-mediated PDs of visual variables in natural scenes may underlie the neural mechanism in the early visual cortex for detecting salient features in natural scenes. PMID:21209963

  14. Multiresolution saliency map based object segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Wang, Xin; Dai, ZhenYou

    2015-11-01

    Salient objects' detection and segmentation are gaining increasing research interest in recent years. A saliency map can be obtained from different models presented in previous studies. Based on this saliency map, the most salient region (MSR) in an image can be extracted. This MSR, generally a rectangle, can be used as the initial parameters for object segmentation algorithms. However, to our knowledge, all of those saliency maps are represented in a unitary resolution although some models have even introduced multiscale principles in the calculation process. Furthermore, some segmentation methods, such as the well-known GrabCut algorithm, need more iteration time or additional interactions to get more precise results without predefined pixel types. A concept of a multiresolution saliency map is introduced. This saliency map is provided in a multiresolution format, which naturally follows the principle of the human visual mechanism. Moreover, the points in this map can be utilized to initialize parameters for GrabCut segmentation by labeling the feature pixels automatically. Both the computing speed and segmentation precision are evaluated. The results imply that this multiresolution saliency map-based object segmentation method is simple and efficient.

  15. What stands out in a scene? A study of human explicit saliency judgment.

    PubMed

    Borji, Ali; Sihite, Dicky N; Itti, Laurent

    2013-10-18

    Eye tracking has become the de facto standard measure of visual attention in tasks that range from free viewing to complex daily activities. In particular, saliency models are often evaluated by their ability to predict human gaze patterns. However, fixations are not only influenced by bottom-up saliency (computed by the models), but also by many top-down factors. Thus, comparing bottom-up saliency maps to eye fixations is challenging and has required that one tries to minimize top-down influences, for example by focusing on early fixations on a stimulus. Here we propose two complementary procedures to evaluate visual saliency. We seek whether humans have explicit and conscious access to the saliency computations believed to contribute to guiding attention and eye movements. In the first experiment, 70 observers were asked to choose which object stands out the most based on its low-level features in 100 images each containing only two objects. Using several state-of-the-art bottom-up visual saliency models that measure local and global spatial image outliers, we show that maximum saliency inside the selected object is significantly higher than inside the non-selected object and the background. Thus spatial outliers are a predictor of human judgments. Performance of this predictor is boosted by including object size as an additional feature. In the second experiment, observers were asked to draw a polygon circumscribing the most salient object in cluttered scenes. For each of 120 images, we show that a map built from annotations of 70 observers explains eye fixations of another 20 observers freely viewing the images, significantly above chance (dataset by Bruce and Tsotsos (2009); shuffled AUC score 0.62±0.07, chance 0.50, t-test p<0.05). We conclude that fixations agree with saliency judgments, and classic bottom-up saliency models explain both. We further find that computational models specifically designed for fixation prediction slightly outperform models

  16. Incorporating visual attention models into video quality metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akamine, Welington Y. L.; Farias, Mylène C. Q.

    2014-01-01

    A recent development in the area of image and video quality consists of trying to incorporate aspects of visual attention in the design of visual quality metrics, mostly using the assumption that visual distortions appearing in less salient areas might be less visible and, therefore, less annoying. This research area is still in its infancy and results obtained by different groups are not yet conclusive. Among the works that have reported some improvement, most use subjective saliency maps, i.e. saliency maps generated from eye-tracking data obtained experimentally. Besides, most works address the image quality problem, not focusing on how to incorporate visual attention into video signals. In this work, we investigate the benefits of incorporating saliency maps obtained with visual attention. In particular, we compare the performance of four full-reference video quality metrics with their modified versions, which had saliency maps incorporated to the algorithm. For comparison proposes, we have used a database of subjective salience maps.

  17. When death is not a problem: Regulating implicit negative affect under mortality salience.

    PubMed

    Lüdecke, Christina; Baumann, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Terror management theory assumes that death arouses existential anxiety in humans which is suppressed in focal attention. Whereas most studies provide indirect evidence for negative affect under mortality salience by showing cultural worldview defenses and self-esteem strivings, there is only little direct evidence for implicit negative affect under mortality salience. In the present study, we assume that this implicit affective reaction towards death depends on people's ability to self-regulate negative affect as assessed by the personality dimension of action versus state orientation. Consistent with our expectations, action-oriented participants judged artificial words to express less negative affect under mortality salience compared to control conditions whereas state-oriented participants showed the reversed pattern. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A proto-object based saliency model in three-dimensional space.

    PubMed

    Hu, Brian; Kane-Jackson, Ralinkae; Niebur, Ernst

    2016-02-01

    Most models of visual saliency operate on two-dimensional images, using elementary image features such as intensity, color, or orientation. The human visual system, however, needs to function in complex three-dimensional environments, where depth information is often available and may be used to guide the bottom-up attentional selection process. In this report we extend a model of proto-object based saliency to include depth information and evaluate its performance on three separate three-dimensional eye tracking datasets. Our results show that the additional depth information provides a small, but statistically significant, improvement in the model's ability to predict perceptual saliency (eye fixations) in natural scenes. The computational mechanisms of our model have direct neural correlates, and our results provide further evidence that proto-objects help to establish perceptual organization of the scene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Salience and Default Mode Network Coupling Predicts Cognition in Aging and Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Putcha, Deepti; Ross, Robert S; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; Janes, Amy C; Stern, Chantal E

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Three neurocognitive networks support efficient cognition: the salience network, the default mode network, and the central executive network. The salience network is thought to switch between activating and deactivating the default mode and central executive networks. Anti-correlated interactions between the salience and default mode networks in particular are necessary for efficient cognition. Our previous work demonstrated altered functional coupling between the neurocognitive networks in non-demented individuals with PD compared to age-matched control participants. Here, we aim to identify associations between cognition and functional coupling between these neurocognitive networks in the same group of participants. We investigated the extent to which intrinsic functional coupling among these neurocognitive networks is related to cognitive performance across three neuropsychological domains: executive functioning, psychomotor speed, and verbal memory. Twenty-four non-demented individuals with mild to moderate PD and 20 control participants were scanned at rest and evaluated on three neuropsychological domains. PD participants were impaired on tests from all three domains compared to control participants. Our imaging results demonstrated that successful cognition across healthy aging and Parkinson's disease participants was related to anti-correlated coupling between the salience and default mode networks. Individuals with poorer performance scores across groups demonstrated more positive salience network/default-mode network coupling. Successful cognition relies on healthy coupling between the salience and default mode networks, which may become dysfunctional in PD. These results can help inform non-pharmacological interventions (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) targeting these specific networks before they become vulnerable in early stages of Parkinson's disease.

  20. Predictive coding as a model of the V1 saliency map hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Spratling, M W

    2012-02-01

    The predictive coding/biased competition (PC/BC) model is a specific implementation of the predictive coding theory that has previously been shown to provide a detailed account of the response properties of orientation tuned cells in primary visual cortex (V1). Here it is shown that the same model can successfully simulate psychophysical data relating to the saliency of unique items in search arrays, of contours embedded in random texture, and of borders between textured regions. This model thus provides a possible implementation of the hypothesis that V1 generates a bottom-up saliency map. However, PC/BC is very different from previous models of visual salience, in that it proposes that saliency results from the failure of an internal model of simple elementary image components to accurately predict the visual input. Saliency can therefore be interpreted as a mechanism by which prediction errors attract attention in an attempt to improve the accuracy of the brain's internal representation of the world. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Dimensional Salience and Salience of Variability on Problem Solving: A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelniker, Tamar; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A matching task was presented to 120 subjects from 6 to 20 years of age to investigate the relative influence of dimensional salience and salience of variability on problem solving. The task included four dimensions: form, color, number, and position. (LLK)

  2. A Neural Computational Model of Incentive Salience

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Berridge, Kent C.; Tindell, Amy J.; Smith, Kyle S.; Aldridge, J. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Incentive salience is a motivational property with ‘magnet-like’ qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues), incentive salience triggers a pulse of ‘wanting’ and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire cached predictive values of rewards. However, empirical data show that subsequent incentive values are also modulated on the fly by dynamic fluctuation in physiological states, altering cached values in ways requiring additional motivation mechanisms. Dynamic modulation of incentive salience for a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS or cue) occurs during certain states, without necessarily requiring (re)learning about the cue. In some cases, dynamic modulation of cue value occurs during states that are quite novel, never having been experienced before, and even prior to experience of the associated unconditioned reward in the new state. Such cases can include novel drug-induced mesolimbic activation and addictive incentive-sensitization, as well as natural appetite states such as salt appetite. Dynamic enhancement specifically raises the incentive salience of an appropriate CS, without necessarily changing that of other CSs. Here we suggest a new computational model that modulates incentive salience by integrating changing physiological states with prior learning. We support the model with behavioral and neurobiological data from empirical tests that demonstrate dynamic elevations in cue-triggered motivation (involving natural salt appetite, and drug-induced intoxication and sensitization). Our data call for a dynamic model of incentive salience, such as presented here. Computational models can adequately capture fluctuations in cue-triggered ‘wanting’ only by

  3. A neural computational model of incentive salience.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Berridge, Kent C; Tindell, Amy J; Smith, Kyle S; Aldridge, J Wayne

    2009-07-01

    Incentive salience is a motivational property with 'magnet-like' qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues), incentive salience triggers a pulse of 'wanting' and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire cached predictive values of rewards. However, empirical data show that subsequent incentive values are also modulated on the fly by dynamic fluctuation in physiological states, altering cached values in ways requiring additional motivation mechanisms. Dynamic modulation of incentive salience for a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS or cue) occurs during certain states, without necessarily requiring (re)learning about the cue. In some cases, dynamic modulation of cue value occurs during states that are quite novel, never having been experienced before, and even prior to experience of the associated unconditioned reward in the new state. Such cases can include novel drug-induced mesolimbic activation and addictive incentive-sensitization, as well as natural appetite states such as salt appetite. Dynamic enhancement specifically raises the incentive salience of an appropriate CS, without necessarily changing that of other CSs. Here we suggest a new computational model that modulates incentive salience by integrating changing physiological states with prior learning. We support the model with behavioral and neurobiological data from empirical tests that demonstrate dynamic elevations in cue-triggered motivation (involving natural salt appetite, and drug-induced intoxication and sensitization). Our data call for a dynamic model of incentive salience, such as presented here. Computational models can adequately capture fluctuations in cue-triggered 'wanting' only by incorporating

  4. Visual Saliency Models for Text Detection in Real World.

    PubMed

    Gao, Renwu; Uchida, Seiichi; Shahab, Asif; Shafait, Faisal; Frinken, Volkmar

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the degree of saliency of texts in natural scenes using visual saliency models. A large scale scene image database with pixel level ground truth is created for this purpose. Using this scene image database and five state-of-the-art models, visual saliency maps that represent the degree of saliency of the objects are calculated. The receiver operating characteristic curve is employed in order to evaluate the saliency of scene texts, which is calculated by visual saliency models. A visualization of the distribution of scene texts and non-texts in the space constructed by three kinds of saliency maps, which are calculated using Itti's visual saliency model with intensity, color and orientation features, is given. This visualization of distribution indicates that text characters are more salient than their non-text neighbors, and can be captured from the background. Therefore, scene texts can be extracted from the scene images. With this in mind, a new visual saliency architecture, named hierarchical visual saliency model, is proposed. Hierarchical visual saliency model is based on Itti's model and consists of two stages. In the first stage, Itti's model is used to calculate the saliency map, and Otsu's global thresholding algorithm is applied to extract the salient region that we are interested in. In the second stage, Itti's model is applied to the salient region to calculate the final saliency map. An experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed model outperforms Itti's model in terms of captured scene texts.

  5. Visual Saliency Models for Text Detection in Real World

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Renwu; Uchida, Seiichi; Shahab, Asif; Shafait, Faisal; Frinken, Volkmar

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the degree of saliency of texts in natural scenes using visual saliency models. A large scale scene image database with pixel level ground truth is created for this purpose. Using this scene image database and five state-of-the-art models, visual saliency maps that represent the degree of saliency of the objects are calculated. The receiver operating characteristic curve is employed in order to evaluate the saliency of scene texts, which is calculated by visual saliency models. A visualization of the distribution of scene texts and non-texts in the space constructed by three kinds of saliency maps, which are calculated using Itti's visual saliency model with intensity, color and orientation features, is given. This visualization of distribution indicates that text characters are more salient than their non-text neighbors, and can be captured from the background. Therefore, scene texts can be extracted from the scene images. With this in mind, a new visual saliency architecture, named hierarchical visual saliency model, is proposed. Hierarchical visual saliency model is based on Itti's model and consists of two stages. In the first stage, Itti's model is used to calculate the saliency map, and Otsu's global thresholding algorithm is applied to extract the salient region that we are interested in. In the second stage, Itti's model is applied to the salient region to calculate the final saliency map. An experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed model outperforms Itti's model in terms of captured scene texts. PMID:25494196

  6. Saliency detection by multitask sparsity pursuit.

    PubMed

    Lang, Congyan; Liu, Guangcan; Yu, Jian; Yan, Shuicheng

    2012-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of detecting salient areas within natural images. We shall mainly study the problem under unsupervised setting, i.e., saliency detection without learning from labeled images. A solution of multitask sparsity pursuit is proposed to integrate multiple types of features for detecting saliency collaboratively. Given an image described by multiple features, its saliency map is inferred by seeking the consistently sparse elements from the joint decompositions of multiple-feature matrices into pairs of low-rank and sparse matrices. The inference process is formulated as a constrained nuclear norm and as an l(2, 1)-norm minimization problem, which is convex and can be solved efficiently with an augmented Lagrange multiplier method. Compared with previous methods, which usually make use of multiple features by combining the saliency maps obtained from individual features, the proposed method seamlessly integrates multiple features to produce jointly the saliency map with a single inference step and thus produces more accurate and reliable results. In addition to the unsupervised setting, the proposed method can be also generalized to incorporate the top-down priors obtained from supervised environment. Extensive experiments well validate its superiority over other state-of-the-art methods.

  7. A local correlation based visual saliency model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Mou, Xuanqin

    2016-09-01

    We propose a novel local correlation based saliency model that is friendly to application of video coding. The proposed model is developed in YCbCr color space. We extract feature maps with local mean and local contrast of each channel image and its Gaussian blurred image, and produce rarity maps by calculating the correlation between the feature maps of the original and blurred channels. The proposed saliency map is produced by a combination of the local mean rarity maps and the local contrast rarity maps across all the channels. Experiments validate that the proposed model works with excellent performance.

  8. Supplementary eye field during visual search: Salience, cognitive control, and performance monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Braden A.; Weigand, Pauline K.; Schall, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    How supplementary eye field (SEF) contributes to visual search is unknown. Inputs from cortical and subcortical structures known to represent visual salience suggest that SEF may serve as an additional node in this network. This hypothesis was tested by recording action potentials and local field potentials (LFP) in two monkeys performing an efficient pop-out visual search task. Target selection modulation, tuning width, and response magnitude of spikes and LFP in SEF were compared with those in frontal eye field. Surprisingly, only ~2% of SEF neurons and ~8% of SEF LFP sites selected the location of the search target. The absence of salience in SEF may be due to an absence of appropriate visual afferents, which suggests that these inputs are a necessary anatomical feature of areas representing salience. We also tested whether SEF contributes to overcoming the automatic tendency to respond to a primed color when the target identity switches during priming of pop-out. Very few SEF neurons or LFP sites modulated in association with performance deficits following target switches. However, a subset of SEF neurons and LFP exhibited strong modulation following erroneous saccades to a distractor. Altogether, these results suggest that SEF plays a limited role in controlling ongoing visual search behavior, but may play a larger role in monitoring search performance. PMID:22836261

  9. Stereo saliency map considering affective factors and selective motion analysis in a dynamic environment.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sungmoon; Ban, Sang-Woo; Lee, Minho

    2008-12-01

    We propose new integrated saliency map and selective motion analysis models partly inspired by a biological visual attention mechanism. The proposed models consider not only binocular stereopsis to identify a final attention area so that the system focuses on the closer area as in human binocular vision, based on the single eye alignment hypothesis, but also both the static and dynamic features of an input scene. Moreover, the proposed saliency map model includes an affective computing process that skips an unwanted area and pays attention to a desired area, which reflects the human preference and refusal in subsequent visual search processes. In addition, we show the effectiveness of considering the symmetry feature determined by a neural network and an independent component analysis (ICA) filter which are helpful to construct an object preferable attention model. Also, we propose a selective motion analysis model by integrating the proposed saliency map with a neural network for motion analysis. The neural network for motion analysis responds selectively to rotation, expansion, contraction and planar motion of the optical flow in a selected area. Experiments show that the proposed model can generate plausible scan paths and selective motion analysis results for natural input scenes.

  10. Referent Salience Affects Second Language Article Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenkic, Danijela; Pongpairoj, Nattama

    2013-01-01

    The effect of referent salience on second language (L2) article production in real time was explored. Thai (-articles) and French (+articles) learners of English described dynamic events involving two referents, one visually cued to be more salient at the point of utterance formulation. Definiteness marking was made communicatively redundant with…

  11. Emotional Intelligence, Identity Salience, and Metaphors. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on emotional intelligence, identity salience, and metaphors in human resource development (HRD). "Applying Client and Consultant Generated Metaphors in HRD: Lessons from Psychotherapy" (Darren Short) reviews some techniques that psychotherapists have devised for using their own…

  12. Referent Salience Affects Second Language Article Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenkic, Danijela; Pongpairoj, Nattama

    2013-01-01

    The effect of referent salience on second language (L2) article production in real time was explored. Thai (-articles) and French (+articles) learners of English described dynamic events involving two referents, one visually cued to be more salient at the point of utterance formulation. Definiteness marking was made communicatively redundant with…

  13. Novelty enhances visual salience independently of reward in the parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Foley, Nicholas C; Jangraw, David C; Peck, Christopher; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2014-06-04

    Novelty modulates sensory and reward processes, but it remains unknown how these effects interact, i.e., how the visual effects of novelty are related to its motivational effects. A widespread hypothesis, based on findings that novelty activates reward-related structures, is that all the effects of novelty are explained in terms of reward. According to this idea, a novel stimulus is by default assigned high reward value and hence high salience, but this salience rapidly decreases if the stimulus signals a negative outcome. Here we show that, contrary to this idea, novelty affects visual salience in the monkey lateral intraparietal area (LIP) in ways that are independent of expected reward. Monkeys viewed peripheral visual cues that were novel or familiar (received few or many exposures) and predicted whether the trial will have a positive or a negative outcome--i.e., end in a reward or a lack of reward. We used a saccade-based assay to detect whether the cues automatically attracted or repelled attention from their visual field location. We show that salience--measured in saccades and LIP responses--was enhanced by both novelty and positive reward associations, but these factors were dissociable and habituated on different timescales. The monkeys rapidly recognized that a novel stimulus signaled a negative outcome (and withheld anticipatory licking within the first few presentations), but the salience of that stimulus remained high for multiple subsequent presentations. Therefore, novelty can provide an intrinsic bonus for attention that extends beyond the first presentation and is independent of physical rewards. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347947-11$15.00/0.

  14. Benchmark three-dimensional eye-tracking dataset for visual saliency prediction on stereoscopic three-dimensional video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banitalebi-Dehkordi, Amin; Nasiopoulos, Eleni; Pourazad, Mahsa T.; Nasiopoulos, Panos

    2016-01-01

    Visual attention models (VAMs) predict the location of image or video regions that are most likely to attract human attention. Although saliency detection is well explored for two-dimensional (2-D) image and video content, there have been only a few attempts made to design three-dimensional (3-D) saliency prediction models. Newly proposed 3-D VAMs have to be validated over large-scale video saliency prediction datasets, which also contain results of eye-tracking information. There are several publicly available eye-tracking datasets for 2-D image and video content. In the case of 3-D, however, there is still a need for large-scale video saliency datasets for the research community for validating different 3-D VAMs. We introduce a large-scale dataset containing eye-tracking data collected from 61 stereoscopic 3-D videos (and also 2-D versions of those), and 24 subjects participated in a free-viewing test. We evaluate the performance of the existing saliency detection methods over the proposed dataset. In addition, we created an online benchmark for validating the performance of the existing 2-D and 3-D VAMs and facilitating the addition of new VAMs to the benchmark. Our benchmark currently contains 50 different VAMs.

  15. Fast full resolution saliency detection based on incoherent imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guang; Zhao, Jufeng; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi; Chen, Yueting

    2016-08-01

    Image saliency detection is widely applied in many tasks in the field of the computer vision. In this paper, we combine the saliency detection with the Fourier optics to achieve acceleration of saliency detection algorithm. An actual optical saliency detection system is constructed within the framework of incoherent imaging system. Additionally, the application of our system to implement the bottom-up rapid pre-saliency process of primate visual saliency is discussed with dual-resolution camera. A set of experiments over our system are conducted and discussed. We also demonstrate the comparisons between our method and pure computer methods. The results show our system can produce full resolution saliency maps faster and more effective.

  16. Saliency detection based on multi-instance images learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Shouhong; Jin, Peiquan; Yue, Lihua; Huang, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Existing visual saliency detection methods are usually based on single image, however, without priori knowledge, the contents of single image are ambiguous, so visual saliency detection based on single image can't extract region of interest. To solve it, we propose a novel saliency detection based on multi-instance images. Our method considers human's visual psychological factors and measures visual saliency based on global contrast, local contrast and sparsity. It firstly uses multi-instance learning to get the center of clustering, and then computes feature relative dispersion. By fusing different weighted feature saliency map, the final synthesize saliency map is generated. Comparing with other saliency detection methods, our method increases the rate of hit.

  17. Saliency detection for videos using 3D FFT local spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Zhiling; AlRegib, Ghassan

    2015-03-01

    Bottom-up spatio-temporal saliency detection identifies perceptually important regions of interest in video sequences. The center-surround model proves to be useful for visual saliency detection. In this work, we explore using 3D FFT local spectra as features for saliency detection within the center-surround framework. We develop a spectral location based decomposition scheme to divide a 3D FFT cube into two components, one related to temporal changes and the other related to spatial changes. Temporal saliency and spatial saliency are detected separately using features derived from each spectral component through a simple center-surround comparison method. The two detection results are then combined to yield a saliency map. We apply the same detection algorithm to different color channels (YIQ) and incorporate the results into the final saliency determination. The proposed technique is tested with the public CRCNS database. Both visual and numerical evaluations verify the promising performance of our technique.

  18. A computational visual saliency model based on statistics and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ru-Je; Lin, Wei-Song

    2014-08-01

    Identifying the type of stimuli that attracts human visual attention has been an appealing topic for scientists for many years. In particular, marking the salient regions in images is useful for both psychologists and many computer vision applications. In this paper, we propose a computational approach for producing saliency maps using statistics and machine learning methods. Based on four assumptions, three properties (Feature-Prior, Position-Prior, and Feature-Distribution) can be derived and combined by a simple intersection operation to obtain a saliency map. These properties are implemented by a similarity computation, support vector regression (SVR) technique, statistical analysis of training samples, and information theory using low-level features. This technique is able to learn the preferences of human visual behavior while simultaneously considering feature uniqueness. Experimental results show that our approach performs better in predicting human visual attention regions than 12 other models in two test databases. © 2014 ARVO.

  19. Multiscale data reduction with flexible saliency criterion for biological image analysis.

    PubMed

    Bosl, William J

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of biomedical images requires attention to image features that represent a small fraction of the total image size. A rapid method for eliminating unnecessary detail, analogous to pre-attentive processing in biological vision, allows computational resources to be applied where most needed for higher-level analysis. In this report we describe a method for bottom up merging of pixels into larger units based on flexible saliency criteria using a method similar to structured adaptive grid methods used for solving differential equations on physical domains. While creating a multiscale quadtree representation of the image, a saliency test is applied to prune the tree to eliminate unneeded details, resulting in an image with adaptive resolution. This method may be used as a first step for image segmentation and analysis and is inherently parallel, enabling implementation on programmable hardware or distributed memory clusters.

  20. Weighted-MSE based on saliency map for assessing video quality of H.264 video streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boujut, H.; Benois-Pineau, J.; Hadar, O.; Ahmed, T.; Bonnet, P.

    2011-01-01

    Human vision system is very complex and has been studied for many years specifically for purposes of efficient encoding of visual, e.g. video content from digital TV. There have been physiological and psychological evidences which indicate that viewers do not pay equal attention to all exposed visual information, but only focus on certain areas known as focus of attention (FOA) or saliency regions. In this work, we propose a novel based objective quality assessment metric, for assessing the perceptual quality of decoded video sequences affected by transmission errors and packed loses. The proposed method weights the Mean Square Error (MSE), Weighted-MSE (WMSE), according to the calculated saliency map at each pixel. Our method was validated trough subjective quality experiments.

  1. Saliency mapping in the optic tectum and its relationship to habituation

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Arkadeb; Gutfreund, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    Habituation of the orienting response has long served as a model system for studying fundamental psychological phenomena such as learning, attention, decisions, and surprise. In this article, we review an emerging hypothesis that the evolutionary role of the superior colliculus (SC) in mammals or its homolog in birds, the optic tectum (OT), is to select the most salient target and send this information to the appropriate brain regions to control the body and brain orienting responses. Recent studies have begun to reveal mechanisms of how saliency is computed in the OT/SC, demonstrating a striking similarity between mammals and birds. The saliency of a target can be determined by how different it is from the surrounding objects, by how different it is from its history (that is habituation) and by how relevant it is for the task at hand. Here, we will first review evidence, mostly from primates and barn owls, that all three types of saliency computations are linked in the OT/SC. We will then focus more on neural adaptation in the OT and its possible link to temporal saliency and habituation. PMID:24474908

  2. Saliency mapping in the optic tectum and its relationship to habituation.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Arkadeb; Gutfreund, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    Habituation of the orienting response has long served as a model system for studying fundamental psychological phenomena such as learning, attention, decisions, and surprise. In this article, we review an emerging hypothesis that the evolutionary role of the superior colliculus (SC) in mammals or its homolog in birds, the optic tectum (OT), is to select the most salient target and send this information to the appropriate brain regions to control the body and brain orienting responses. Recent studies have begun to reveal mechanisms of how saliency is computed in the OT/SC, demonstrating a striking similarity between mammals and birds. The saliency of a target can be determined by how different it is from the surrounding objects, by how different it is from its history (that is habituation) and by how relevant it is for the task at hand. Here, we will first review evidence, mostly from primates and barn owls, that all three types of saliency computations are linked in the OT/SC. We will then focus more on neural adaptation in the OT and its possible link to temporal saliency and habituation.

  3. Top-Down Visual Saliency via Joint CRF and Dictionary Learning.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jimei; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2017-03-01

    Top-down visual saliency is an important module of visual attention. In this work, we propose a novel top-down saliency model that jointly learns a Conditional Random Field (CRF) and a visual dictionary. The proposed model incorporates a layered structure from top to bottom: CRF, sparse coding and image patches. With sparse coding as an intermediate layer, CRF is learned in a feature-adaptive manner; meanwhile with CRF as the output layer, the dictionary is learned under structured supervision. For efficient and effective joint learning, we develop a max-margin approach via a stochastic gradient descent algorithm. Experimental results on the Graz-02 and PASCAL VOC datasets show that our model performs favorably against state-of-the-art top-down saliency methods for target object localization. In addition, the dictionary update significantly improves the performance of our model. We demonstrate the merits of the proposed top-down saliency model by applying it to prioritizing object proposals for detection and predicting human fixations.

  4. Fusion of infrared and visible images based on saliency scale-space in frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanfei; Sang, Nong; Dan, Zhiping

    2015-12-01

    A fusion algorithm of infrared and visible images based on saliency scale-space in the frequency domain was proposed. Focus of human attention is directed towards the salient targets which interpret the most important information in the image. For the given registered infrared and visible images, firstly, visual features are extracted to obtain the input hypercomplex matrix. Secondly, the Hypercomplex Fourier Transform (HFT) is used to obtain the salient regions of the infrared and visible images respectively, the convolution of the input hypercomplex matrix amplitude spectrum with a low-pass Gaussian kernel of an appropriate scale which is equivalent to an image saliency detector are done. The saliency maps are obtained by reconstructing the 2D signal using the original phase and the amplitude spectrum, filtered at a scale selected by minimizing saliency map entropy. Thirdly, the salient regions are fused with the adoptive weighting fusion rules, and the nonsalient regions are fused with the rule based on region energy (RE) and region sharpness (RS), then the fused image is obtained. Experimental results show that the presented algorithm can hold high spectrum information of the visual image, and effectively get the thermal targets information at different scales of the infrared image.

  5. Social traits modulate attention to affiliative cues.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah R; Fu, Yu; Depue, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i) a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness), and (ii) attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically.

  6. Social traits modulate attention to affiliative cues

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah R.; Fu, Yu; Depue, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i) a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness), and (ii) attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically. PMID:25009524

  7. Competition between Visual Events Modulates the Influence of Salience during Free-Viewing of Naturalistic Videos.

    PubMed

    Nardo, Davide; Console, Paola; Reverberi, Carlo; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    In daily life the brain is exposed to a large amount of external signals that compete for processing resources. The attentional system can select relevant information based on many possible combinations of goal-directed and stimulus-driven control signals. Here, we investigate the behavioral and physiological effects of competition between distinctive visual events during free-viewing of naturalistic videos. Nineteen healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing short video-clips of everyday life situations, without any explicit goal-directed task. Each video contained either a single semantically-relevant event on the left or right side (Lat-trials), or multiple distinctive events in both hemifields (Multi-trials). For each video, we computed a salience index to quantify the lateralization bias due to stimulus-driven signals, and a gaze index (based on eye-tracking data) to quantify the efficacy of the stimuli in capturing attention to either side. Behaviorally, our results showed that stimulus-driven salience influenced spatial orienting only in presence of multiple competing events (Multi-trials). fMRI results showed that the processing of competing events engaged the ventral attention network, including the right temporoparietal junction (R TPJ) and the right inferior frontal cortex. Salience was found to modulate activity in the visual cortex, but only in the presence of competing events; while the orienting efficacy of Multi-trials affected activity in both the visual cortex and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We conclude that in presence of multiple competing events, the ventral attention system detects semantically-relevant events, while regions of the dorsal system make use of saliency signals to select relevant locations and guide spatial orienting.

  8. Competition between Visual Events Modulates the Influence of Salience during Free-Viewing of Naturalistic Videos

    PubMed Central

    Nardo, Davide; Console, Paola; Reverberi, Carlo; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    In daily life the brain is exposed to a large amount of external signals that compete for processing resources. The attentional system can select relevant information based on many possible combinations of goal-directed and stimulus-driven control signals. Here, we investigate the behavioral and physiological effects of competition between distinctive visual events during free-viewing of naturalistic videos. Nineteen healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing short video-clips of everyday life situations, without any explicit goal-directed task. Each video contained either a single semantically-relevant event on the left or right side (Lat-trials), or multiple distinctive events in both hemifields (Multi-trials). For each video, we computed a salience index to quantify the lateralization bias due to stimulus-driven signals, and a gaze index (based on eye-tracking data) to quantify the efficacy of the stimuli in capturing attention to either side. Behaviorally, our results showed that stimulus-driven salience influenced spatial orienting only in presence of multiple competing events (Multi-trials). fMRI results showed that the processing of competing events engaged the ventral attention network, including the right temporoparietal junction (R TPJ) and the right inferior frontal cortex. Salience was found to modulate activity in the visual cortex, but only in the presence of competing events; while the orienting efficacy of Multi-trials affected activity in both the visual cortex and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We conclude that in presence of multiple competing events, the ventral attention system detects semantically-relevant events, while regions of the dorsal system make use of saliency signals to select relevant locations and guide spatial orienting. PMID:27445760

  9. Human aging compromises attentional control of auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Passow, Susanne; Westerhausen, René; Wartenburger, Isabell; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Heekeren, Hauke R; Lindenberger, Ulman; Li, Shu-Chen

    2012-03-01

    Older adults often experience hearing difficulties in multitalker situations. Attentional control of auditory perception is crucial in situations where a plethora of auditory inputs compete for further processing. We combined an intensity-modulated dichotic listening paradigm with attentional manipulations to study adult age differences in the interplay between perceptual saliency and attentional control of auditory processing. When confronted with two competing sources of verbal auditory input, older adults modulated their attention less flexibly and were more driven by perceptual saliency than younger adults. These findings suggest that aging severely impairs the attentional regulation of auditory perception.

  10. Scanpath estimation based on foveated image saliency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yixiu; Wang, Bin; Wu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Liming

    2017-02-01

    The estimation of gaze shift has been an important research area in saliency modeling. Gaze movement is a dynamic progress, yet existing estimation methods are limited to estimating scanpaths within only one saliency map, providing results with unsatisfactory accuracy. A bio-inspired method for gaze shift prediction is thus proposed. We take the effect of foveation into account in the proposed model, which plays an important role in the search for dynamic salient regions. The saccadic bias of gaze shifts and the mechanism of inhibition of return in short-term memory are also considered. Based on the probability map derived from these factors, candidates for the next fixation can be randomly generated, and the final scanpath can be acquired point by point. By the evaluation of objective measures, experimental results show that this method possesses better performance in several datasets than many existing models do.

  11. Multiple images segmentation based on saliency map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, XiaoLan; Xu, Cheng; Li, SiQi; Li, ShiYing; Li, ZhiQi

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at discovering and segmenting out common objects from multiple images, co-segmentation is a effective method. It is more accurate to make full use of the relationships between images in segmenting than only single image. The first step is to deal with single image with employing hierarchical segmentation to get a Contour Map, saliency detection to obtain the saliency map and object detection to find the possible common part. Then, constructing a digraph with the multiple local regions, and dealing with the digraph. When a digraph is constructed, the corresponding between adjacent two images is influential to the co-segmentation results. This paper develops a method to sort the images to co-segment. Also, we test the method on ICOSEG and MSRC datasets, and compare it with four proposed method. And the results show that it is efficient in co-segmentation with higher precision than many existing and conventional co-segmentation methods.

  12. BIK-BUS: biologically motivated 3D keypoint based on bottom-up saliency.

    PubMed

    Filipe, Sílvio; Itti, Laurent; Alexandre, Luís A

    2015-01-01

    One of the major problems found when developing a 3D recognition system involves the choice of keypoint detector and descriptor. To help solve this problem, we present a new method for the detection of 3D keypoints on point clouds and we perform benchmarking between each pair of 3D keypoint detector and 3D descriptor to evaluate their performance on object and category recognition. These evaluations are done in a public database of real 3D objects. Our keypoint detector is inspired by the behavior and neural architecture of the primate visual system. The 3D keypoints are extracted based on a bottom-up 3D saliency map, that is, a map that encodes the saliency of objects in the visual environment. The saliency map is determined by computing conspicuity maps (a combination across different modalities) of the orientation, intensity, and color information in a bottom-up and in a purely stimulus-driven manner. These three conspicuity maps are fused into a 3D saliency map and, finally, the focus of attention (or keypoint location) is sequentially directed to the most salient points in this map. Inhibiting this location automatically allows the system to attend to the next most salient location. The main conclusions are: with a similar average number of keypoints, our 3D keypoint detector outperforms the other eight 3D keypoint detectors evaluated by achieving the best result in 32 of the evaluated metrics in the category and object recognition experiments, when the second best detector only obtained the best result in eight of these metrics. The unique drawback is the computational time, since biologically inspired 3D keypoint based on bottom-up saliency is slower than the other detectors. Given that there are big differences in terms of recognition performance, size and time requirements, the selection of the keypoint detector and descriptor has to be matched to the desired task and we give some directions to facilitate this choice.

  13. Adaptive Metric Learning for Saliency Detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Lu, Huchuan; Lin, Zhe; Shen, Xiaohui; Price, Brian

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel adaptive metric learning algorithm (AML) for visual saliency detection. A key observation is that the saliency of a superpixel can be estimated by the distance from the most certain foreground and background seeds. Instead of measuring distance on the Euclidean space, we present a learning method based on two complementary Mahalanobis distance metrics: 1) generic metric learning (GML) and 2) specific metric learning (SML). GML aims at the global distribution of the whole training set, while SML considers the specific structure of a single image. Considering that multiple similarity measures from different views may enhance the relevant information and alleviate the irrelevant one, we try to fuse the GML and SML together and experimentally find the combining result does work well. Different from the most existing methods which are directly based on low-level features, we devise a superpixelwise Fisher vector coding approach to better distinguish salient objects from the background. We also propose an accurate seeds selection mechanism and exploit contextual and multiscale information when constructing the final saliency map. Experimental results on various image sets show that the proposed AML performs favorably against the state-of-the-arts.

  14. Eye guidance in natural vision: reinterpreting salience.

    PubMed

    Tatler, Benjamin W; Hayhoe, Mary M; Land, Michael F; Ballard, Dana H

    2011-05-27

    Models of gaze allocation in complex scenes are derived mainly from studies of static picture viewing. The dominant framework to emerge has been image salience, where properties of the stimulus play a crucial role in guiding the eyes. However, salience-based schemes are poor at accounting for many aspects of picture viewing and can fail dramatically in the context of natural task performance. These failures have led to the development of new models of gaze allocation in scene viewing that address a number of these issues. However, models based on the picture-viewing paradigm are unlikely to generalize to a broader range of experimental contexts, because the stimulus context is limited, and the dynamic, task-driven nature of vision is not represented. We argue that there is a need to move away from this class of model and find the principles that govern gaze allocation in a broader range of settings. We outline the major limitations of salience-based selection schemes and highlight what we have learned from studies of gaze allocation in natural vision. Clear principles of selection are found across many instances of natural vision and these are not the principles that might be expected from picture-viewing studies. We discuss the emerging theoretical framework for gaze allocation on the basis of reward maximization and uncertainty reduction.

  15. Eye guidance in natural vision: Reinterpreting salience

    PubMed Central

    Tatler, Benjamin W.; Hayhoe, Mary M.; Land, Michael F.; Ballard, Dana H.

    2011-01-01

    Models of gaze allocation in complex scenes are derived mainly from studies of static picture viewing. The dominant framework to emerge has been image salience, where properties of the stimulus play a crucial role in guiding the eyes. However, salience-based schemes are poor at accounting for many aspects of picture viewing and can fail dramatically in the context of natural task performance. These failures have led to the development of new models of gaze allocation in scene viewing that address a number of these issues. However, models based on the picture-viewing paradigm are unlikely to generalize to a broader range of experimental contexts, because the stimulus context is limited, and the dynamic, task-driven nature of vision is not represented. We argue that there is a need to move away from this class of model and find the principles that govern gaze allocation in a broader range of settings. We outline the major limitations of salience-based selection schemes and highlight what we have learned from studies of gaze allocation in natural vision. Clear principles of selection are found across many instances of natural vision and these are not the principles that might be expected from picture-viewing studies. We discuss the emerging theoretical framework for gaze allocation on the basis of reward maximization and uncertainty reduction. PMID:21622729

  16. Complementary effects of gaze direction and early saliency in guiding fixations during free viewing.

    PubMed

    Borji, Ali; Parks, Daniel; Itti, Laurent

    2014-11-04

    Gaze direction provides an important and ubiquitous communication channel in daily behavior and social interaction of humans and some animals. While several studies have addressed gaze direction in synthesized simple scenes, few have examined how it can bias observer attention and how it might interact with early saliency during free viewing of natural and realistic scenes. Experiment 1 used a controlled, staged setting in which an actor was asked to look at two different objects in turn, yielding two images that differed only by the actor's gaze direction, to causally assess the effects of actor gaze direction. Over all scenes, the median probability of following an actor's gaze direction was higher than the median probability of looking toward the single most salient location, and higher than chance. Experiment 2 confirmed these findings over a larger set of unconstrained scenes collected from the Web and containing people looking at objects and/or other people. To further compare the strength of saliency versus gaze direction cues, we computed gaze maps by drawing a cone in the direction of gaze of the actors present in the images. Gaze maps predicted observers' fixation locations significantly above chance, although below saliency. Finally, to gauge the relative importance of actor face and eye directions in guiding observer's fixations, in Experiment 3, observers were asked to guess the gaze direction from only an actor's face region (with the rest of the scene masked), in two conditions: actor eyes visible or masked. Median probability of guessing the true gaze direction within ±9° was significantly higher when eyes were visible, suggesting that the eyes contribute significantly to gaze estimation, in addition to face region. Our results highlight that gaze direction is a strong attentional cue in guiding eye movements, complementing low-level saliency cues, and derived from both face and eyes of actors in the scene. Thus gaze direction should be considered

  17. A novel multiresolution spatiotemporal saliency detection model and its applications in image and video compression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chenlei; Zhang, Liming

    2010-01-01

    Salient areas in natural scenes are generally regarded as areas which the human eye will typically focus on, and finding these areas is the key step in object detection. In computer vision, many models have been proposed to simulate the behavior of eyes such as SaliencyToolBox (STB), Neuromorphic Vision Toolkit (NVT), and others, but they demand high computational cost and computing useful results mostly relies on their choice of parameters. Although some region-based approaches were proposed to reduce the computational complexity of feature maps, these approaches still were not able to work in real time. Recently, a simple and fast approach called spectral residual (SR) was proposed, which uses the SR of the amplitude spectrum to calculate the image's saliency map. However, in our previous work, we pointed out that it is the phase spectrum, not the amplitude spectrum, of an image's Fourier transform that is key to calculating the location of salient areas, and proposed the phase spectrum of Fourier transform (PFT) model. In this paper, we present a quaternion representation of an image which is composed of intensity, color, and motion features. Based on the principle of PFT, a novel multiresolution spatiotemporal saliency detection model called phase spectrum of quaternion Fourier transform (PQFT) is proposed in this paper to calculate the spatiotemporal saliency map of an image by its quaternion representation. Distinct from other models, the added motion dimension allows the phase spectrum to represent spatiotemporal saliency in order to perform attention selection not only for images but also for videos. In addition, the PQFT model can compute the saliency map of an image under various resolutions from coarse to fine. Therefore, the hierarchical selectivity (HS) framework based on the PQFT model is introduced here to construct the tree structure representation of an image. With the help of HS, a model called multiresolution wavelet domain foveation (MWDF) is

  18. Perceptual Competition Promotes Suppression of Reward Salience in Behavioral Selection and Neural Representation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Mengyuan; Jia, Ke; Li, Sheng

    2017-06-28

    Visual attentional selection is influenced by the value of objects. Previous studies have demonstrated that reward-associated items lead to rapid distraction and associated behavioral costs, which are difficult to override with top-down control. However, it has not been determined whether a perceptually competitive environment could render the reward-driven distraction more susceptible to top-down suppression. Here, we trained both genders of human subjects to associate two orientations with high and low magnitudes of reward. After training, we collected fMRI data while the subjects performed a categorical visual search task. The item in the reward-associated orientation served as the distractor, and the relative physical salience between the target and distractor was carefully controlled to modulate the degree of perceptual competition. The behavioral results showed faster searches in the presence of high, relative to low, reward-associated distractors. However, this effect was evident only if the physical salience of the distractor was higher than that of the target, indicating a context-dependent suppression effect of reward salience that relied on high perceptual competition. By analyzing the fMRI data in primary visual cortex, we found that the behavioral pattern of results could be predicted by the suppressed channel responses tuned to the reward-associated orientation in the distractor location, accompanied by increased responses in the midbrain dopaminergic region. Our results suggest that the learned salience of a reward plays a flexible role in solving perceptual competition, enabling the neural system to adaptively modulate the perceptual representation for behavioral optimization.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The predictiveness principle in learning theory suggests that the stimulus with high predictability of reward receives priority in attentional selection. This selection bias leads to difficulties in changing approach behaviors, and thus becomes an

  19. In defense of the salience map: salience rather than visibility determines selection.

    PubMed

    Siebold, Alisha; van Zoest, Wieske; Meeter, Martijn; Donk, Mieke

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether time-dependent biases of oculomotor selection as typically observed during visual search are better accounted for by an absolute-processing-speed account (J. P. de Vries, I. T. C. Hooge, M. A. Wiering, & F. A. J. Verstraten, 2011, How longer saccade latencies lead to a competition for salience. Psychological Science, 22, 916-923) or a relative-salience account (e.g., M. Donk, & W. van Zoest, 2008, Effects of salience are short-lived. Psychological Science, 19, 733-739; M. Donk & W. van Zoest, 2011, No control in orientation search: The effects of instruction on oculomotor selection in visual search. Vision Research, 51, 2156-2166). In order to test these two models, we performed an experiment in which participants were instructed to make a speeded eye movement to any of two orientation singletons presented among a homogeneous set of vertically oriented background lines. One singleton, the fixed singleton, remained identical across conditions, whereas the other singleton, the variable singleton, varied such that its orientation contrast relative to the background lines was either smaller or larger than that of the fixed singleton. The results showed that the proportion of eye movements directed toward the fixed singleton varied substantially depending on the orientation contrast of the variable singleton. A model assuming selection behavior to be determined by relative salience provided a better fit to the individual data than the absolute processing speed model. These findings suggest that relative salience rather than the visibility of an element is crucial in determining temporal variations in oculomotor selection behavior and that an explanation of visual selection behavior is insufficient without the concept of a salience map.

  20. An embedded saliency map estimator scheme: application to video encoding.

    PubMed

    Tsapatsoulis, Nicolas; Rapantzikos, Konstantinos; Pattichis, Constantinos

    2007-08-01

    In this paper we propose a novel saliency-based computational model for visual attention. This model processes both top-down (goal directed) and bottom-up information. Processing in the top-down channel creates the so called skin conspicuity map and emulates the visual search for human faces performed by humans. This is clearly a goal directed task but is generic enough to be context independent. Processing in the bottom-up information channel follows the principles set by Itti et al. but it deviates from them by computing the orientation, intensity and color conspicuity maps within a unified multi-resolution framework based on wavelet subband analysis. In particular, we apply a wavelet based approach for efficient computation of the topographic feature maps. Given that wavelets and multiresolution theory are naturally connected the usage of wavelet decomposition for mimicking the center surround process in humans is an obvious choice. However, our implementation goes further. We utilize the wavelet decomposition for inline computation of the features (such as orientation angles) that are used to create the topographic feature maps. The bottom-up topographic feature maps and the top-down skin conspicuity map are then combined through a sigmoid function to produce the final saliency map. A prototype of the proposed model was realized through the TMDSDMK642-0E DSP platform as an embedded system allowing real-time operation. For evaluation purposes, in terms of perceived visual quality and video compression improvement, a ROI-based video compression setup was followed. Extended experiments concerning both MPEG-1 as well as low bit-rate MPEG-4 video encoding were conducted showing significant improvement in video compression efficiency without perceived deterioration in visual quality.

  1. Neural activities in v1 create a bottom-up saliency map.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xilin; Zhaoping, Li; Zhou, Tiangang; Fang, Fang

    2012-01-12

    The bottom-up contribution to the allocation of exogenous attention is a saliency map, whose neural substrate is hard to identify because of possible contamination by top-down signals. We obviated this possibility using stimuli that observers could not perceive, but that nevertheless, through orientation contrast between foreground and background regions, attracted attention to improve a localized visual discrimination. When orientation contrast increased, so did the degree of attraction, and two physiological measures: the amplitude of the earliest (C1) component of the ERP, which is associated with primary visual cortex, and fMRI BOLD signals in areas V1-V4 (but not the intraparietal sulcus). Significantly, across observers, the degree of attraction correlated with the C1 amplitude and just the V1 BOLD signal. These findings strongly support the proposal that a bottom-up saliency map is created in V1, challenging the dominant view that the saliency map is generated in the parietal cortex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Implicit guidance of attention: The priority state space framework.

    PubMed

    Todd, Rebecca M; Manaligod, Maria G M

    2017-08-10

    Visual selective attention is the process by which we tune ourselves to the world so that, of the millions of bits per second transmitted by the retina, the information that is most important to us reaches awareness and directs action. Recently, new areas of attention research have opened up as classic models dividing attention into top-down and bottom-up systems have been challenged. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework, the priority state space (PSS) framework, integrating sources of salience that guide visual attention according to a nested hierarchy of goals. Using the PSS framework as a scaffold, we review evidence of selected sources of implicit attentional guidance, including recent research on statistical learning, semantic associations, and motivational and affective salience. We next summarize current understanding of the underlying neural circuitry facilitating guidance of attention by specific sources of salience, including key neuromodulator systems, with an emphasis on affective salience and the noradrenergic system. Finally, we discuss evidence for common mechanisms of prioritization, including integration of sources of salience via priority maps, and introduce the concept of the PSS as a model for mapping a complex dynamic attentional landscape. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A switch in task affects priming of pop-out: evidence for the role of episodes.

    PubMed

    Thomson, David R; Milliken, Bruce

    2011-02-01

    Maljkovic and Nakayama (Memory & Cognition, 22(6), 655-678, 1994) demonstrated that response times decrease in a pop-out search task when target-defining features repeat from one trial to the next. This priming of pop-out (PoP) effect has been explained by some researchers as reflecting low-level modulations in attentional control settings Lee, Mozer, and Vecera (Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 71(5), 1059-1071, 2009). The present experiments tested whether a shift in higher order task requirements from trial n - 1 to trial n alters PoP effects. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that a switch in task significantly modulated PoP effects when shape was the relevant pop-out dimension. Experiment 3 failed to show significant modulation of PoP as a function of task switch when the pop-out dimension was color, but the findings of Experiment 4 did show modulation of PoP for color when the relative salience of target and distractors was high. Together, the results strongly support the view that PoP effects can be sensitive to a switch in task, a result consistent with the view that PoP effects are modulated by trial-to-trial episodic integration processes.

  4. Multi-window visual saliency extraction for fusion of visible and infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jufeng; Gao, Xiumin; Chen, Yueting; Feng, Huajun; Wang, Daodang

    2016-05-01

    Fusion for visible and infrared images aims to combine the source images of the same scene into a single image with more feature information and better visual performance. In this paper, the authors propose a fusion method based on multi-window visual saliency extraction for visible and infrared images. To extract feature information from infrared and visible images, we design local-window-based frequency-tuned method. With this idea, visual saliency maps are calculated for variable feature information under different local window. These maps show the weights of people's attention upon images for each pixel and region. Enhanced fusion is done using simple weight combination way. Compared with the classical and state-of-the-art approaches, the experimental results demonstrate the proposed approach runs efficiently and performs better than other methods, especially in visual performance and details enhancement.

  5. Improved saliency toolbox/Itti model for region of interest extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dong-Jian; Liu, Shang-Wang; Liang, Xin-Hong; Cai, Cheng

    2011-09-01

    The saliency toolbox (STB)/Itti model is an outstanding computational selective visual attention model. In this paper, we propose an improved STB/Itti model to overcome the drawback of STB/Itti--its output ``saliency map'' is not large enough for region of interest (ROI) extraction. First, we employ a simplified pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) with a special input image, and more importantly, the PCNN does not require iterations. Subsequently, the PCNN takes the place of the winner-take-all network in STB/Itti. Experimental results show that the improved STB/Itti model works well for ROI extraction, with the mean area under the curve value of 0.8306 and robustness against noise and geometric attacks. The proposed model can greatly enhance the performances of both STB/Itti and PCNN model in image processing.

  6. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation affects incentive salience attribution in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Serranová, Tereza; Jech, Robert; Dušek, Petr; Sieger, Tomáš; Růžička, Filip; Urgošík, Dušan; Růžička, Evžen

    2011-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can induce nonmotor side effects such as behavioral and mood disturbances or body weight gain in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We hypothesized that some of these problems could be related to an altered attribution of incentive salience (ie, emotional relevance) to rewarding and aversive stimuli. Twenty PD patients (all men; mean age ± SD, 58.3 ± 6 years) in bilateral STN DBS switched ON and OFF conditions and 18 matched controls rated pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System according to emotional valence (unpleasantness/pleasantness) and arousal on 2 independent visual scales ranging from 1 to 9. Eighty-four pictures depicting primary rewarding (erotica and food) and aversive fearful (victims and threat) and neutral stimuli were selected for this study. In the STN DBS ON condition, the PD patients attributed lower valence scores to the aversive pictures compared with the OFF condition (P < .01) and compared with controls (P < .01). The difference between the OFF condition and controls was less pronounced (P < .05). Furthermore, postoperative weight gain correlated with arousal ratings from the food pictures in the STN DBS ON condition (P < .05 compensated for OFF condition). Our results suggest that STN DBS increases activation of the aversive motivational system so that more relevance is attributed to aversive fearful stimuli. In addition, STN DBS-related sensitivity to food reward stimuli cues might drive DBS-treated patients to higher food intake and subsequent weight gain.

  7. The Structure of the Relationship between Attention and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweizer, Karl; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Goldhammer, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between attention and general intelligence was investigated considering the different types of attention: alertness, sustained attention, focused attention, attentional switching, divided attention, attention according to the supervisory attentional system, attention as inhibition, spatial attention, attention as planning,…

  8. Response variability of frontal eye field neurons modulates with sensory input and saccade preparation but not visual search salience

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Braden A.; Heitz, Richard P.; Cohen, Jeremiah Y.

    2012-01-01

    Discharge rate modulation of frontal eye field (FEF) neurons has been identified with a representation of visual search salience (physical conspicuity and behavioral relevance) and saccade preparation. We tested whether salience or saccade preparation are evident in the trial-to-trial variability of discharge rate. We quantified response variability via the Fano factor in FEF neurons recorded in monkeys performing efficient and inefficient visual search tasks. Response variability declined following stimulus presentation in most neurons, but despite clear discharge rate modulation, variability did not change with target salience. Instead, we found that response variability was modulated by stimulus luminance and the number of items in the visual field independently of attentional demands. Response variability declined to a minimum before saccade initiation, and presaccadic response variability was directionally tuned. In addition, response variability was correlated with the response time of memory-guided saccades. These results indicate that the trial-by-trial response variability of FEF neurons reflects saccade preparation and the strength of sensory input, but not visual search salience or attentional allocation. PMID:22956785

  9. A Selective Insular Perfusion Deficit Contributes to Compromised Salience Network Connectivity in Recovering Alcoholic Men

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Edith V.; Müller-Oehring, Eva; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Chanraud, Sandra; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Alsop, David C.; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcoholism can disrupt neural synchrony between nodes of intrinsic functional networks that are maximally active when resting relative to engaging in a task, the default mode network (DMN) pattern. Untested, however, are whether the DMN in alcoholics can rebound normally from the relatively depressed task-state to the active resting-state and whether local perfusion deficits could disrupt network synchrony when switching from conditions of rest to task to rest, thereby indicating a physiological mechanism of neural network adaptation capability. Methods Whole-brain, 3D pulsed-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL) provided measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 12 alcoholics and 12 controls under three conditions: pre-task rest, spatial working-memory task, post-task rest. Results With practice, alcoholics and controls achieved similar task accuracy and reaction times. Both groups exhibited a high-low-high pattern of perfusion levels in DMN regions during the rest-task-rest runs and the opposite pattern in posterior and cerebellar regions known to be associated with spatial working memory. Alcoholics showed selective differences from controls in the rest-task-rest CBF pattern in the anterior precuneus and CBF level in the insula, a hub of the salience network. Connectivity analysis identified activation synchrony from an insula seed to salience nodes (parietal, medial frontal, anterior cingulate cortices) in controls only. Conclusions We propose that attenuated insular CBF is a mechanism underlying compromised connectivity among salience network nodes. This local perfusion deficit in alcoholics has the potential to impair ability to switch from cognitive states of interoceptive cravings to cognitive control for curbing internal urges. PMID:23587427

  10. Symptom control in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on switching from immediate-release MPH to OROS MPH Results of a 3-week open-label study.

    PubMed

    Remschmidt, H; Hoare, P; Ettrich, C; Rothenberger, A; Santosh, P; Schmidt, M; Spender, Q; Tamhne, R; Thompson, M; Tinline, C; Trott, G E; Medori, R

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of switching from immediate-release (IR) methylphenidate (MPH) to OROS MPH (CONCERTA, a once-daily long-acting MPH formulation, in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Subjects with ADHD aged 6-16 (n=105),who were stably maintained on their current IR MPH regimen (10-60 mg/day), were switched to 18, 36 or 54 mg OROS MPH once daily for 21 days, depending on pre-study daily MPH dose. ADHD symptoms were assessed by parents, teachers and investigators. By Day 21, parent/caregiver IOWA Conners ratings had decreased from baseline by 2.7 points to 5.2 (I/O), and by 1.8 points to 5.0 (O/D). Teacher IOWA Conners ratings were maintained. Decreases in IOWA Conners ratings are indicative of ADHD symptom improvement. Approximately 75% of parents and investigators rated therapy as good or excellent. OROS MPH therapy was well tolerated. Switching from IR MPH to OROS MPH maintained and may have improved symptom control in children and adolescents with ADHD, during the course of this study. The changes in parent/caregiver IOWA Conners ratings suggest that OROS MPH improves symptom control in the after-school period. This is consistent with the 12-h duration of action previously demonstrated for OROS MPH.

  11. The Role of Ethnic School Segregation for Adolescents' Religious Salience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Bracht, Koen; D'hondt, Fanny; Van Houtte, Mieke; Van de Putte, Bart; Stevens, Peter A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Public concerns over the possible effects of school segregation on immigrant and ethnic majority religiosity have been on the rise over the last few years. In this paper we focus on (1) the association between ethnic school composition and religious salience, (2) intergenerational differences in religious salience and (3) the role of ethnic school…

  12. Career Concerns, Values, and Role Salience in Employed Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, M. Eduarda

    1995-01-01

    Tests Super's model of career adaptability by examining the relationship between career development concerns, values, and role salience among cement factory workers (n=881). They responded to the Adult Career Concerns Inventory, the Values Inventory, and the Salience Inventory. Results supported both Super's model of career adaptation and his…

  13. Bayesian saliency via low and mid level cues.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yulin; Lu, Huchuan; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2013-05-01

    Visual saliency detection is a challenging problem in computer vision, but one of great importance and numerous applications. In this paper, we propose a novel model for bottom-up saliency within the Bayesian framework by exploiting low and mid level cues. In contrast to most existing methods that operate directly on low level cues, we propose an algorithm in which a coarse saliency region is first obtained via a convex hull of interest points. We also analyze the saliency information with mid level visual cues via superpixels. We present a Laplacian sparse subspace clustering method to group superpixels with local features, and analyze the results with respect to the coarse saliency region to compute the prior saliency map. We use the low level visual cues based on the convex hull to compute the observation likelihood, thereby facilitating inference of Bayesian saliency at each pixel. Extensive experiments on a large data set show that our Bayesian saliency model performs favorably against the state-of-the-art algorithms.

  14. Career Concerns, Values, and Role Salience in Employed Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, M. Eduarda

    1995-01-01

    Tests Super's model of career adaptability by examining the relationship between career development concerns, values, and role salience among cement factory workers (n=881). They responded to the Adult Career Concerns Inventory, the Values Inventory, and the Salience Inventory. Results supported both Super's model of career adaptation and his…

  15. The Role of Ethnic School Segregation for Adolescents' Religious Salience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Bracht, Koen; D'hondt, Fanny; Van Houtte, Mieke; Van de Putte, Bart; Stevens, Peter A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Public concerns over the possible effects of school segregation on immigrant and ethnic majority religiosity have been on the rise over the last few years. In this paper we focus on (1) the association between ethnic school composition and religious salience, (2) intergenerational differences in religious salience and (3) the role of ethnic school…

  16. Dimensional Salience and Developmental Effects Upon the Learning of Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsuyama, Ronald M.; Hoffarth, Gary D.

    This study had two major purposes: to examine the effects of dimensional salience upon the learning of conjunction and disjunction rules, and to investigate an alternative to the prevailing cognitive-change accounts of developmental differences in multidimensional problem solving. The relative salience of each of four stimulus dimensions (form,…

  17. The Aberrant Salience Inventory: A New Measure of Psychosis Proneness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicero, David C.; Kerns, John G.; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant salience is the unusual or incorrect assignment of salience, significance, or importance to otherwise innocuous stimuli and has been hypothesized to be important for psychosis and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Despite the importance of this concept in psychosis research, no questionnaire measures are available to assess…

  18. The Aberrant Salience Inventory: A New Measure of Psychosis Proneness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicero, David C.; Kerns, John G.; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant salience is the unusual or incorrect assignment of salience, significance, or importance to otherwise innocuous stimuli and has been hypothesized to be important for psychosis and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Despite the importance of this concept in psychosis research, no questionnaire measures are available to assess…

  19. Data-driven approach to dynamic visual attention modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culibrk, Dubravko; Sladojevic, Srdjan; Riche, Nicolas; Mancas, Matei; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2012-06-01

    Visual attention deployment mechanisms allow the Human Visual System to cope with an overwhelming amount of visual data by dedicating most of the processing power to objects of interest. The ability to automatically detect areas of the visual scene that will be attended to by humans is of interest for a large number of applications, from video coding, video quality assessment to scene understanding. Due to this fact, visual saliency (bottom-up attention) models have generated significant scientific interest in recent years. Most recent work in this area deals with dynamic models of attention that deal with moving stimuli (videos) instead of traditionally used still images. Visual saliency models are usually evaluated against ground-truth eye-tracking data collected from human subjects. However, there are precious few recently published approaches that try to learn saliency from eyetracking data and, to the best of our knowledge, no approaches that try to do so when dynamic saliency is concerned. The paper attempts to fill this gap and describes an approach to data-driven dynamic saliency model learning. A framework is proposed that enables the use of eye-tracking data to train an arbitrary machine learning algorithm, using arbitrary features derived from the scene. We evaluate the methodology using features from a state-of-the art dynamic saliency model and show how simple machine learning algorithms can be trained to distinguish between visually salient and non-salient parts of the scene.

  20. Variables affecting racial-identity salience among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, V L

    1999-12-01

    The author clarified the African American racial-group identification process by addressing the issue of salience and its relationship to racial-group attitudes. A sample of 409 African American adults responded to surveys pertaining to their racial-group salience, racial-group attitudes, racial socialization, racial-group interaction, political activism, experiences of discrimination, and demographic data (e.g., sex, age, and income). The author tested 3 hypotheses: (a) Racial socialization and interaction with other African Americans are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; (b) discriminatory experiences are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; and (c) racial-identity salience is a stronger predictor of African American racial-group identification than are previously identified predictive variables (D. H. Demo & H. Hughes, 1990; V. L. Thompson Sanders, 1991, 1995). The results supported the 1st and 3rd hypotheses.

  1. Revealing Event Saliency in Unconstrained Video Collection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dingwen; Han, Junwei; Jiang, Lu; Ye, Senmao; Chang, Xiaojun

    2017-04-01

    Recent progresses in multimedia event detection have enabled us to find videos about a predefined event from a large-scale video collection. Research towards more intrinsic unsupervised video understanding is an interesting but understudied field. Specifically, given a collection of videos sharing a common event of interest, the goal is to discover the salient fragments, i.e., the curt video fragments that can concisely portray the underlying event of interest, from each video. To explore this novel direction, this paper proposes an unsupervised event saliency revealing framework. It first extracts features from multiple modalities to represent each shot in the given video collection. Then, these shots are clustered to build the cluster-level event saliency revealing framework, which explores useful information cues (i.e., the intra-cluster prior, inter-cluster discriminability, and inter-cluster smoothness) by a concise optimization model. Compared with the existing methods, our approach could highlight the intrinsic stimulus of the unseen event within a video in an unsupervised fashion. Thus, it could potentially benefit to a wide range of multimedia tasks like video browsing, understanding, and search. To quantitatively verify the proposed method, we systematically compare the method to a number of baseline methods on the TRECVID benchmarks. Experimental results have demonstrated its effectiveness and efficiency.

  2. Object detection system based on multimodel saliency maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ya'nan; Luo, Chongfan; Ma, Yide

    2017-03-01

    Detection of visually salient image regions is extensively applied in computer vision and computer graphics, such as object detection, adaptive compression, and object recognition, but any single model always has its limitations to various images, so in our work, we establish a method based on multimodel saliency maps to detect the object, which intelligently absorbs the merits of various individual saliency detection models to achieve promising results. The method can be roughly divided into three steps: in the first step, we propose a decision-making system to evaluate saliency maps obtained by seven competitive methods and merely select the three most valuable saliency maps; in the second step, we introduce heterogeneous PCNN algorithm to obtain three prime foregrounds; and then a self-designed nonlinear fusion method is proposed to merge these saliency maps; at last, the adaptive improved and simplified PCNN model is used to detect the object. Our proposed method can constitute an object detection system for different occasions, which requires no training, is simple, and highly efficient. The proposed saliency fusion technique shows better performance over a broad range of images and enriches the applicability range by fusing different individual saliency models, this proposed system is worthy enough to be called a strong model. Moreover, the proposed adaptive improved SPCNN model is stemmed from the Eckhorn's neuron model, which is skilled in image segmentation because of its biological background, and in which all the parameters are adaptive to image information. We extensively appraise our algorithm on classical salient object detection database, and the experimental results demonstrate that the aggregation of saliency maps outperforms the best saliency model in all cases, yielding highest precision of 89.90%, better recall rates of 98.20%, greatest F-measure of 91.20%, and lowest mean absolute error value of 0.057, the value of proposed saliency evaluation

  3. Using Saliency-Weighted Disparity Statistics for Objective Visual Comfort Assessment of Stereoscopic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenlan; Luo, Ting; Jiang, Gangyi; Jiang, Qiuping; Ying, Hongwei; Lu, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Visual comfort assessment (VCA) for stereoscopic images is a particularly significant yet challenging task in 3D quality of experience research field. Although the subjective assessment given by human observers is known as the most reliable way to evaluate the experienced visual discomfort, it is time-consuming and non-systematic. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop objective VCA approaches that can faithfully predict the degree of visual discomfort as human beings do. In this paper, a novel two-stage objective VCA framework is proposed. The main contribution of this study is that the important visual attention mechanism of human visual system is incorporated for visual comfort-aware feature extraction. Specifically, in the first stage, we first construct an adaptive 3D visual saliency detection model to derive saliency map of a stereoscopic image, and then a set of saliency-weighted disparity statistics are computed and combined to form a single feature vector to represent a stereoscopic image in terms of visual comfort. In the second stage, a high dimensional feature vector is fused into a single visual comfort score by performing random forest algorithm. Experimental results on two benchmark databases confirm the superior performance of the proposed approach.

  4. Reward salience and risk aversion underlie differential ACC activity in substance dependence

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, William H.; Fukunaga, Rena; Finn, Peter; Brown, Joshua W.

    2015-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex, especially the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), has long been implicated in cognitive control and error processing. Although the association between ACC and behavior has been established, it is less clear how ACC contributes to dysfunctional behavior such as substance dependence. Evidence from neuroimaging studies investigating ACC function in substance users is mixed, with some studies showing disengagement of ACC in substance dependent individuals (SDs), while others show increased ACC activity related to substance use. In this study, we investigate ACC function in SDs and healthy individuals performing a change signal task for monetary rewards. Using a priori predictions derived from a recent computational model of ACC, we find that ACC activity differs between SDs and controls in factors related to reward salience and risk aversion between SDs and healthy individuals. Quantitative fits of a computational model to fMRI data reveal significant differences in best fit parameters for reward salience and risk preferences. Specifically, the ACC in SDs shows greater risk aversion, defined as concavity in the utility function, and greater attention to rewards relative to reward omission. Furthermore, across participants risk aversion and reward salience are positively correlated. The results clarify the role that ACC plays in both the reduced sensitivity to omitted rewards and greater reward valuation in SDs. Clinical implications of applying computational modeling in psychiatry are also discussed. PMID:26106528

  5. Investigating bottom-up auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2014-01-01

    Bottom-up attention is a sensory-driven selection mechanism that directs perception toward a subset of the stimulus that is considered salient, or attention-grabbing. Most studies of bottom-up auditory attention have adapted frameworks similar to visual attention models whereby local or global “contrast” is a central concept in defining salient elements in a scene. In the current study, we take a more fundamental approach to modeling auditory attention; providing the first examination of the space of auditory saliency spanning pitch, intensity and timbre; and shedding light on complex interactions among these features. Informed by psychoacoustic results, we develop a computational model of auditory saliency implementing a novel attentional framework, guided by processes hypothesized to take place in the auditory pathway. In particular, the model tests the hypothesis that perception tracks the evolution of sound events in a multidimensional feature space, and flags any deviation from background statistics as salient. Predictions from the model corroborate the relationship between bottom-up auditory attention and statistical inference, and argues for a potential role of predictive coding as mechanism for saliency detection in acoustic scenes. PMID:24904367

  6. Quantitative analysis of human-model agreement in visual saliency modeling: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Borji, Ali; Sihite, Dicky N; Itti, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Visual attention is a process that enables biological and machine vision systems to select the most relevant regions from a scene. Relevance is determined by two components: 1) top-down factors driven by task and 2) bottom-up factors that highlight image regions that are different from their surroundings. The latter are often referred to as "visual saliency." Modeling bottom-up visual saliency has been the subject of numerous research efforts during the past 20 years, with many successful applications in computer vision and robotics. Available models have been tested with different datasets (e.g., synthetic psychological search arrays, natural images or videos) using different evaluation scores (e.g., search slopes, comparison to human eye tracking) and parameter settings. This has made direct comparison of models difficult. Here, we perform an exhaustive comparison of 35 state-of-the-art saliency models over 54 challenging synthetic patterns, three natural image datasets, and two video datasets, using three evaluation scores. We find that although model rankings vary, some models consistently perform better. Analysis of datasets reveals that existing datasets are highly center-biased, which influences some of the evaluation scores. Computational complexity analysis shows that some models are very fast, yet yield competitive eye movement prediction accuracy. Different models often have common easy/difficult stimuli. Furthermore, several concerns in visual saliency modeling, eye movement datasets, and evaluation scores are discussed and insights for future work are provided. Our study allows one to assess the state-of-the-art, helps to organizing this rapidly growing field, and sets a unified comparison framework for gauging future efforts, similar to the PASCAL VOC challenge in the object recognition and detection domains.

  7. How saliency, faces, and sound influence gaze in dynamic social scenes.

    PubMed

    Coutrot, Antoine; Guyader, Nathalie

    2014-07-03

    Conversation scenes are a typical example in which classical models of visual attention dramatically fail to predict eye positions. Indeed, these models rarely consider faces as particular gaze attractors and never take into account the important auditory information that always accompanies dynamic social scenes. We recorded the eye movements of participants viewing dynamic conversations taking place in various contexts. Conversations were seen either with their original soundtracks or with unrelated soundtracks (unrelated speech and abrupt or continuous natural sounds). First, we analyze how auditory conditions influence the eye movement parameters of participants. Then, we model the probability distribution of eye positions across each video frame with a statistical method (Expectation-Maximization), allowing the relative contribution of different visual features such as static low-level visual saliency (based on luminance contrast), dynamic low level visual saliency (based on motion amplitude), faces, and center bias to be quantified. Through experimental and modeling results, we show that regardless of the auditory condition, participants look more at faces, and especially at talking faces. Hearing the original soundtrack makes participants follow the speech turn-taking more closely. However, we do not find any difference between the different types of unrelated soundtracks. These eyetracking results are confirmed by our model that shows that faces, and particularly talking faces, are the features that best explain the gazes recorded, especially in the original soundtrack condition. Low-level saliency is not a relevant feature to explain eye positions made on social scenes, even dynamic ones. Finally, we propose groundwork for an audiovisual saliency model. © 2014 ARVO.

  8. Learning to Model Task-Oriented Attention

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Xiaochun; Zhao, Xinbo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yongjia

    2016-01-01

    For many applications in graphics, design, and human computer interaction, it is essential to understand where humans look in a scene with a particular task. Models of saliency can be used to predict fixation locations, but a large body of previous saliency models focused on free-viewing task. They are based on bottom-up computation that does not consider task-oriented image semantics and often does not match actual eye movements. To address this problem, we collected eye tracking data of 11 subjects when they performed some particular search task in 1307 images and annotation data of 2,511 segmented objects with fine contours and 8 semantic attributes. Using this database as training and testing examples, we learn a model of saliency based on bottom-up image features and target position feature. Experimental results demonstrate the importance of the target information in the prediction of task-oriented visual attention. PMID:27247561

  9. Learning to Model Task-Oriented Attention.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaochun; Zhao, Xinbo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yongjia

    2016-01-01

    For many applications in graphics, design, and human computer interaction, it is essential to understand where humans look in a scene with a particular task. Models of saliency can be used to predict fixation locations, but a large body of previous saliency models focused on free-viewing task. They are based on bottom-up computation that does not consider task-oriented image semantics and often does not match actual eye movements. To address this problem, we collected eye tracking data of 11 subjects when they performed some particular search task in 1307 images and annotation data of 2,511 segmented objects with fine contours and 8 semantic attributes. Using this database as training and testing examples, we learn a model of saliency based on bottom-up image features and target position feature. Experimental results demonstrate the importance of the target information in the prediction of task-oriented visual attention.

  10. Primary Visual Cortex as a Saliency Map: A Parameter-Free Prediction and Its Test by Behavioral Data

    PubMed Central

    Zhaoping, Li; Zhe, Li

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that neural activities in the primary visual cortex (V1) represent a saliency map of the visual field to exogenously guide attention. This hypothesis has so far provided only qualitative predictions and their confirmations. We report this hypothesis’ first quantitative prediction, derived without free parameters, and its confirmation by human behavioral data. The hypothesis provides a direct link between V1 neural responses to a visual location and the saliency of that location to guide attention exogenously. In a visual input containing many bars, one of them saliently different from all the other bars which are identical to each other, saliency at the singleton’s location can be measured by the shortness of the reaction time in a visual search for singletons. The hypothesis predicts quantitatively the whole distribution of the reaction times to find a singleton unique in color, orientation, and motion direction from the reaction times to find other types of singletons. The prediction matches human reaction time data. A requirement for this successful prediction is a data-motivated assumption that V1 lacks neurons tuned simultaneously to color, orientation, and motion direction of visual inputs. Since evidence suggests that extrastriate cortices do have such neurons, we discuss the possibility that the extrastriate cortices play no role in guiding exogenous attention so that they can be devoted to other functions like visual decoding and endogenous attention. PMID:26441341

  11. Primary Visual Cortex as a Saliency Map: A Parameter-Free Prediction and Its Test by Behavioral Data.

    PubMed

    Zhaoping, Li; Zhe, Li

    2015-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that neural activities in the primary visual cortex (V1) represent a saliency map of the visual field to exogenously guide attention. This hypothesis has so far provided only qualitative predictions and their confirmations. We report this hypothesis' first quantitative prediction, derived without free parameters, and its confirmation by human behavioral data. The hypothesis provides a direct link between V1 neural responses to a visual location and the saliency of that location to guide attention exogenously. In a visual input containing many bars, one of them saliently different from all the other bars which are identical to each other, saliency at the singleton's location can be measured by the shortness of the reaction time in a visual search for singletons. The hypothesis predicts quantitatively the whole distribution of the reaction times to find a singleton unique in color, orientation, and motion direction from the reaction times to find other types of singletons. The prediction matches human reaction time data. A requirement for this successful prediction is a data-motivated assumption that V1 lacks neurons tuned simultaneously to color, orientation, and motion direction of visual inputs. Since evidence suggests that extrastriate cortices do have such neurons, we discuss the possibility that the extrastriate cortices play no role in guiding exogenous attention so that they can be devoted to other functions like visual decoding and endogenous attention.

  12. Event-Related Fmri Evidence of Frontotemporal Involvement in Aberrant Response Inhibition and Task Switching in Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamm, Leanne; Menon, Vinod; Ringel, Jessica; Reiss, Allan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Response inhibition deficits are characteristic of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating the neural correlates of this dysfunction have used block designs, making it difficult to disentangle activation differences specifically related…

  13. Measuring saliency in images: which experimental parameters for the assessment of image quality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredembach, Clement; Woolfe, Geoff; Wang, Jue

    2012-01-01

    Predicting which areas of an image are perceptually salient or attended to has become an essential pre-requisite of many computer vision applications. Because observers are notoriously unreliable in remembering where they look a posteriori, and because asking where they look while observing the image necessarily in uences the results, ground truth about saliency and visual attention has to be obtained by gaze tracking methods. From the early work of Buswell and Yarbus to the most recent forays in computer vision there has been, perhaps unfortunately, little agreement on standardisation of eye tracking protocols for measuring visual attention. As the number of parameters involved in experimental methodology can be large, their individual in uence on the nal results is not well understood. Consequently, the performance of saliency algorithms, when assessed by correlation techniques, varies greatly across the literature. In this paper, we concern ourselves with the problem of image quality. Specically: where people look when judging images. We show that in this case, the performance gap between existing saliency prediction algorithms and experimental results is signicantly larger than otherwise reported. To understand this discrepancy, we rst devise an experimental protocol that is adapted to the task of measuring image quality. In a second step, we compare our experimental parameters with the ones of existing methods and show that a lot of the variability can directly be ascribed to these dierences in experimental methodology and choice of variables. In particular, the choice of a task, e.g., judging image quality vs. free viewing, has a great impact on measured saliency maps, suggesting that even for a mildly cognitive task, ground truth obtained by free viewing does not adapt well. Careful analysis of the prior art also reveals that systematic bias can occur depending on instrumental calibration and the choice of test images. We conclude this work by proposing a

  14. Finding the Secret of Image Saliency in the Frequency Domain.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Duan, Ling-Yu; Chen, Xiaowu; Huang, Tiejun; Tian, Yonghong

    2015-12-01

    There are two sides to every story of visual saliency modeling in the frequency domain. On the one hand, image saliency can be effectively estimated by applying simple operations to the frequency spectrum. On the other hand, it is still unclear which part of the frequency spectrum contributes the most to popping-out targets and suppressing distractors. Toward this end, this paper tentatively explores the secret of image saliency in the frequency domain. From the results obtained in several qualitative and quantitative experiments, we find that the secret of visual saliency may mainly hide in the phases of intermediate frequencies. To explain this finding, we reinterpret the concept of discrete Fourier transform from the perspective of template-based contrast computation and thus develop several principles for designing the saliency detector in the frequency domain. Following these principles, we propose a novel approach to design the saliency detector under the assistance of prior knowledge obtained through both unsupervised and supervised learning processes. Experimental results on a public image benchmark show that the learned saliency detector outperforms 18 state-of-the-art approaches in predicting human fixations.

  15. Prefrontal/accumbal catecholamine system processes high motivational salience

    PubMed Central

    Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Ventura, Rossella

    2012-01-01

    Motivational salience regulates the strength of goal seeking, the amount of risk taken, and the energy invested from mild to extreme. Highly motivational experiences promote highly persistent memories. Although this phenomenon is adaptive in normal conditions, experiences with extremely high levels of motivational salience can promote development of memories that can be re-experienced intrusively for long time resulting in maladaptive outcomes. Neural mechanisms mediating motivational salience attribution are, therefore, very important for individual and species survival and for well-being. However, these neural mechanisms could be implicated in attribution of abnormal motivational salience to different stimuli leading to maladaptive compulsive seeking or avoidance. We have offered the first evidence that prefrontal cortical norepinephrine (NE) transmission is a necessary condition for motivational salience attribution to highly salient stimuli, through modulation of dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain area involved in all motivated behaviors. Moreover, we have shown that prefrontal-accumbal catecholamine (CA) system determines approach or avoidance responses to both reward- and aversion-related stimuli only when the salience of the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is high enough to induce sustained CA activation, thus affirming that this system processes motivational salience attribution selectively to highly salient events. PMID:22754514

  16. Goal salience affects infants' goal-directed gaze shifts.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, Ivanina; Elsner, Claudia; Elsner, Birgit; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2012-01-01

    Around their first year of life, infants are able to anticipate the goal of others' ongoing actions. For instance, 12-month-olds anticipate the goal of everyday feeding actions and manual actions such as reaching and grasping. However, little is known whether the salience of the goal influences infants' online assessment of others' actions. The aim of the current eye-tracking study was to elucidate infants' ability to anticipate reaching actions depending on the visual salience of the goal object. In Experiment 1, 12-month-old infants' goal-directed gaze shifts were recorded as they observed a hand reaching for and grasping either a large (high-salience condition) or a small (low-salience condition) goal object. Infants exhibited predictive gaze shifts significantly earlier when the observed hand reached for the large goal object compared to when it reached for the small goal object. In addition, findings revealed rapid learning over the course of trials in the high-salience condition and no learning in the low-salience condition. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the results could not be simply attributed to the different grip aperture of the hand used when reaching for small and large objects. Together, our data indicate that by the end of their first year of life, infants rely on information about the goal salience to make inferences about the action goal.

  17. Goal Salience Affects Infants’ Goal-Directed Gaze Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Henrichs, Ivanina; Elsner, Claudia; Elsner, Birgit; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2012-01-01

    Around their first year of life, infants are able to anticipate the goal of others’ ongoing actions. For instance, 12-month-olds anticipate the goal of everyday feeding actions and manual actions such as reaching and grasping. However, little is known whether the salience of the goal influences infants’ online assessment of others’ actions. The aim of the current eye-tracking study was to elucidate infants’ ability to anticipate reaching actions depending on the visual salience of the goal object. In Experiment 1, 12-month-old infants’ goal-directed gaze shifts were recorded as they observed a hand reaching for and grasping either a large (high-salience condition) or a small (low-salience condition) goal object. Infants exhibited predictive gaze shifts significantly earlier when the observed hand reached for the large goal object compared to when it reached for the small goal object. In addition, findings revealed rapid learning over the course of trials in the high-salience condition and no learning in the low-salience condition. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the results could not be simply attributed to the different grip aperture of the hand used when reaching for small and large objects. Together, our data indicate that by the end of their first year of life, infants rely on information about the goal salience to make inferences about the action goal. PMID:23087658

  18. Dynamic pupillary exchange engages brain regions encoding social salience.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Neil A; Gray, Marcus A; Critchley, Hugo D

    2009-01-01

    Covert exchange of autonomic responses may shape social affective behavior, as observed in mirroring of pupillary responses during sadness processing. We examined how, independent of facial emotional expression, dynamic coherence between one's own and another's pupil size modulates regional brain activity. Fourteen subjects viewed pairs of eye stimuli while undergoing fMRI. Using continuous pupillometry biofeedback, the size of the observed pupils was varied, correlating positively or negatively with changes in participants' own pupils. Viewing both static and dynamic stimuli activated right fusiform gyrus. Observing dynamically changing pupils activated STS and amygdala, regions engaged by non-static and salient facial features. Discordance between observed and observer's pupillary changes enhanced activity within bilateral anterior insula, left amygdala and anterior cingulate. In contrast, processing positively correlated pupils enhanced activity within left frontal operculum. Our findings suggest pupillary signals are monitored continuously during social interactions and that incongruent changes activate brain regions involved in tracking motivational salience and attentionally meaningful information. Naturalistically, dynamic coherence in pupillary change follows fluctuations in ambient light. Correspondingly, in social contexts discordant pupil response is likely to reflect divergence of dispositional state. Our data provide empirical evidence for an autonomically mediated extension of forward models of motor control into social interaction.

  19. Dyslexia and attentional shifting.

    PubMed

    Stoet, Gijsbert; Markey, Hayley; López, Beatriz

    2007-10-29

    Dyslexia is a neurocognitive deficit primarily expressed in reading difficulties, but also affecting non-linguistic performance. Several studies report that dyslexics perform differently in the attentional blink paradigm, which indicates an impaired capacity to rapidly shift visual attention. However, attentional shifting can occur at different levels of cognitive processing, and it is unclear whether dyslexic attentional shifting is impaired at all levels, or only at the peripheral levels. We studied performance on a task-switching paradigm by dyslexics and normal readers to test whether the difficulty with attentional shifting occurs at the level of central cognitive processing. We found no specific impairments in task-switching in dyslexics. However, dyslexics performed generally much more slowly across all conditions than normal readers. We conclude that while dyslexics have a problem with attentional switching at a perceptual level, their capacity to rapidly switch between tasks is normal. Our findings add to previous studies indicating that dyslexic problems with shifting visual attention are caused by anomalies in more peripheral neural pathways, such as the magnocellular layers in the lateral geniculate nucleus.

  20. Experience salience gates endocannabinoid signaling at hypothalamic synapses.

    PubMed

    Wamsteeker Cusulin, Jaclyn I; Senst, Laura; Teskey, G Campbell; Bains, Jaideep S

    2014-04-30

    Alterations in synaptic endocannabinoid signaling are a widespread neurobiological consequence of many in vivo experiences, including stress. Here, we report that stressor salience is critical for bidirectionally modifying presynaptic CB-1 receptor (CB1R) function at hypothalamic GABA synapses controlling the neuroendocrine stress axis in male rats. While repetitive, predictable stressor exposure impairs presynaptic CB1R function, these changes are rapidly reversed upon exposure to a high salience experience such as novel stress or by manipulations that enhance neural activity levels in vivo or in vitro. Together these data demonstrate that experience salience, through alterations in afferent synaptic activity, induces rapid changes in endocannabinoid signaling.

  1. Interactions of visual attention and quality perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redi, Judith; Liu, Hantao; Zunino, Rodolfo; Heynderickx, Ingrid

    2011-03-01

    Several attempts to integrate visual saliency information in quality metrics are described in literature, albeit with contradictory results. The way saliency is integrated in quality metrics should reflect the mechanisms underlying the interaction between image quality assessment and visual attention. This interaction is actually two-fold: (1) image distortions can attract attention away from the Natural Scene Saliency (NSS), and (2) the quality assessment task in itself can affect the way people look at an image. A subjective study was performed to analyze the deviation in attention from NSS as a consequence of being asked to assess the quality of distorted images, and, in particular, whether, and if so how, this deviation depended on the distortion kind and/or amount. Saliency maps were derived from eye-tracking data obtained during scoring distorted images, and they were compared to the corresponding NSS, derived from eye-tracking data obtained during freely looking at high quality images. The study revealed some structural differences between the NSS maps and the ones obtained during quality assessment of the distorted images. These differences were related to the quality level of the images; the lower the quality, the higher the deviation from the NSS was. The main change was identified as a shrinking of the region of interest, being most evident at low quality. No evident role for the kind of distortion in the change in saliency was found. Especially at low quality, the quality assessment task seemed to prevail on the natural attention, forcing it to deviate in order to better evaluate the impact of artifacts.

  2. Evidence for the differential salience of disgust and fear in episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Hanah A; Johannes, Kristen; Poppenk, Jordan L; Moscovitch, Morris; Anderson, Adam K

    2013-11-01

    Studies of emotional memory typically focus on the memory-enhancing effects of emotional dimensions such as arousal and valence. However, it is unclear to what extent different emotional categories could have distinct effects on memory over and above these dimensional influences. We tested this possibility by investigating the impact of two negative, highly arousing, and withdrawal-related emotions-disgust and fear--on attention and subsequent memory. To index differential attention during encoding, participants performed a speeded line discrimination task (LDT) while viewing disgusting and fearful photographs of similar valence and arousal, which were assessed for later memory. LDT performance was slower, and subsequent recall and recognition were greater, for disgusting compared to both fearful and neutral images. Disgust enhancement of memory remained significant even when controlling for attention at encoding and for arousal, visual salience, and conceptual distinctiveness. Receiver-operating curve analyses indicated that disgust enhancement of memory was due to increased sensitivity, rather than response bias. Thus, disgust appears to have a special salience in memory relative to certain other emotions, suggesting that a purely dimensional model of emotional influences on cognition is inadequate to account for their effects. We speculate that disgust enhancement of memory could arise from an origin in conditioned taste aversion, a highly enduring form of implicit memory.

  3. Shared and disorder-specific task-positive and default mode network dysfunctions during sustained attention in paediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and obsessive/compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Norman, Luke J; Carlisi, Christina O; Christakou, Anastasia; Cubillo, Ana; Murphy, Clodagh M; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Simmons, Andrew; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael; Mataix-Cols, David; Rubia, Katya

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obsessive/compulsive disorder (OCD) share problems with sustained attention, and are proposed to share deficits in switching between default mode and task positive networks. The aim of this study was to investigate shared and disorder-specific brain activation abnormalities during sustained attention in the two disorders. Twenty boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD and 20 age-matched healthy controls aged between 12 and 18 years completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) version of a parametrically modulated sustained attention task with a progressively increasing sustained attention load. Performance and brain activation were compared between groups. Only ADHD patients were impaired in performance. Group by sustained attention load interaction effects showed that OCD patients had disorder-specific middle anterior cingulate underactivation relative to controls and ADHD patients, while ADHD patients showed disorder-specific underactivation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex/dorsal inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). ADHD and OCD patients shared left insula/ventral IFG underactivation and increased activation in posterior default mode network relative to controls, but had disorder-specific overactivation in anterior default mode regions, in dorsal anterior cingulate for ADHD and in anterior ventromedial prefrontal cortex for OCD. In sum, ADHD and OCD patients showed mostly disorder-specific patterns of brain abnormalities in both task positive salience/ventral attention networks with lateral frontal deficits in ADHD and middle ACC deficits in OCD, as well as in their deactivation patterns in medial frontal DMN regions. The findings suggest that attention performance in the two disorders is underpinned by disorder-specific activation patterns.

  4. Motion saliency detection using a temporal fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhe; Wang, Xin; Sun, Zhen; Wang, Zhijian

    2016-06-01

    Motion saliency detection aims at detecting the dynamic semantic regions in a video sequence. It is very important for many vision tasks. This paper proposes a new type of motion saliency detection method, Temporal Fourier Transform, for fast motion saliency detection. Different from conventional motion saliency detection methods that use complex mathematical models or features, variations in the phase spectrum of consecutive frames are identified and extracted as the key to obtaining the location of salient motion. As all the calculation is made on the temporal frequency spectrum, our model is independent of features, background models, or other forms of prior knowledge about scenes. The benefits of the proposed approach are evaluated for various videos where the number of moving objects, illumination, and background are all different. Compared with some the state of the art methods, our method achieves both good accuracy and fast computation.

  5. Diversification of visual media retrieval results using saliency detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratov, Oleg; Boato, Giulia; De Natale, Franesco G. B.

    2013-03-01

    Diversification of retrieval results allows for better and faster search. Recently there has been proposed different methods for diversification of image retrieval results mainly utilizing text information and techniques imported from natural language processing domain. However, images contain visual information that is impossible to describe in text and the use of visual features is inevitable. Visual saliency is information about the main object of an image implicitly included by humans while creating visual content. For this reason it is naturally to exploit this information for the task of diversification of the content. In this work we study whether visual saliency can be used for the task of diversification and propose a method for re-ranking image retrieval results using saliency. The evaluation has shown that the use of saliency information results in higher diversity of retrieval results.

  6. Mortality salience increases personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2012-10-01

    Research on terror management theory found evidence that people under mortality salience strive to live up to salient cultural norms and values, like egalitarianism, pacifism, or helpfulness. A basic, strongly internalized norm in most human societies is the norm of reciprocity: people should support those who supported them (i.e., positive reciprocity), and people should injure those who injured them (i.e., negative reciprocity), respectively. In an experiment (N = 98; 47 women, 51 men), mortality salience overall significantly increased personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity (M = 4.45, SD = 0.65) compared to a control condition (M = 4.19, SD = 0.59). Specifically, under mortality salience there was higher motivation to punish those who treated them unfavourably (negative norm of reciprocity). Unexpectedly, relevance of the norm of positive reciprocity remained unaffected by mortality salience. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  7. Saliency detection via background invariance in scale space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Li; Ju, Yongfeng; Fang, Jianwu; Xue, Jianru

    2017-07-01

    Background prior selection is the key step in current ranking-based saliency detection approaches. The existing related methods usually choose boundary regions of an image or the region with low initial saliency value in single image scale as the background. Then, the saliency map is obtained by ranking the inside similarity and correlation. However, these methods cannot handle situations in which the salient object lies on the image boundary (boundary-salient) multiple salient objects exist in a single image (multisalient). To this end, this paper proposes an adaptive background selection method by exploiting the background invariance in different image scales within distinct color spaces. Through embedding the selected background prior into multiple newly proposed ranking-based saliency methods, the superiority of the obtained background prior is strongly verified. Exhaustive experiments on four challenging datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in handling the boundary-salient and multisalient situations.

  8. Salience measure for assessing scale-based features in mammograms.

    PubMed

    Perconti, Philip; Loew, Murray H

    2007-12-01

    This work assesses the usefulness of an objective, task-based image quality measure that is correlated with perceived image quality; the measure uses the most salient features contained within a medical image. Contributions include the development of a perceptually correlated metric that is useful for quantifying the salience of local, low-level visual cues and identifying those spatial frequencies that are most distinct and perhaps most relied upon by radiologists for decision making. A set of 40 mammograms and registered eye position data from nine observers was used to evaluate the salience metric. A parsimonious analysis-of-variance model explained the variance in the salience results. This analysis is generalized to a population of readers and cases. An analysis of salience versus time of first eye fixation shows good correlation with true positive lesions that were found by experienced readers in less than 2 s.

  9. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model

    PubMed Central

    Marfil, Rebeca; Palomino, Antonio J.; Bandera, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, artificial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. On human vision, it is also well established that these units of attention are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects). This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. While the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG), which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention) surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multi-resolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP). Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such as color and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed. PMID:25177289

  10. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model.

    PubMed

    Marfil, Rebeca; Palomino, Antonio J; Bandera, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, artificial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. On human vision, it is also well established that these units of attention are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects). This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. While the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG), which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention) surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multi-resolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP). Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such as color and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed.

  11. Multi-scale saliency search in image analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Slepoy, Alexander; Campisi, Anthony; Backer, Alejandro

    2005-10-01

    Saliency detection in images is an important outstanding problem both in machine vision design and the understanding of human vision mechanisms. Recently, seminal work by Itti and Koch resulted in an effective saliency-detection algorithm. We reproduce the original algorithm in a software application Vision and explore its limitations. We propose extensions to the algorithm that promise to improve performance in the case of difficult-to-detect objects.

  12. Spectral saliency via automatic adaptive amplitude spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Dai, Jialun; Zhu, Yafei; Zheng, Haiyong; Qiao, Xiaoyan

    2016-03-01

    Suppressing nonsalient patterns by smoothing the amplitude spectrum at an appropriate scale has been shown to effectively detect the visual saliency in the frequency domain. Different filter scales are required for different types of salient objects. We observe that the optimal scale for smoothing amplitude spectrum shares a specific relation with the size of the salient region. Based on this observation and the bottom-up saliency detection characterized by spectrum scale-space analysis for natural images, we propose to detect visual saliency, especially with salient objects of different sizes and locations via automatic adaptive amplitude spectrum analysis. We not only provide a new criterion for automatic optimal scale selection but also reserve the saliency maps corresponding to different salient objects with meaningful saliency information by adaptive weighted combination. The performance of quantitative and qualitative comparisons is evaluated by three different kinds of metrics on the four most widely used datasets and one up-to-date large-scale dataset. The experimental results validate that our method outperforms the existing state-of-the-art saliency models for predicting human eye fixations in terms of accuracy and robustness.

  13. Saliency detection in the compressed domain for adaptive image retargeting.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuming; Chen, Zhenzhong; Lin, Weisi; Lin, Chia-Wen

    2012-09-01

    Saliency detection plays important roles in many image processing applications, such as regions of interest extraction and image resizing. Existing saliency detection models are built in the uncompressed domain. Since most images over Internet are typically stored in the compressed domain such as joint photographic experts group (JPEG), we propose a novel saliency detection model in the compressed domain in this paper. The intensity, color, and texture features of the image are extracted from discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients in the JPEG bit-stream. Saliency value of each DCT block is obtained based on the Hausdorff distance calculation and feature map fusion. Based on the proposed saliency detection model, we further design an adaptive image retargeting algorithm in the compressed domain. The proposed image retargeting algorithm utilizes multioperator operation comprised of the block-based seam carving and the image scaling to resize images. A new definition of texture homogeneity is given to determine the amount of removal block-based seams. Thanks to the directly derived accurate saliency information from the compressed domain, the proposed image retargeting algorithm effectively preserves the visually important regions for images, efficiently removes the less crucial regions, and therefore significantly outperforms the relevant state-of-the-art algorithms, as demonstrated with the in-depth analysis in the extensive experiments.

  14. Multi-polarimetric textural distinctiveness for outdoor robotic saliency detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, S. A.; Scharfenberger, C.; Kazemzadeh, F.; Wong, A.; Clausi, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Mobile robots that rely on vision, for navigation and object detection, use saliency approaches to identify a set of potential candidates to recognize. The state of the art in saliency detection for mobile robotics often rely upon visible light imaging, using conventional camera setups, to distinguish an object against its surroundings based on factors such as feature compactness, heterogeneity and/or homogeneity. We are demonstrating a novel multi- polarimetric saliency detection approach which uses multiple measured polarization states of a scene. We leverage the light-material interaction known as Fresnel reflections to extract rotationally invariant multi-polarimetric textural representations to then train a high dimensional sparse texture model. The multi-polarimetric textural distinctiveness is characterized using a conditional probability framework based on the sparse texture model which is then used to determine the saliency at each pixel of the scene. It was observed that through the inclusion of additional polarized states into the saliency analysis, we were able to compute noticeably improved saliency maps in scenes where objects are difficult to distinguish from their background due to color intensity similarities between the object and its surroundings.

  15. Resting connectivity between salience nodes predicts recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Barrett, Lisa F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The resting connectivity of the brain’s salience network, particularly the ventral subsystem of the salience network, has been previously associated with various measures of affective reactivity. Numerous studies have demonstrated that increased affective arousal leads to enhanced consolidation of memory. This suggests that individuals with greater ventral salience network connectivity will exhibit greater responses to affective experience, leading to a greater enhancement of memory by affect. To test this hypothesis, resting ventral salience connectivity was measured in 41 young adults, who were then exposed to neutral and negative affect inductions during a paired associate memory test. Memory performance for material learned under both negative and neutral induction was tested for correlation with resting connectivity between major ventral salience nodes. The results showed a significant interaction between mood induction (negative vs neutral) and connectivity between ventral anterior insula and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, indicating that salience node connectivity predicted memory for material encoded under negative, but not neutral induction. These findings suggest that the network state of the perceiver, measured prior to affective experience, meaningfully influences the extent to which affect modulates memory. Implications of these findings for individuals with affective disorder, who show alterations in both connectivity and memory, are considered. PMID:28449036

  16. Brain Activation of Identity Switching in Multiple Identity Tracking Task

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Chuang; Hu, Siyuan; Wei, Liuqing; Zhang, Xuemin; Talhelm, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    When different objects switch identities in the multiple identity tracking (MIT) task, viewers need to rebind objects’ identity and location, which requires attention. This rebinding helps people identify the regions targets are in (where they need to focus their attention) and inhibit unimportant regions (where distractors are). This study investigated the processing of attentional tracking after identity switching in an adapted MIT task. This experiment used three identity-switching conditions: a target-switching condition (where the target objects switched identities), a distractor-switching condition (where the distractor objects switched identities), and a no-switching condition. Compared to the distractor-switching condition, the target-switching condition elicited greater activation in the frontal eye fields (FEF), intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and visual cortex. Compared to the no-switching condition, the target-switching condition elicited greater activation in the FEF, inferior frontal gyrus (pars orbitalis) (IFG-Orb), IPS, visual cortex, middle temporal lobule, and anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, the distractor-switching condition showed greater activation in the IFG-Orb compared to the no-switching condition. These results suggest that, in the target-switching condition, the FEF and IPS (the dorsal attention network) might be involved in goal-driven attention to targets during attentional tracking. In addition, in the distractor-switching condition, the activation of the IFG-Orb may indicate salient change that pulls attention away automatically. PMID:26699865

  17. Maximum saliency bias in binocular fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yuhao; Stafford, Tom; Fox, Charles

    2016-07-01

    Subjective experience at any instant consists of a single ("unitary"), coherent interpretation of sense data rather than a "Bayesian blur" of alternatives. However, computation of Bayes-optimal actions has no role for unitary perception, instead being required to integrate over every possible action-percept pair to maximise expected utility. So what is the role of unitary coherent percepts, and how are they computed? Recent work provided objective evidence for non-Bayes-optimal, unitary coherent, perception and action in humans; and further suggested that the percept selected is not the maximum a posteriori percept but is instead affected by utility. The present study uses a binocular fusion task first to reproduce the same effect in a new domain, and second, to test multiple hypotheses about exactly how utility may affect the percept. After accounting for high experimental noise, it finds that both Bayes optimality (maximise expected utility) and the previously proposed maximum-utility hypothesis are outperformed in fitting the data by a modified maximum-salience hypothesis, using unsigned utility magnitudes in place of signed utilities in the bias function.

  18. Saliency modulates global perception in simultanagnosia.

    PubMed

    Huberle, Elisabeth; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2010-08-01

    Patients with parieto-occipital brain damage may show simultanagnosia, a selective impairment in the simultaneous perception and integration of multiple objects (global perception) with normal recognition of individual objects. Recent findings in patients with simultanagnosia indicate improved global perception at smaller spatial distances between local elements of hierarchical organized complex visual arrays. Global perception thus does not appear to be an all-or-nothing phenomenon but can be modified by the spatial relationship between local elements. The present study aimed to define characteristics of a general principle that accounts for improved global perception of hierarchically organized complex visual arrays in patients with simultanagnosia with respect to the spatial properties of local elements. In detail, we investigated the role of the number and size of the local elements as well as their relationship with each other for the global perception. The findings indicate that global perception increases independently of the size of the global object and depends on the spatial relationship between the local elements and the global object. The results further argue against the possibility of a restriction in the attended or perceived area in simultanagnosia, in the sense that the integration of local elements into a global scene is impaired if a certain spatial "field of view" is exceeded. A possible explanation for these observations might be a shift from global to local saliency in simultanagnosia.

  19. Dopamine, urges to smoke, and the relative salience of drug versus non-drug reward

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ravi K.; Kamboj, Sunjeev K.; Curran, H. Valerie

    2015-01-01

    When addicted individuals are exposed to drug-related stimuli, dopamine release is thought to mediate incentive salience attribution, increasing attentional bias, craving and drug seeking. It is unclear whether dopamine acts specifically on drug cues versus other rewards, and if these effects correspond with craving and other forms of cognitive bias. Here, we administered the dopamine D2/D3 agonist pramipexole (0.5 mg) to 16 tobacco smokers in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. Visual fixations on smoking and money images were recorded alongside smoking urges and fluency tasks. Pramipexole attenuated a marked bias in initial orienting towards smoking relative to money but did not alter a maintained attentional bias towards smoking. Pramipexole decreased urges to smoke retrospectively after the task but not on a state scale. Fewer smoking words were generated after pramipexole but phonological and semantic fluency were preserved. Although these treatment effects did not correlate with each other, changes in initial orienting towards smoking and money were inversely related to baseline scores. In conclusion, pramipexole can reduce the salience of an addictive drug compared with other rewards and elicit corresponding changes in smoking urges and cognitive bias. These reward-specific and baseline-dependent effects support an ‘inverted-U’ shaped profile of dopamine in addiction. PMID:24526184

  20. Saliency-aware food image segmentation for personal dietary assessment using a wearable computer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Xin; Li, Zhaoxin; Li, Yuecheng; Fernstrom, John D.; Burke, Lora E.; Baranowski, Thomas; Sun, Mingui

    2015-01-01

    Image-based dietary assessment has recently received much attention in the community of obesity research. In this assessment, foods in digital pictures are specified, and their portion sizes (volumes) are estimated. Although manual processing is currently the most utilized method, image processing holds much promise since it may eventually lead to automatic dietary assessment. In this paper we study the problem of segmenting food objects from images. This segmentation is difficult because of various food types, shapes and colors, different decorating patterns on food containers, and occlusions of food and non-food objects. We propose a novel method based on a saliency-aware active contour model (ACM) for automatic food segmentation from images acquired by a wearable camera. An integrated saliency estimation approach based on food location priors and visual attention features is designed to produce a salient map of possible food regions in the input image. Next, a geometric contour primitive is generated and fitted to the salient map by means of multi-resolution optimization with respect to a set of affine and elastic transformation parameters. The food regions are then extracted after contour fitting. Our experiments using 60 food images showed that the proposed method achieved significantly higher accuracy in food segmentation when compared to conventional segmentation methods. PMID:26257473

  1. Saliency-aware food image segmentation for personal dietary assessment using a wearable computer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Xin; Li, Zhaoxin; Li, Yuecheng; Fernstrom, John D; Burke, Lora E; Baranowski, Thomas; Sun, Mingui

    2015-02-01

    Image-based dietary assessment has recently received much attention in the community of obesity research. In this assessment, foods in digital pictures are specified, and their portion sizes (volumes) are estimated. Although manual processing is currently the most utilized method, image processing holds much promise since it may eventually lead to automatic dietary assessment. In this paper we study the problem of segmenting food objects from images. This segmentation is difficult because of various food types, shapes and colors, different decorating patterns on food containers, and occlusions of food and non-food objects. We propose a novel method based on a saliency-aware active contour model (ACM) for automatic food segmentation from images acquired by a wearable camera. An integrated saliency estimation approach based on food location priors and visual attention features is designed to produce a salient map of possible food regions in the input image. Next, a geometric contour primitive is generated and fitted to the salient map by means of multi-resolution optimization with respect to a set of affine and elastic transformation parameters. The food regions are then extracted after contour fitting. Our experiments using 60 food images showed that the proposed method achieved significantly higher accuracy in food segmentation when compared to conventional segmentation methods.

  2. Saliency-aware food image segmentation for personal dietary assessment using a wearable computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Xin; Li, Zhaoxin; Li, Yuecheng; Fernstrom, John D.; Burke, Lora E.; Baranowski, Thomas; Sun, Mingui

    2015-02-01

    Image-based dietary assessment has recently received much attention in the community of obesity research. In this assessment, foods in digital pictures are specified, and their portion sizes (volumes) are estimated. Although manual processing is currently the most utilized method, image processing holds much promise since it may eventually lead to automatic dietary assessment. In this paper we study the problem of segmenting food objects from images. This segmentation is difficult because of various food types, shapes and colors, different decorating patterns on food containers, and occlusions of food and non-food objects. We propose a novel method based on a saliency-aware active contour model (ACM) for automatic food segmentation from images acquired by a wearable camera. An integrated saliency estimation approach based on food location priors and visual attention features is designed to produce a salient map of possible food regions in the input image. Next, a geometric contour primitive is generated and fitted to the salient map by means of multi-resolution optimization with respect to a set of affine and elastic transformation parameters. The food regions are then extracted after contour fitting. Our experiments using 60 food images showed that the proposed method achieved significantly higher accuracy in food segmentation when compared to conventional segmentation methods.

  3. Airport detection in remote sensing images: a method based on saliency map.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Lv, Qi; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Liming

    2013-04-01

    The detection of airport attracts lots of attention and becomes a hot topic recently because of its applications and importance in military and civil aviation fields. However, the complicated background around airports brings much difficulty into the detection. This paper presents a new method for airport detection in remote sensing images. Distinct from other methods which analyze images pixel by pixel, we introduce visual attention mechanism into detection of airport and improve the efficiency of detection greatly. Firstly, Hough transform is used to judge whether an airport exists in an image. Then an improved graph-based visual saliency model is applied to compute the saliency map and extract regions of interest (ROIs). The airport target is finally detected according to the scale-invariant feature transform features which are extracted from each ROI and classified by hierarchical discriminant regression tree. Experimental results show that the proposed method is faster and more accurate than existing methods, and has lower false alarm rate and better anti-noise performance simultaneously.

  4. Video Saliency Detection via Spatial-Temporal Fusion and Low-Rank Coherency Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chenglizhao; Li, Shuai; Wang, Yongguang; Qin, Hong; Hao, Aimin

    2017-07-01

    This paper advocates a novel video saliency detection method based on the spatial-temporal saliency fusion and low-rank coherency guided saliency diffusion. In sharp contrast to the conventional methods, which conduct saliency detection locally in a frame-by-frame way and could easily give rise to incorrect low-level saliency map, in order to overcome the existing difficulties, this paper proposes to fuse the color saliency based on global motion clues in a batch-wise fashion. And we also propose low-rank coherency guided spatial-temporal saliency diffusion to guarantee the temporal smoothness of saliency maps. Meanwhile, a series of saliency boosting strategies are designed to further improve the saliency accuracy. First, the original long-term video sequence is equally segmented into many short-term frame batches, and the motion clues of the individual video batch are integrated and diffused temporally to facilitate the computation of color saliency. Then, based on the obtained saliency clues, inter-batch saliency priors are modeled to guide the low-level saliency fusion. After that, both the raw color information and the fused low-level saliency are regarded as the low-rank coherency clues, which are employed to guide the spatial-temporal saliency diffusion with the help of an additional permutation matrix serving as the alternative rank selection strategy. Thus, it could guarantee the robustness of the saliency map's temporal consistence, and further boost the accuracy of the computed saliency map. Moreover, we conduct extensive experiments on five public available benchmarks, and make comprehensive, quantitative evaluations between our method and 16 state-of-the-art techniques. All the results demonstrate the superiority of our method in accuracy, reliability, robustness, and versatility.

  5. Saliency based ulcer detection for wireless capsule endoscopy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yixuan; Wang, Jiaole; Li, Baopu; Meng, Max Q-H

    2015-10-01

    Ulcer is one of the most common symptoms of many serious diseases in the human digestive tract. Especially for the ulcers in the small bowel where other procedures cannot adequately visualize, wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is increasingly being used in the diagnosis and clinical management. Because WCE generates large amount of images from the whole process of inspection, computer-aided detection of ulcer is considered an indispensable relief to clinicians. In this paper, a two-staged fully automated computer-aided detection system is proposed to detect ulcer from WCE images. In the first stage, we propose an effective saliency detection method based on multi-level superpixel representation to outline the ulcer candidates. To find the perceptually and semantically meaningful salient regions, we first segment the image into multi-level superpixel segmentations. Each level corresponds to different initial region sizes of the superpixels. Then we evaluate the corresponding saliency according to the color and texture features in superpixel region of each level. In the end, we fuse the saliency maps from all levels together to obtain the final saliency map. In the second stage, we apply the obtained saliency map to better encode the image features for the ulcer image recognition tasks. Because the ulcer mainly corresponds to the saliency region, we propose a saliency max-pooling method integrated with the Locality-constrained Linear Coding (LLC) method to characterize the images. Experiment results achieve promising 92.65% accuracy and 94.12% sensitivity, validating the effectiveness of the proposed method. Moreover, the comparison results show that our detection system outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on the ulcer classification task.

  6. Contingent Attentional Capture by Top-Down Control Settings: Converging Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Goodin, Zachary; Remington, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Theories of attentional control are divided over whether the capture of spatial attention depends primarily on stimulus salience or is contingent on attentional control settings induced by task demands. The authors addressed this issue using the N2-posterior-contralateral (N2pc) effect, a component of the event-related brain potential thought to…

  7. Contingent Attentional Capture by Top-Down Control Settings: Converging Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Goodin, Zachary; Remington, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Theories of attentional control are divided over whether the capture of spatial attention depends primarily on stimulus salience or is contingent on attentional control settings induced by task demands. The authors addressed this issue using the N2-posterior-contralateral (N2pc) effect, a component of the event-related brain potential thought to…

  8. Functional Integration between Salience and Central Executive Networks: A Role for Action Video Game Experience.

    PubMed

    Gong, Diankun; He, Hui; Ma, Weiyi; Liu, Dongbo; Huang, Mengting; Dong, Li; Gong, Jinnan; Li, Jianfu; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    Action video games (AVGs) have attracted increasing research attention as they offer a unique perspective into the relation between active learning and neural plasticity. However, little research has examined the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of neural network mechanisms. It has been proposed that AVG experience is related to the integration between Salience Network (SN) and Central Executive Network (CEN), which are responsible for attention and working memory, respectively, two cognitive functions essential for AVG playing. This study initiated a systematic investigation of this proposition by analyzing AVG experts' and amateurs' resting-state brain functions through graph theoretical analyses and functional connectivity. Results reveal enhanced intra- and internetwork functional integrations in AVG experts compared to amateurs. The findings support the possible relation between AVG experience and the neural network plasticity.

  9. Functional Integration between Salience and Central Executive Networks: A Role for Action Video Game Experience

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Diankun; He, Hui; Ma, Weiyi; Liu, Dongbo; Huang, Mengting; Dong, Li; Gong, Jinnan; Li, Jianfu; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    Action video games (AVGs) have attracted increasing research attention as they offer a unique perspective into the relation between active learning and neural plasticity. However, little research has examined the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of neural network mechanisms. It has been proposed that AVG experience is related to the integration between Salience Network (SN) and Central Executive Network (CEN), which are responsible for attention and working memory, respectively, two cognitive functions essential for AVG playing. This study initiated a systematic investigation of this proposition by analyzing AVG experts' and amateurs' resting-state brain functions through graph theoretical analyses and functional connectivity. Results reveal enhanced intra- and internetwork functional integrations in AVG experts compared to amateurs. The findings support the possible relation between AVG experience and the neural network plasticity. PMID:26885408

  10. Self-Induced Attentional Blink: A Cause of Errors in Multiple-Target Visual Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-15

    found that an attentional blink can underlie SOS errors. Summary Visual search, looking for a target amongst distractors , is key to everyday...Participants completed a visual search task for target “T” shapes amongst distractor “L” shapes on a white background. Targets were either of high salience (57...65% black) or low salience (22–45%) while the majority of distractors were low salience (Figure 1A). There were 25 items (1.3° × 1.3°) in each

  11. On understanding idiomatic language: The salience hypothesis assessed by ERPs.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Jean-Paul; Denhières, Guy; Passerieux, Christine; Iakimova, Galina; Hardy-Baylé, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-12

    Giora's [Giora, R., 1997. Understanding figurative and literal language: the Graded Salience Hypothesis. Cogn. Linguist. 7 (1), 183-206; Giora, R., 2003. On Our Mind: Salience Context and Figurative Language. Oxford Univ. Press, New York] Graded Salience Hypothesis states that more salient meanings-coded meanings foremost on our mind due to conventionality, frequency, familiarity, or prototypicality-are accessed faster than and reach sufficient levels of activation before less salient ones. This research addresses predictions derived from this model by examining the salience of familiar and predictable idioms, presented out of context. ERPs recorded from 30 subjects involved in reading and lexical decision tasks to (strongly/weakly) salient idioms and (figurative/literal) targets indicate that N400 amplitude was smaller for the last word of the strongly salient idioms than for the weakly salient idioms. Moreover, N400 amplitude of probes related to the salient meaning of strongly salient idioms was smaller than those of the 3 other conditions. In addition, response times to salient interpretations (the idiomatic meanings of highly salient idioms and the literal interpretations of less salient idioms) were shorter compared to the other conditions. These findings support Giora's Graded Salience Hypothesis. They show that salient meanings are accessed automatically, regardless of figurativity.

  12. Symmetry in context: salience of mirror symmetry in natural patterns.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Elias H; Zaidi, Qasim

    2013-05-31

    Symmetry is a biologically relevant, mathematically involving, and aesthetically compelling visual phenomenon. Mirror symmetry detection is considered particularly rapid and efficient, based on experiments with random noise. Symmetry detection in natural settings, however, is often accomplished against structured backgrounds. To measure salience of symmetry in diverse contexts, we assembled mirror symmetric patterns from 101 natural textures. Temporal thresholds for detecting the symmetry axis ranged from 28 to 568 ms indicating a wide range of salience (1/Threshold). We built a model for estimating symmetry-energy by connecting pairs of mirror-symmetric filters that simulated cortical receptive fields. The model easily identified the axis of symmetry for all patterns. However, symmetry-energy quantified at this axis correlated weakly with salience. To examine context effects on symmetry detection, we used the same model to estimate approximate symmetry resulting from the underlying texture throughout the image. Magnitudes of approximate symmetry at flanking and orthogonal axes showed strong negative correlations with salience, revealing context interference with symmetry detection. A regression model that included the context-based measures explained the salience results, and revealed why perceptual symmetry can differ from mathematical characterizations. Using natural patterns thus produces new insights into symmetry perception and its possible neural circuits.

  13. Saliency region detection based on Markov absorption probabilities.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingang; Lu, Huchuan; Liu, Xiuping

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel bottom-up salient object detection approach by exploiting the relationship between the saliency detection and the Markov absorption probability. First, we calculate a preliminary saliency map by the Markov absorption probability on a weighted graph via partial image borders as background prior. Unlike most of the existing background prior-based methods which treated all image boundaries as background, we only use the left and top sides as background for simplicity. The saliency of each element is defined as the sum of the corresponding absorption probability by several left and top virtual boundary nodes, which are most similar to it. Second, a better result is obtained by ranking the relevance of the image elements with foreground cues extracted from the preliminary saliency map, which can effectively emphasize the objects against the background, whose computation is processed similarly as that in the first stage and yet substantially different from the former one. At last, three optimization techniques--content-based diffusion mechanism, superpixelwise depression function, and guided filter--are utilized to further modify the saliency map generalized at the second stage, which is proved to be effective and complementary to each other. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations on four publicly available benchmark data sets demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed method against 17 state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Visual Saliency Prediction and Evaluation across Different Perceptual Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shafin; Bruce, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Saliency maps produced by different algorithms are often evaluated by comparing output to fixated image locations appearing in human eye tracking data. There are challenges in evaluation based on fixation data due to bias in the data. Properties of eye movement patterns that are independent of image content may limit the validity of evaluation results, including spatial bias in fixation data. To address this problem, we present modeling and evaluation results for data derived from different perceptual tasks related to the concept of saliency. We also present a novel approach to benchmarking to deal with some of the challenges posed by spatial bias. The results presented establish the value of alternatives to fixation data to drive improvement and development of models. We also demonstrate an approach to approximate the output of alternative perceptual tasks based on computational saliency and/or eye gaze data. As a whole, this work presents novel benchmarking results and methods, establishes a new performance baseline for perceptual tasks that provide an alternative window into visual saliency, and demonstrates the capacity for saliency to serve in approximating human behaviour for one visual task given data from another. PMID:26368124

  15. Visual saliency in MPEG-4 AVC video stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, M.; Mitrea, M.; Hasnaoui, M.; Le Callet, P.

    2015-03-01

    Visual saliency maps already proved their efficiency in a large variety of image/video communication application fields, covering from selective compression and channel coding to watermarking. Such saliency maps are generally based on different visual characteristics (like color, intensity, orientation, motion,…) computed from the pixel representation of the visual content. This paper resumes and extends our previous work devoted to the definition of a saliency map solely extracted from the MPEG-4 AVC stream syntax elements. The MPEG-4 AVC saliency map thus defined is a fusion of static and dynamic map. The static saliency map is in its turn a combination of intensity, color and orientation features maps. Despite the particular way in which all these elementary maps are computed, the fusion techniques allowing their combination plays a critical role in the final result and makes the object of the proposed study. A total of 48 fusion formulas (6 for combining static features and, for each of them, 8 to combine static to dynamic features) are investigated. The performances of the obtained maps are evaluated on a public database organized at IRCCyN, by computing two objective metrics: the Kullback-Leibler divergence and the area under curve.

  16. Landmark Detection in Orbital Images Using Salience Histograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Panetta, Julian; Schorghofer, Norbert; Greeley, Ronald; PendletonHoffer, Mary; bunte, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    NASA's planetary missions have collected, and continue to collect, massive volumes of orbital imagery. The volume is such that it is difficult to manually review all of the data and determine its significance. As a result, images are indexed and searchable by location and date but generally not by their content. A new automated method analyzes images and identifies "landmarks," or visually salient features such as gullies, craters, dust devil tracks, and the like. This technique uses a statistical measure of salience derived from information theory, so it is not associated with any specific landmark type. It identifies regions that are unusual or that stand out from their surroundings, so the resulting landmarks are context-sensitive areas that can be used to recognize the same area when it is encountered again. A machine learning classifier is used to identify the type of each discovered landmark. Using a specified window size, an intensity histogram is computed for each such window within the larger image (sliding the window across the image). Next, a salience map is computed that specifies, for each pixel, the salience of the window centered at that pixel. The salience map is thresholded to identify landmark contours (polygons) using the upper quartile of salience values. Descriptive attributes are extracted for each landmark polygon: size, perimeter, mean intensity, standard deviation of intensity, and shape features derived from an ellipse fit.

  17. Symmetry in context: Salience of mirror symmetry in natural patterns

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Elias H.; Zaidi, Qasim

    2013-01-01

    Symmetry is a biologically relevant, mathematically involving, and aesthetically compelling visual phenomenon. Mirror symmetry detection is considered particularly rapid and efficient, based on experiments with random noise. Symmetry detection in natural settings, however, is often accomplished against structured backgrounds. To measure salience of symmetry in diverse contexts, we assembled mirror symmetric patterns from 101 natural textures. Temporal thresholds for detecting the symmetry axis ranged from 28 to 568 ms indicating a wide range of salience (1/Threshold). We built a model for estimating symmetry-energy by connecting pairs of mirror-symmetric filters that simulated cortical receptive fields. The model easily identified the axis of symmetry for all patterns. However, symmetry-energy quantified at this axis correlated weakly with salience. To examine context effects on symmetry detection, we used the same model to estimate approximate symmetry resulting from the underlying texture throughout the image. Magnitudes of approximate symmetry at flanking and orthogonal axes showed strong negative correlations with salience, revealing context interference with symmetry detection. A regression model that included the context-based measures explained the salience results, and revealed why perceptual symmetry can differ from mathematical characterizations. Using natural patterns thus produces new insights into symmetry perception and its possible neural circuits. PMID:23729773

  18. Learning a Combined Model of Visual Saliency for Fixation Prediction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingwei; Borji, Ali; Jay Kuo, C-C; Itti, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    A large number of saliency models, each based on a different hypothesis, have been proposed over the past 20 years. In practice, while subscribing to one hypothesis or computational principle makes a model that performs well on some types of images, it hinders the general performance of a model on arbitrary images and large-scale data sets. One natural approach to improve overall saliency detection accuracy would then be fusing different types of models. In this paper, inspired by the success of late-fusion strategies in semantic analysis and multi-modal biometrics, we propose to fuse the state-of-the-art saliency models at the score level in a para-boosting learning fashion. First, saliency maps generated by several models are used as confidence scores. Then, these scores are fed into our para-boosting learner (i.e., support vector machine, adaptive boosting, or probability density estimator) to generate the final saliency map. In order to explore the strength of para-boosting learners, traditional transformation-based fusion strategies, such as Sum, Min, and Max, are also explored and compared in this paper. To further reduce the computation cost of fusing too many models, only a few of them are considered in the next step. Experimental results show that score-level fusion outperforms each individual model and can further reduce the performance gap between the current models and the human inter-observer model.

  19. Robust online tracking via adaptive samples selection with saliency detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jia; Chen, Xi; Zhu, QiuPing

    2013-12-01

    Online tracking has shown to be successful in tracking of previously unknown objects. However, there are two important factors which lead to drift problem of online tracking, the one is how to select the exact labeled samples even when the target locations are inaccurate, and the other is how to handle the confusors which have similar features with the target. In this article, we propose a robust online tracking algorithm with adaptive samples selection based on saliency detection to overcome the drift problem. To deal with the problem of degrading the classifiers using mis-aligned samples, we introduce the saliency detection method to our tracking problem. Saliency maps and the strong classifiers are combined to extract the most correct positive samples. Our approach employs a simple yet saliency detection algorithm based on image spectral residual analysis. Furthermore, instead of using the random patches as the negative samples, we propose a reasonable selection criterion, in which both the saliency confidence and similarity are considered with the benefits that confusors in the surrounding background are incorporated into the classifiers update process before the drift occurs. The tracking task is formulated as a binary classification via online boosting framework. Experiment results in several challenging video sequences demonstrate the accuracy and stability of our tracker.

  20. Exciter switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeak, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.

  1. The importance of integration and top-down salience when listening to complex multi-part musical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Marie; Fairhurst, Merle T; Keller, Peter E

    2013-08-15

    In listening to multi-part music, auditory streams can be attended to either selectively or globally. More specifically, musicians rely on prioritized integrative attention which incorporates both stream segregation and integration to assess the relationship between concurrent parts. In this fMRI study, we used a piano duet to investigate which factors of a leader-follower relationship between parts grab the listener's attention and influence the perception of multi-part music. The factors considered included the structural relationship between melody and accompaniment as well as the temporal relationship (asynchronies) between parts. The structural relationship was manipulated by cueing subjects to the part of the duet that had to be prioritized. The temporal relationship was investigated by synthetically shifting the onset times of melody and accompaniment to either a consistent melody or accompaniment lead. The relative importance of these relationship factors for segregation and integration as attentional mechanisms was of interest. Participants were required to listen to the cued part and then globally assess if the prioritized stream was leading or following compared to the second stream. Results show that the melody is judged as more leading when it is globally temporally ahead whereas the accompaniment is not judged as leading when it is ahead. This bias may be a result of the interaction of salience of both leader-follower relationship factors. Interestingly, the corresponding interaction effect in the fMRI-data yields an inverse bias for melody in a fronto-parietal attention network. Corresponding parameter estimates within the dlPFC and right IPS show higher neural activity for attending to melody when listening to a performance without a temporal leader, pointing to an interaction of salience of both factors in listening to music. Both frontal and parietal activation implicate segregation and integration mechanisms and a top-down influence of salience

  2. Switch wear leveling

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.

  3. Temporal-Spatial Neural Activation Patterns Linked to Perceptual Encoding of Emotional Salience

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Rebecca M.; Taylor, Margot J.; Robertson, Amanda; Cassel, Daniel B.; Doesberg, Sam M.; Lee, Daniel H.; Shek, Pang N.; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that we continuously filter incoming sensory information, selectively allocating attention to what is important while suppressing distracting or irrelevant information. Yet questions remain about spatiotemporal patterns of neural processes underlying attentional biases toward emotionally significant aspects of the world. One index of affectively biased attention is an emotional variant of an attentional blink (AB) paradigm, which reveals enhanced perceptual encoding for emotionally salient over neutral stimuli under conditions of limited executive attention. The present study took advantage of the high spatial and temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate neural activation related to emotional and neutral targets in an AB task. MEG data were collected while participants performed a rapid stimulus visual presentation task in which two target stimuli were embedded in a stream of distractor words. The first target (T1) was a number and the second (T2) either an emotionally salient or neutral word. Behavioural results replicated previous findings of greater accuracy for emotionally salient than neutral T2 words. MEG source analyses showed that activation in orbitofrontal cortex, characterized by greater power in the theta and alpha bands, and dorsolateral prefrontal activation were associated with successful perceptual encoding of emotionally salient relative to neutral words. These effects were observed between 250 and 550 ms, latencies associated with discrimination of perceived from unperceived stimuli. These data suggest that important nodes of both emotional salience and frontoparietal executive systems are associated with the emotional modulation of the attentional blink. PMID:24727751

  4. SPATIAL NEGLECT AND ATTENTION NETWORKS

    PubMed Central

    Corbetta, Maurizio; Shulman, Gordon L.

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following predominantly right hemisphere injuries to ventral fronto-parietal cortex. We propose that neglect reflects deficits in the coding of saliency, control of spatial attention, and representation within an egocentric frame of reference, in conjunction with non-spatial deficits of reorienting, target detection, and arousal/vigilance. In contrast to theories that link spatial neglect to structural damage of specific brain regions, we argue that neglect is better explained by the physiological dysfunction of distributed cortical networks. The ventral lesions in right parietal, temporal, and frontal cortex that cause neglect directly impair non-spatial functions and hypoactivate the right hemisphere, inducing abnormalities in task-evoked activity and functional connectivity of a dorsal frontal-parietal network that controls spatial attention. The anatomy and right hemisphere dominance of neglect follows from the anatomy and laterality of the ventral regions that interact with the dorsal attention network. PMID:21692662

  5. SUN: Top-down saliency using natural statistics

    PubMed Central

    Kanan, Christopher; Tong, Mathew H.; Zhang, Lingyun; Cottrell, Garrison W.

    2010-01-01

    When people try to find particular objects in natural scenes they make extensive use of knowledge about how and where objects tend to appear in a scene. Although many forms of such “top-down” knowledge have been incorporated into saliency map models of visual search, surprisingly, the role of object appearance has been infrequently investigated. Here we present an appearance-based saliency model derived in a Bayesian framework. We compare our approach with both bottom-up saliency algorithms as well as the state-of-the-art Contextual Guidance model of Torralba et al. (2006) at predicting human fixations. Although both top-down approaches use very different types of information, they achieve similar performance; each substantially better than the purely bottom-up models. Our experiments reveal that a simple model of object appearance can predict human fixations quite well, even making the same mistakes as people. PMID:21052485

  6. Measuring the Visual Salience of 3D Printed Objects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Lindlbauer, David; Lessig, Christian; Maertens, Marianne; Alexa, Marc

    2016-01-01

    To investigate human viewing behavior on physical realizations of 3D objects, the authors use an eye tracker with scene camera and fiducial markers on 3D objects to gather fixations on the presented stimuli. They use this data to validate assumptions regarding visual saliency that so far have experimentally only been analyzed for flat stimuli. They provide a way to compare fixation sequences from different subjects and developed a model for generating test sequences of fixations unrelated to the stimuli. Their results suggest that human observers agree in their fixations for the same object under similar viewing conditions. They also developed a simple procedure to validate computational models for visual saliency of 3D objects and found that popular models of mesh saliency based on center surround patterns fail to predict fixations.

  7. Attention retargeting in real space with projector camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Katsumi; Takimoto, Hironori; Kanagawa, Akihiro

    2017-03-01

    Many attention retargeting methods based on the visual saliency model of bottom-up attention to guide a human's attention to a ROI have recently been proposed. However, conventional attention retargeting methods focus only on modulating an image or a movie presented to a display. In this paper, we propose the use of a projector-camera system to realize attention retargeting in real space. As a first step of our research, we focus on the realization of the appearance control method for attention retargeting to the plane of real space.

  8. Dysregulated but not decreased salience network activity in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    White, Thomas P.; Gilleen, James; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.

    2013-01-01

    Effective estimation of the salience of environmental stimuli underlies adaptive behavior, while related aberrance is believed to undermine rational thought processes in schizophrenia. A network including bilateral frontoinsular cortex (FIC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been observed to respond to salient stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To test the hypothesis that activity in this salience network (SN) is less discriminately modulated by contextually-relevant stimuli in schizophrenia than in healthy individuals, fMRI data were collected in 20 individuals with schizophrenia and 13 matched controls during performance of a modified monetary incentive delay (MID) task. After quantitatively identifying spatial components representative of the FIC and dACC features of the SN, two principal analyses were conducted. In the first, modulation of SN activity by salience was assessed by measuring response to trial outcome. First-level general linear models were applied to individual-specific time-courses of SN activity identified using spatial independent component analysis (ICA). This analysis revealed a significant salience-by-performance-by-group interaction on the best-fit FIC component's activity at trial outcome, whereby healthy individuals but not individuals with schizophrenia exhibited greater distinction between the response to hits and misses in high salience trials than in low salience trials. The second analysis aimed to ascertain whether SN component amplitude differed between the study groups over the duration of the experiment. Independent-samples T-tests on back-projected, percent-signal-change scaled SN component images importantly showed that the groups did not differ in the overall amplitude of SN expression over the entire dataset. These findings of dysregulated but not decreased SN activity in schizophrenia provide physiological support for mechanistic conceptual frameworks of delusional thought formation

  9. Detecting humans using luminance saliency in thermal images.

    PubMed

    Ko, ByoungChul; Kim, DeokYeon; Nam, JaeYeal

    2012-10-15

    This Letter introduces an efficient human detection method in thermal images, using a center-symmetric local binary pattern (CS-LBP) with a luminance saliency map and a random forest (RF) classifier scheme. After detecting a candidate human region, we crop only the head and shoulder region, which has a higher thermal spectrum than the legs or trunk. The CS-LBP feature is then extracted from the luminance saliency map of a hotspot and applied to the RF classifier, which is an ensemble of randomized decision trees. We demonstrate that our detection method is more robust than conventional feature descriptors and classifiers in thermal images.

  10. Land Cover Change Detection Using Saliency Andwavelet Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haopeng; Jiang, Zhiguo; Cheng, Yan

    2016-06-01

    How to obtain accurate difference map remains an open challenge in change detection. To tackle this problem, we propose a change detection method based on saliency detection and wavelet transformation. We do frequency-tuned saliency detection in initial difference image (IDI) obtained by logarithm ratio to get a salient difference image (SDI). Then, we calculate local entropy of SDI to obtain an entropic salient difference image (ESDI). The final difference image (FDI) is the wavelet fusion of IDI and ESDI, and Otsu thresholding is used to extract difference map from FDI. Experimental results validate the effectiveness and feasibility.

  11. Automatic Polyp Detection via A Novel Unified Bottom-up and Top-down Saliency Approach.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yixuan; Li, Dengwang; Meng, Max Q-H

    2017-07-31

    In this paper, we propose a novel automatic computer-aided method to detect polyps for colonoscopy videos. To find the perceptually and semantically meaningful salient polyp regions, we first segment images into multilevel superpixels. Each level corresponds to different sizes of superpixels. Rather than adopting hand-designed features to describe these superpixels in images, we employ sparse autoencoder (SAE) to learn discriminative features in an unsupervised way. Then a novel unified bottom-up and top-down saliency method is proposed to detect polyps. In the first stage, we propose a weak bottom-up (WBU) saliency map by fusing the contrast based saliency and object-center based saliency together. The contrast based saliency map highlights image parts that show different appearances compared with surrounding areas while the object-center based saliency map emphasizes the center of the salient object. In the second stage, a strong classifier with Multiple Kernel Boosting (MKB) is learned to calculate the strong top-down (STD) saliency map based on samples directly from the obtained multi-level WBU saliency maps. We finally integrate these two stage saliency maps from all levels together to highlight polyps. Experiment results achieve 0.818 recall for saliency calculation, validating the effectiveness of our method. Extensive experiments on public polyp datasets demonstrate that the proposed saliency algorithm performs favorably against state-of-the-art saliency methods to detect polyps.

  12. On the Electrophysiological Evidence for the Capture of Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, John J.; Green, Jessica J.; Jannati, Ali; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The presence of a salient distractor interferes with visual search. According to the salience-driven selection hypothesis, this interference is because of an initial deployment of attention to the distractor. Three event-related potential (ERP) findings have been regarded as evidence for this hypothesis: (a) salient distractors were found to…

  13. On the Electrophysiological Evidence for the Capture of Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, John J.; Green, Jessica J.; Jannati, Ali; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The presence of a salient distractor interferes with visual search. According to the salience-driven selection hypothesis, this interference is because of an initial deployment of attention to the distractor. Three event-related potential (ERP) findings have been regarded as evidence for this hypothesis: (a) salient distractors were found to…

  14. The Salience of Complex Words and Their Parts: Which Comes First?

    PubMed

    Giraudo, Hélène; Dal Maso, Serena

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the salience of complex words and their constituent parts on lexical access. While almost 40 years of psycholinguistic studies have focused on the relevance of morphological structure for word recognition, little attention has been devoted to the relationship between the word as a whole unit and its constituent morphemes. Depending on the theoretical approach adopted, complex words have been seen either in the light of their paradigmatic environment (i.e., from a paradigmatic view), or in terms of their internal structure (i.e., from a syntagmatic view). These two competing views have strongly determined the choice of experimental factors manipulated in studies on morphological processing (mainly different lexical frequencies, word/non-word structure, and morphological family size). Moreover, work on various kinds of more or less segmentable items (from genuinely morphologically complex words like hunter to words exhibiting only a surface morphological structure like corner and irregular forms like thieves) has given rise to two competing hypotheses on the cognitive role of morphology. The first hypothesis claims that morphology organizes whole words into morphological families and series, while the second sets morphology at a pre-lexical level, with morphemes standing as access units to the mental lexicon. The present paper examines more deeply the notion of morphological salience and its implications for theories and models of morphological processing.

  15. Region of interest extraction based on multiscale visual saliency analysis for remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinggang; Zhang, Libao; Yu, Xianchuan

    2015-01-01

    Region of interest (ROI) extraction is an important component of remote sensing image processing. However, traditional ROI extraction methods are usually prior knowledge-based and depend on classification, segmentation, and a global searching solution, which are time-consuming and computationally complex. We propose a more efficient ROI extraction model for remote sensing images based on multiscale visual saliency analysis (MVS), implemented in the CIE L*a*b* color space, which is similar to visual perception of the human eye. We first extract the intensity, orientation, and color feature of the image using different methods: the visual attention mechanism is used to eliminate the intensity feature using a difference of Gaussian template; the integer wavelet transform is used to extract the orientation feature; and color information content analysis is used to obtain the color feature. Then, a new feature-competition method is proposed that addresses the different contributions of each feature map to calculate the weight of each feature image for combining them into the final saliency map. Qualitative and quantitative experimental results of the MVS model as compared with those of other models show that it is more effective and provides more accurate ROI extraction results with fewer holes inside the ROI.

  16. VSI: a visual saliency-induced index for perceptual image quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Shen, Ying; Li, Hongyu

    2014-10-01

    Perceptual image quality assessment (IQA) aims to use computational models to measure the image quality in consistent with subjective evaluations. Visual saliency (VS) has been widely studied by psychologists, neurobiologists, and computer scientists during the last decade to investigate, which areas of an image will attract the most attention of the human visual system. Intuitively, VS is closely related to IQA in that suprathreshold distortions can largely affect VS maps of images. With this consideration, we propose a simple but very effective full reference IQA method using VS. In our proposed IQA model, the role of VS is twofold. First, VS is used as a feature when computing the local quality map of the distorted image. Second, when pooling the quality score, VS is employed as a weighting function to reflect the importance of a local region. The proposed IQA index is called visual saliency-based index (VSI). Several prominent computational VS models have been investigated in the context of IQA and the best one is chosen for VSI. Extensive experiments performed on four large-scale benchmark databases demonstrate that the proposed IQA index VSI works better in terms of the prediction accuracy than all state-of-the-art IQA indices we can find while maintaining a moderate computational complexity. The MATLAB source code of VSI and the evaluation results are publicly available online at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/IQA/VSI/VSI.htm.

  17. Art Expertise Reduces Influence of Visual Salience on Fixation in Viewing Abstract-Paintings

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Naoko; Kubo, Takatomi; Nishida, Satoshi; Shibata, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Kazushi

    2015-01-01

    When viewing a painting, artists perceive more information from the painting on the basis of their experience and knowledge than art novices do. This difference can be reflected in eye scan paths during viewing of paintings. Distributions of scan paths of artists are different from those of novices even when the paintings contain no figurative object (i.e. abstract paintings). There are two possible explanations for this difference of scan paths. One is that artists have high sensitivity to high-level features such as textures and composition of colors and therefore their fixations are more driven by such features compared with novices. The other is that fixations of artists are more attracted by salient features than those of novices and the fixations are driven by low-level features. To test these, we measured eye fixations of artists and novices during the free viewing of various abstract paintings and compared the distribution of their fixations for each painting with a topological attentional map that quantifies the conspicuity of low-level features in the painting (i.e. saliency map). We found that the fixation distribution of artists was more distinguishable from the saliency map than that of novices. This difference indicates that fixations of artists are less driven by low-level features than those of novices. Our result suggests that artists may extract visual information from paintings based on high-level features. This ability of artists may be associated with artists’ deep aesthetic appreciation of paintings. PMID:25658327

  18. The Salience of Complex Words and Their Parts: Which Comes First?

    PubMed Central

    Giraudo, Hélène; Dal Maso, Serena

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the salience of complex words and their constituent parts on lexical access. While almost 40 years of psycholinguistic studies have focused on the relevance of morphological structure for word recognition, little attention has been devoted to the relationship between the word as a whole unit and its constituent morphemes. Depending on the theoretical approach adopted, complex words have been seen either in the light of their paradigmatic environment (i.e., from a paradigmatic view), or in terms of their internal structure (i.e., from a syntagmatic view). These two competing views have strongly determined the choice of experimental factors manipulated in studies on morphological processing (mainly different lexical frequencies, word/non-word structure, and morphological family size). Moreover, work on various kinds of more or less segmentable items (from genuinely morphologically complex words like hunter to words exhibiting only a surface morphological structure like corner and irregular forms like thieves) has given rise to two competing hypotheses on the cognitive role of morphology. The first hypothesis claims that morphology organizes whole words into morphological families and series, while the second sets morphology at a pre-lexical level, with morphemes standing as access units to the mental lexicon. The present paper examines more deeply the notion of morphological salience and its implications for theories and models of morphological processing. PMID:27917133

  19. Coaxial Switch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-23

    08-2015 Publication Coaxial Switch David J. Bamford et al Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell Street, Bldg 102T, Code 00L...Distribution A A coaxial switch having a housing and a shaft extending through and rotatably mounted to the housing. The shaft extends from opposite...conductor members are electrically connected together. When the coaxial switch is engaged, the conductor members are inserted into the connector body

  20. Neural mechanisms underlying selective attention to threat.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Sonia J

    2008-01-01

    Biased competition models of selective attention suggest that attentional competition is influenced both by bottom-up sensory mechanisms sensitive to stimulus salience and top-down control mechanisms that support the processing of task-relevant stimuli. This provides a framework for investigating the neural mechanisms underlying selective attention to threat. Both subcortical regions implicated in threat detection--specifically the amygdala--and prefrontal cortical regions implicated in top-down attentional control are activated in response to task-irrelevant threat stimuli. A number of questions including the automaticity of the amygdala response to threat distractors, the modulation by anxiety of the amygdala and prefrontal response to these stimuli, and the impact of genetic and environmental factors upon this circuitry are addressed. The empirical literature is considered in the context of theoretical accounts of the neural substrate of selective attention and conscious awareness. It is suggested that the neural activity provoked by a given visual stimulus is influenced by factors impacting upon the strength of the bottom-up trace (e.g., presentation time, backward masking), stimulus salience (including threat relatedness), competition with other visual stimuli for perceptual processing resources, and the augmentation of the stimulus trace by allocation of top-down attentional resources. Individual differences in trait and state anxiety, and in genetic makeup, are thought to modulate the influence of stimulus valence and top-down attention through their impact upon amygdala and prefrontal function.

  1. Genetic deletion of PDE10A selectively impairs incentive salience attribution and decreases medium spiny neuron excitability.

    PubMed

    Piccart, Elisabeth; De Backer, Jean-François; Gall, David; Lambot, Laurie; Raes, Adam; Vanhoof, Greet; Schiffmann, Serge; D'Hooge, Rudi

    2014-07-15

    The striatum is the main input structure to the basal ganglia and consists mainly out of medium spiny neurons. The numerous spines on their dendrites render them capable of integrating cortical glutamatergic inputs with a motivational dopaminergic signal that originates in the midbrain. This integrative function is thought to underly attribution of incentive salience, a process that is severely disrupted in schizophrenic patients. Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is located mainly to the striatal medium spiny neurons and hydrolyses cAMP and cGMP, key determinants of MSN signaling. We show here that genetic depletion of PDE10A critically mediates attribution of salience to reward-predicting cues, evident in impaired performance in PDE10A knockout mice in an instrumentally conditioned reinforcement task. We furthermore report modest impairment of latent inhibition in PDE10A knockout mice, and unaltered prepulse inhibition. We suggest that the lack of effect on PPI is due to the pre-attentional nature of this task. Finally, we performed whole-cell patch clamp recordings and confirm suggested changes in intrinsic membrane excitability. A decrease in spontaneous firing in striatal medium spiny neurons was found. These data show that PDE10A plays a pivotal role in striatal signaling and striatum-mediated salience attribution.

  2. Augmented saliency model using automatic 3D head pose detection and learned gaze following in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Parks, Daniel; Borji, Ali; Itti, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that gaze direction of actors in a scene influences eye movements of passive observers during free-viewing (Castelhano, Wieth, & Henderson, 2007; Borji, Parks, & Itti, 2014). However, no computational model has been proposed to combine bottom-up saliency with actor's head pose and gaze direction for predicting where observers look. Here, we first learn probability maps that predict fixations leaving head regions (gaze following fixations), as well as fixations on head regions (head fixations), both dependent on the actor's head size and pose angle. We then learn a combination of gaze following, head region, and bottom-up saliency maps with a Markov chain composed of head region and non-head region states. This simple structure allows us to inspect the model and make comments about the nature of eye movements originating from heads as opposed to other regions. Here, we assume perfect knowledge of actor head pose direction (from an oracle). The combined model, which we call the Dynamic Weighting of Cues model (DWOC), explains observers' fixations significantly better than each of the constituent components. Finally, in a fully automatic combined model, we replace the oracle head pose direction data with detections from a computer vision model of head pose. Using these (imperfect) automated detections, we again find that the combined model significantly outperforms its individual components. Our work extends the engineering and scientific applications of saliency models and helps better understand mechanisms of visual attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Organization of the channel-switching process in parallel computer systems based on a matrix optical switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golomidov, Y. V.; Li, S. K.; Popov, S. A.; Smolov, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    After a classification and analysis of electronic and optoelectronic switching devices, the design principles and structure of a matrix optical switch is described. The switching and pair-exclusion operations in this type of switch are examined, and a method for the optical switching of communication channels is elaborated. Finally, attention is given to the structural organization of a parallel computer system with a matrix optical switch.

  4. Oscillatory EEG activity induced by conditioning stimuli during fear conditioning reflects Salience and Valence of these stimuli more than Expectancy.

    PubMed

    Chien, J H; Colloca, L; Korzeniewska, A; Cheng, J J; Campbell, C M; Hillis, A E; Lenz, F A

    2017-03-27

    Imaging studies have described hemodynamic activity during fear conditioning protocols with stimulus trains in which a visual conditioned stimulus (CS+) is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US, painful laser pulse) while another visual stimulus is unpaired (CS-). We now test the hypothesis that CS Event Related Spectral Perturbations (ERSPs) are related to ratings of CS Expectancy (likelihood of pairing with the US), Valence (unpleasantness) and Salience (ability to capture attention). ERSP windows in EEG were defined by both time after the CS and frequency, and showed increased oscillatory power (Event Related Synchronization, ERS) in the Delta/Theta Windows (0-8Hz) and the Gamma Window (30-55Hz). Decreased oscillatory power (Event Related Desynchronization - ERD) was found in Alpha (8-14Hz) and Beta Windows (14-30Hz). The Delta/Theta ERS showed a differential effect of CS+ versus CS- at Prefrontal, Frontal and Midline Channels, while Alpha and Beta ERD were greater at Parietal and Occipital Channels early in the stimulus train. The Gamma ERS Window increased from habituation to acquisition over a broad area from frontal and occipital electrodes. The CS Valence and Salience were greater for CS+ than CS-, and were correlated with each other and with the ERD at overlapping channels, particularly in the Alpha Window. Expectancy and CS Skin Conductance Response were greater for CS+ than CS- and were correlated with ERSP at fewer channels than Valence or Salience. These results suggest that Alpha ERSP activity during fear conditioning reflects Valence and Salience of the CSs more than conditioning per se. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Multisensory attention training for treatment of tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, D P; Linford, T; Thompson, B; Petoe, M A; Kobayashi, K; Stinear, C M; Searchfield, G D

    2015-05-28

    Tinnitus is the conscious perception of sound with no physical sound source. Some models of tinnitus pathophysiology suggest that networks associated with attention, memory, distress and multisensory experience are involved in tinnitus perception. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a multisensory attention training paradigm which used audio, visual, and somatosensory stimulation would reduce tinnitus. Eighteen participants with predominantly unilateral chronic tinnitus were randomized between two groups receiving 20 daily sessions of either integration (attempting to reduce salience to tinnitus by binding with multisensory stimuli) or attention diversion (multisensory stimuli opposite side to tinnitus) training. The training resulted in small but statistically significant reductions in Tinnitus Functional Index and Tinnitus Severity Numeric Scale scores and improved attentional abilities. No statistically significant improvements in tinnitus were found between the training groups. This study demonstrated that a short period of multisensory attention training reduced unilateral tinnitus, but directing attention toward or away from the tinnitus side did not differentiate this effect.

  6. Multisensory attention training for treatment of tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    D. P., Spiegel; T., Linford; B., Thompson; M. A., Petoe; K., Kobayashi; C. M., Stinear; G. D., Searchfield

    2015-01-01

    Tinnitus is the conscious perception of sound with no physical sound source. Some models of tinnitus pathophysiology suggest that networks associated with attention, memory, distress and multisensory experience are involved in tinnitus perception. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a multisensory attention training paradigm which used audio, visual, and somatosensory stimulation would reduce tinnitus. Eighteen participants with predominantly unilateral chronic tinnitus were randomized between two groups receiving 20 daily sessions of either integration (attempting to reduce salience to tinnitus by binding with multisensory stimuli) or attention diversion (multisensory stimuli opposite side to tinnitus) training. The training resulted in small but statistically significant reductions in Tinnitus Functional Index and Tinnitus Severity Numeric Scale scores and improved attentional abilities. No statistically significant improvements in tinnitus were found between the training groups. This study demonstrated that a short period of multisensory attention training reduced unilateral tinnitus, but directing attention toward or away from the tinnitus side did not differentiate this effect. PMID:26020589

  7. [Visual attention and its control mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hirokazu

    2014-04-01

    Given the vast amount of visual information in visual scenes, the capacity of our brain to processes such scenes is severely limited. The core mechanism of selection is referred to as visual attention, and it has been the topic of intense investigation for over 25 years in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Visual attention is not a single, unitary mechanism, but consists of multiple subcomponents. Attention can be directed to various aspects of visual information, such as spatial location, features, or objects. Additionally, attention is guided by external factors such as the salience of stimuli, or whether we are able to move our attention volitionally. The purpose of this article is to review the status of these components of attentional guidance and how they interact with each other, with an emphasis on psychophysical studies.

  8. Role Salience and Multiple Roles: A Gender Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1994-01-01

    Describes Super's construct of role salience and recent literature on gender issues in multiple roles that supports wisdom of his basic ideas. Notes that gender influences how individuals perceive various roles, role priorities and involvement over time, and role juggling during adulthood. Reminds counselors to explore clients' own life meanings…

  9. Visual saliency estimation by nonlinearly integrating features using region covariances.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Erkut; Erdem, Aykut

    2013-03-18

    To detect visually salient elements of complex natural scenes, computational bottom-up saliency models commonly examine several feature channels such as color and orientation in parallel. They compute a separate feature map for each channel and then linearly combine these maps to produce a master saliency map. However, only a few studies have investigated how different feature dimensions contribute to the overall visual saliency. We address this integration issue and propose to use covariance matrices of simple image features (known as region covariance descriptors in the computer vision community; Tuzel, Porikli, & Meer, 2006) as meta-features for saliency estimation. As low-dimensional representations of image patches, region covariances capture local image structures better than standard linear filters, but more importantly, they naturally provide nonlinear integration of different features by modeling their correlations. We also show that first-order statistics of features could be easily incorporated to the proposed approach to improve the performance. Our experimental evaluation on several benchmark data sets demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the state-of-art models on various tasks including prediction of human eye fixations, salient object detection, and image-retargeting.

  10. Saliency Detection Using Sparse and Nonlinear Feature Representation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qingjie; Manzoor, Muhammad Farhan; Ishaq Khan, Saqib

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of visual saliency detection is how features that form an input image are represented. A popular theory supports sparse feature representation, an image being represented with a basis dictionary having sparse weighting coefficient. Another method uses a nonlinear combination of image features for representation. In our work, we combine the two methods and propose a scheme that takes advantage of both sparse and nonlinear feature representation. To this end, we use independent component analysis (ICA) and covariant matrices, respectively. To compute saliency, we use a biologically plausible center surround difference (CSD) mechanism. Our sparse features are adaptive in nature; the ICA basis function are learnt at every image representation, rather than being fixed. We show that Adaptive Sparse Features when used with a CSD mechanism yield better results compared to fixed sparse representations. We also show that covariant matrices consisting of nonlinear integration of color information alone are sufficient to efficiently estimate saliency from an image. The proposed dual representation scheme is then evaluated against human eye fixation prediction, response to psychological patterns, and salient object detection on well-known datasets. We conclude that having two forms of representation compliments one another and results in better saliency detection. PMID:24895644

  11. Learning a saliency map using fixated locations in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Koch, Christof

    2011-03-10

    Inspired by the primate visual system, computational saliency models decompose visual input into a set of feature maps across spatial scales in a number of pre-specified channels. The outputs of these feature maps are summed to yield the final saliency map. Here we use a least square technique to learn the weights associated with these maps from subjects freely fixating natural scenes drawn from four recent eye-tracking data sets. Depending on the data set, the weights can be quite different, with the face and orientation channels usually more important than color and intensity channels. Inter-subject differences are negligible. We also model a bias toward fixating at the center of images and consider both time-varying and constant factors that contribute to this bias. To compensate for the inadequacy of the standard method to judge performance (area under the ROC curve), we use two other metrics to comprehensively assess performance. Although our model retains the basic structure of the standard saliency model, it outperforms several state-of-the-art saliency algorithms. Furthermore, the simple structure makes the results applicable to numerous studies in psychophysics and physiology and leads to an extremely easy implementation for real-world applications.

  12. Visual Salience Modulates Structure Choice in Relative Clause Production

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Jessica L; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2014-01-01

    The role of visual salience on utterance form was investigated in a picture description study. Participants heard spoken questions about animate or inanimate entities in a picture and produced a relative clause in response. Visual properties of the scenes affected production choices such that less salient inanimate entities tended to yield longer initiation latencies and to be described with passive relative clauses more than visually salient inanimates. We suggest that the participants’ question-answering task can change as a function of visual salience of entities in the picture. Less salient entities require a longer visual search of the scene, which causes the speaker to notice or attend more to the non-target competitors in the picture. As a result, it becomes more important in answering the question for the speaker to contrast the target item with a salient competitor. This effect is different from other effects of visual salience, which tend to find that more salient entities take more prominent grammatical roles in the sentence. We interpret this discrepancy as evidence that visual salience does not have a single effect on sentence production, but rather its effect is modulated by task and linguistic context. PMID:25102604

  13. Salience modulation in serial preexposure: implications for perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Artigas, Antonio A; Contel, David M; Sansa, Joan; Prados, Jose

    2012-01-01

    In three experiments rats were given serial preexposure to two flavor stimuli. In Experiment 1, some animals were given exposure to AX followed by the presentation of BX, a forward schedule; the others were given backward preexposure (BX→AX). Conditioning and test trials with the A element showed that salience or effectiveness of A was better protected in the forward than in the backward condition. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed the relevance of this salience modulation mechanism for perceptual learning. In these experiments, generalization of a conditioned aversion from AX to BX was reduced in the forward (but not in the backward) condition only after prolonged exposure, indicating that the establishment of an inhibitory link from B to A is required for successful discrimination. However, generalization to a novel compound stimulus, NX, was reduced in the forward group both after short and long preexposure, suggesting the existence of salience modulation processes that work in parallel with associative inhibition. These results seem to support the existence of a salience modulation mechanism that seems to be beyond the scope of current theories of perceptual learning.

  14. Visual salience modulates structure choice in relative clause production.

    PubMed

    Montag, Jessica L; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2014-06-01

    The role of visual salience on utterance form was investigated in a picture description study. Participants heard spoken questions about animate or inanimate entities in a picture and produced a relative clause in response. Visual properties of the scenes affected production choices such that less salient inanimate entities tended to yield longer initiation latencies and to be described with passive relative clauses more than visually salient inanimates. We suggest that the participants' question-answering task can change as a function of visual salience of entities in the picture. Less salient entities require a longer visual search of the scene, which causes the speaker to notice or attend more to the non-target competitors in the picture. As a result, it becomes more important in answering the question for the speaker to contrast the target item with a salient competitor. This effect is different from other effects of visual salience, which tend to find that more salient entities take more prominent grammatical roles in the sentence. We interpret this discrepancy as evidence that visual salience does not have a single effect on sentence production, but rather its effect is modulated by task and linguistic context.

  15. Role Salience and Multiple Roles: A Gender Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1994-01-01

    Describes Super's construct of role salience and recent literature on gender issues in multiple roles that supports wisdom of his basic ideas. Notes that gender influences how individuals perceive various roles, role priorities and involvement over time, and role juggling during adulthood. Reminds counselors to explore clients' own life meanings…

  16. Salience of the Nuclear Threat: Operationalization through Spontaneous Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II

    An indirect/nonreactive technique of assessing spontaneous concern should be used to examine the salience of the threat of nuclear war. Direct/reactive techniques may produce inconsistent results and inadvertently enhance a false consensus. The procedures for the administration, scoring, and interpretation of a spontaneous concern measure along…

  17. Pain and Analgesia: The Value of Salience Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Borsook, David; Edwards, Robert; Elman, Igor; Becerra, Lino; Levine, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating external and internal stimuli is critical to survival. Potentially tissue-damaging conditions generate sensory experiences that the organism must respond to in an appropriate, adaptive manner (e.g., withdrawal from the noxious stimulus, if possible, or seeking relief from pain and discomfort). The importance we assign to a signal generated by a noxious state, its salience, reflects our belief as to how likely the underlying situation is to impact our chance of survival. Importantly, it has been hypothesized that aberrant functioning of the brain circuits which assign salience values to stimuli may contribute to chronic pain. We describe examples of this phenomenon, including ‘feeling pain’ in the absence of a painful stimulus, reporting minimal pain in the setting of major trauma, having an ‘analgesic’ response in the absence of an active treatment, or reporting no pain relief after administration of a potent analgesic medication, which may provide critical insights into the role that salience circuits play in contributing to numerous conditions characterized by persistent pain. Collectively, a refined understanding of abnormal activity or connectivity of elements within the salience network may allow us to more effectively target interventions to relevant components of this network in patients with chronic pain. PMID:23499729

  18. Optical switches and switching methods

    DOEpatents

    Doty, Michael

    2008-03-04

    A device and method for collecting subject responses, particularly during magnetic imaging experiments and testing using a method such as functional MRI. The device comprises a non-metallic input device which is coupled via fiber optic cables to a computer or other data collection device. One or more optical switches transmit the subject's responses. The input device keeps the subject's fingers comfortably aligned with the switches by partially immobilizing the forearm, wrist, and/or hand of the subject. Also a robust nonmetallic switch, particularly for use with the input device and methods for optical switching.

  19. Comparing Switch Costs: Alternating Runs and Explicit Cuing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Erik M.

    2007-01-01

    The task-switching literature routinely conflates different operational definitions of switch cost, its predominant behavioral measure. This article is an attempt to draw attention to differences between the two most common definitions, alternating-runs switch cost (ARS) and explicit-cuing switch cost (ECS). ARS appears to include both the costs…

  20. Combining bottom-up and top-down attentional influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navalpakkam, Vidhya; Itti, Laurent

    2006-02-01

    Visual attention to salient and relevant scene regions is crucial for an animal's survival in the natural world. It is guided by a complex interplay of at least two factors: image-driven, bottom-up salience [1] and knowledge-driven, top-down guidance [2, 3]. For instance, a ripe red fruit among green leaves captures visual attention due to its bottom-up salience, while a non-salient camou aged predator is detected through top-down guidance to known predator locations and features. Although both bottom-up and top-down factors are important for guiding visual attention, most existing models and theories are either purely top-down [4] or bottom-up [5, 6]. Here, we present a combined model of bottom-up and top-down visual attention.

  1. No-reference video quality assessment of H.264 video streams based on semantic saliency maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boujut, H.; Benois-Pineau, J.; Ahmed, T.; Hadar, O.; Bonnet, P.

    2012-01-01

    The paper contributes to No-Reference video quality assessment of broadcasted HD video over IP networks and DVB. In this work we have enhanced our bottom-up spatio-temporal saliency map model by considering semantics of the visual scene. Thus we propose a new saliency map model based on face detection that we called semantic saliency map. A new fusion method has been proposed to merge the bottom-up saliency maps with the semantic saliency map. We show that our NR metric WMBER weighted by the spatio-temporal-semantic saliency map provides higher results then the WMBER weighted by the bottom-up spatio-temporal saliency map. Tests are performed on two H.264/AVC video databases for video quality assessment over lossy networks.

  2. A No-Reference Texture Regularity Metric Based on Visual Saliency.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, Srenivas; Karam, Lina J

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a no-reference perceptual metric that quantifies the degree of perceived regularity in textures. The metric is based on the similarity of visual attention (VA) of the textural primitives and the periodic spatial distribution of foveated fixation regions throughout the image. A ground-truth eye-tracking database for textures is also generated as part of this paper and is used to evaluate the performance of the most popular VA models. Using the saliency map generated by the best VA model, the proposed texture regularity metric is computed. It is shown through subjective testing that the proposed metric has a strong correlation with the mean opinion score for the perceived regularity of textures. The proposed texture regularity metric can be used to improve the quality and performance of many image processing applications like texture synthesis, texture compression, and content-based image retrieval.

  3. Context-specific learning and control: the roles of awareness, task relevance, and relative salience.

    PubMed

    Crump, Matthew J C; Vaquero, Joaquín M M; Milliken, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    The processes mediating dynamic and flexible responding to rapidly changing task-environments are not well understood. In the present research we employ a Stroop procedure to clarify the contribution of context-sensitive control processes to online performance. In prior work Stroop interference varied as a function of probe location context, with larger Stroop interference occurring for contexts associated with a high proportion of congruent items [Crump, M. J., Gong, Z., & Milliken, B. (2006). The context-specific proportion congruent stroop effect: location as a contextual cue. Psychonomic Bulletin &Review, 13, 316-321.] Here, we demonstrate that this effect does not depend on awareness of the context manipulation, but that it can depend on attention to the predictive context dimension, and on the relative salience of the target and predictive context dimensions. We discuss the implications of our results for current theories of cognitive control.

  4. Evolution of attention mechanisms for early visual processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Knoll, Alois

    2011-03-01

    Early visual processing as a method to speed up computations on visual input data has long been discussed in the computer vision community. The general target of a such approaches is to filter nonrelevant information from the costly higher-level visual processing algorithms. By insertion of this additional filter layer the overall approach can be speeded up without actually changing the visual processing methodology. Being inspired by the layered architecture of the human visual processing apparatus, several approaches for early visual processing have been recently proposed. Most promising in this field is the extraction of a saliency map to determine regions of current attention in the visual field. Such saliency can be computed in a bottom-up manner, i.e. the theory claims that static regions of attention emerge from a certain color footprint, and dynamic regions of attention emerge from connected blobs of textures moving in a uniform way in the visual field. Top-down saliency effects are either unconscious through inherent mechanisms like inhibition-of-return, i.e. within a period of time the attention level paid to a certain region automatically decreases if the properties of that region do not change, or volitional through cognitive feedback, e.g. if an object moves consistently in the visual field. These bottom-up and top-down saliency effects have been implemented and evaluated in a previous computer vision system for the project JAST. In this paper an extension applying evolutionary processes is proposed. The prior vision system utilized multiple threads to analyze the regions of attention delivered from the early processing mechanism. Here, in addition, multiple saliency units are used to produce these regions of attention. All of these saliency units have different parameter-sets. The idea is to let the population of saliency units create regions of attention, then evaluate the results with cognitive feedback and finally apply the genetic mechanism

  5. Neural Basis of Visual Attentional Orienting in Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Eric R.; Norr, Megan; Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Gaillard, William D.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2017-01-01

    We examined spontaneous attention orienting to visual salience in stimuli without social significance using a modified Dot-Probe task during functional magnetic resonance imaging in high-functioning preadolescent children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and age- and IQ-matched control children. While the magnitude of attentional bias (faster…

  6. Rapid Acquisition but Slow Extinction of an Attentional Bias in Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.; Rosenbaum, Gail M.; Herzig, Chelsey

    2013-01-01

    Substantial research has focused on the allocation of spatial attention based on goals or perceptual salience. In everyday life, however, people also direct attention using their previous experience. Here we investigate the pace at which people incidentally learn to prioritize specific locations. Participants searched for a T among Ls in a visual…

  7. Eye Tracking Reveals Impaired Attentional Disengagement Associated with Sensory Response Patterns in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatos-DeVito, Maura; Schipul, Sarah E.; Bulluck, John C.; Belger, Aysenil; Baranek, Grace T.

    2016-01-01

    This study used a gap-overlap paradigm to examine the impact of distractor salience and temporal overlap on the ability to disengage and orient attention in 50 children (4-13 years) with ASD, DD and TD, and associations between attention and sensory response patterns. Results revealed impaired disengagement and orienting accuracy in ASD.…

  8. Eye Tracking Reveals Impaired Attentional Disengagement Associated with Sensory Response Patterns in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatos-DeVito, Maura; Schipul, Sarah E.; Bulluck, John C.; Belger, Aysenil; Baranek, Grace T.

    2016-01-01

    This study used a gap-overlap paradigm to examine the impact of distractor salience and temporal overlap on the ability to disengage and orient attention in 50 children (4-13 years) with ASD, DD and TD, and associations between attention and sensory response patterns. Results revealed impaired disengagement and orienting accuracy in ASD.…

  9. Neural Basis of Visual Attentional Orienting in Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Eric R.; Norr, Megan; Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Gaillard, William D.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2017-01-01

    We examined spontaneous attention orienting to visual salience in stimuli without social significance using a modified Dot-Probe task during functional magnetic resonance imaging in high-functioning preadolescent children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and age- and IQ-matched control children. While the magnitude of attentional bias (faster…

  10. ION SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Cook, B.

    1959-02-10

    An ion switch capable of transferring large magnitudes of power is described. An ion switch constructed in accordance with the invention includes a pair of spaced control electrodes disposed in a highly evacuated region for connection in a conventional circuit to control the passing of power therethrough. A controllable ionic conduction path is provided directiy between the control electrodes by a source unit to close the ion switch. Conventional power supply means are provided to trigger the source unit and control the magnitude, durations and pulse repetition rate of the aforementioned ionic conduction path.

  11. Neural Mechanisms for the Benefits of Stimulus-Driven Attention.

    PubMed

    Wills, Katelyn M; Liu, Jingtai; Hakun, Jonathan; Zhu, David C; Hazeltine, Eliot; Ravizza, Susan M

    2016-10-05

    Stimulus-driven attention can improve working memory (WM) when drawn to behaviorally relevant information, but the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test competing hypotheses regarding the nature of the benefits of stimulus-driven attention to WM: that stimulus-driven attention benefits WM directly via salience detection, that stimulus-driven attention benefits WM incidentally via cognitive control mechanisms recruited to reduce interference from salient features, or that both mechanisms are co-involved in enhancing WM for salient information. To test these hypotheses, we observed activation in brain regions associated with cognitive control and salience detection. We found 2 cognitive control regions that were associated with enhanced memory for salient stimuli: a region in the right superior parietal lobule and a region in the right inferior frontal junction. No regions associated with salience detection were found to show this effect. These fMRI results support the hypothesis that benefits to WM from stimulus-driven attention occur primarily as a result of cognitive control and top-down factors rather than pure bottom-up aspects of stimulus-driven attention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Visual Attention Model Based on Statistical Properties of Neuron Responses

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Haibin; Wang, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Visual attention is a mechanism of the visual system that can select relevant objects from a specific scene. Interactions among neurons in multiple cortical areas are considered to be involved in attentional allocation. However, the characteristics of the encoded features and neuron responses in those attention related cortices are indefinite. Therefore, further investigations carried out in this study aim at demonstrating that unusual regions arousing more attention generally cause particular neuron responses. We suppose that visual saliency is obtained on the basis of neuron responses to contexts in natural scenes. A bottom-up visual attention model is proposed based on the self-information of neuron responses to test and verify the hypothesis. Four different color spaces are adopted and a novel entropy-based combination scheme is designed to make full use of color information. Valuable regions are highlighted while redundant backgrounds are suppressed in the saliency maps obtained by the proposed model. Comparative results reveal that the proposed model outperforms several state-of-the-art models. This study provides insights into the neuron responses based saliency detection and may underlie the neural mechanism of early visual cortices for bottom-up visual attention. PMID:25747859

  13. Texture contrast attracts overt visual attention in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Parkhurst, Derrick J; Niebur, Ernst

    2004-02-01

    In natural vision, the central nervous system actively selects information for detailed processing through mechanisms of visual attention. It is widely held that simple stimulus features such as color, orientation and intensity contribute to the determination of visual salience and thus can act to guide the selection process in a bottom-up fashion. Contrary to this view, Einhäuser, W. & König, P. [(2003) Eur. J. Neurosci., 17, 1089-1097] conclude from their study of human eye movements that luminance contrast does not contribute to the calculation of stimulus salience and that top-down, rather than bottom-up, factors therefore determine attentional allocation in natural scenes. In this article, we dispute their conclusion and argue that the Einhäuser and König study has a number of methodological problems, the most prominent of which is the unintentional introduction of changes in texture contrast. We hypothesize that texture contrast, like luminance contrast, can contribute to the guidance of attention in a bottom-up fashion, and that an appeal to top-down factors is not necessary. To test this hypothesis, we implement a purely bottom-up model of visual selective attention where salience is derived from both luminance and texture contrast. We find that the model can quantitatively account for Einhäuser and König's results and that texture contrast strongly influences attentional guidance in this particular paradigm. The significance of this result for attentional guidance in other paradigms is discussed.

  14. Arterial switch.

    PubMed

    Planche, C; Lacour-Gayet, F; Serraf, A

    1998-01-01

    A relatively large spectra of anatomic variations are found within the unifying features of discordant ventriculoarterial connections. Variants that lend themselves to anatomic repair by the arterial switch operation are discussed, these include transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum (TGA IVS), TGA associated with a ventricular septal defect (TGA VSD), double-outlet right ventricle with subpulmonary VSD (DORV VSD), and TGA or DORV with VSD associated with coarctation. Double discordance with VSD, which is currently treated by double switch or Rastelli and atrial switch and which probably represents, in our department, the only remaining indication for atrial switch, is not discussed. Also, we exclude TGA associated with pulmonary stenosis, which is treated by Rastelli or REV operation.

  15. Magnetic switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirbie, H. C.

    1989-04-01

    Magnetic switching is a pulse compression technique that uses a saturable inductor (reactor) to pass pulses of energy between two capacitors. A high degree of pulse compression can be achieved in a network when several of these simple, magnetically switched circuits are connected in series. Individual inductors are designed to saturate in cascade as a pulse moves along the network. The technique is particularly useful when a single-pulse network must be very reliable or when a multi-pulse network must operate at a high pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Today, magnetic switches trigger spark gaps, sharpen the risetimes of high energy pulses, power large lasers, and drive high PRF linear induction accelerators. This paper will describe the technique of magnetic pulse compression using simple networks and design equations. A brief review of modern magnetic materials and of their role in magnetic switch design will be presented.

  16. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

    1979-08-29

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  17. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  18. Nucleosome Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, David J.; Bruinsma, Robijn F.; Rudnick, Joseph; Widom, Jonathan

    2008-06-01

    We present a statistical-mechanical model for the positioning of nucleosomes along genomic DNA molecules as a function of the strength of the binding potential and the chemical potential of the nucleosomes. We show that a significant section of the DNA is composed of two-level nucleosome switching regions where the nucleosome distribution undergoes a localized, first-order transition. The location of the nucleosome switches shows a strong correlation with the location of gene-regulation regions.

  19. Nucleosome switches.

    PubMed

    Schwab, David J; Bruinsma, Robijn F; Rudnick, Joseph; Widom, Jonathan

    2008-06-06

    We present a statistical-mechanical model for the positioning of nucleosomes along genomic DNA molecules as a function of the strength of the binding potential and the chemical potential of the nucleosomes. We show that a significant section of the DNA is composed of two-level nucleosome switching regions where the nucleosome distribution undergoes a localized, first-order transition. The location of the nucleosome switches shows a strong correlation with the location of gene-regulation regions.

  20. Discriminatively trained part based model armed with biased saliency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huapeng; Chang, Yongxin; Lu, Pei; Xu, Zhiyong; Fu, Chengyu; Wang, Yafei

    2015-02-01

    Discriminatively trained Part based Model (DPM) is one of the state-of-the-art object detectors. However, DPM complies little with real vision procedure. In this paper, we try arming DPM with biologically inspired approaches. On the one hand, we use Gabor instead of Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) as low level features to simulate the receptive fields of simple cells. We show Gabor outperforms or is on par with HOG. On the other hand, we learn biased saliency of the object with the same Gabor features to simulate the search procedure of real vision. We combine DPM and biased saliency in a single Bayesian framework, which at least partially reflects the interactions between top-down and bottom-up vision procedures. We show these biologically inspired procedures can effectively improve the performance and efficiency of DPM. We present experimental results on both challenging PASCAL VOC2007 dataset and publicly available sequences.

  1. Salience of unique hues and implications for color theory

    PubMed Central

    Wool, Lauren E.; Komban, Stanley J.; Kremkow, Jens; Jansen, Michael; Li, Xiaobing; Alonso, Jose-Manuel; Zaidi, Qasim

    2015-01-01

    The unique hues—blue, green, yellow, red—form the fundamental dimensions of opponent-color theories, are considered universal across languages, and provide useful mental representations for structuring color percepts. However, there is no neural evidence for them from neurophysiology or low-level psychophysics. Tapping a higher prelinguistic perceptual level, we tested whether unique hues are particularly salient in search tasks. We found no advantage for unique hues over their nonunique complementary colors. However, yellowish targets were detected faster, more accurately, and with fewer saccades than their complementary bluish targets (including unique blue), while reddish-greenish pairs were not significantly different in salience. Similarly, local field potentials in primate V1 exhibited larger amplitudes and shorter latencies for yellowish versus bluish stimuli, whereas this effect was weaker for reddish versus greenish stimuli. Consequently, color salience is affected more by early neural response asymmetries than by any possible mental or neural representation of unique hues. PMID:25761328

  2. Spatial competition on the master-saliency map.

    PubMed

    Schade, Ursula; Meinecke, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The saliency map model (Itti and Koch, 2000) is a hierarchically structured computational model, simulating visual saliency processing. Iso-feature processing on feature maps and conspicuity maps precedes cross-dimensional signal processing on the master map, where the most salient location of the visual field is selected. This texture segmentation study focuses on a possible spatial structure on the master map. In four experiments the spatial distance between a texture irregularity in the stimulus ("target") and a cross-dimensional task irrelevant texture irregularity in the backward mask ("patch") was varied. The results show that the target-patch distance modulates target detection, and that this modulation is limited to critical distances around the target. We conclude that the signals from different feature dimensions compete on a spatial master map. There is first evidence that the critical distances increase with target eccentricity.

  3. Exploiting Surroundedness for Saliency Detection: A Boolean Map Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianming; Sclaroff, Stan

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate the usefulness of surroundedness for eye fixation prediction by proposing a Boolean Map based Saliency model (BMS). In our formulation, an image is characterized by a set of binary images, which are generated by randomly thresholding the image's feature maps in a whitened feature space. Based on a Gestalt principle of figure-ground segregation, BMS computes a saliency map by discovering surrounded regions via topological analysis of Boolean maps. Furthermore, we draw a connection between BMS and the Minimum Barrier Distance to provide insight into why and how BMS can properly captures the surroundedness cue via Boolean maps. The strength of BMS is verified by its simplicity, efficiency and superior performance compared with 10 state-of-the-art methods on seven eye tracking benchmark datasets.

  4. Voronoi poles-based saliency feature detection from point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tingting; Wei, Ning; Dong, Fangmin; Yang, Yuanqin

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we represent a novel algorithm for point cloud feature detection. Firstly, the algorithm estimates the local feature for each sample point by computing the ratio of the distance from the inner voronoi pole and the outer voronoi pole to the surface. Then the surface global saliency feature is detected by adding the results of the difference of Gaussian for local feature under different scales. Compared with the state of the art methods, our algorithm has higher computing efficiency and more accurate feature detection for sharp edge. The detected saliency features are applied as the weights for surface mesh simplification. The numerical results for mesh simplification show that our method keeps the more details of key features than the traditional methods.

  5. Neural primacy of the salience processing system in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Lena; Simmonite, Molly; White, Thomas P; Liddle, Elizabeth B; Liddle, Peter F

    2013-08-21

    For effective information processing, two large-scale distributed neural networks appear to be critical: a multimodal executive system anchored on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and a salience system anchored on the anterior insula. Aberrant interaction among distributed networks is a feature of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. We used whole-brain Granger causal modeling using resting fMRI and observed a significant failure of both the feedforward and reciprocal influence between the insula and the DLPFC in schizophrenia. Further, a significant failure of directed influence from bilateral visual cortices to the insula was also seen in patients. These findings provide compelling evidence for a breakdown of the salience-execution loop in the clinical expression of psychosis. In addition, this offers a parsimonious explanation for the often-observed "frontal inefficiency," the failure to recruit prefrontal system when salient or novel information becomes available in patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Shadow detection and removal based on the saliency map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Deng, Chunhua; Yan, Ruicheng; Qin, Yueming

    2013-10-01

    The detection of shadow is the first step to reduce the imaging effect that is caused by the interactions of the light source with surfaces, and then shadow removal can recover the vein information from the dark region. In this paper, we have presented a new method to detect the shadow in a single nature image with the saliency map and to remove the shadow. Firstly, RGB image is transferred to 2D module in order to improve the blue component. Secondly, saliency map of blue component is extracted via graph-based manifold ranking. Then the edge of the shadow can be detected in order to recover the transitional region between the shadow and non-shadow region. Finally, shadow is compensated by enhancing the image in RGB space. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Of wealth and death: materialism, mortality salience, and consumption behavior.

    PubMed

    Kasser, T; Sheldon, K M

    2000-07-01

    Theoretical work suggests that feelings of insecurity produce materialistic behavior, but most empirical evidence is correlational in nature. We therefore experimentally activated feelings of insecurity by having some subjects write short essays about death (mortality-salience condition). In Study 1, subjects in the mortality-salience condition, compared with subjects who wrote about a neutral topic, had higher financial expectations for themselves 15 years in the future, in terms of both their overall worth and the amount they would be spending on pleasurable items such as clothing and entertainment. Study 2 extended these findings by demonstrating that subjects exposed to death became more greedy and consumed more resources in a forest-management game. Results are discussed with regard to humanistic and terror-management theories of materialism.

  8. Salience Network Functional Connectivity Predicts Placebo Effects in Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Magdalena; Heffernan, Joseph; Avery, Erich T.; Mickey, Brian J.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Peciña, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) abnormalities among intrinsic brain networks in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD); however, their role as predictors of treatment response has not yet been explored. Here, we investigate whether network-based rsFC predicts antidepressant and placebo effects in MDD. Methods We performed a randomized controlled trial of two weeklong, identical placebos (described as having either “active” fast-acting, antidepressant effects or as “inactive”) followed by a ten-week open-label antidepressant medication treatment. Twenty-nine participants underwent a rsFC fMRI scan at the completion of each placebo condition. Networks were isolated from resting-state blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal fluctuations using independent component analysis. Baseline and placebo-induced changes in rsFC within the default-mode, salience, and executive networks were examined for associations with placebo and antidepressant treatment response. Results Increased baseline rsFC in the rostral anterior cingulate (rACC) within the salience network, a region classically implicated in the formation of placebo analgesia and the prediction of treatment response in MDD, was associated with greater response to one week of active placebo and ten weeks of antidepressant treatment. Machine learning further demonstrated that increased salience network rsFC, mainly within the rACC, significantly predicts individual responses to placebo administration. Conclusions These data demonstrate that baseline rsFC within the salience network is linked to clinical placebo responses. This information could be employed to identify patients who would benefit from lower doses of antidepressant medication or non-pharmacological approaches, or to develop biomarkers of placebo effects in clinical trials. PMID:26709390

  9. Salience in a social landscape: electrophysiological effects of task-irrelevant and infrequent vocal change

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Carla; Pedrosa, João

    2016-01-01

    In a dynamically changing social environment, humans have to face the challenge of prioritizing stimuli that compete for attention. In the context of social communication, the voice is the most important sound category. However, the existing studies do not directly address whether and how the salience of an unexpected vocal change in an auditory sequence influences the orientation of attention. In this study, frequent tones were interspersed with task-relevant infrequent tones and task-irrelevant infrequent vocal sounds (neutral, happy and angry vocalizations). Eighteen healthy college students were asked to count infrequent tones. A combined event-related potential (ERP) and EEG time–frequency approach was used, with the focus on the P3 component and on the early auditory evoked gamma band response, respectively. A spatial-temporal principal component analysis was used to disentangle potentially overlapping ERP components. Although no condition differences were observed in the 210–310 ms window, larger positive responses were observed for emotional than neutral vocalizations in the 310–410 ms window. Furthermore, the phase synchronization of the early auditory evoked gamma oscillation was enhanced for happy vocalizations. These findings support the idea that the brain prioritizes the processing of emotional stimuli, by devoting more attentional resources to salient social signals even when they are not task-relevant. PMID:26468268

  10. Modeling Visual Exploration in Rhesus Macaques with Bottom-Up Salience and Oculomotor Statistics

    PubMed Central

    König, Seth D.; Buffalo, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in studying biological systems in natural settings, in which experimental stimuli are less artificial and behavior is less controlled. In primate vision research, free viewing of complex images has elucidated novel neural responses, and free viewing in humans has helped discover attentional and behavioral impairments in patients with neurological disorders. In order to fully interpret data collected from free viewing of complex scenes, it is critical to better understand what aspects of the stimuli guide viewing behavior. To this end, we have developed a novel viewing behavior model called a Biased Correlated Random Walk (BCRW) to describe free viewing behavior during the exploration of complex scenes in monkeys. The BCRW can predict fixation locations better than bottom-up salience. Additionally, we show that the BCRW can be used to test hypotheses regarding specific attentional mechanisms. For example, we used the BCRW to examine the source of the central bias in fixation locations. Our analyses suggest that the central bias may be caused by a natural tendency to reorient the eyes toward the center of the stimulus, rather than a photographer's bias to center salient items in a scene. Taken together these data suggest that the BCRW can be used to further our understanding of viewing behavior and attention, and could be useful in optimizing stimulus and task design. PMID:27445721

  11. Salience in a social landscape: electrophysiological effects of task-irrelevant and infrequent vocal change.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ana P; Barros, Carla; Pedrosa, João

    2016-01-01

    In a dynamically changing social environment, humans have to face the challenge of prioritizing stimuli that compete for attention. In the context of social communication, the voice is the most important sound category. However, the existing studies do not directly address whether and how the salience of an unexpected vocal change in an auditory sequence influences the orientation of attention. In this study, frequent tones were interspersed with task-relevant infrequent tones and task-irrelevant infrequent vocal sounds (neutral, happy and angry vocalizations). Eighteen healthy college students were asked to count infrequent tones. A combined event-related potential (ERP) and EEG time-frequency approach was used, with the focus on the P3 component and on the early auditory evoked gamma band response, respectively. A spatial-temporal principal component analysis was used to disentangle potentially overlapping ERP components. Although no condition differences were observed in the 210-310 ms window, larger positive responses were observed for emotional than neutral vocalizations in the 310-410 ms window. Furthermore, the phase synchronization of the early auditory evoked gamma oscillation was enhanced for happy vocalizations. These findings support the idea that the brain prioritizes the processing of emotional stimuli, by devoting more attentional resources to salient social signals even when they are not task-relevant. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Vegetarianism and food perception. Selective visual attention to meat pictures.

    PubMed

    Stockburger, Jessica; Renner, Britta; Weike, Almut I; Hamm, Alfons O; Schupp, Harald T

    2009-04-01

    Vegetarianism provides a model system to examine the impact of negative affect towards meat, based on ideational reasoning. It was hypothesized that meat stimuli are efficient attention catchers in vegetarians. Event-related brain potential recordings served to index selective attention processes at the level of initial stimulus perception. Consistent with the hypothesis, late positive potentials to meat pictures were enlarged in vegetarians compared to omnivores. This effect was specific for meat pictures and obtained during passive viewing and an explicit attention task condition. These findings demonstrate the attention capture of food stimuli, deriving affective salience from ideational reasoning and symbolic meaning.

  13. An experimental field study of weight salience and food choice.

    PubMed

    Incollingo Rodriguez, Angela C; Finch, Laura E; Buss, Julia; Guardino, Christine M; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory research has found that individuals will consume more calories and make unhealthy food choices when in the presence of an overweight individual, sometimes even regardless of what that individual is eating. This study expanded these laboratory paradigms to the field to examine how weight salience influences eating in the real world. More specifically, we tested the threshold of the effect of weight salience of food choice to see if a more subtle weight cue (e.g., images) would be sufficient to affect food choice. Attendees (N = 262) at Obesity Week 2013, a weight-salient environment, viewed slideshows containing an image of an overweight individual, an image of a thin individual, or no image (text only), and then selected from complimentary snacks. Results of ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that participants who viewed the image of the overweight individual had higher odds of selecting the higher calorie snack compared to those who viewed the image of the thin individual (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.04, 3.04]), or no image (OR = 2.42, 95% CI = [1.29, 4.54]). Perceiver BMI category did not moderate the influence of image on food choice, as these results occurred regardless of participant BMI. These findings suggest that in the context of societal weight salience, weight-related cues alone may promote unhealthy eating in the general public.

  14. Dissociable Intrinsic Connectivity Networks for Salience Processing and Executive Control

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, William W.; Menon, Vinod; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Keller, Jennifer; Glover, Gary H.; Kenna, Heather; Reiss, Allan L.; Greicius, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Variations in neural circuitry, inherited or acquired, may underlie important individual differences in thought, feeling, and action patterns. Here, we used task-free connectivity analyses to isolate and characterize two distinct networks typically coactivated during functional MRI tasks. We identified a “salience network,” anchored by dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) and orbital frontoinsular cortices with robust connectivity to subcortical and limbic structures, and an “executive-control network” that links dorsolateral frontal and parietal neocortices. These intrinsic connectivity networks showed dissociable correlations with functions measured outside the scanner. Prescan anxiety ratings correlated with intrinsic functional connectivity of the dACC node of the salience network, but with no region in the executive-control network, whereas executive task performance correlated with lateral parietal nodes of the executive-control network, but with no region in the salience network. Our findings suggest that task-free analysis of intrinsic connectivity networks may help elucidate the neural architectures that support fundamental aspects of human behavior. PMID:17329432

  15. Information-theoretic model comparison unifies saliency metrics.

    PubMed

    Kümmerer, Matthias; Wallis, Thomas S A; Bethge, Matthias

    2015-12-29

    Learning the properties of an image associated with human gaze placement is important both for understanding how biological systems explore the environment and for computer vision applications. There is a large literature on quantitative eye movement models that seeks to predict fixations from images (sometimes termed "saliency" prediction). A major problem known to the field is that existing model comparison metrics give inconsistent results, causing confusion. We argue that the primary reason for these inconsistencies is because different metrics and models use different definitions of what a "saliency map" entails. For example, some metrics expect a model to account for image-independent central fixation bias whereas others will penalize a model that does. Here we bring saliency evaluation into the domain of information by framing fixation prediction models probabilistically and calculating information gain. We jointly optimize the scale, the center bias, and spatial blurring of all models within this framework. Evaluating existing metrics on these rephrased models produces almost perfect agreement in model rankings across the metrics. Model performance is separated from center bias and spatial blurring, avoiding the confounding of these factors in model comparison. We additionally provide a method to show where and how models fail to capture information in the fixations on the pixel level. These methods are readily extended to spatiotemporal models of fixation scanpaths, and we provide a software package to facilitate their use.

  16. Impact of feature saliency on visual category learning

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Rubi

    2015-01-01

    People have to sort numerous objects into a large number of meaningful categories while operating in varying contexts. This requires identifying the visual features that best predict the ‘essence’ of objects (e.g., edibility), rather than categorizing objects based on the most salient features in a given context. To gain this capacity, visual category learning (VCL) relies on multiple cognitive processes. These may include unsupervised statistical learning, that requires observing multiple objects for learning the statistics of their features. Other learning processes enable incorporating different sources of supervisory information, alongside the visual features of the categorized objects, from which the categorical relations between few objects can be deduced. These deductions enable inferring that objects from the same category may differ from one another in some high-saliency feature dimensions, whereas lower-saliency feature dimensions can best differentiate objects from distinct categories. Here I illustrate how feature saliency affects VCL, by also discussing kinds of supervisory information enabling reflective categorization. Arguably, principles debated here are often being ignored in categorization studies. PMID:25954220

  17. Learning Discriminative Subspaces on Random Contrasts for Image Saliency Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shu; Li, Jia; Tian, Yonghong; Huang, Tiejun; Chen, Xiaowu

    2017-05-01

    In visual saliency estimation, one of the most challenging tasks is to distinguish targets and distractors that share certain visual attributes. With the observation that such targets and distractors can sometimes be easily separated when projected to specific subspaces, we propose to estimate image saliency by learning a set of discriminative subspaces that perform the best in popping out targets and suppressing distractors. Toward this end, we first conduct principal component analysis on massive randomly selected image patches. The principal components, which correspond to the largest eigenvalues, are selected to construct candidate subspaces since they often demonstrate impressive abilities to separate targets and distractors. By projecting images onto various subspaces, we further characterize each image patch by its contrasts against randomly selected neighboring and peripheral regions. In this manner, the probable targets often have the highest responses, while the responses at background regions become very low. Based on such random contrasts, an optimization framework with pairwise binary terms is adopted to learn the saliency model that best separates salient targets and distractors by optimally integrating the cues from various subspaces. Experimental results on two public benchmarks show that the proposed approach outperforms 16 state-of-the-art methods in human fixation prediction.

  18. On the electrophysiological evidence for the capture of visual attention.

    PubMed

    McDonald, John J; Green, Jessica J; Jannati, Ali; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2013-06-01

    The presence of a salient distractor interferes with visual search. According to the salience-driven selection hypothesis, this interference is because of an initial deployment of attention to the distractor. Three event-related potential (ERP) findings have been regarded as evidence for this hypothesis: (a) salient distractors were found to elicit an ERP component called N2pc, which reflects attentional selection; (b) with target and distractor on opposite sides, a distractor N2pc was reported to precede the target N2pc (N2pc flip); (c) the distractor N2pc on slow-response trials was reported to occur particularly early, suggesting that the fastest shifts of attention were driven by salience. This evidence is equivocal, however, because the ERPs were noisy (b, c) and were averaged across all trials, thereby making it difficult to know whether attention was deployed directly to the target on some trials (a, b). We reevaluated this evidence using a larger sample size to reduce noise and by analyzing ERPs separately for fast- and slow-response trials. On fast-response trials, the distractor elicited a contralateral positivity (PD)-an index of attentional suppression-instead of an N2pc. There was no N2pc flip or early distractor N2pc. As it stands, then, there is no ERP evidence for the salience-driven selection hypothesis.

  19. Coding of saliency by ensemble bursting in the amygdala of primates

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez Andino, S. L.; Grave de Peralta Menendez, R.

    2012-01-01

    Salient parts of a visual scene attract longer and earlier fixations of the eyes. Saliency is driven by bottom-up (image dependent) factors and top-down factors such as behavioral relevance, goals, and expertise. It is currently assumed that a saliency map defining eye fixation priorities is stored in neural structures that remain to be determined. Lesion studies support a role for the amygdala in detecting saliency. Here we show that neurons in the amygdala of primates fire differentially when the eyes approach to or fixate behaviorally relevant parts of visual scenes. Ensemble bursting in the amygdala accurately predicts main fixations during the free-viewing of natural images. However, fixation prediction is significantly better for faces—where a bottom-up computational saliency model fails—compared to unfamiliar objects and landscapes. On this basis we propose the amygdala as a locus for a saliency map and ensemble bursting as a saliency coding mechanism. PMID:22848193

  20. Coding of saliency by ensemble bursting in the amygdala of primates.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Andino, S L; Grave de Peralta Menendez, R

    2012-01-01

    Salient parts of a visual scene attract longer and earlier fixations of the eyes. Saliency is driven by bottom-up (image dependent) factors and top-down factors such as behavioral relevance, goals, and expertise. It is currently assumed that a saliency map defining eye fixation priorities is stored in neural structures that remain to be determined. Lesion studies support a role for the amygdala in detecting saliency. Here we show that neurons in the amygdala of primates fire differentially when the eyes approach to or fixate behaviorally relevant parts of visual scenes. Ensemble bursting in the amygdala accurately predicts main fixations during the free-viewing of natural images. However, fixation prediction is significantly better for faces-where a bottom-up computational saliency model fails-compared to unfamiliar objects and landscapes. On this basis we propose the amygdala as a locus for a saliency map and ensemble bursting as a saliency coding mechanism.

  1. Texture segmentation: do the processing units on the saliency map increase with eccentricity?

    PubMed

    Schade, Ursula; Meinecke, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The saliency map is a computational model and has been constructed for simulating human saliency processing, e.g. pop-out target detection (e.g. Itti & Koch, 2000). In this study the spatial structure on the saliency map was investigated. It is proposed that the saliency map is structured into processing units whose size is increasing with retinal eccentricity. In two experiments the distance between a target in the stimulus and an irrelevant structure in the mask was varied systematically. Our findings had two main points. Firstly, in texture segmentation tasks the saliency signals from two texture irregularities interfere, when these irregularities appear within a critical spatial distance. Second, the critical distances increase with target eccentricity. The eccentricity-dependent critical distances can be interpreted as crowding effects. It is assumed that additionally to the target eccentricity, also the strength of a saliency signal can determine the spatial area of its impairing influence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Infrared and visible image fusion method based on saliency detection in sparse domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. H.; Qi, Y.; Ding, W. R.

    2017-06-01

    Infrared and visible image fusion is a key problem in the field of multi-sensor image fusion. To better preserve the significant information of the infrared and visible images in the final fused image, the saliency maps of the source images is introduced into the fusion procedure. Firstly, under the framework of the joint sparse representation (JSR) model, the global and local saliency maps of the source images are obtained based on sparse coefficients. Then, a saliency detection model is proposed, which combines the global and local saliency maps to generate an integrated saliency map. Finally, a weighted fusion algorithm based on the integrated saliency map is developed to achieve the fusion progress. The experimental results show that our method is superior to the state-of-the-art methods in terms of several universal quality evaluation indexes, as well as in the visual quality.

  3. Low-Complexity Saliency Detection Algorithm for Fast Perceptual Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengyu; Jia, Kebin

    2013-01-01

    A low-complexity saliency detection algorithm for perceptual video coding is proposed; low-level encoding information is adopted as the characteristics of visual perception analysis. Firstly, this algorithm employs motion vector (MV) to extract temporal saliency region through fast MV noise filtering and translational MV checking procedure. Secondly, spatial saliency region is detected based on optimal prediction mode distributions in I-frame and P-frame. Then, it combines the spatiotemporal saliency detection results to define the video region of interest (VROI). The simulation results validate that the proposed algorithm can avoid a large amount of computation work in the visual perception characteristics analysis processing compared with other existing algorithms; it also has better performance in saliency detection for videos and can realize fast saliency detection. It can be used as a part of the video standard codec at medium-to-low bit-rates or combined with other algorithms in fast video coding. PMID:24489495

  4. Global motion compensated visual attention-based video watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakes, Matthew; Bhowmik, Deepayan; Abhayaratne, Charith

    2016-11-01

    Imperceptibility and robustness are two key but complementary requirements of any watermarking algorithm. Low-strength watermarking yields high imperceptibility but exhibits poor robustness. High-strength watermarking schemes achieve good robustness but often suffer from embedding distortions resulting in poor visual quality in host media. This paper proposes a unique video watermarking algorithm that offers a fine balance between imperceptibility and robustness using motion compensated wavelet-based visual attention model (VAM). The proposed VAM includes spatial cues for visual saliency as well as temporal cues. The spatial modeling uses the spatial wavelet coefficients while the temporal modeling accounts for both local and global motion to arrive at the spatiotemporal VAM for video. The model is then used to develop a video watermarking algorithm, where a two-level watermarking weighting parameter map is generated from the VAM saliency maps using the saliency model and data are embedded into the host image according to the visual attentiveness of each region. By avoiding higher strength watermarking in the visually attentive region, the resulting watermarked video achieves high perceived visual quality while preserving high robustness. The proposed VAM outperforms the state-of-the-art video visual attention methods in joint saliency detection and low computational complexity performance. For the same embedding distortion, the proposed visual attention-based watermarking achieves up to 39% (nonblind) and 22% (blind) improvement in robustness against H.264/AVC compression, compared to existing watermarking methodology that does not use the VAM. The proposed visual attention-based video watermarking results in visual quality similar to that of low-strength watermarking and a robustness similar to those of high-strength watermarking.

  5. Do happy faces capture attention? The happiness superiority effect in attentional blink.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Shiho; Iwasaki, Syoichi

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of positive affect on attentional blink (AB) with schematic faces. Results of Experiment 1 showed that the AB effect was smaller for both upright and inverted positive face icons than other face icons (neutral and angry faces) of corresponding orientations, confirming and extending the results of the earlier study by Mack, Pappas, Silverman, and Gay (2002). Results of Experiment 2 demonstrated that this attenuation of AB was unlikely to be attributable to attentional capture by the happy face. Perceptual saliency is suggested as a likely cause of the effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    An optical switching device (10) is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber (16) or a second glass fiber (14) may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber (18). Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system (26, 28, 30). In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber (16) is reflected by a planar mirror (36) into the third glass fiber (18). In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber (14) passes directly into the third glass fiber (18). The planar mirror (36) is attached to a rotatable table (32) which is rotated to provide the optical switching.

  7. Optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, R.P.

    1987-11-10

    An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber is reflected by a planar mirror into the third glass fiber. In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber passes directly into the third glass fiber. The planar mirror is attached to a rotatable table which is rotated to provide the optical switching. 3 figs.

  8. Optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, R.P.

    1985-01-18

    An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber is reflected by a planar mirror into the third glass fiber. In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber passes directly into the third glass fiber. The planar mirror is attached to a rotatable table which is rotated to provide the optical switching.

  9. Depth-Aware Salient Object Detection and Segmentation via Multiscale Discriminative Saliency Fusion and Bootstrap Learning.

    PubMed

    Song, Hangke; Liu, Zhi; Du, Huan; Sun, Guangling; Le Meur, Olivier; Ren, Tongwei

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel depth-aware salient object detection and segmentation framework via multiscale discriminative saliency fusion (MDSF) and bootstrap learning for RGBD images (RGB color images with corresponding Depth maps) and stereoscopic images. By exploiting low-level feature contrasts, mid-level feature weighted factors and high-level location priors, various saliency measures on four classes of features are calculated based on multiscale region segmentation. A random forest regressor is learned to perform the discriminative saliency fusion (DSF) and generate the DSF saliency map at each scale, and DSF saliency maps across multiple scales are combined to produce the MDSF saliency map. Furthermore, we propose an effective bootstrap learning-based salient object segmentation method, which is bootstrapped with samples based on the MDSF saliency map and learns multiple kernel support vector machines. Experimental results on two large datasets show how various categories of features contribute to the saliency detection performance and demonstrate that the proposed framework achieves the better performance on both saliency detection and salient object segmentation.

  10. Categorisation salience and ingroup bias: the buffering role of a multicultural ideology.

    PubMed

    Costa-Lopes, Rui; Pereira, Cícero Roberto; Judd, Charles M

    2014-12-01

    The current work sought to test the moderating role of a multicultural ideology on the relationship between categorisation salience and ingroup bias. Accordingly, in one experimental study, we manipulated categorisation salience and the accessibility of a multicultural ideology, and measured intergroup attitudes. Results show that categorisation salience only leads to ingroup bias when a multiculturalism (MC) ideology is not made salient. Thus, MC ideology attenuates the negative effects of categorisation salience on ingroup bias. These results pertain to social psychology in general showing that the cognitive processes should be construed within the framework of ideological contexts. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. What causes aberrant salience in schizophrenia? A role for impaired short-term habituation and the GRIA1 (GluA1) AMPA receptor subunit

    PubMed Central

    Barkus, C; Sanderson, DJ; Rawlins, JNP; Walton, ME; Harrison, PJ; Bannerman, DM

    2014-01-01

    The GRIA1 locus, encoding the GluA1 (also known as GluRA or GluR1) AMPA glutamate receptor subunit, shows genome-wide association to schizophrenia. As well as extending the evidence that glutamatergic abnormalities play a key role in the disorder, this finding draws attention to the behavioural phenotype of Gria1 knockout mice. These mice show deficits in short-term habituation. Importantly, under some conditions the attention being paid to a recently presented neutral stimulus can actually increase rather than decrease (sensitization). We propose that this mouse phenotype represents a cause of aberrant salience and, in turn, that aberrant salience (and the resulting positive symptoms) in schizophrenia may arise, at least in part, from a glutamatergic genetic predisposition and a deficit in short-term habituation. This proposal links an established risk gene with a psychological process central to psychosis, and is supported by findings of comparable deficits in short-term habituation in mice lacking the NMDAR receptor subunit Grin2a (which also shows association to schizophrenia). Since aberrant salience is primarily a dopaminergic phenomenon, the model supports the view that the dopaminergic abnormalities can be downstream of a glutamatergic aetiology. Finally, we suggest that, as illustrated here, the real value of genetically modified mice is not as ‘models of schizophrenia’, but as experimental tools which can link genomic discoveries with psychological processes, and help elucidate the underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:25224260

  12. A neural computational model for bottom-up attention with invariant and overcomplete representation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An important problem in selective attention is determining the ways the primary visual cortex contributes to the encoding of bottom-up saliency and the types of neural computation that are effective to model this process. To address this problem, we constructed a two-layered network that satisfies the neurobiological constraints of the primary visual cortex to detect salient objects. We carried out experiments on both synthetic images and natural images to explore the influences of different factors, such as network structure, the size of each layer, the type of suppression and the combination strategy, on saliency detection performance. Results The experimental results statistically demonstrated that the type and scale of filters contribute greatly to the encoding of bottom-up saliency. These two factors correspond to the mechanisms of invariant encoding and overcomplete representation in the primary visual cortex. Conclusions (1) Instead of constructing Gabor functions or Gaussian pyramids filters for feature extraction as traditional attention models do, we learn overcomplete basis sets from natural images to extract features for saliency detection. Experiments show that given the proper layer size and a robust combination strategy, the learned overcomplete basis set outperforms a complete set and Gabor pyramids in visual saliency detection. This finding can potentially be applied in task-dependent and supervised object detection. (2) A hierarchical coding model that can represent invariant features, is designed for the pre-attentive stage of bottom-up attention. This coding model improves robustness to noises and distractions and improves the ability of detecting salient structures, such as collinear and co-circular structures, and several composite stimuli. This result indicates that invariant representation contributes to saliency detection (popping out) in bottom-up attention. The aforementioned perspectives will significantly contribute to the in

  13. A neural computational model for bottom-up attention with invariant and overcomplete representation.

    PubMed

    Zou, Qi; Zhao, Songnian; Wang, Zhe; Huang, Yaping

    2012-11-29

    An important problem in selective attention is determining the ways the primary visual cortex contributes to the encoding of bottom-up saliency and the types of neural computation that are effective to model this process. To address this problem, we constructed a two-layered network that satisfies the neurobiological constraints of the primary visual cortex to detect salient objects. We carried out experiments on both synthetic images and natural images to explore the influences of different factors, such as network structure, the size of each layer, the type of suppression and the combination strategy, on saliency detection performance. The experimental results statistically demonstrated that the type and scale of filters contribute greatly to the encoding of bottom-up saliency. These two factors correspond to the mechanisms of invariant encoding and overcomplete representation in the primary visual cortex. (1) Instead of constructing Gabor functions or Gaussian pyramids filters for feature extraction as traditional attention models do, we learn overcomplete basis sets from natural images to extract features for saliency detection. Experiments show that given the proper layer size and a robust combination strategy, the learned overcomplete basis set outperforms a complete set and Gabor pyramids in visual saliency detection. This finding can potentially be applied in task-dependent and supervised object detection. (2) A hierarchical coding model that can represent invariant features, is designed for the pre-attentive stage of bottom-up attention. This coding model improves robustness to noises and distractions and improves the ability of detecting salient structures, such as collinear and co-circular structures, and several composite stimuli. This result indicates that invariant representation contributes to saliency detection (popping out) in bottom-up attention. The aforementioned perspectives will significantly contribute to the in-depth understanding of the

  14. Individual Differences in Attentional Flexibility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-15

    1973 , 58, 113-115. LaBerge, D. Identification of two components of the time to switch attention : A test of a serial and a parallel model of attentio n... Attentional ~ Technical Report Flexibility S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMB ER 7. A UTIIOR(.) S. CONT RACT OR GRANT NUMB ER(S) Steven W. Keel e, W. Traninell...KEY WORDS ( Cs..Il.Iu. o,~ S.F.,.. ..d. If n.o...y ~d id.nlS(y by bI.ck n~.~b~ F) Attention , attention swi tching , flexibility, information

  15. Abnormal salience network in normal aging and in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoxi; Qin, Wen; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Xinqing; Duan, Yunyun; Song, Jinyu; Li, Kuncheng; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

    2014-07-01

    The salience network (SN) serves to identify salient stimuli and to switch between the central executive network (CEN) and the default-mode network (DMN), both of which are impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD)/amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). We hypothesized that both the structural and functional organization of the SN and functional interactions between the SN and CEN/DMN are altered in normal aging and in AD/aMCI. Gray matter volume (GMV) and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) were analyzed from healthy younger (HYC) to older controls (HOC) and from HOC to aMCI and AD patients. All the SN components showed significant differences in the GMV, intranetwork FC, and internetwork FC between the HYC and HOC. Most of the SN components showed differences in the GMV between the HOC and AD and between the aMCI and AD. Compared with the HOC, AD patients exhibited significant differences in intra- and internetwork FCs of the SN, whereas aMCI patients demonstrated differences in internetwork FC of the SN. Most of the GMVs and internetwork FCs of the SN and part of the intranetwork FC of the SN were correlated with cognitive differences in older subjects. Our findings suggested that structural and functional impairments of the SN may occur as early as in normal aging and that functional disconnection between the SN and CEN/ DMN may also be associated with both normal aging and disease progression.

  16. Switching Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.

  17. Audition dominates vision in duration perception irrespective of salience, attention, and temporal discriminability

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Laura; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the visual modality tends to dominate over the auditory modality in bimodal spatial perception, the auditory modality tends to dominate over the visual modality in bimodal temporal perception. Recent results suggest that the visual modality dominates bimodal spatial perception because spatial discriminability is typically greater for the visual than auditory modality; accordingly, visual dominance is eliminated or reversed when visual-spatial discriminability is reduced by degrading visual stimuli to be equivalent or inferior to auditory spatial discriminability. Thus, for spatial perception, the modality that provides greater discriminability dominates. Here we ask whether auditory dominance in duration perception is similarly explained by factors that influence the relative quality of auditory and visual signals. In contrast to the spatial results, the auditory modality dominated over the visual modality in bimodal duration perception even when the auditory signal was clearly weaker, when the auditory signal was ignored (i.e., the visual signal was selectively attended), and when the temporal discriminability was equivalent for the auditory and visual signals. Thus, unlike spatial perception where the modality carrying more discriminable signals dominates, duration perception seems to be mandatorily linked to auditory processing under most circumstances. PMID:24806403

  18. Switched power workshop. [Switched power electron guns

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a switched power electron gun. Particular topics discussed are: vacuum photodiode switch; laser switched solid state diodes; gun performance; charging supply; and laser requirements. (LSP)

  19. Motivational Salience Signal in the Basal Forebrain Is Coupled with Faster and More Precise Decision Speed

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Irene; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    The survival of animals depends critically on prioritizing responses to motivationally salient stimuli. While it is generally believed that motivational salience increases decision speed, the quantitative relationship between motivational salience and decision speed, measured by reaction time (RT), remains unclear. Here we show that the neural correlate of motivational salience in the basal forebrain (BF), defined independently of RT, is coupled with faster and also more precise decision speed. In rats performing a reward-biased simple RT task, motivational salience was encoded by BF bursting response that occurred before RT. We found that faster RTs were tightly coupled with stronger BF motivational salience signals. Furthermore, the fraction of RT variability reflecting the contribution of intrinsic noise in the decision-making process was actively suppressed in faster RT distributions with stronger BF motivational salience signals. Artificially augmenting the BF motivational salience signal via electrical stimulation led to faster and more precise RTs and supports a causal relationship. Together, these results not only describe for the first time, to our knowledge, the quantitative relationship between motivational salience and faster decision speed, they also reveal the quantitative coupling relationship between motivational salience and more precise RT. Our results further establish the existence of an early and previously unrecognized step in the decision-making process that determines both the RT speed and variability of the entire decision-making process and suggest that this novel decision step is dictated largely by the BF motivational salience signal. Finally, our study raises the hypothesis that the dysregulation of decision speed in conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, and cognitive aging may result from the functional impairment of the motivational salience signal encoded by the poorly understood noncholinergic BF neurons. PMID:24642480

  20. Motivational salience signal in the basal forebrain is coupled with faster and more precise decision speed.

    PubMed

    Avila, Irene; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2014-03-01

    The survival of animals depends critically on prioritizing responses to motivationally salient stimuli. While it is generally believed that motivational salience increases decision speed, the quantitative relationship between motivational salience and decision speed, measured by reaction time (RT), remains unclear. Here we show that the neural correlate of motivational salience in the basal forebrain (BF), defined independently of RT, is coupled with faster and also more precise decision speed. In rats performing a reward-biased simple RT task, motivational salience was encoded by BF bursting response that occurred before RT. We found that faster RTs were tightly coupled with stronger BF motivational salience signals. Furthermore, the fraction of RT variability reflecting the contribution of intrinsic noise in the decision-making process was actively suppressed in faster RT distributions with stronger BF motivational salience signals. Artificially augmenting the BF motivational salience signal via electrical stimulation led to faster and more precise RTs and supports a causal relationship. Together, these results not only describe for the first time, to our knowledge, the quantitative relationship between motivational salience and faster decision speed, they also reveal the quantitative coupling relationship between motivational salience and more precise RT. Our results further establish the existence of an early and previously unrecognized step in the decision-making process that determines both the RT speed and variability of the entire decision-making process and suggest that this novel decision step is dictated largely by the BF motivational salience signal. Finally, our study raises the hypothesis that the dysregulation of decision speed in conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, and cognitive aging may result from the functional impairment of the motivational salience signal encoded by the poorly understood noncholinergic BF neurons.

  1. Sex-Linked Mating Strategies Diverge with a Manipulation of Genital Salience

    PubMed Central

    Fetterman, Adam K.; Kruger, Nicole N.; Robinson, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Trivers (1972) proposed that evolutionary factors should favor divergent mating strategies for males versus females. Such differences may be less pronounced among human beings than other animals and social norms and sex roles are also pertinent influences. The present experiment (N = 133 college undergraduates, 74 female) sought to bypass some of these other influences. Participants were randomly assigned to a condition designed to increase attention to the genital region (a downward pointing arrow) or not (an upward pointing arrow). They then reported on their interest in short-term (e.g., a one-night stand) and long-term (e.g., a potential marital partner) mating opportunities. A theory-consistent three-way interaction occurred such that the genital salience manipulation primed a shorter-term reproductive strategy among men and a longer-term reproductive strategy among women. The results provide unique support for evolution-linked ideas about sex differences in the form of a role for bodily attention. PMID:25663723

  2. Preserving visual saliency in image to sound substitution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancuti, Codruta O.; Ancuti, Cosmin; Bekaert, Philippe

    2009-02-01

    Color plays a significant role in the scene interpretation in terms of visual perception. Numerous visual substitution systems deal with grayscale images disregarding this information from original image. Visually percept color-based details often fade due to the grayscale conversion and that can mislead the overall comprehension of the considered scene. We present a decolorization method that considers color contrast and preserve color saliency after transformation. We exploit this model to enhance the perception of visually disable persons over the interpreted images by the substitution system. The results demonstrate that our enhance system is capable to improves the overall scene interpretation in comparison with similar substitution system.

  3. Lesion detection using Gabor-based saliency field mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macenko, Marc; Luo, Rutao; Celenk, Mehmet; Ma, Limin; Zhou, Qiang

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we present a method that detects lesions in two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional brain images. By calculating the major and minor axes of the brain, we calculate an estimate of the background, without any a priori information, to use in inverse filtering. Shape saliency computed by a Gabor filter bank is used to further refine the results of the inverse filtering. The proposed algorithm was tested on different images of "The Whole Brain Atlas" database. The experimental results have produced 93% classification accuracy in processing 100 arbitrary images, representing different kinds of brain lesion.

  4. The determination of organization stakeholder salience in public health.

    PubMed

    Page, Catherine G

    2002-09-01

    Because interorganizational arrangements are encouraged as necessary to meet public health goals, it is critical for the managers of public health services at any level to consider stakeholder theory from an organizational perspective. Public health managers are responsible for the stakeholders in public health as well as public health as a stakeholder in other organizations. This article presents an innovative tool for the determination of organization stakeholder salience that assists managers in establishing priorities for interorganizational relationships during strategic planning and day-to-day decision making.

  5. Distractors less salient than targets capture attention rather than producing non-spatial filtering costs.

    PubMed

    Koch, A Isabel; Müller, Hermann J; Zehetleitner, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Distractors that are less salient than the target evoke reaction time interference in the distractor search paradigm. Here, we investigated whether this interference indeed results from spatial attentional capture or merely from non-spatial filtering costs. Target and distractor salience was manipulated parametrically and the modulation of reaction time interference by the distance between both stimuli was taken as an indicator of attentional capture. For distractors that were less salient than the target, we found distance to be predictive of reaction time interference. Moreover, this relationship was modulated by the difference in relative salience of target and distractor: the less salient the distractor was compared to the target, the weaker was the influence of distance. These results are in accordance with the sequential sampling model of salience-based selection by Zehetleitner et al. (Zehetleitner, M., Koch, A.I., Goschy, H., Müller, H.J., 2013. Salience-based selection: Interference by distractors less salient than the target. PLoS ONE 8: e52595.). This model assumes the salience map to be computed by noisy accumulation of sensory evidence. As a result, the salience map output fluctuates around its true value and less salient locations can be denoted as most salient. A distractor less salient than the target can therefore capture attention with a certain probability. We conclude that reaction time interference by less salient distractors in the distractor search paradigm is a result of attentional capture in a proportion of trials, rather than a result of non-spatial filtering costs.

  6. Spatial statistics and attentional dynamics in scene viewing.

    PubMed

    Engbert, Ralf; Trukenbrod, Hans A; Barthelmé, Simon; Wichmann, Felix A

    2015-01-14

    In humans and in foveated animals visual acuity is highly concentrated at the center of gaze, so that choosing where to look next is an important example of online, rapid decision-making. Computational neuroscientists have developed biologically-inspired models of visual attention, termed saliency maps, which successfully predict where people fixate on average. Using point process theory for spatial statistics, we show that scanpaths contain, however, important statistical structure, such as spatial clustering on top of distributions of gaze positions. Here, we develop a dynamical model of saccadic selection that accurately predicts the distribution of gaze positions as well as spatial clustering along individual scanpaths. Our model relies on activation dynamics via spatially-limited (foveated) access to saliency information, and, second, a leaky memory process controlling the re-inspection of target regions. This theoretical framework models a form of context-dependent decision-making, linking neural dynamics of attention to behavioral gaze data. © 2015 ARVO.

  7. Emotional content of an image attracts attention more than visually salient features in various signal-to-noise ratio conditions.

    PubMed

    Pilarczyk, Joanna; Kuniecki, Michał

    2014-10-07

    Emotional images are processed in a prioritized manner, attracting attention almost immediately. In the present study we used eye tracking to reveal what type of features within neutral, positive, and negative images attract early visual attention: semantics, visual saliency, or their interaction. Semantic regions of interest were selected by observers, while visual saliency was determined using the Graph-Based Visual Saliency model. Images were transformed by adding pink noise in several proportions to be presented in a sequence of increasing and decreasing clarity. Locations of the first two fixations were analyzed. The results showed dominance of semantic features over visual saliency in attracting attention. This dominance was linearly related to the signal-to-noise ratio. Semantic regions were fixated more often in emotional images than in neutral ones, if signal-to-noise ratio was high enough to allow participants to comprehend the gist of a scene. Visual saliency on its own did not attract attention above chance, even in the case of pure noise images. Regions both visually salient and semantically relevant attracted a similar amount of fixation compared to semantic regions alone, or even more in the case of neutral pictures. Results provide evidence for fast and robust detection of semantically relevant features.

  8. Clause Type and Word Saliency in Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between L2 incidental lexical gain during reading and the variables of clause type and word saliency. Lexical gain was defined as gain of grammatical class and word meaning and was compared for target items in dependent and independent clauses. Word saliency was a measurement of the learners'…

  9. Mortality Salience of Birthdays on Day of Death in the Major Leagues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors assessed the relationship of mortality salience, as represented by birthdays, on the day of death. Preliminary studies considered the role of possible artifacts such as seasonality of birth and death, and time units for evaluation. On the basis of terror management theory's concept of "mortality salience," the authors hypothesized that…

  10. PISA: pixelwise image saliency by aggregating complementary appearance contrast measures with edge-preserving coherence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Keze; Lin, Liang; Lu, Jiangbo; Li, Chenglong; Shi, Keyang

    2015-10-01

    Driven by recent vision and graphics applications such as image segmentation and object recognition, computing pixel-accurate saliency values to uniformly highlight foreground objects becomes increasingly important. In this paper, we propose a unified framework called pixelwise image saliency aggregating (PISA) various bottom-up cues and priors. It generates spatially coherent yet detail-preserving, pixel-accurate, and fine-grained saliency, and overcomes the limitations of previous methods, which use homogeneous superpixel based and color only treatment. PISA aggregates multiple saliency cues in a global context, such as complementary color and structure contrast measures, with their spatial priors in the image domain. The saliency confidence is further jointly modeled with a neighborhood consistence constraint into an energy minimization formulation, in which each pixel will be evaluated with multiple hypothetical saliency levels. Instead of using global discrete optimization methods, we employ the cost-volume filtering technique to solve our formulation, assigning the saliency levels smoothly while preserving the edge-aware structure details. In addition, a faster version of PISA is developed using a gradient-driven image subsampling strategy to greatly improve the runtime efficiency while keeping comparable detection accuracy. Extensive experiments on a number of public data sets suggest that PISA convincingly outperforms other state-of-the-art approaches. In addition, with this work, we also create a new data set containing 800 commodity images for evaluating saliency detection.

  11. Self-adaptively Weighted Co-saliency Detection via Rank Constraint.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaochun; Tao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Bao; Fu, Huazhu; Feng, Wei

    2014-06-23

    Co-saliency detection aims at discovering the common salient objects existing in multiple images. Most existing methods combine multiple saliency cues based on fixed weights, and ignore the intrinsic relationship of these cues. In this paper, we provide a general saliency map fusion framework, which exploits the relationship of multiple saliency cues and obtains the self-adaptive weight to generate the final saliency/cosaliency map. Given a group of images with similar objects, our method firstly utilizes several saliency detection algorithms to generate a group of saliency maps for all the images. The feature representation of the co-salient regions should be both similar and consistent. Therefore, the matrix jointing these feature histograms appears low rank. We formalize this general consistency criterion as the rank constraint, and propose two consistency energy to describe it, which are based on low rank matrix approximation and low rank matrix recovery, respectively. By calculating the self-adaptive weight based on the consistency energy, we highlight the common salient regions. Our method is valid for more than two input images and also works well for single image saliency detection. Experimental results on a variety of benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  12. Using Saliency Maps to Separate Competing Processes in Infant Visual Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althaus, Nadja; Mareschal, Denis

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an eye-tracking study using a novel combination of visual saliency maps and "area-of-interest" analyses to explore online feature extraction during category learning in infants. Category learning in 12-month-olds (N = 22) involved a transition from looking at high-saliency image regions to looking at more…

  13. Transitioning between Work and Family Roles as a Function of Boundary Flexibility and Role Salience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Doan E.; Clayton, Russell W.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the manner in which people separate their work and family roles and how they manage the boundaries of these two important roles. Specifically, we focus on how role flexibility and salience influence transitions between roles. Results indicate that the ability and willingness to flex a role boundary and role salience are…

  14. Identity salience model: A paradigm for integrating multiple identities in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Yakushko, Oksana; Davidson, Meghan M; Williams, Elizabeth Nutt

    2009-06-01

    The manuscript presents an identity salience model for clinical practice and psychotherapy research. The model seeks to incorporate contemporary social identity theory and ecological theory, as well as an appreciation of individuals' multiple identities without necessitating a hierarchy of oppression. A clinical case example utilizing the identity salience model is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Peer Norm Salience for Academic Achievement, Prosocial Behavior, and Bullying: Implications for Adolescent School Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Gest, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the significance of classroom-level norm salience, calculated as the within-classroom correlation between a behavior and peer-nominated popularity, by examining the extent to which norm salience moderated the relation of individual classroom behaviors (academic achievement, prosocial behavior, and bullying) with peer…

  16. Using Saliency Maps to Separate Competing Processes in Infant Visual Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althaus, Nadja; Mareschal, Denis

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an eye-tracking study using a novel combination of visual saliency maps and "area-of-interest" analyses to explore online feature extraction during category learning in infants. Category learning in 12-month-olds (N = 22) involved a transition from looking at high-saliency image regions to looking at more…

  17. ELD-Net: An efficient deep learning architecture for accurate saliency detection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gayoung; Tai, Yu-Wing; Kim, Junmo

    2017-08-09

    Recent advances in saliency detection have utilized deep learning to obtain high-level features to detect salient regions in scenes. In this paper, we propose ELD-Net, a unified deep learning framework for accurate and efficient saliency detection. We show that hand-crafted features can provide complementary information to enhance saliency detection that uses only high-level features. Our method uses both low-level and high-level features for saliency detection. High-level features are extracted using GoogLeNet, and low-level features evaluate the relative importance of a local region using its differences from other regions in an image. The two feature maps are independently encoded by the convolutional and the ReLU layers. The encoded low-level and high-level features are then combined by concatenation and convolution. Finally, a linear fully connected layer is used to evaluate the saliency of a queried region. A full resolution saliency map is obtained by querying the saliency of each local region of an image. Since the high-level features are encoded at low resolution, and the encoded high-level features can be reused for every query region, our ELD-Net is very fast. Our experiments show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art deep learning-based saliency detection methods.

  18. Effects of Perceptual Training on the Salience of Information in a Recall Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Robin L.; Odom, Richard D.

    1979-01-01

    Kindergarten children were given a salience-assessment task to determine each child's salience hierarchy for the dimensions of form, color, and position, and each was provided perceptual training with his/her least salient dimension. Training promoted fewer errors in recall in comparison to control group subjects. (RH)

  19. "Always in My Face": An Exploration of Social Class Consciousness, Salience, and Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Georgianna L.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores social class consciousness, salience, and values of White, low-income, first-generation college students. Overall, participants minimized the salience of social class as an aspect of their identity with many of them expressing that they did not want their social class to define them. Although participants largely…

  20. "Always in My Face": An Exploration of Social Class Consciousness, Salience, and Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Georgianna L.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores social class consciousness, salience, and values of White, low-income, first-generation college students. Overall, participants minimized the salience of social class as an aspect of their identity with many of them expressing that they did not want their social class to define them. Although participants largely…

  1. Transitioning between Work and Family Roles as a Function of Boundary Flexibility and Role Salience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Doan E.; Clayton, Russell W.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the manner in which people separate their work and family roles and how they manage the boundaries of these two important roles. Specifically, we focus on how role flexibility and salience influence transitions between roles. Results indicate that the ability and willingness to flex a role boundary and role salience are…

  2. Role Salience and Anticipated Work-Family Relations among Young Adults with and without Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Most, Tova; Michael, Rinat

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of hearing status on role salience and anticipated work-family relations among 101 unmarried young adults aged 20-33 years: 35 with hearing loss (19 hard of hearing and 16 deaf) and 66 hearing. Participants completed the Life Role Salience scale, anticipated conflictual relations scale, anticipated facilitory…

  3. Peer Norm Salience for Academic Achievement, Prosocial Behavior, and Bullying: Implications for Adolescent School Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Gest, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the significance of classroom-level norm salience, calculated as the within-classroom correlation between a behavior and peer-nominated popularity, by examining the extent to which norm salience moderated the relation of individual classroom behaviors (academic achievement, prosocial behavior, and bullying) with peer…

  4. Mortality Salience of Birthdays on Day of Death in the Major Leagues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors assessed the relationship of mortality salience, as represented by birthdays, on the day of death. Preliminary studies considered the role of possible artifacts such as seasonality of birth and death, and time units for evaluation. On the basis of terror management theory's concept of "mortality salience," the authors hypothesized that…

  5. Children Induce an Enhanced Attentional Blink in Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Anthony R.; Kalmus, Ellis; Tipper, Steven P.; Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Flak, Vanja; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2008-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is a robust phenomenon that has been consistently reported in the cognitive literature. The AB is found when two target images (T1, T2) are presented within 500 ms of each other and errors are induced on the perceptual report of T2. The AB may increase when T1 has some salience to the viewer. This study examined the…

  6. Children Induce an Enhanced Attentional Blink in Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Anthony R.; Kalmus, Ellis; Tipper, Steven P.; Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Flak, Vanja; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2008-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is a robust phenomenon that has been consistently reported in the cognitive literature. The AB is found when two target images (T1, T2) are presented within 500 ms of each other and errors are induced on the perceptual report of T2. The AB may increase when T1 has some salience to the viewer. This study examined the…

  7. In monkeys making value-based decisions, amygdala neurons are sensitive to cue value as distinct from cue salience.

    PubMed

    Leathers, Marvin L; Olson, Carl R

    2017-04-01

    Neurons in the lateral intraparietal (LIP) area of macaque monkey parietal cortex respond to cues predicting rewards and penalties of variable size in a manner that depends on the motivational salience of the predicted outcome (strong for both large reward and large penalty) rather than on its value (positive for large reward and negative for large penalty). This finding suggests that LIP mediates the capture of attention by salient events and does not encode value in the service of value-based decision making. It leaves open the question whether neurons elsewhere in the brain encode value in the identical task. To resolve this issue, we recorded neuronal activity in the amygdala in the context of the task employed in the LIP study. We found that responses to reward-predicting cues were similar between areas, with the majority of reward-sensitive neurons responding more strongly to cues that predicted large reward than to those that predicted small reward. Responses to penalty-predicting cues were, however, markedly different. In the amygdala, unlike LIP, few neurons were sensitive to penalty size, few penalty-sensitive neurons favored large over small penalty, and the dependence of firing rate on penalty size was negatively correlated with its dependence on reward size. These results indicate that amygdala neurons encoded cue value under circumstances in which LIP neurons exhibited sensitivity to motivational salience. However, the representation of negative value, as reflected in sensitivity to penalty size, was weaker than the representation of positive value, as reflected in sensitivity to reward size.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study to characterize amygdala neuronal responses to cues predicting rewards and penalties of variable size in monkeys making value-based choices. Manipulating reward and penalty size allowed distinguishing activity dependent on motivational salience from activity dependent on value. This approach revealed in a previous study

  8. Wavelet-based image coding using saliency map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargic, Radoslav; Kučerová, Júlia; Polec, Jaroslav

    2016-11-01

    Visual information is very important in human perceiving of the surrounding world. During the observation of the considered scene, some image parts are more salient than others. This fact is conventionally addressed using the regions of interest approach. We are presenting an approach that captures the saliency information per pixel basis using one continuous saliency map for a whole image and which is directly used in the lossy image compression algorithm. Although for the encoding/decoding part of the algorithm, the notion region is not necessary anymore; the resulting method can, due to its nature, efficiently emulate large amounts of regions of interest with various significance. We provide reference implementation of this approach based on the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithm and show that the proposed method is effective and has potential to achieve significantly better results in comparison to the original SPIHT algorithm. The approach is not limited to SPIHT algorithm and can be coupled with, e.g., JPEG 2000 as well.

  9. Autonomous color theme extraction from images using saliency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanian, Ali; Vishwanathan, S. V. N.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2015-03-01

    Color theme (palette) is a collection of color swatches for representing or describing colors in a visual design or an image. Color palettes have broad applications such as serving as means in automatic/semi-automatic design of visual media, as measures in quantifying aesthetics of visual design, and as metrics in image retrieval, image enhancement, and color semantics. In this paper, we suggest an autonomous mechanism for extracting color palettes from an image. Our method is simple and fast, and it works on the notion of visual saliency. By using visual saliency, we extract the fine colors appearing in the foreground along with the various colors in the background regions of an image. Our method accounts for defining different numbers of colors in the palette as well as presenting the proportion of each color according to its visual conspicuity in a given image. This flexibility supports an interactive color palette which may facilitate the designer's color design task. As an application, we present how our extracted color palettes can be utilized as a color similarity metric to enhance the current color semantic based image retrieval techniques.

  10. Overspecification of color, pattern, and size: salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    PubMed Central

    Tarenskeen, Sammie; Broersma, Mirjam; Geurts, Bart

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overspecification of color, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Color and pattern are absolute and salient attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency toward consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of color and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Using a between-participants design, however, we find similar rates of pattern and size overspecification, which are both lower than the rate of color overspecification. This indicates that although many speakers are more likely to include color than pattern (probably because color is more salient), they may also treat pattern like color due to a tendency toward consistency. We find no increase in size overspecification when the salience of size is increased, suggesting that speakers are more likely to include absolute than relative attributes. However, we do find an increase in size overspecification when mentioning the attributes is triggered, which again shows that speakers tend to refer in a consistent manner, and that there are circumstances in which even size overspecification is frequently produced. PMID:26594190

  11. Information-theoretic model comparison unifies saliency metrics

    PubMed Central

    Kümmerer, Matthias; Wallis, Thomas S. A.; Bethge, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Learning the properties of an image associated with human gaze placement is important both for understanding how biological systems explore the environment and for computer vision applications. There is a large literature on quantitative eye movement models that seeks to predict fixations from images (sometimes termed “saliency” prediction). A major problem known to the field is that existing model comparison metrics give inconsistent results, causing confusion. We argue that the primary reason for these inconsistencies is because different metrics and models use different definitions of what a “saliency map” entails. For example, some metrics expect a model to account for image-independent central fixation bias whereas others will penalize a model that does. Here we bring saliency evaluation into the domain of information by framing fixation prediction models probabilistically and calculating information gain. We jointly optimize the scale, the center bias, and spatial blurring of all models within this framework. Evaluating existing metrics on these rephrased models produces almost perfect agreement in model rankings across the metrics. Model performance is separated from center bias and spatial blurring, avoiding the confounding of these factors in model comparison. We additionally provide a method to show where and how models fail to capture information in the fixations on the pixel level. These methods are readily extended to spatiotemporal models of fixation scanpaths, and we provide a software package to facilitate their use. PMID:26655340

  12. Fast Mode Decision in the HEVC Video Coding Standard by Exploiting Region with Dominated Motion and Saliency Features

    PubMed Central

    Podder, Pallab Kanti; Paul, Manoranjan; Murshed, Manzur

    2016-01-01

    The emerging High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard introduces a number of innovative and powerful coding tools to acquire better compression efficiency compared to its predecessor H.264. The encoding time complexities have also increased multiple times that is not suitable for realtime video coding applications. To address this limitation, this paper employs a novel coding strategy to reduce the time complexity in HEVC encoder by efficient selection of appropriate block-partitioning modes based on human visual features (HVF). The HVF in the proposed technique comprise with human visual attention modelling-based saliency feature and phase correlation-based motion features. The features are innovatively combined through a fusion process by developing a content-based adaptive weighted cost function to determine the region with dominated motion/saliency (RDMS)- based binary pattern for the current block. The generated binary pattern is then compared with a codebook of predefined binary pattern templates aligned to the HEVC recommended block-paritioning to estimate a subset of inter-prediction modes. Without exhaustive exploration of all modes available in the HEVC standard, only the selected subset of modes are motion estimated and motion compensated for a particular coding unit. The experimental evaluation reveals that the proposed technique notably down-scales the average computational time of the latest HEVC reference encoder by 34% while providing similar rate-distortion (RD) performance for a wide range of video sequences. PMID:26963813

  13. Development of attentional control of verbal auditory perception from middle to late childhood: comparisons to healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Passow, Susanne; Müller, Maike; Westerhausen, René; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Wartenburger, Isabell; Heekeren, Hauke R; Lindenberger, Ulman; Li, Shu-Chen

    2013-10-01

    Multitalker situations confront listeners with a plethora of competing auditory inputs, and hence require selective attention to relevant information, especially when the perceptual saliency of distracting inputs is high. This study augmented the classical forced-attention dichotic listening paradigm by adding an interaural intensity manipulation to investigate developmental differences in the interplay between perceptual saliency and attentional control during auditory processing between early and middle childhood. We found that older children were able to flexibly focus on instructed auditory inputs from either the right or the left ear, overcoming the effects of perceptual saliency. In contrast, younger children implemented their attentional focus less efficiently. Direct comparisons of the present data with data from a recently published study of younger and older adults from our group suggest that younger children and older adults show similar levels of performance. Critically, follow-up comparisons revealed that younger children's performance restrictions reflect difficulties in attentional control only, whereas older adults' performance deficits also reflect an exaggerated reliance on perceptual saliency. We conclude that auditory attentional control improves considerably from middle to late childhood and that auditory attention deficits in healthy aging cannot be reduced to a simple reversal of child developmental improvements.

  14. Salience attribution and its relationship to cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, M A P; Mouchlianitis, E; Morgan, C J A; Freeman, T P; Curran, H V; Roiser, J P; Howes, O D

    2016-12-01

    Cannabis is a widely used drug associated with increased risk for psychosis. The dopamine hypothesis of psychosis postulates that altered salience processing leads to psychosis. We therefore tested the hypothesis that cannabis users exhibit aberrant salience and explored the relationship between aberrant salience and dopamine synthesis capacity. We tested 17 cannabis users and 17 age- and sex-matched non-user controls using the Salience Attribution Test, a probabilistic reward-learning task. Within users, cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms were measured with the Psychotomimetic States Inventory. Dopamine synthesis capacity, indexed as the influx rate constant K i cer , was measured in 10 users and six controls with 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[18F]fluoro-l-phenylalanine positron emission tomography. There was no significant difference in aberrant salience between the groups [F 1,32 = 1.12, p = 0.30 (implicit); F 1,32 = 1.09, p = 0.30 (explicit)]. Within users there was a significant positive relationship between cannabis-induced psychotic symptom severity and explicit aberrant salience scores (r = 0.61, p = 0.04) and there was a significant association between cannabis dependency/abuse status and high implicit aberrant salience scores (F 1,15 = 5.8, p = 0.03). Within controls, implicit aberrant salience was inversely correlated with whole striatal dopamine synthesis capacity (r = -0.91, p = 0.01), whereas this relationship was non-significant within users (difference between correlations: Z = -2.05, p = 0.04). Aberrant salience is positively associated with cannabis-induced psychotic symptom severity, but is not seen in cannabis users overall. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the link between cannabis use and psychosis involves alterations in salience processing. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether these cognitive abnormalities are pre-existing or caused by long-term cannabis use.

  15. Simultaneous modeling of visual saliency and value computation improves predictions of economic choice

    PubMed Central

    Towal, R. Blythe; Mormann, Milica; Koch, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Many decisions we make require visually identifying and evaluating numerous alternatives quickly. These usually vary in reward, or value, and in low-level visual properties, such as saliency. Both saliency and value influence the final decision. In particular, saliency affects fixation locations and durations, which are predictive of choices. However, it is unknown how saliency propagates to the final decision. Moreover, the relative influence of saliency and value is unclear. Here we address these questions with an integrated model that combines a perceptual decision process about where and when to look with an economic decision process about what to choose. The perceptual decision process is modeled as a drift–diffusion model (DDM) process for each alternative. Using psychophysical data from a multiple-alternative, forced-choice task, in which subjects have to pick one food item from a crowded display via eye movements, we test four models where each DDM process is driven by (i) saliency or (ii) value alone or (iii) an additive or (iv) a multiplicative combination of both. We find that models including both saliency and value weighted in a one-third to two-thirds ratio (saliency-to-value) significantly outperform models based on either quantity alone. These eye fixation patterns modulate an economic decision process, also described as a DDM process driven by value. Our combined model quantitatively explains fixation patterns and choices with similar or better accuracy than previous models, suggesting that visual saliency has a smaller, but significant, influence than value and that saliency affects choices indirectly through perceptual decisions that modulate economic decisions. PMID:24019496

  16. The Role of Ethnic Identity, Self-Concept, and Aberrant Salience in Psychotic-Like Experiences.

    PubMed

    Cicero, David C; Cohn, Jonathan R

    2017-04-10

    Social-cognitive models of psychosis suggest that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity are related to the development and maintenance of psychoticlike experiences (PLEs). People with high aberrant salience but low self-concept clarity tend to have the highest levels of PLEs. Ethnic identity may also be related to PLEs. The current research aimed to (a) replicate the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity in their association with PLEs in an ethnically diverse sample, (b) examine whether ethnic identity and aberrant salience interact in their association with PLEs, and (c) determine if self-concept clarity and ethnic identity independently interact with aberrant salience in their association with PLEs. An ethnically diverse group of undergraduates (n = 663) completed self-report measures of aberrant salience, self-concept clarity, ethnic identity, and PLEs. There was an interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity such that people with high levels of aberrant salience and low levels of self-concept clarity had the highest levels of PLEs. Similarly, there was an interaction between aberrant salience and ethnic identity such that people with high aberrant salience but low ethnic identity had the highest PLEs. These interactions independently contributed to explaining variance in PLEs. This interaction was present for the Exploration but not Commitment subscales of ethnic identity. These results suggest that, in addition to low self-concept clarity, low ethnic identity may be a risk factor for the development of psychosis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Aberrant Salience Is Related to Dysfunctional Self-Referential Processing in Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Pankow, Anne; Katthagen, Teresa; Diner, Sarah; Deserno, Lorenz; Boehme, Rebecca; Kathmann, Nobert; Gleich, Tobias; Gaebler, Michael; Walter, Henrik; Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background. A dysfunctional differentiation between self-relevant and irrelevant information may affect the perception of environmental stimuli as abnormally salient. The aberrant salience hypothesis assumes that positive symptoms arise from an attribution of salience to irrelevant stimuli accompanied by the feeling of self-relevance. Self-referential processing relies on the activation of cortical midline structures which was demonstrated to be impaired in psychosis. We investigated the neural correlates of self-referential processing, aberrant salience attribution, and the relationship between these 2 measures across the psychosis continuum. Methods. Twenty-nine schizophrenia patients, 24 healthy individuals with subclinical delusional ideation, and 50 healthy individuals participated in this study. Aberrant salience was assessed behaviorally in terms of reaction times to task irrelevant cues. Participants performed a self-reference task during fMRI in which they had to apply neutral trait words to them or to a public figure. The correlation between self-referential processing and aberrant salience attribution was tested. Results. Schizophrenia patients displayed increased aberrant salience attribution compared with healthy controls and individuals with subclinical delusional ideation, while the latter exhibited intermediate aberrant salience scores. In the self-reference task, schizophrenia patients showed reduced activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), but individuals with subclinical delusional ideation did not differ from healthy controls. In schizophrenia patients, vmPFC activation correlated negatively with implicit aberrant salience attribution. Conclusions. Higher aberrant salience attribution in schizophrenia patients is related to reduced vmPFC activation during self-referential judgments suggesting that aberrant relevance coding is reflected in decreased neural self-referential processing as well as in aberrant salience attribution

  18. Simultaneous modeling of visual saliency and value computation improves predictions of economic choice.

    PubMed

    Towal, R Blythe; Mormann, Milica; Koch, Christof

    2013-10-01

    Many decisions we make require visually identifying and evaluating numerous alternatives quickly. These usually vary in reward, or value, and in low-level visual properties, such as saliency. Both saliency and value influence the final decision. In particular, saliency affects fixation locations and durations, which are predictive of choices. However, it is unknown how saliency propagates to the final decision. Moreover, the relative influence of saliency and value is unclear. Here we address these questions with an integrated model that combines a perceptual decision process about where and when to look with an economic decision process about what to choose. The perceptual decision process is modeled as a drift-diffusion model (DDM) process for each alternative. Using psychophysical data from a multiple-alternative, forced-choice task, in which subjects have to pick one food item from a crowded display via eye movements, we test four models where each DDM process is driven by (i) saliency or (ii) value alone or (iii) an additive or (iv) a multiplicative combination of both. We find that models including both saliency and value weighted in a one-third to two-thirds ratio (saliency-to-value) significantly outperform models based on either quantity alone. These eye fixation patterns modulate an economic decision process, also described as a DDM process driven by value. Our combined model quantitatively explains fixation patterns and choices with similar or better accuracy than previous models, suggesting that visual saliency has a smaller, but significant, influence than value and that saliency affects choices indirectly through perceptual decisions that modulate economic decisions.

  19. Pay Attention!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Drina

    1998-01-01

    Children with Attention Deficit Disorder have trouble holding or sustaining attention. This article provides teachers with a general review of the disorder, including ADD and learning difficulties, self-esteem, and behavior problems; symptoms and diagnosis; and helping children with ADD, including medication, routine and regularity, careful…

  20. Shifting Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…