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Sample records for saline nasal irrigation

  1. Nasal saline for chronic sinonasal symptoms: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pynnonen, Melissa A; Mukerji, Shraddha S; Kim, H Myra; Adams, Meredith E; Terrell, Jeffrey E

    2007-11-01

    To determine if isotonic sodium chloride (hereinafter "saline") nasal irrigations performed with large volume and delivered with low positive pressure are more effective than saline sprays at improving quality of life and decreasing medication use. A prospective, randomized controlled trial. Community. A total of 127 adults with chronic nasal and sinus symptoms. Patients were randomly assigned to irrigation performed with large volume and delivered with low positive pressure (n = 64) or spray (n = 63) for 8 weeks. Change in symptom severity measured by mean 20-Item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20) score; change in symptom frequency measured with a global question; and change in medication use. A total of 121 patients were evaluable. The irrigation group achieved lower SNOT-20 scores than the spray group at all 3 time points: 4.4 points lower at 2 weeks (P = .02); 8.2 points lower at 4 weeks (P < .001); and 6.4 points lower at 8 weeks (P = .002). When symptom frequency was analyzed, 40% of subjects in the irrigation group reported symptoms "often or always" at 8 weeks compared with 61% in the spray group (absolute risk reduction, 0.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.38 (P = .01). No significant differences in sinus medication use were seen between groups. Nasal irrigations performed with large volume and delivered with low positive pressure are more effective than saline sprays for treatment of chronic nasal and sinus symptoms in a community-based population.

  2. Nasal irrigation: From empiricism to evidence-based medicine. A review.

    PubMed

    Bastier, P-L; Lechot, A; Bordenave, L; Durand, M; de Gabory, L

    2015-11-01

    Nasal irrigation plays a non-negligible role in the treatment of numerous sinonasal pathologies and postoperative care. There is, however, a wide variety of protocols. The present review of the evidence-based literature sought objective arguments for optimization and efficacy. It emerged that large-volume low-pressure nasal douche optimizes the distribution and cleansing power of the irrigation solution in the nasal cavity. Ionic composition and pH also influence mucociliary clearance and epithelium trophicity. Seawater is less rich in sodium ions and richer in bicarbonates, potassium, calcium and magnesium than is isotonic normal saline, while alkaline pH and elevated calcium concentration optimized ciliary motility in vitro. Bicarbonates reduce secretion viscosity. Potassium and magnesium promote healing and limit local inflammation. These results show that the efficacy of nasal irrigation is multifactorial. Large-volume low-pressure nasal irrigation using undiluted seawater seems, in the present state of knowledge, to be the most effective protocol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Stability of a novel corticosteroid nasal irrigation solution: betamethasone 17-valerate added to extemporaneously prepared nasal irrigation solutions.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kheng Yong; Lim, Wei Ching; Ooi, Shing Ming; Loh, Zhi Hui; Kong, Ming Chai; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2017-05-01

    There are no commercially available nasal irrigation solutions containing corticosteroids. Instead, such preparations are extemporaneously prepared by adding existing corticosteroid formulations to nasal irrigation solutions. The stability of the corticosteroid betamethasone 17-valerate (B17V), in nasal irrigation solutions of different compositions and pH and stored under different temperatures, was studied to determine the optimal choice of solution and storage conditions. Triplicate extemporaneous preparations made with B17V were prepared by adding a predetermined volume of B17V lotion to each nasal irrigation solution: normal saline (NS), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) powder dissolved in tap water, and a commercially available powder mixture (FLO Sinus Care Powder), dissolved in tap water or pre-boiled tap water. Preparations were stored at 30°C and 4°C. Sampling was carried out at 0, 1, 2, 6, and 24 hours. The concentrations of B17V and its degradation compound, betamethasone 21-valerate (B21V), were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Preparations stored at 30°C contained a lower amount of B17V and higher amount of B21V than those stored at 4°C. B17V stability in nasal irrigation solutions decreased in the following order: NS, FLO in fresh tap water, FLO in pre-boiled tap water, and NaHCO 3 . The degradation rate of B17V increased with higher storage temperature and higher pH. B17V is most stable when added to NS and least stable in NaHCO 3 solution. FLO solution prepared with either cooled boiled water or tap water is an alternative if administered immediately. Storage at 4°C can better preserve stability of B17V, over a period of 24 hours. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  4. Normal saline solution nasal-pharyngeal irrigation improves chronic cough associated with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Chen, Zhongchun; Cao, Yitan; Sun, Guangbin

    2017-03-01

    Upper airway inflammation is one of the most commonly identified causes of chronic cough, although the underlying mechanism is not clear. This study compared normal saline solution nasal-pharyngeal irrigation (NSNPI) and fluticasone propionate nasal spray (FPNS) treatment for chronic cough associated with allergic rhinitis (AR). Patients with suspected AR to house-dust mite were enrolled, and the symptom of cough was assessed by a cough symptom score and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire, and cough response to capsaicin was evaluated. AR was assessed by using the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Mini Juniper Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniRQLQ). Mediators, including histamine, leukotriene C4, and prostaglandin D2, and the major basic protein from nasal lavage fluid (NLF) were examined. The patients were treated with NSNPI (the NSNPI group) or FPNS (the FPNS group) for 30 days, after which they were reassessed. Forty-five of 50 patients completed this study. The scores of the cough symptom and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire, and the capsaicin cough threshold all improved statistically after NSNPI but did not change after FPNS. There were statistically significant changes in the evaluations of the MiniRQLQ and the mediators, including histamine and leukotriene C4, in the NLF in the NSNPI group. However, significant changes were found in the assessments of VAS, MiniRQLQ, and all above mediators including histamine, leukotriene C4, and prostaglandin D2, and the major basic protein in the NLF of the FPNS group. Furthermore, the assessments of VAS and all the mediators were reduced more in the FPNS group compared with those in the NSNPI group. The patients with suspected AR to house-dust mite reported a better relief of the cough symptom after 30 days of treatment with NSNPI compared with that after nasal corticosteroid.

  5. Effectiveness of steam inhalation and nasal irrigation for chronic or recurrent sinus symptoms in primary care: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Mullee, Mark; Thomas, Tammy; Johnson, Sophie; Leydon, Gerry; Rabago, David; Richards-Hall, Samantha; Williamson, Ian; Yao, Guiqing; Raftery, James; Zhu, Shihua; Moore, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Systematic reviews support nasal saline irrigation for chronic or recurrent sinus symptoms, but trials have been small and few in primary care settings. Steam inhalation has also been proposed, but supporting evidence is lacking. We investigated whether brief pragmatic interventions to encourage use of nasal irrigation or steam inhalation would be effective in relieving sinus symptoms. Methods: We conducted a pragmatic randomized controlled trial involving adults (age 18–65 yr) from 72 primary care practices in the United Kingdom who had a history of chronic or recurrent sinusitis and reported a “moderate to severe” impact of sinus symptoms on their quality of life. Participants were recruited between Feb. 11, 2009, and June 30, 2014, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 advice strategies: usual care, daily nasal saline irrigation supported by a demonstration video, daily steam inhalation, or combined treatment with both interventions. The primary outcome measure was the Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI). Patients were followed up at 3 and 6 months. We imputed missing data using multiple imputation methods. Results: Of the 961 patients who consented, 871 returned baseline questionnaires (210 usual care, 219 nasal irrigation, 232 steam inhalation and 210 combined treatment). A total of 671 (77.0%) of the 871 participants reported RSDI scores at 3 months. Patients’ RSDI scores improved more with nasal irrigation than without nasal irrigation by 3 months (crude change −7.42 v. −5.23; estimated adjusted mean difference between groups −2.51, 95% confidence interval −4.65 to −0.37). By 6 months, significantly more patients maintained a 10-point clinically important improvement in the RSDI score with nasal irrigation (44.1% v. 36.6%); fewer used over-the-counter medications (59.4% v. 68.0%) or intended to consult a doctor in future episodes. Steam inhalation reduced headache but had no significant effect on other outcomes. The proportion of

  6. Effectiveness of steam inhalation and nasal irrigation for chronic or recurrent sinus symptoms in primary care: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Mullee, Mark; Thomas, Tammy; Johnson, Sophie; Leydon, Gerry; Rabago, David; Richards-Hall, Samantha; Williamson, Ian; Yao, Guiqing; Raftery, James; Zhu, Shihua; Moore, Michael

    2016-09-20

    Systematic reviews support nasal saline irrigation for chronic or recurrent sinus symptoms, but trials have been small and few in primary care settings. Steam inhalation has also been proposed, but supporting evidence is lacking. We investigated whether brief pragmatic interventions to encourage use of nasal irrigation or steam inhalation would be effective in relieving sinus symptoms. We conducted a pragmatic randomized controlled trial involving adults (age 18-65 yr) from 72 primary care practices in the United Kingdom who had a history of chronic or recurrent sinusitis and reported a "moderate to severe" impact of sinus symptoms on their quality of life. Participants were recruited between Feb. 11, 2009, and June 30, 2014, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 advice strategies: usual care, daily nasal saline irrigation supported by a demonstration video, daily steam inhalation, or combined treatment with both interventions. The primary outcome measure was the Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI). Patients were followed up at 3 and 6 months. We imputed missing data using multiple imputation methods. Of the 961 patients who consented, 871 returned baseline questionnaires (210 usual care, 219 nasal irrigation, 232 steam inhalation and 210 combined treatment). A total of 671 (77.0%) of the 871 participants reported RSDI scores at 3 months. Patients' RSDI scores improved more with nasal irrigation than without nasal irrigation by 3 months (crude change -7.42 v. -5.23; estimated adjusted mean difference between groups -2.51, 95% confidence interval -4.65 to -0.37). By 6 months, significantly more patients maintained a 10-point clinically important improvement in the RSDI score with nasal irrigation (44.1% v. 36.6%); fewer used over-the-counter medications (59.4% v. 68.0%) or intended to consult a doctor in future episodes. Steam inhalation reduced headache but had no significant effect on other outcomes. The proportion of participants who had adverse effects was the same

  7. Baby shampoo nasal irrigations for the symptomatic post-functional endoscopic sinus surgery patient.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Alexander G; Palmer, James N; Woodworth, Bradford A; Doghramji, Laurel; Cohen, Michael B; Prince, Anthony; Cohen, Noam A

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of postnasal drainage and thickened mucus are commonly seen in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) recalcitrant to sinus surgery and conventional medical therapies. Chemical surfactants can act as a mucolytic by reducing water surface tension and have the potential to serve as an antimicrobial agent. Baby shampoo is an inexpensive, commercially available solution containing multiple chemical surfactants. This is an in vitro study of its antimicrobial effects on Pseudomonas biofilms with translation to a clinical study for use as an adjuvant nasal wash in patients with CRS who remain symptomatic despite adequate sinus surgery and conventional medical therapies. In vitro testing was performed to determine the optimal concentration of baby shampoo that disrupted preformed bacterial biofilms and inhibited biofilm formation. This concentration was then used in a prospective study of symptomatic post-functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) patients who irrigated twice a day for 4 weeks. Validated outcome forms and objective smell testing was performed before and after therapy. One percent baby shampoo in normal saline was the optimal concentration for inhibition of Pseudomonas biofilm formation. Baby shampoo had no effect on the eradication of preformed Pseudomonas biofilms. Eighteen patients with CRS with an average of 2.8 surgeries were studied after irrigating with 1% baby shampoo solution. Two patients discontinued use because of minor nasal and skin irritations; 46.6% of patients experienced an overall improvement in their subjective symptoms, and 60% of patients noted improvement in specific symptoms of thickened mucus and postnasal drainage. Baby shampoo nasal irrigation has promise as an inexpensive, tolerable adjuvant to conventional medical therapies for symptomatic patients after FESS. Its greatest benefit may be in improving symptoms of thickened nasal discharge and postnasal drainage.

  8. Practical salinity management for leachate irrigation to poplar trees.

    PubMed

    Smesrud, Jason K; Duvendack, George D; Obereiner, James M; Jordahl, James L; Madison, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Landfill leachate can be beneficially reused for irrigation of fiber crops with appropriate attention to nutrient and salinity management. The Riverbend Landfill in Western Oregon has been effectively practicing irrigation of landfill leachate to poplar trees since 1993. Over that time, the site has been adaptively managed to control salinity impacts to the tree crop while beneficially utilizing the applied water and nutrients during each growing season. Representative leachate irrigation water has ranged in concentration of total dissolved solids from 777 to 6,940 mg/L, chloride from 180 to 1,760 mg/L and boron from 3.2 to 7.3 mg/L. Annual leachate irrigation applications have also ranged between 102 and 812 mm/yr. Important conclusions from this site have included: 1) Appropriate tree clone selection and tree stand spacing, thinning, and harvest rotations are critical to maintaining a productive tree stand that is resilient and resistant to salt stress. The most effective combinations have included clones DN-34, OP-367, 184-411, 49-177, and 15-29 planted at spacing of 3.7-m x 1.8-m to 3.7-m x 3.7-m; 2) Leaf tissue boron levels are closely correlated to soil boron levels and can be managed with leaching. When leaf tissue boron levels exceed 200 to 250 mg/kg, signs of salt stress may emerge and should be monitored closely; 3) Salinity from leachate irrigation can be managed to sustain a healthy tree crop by controlling mass loading rates and providing appropriate irrigation blending if necessary. Providing freshwater irrigation following each leachate irrigation and targeting freshwater irrigation as 30 percent of total irrigation water applied has successfully controlled salt impacts to vegetation; and 4) Drip irrigation generally requires more careful attention to long-term soil salinity management than spray irrigation. Moving drip irrigation tubes periodically to prevent the formation of highly saline zones within the soil profile is important. In this paper, a

  9. Variations in peak nasal inspiratory flow among healthy students after using saline solutions.

    PubMed

    Olbrich Neto, Jaime; Olbrich, Sandra Regina Leite Rosa; Mori, Natália Leite Rosa; Oliveira, Ana Elisa de; Corrente, José Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Nasal hygiene with saline solutions has been shown to relieve congestion, reduce the thickening of the mucus and keep nasal cavity clean and moist. Evaluating whether saline solutions improve nasal inspiratory flow among healthy children. Students between 8 and 11 years of age underwent 6 procedures with saline solutions at different concentrations. The peak nasal inspiratory flow was measured before and 30 min after each procedure. Statistical analysis was performed by means of t test, analysis of variance, and Tukey's test, considering p<0.05. We evaluated 124 children at all stages. There were differences on the way a same concentration was used. There was no difference between 0.9% saline solution and 3% saline solution by using a syringe. The 3% saline solution had higher averages of peak nasal inspiratory flow, but it was not significantly higher than the 0.9% saline solution. It is important to offer various options to patients. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Matching soil salinization and cropping systems in communally managed irrigation schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malota, Mphatso; Mchenga, Joshua

    2018-03-01

    Occurrence of soil salinization in irrigation schemes can be a good indicator to introduce high salt tolerant crops in irrigation schemes. This study assessed the level of soil salinization in a communally managed 233 ha Nkhate irrigation scheme in the Lower Shire Valley region of Malawi. Soil samples were collected within the 0-0.4 m soil depth from eight randomly selected irrigation blocks. Irrigation water samples were also collected from five randomly selected locations along the Nkhate River which supplies irrigation water to the scheme. Salinity of both the soil and the irrigation water samples was determined using an electrical conductivity (EC) meter. Analysis of the results indicated that even for very low salinity tolerant crops (ECi < 2 dS/m), the irrigation water was suitable for irrigation purposes. However, root-zone soil salinity profiles depicted that leaching of salts was not adequate and that the leaching requirement for the scheme needs to be relooked and always be adhered to during irrigation operation. The study concluded that the crop system at the scheme needs to be adjusted to match with prevailing soil and irrigation water salinity levels.

  11. Safety analysis of long-term budesonide nasal irrigations in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis post endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Soudry, Ethan; Wang, Jane; Vaezeafshar, Reza; Katznelson, Laurence; Hwang, Peter H

    2016-06-01

    Although the safety of topical nasal steroids is well established for nasal spray forms, data regarding the safety of steroid irrigations is limited. We studied the effect of long-term budesonide nasal irrigations (>6 months) on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) function and intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients post-endoscopic sinus surgery. This was retrospective case series. Adrenal function was assessed by using the high-dose cosyntropin stimulation test. A total of 48 patients were assessed, with a mean duration of budesonide irrigations of 22 months. Stimulated cortisol levels were abnormally low in 11 patients (23%). None reported to have symptoms of adrenal suppression. Three of 4 patients who repeated the study being off budesonide for at least 1 month returned to near normal levels. Logistic regression analysis revealed that concomitant use of both nasal steroid sprays and pulmonary steroid inhalers was significantly associated with HPAA suppression (p = 0.024). Patients with low stimulated cortisol levels were able to continue budesonide irrigations under the supervision of an endocrinologist without frank clinical manifestations of adrenal insufficiency. IOP was within normal limits in all patients. Long-term use of budesonide nasal irrigations is generally safe, but asymptomatic HPAA suppression may occur in selected patients. Concomitant use of both nasal steroid sprays and pulmonary steroid inhalers while using daily budesonide nasal irrigations is associated with an increased risk. Rhinologists should be alerted to the potential risks of long-term use of budesonide nasal irrigations, and monitoring for HPAA suppression may be warranted in patients receiving long-term budesonide irrigation therapy. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  12. Comparison on the efficacy of dexpanthenol in sea water and saline in postoperative endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Fooanant, Supranee; Chaiyasate, Saisawat; Roongrotwattanasiri, Kannika

    2008-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of dexpanthenol spray and saline irrigation in the postoperative care of sinusitis patients following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). One hundred twenty eight sinusitis patients undergoing ESS were randomly allocated to receive dexpanthenol spray (Mar plus) or saline irrigation twice a day for 4 weeks after the operation. Total nasal symptom score, crusting, infection, compliance, and patient satisfaction were evaluated at 1, 2-3, 4-6, and 12 weeks. Mucociliary clearance was assessed with the saccharin test before ESS and at the last visit. One hundred ten patients remained at the present study termination. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test were employed. Total nasal symptom score, mucociliary clearance, and infection improved in both groups after the operation. The dexpanthenol group resulted in a better mucociliary clearance than saline irrigation (9.93 +/- 6.04 vs. 12.38 +/- 9.32 min, p = 0.43). Saline irrigation resulted in a greater reduction of post nasal drip than dexpanthenol at the first visit (74% vs. 87%, p = 0.04). Compliance and patient satisfaction were comparable. The efficacy of dexpanthenol was comparable to nasal saline irrigation in the postoperative care of sinusitis patients following endoscopic sinus surgery. Dexpanthenol is an alternative treatment, which may be useful in young children and complicated cases.

  13. Dynamic changes in water and salinity in saline-alkali soils after simulated irrigation and leaching.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shutao; Feng, Qian; Zhou, Yapeng; Mao, Xiaoxi; Chen, Yaheng; Xu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinization is a global problem that limits agricultural development and impacts human life. This study aimed to understand the dynamic changes in water and salinity in saline-alkali soil based on an indoor soil column simulation. We studied the changes in the water and salt contents of soils with different degrees of salinization under various irrigation conditions. The results showed that after seven irrigations, the pH, conductivity and total soluble salt content of the percolation samples after irrigation generally increased initially then decreased with repeated irrigation. The soil moisture did not change significantly after irrigation. The pH, conductivity, and total soluble salt content of each layer of the soil profile exhibited general declining trends. In the soil profile from Changguo Township (CG), the pH decreased from 8.21-8.35 to 7.71-7.88, the conductivity decreased from 0.95-1.14 ms/cm to 0.45-0.68 ms/cm, and the total soluble salt content decreased from 2.63-2.81 g/kg to 2.28-2.51 g/kg. In the soil profile from Zhongjie Industrial Park (ZJ), the pH decreased from 8.36-8.54 to 7.73-7.96, the conductivity decreased from 1.58-1.68 ms/cm to 1.45-1.54 ms/cm, and the total soluble salt decreased from 2.81-4.03 g/kg to 2.56-3.28 g/kg. The transported salt ions were primarily K+, Na+ and Cl-. After several irrigations, a representative desalination effect was achieved. The results of this study can provide technical guidance for the comprehensive management of saline-alkali soils.

  14. Dynamic changes in water and salinity in saline-alkali soils after simulated irrigation and leaching

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Qian; Mao, Xiaoxi

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinization is a global problem that limits agricultural development and impacts human life. This study aimed to understand the dynamic changes in water and salinity in saline-alkali soil based on an indoor soil column simulation. We studied the changes in the water and salt contents of soils with different degrees of salinization under various irrigation conditions. The results showed that after seven irrigations, the pH, conductivity and total soluble salt content of the percolation samples after irrigation generally increased initially then decreased with repeated irrigation. The soil moisture did not change significantly after irrigation. The pH, conductivity, and total soluble salt content of each layer of the soil profile exhibited general declining trends. In the soil profile from Changguo Township (CG), the pH decreased from 8.21–8.35 to 7.71–7.88, the conductivity decreased from 0.95–1.14 ms/cm to 0.45–0.68 ms/cm, and the total soluble salt content decreased from 2.63–2.81 g/kg to 2.28–2.51 g/kg. In the soil profile from Zhongjie Industrial Park (ZJ), the pH decreased from 8.36–8.54 to 7.73–7.96, the conductivity decreased from 1.58–1.68 ms/cm to 1.45–1.54 ms/cm, and the total soluble salt decreased from 2.81–4.03 g/kg to 2.56–3.28 g/kg. The transported salt ions were primarily K+, Na+ and Cl-. After several irrigations, a representative desalination effect was achieved. The results of this study can provide technical guidance for the comprehensive management of saline-alkali soils. PMID:29091963

  15. Soil Salt Distribution and Tomato Response to Saline Water Irrigation under Straw Mulching

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Yaming; Yang, Qian; Wu, Yunyu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate better saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes that scheduling with the compromise among yield (Yt), quality, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and soil salt residual, an experiment with three irrigation quotas and three salinities of irrigation water was conducted under straw mulching in northern China. The irrigation quota levels were 280 mm (W1), 320 mm (W2) and 360 mm (W3), and the salinity levels were 1.0 dS/m (F), 3.0 dS/m (S1) and 5.0 dS/m (S2). Compared to freshwater, saline water irrigations decreased the maximum leaf area index (LAIm) of tomatoes, and the LAIm presented a decline tendency with higher salinity and lower irrigation quota. The best overall quality of tomato was obtained by S2W1, with the comprehensive quality index of 3.61. A higher salinity and lower irrigation quota resulted in a decrease of individual fruit weight and an increase of the blossom-end rot incidence, finally led to a reduction in the tomato Yt and marketable yield (Ym). After one growth season of tomato, the mass fraction of soil salt in plough layer under S2W1 treatment was the highest, and which presented a decline trend with an increasing irrigation quota. Moreover, compared to W1, soil salts had a tendency to move to the deeper soil layer when using W2 and W3 irrigation quota. According to the calculation results of projection pursuit model, S1W3 was the optimal treatment that possessed the best comprehensive benefit (tomato overall quality, Yt, Ym, IWUE and soil salt residual), and was recommended as the saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes in northern China. PMID:27806098

  16. Soil Salt Distribution and Tomato Response to Saline Water Irrigation under Straw Mulching.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yaming; Yang, Qian; Wu, Yunyu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate better saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes that scheduling with the compromise among yield (Yt), quality, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and soil salt residual, an experiment with three irrigation quotas and three salinities of irrigation water was conducted under straw mulching in northern China. The irrigation quota levels were 280 mm (W1), 320 mm (W2) and 360 mm (W3), and the salinity levels were 1.0 dS/m (F), 3.0 dS/m (S1) and 5.0 dS/m (S2). Compared to freshwater, saline water irrigations decreased the maximum leaf area index (LAIm) of tomatoes, and the LAIm presented a decline tendency with higher salinity and lower irrigation quota. The best overall quality of tomato was obtained by S2W1, with the comprehensive quality index of 3.61. A higher salinity and lower irrigation quota resulted in a decrease of individual fruit weight and an increase of the blossom-end rot incidence, finally led to a reduction in the tomato Yt and marketable yield (Ym). After one growth season of tomato, the mass fraction of soil salt in plough layer under S2W1 treatment was the highest, and which presented a decline trend with an increasing irrigation quota. Moreover, compared to W1, soil salts had a tendency to move to the deeper soil layer when using W2 and W3 irrigation quota. According to the calculation results of projection pursuit model, S1W3 was the optimal treatment that possessed the best comprehensive benefit (tomato overall quality, Yt, Ym, IWUE and soil salt residual), and was recommended as the saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes in northern China.

  17. Saline nasal washes

    MedlinePlus

    ... nasal wash helps flush pollen, dust, and other debris from your nasal passages. It also helps remove excess mucus (snot) and adds moisture. Your nasal passages are open spaces behind your nose. Air passes through your nasal ...

  18. Simulated effects of irrigation on salinity in the Arkansas River Valley in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, K.; Lewis, M.E.; Person, M.A.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    1998-01-01

    Agricultural irrigation has a substantial impact on water quantity and quality in the lower Arkansas River valley of southeastern Colorado. A two-dimensional flow and solute transport model was used to evaluate the potential effects of changes in irrigation on the quantity and quality of water in the alluvial aquifer and in the Arkansas River along an 17.7 km reach of the fiver. The model was calibrated to aquifer water level and dissolved solids concentration data collected throughout the 24 year study period (197195). Two categories of irrigation management were simulated with the calibrated model: (1) a decrease in ground water withdrawals for irrigation; and (2) cessation of all irrigation from ground water and surface water sources. In the modeled category of decreased irrigation from ground water pumping, there was a resulting 6.9% decrease in the average monthly ground water salinity, a 0.6% decrease in average monthly river salinity, and an 11.1% increase in ground water return flows to the river. In the modeled category of the cessation of all irrigation, average monthly ground water salinity decreased by 25%; average monthly river salinity decreased by 4.4%; and ground water return flows to the river decreased by an average of 64%. In all scenarios, simulated ground water salinity decreased relative to historical conditions for about 12 years before reaching a new dynamic equilibrium condition. Aquifer water levels were not sensitive to any of the modeled scenarios. These potential changes in salinity could result in improved water quality for irrigation purposes downstream from the affected area.

  19. Saline irrigation for the management of skin extravasation injury in neonates.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, P N; Goel, N; Banerjee, Sujoy

    2012-02-15

    Extravasation injury is a common complication of neonatal intensive care and can result in scarring with cosmetic and functional sequelae. A wide variety of treatments are used in practice including subcutaneous irrigation with saline (with or without hyaluronidase), liposuction, use of specific antidotes, different topical applications and normal wound care with dry or wet dressings. All such treatments aim to prevent or reduce the severity of complications. To determine the efficacy and safety of saline irrigation or saline irrigation with prior hyaluronidase infiltration on tissue healing in neonates with extravasation injury when compared to no intervention or normal wound care. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to June 2011), EMBASE (Jan 1980 to June 2011), CINAHL (Jan 1988 to June 2011) and the Web of Science (up to July 2011). Randomised controlled trials (RCT) and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing saline irrigation with or without hyaluronidase infiltration with no intervention or normal wound care in the management of extravasation injury in neonates. Three review authors independently reviewed and identified articles for possible inclusion in this review. No eligible studies were found. There were a few case reports and case series describing successful outcomes with different interventions in this condition. To date, no randomised controlled trial is available that examines the effects of saline irrigation with or without prior hyaluronidase infiltration in the management of extravasation injury in neonates. Saline irrigation is a frequently reported intervention in the literature that is used in the management of extravasation injury in neonates. Research should be initially directed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of this intervention through randomised controlled trials. It will also be important to determine the size of the effect according to

  20. Is the Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt Sustainable to Long-Term Drip Irrigation with High Saline Groundwater?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianguo; Xu, Xinwen; Li, Shengyu; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Afeng; Zhang, Tibin; Jiang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources are scarce in desert regions. Highly saline groundwater of different salinity is being used to drip irrigate the Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt with a double-branch-pipe system controlling the irrigation cycles. In this study, to evaluate the dynamics of soil moisture and salinity under the current irrigation system, soil samples were collected to a 2-m depth in the shelterbelt planted for different years and irrigated with different groundwater salinities, and soil moisture and salinity were analyzed. The results showed that both depletion of soil moisture and increase of topsoil salinity occurred simultaneously during one irrigation cycle. Soil moisture decreased from 27.4% to 2.4% for a 15-day irrigation cycle and from 26.4% to 2.7% for a 10-day-cycle, respectively. Topsoil electrical conductivity (EC) increased from 0.64 to 3.32 dS/m and 0.70 to 3.99 dS/m for these two irrigation cycles. With increased shelterbelt age, profiled average soil moisture (0–200 cm) reduced from 12.8% (1-year) to 7.1% (10-year); however, soil moisture in 0–20-cm increased, while topsoil salinity decreased. In addition, irrigation salinity mainly affected soil salinity in the 0–20-cm range. We conclude that water supply with the double-branch-pipe is a feasible irrigation method for the Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt, and our findings provide a model for shelterbelt construction and sustainable management when using highly saline water for irrigation in analogous habitats. PMID:27711244

  1. Effects of application timing of saline irrigation water on broccoli production and quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irrigation with moderately saline water is a necessity in many semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean Basin, and requires adequate irrigation management strategies. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), a crop moderately tolerant to salinity stress, was used to evaluate the effects of the applica...

  2. Re-Assessing Leaching Requirements for the Salinity Control under New Irrigation Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Laosheng; Yang, Ting; Šimůnek, Jirka

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation is essential to sustain agricultural production, but it adds dissolved salts (or salinity) to croplands. Leaching is thus necessary to keep the average rootzone salinity below the plant threshold EC levels in order to sustain crop production. Current leaching requirement (LR) calculation is based on steady-state, one-dimensional (1D), and water balance approaches, which often overestimates the LRs under transient field conditions. While in recent years, surface and sprinkler irrigated fields have been largely converted to drip or micro-spray systems and deficit irrigation has become more popular, currently accepted LRs may not be appropriate for these irrigation systems. Under point or line irrigation sources (e.g., drips or drip-lines), water and salts move both downwards and laterally, which may lead to highly saline areas on the edges of the wetted area. Under such circumstances, processes such as precipitation/dissolution of mineral phases and/or cation exchange may significantly affect the leaching requirement. The overall objective of this research was to use computer simulation models (i.e., Hydrus-2D and UnsatChem) to evaluate LRs under transient conditions and new irrigation regimes. Simulations were carried out using parameters for soils, climate zones, and major crops and their corresponding fertilization practices typical for California to: (1) Assess the effects of salt precipitation/dissolution on the leaching requirement (LR); (2) Evaluate localized water movement on average rootzone salinity and the leaching requirement (LR); (3) Evaluate leaching requirements for soils under deficit irrigation; and (4) Assess the effects of rainfall on the leaching requirement. Information from this research could significantly impact water management practices in irrigated croplands.

  3. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  4. Saline irrigation for the management of skin extravasation injury in neonates.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, P N; Goel, Nitin; Banerjee, Sujoy

    2017-07-19

    Extravasation injury, a complication commonly seen in the neonatal intensive care unit, can result in scarring with cosmetic and functional sequelae. A wide variety of treatments are available, including subcutaneous irrigation with saline (with or without hyaluronidase), liposuction, use of specific antidotes, topical applications, and normal wound care with dry or wet dressings. All such treatments aim to prevent or reduce the severity of complications. Primary objective To compare the efficacy and safety of saline irrigation or saline irrigation with prior hyaluronidase infiltration versus no intervention or normal wound care for tissue healing in neonates with extravasation injury. Secondary objectives To evaluate by subgroup analysis of controlled trials the influence of type of extravasate, timing of irrigation following extravasation, and postmenstrual age (PMA) of the neonate at the time of injury on outcomes and adverse effects.Specifically, we planned to perform subgroup analysis for the primary outcome, if appropriate, by examining:1. time to irrigation from identified extravasation injury (< 1 hour or ≥ 1 hour);2. type of extravasate (parenteral nutrition fluid or other fluids or medications);3. amount of saline used (< 500 mL or ≥ 500 mL); and4. PMA at injury (< 37 completed weeks or ≥ 37 completed weeks). We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 1), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 2 February 2017), Embase (1980 to 2 February 2017), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 2 February 2017). We also searched clinical trial databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. We used the Google Scholar search tool for reverse citations of relevant articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi

  5. Intra-abdominal saline irrigation at cesarean section: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Eke, Ahizechukwu Chigoziem; Shukr, Ghadear Hussein; Chaalan, Tina Taissir; Nashif, Sereen Khaled; Eleje, George Uchenna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the evidence guiding intraoperative saline irrigation at cesarean sections. We searched "cesarean sections", "pregnancy", "saline irrigation" and "randomized clinical trials" in ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, AJOL, MEDLINE, LILACS and CINAHL from inception of each database to April 2015. The primary outcomes were predefined as intraoperative nausea and emesis. The pooled results were reported as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Three randomized trials including 862 women were analyzed. Intraoperative saline irrigation was associated with a 68% increased risk of developing intraoperative nausea (RR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.36-2.06), 70% increased risk of developing intraoperative emesis (RR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.28-2.25), 92% increased risk of developing post-operative nausea and 84% increased risk of using anti-emetics post-operatively (RR = 1.84, 95% CI 0.21-2.78) when compared with controls. There were no significant differences between intraoperative saline irrigation and no treatment for post-operative emesis (RR = 1.65, 95% CI 0.74-3.67), estimated blood loss, time to return of gastrointestinal function, postpartum endometritis (RR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.64-1.40), urinary tract infection and wound infection. Intraoperative saline irrigation at cesarean delivery increases intraoperative and post-operative nausea, requiring increasing use of anti-emetics without significant reduction in infectious, intraoperative and postpartum complications. Routine abdominal irrigation at cesarean section is not supported by current data.

  6. Sensor-Based Assessment of Soil Salinity during the First Years of Transition from Flood to Sprinkler Irrigation.

    PubMed

    Casterad, Mª Auxiliadora; Herrero, Juan; Betrán, Jesús A; Ritchie, Glen

    2018-02-17

    A key issue for agriculture in irrigated arid lands is the control of soil salinity, and this is one of the goals for irrigated districts when changing from flood to sprinkling irrigation. We combined soil sampling, proximal electromagnetic induction, and satellite data to appraise how soil salinity and its distribution along a previously flood-irrigated field evolved after its transformation to sprinkling. We also show that the relationship between NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) and ECe (electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extracts) mimics the production function between yield and soil salinity. Under sprinkling, the field had a double crop of barley and then sunflower in 2009 and 2011. In both years, about 50% of the soil of the entire studied field-45 ha-had ECe < 8 dS m-1, i.e., allowing barley cultivation, while the percent of surface having ECe ≥ 16 dS m-1 increased from 8.4% in 2009 to 13.7% in 2011. Our methodology may help monitor the soil salinity oscillations associated with irrigation management. After quantifying and mapping the soil salinity in 2009 and 2011, we show that barley was stunted in places of the field where salinity was higher. Additionally, the areas of salinity persisted after the subsequent alfalfa cropping in 2013. Application of differential doses of water to the saline patches is a viable method to optimize irrigation water distribution and lessen soil salinity in sprinkler-irrigated agriculture.

  7. Sensor-Based Assessment of Soil Salinity during the First Years of Transition from Flood to Sprinkler Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Juan; Betrán, Jesús A.; Ritchie, Glen

    2018-01-01

    A key issue for agriculture in irrigated arid lands is the control of soil salinity, and this is one of the goals for irrigated districts when changing from flood to sprinkling irrigation. We combined soil sampling, proximal electromagnetic induction, and satellite data to appraise how soil salinity and its distribution along a previously flood-irrigated field evolved after its transformation to sprinkling. We also show that the relationship between NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) and ECe (electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extracts) mimics the production function between yield and soil salinity. Under sprinkling, the field had a double crop of barley and then sunflower in 2009 and 2011. In both years, about 50% of the soil of the entire studied field—45 ha—had ECe < 8 dS m−1, i.e., allowing barley cultivation, while the percent of surface having ECe ≥ 16 dS m−1 increased from 8.4% in 2009 to 13.7% in 2011. Our methodology may help monitor the soil salinity oscillations associated with irrigation management. After quantifying and mapping the soil salinity in 2009 and 2011, we show that barley was stunted in places of the field where salinity was higher. Additionally, the areas of salinity persisted after the subsequent alfalfa cropping in 2013. Application of differential doses of water to the saline patches is a viable method to optimize irrigation water distribution and lessen soil salinity in sprinkler-irrigated agriculture. PMID:29462981

  8. Preventive saline irrigation of the bile duct after the endoscopic removal of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sang Eon; Ahn, Dong-Won; Lee, Sang Hyub; Lee, Ban Seok; Jeong, Ji Bong; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Yong-Tae; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Young Hoon

    2013-08-01

    Small stone fragments after an endoscopic stone extraction for choledocholithiasis may act as the nidus for recurrent choledocholithiasis. Therefore, efforts to eliminate the nidus might reduce the recurrence of choledocholithiasis and cholangitis related to choledocholithiasis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an additional preventive saline irrigation of the bile duct after the endoscopic removal of common bile duct stones would decrease residual stones and the recurrence of cholangitis. A retrospective analysis was performed for the consecutively collected data about the patients who underwent the complete endoscopic treatment for common bile duct stone. Among 99 patients, 45 patients underwent saline irrigation. Residual stones were detected in 18 patients (18.2 %). The incidences of residual stones were 8.9 % (4 of 45 patients) in the irrigation group and 25.9 % (14 of 54 patients) in the non-irrigation group (P = 0.037). In multivariate analysis, preventive saline irrigation was found to be the only significant factor for the decrease of residual stones (HR = 0.258, P = 0.039). When analyzing the occurrence of recurrent cholangitis and the procedure related to complications, there were no significant differences according to the performance of preventive saline irrigation of the bile duct. Preventive saline irrigation could reduce the residual common bile duct stones without complications.

  9. Rainfall and irrigation controls on groundwater rise and salinity risk in the Ord River Irrigation Area, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anthony J.

    2008-09-01

    Groundwater beneath the Ord River Irrigation Area (ORIA) in northern Australia has risen in elevation by 10-20 m during the past 40 years with attendant concerns about water logging and soil salinization. Persistent groundwater accession has been attributed to excessive irrigation and surface water leakage; however, analysis of daily water-table records from the past 10 years yielded a contrary result. On a seasonal basis, water-table elevation typically fell during irrigation (dry) seasons and rose during fallow (wet) seasons, conflicting with the conventional view that irrigation and not rainfall must be the dominant control on groundwater accession. Previous investigations of unexpectedly large infiltration losses through the cracking clay soils provide a plausible explanation for the apparent conundrum. Because rainfall is uncontrolled and occurs independently of the soil moisture condition, there is greater opportunity for incipient ponding and rapid infiltration through preferred flow pathways. In contrast, irrigation is scheduled when needed and applications are stopped after soil wetting is achieved. Contemporary groundwater management in the ORIA is focused on improving irrigation efficiency during dry seasons but additional opportunities may exist to improve groundwater conditions and salinity risk through giving equal attention to the wet-season water balance.

  10. Soil salinity assessment through satellite thermography for different irrigated and rainfed crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivushkin, Konstantin; Bartholomeus, Harm; Bregt, Arnold K.; Pulatov, Alim; Bui, Elisabeth N.; Wilford, John

    2018-06-01

    The use of canopy thermography is an innovative approach for salinity stress detection in plants. But its applicability for landscape scale studies using satellite sensors is still not well investigated. The aim of this research is to test the satellite thermography soil salinity assessment approach on a study area with different crops, grown both in irrigated and rainfed conditions, to evaluate whether the approach has general applicability. Four study areas in four different states of Australia were selected to give broad representation of different crops cultivated under irrigated and rainfed conditions. The soil salinity map was prepared by the staff of Geoscience Australia and CSIRO Land and Water and it is based on thorough soil sampling together with environmental modelling. Remote sensing data was captured by the Landsat 5 TM satellite. In the analysis we used vegetation indices and brightness temperature as an indicator for canopy temperature. Applying analysis of variance and time series we have investigated the applicability of satellite remote sensing of canopy temperature as an approach of soil salinity assessment for different crops grown under irrigated and rainfed conditions. We concluded that in all cases average canopy temperatures were significantly correlated with soil salinity of the area. This relation is valid for all investigated crops, grown both irrigated and rainfed. Nevertheless, crop type does influence the strength of the relations. In our case cotton shows only minor temperature difference compared to other vegetation classes. The strongest relations between canopy temperature and soil salinity were observed at the moment of a maximum green biomass of the crops which is thus considered to be the best time for application of the approach.

  11. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mod...

  12. Modeling as a tool for management of saline soils and irrigation waters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Optimal management of saline soils and irrigation waters requires consideration of many interrelated factors including, climate, water applications and timing, water flow, plant water uptake, soil chemical reactions, plant response to salinity and solution composition, soil hydraulic properties and ...

  13. Effects of shallow water table, salinity and frequency of irrigation water on the date palm water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askri, Brahim; Ahmed, Abdelkader T.; Abichou, Tarek; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2014-05-01

    In southern Tunisia oases, waterlogging, salinity, and water shortage represent serious threats to the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. Understanding the interaction between these problems and their effects on root water uptake is fundamental for suggesting possible options of improving land and water productivity. In this study, HYDRUS-1D model was used in a plot of farmland located in the Fatnassa oasis to investigate the effects of waterlogging, salinity, and water shortage on the date palm water use. The model was calibrated and validated using experimental data of sap flow density of a date palm, soil hydraulic properties, water table depth, and amount of irrigation water. The comparison between predicted and observed data for date palm transpiration rates was acceptable indicating that the model could well estimate water consumption of this tree crop. Scenario simulations were performed with different water table depths, and salinities and frequencies of irrigation water. The results show that the impacts of water table depth and irrigation frequency vary according to the season. In summer, high irrigation frequency and shallow groundwater are needed to maintain high water content and low salinity of the root-zone and therefore to increase the date palm transpiration rates. However, these factors have no significant effect in winter. The results also reveal that irrigation water salinity has no significant effect under shallow saline groundwater.

  14. Modeling the effects of different irrigation water salinity on soil water movement, uptake and multicomponent solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakis, E. H.; Antonopoulos, V. Z.

    2015-11-01

    Simulation models can be important tools for analyzing and managing irrigation, soil salinization or crop production problems. In this study a mathematical model that describes the water movement and mass transport of individual ions (Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+) and overall soil salinity by means of the soil solution electrical conductivity, is used. The mass transport equations of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ have been incorporated as part of the integrated model WANISIM and the soil salinity was computed as the sum of individual ions. The model was calibrated and validated against field data, collected during a three year experiment in plots of maize, irrigated with three different irrigation water qualities, at Thessaloniki area in Northern Greece. The model was also used to evaluate salinization and sodification hazards by the use of irrigation water with increasing electrical conductivity of 0.8, 3.2 and 6.4 dS m-1, while maintaining a ratio of Ca2+:Mg2+:Na+ equal to 3:3:2. The qualitative and quantitative procedures for results evaluation showed that there was good agreement between the simulated and measured values of the water content, overall salinity and the concentration of individual soluble cations, at two soil layers (0-35 and 35-75 cm). Nutrient uptake was also taken into account. Locally available irrigation water (ECiw = 0.8 dS m-1) did not cause soil salinization or sodification. On the other hand, irrigation water with ECiw equal to 3.2 and 6.4 dS m-1 caused severe soil salinization, but not sodification. The rainfall water during the winter seasons was not sufficient to leach salts below the soil profile of 110 cm. The modified version of model WANISIM is able to predict the effects of irrigation with saline waters on soil and plant growth and it is suitable for irrigation management in areas with scarce and low quality water resources.

  15. Coordinating management of water, salinity and trace elements for cotton under mulched drip irrigation with brackish water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, M.; Chen, W.; Liang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Rational irrigation with brackish water can increase crop production, but irrational use may cause soil salinization. In order to understand the relationships among water, salt, and nutrient (including trace elements) and find rational schemes to manage water, salinity and nutrient in cotton fields, field and pot experiments were conducted in an arid area of southern Xinjiang, northwest China. Field experiments were performed from 2008 to 2015, and involved mulched drip irrigation during the growing season and flood irrigation afterwards. The average cotton yield of seven years varied between 3,575 and 5,095 kg/ha, and the irrigation water productivity between 0.91 and 1.16 kg/m3. With the progress of brackish water irrigation, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Na showed strong aggregation in topsoil at the narrow row, whereas the contents of Ca and K decreased in the order of inter-mulch gap, the wide inter row, and the narrow row. The contents of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ca and K in root soil reduced with cotton growth, whereas Na increased. Although mulched drip irrigation during the growing season resulted in an increase in salinity in the root zone, flood irrigation after harvesting leached the accumulated salts below background levels. Based on experiments a scheme for coordinating management of soil water, salt, and nutrient is proposed, that is, under the planting pattern of one mulch, two drip lines and four rows, the alternative irrigation plus a flood irrigation after harvesting or before seeding was the ideal scheme. Numerical simulations using solute transport model coupled with the root solute uptake based on the experiments and extended by another 20 years, suggest that the mulched drip irrigation using alternatively fresh and brackish water during the growing season and flood irrigation with fresh water after harvesting, is a sustainable irrigation practice that should not lead to soil salinization. Pot experiments with trace elements and different saline water showed

  16. Validation of the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 20 (SNOT-20) domains in nonsurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Pynnonen, Melissa A; Kim, H Myra; Terrell, Jeffrey E

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were, first, to confirm the presence of multiple domains within the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 20 (SNOT-20) using a medically treated population, and, second, to reanalyze data from this population to reveal incremental information. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was performed. One hundred twenty-seven adults with chronic rhinitis or rhinosinusitis symptoms were treated with nasal saline irrigation or spray. Treatment outcome was quality of life measured with SNOT-20 scores, which were reanalyzed for this study with a factor analysis. Differences in change scores were compared. Factor analysis confirmed the presence of four domains: psychological function, sleep function, rhinological symptoms, and ear and/or facial symptoms. At 8 weeks after randomization, saline irrigation had significant effects on the rhinological symptom (p = 0.01) and sleep (p = 0.01) compared with saline spray, but no between-group difference was seen in psychological function or ear and/or facial symptom domains. Subscales identified differences in the impact of two medical interventions on chronic sinonasal symptoms. Reporting subscale scores might improve the precision of the SNOT-20 instrument, allowing discrimination between various treatments and their differential impact on sinonasal quality of life.

  17. Sorghum response to foliar application of phosphorus and potassium with saline water irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing demand for fresh water resources for urban and industrial uses is leading to limited availability of better quality water for crop irrigation. Therefore, crop response to poor quality irrigation water (ex: saline water), and strategies to mitigate the negative effects of poor quality irri...

  18. Nasal irrigation as an adjunctive treatment in allergic rhinitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hermelingmeier, Kristina E; Weber, Rainer K; Hellmich, Martin; Heubach, Christine P; Mösges, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Saline nasal irrigation (SNI) is often recommended as additional nonpharmacologic treatment, having proven its efficacy in acute and chronic rhinosinusitis and for therapy after sinonasal surgery. To date, however, no systematic review or meta-analysis exists showing the influence of SNI on allergic rhinitis (AR). This study aimed to establish the impact of SNI on symptoms of AR in different patient groups. We conducted a systematic search of Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ISI Web of Science databases for literature published from 1994 to 2010 on SNI in AR. Prospective, randomized, controlled trials that assessed the effects of SNI on four different outcome parameters were included. The evaluation focused on primary (symptom score) and secondary parameters (medicine consumption, mucociliary clearance, and quality of life). Three independent reviewers chose 10 originals that satisfied the inclusion criteria (>400 participants total) from 50 relevant trials. SNI performed regularly over a limited period of up to 7 weeks was observed to have a positive effect on all investigated outcome parameters in adults and children with AR. SNI produced a 27.66% improvement in nasal symptoms, a 62.1% reduction in medicine consumption, a 31.19% acceleration of mucociliary clearance time, and a 27.88% improvement in quality of life. SNI using isotonic solution can be recommended as complementary therapy in AR. It is well tolerated, inexpensive, easy to use, and there is no evidence showing that regular, daily SNI adversely affects the patient's health or causes unexpected side effects.

  19. The partial root-zone saline irrigation system and antioxidant responses in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rita de Cássia; de Medeiros, Ana Santana; Nicolau, Mayara Cristina Malvas; Neto, Antônio Pizolato; de Assis Oliveira, Francisco; Lima, Leonardo Warzea; Tezotto, Tiago; Gratão, Priscila Lupino

    2018-06-01

    Salinity is a limiting factor that can affect plant growth and cause significant losses in agricultural productivity. This study provides an insight about the viability of partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) system with saline water supported by a biochemical approach involving antioxidant responses. Six different irrigation methods using low and high salt concentrations (S1-0.5 and S2-5.0 dS m -1 ) were applied, with or without PRSI, so that one side of the root-zone was submitted to saline water while the other side was low salinity water irrigated. The results revealed different responses according to the treatments and the PRSI system applied. For the treatments T1, T2 and T3, the PRSI was not applied, while T4, T5 and T6 treatments were applied with PRSI system. Lipid peroxidation, proline content, and activities of SOD, CAT, APX, GR and GSH in tomato plants subjected to PRSI system were analyzed. Plant growth was not affected by the salt concentrations; however, plants submitted to high salt concentrations showed high MDA content and Na + accumulation when compared to the control plants. Plants submitted to treatments T4, T5 and T6 with PRSI system exhibited lower MDA compared to the control plants (T1). Proline content and activities of SOD, CAT, APX, GR and GSH content were maintained in all treatments and tissues analyzed, with only exception for APX in fruits and GSH content, in roots. The overall results showed that PRSI system could be an applicable technique for saline water supply on irrigation since plants did not show to be vulnerable to salt stress, supported by a biochemical approach involving antioxidant responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Nasal Irrigation for Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Fatigue in Patients with Gulf War Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Syndrome ” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David Rabago, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Wisconsin Systems Board of Regents REPORT DATE...Patients with Gulf War Syndrome ” 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Rabago, MD 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...Rhinosinusitis, Fatigue, Gulf War Syndrome , Nasal Irrigation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a

  1. Multi-Stream Saline-Jet Dissection Using a Simple Irrigation System Defines Difficult Tissue Planes

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Philip CH

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Single-stream hydro-jet dissection is increasingly used in various laparoscopic procedures, but its use requires special equipment. We describe a simple method for using an irrigation system for saline-jet tissue dissection as a useful adjunct prior to adhesiolysis. Material and Methods: Intraabdominal adhesions prolong laparoscopic procedures, because tissue planes are difficult to identify. We performed multi-jet saline dissection (MSSJ) between 2000 and 2009 in more than 500 patients during laparoscopy involving hernias, gallbladders, appendices, and intestinal obstructions. We use a standard suction irrigation probe, which is attached to a 1-liter saline bag with an inflatable cuff around to create a pressure of 250mm Hg to 300mm Hg. In effect, this is the standard setup generally used for irrigation. After using saline dissection, tissue planes can be better defined and the structures can then be separated. Result and Discussion: Using this method, we have successfully identified tissue planes in spite of dense adhesions, and our conversion rates to open have been reduced dramatically. This method is relatively safer than other modalities of tissue dissection, such as diathermy, ultrasonic, blunt or sharp dissection. The disadvantage is that with tissues saturated with saline it becomes more difficult to use diathermy hemostasis. Care has to be exercised in monitoring the temperature and volume of the fluid used. PMID:20529528

  2. Lidocaine Concentration in Mandibular Bone After Subperiosteal Infiltration Anesthesia Decreases With Elevation of Periosteal Flap and Irrigation With Saline

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Sachie; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Tada, Hitoshi; Yamazaki, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that the action of infiltration anesthesia on the jawbone is attenuated significantly by elevation of the periosteal flap with saline irrigation in clinical studies; however, the reason is unclear. Therefore, the lidocaine concentration in mandibular bone after subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia was measured under several surgical conditions. The subjects were 48 rabbits. Infiltration anesthesia by 0.5 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 80,000 epinephrine (adrenaline) was injected into the right mandibular angle and left mandibular body, respectively. Under several surgical conditions (presence or absence of periosteal flap, and presence or absence of saline irrigation), both mandibular bone samples were removed at a fixed time after subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia. The lidocaine concentration in each mandibular bone sample was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. As a result, elevation of the periosteal flap with saline irrigation significantly decreased the lidocaine concentration in the mandibular bone. It is suggested that the anesthetic in the bone was washed out by saline irrigation. Therefore, supplemental conduction and/or general anesthesia should be utilized for long operations that include elevation of the periosteal flap with saline irrigation. PMID:24932978

  3. The Immediate and Delayed Post-Debridement Effects on Tissue Bacterial Wound Counts of Hypochlorous Acid Versus Saline Irrigation in Chronic Wounds.

    PubMed

    Hiebert, John M; Robson, Martin C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Wound debridement is considered essential in chronic wound management. Hypochlorous acid has been shown to be an effective agent in reducing wound bacterial counts in open wounds. Ultrasound-enabled wound debridement is an effective and efficient method of debridement. This study compared ultrasound irrigation with hypochlorous acid versus saline irrigation for wound debridement on pre- and postoperative wounds and determined regrowth of bacteria over 1 week period of time. Finally, the outcome of definitive wound closure of the clinically clean-appearing wounds was recorded. Methods: Seventeen consenting adult patients with chronic open wounds were randomly selected for study. The patients were randomly divided into the hypochlorous acid irrigation or saline irrigation group. All patients provided pre- and postoperative tissue samples for qualitative and quantitative bacteriology. For the time (7 days) between the debridement procedure and the definitive closure procedure, the wounds were dressed with a silver-impregnated dressing and a hydroconductive dressing. Results : Both types of irrigation in the ultrasonic system initially lowered the bacterial counts by 4 to 6 logs. However, by the time of definitive closure, the saline-irrigated wounds had bacterial counts back up to 10 5 whereas the hypochlorous acid-irrigated wounds remained at 10 2 or fewer. More than 80% of patients in the saline group had postoperative closure failure compared with 25% of patients in the hypochlorous acid group. Conclusions: Hypochlorous acid irrigation with ultrasound debridement reduced bacterial growth in chronic open wounds more efficiently than saline alone. Postoperative wound closure outcomes suggest a remarkable reduction in wound complications after wound debridement using hypochlorous acid irrigation with ultrasound versus saline alone.

  4. Geochemical processes controlling water salinization in an irrigated basin in Spain: identification of natural and anthropogenic influence.

    PubMed

    Merchán, D; Auqué, L F; Acero, P; Gimeno, M J; Causapé, J

    2015-01-01

    Salinization of water bodies represents a significant risk in water systems. The salinization of waters in a small irrigated hydrological basin is studied herein through an integrated hydrogeochemical study including multivariate statistical analyses and geochemical modeling. The study zone has two well differentiated geologic materials: (i) Quaternary sediments of low salinity and high permeability and (ii) Tertiary sediments of high salinity and very low permeability. In this work, soil samples were collected and leaching experiments conducted on them in the laboratory. In addition, water samples were collected from precipitation, irrigation, groundwater, spring and surface waters. The waters show an increase in salinity from precipitation and irrigation water to ground- and, finally, surface water. The enrichment in salinity is related to the dissolution of soluble mineral present mainly in the Tertiary materials. Cation exchange, precipitation of calcite and, probably, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, have been inferred from the hydrochemical data set. Multivariate statistical analysis provided information about the structure of the data, differentiating the group of surface waters from the groundwaters and the salinization from the nitrate pollution processes. The available information was included in geochemical models in which hypothesis of consistency and thermodynamic feasibility were checked. The assessment of the collected information pointed to a natural control on salinization processes in the Lerma Basin with minimal influence of anthropogenic factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of amiloride and saline on nasal mucociliary clearance and potential difference in cystic fibrosis and normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, P. G.; Geddes, D. M.; Alton, E. W.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Mucociliary clearance is an important component of pulmonary defence. Maximum clearance is thought to depend on an optimal depth of the sol layer, allowing the most efficient interaction between the cilia and the overlying mucus layer. Sodium absorption, the major ion transport in human airways, is thought to be important in the regulation of the depth of the sol layer. In the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis sodium absorption is increased and mucociliary clearance decreased. Amiloride, a sodium channel blocker, has been shown to improve pulmonary mucociliary clearance in patients with cystic fibrosis. However, its effects on nasal mucociliary clearance in either normal subjects or those with cystic fibrosis are unknown. A study was therefore performed to investigate whether nebulised amiloride improves nasal mucociliary clearance in normal or cystic fibrosis subjects. METHODS--Nasal mucociliary clearance was measured by the saccharin clearance technique in 12 normal subjects and 12 with cystic fibrosis. For the control study measurements were made on two consecutive days and the mean time for each subject averaged. For the drug study measurements were also made on two consecutive days, after administration of nasally nebulised amiloride or placebo (saline) in a double blind manner. Nasal potential difference was measured in eight patients with cystic fibrosis after the administration of amiloride or placebo to assess the efficacy of deposition and duration of action. RESULTS--Baseline values of mucociliary clearance were significantly faster in the normal subjects than in those with cystic fibrosis. In both groups mucociliary clearance was increased after both saline and amiloride, with no significant difference between either treatment. As previously reported, baseline nasal potential difference was significantly more negative in the subjects with cystic fibrosis. Amiloride significantly reduced the potential difference for at least 60 minutes

  6. New steady-state models for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation waters: Analytical solutions and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mod...

  7. New steady-state models for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation waters: Analytical solutions and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mode...

  8. Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Root Canal Irrigation with Saline, Sodium Hypochlorite, and Citric Acid,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    with six different irrigation regimens. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) was significantly more effective than citric acid in "* removing superficial...EVALUATION OF ROOT CANAL IRRIGATION WITH SALINE, SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE , AND CITRIC ACID 4 *J. Craig Baumgartner, D.D.S., M.S. • **Carolyn M. Brown, D.D.S., M.S...preparation with six different irrigation regimens. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) was significantly more effective than citric acid in removing superficial

  9. Spatiotemporal monitoring of soil salinization in irrigated Tadla Plain (Morocco) using satellite spectral indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Harti, Abderrazak; Lhissou, Rachid; Chokmani, Karem; Ouzemou, Jamal-eddine; Hassouna, Mohamed; Bachaoui, El Mostafa; El Ghmari, Abderrahmene

    2016-08-01

    Soil salinization is major environmental issue in irrigated agricultural production. Conventional methods for salinization monitoring are time and money consuming and limited by the high spatiotemporal variability of this phenomenon. This work aims to propose a spatiotemporal monitoring method of soil salinization in the Tadla plain in central Morocco using spectral indices derived from Thematic Mapper (TM) and Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Six Landsat TM/OLI satellite images acquired during 13 years period (2000-2013) coupled with in-situ electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were used to develop the proposed method. After radiometric and atmospheric correction of TM/OLI images, a new soil salinity index (OLI-SI) is proposed for soil EC estimation. Validation shows that this index allowed a satisfactory EC estimation in the Tadla irrigated perimeter with coefficient of determination R2 varying from 0.55 to 0.77 and a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) ranging between 1.02 dS/m and 2.35 dS/m. The times-series of salinity maps produced over the Tadla plain using the proposed method show that salinity is decreasing in intensity and progressively increasing in spatial extent, over the 2000-2013 period. This trend resulted in a decrease in agricultural activities in the southwestern part of the perimeter, located in the hydraulic downstream.

  10. A dynamic model of soil salinity and drainage generation in irrigated agriculture: A framework for policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinar, Ariel; Aillery, Marcel P.; Moore, Michael R.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model of irrigated agriculture that accounts for drainage generation and salinity accumulation. Critical model relationships involving crop production, soil salinity, and irrigation drainage are based on newly estimated functions derived from lysimeter field tests. The model allocates land and water inputs over time based on an intertemporal profit maximization objective function and soil salinity accumulation process. The model is applied to conditions in the San Joaquin Valley of California, where environmental degradation from irrigation drainage has become a policy issue. Findings indicate that in the absence of regulation, drainage volumes increase over time before reaching a steady state as increased quantities of water are allocated to leaching soil salts. The model is used to evaluate alternative drainage abatement scenarios involving drainage quotas and taxes, water supply quotas and taxes, and irrigation technology subsidies. In our example, direct drainage policies are more cost-effective in reducing drainage than policies operating indirectly through surface water use, although differences in cost efficiency are relatively small. In some cases, efforts to control drainage may result in increased soil salinity accumulation, with implications for long-term cropland productivity. While policy adjustments may alter the direction and duration of convergence to a steady state, findings suggest that a dynamic model specification may not be necessary due to rapid convergence to a comon steady state under selected scenarios.

  11. Pepper plants growth, yield, photosynthetic pigments, and total phenols as affected by foliar application of potassium under different salinity irrigation water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irrigation with high salinity water influences plant growth, production of photosynthetic pigments and total phenols, leading to reduction in crop yield and quality. Foliar application of macro- and/or micro-nutrients can, to some extent, mitigate negative effects of high salinity irrigation water o...

  12. Irrigation solutions in open fractures of the lower extremities: evaluation of isotonic saline and distilled water.

    PubMed

    Olufemi, Olukemi Temiloluwa; Adeyeye, Adeolu Ikechukwu

    2017-01-01

    Open fractures are widely considered as orthopaedic emergencies requiring immediate intervention. The initial management of these injuries usually affects the ultimate outcome because open fractures may be associated with significant morbidity. Wound irrigation forms one of the pivotal principles in the treatment of open fractures. The choice of irrigation fluid has since been a source of debate. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of isotonic saline and distilled water as irrigation solutions in the management of open fractures of the lower extremities. Wound infection and wound healing rates using both solutions were evaluated. This was a prospective hospital-based study of 109 patients who presented to the Accident and Emergency department with open lower limb fractures. Approval was sought and obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Hospital. Patients were randomized into either the isotonic saline (NS) or the distilled water (DW) group using a simple ballot technique. Twelve patients were lost to follow-up, while 97 patients were available until conclusion of the study. There were 50 patients in the isotonic saline group and 47 patients in the distilled water group. Forty-one (42.3%) of the patients were in the young and economically productive strata of the population. There was a male preponderance with a 1.7:1 male-to-female ratio. The wound infection rate was 34% in the distilled water group and 44% in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.315). The mean time ± SD to wound healing was 2.7 ± 1.5 weeks in the distilled water group and 3.1 ± 1.8 weeks in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.389). It was concluded from this study that the use of distilled water compares favourably with isotonic saline as an irrigation solution in open fractures of the lower extremities. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  13. Comparison of the Antimicrobial Effect of Chlorhexidine and Saline for Irrigating a Contaminated Open Fracture Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    bacteria after irrigation, with aqueous CHG at a range of concentrations comparing irrigation with saline alone. Conclusions: This study does not support the...from high irrigation pressures and cytotoxic solutions has been shown to allow bacteria to thrive. We believe this is due to a “rebound” of bacteria ...physically removing bacteria with an active chemical antimicrobial effect without damaging host tissue. CHG was synthesized in the 1950s.6 It was quickly

  14. Nasal Wash Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines Wash your hands. Make the nasal wash solution. Do not use tap water for the nasal ... Whichever water you use to make the saline solution, replace container or water at least weekly. To ...

  15. Impact of water quality and irrigation management on soil salinization in the Drâa valley of Morocco.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beff, L.; Descamps, C.; Dufey, J.; Bielders, C.

    2009-04-01

    Under the arid climatic conditions of the Drâa valley in southern Morocco, irrigation is essential for crop production. Two sources of water are available to farmers: (1) moderate salinity water from the Oued Drâa (classified as C3-S1 in the USDA irrigation water classification diagram) which is available only a few times per year following discrete releases from the Mansour Eddahbi dam, and (2) high salinity water from wells (C4-S2). Soil salinization is frequently observed, principally on plots irrigated with well water. As Oued water is available in insufficient amounts, strategies must be devised to use well and Oued water judiciously, without inducing severe salinization. The salinization risk under wheat production was evaluated using the HP1 program (Jacques and Šimůnek, 2005) for different combinations of the two main water sources, different irrigation frequencies and irrigation volumes. The soil was a sandy clay loam (topsoil) to sandy loam (40 cm depth). Soil hydrodynamic properties were derived from in situ measurements and lab measurements on undisturbed soil samples. The HP1 model was parameterized for wheat growth and 12 scenarios were run for 10 year periods using local climatic data. Water quality was measured or estimated on the basis of water samples in wells and various Oueds, and the soil chemical properties were determined. Depending on the scenario, soil salinity in the mean root zone increased from less than 1 meq/100g of soil to more than 5 meq/100g of soil over a ten year period. Salt accumulation was more pronounced at 45 cm soil depth, which is half of the maximum rooting depth, and when well water was preferentially used. Maximum crop yield (water transpired / potential water transpired) was achieved for five scenarios but this implied the use of well water to satisfy the crop water requirements. The usual Drâa Valley irrigation scenario, with five, 84 mm dam water applications per year, lead to a 25% yield loss. Adding the amount

  16. Evaluation of nasal IgA secretion in normal subjects by nasal spray and aspiration.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Chisa; Kido, Hiroshi; Sawabuchi, Takako; Mizuno, Dai; Hayama, Masaki; Yanagawa, Hiroaki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2009-06-01

    Nasal washing (NW) is a popular method for collecting human nasal lavage fluid. However, for NW the subject must be trained, and the method is unsuitable for field studies on untrained subjects. To overcome this problem, we have developed an easy and painless method, a nasal spray and aspiration (NSA) method. This method is different from NW in that the nasal cavity is misted over with saline, and the nasal lavage fluid is aspirated from the nostrils through a silicon tube. First, nasal lavage fluid was obtained twice by NSA with an interval of a week between lavages to evaluate intraindividual variability, and the IgA and protein levels in the nasal lavage fluid were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and bicinchoninic acid assay, respectively. Next, the IgA value determined by NSA was compared with that by NW in another 12 normal subjects 2 days after NSA. In 10 normal subjects, mean volume of saline sprayed into the nose was 0.46+/-0.15 ml (mean+/-S.D.). Mean volume of aspirated nasal lavage fluid containing both sprayed saline and nasal secretion was 0.44+/-0.37 ml. The mean IgA level/mg protein in the nasal lavage fluid determined by NSA was 112+/-18 microg/mg protein at the first and 99+/-20 at the second times of measurement, being highly reproducible. The mean value by NSA was 114+/-19 microg/mg protein, being almost the same as that by NW of 99+/-27. These findings suggest that the IgA level/mg protein in nasal lavage fluid determined by NSA instead of NW might be useful for assessing the variability of nasal IgA secretion.

  17. Detecting crop yield reduction due to irrigation-induced soil salinization in South-West Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argaman, E.; Beets, W.; Croes, J.; Keesstra, S.; Verzandvoort, S.; Zeiliguer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The South-European part of the Russian Federation has experienced serious land degradation in the form of soil salinization since the 1960s. This land degradation was caused by intensive, large-scale irrigation on reclaimed land in combination with the salt-rich nature of the substrate. Alkaline soil salinity is believed to be an important factor decreasing crop yield in this area. A large research effort has been directed to the effects of soil salinity on crops, there is a need for simple, easily determinable indicators of crop health and soil salinity in irrigated systems, that can help to detect crop water stress in an early stage. The objectives of this research were to study the effects of soil salinity and vegetation water stress on the performance of alfalfa crop yield and physiological crop properties, and to study the possibility to measure soil salinity and alkalinity and the crop water stress index at plot level using a thermal gun and a regular digital camera. The study area was located in Saratov District, in the South-West part of Russia. Variables on the surface energy balance, crop properties, soil properties and visible reflectance were measured on plots with alfalfa cultures in two fields with and without signs of alkaline soil salinity, and with and without irrigation in July 2009. The research showed no clear adverse effects of soil salinity and soil alkalinity on crop yield and physiological crop properties. Soil salinity, as reflected by the electric conductivity, positively affected the root biomass of alfalfa in the range of 0.15 to 1.52 dS/m . This was a result of EC levels being below the documented threshold to negatively affect Alfalfa, as would be the case in truly saline soils. The soil pH also showed a positive correlation with root biomass within the range of pH 6.2 and 8.5 . From the literature these pH values are generally believed to be too high to exhibit a positive relationship with root biomass. No relationship was found

  18. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus, L.) maintains high inulin, tuber yield, and antioxidant capacity under moderately-saline irrigation waters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The scarcity of good quality water in semiarid regions of the world is the main limiting factor for increased irrigated agriculture in those regions. Saline water is generally widely available in arid regions at reduced costs, and can be a viable alternative for crop irrigation. However, the literat...

  19. Does vaginal irrigation with saline solution in women with infectious vaginitis contribute to the clinical and microbiological results of antibiotic therapy?

    PubMed

    Derbent, Aysel Uysal; Ulukanlıgil, Mustafa; Keskin, Esra Aktepe; Soylu, Gül; Kafalı, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    To compare the clinical and microbiological results between patients with infectious vaginitis receiving vaginal irrigation with saline or no irrigation before standard antibiotic therapy. Women with vaginitis (n = 109) were randomized to receive vaginal irrigation with saline or no irrigation before standard antibiotic therapy. The vaginal symptoms perceived by subjects and clinical findings were assessed with a standardized scale during four follow-up visits, and Gram stain Nugent scores and vaginal fluid cultures were analyzed at each visit. Vaginal discharge (z = 7.159; p < 0.001), pruritus (z = 5.169; p < 0.001), itching (z = 2.969; p < 0.003) and odor scores (z = 2.303; p < 0.021) were significantly reduced in the study group compared to the control group between the first visit and 3-5 days after irrigation, before the start of antibiotic therapy. The second and third visits (15 and 30-45 days after antibiotic therapy) showed that the patients' symptoms and amounts of visible vaginal discharge did not differ between the two groups. Moreover, the microbiological cures of patients in each group did not differ at these visits (z = 0.447; p = 0.655). Vaginal irrigation with saline significantly reduces self-reported symptoms in the short term but has no effect on long-term clinical and laboratory results in women with infectious vaginitis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Salinity effect of irrigation with treated wastewater in basal soil respiration in SE of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugan, A.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.

    2012-04-01

    The use of treated wastewater for the irrigation of agricultural soils is an alternative to utilizing better-quality water, especially in semiarid regions where water shortage is a very serious problem. Wastewater use in agriculture is not a new practice, all over the world this reuse has been common practice for a long time, but the concept is of greater importance currently because of the global water crisis. Replacement of freshwater by treated wastewater is seen as an important conservation strategy contributing to agricultural production, substantial benefits can derive from using this nutrient-rich waste water but there can also be a negative impact. For this reason it is necessary to know precisely the composition of water before applying it to the soil in order to guarantee minimal impact in terms of contamination and salinization. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, different parameters in calcareous soils irrigated with treated wastewater in an agricultural Mediterranean area located at Biar (Alicante, SE Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters were used for the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated wastewater from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type during the study period. A soil sampling was carried out every four months. We show the results of the evolution of basal soil respiration (BSR), and its relationship with other parameters. We observed a similar pattern of behavior for BSR between treatments, a decrease at the first eighteen months of irrigation and an increase at the end of study. In our study case, the variations of BSR obtained for all the treatments seem to be closely related to the dose and frequency of irrigation and the related soil wetting and drying cycles. However, the results showed a negative correlation between BSR and

  1. Varying evapotranspiration and salinity level of irrigation water influence soil quality and performance of perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne l.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing use of recycled water that is often high in salinity warrants further examination of irrigation practices for turfgrass health and salinity management. A study was conducted during 2011-2012 in Riverside, CA to evaluate the response of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) ‘SR 4550’ turf...

  2. Electrolyzed Saline Irrigation for Elimination of Bacterial Colonization in the Empyema Space.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Kembu; Takeshige, Motohiro; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Hashiyada, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Kazuya; Kawamoto, Sadahiro

    2016-12-01

    The empyema space is refractory to elimination of bacterial colonization. Electrolyzed saline (ES) was used as intra-pleural irrigation for rapid disinfection of the empyema space. Twenty consecutive patients with para-pneumonic empyema were reviewed in this study from 2007 to 2015. The empyema space was irrigated by miniaturized thoracoscopic surgery (mini VATS), and the efficacy and safety of the use of ES were evaluated. Sixteen patients were male and four were female, with a mean age of 66.5 ± 9.5 y (27-90 y). Bacterial cultures of the purulent effusions from all 20 patients had positive results. Seventeen patients subsequently underwent continuous catheter irrigation and drainage. No patient had chest pain during ES irrigation. Fever duration after mini VATS was 2.8 ± 1.8 d (0-5 d). Catheter indwelling time was 10.3 ± 7.2 d (3-33 d). Inflammatory markers significantly improved (p < 0.05) within a week after mini VATS. Eighteen patients achieved pleural disinfection, and two patients had residual pathogens, one of whom later died of lung abscess. Space closure was successful in 14 patients. No patient underwent subsequent open drainage. Nineteen (95%) patients were discharged from the hospital. This treatment was successful in 18 (90%) patients, and one (5.6%) patient experienced recurrence. The ES irrigation facilitates the rapid disinfection and closure of the empyema space.

  3. Detecting the Spatio-temporal Distribution of Soil Salinity and Its Relationship to Crop Growth in a Large-scale Arid Irrigation District Based on Sampling Experiment and Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, D.; Huang, G., Sr.; Xu, X.; Huang, Q., Sr.; Xiong, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Soil salinity analysis on a regional scale is of great significance for protecting agriculture production and maintaining eco-environmental health in arid and semi-arid irrigated areas. In this study, the Hetao Irrigation District (Hetao) in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, with suffering long-term soil salinization problems, was selected as the case study area. Field sampling experiments and investigations related to soil salt contents, crop growth and yields were carried out across the whole area, during April to August in 2015. Soil salinity characteristics in space and time were systematically analyzed for Hetao as well as the corresponding impacts on crops. Remotely sensed map of soil salinity distribution for surface soil was also derived based on the Landsat OLI data with a 30 m resolution. The results elaborated the temporal and spatial dynamics of soil salinity and the relationships with irrigation, groundwater depth and crop water consumption in Hetao. In addition, the strong spatial variability of salinization was clearly presented by the remotely sensed map of soil salinity. Further, the relationship between soil salinity and crop growth was analyzed, and then the impact degrees of soil salinization on cropping pattern, leaf area index, plant height and crop yield were preliminarily revealed. Overall, this study can provide very useful information for salinization control and guide the future agricultural production and soil-water management for the arid irrigation districts analogous to Hetao.

  4. Salinity control in a clay soil beneath an orchard irrigated with treated waste water in the presence of a high water table: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, David; Laufer, Asher; Bardhan, Gopali; Levy, Guy J.

    2015-12-01

    A citrus orchard planted on a structured, clay soil associated with a high water table, irrigated by drip irrigation system using treated waste water (TWW) and local well water (LWW) was considered here. The scope of the present study was to analyze transport of mixed-ion, interacting salts in a combined vadose zone-groundwater flow system focusing on the following issues: (i) long-term effects of irrigation with TWW on the response of the flow system, identifying the main factors (e.g., soil salinity, soil sodicity) that control these effects, and (ii) salinity control aiming at improving both crop productivity and groundwater quality. To pursue this two-fold goal, 3-D numerical simulations of field-scale flow and transport were performed for an extended period of time, considering realistic features of the soil, water table, crop, weather and irrigation, and the coupling between the flow and the transport through the dependence of the soil hydraulic functions, K(ψ) and θ(ψ), on soil solution concentration C, and sodium adsorption ratio, SAR. Results of the analyses suggest that in the case studied, the long-term effect of irrigation with TWW on the response of the flow system is attributed to the enhanced salinity of the TWW, and not to the increase in soil sodicity. The latter findings are attributed to: (i) the negative effect of soil salinity on water uptake, and the tradeoff between water uptake and drainage flux, and, concurrently, solute discharge below the root zone; and, (ii) the tradeoff between the effects of C and SAR on K(ψ) and θ(ψ). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that a data-driven protocol for soil salinity control, based on alternating irrigation water quality between TWW and desalinized water, guided by the soil solution salinity at the centroid of the soil volume active in water uptake, may lead to a substantial increase in crop yield, and to a substantial decrease in the salinity load in the groundwater.

  5. Cadaveric validation study of computational fluid dynamics model of sinus irrigations before and after sinus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Craig, John R; Zhao, Kai; Doan, Ngoc; Khalili, Sammy; Lee, John YK; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N

    2016-01-01

    Background Investigations into the distribution of sinus irrigations have been limited by labor-intensive methodologies that do not capture the full dynamics of irrigation flow. The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for sinonasal irrigations through a cadaveric experiment. Methods Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed on two fresh cadavers to open all eight sinuses, including a Draf III procedure for cadaver 1, and Draf IIb frontal sinusotomies for cadaver 2. Computed tomography maxillofacial scans were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively, from which CFD models were created. Blue-dyed saline in a 240 mL squeeze bottle was used to irrigate cadaver sinuses at 60 mL/s (120 mL per side, over 2 seconds). These parameters were replicated in CFD simulations. Endoscopes were placed through trephinations drilled through the anterior walls of the maxillary and frontal sinuses, and sphenoid roofs. Irrigation flow into the maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses was graded both ipsilateral and contralateral to the side of nasal irrigation, and then compared with the CFD simulations. Results In both cadavers, preoperative and postoperative irrigation flow into maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses matched extremely well when comparing the CFD models and cadaver endoscopic videos. For cadaver 1, there was 100% concordance between the CFD model and cadaver videos, and 83% concordance for cadaver 2. Conclusions This cadaveric experiment provided potential validation of the CFD model for simulating saline irrigation flow into the maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses before and after sinus surgery. PMID:26880742

  6. Salinity and Alkaline pH in Irrigation Water Affect Marigold Plants: II. Mineral Ion Relations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scarcity of water of good quality for landscape irrigation is of outmost importance in arid and semiarid regions due to the competition with urban population. This is forcing the use of degraded waters with high levels of salinity and high pH, which may affect plant establishment and growth. The o...

  7. Effect of irrigation water salinity on the organic carbon mineralization in soil (laboratory incubation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancer, Halima; Bouhoun, Mustapha Daddi

    2018-05-01

    In a laboratory study, the impact of salts on mineralization of organic carbon of soil was examined through the monitoring of the amount of CO2-C released from soil. The soil used was classified as a nonsaline soil which has been irrigated with artificially salinized water, a factorial combination of three types of salts (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2) with three levels of electrical conductivities (3, 6, and 9 dS.m-1) was used to assess the Carbon mineralization. The incubation was carried out under aerobic conditions and at a constant temperature of 28 °C during 70 days with moisture adjusted to 2/3 of the field capacity. No significant (P > 0.05) variation in the amount of CO2-C release from soil was observed until day 56 of the incubation, but it was significantly different due to the irrigation with salt solutions during the days: 70 (p ≤ 0.05). The results suggest that the rate of C-CO2 evolution decreased with the increase in water salinity compared to the control. Also this decrease of C-mineralization in the soils irrigated by the salts solutions of NaCl was the greatest compared to the other two salts (CaCl2, and MgCl2). These results suggest that C mineralization depended on the type of salts as well as the duration of incubation.

  8. Computational Modeling of Open-Irrigated Electrodes for Radiofrequency Cardiac Ablation Including Blood Motion-Saline Flow Interaction

    PubMed Central

    González-Suárez, Ana; Berjano, Enrique; Guerra, Jose M.; Gerardo-Giorda, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is a routine treatment for cardiac arrhythmias. During RFCA, the electrode-tissue interface temperature should be kept below 80°C to avoid thrombus formation. Open-irrigated electrodes facilitate power delivery while keeping low temperatures around the catheter. No computational model of an open-irrigated electrode in endocardial RFCA accounting for both the saline irrigation flow and the blood motion in the cardiac chamber has been proposed yet. We present the first computational model including both effects at once. The model has been validated against existing experimental results. Computational results showed that the surface lesion width and blood temperature are affected by both the electrode design and the irrigation flow rate. Smaller surface lesion widths and blood temperatures are obtained with higher irrigation flow rate, while the lesion depth is not affected by changing the irrigation flow rate. Larger lesions are obtained with increasing power and the electrode-tissue contact. Also, larger lesions are obtained when electrode is placed horizontally. Overall, the computational findings are in close agreement with previous experimental results providing an excellent tool for future catheter research. PMID:26938638

  9. Research on the autumn irrigation schedule of Hetao Irrigation District of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Salinization of soil has great influence on the function of crop land, leading to the crop failure to some extent. One of the inducement of salinization is that the water pressure of frozen soil is lower than that of unfrozen, salt is drew up to the frozen layer along with water during the freezing process. To prevent the salinization of soil, people carry out the autumn irrigation in Hetao Irrigation District which located is located in Bayannur City, Inner Mongolia, north of China. Autumn irrigation is an irrigation event before the freezing of soil, the function of autumn irrigation includes soil moisture conservation, loosening the soil and leaching the salt. Among all the crop models, none is designed to simulate the water and salt movement during freezing and thawing progress. So In this study, SWAP (Soil Water Atmosphere Plant) model is modified by adding the freezing and thawing module which enable the model to take into consideration the effect of freezing and thawing on water and salt movement. After validating the modified model using field data and lab test results, the model was used to simulate the results of various autumn irrigation schedules, exploring the influence of different autumn irrigation amounts on the water, salt and heat condition and transportation of soil. Finally, proper autumn irrigation schedule was obtained to instruct the production of Hetao Irrigation District.

  10. Deficit irrigation of a landscape halophyte for reuse of saline waste water in a desert city

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glenn, E.P.; Mckeon, C.; Gerhart, V.; Nagler, P.L.; Jordan, F.; Artiola, J.

    2009-01-01

    Saline waste waters from industrial and water treatment processes are an under-utilized resource in desert urban environments. Management practices to safely use these water sources are still in development. We used a deeprooted native halophyte, Atriplex lentiformis (quailbush), to absorb mildly saline effluent (1800 mg l-1 total dissolved solids, mainly sodium sulfate) from a water treatment plant in the desert community of Twentynine Palms, California. We developed a deficit irrigation strategy to avoid discharging water past the root zone to the aquifer. The plants were irrigated at about one-third the rate of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) calculated from meteorological data over five years and soil moisture levels were monitored to a soil depth of 4.7 m at monthly intervals with a neutron hydroprobe. The deficit irrigation schedule maintained the soil below field capacity throughout the study. Water was presented on a more or less constant schedule, so that the application rates were less than ETo in summer and equal to or slightly greater than ETo in winter, but the plants were able to consume water stored in the profile in winter to support summer ET. Sodium salts gradually increased in the soil profile over the study but sulfate levels remained low, due to formation of gypsum in the calcic soil. The high salt tolerance, deep roots, and drought tolerance of desert halophytes such as A. lentiformis lend these plants to use as deficit-irrigated landscape plants for disposal of effluents in urban setting when protection of the aquifer is important. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Analyses and treatments of postoperative nasal complications after endonasal transsphenoidal resection of pituitary neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, You; Xue, Fei; Wang, Tian-You; Ji, Jun-Feng; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhi-Yi; Xu, Li; Hang, Chun-Hua; Liu, Xin-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we analyze and discuss the treatments of postoperative nasal complications after endonasal transsphenoidal resection of pituitary neoplasms (PNs). We performed 129 endonasal transsphenoidal resections of PNs and analyzed and treated cases with nasal complications. After endonasal transsphenoidal resection of PNs, there were 26 cases of postoperative nasal complications (20.1%), including nasal hemorrhage (4.8%), cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea (6.9%), sphenoid sinusitis (2.3%), atrophic rhinitis (1.6%), olfactory disorder (1.6%), perforation of nasal septum (0.8%), and nasal adhesion (2.3%). All patients clinically recovered after therapy, which included treatment of the cavity through nasal endoscopy, intranasal corticosteroids, and nasal irrigation. We propose that regular nasal endoscopic review, specific nasal medications, and regular nasal irrigation can effectively clear nasal mucosal hyperemia-induced edema and nasal/nasoantral secretions, as well as promote regeneration of nasal mucosa, prevent nasal adhesion, maintain the sinus cavity drainage, and accelerate the recovery of the physiological function of the paranasal sinus. Timely treatment of patients with nasal complications after endonasal transsphenoidal resections of PNs could greatly relieve the clinical symptoms. Nasal cleaning is very beneficial to patients after surgery recovery. PMID:28403108

  12. Prospective open-label evaluation of long-term low-dose doxycycline for difficult-to-treat chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Pinto Bezerra Soter, A C; Bezerra, T F; Pezato, R; Teles Abdo, T R; Pilan, R M; Pinna, F R; Gevaert, P; van Zele, T; Bachert, C; Voegels, R L

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to assess clinical outcomes of long-term low-dose oral doxycycline therapy in difficult-to-treat chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps (CRSwNP). This was a prospective, open-label study of 60 patients with difficult-to-treat CRSwNP who had undergone endoscopic sinus surgery. Patients were divided into two groups: 28 received nasal steroids, saline irrigation, and doxycycline (200 mg on the first day, followed by 100 mg once daily) for 12 weeks, while 30 received only nasal steroids and saline irrigation. The main outcome measure was an adequate effect size of doxycycline treatment on clinically meaningful significant improvement of SNOT-20. Other outcome measures were the SNOT-20, NOSE, and Lund-Kennedy scores. The following parameters were also analyzed: asthma, rhinitis, non-steroidal-exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD), and baseline serum IgG, IgA, IgE, IgM, ANCA, and eosinophil count. There was an adequate effect size of doxycycline treatment on clinically meaningful significant improvement of SNOT-20. Patients who received doxycycline also had significantly better outcomes regarding SNOT-20, NOSE, and Lund-Kennedy scores. There was a negative association among a clinically significant improvement of SNOT-20 and presence of asthma, NERD, and elevated serum IgE levels before treatment. These findings suggest that doxycycline may have a beneficial role for CRSwNP patients, especially for patients without asthma, NERD or high levels of serum IgE before treatment.

  13. Effect of saline irrigation water on gas exchange and proline metabolism in ber (Ziziphus).

    PubMed

    Bagdi, D L; Bagri, G K

    2016-09-01

    An experiment was conducted in pots of 25 kg capacity to study the effect of saline irrigation (EC 0,5,10,15 and 20 dSm-1) prepared by mixing NaCl, NaSO4, CaCl and MgCl2 in 3:1 ratio of chloride and sulphate on gas exchange traits, membrane stability, chlorophyll stability index and osmolytic defense mechanism in Ziziphus rotundifolia and Ziziphus nummularia species of Indian jujube (Z.mauritiana). Result showed that net photosynthetic rate (PN), transpiration (e) and stomatal conductance were comparatively lower in Ziziphus nummularia, which further declined with increasing level of saline irrigation water. Chlorophyll stability and membrane stability also declined significantly in salt stress, with higher magnitude in Ziziphus nummularia. The activity of proline anabolic enzymes; Δ1-Pyrrolline-5-carboxylate reductase, Δ1-Pyrrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase and Ornithine-δ-aminotransferase were recorded higher in Ziziphus rotundifolia with decrease in proline dehydrogenase. The sodium content was observed higher in roots of Ziziphus rotundifolia and leaves of Ziziphus nummularia. Therefore, it is suggested that salt tolerance mechanism was more efficiently operative in Ziziphus rotundifolia owing to better management of physiological attributes, osmolytic defense mechanism and restricted translocation of sodium from root to leaves along with larger accumulation of potassium in its leaves.

  14. Salinization and Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    L-1), although the chloride comprises only a fraction of the total dissolved salts in water. The Cl/TDS ratio varies from 0.1 in nonmarine saline waters to ˜0.5 in marine-associated saline waters. Water salinity is also defined by electrical conductivity (EC). In soil studies, the electrical conductivity and the ratio of Na/√(Ca+Mg) (SAR) are often used as an indirect measure of soil salinity. In addition to chloride, high levels of other dissolved constituents may limit the use of water for domestic, agriculture, and industrial applications. In some parts of Africa, China, and India, for example, high fluoride content is associated with saline groundwater and causes severe dental and skeletal fluorosis (Shiklomanov, 1997). Hence, the "salinity" problem is only the "tip of the iceberg," as high levels of salinity are associated with high concentrations of other inorganic pollutants (e.g., sodium, sulfate, boron, fluoride), and bioaccumulated elements (e.g., selenium, and arsenic) (see Chapter 9.03).The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the chloride concentration of the water supply for human consumption should not exceed 250 mg L-1. Agriculture applications also depend upon the salinity level of the supplied water. Many crops, such as citrus, avocado, and mango, are sensitive to chloride concentration in irrigation water (an upper limit of 250 mg L-1). In addition, long-term irrigation with water enriched with sodium results in a significant reduction in the hydraulic conductivity and hence the fertility of the irrigated soil. Similarly, the industrial sector demands water of high quality. For example, the high-tech industry requires a large amount of water with low levels of dissolved salts. Hence, the salinity level of groundwater is one of the limiting factors that determine the suitability of water for a variety of applications.The salinity problem is a global phenomenon but it is more severe in water-scarce areas, such as arid and semi

  15. Effect of Saline Water Irrigation on Growth and Physiological Responses of Three Rose Rootstocks

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Genhua; Rodriguez, Denise S.; Aguiniga, Lissie

    2009-01-01

    Salt-tolerant landscape plants are needed for arid and semiarid regions where the supply of quality water is limited and soil salinization often occurs. This study evaluated growth, chloride (Cl) and sodium (Na) uptake, relative chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence of three rose rootstocks [Rosa ×fortuniana Lindl., R. multiflora Thunb., and R. odorata (Andr.) Sweet] irrigated with saline solutions at 1.6 (control), 3.0, 6.0, or 9.0 dS·m −1 electrical conductivity in a greenhouse. After 15 weeks, most plants in 9.0 dS·m −1 treatment died regardless of rootstock. Significant growth reduction was observed in all rootstocks at 6.0 dS·m −1 compared with the control and 3.0 dS·m −1, but the reduction in R. ×fortuniana was smaller than in the other two rootstocks. The visual scores of R. multiflora at 3.0 and 6.0 dS·m−1 were slightly lower than those of the other rootstocks. Rosa odorata had the highest shoot Na concentration followed by R. multiflora; however, R. multiflora had the highest root Na concentration followed by R. odorata. All rootstocks had higher Cl accumulation in all plant parts at elevated salinities, and no substantial differences in Cl concentrations in all plant parts existed among the rootstocks, except for leaf Cl concentration in R. multiflora, which was higher than those in the other two rootstocks. The elevated salinities of irrigation water reduced the relative chlorophyll concentration, measured as leaf SPAD readings, and maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) and minimal fluorescence (F0)/maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm), but the largest reduction in Fv/Fm was only 2.4%. Based on growth and visual quality, R. ×fortuniana was relatively more salt-tolerant than the other two rootstocks and R. odorata was slightly more salt-tolerant than R. multiflora. PMID:20148186

  16. [Clinical analysis of nasal resistance and pulmonary function testing in patients with chronic nasal-sinusitis and nasal polyps].

    PubMed

    Liao, Hua; Shen, Ying; Wang, Pengjun

    2015-05-01

    To study the pulmonary function and nasal resistance characteristics of patients with chronic nose-sinusitis and nasal polyps (CRSwNP), to explore the evaluation role of nasal resistance in nasal ventilation function and the effect of endoscopic sinus surgery on pulmonary function in patients with CRSwNP. Fifty CRSwNP patients that met the study criteria were selected . The patients were performed endoscopic surgeries according to Messerklinger surgical procedures under general anesthesia. Extent of surgery was based on preoperative CT showing the range of the lesion of disease and endoscopic findings. Perioperative treatments contained intranasal corticosteroids, cephalosporin or penicillin antibiotics, nasal irrigation and other treatments. Main outcome measures included visual analog scale (VAS), endoscopic Lind-Kennedy scores, nasal resistence, pulmonary function in patientsone week before and after surgery, three months and six months after surgery. Pulmonary function includes forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity FEV1/FVC and peak expiratory flow (PEF). The study found that there were significantly positive correlations among VAS score, Lund-Kennedy score and nasal resistance (P < 0.05) in CRSwNP patients, but there is a significantly negative correlation between VAS score, Lund-Kennedy score, nasal resistance and pulmonary function indexes of FEV1, FVC and PEF (P < 0.05). The VAS score, Lund-Kennedy score and nasal resistance values of CRSwNP patients were decreased significantly after comprehensive treatments with nasal endoscopic operation as the major one, the difference was statistically different (P < 0.05). And the pulmonary function indexs (FEV1, FVC, PEF) were significantly increased after surgery in CRSwNP patients. The nasal resistance can objectively and reliably reflect the degree of nasal congestion and the recovery of nasal function in CRSwNP patients after endoscopic sinus surgery. The detection method of nasal

  17. Accumulation of Chiro-inositol and Other Non-structural Carbohydrates in Limonium Species in Response to Saline Irrigation Waters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two statice cultivars, Limonium perezii (Stapf) F. T. Hubb cv. ‘Blue Seas’ and L. sinuatum (L.) Mill ‘American Beauty’, were grown in greenhouse sand tanks to determine the effect of salt stress on carbohydrate accumulation and partitioning. Irrigation waters were prepared to simulate typical saline...

  18. The effect of dilute baby shampoo on nasal mucociliary clearance in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Seth; Fakhri, Samer; Luong, Amber; Whited, Chad; Citardi, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    Biofilm formation has been implicated as an etiologic factor in the development of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Nasal irrigation with surfactants including dilute baby shampoo have been proposed as an antibiofilm treatment for CRS patients. The effect of dilute baby shampoo on normal sinonasal mucosal function is unknown. Mucociliary clearance time (MCT), as measured by the time in minutes for a subject to detect a sweet taste after the application of a saccharin granules at the anterior part of the inferior turbinate, was performed before and shortly after nasal irrigation with 50 ml of 1% baby shampoo (Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ) in 27 healthy volunteers. Mean MCTs before and after irrigation were 12.09 (±4.83 minutes) and 15.45 (±7.71 minutes) minutes, respectively. The mean difference, 3.37 minutes, was statistically significant (p = 0.031). Pre- and post-MCTs for each subject were not correlated (r = 0.324; p = 0.100). Nasal irrigations with dilute baby shampoo increase MCTs in healthy subjects. The impact of such interventions in CRS patients warrants additional investigation.

  19. Nasal hydropulsion: a novel tumor biopsy technique.

    PubMed

    Ashbaugh, Elizabeth A; McKiernan, Brendan C; Miller, Carrie J; Powers, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Intranasal tumors of dogs and cats pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for small animal practitioners. Multiple nasal biopsy techniques have been described in the past. This report describes a simplified flushing technique to biopsy and debulk nasal tumors, which often also results in immediate clinical relief for the patient. Based on the results of this retrospective study, the authors recommend high-pressure saline hydropulsion as a minimally invasive diagnostic, and potentially therapeutic, technique for nasal tumors in dogs and cats.

  20. Implications of salinity pollution hotspots on agricultural production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerke, Martina; Fink, Julia; Malsy, Marcus; Voelker, Jeanette; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Salinity pollution can have many negative impacts on water resources used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Elevated concentrations of salinity in irrigation water can lead to decreased crop production or crop death and, thus, causing an economic problem. Overall, salinity pollution is a global problem but tends to be more severe in arid and semi-arid regions where the dilution capacity of rivers and lakes is lower and the use of irrigation higher. Particularly in these regions agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water as insufficient water quality further reduces the available freshwater resources. According to the FAO, irrigated agriculture contributes about 40 percent of the total food production globally, and therefore, high salinity pollution poses a major concern for food production and food security. We use the WaterGAP3 modeling framework to simulate hydrological, water use, and water quality conditions on a global scale for the time period 1990 to 2010. The modeling framework is applied to simulate total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from different point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to agricultural food production. The model was tested and calibrated against observed data from GEMStat and literature sources. Although global in scope, the focus of this study is on developing countries, i.e., in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, as these are most threatened by salinity pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use are examined, indicating limitations to crop production. Our results show that elevated salinity concentrations in surface waters mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is not only the most relevant water use sector contributing to water abstractions, but also the dominant source of salinity pollution. Additionally

  1. Soil salinisation and irrigation management of date palms in a Saharan environment.

    PubMed

    Haj-Amor, Zied; Ibrahimi, Mohamed-Khaled; Feki, Nissma; Lhomme, Jean-Paul; Bouri, Salem

    2016-08-01

    The continuance of agricultural production in regions of the world with chronic water shortages depends upon understanding how soil salinity is impacted by irrigation practises such as water salinity, irrigation frequency and amount of irrigation. A two-year field study was conducted in a Saharan oasis of Tunisia (Lazala Oasis) to determine how the soil electrical conductivity was affected by irrigation of date palms with high saline water. The study area lacked a saline shallow water table. Field results indicate that, under current irrigation practises, soil electrical conductivity can build up to levels which exceed the salt tolerance of date palm trees. The effects of irrigation practises on the soil electrical conductivity were also evaluated using model simulations (HYDRUS-1D) of various irrigation regimes with different frequencies, different amounts of added water and different water salinities. The comparison between the simulated and observed results demonstrated that the model gave an acceptable estimation of water and salt dynamics in the soil profile, as indicated by the small values of root mean square error (RMSE) and the high values of the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE). The simulations demonstrated that, under field conditions without saline shallow groundwater, saline irrigation water can be used to maintain soil electrical conductivity and soil water content at safe levels (soil electrical conductivity <4 dS m(-1) and soil water content >0.04 cm(3) cm(-3)) if frequent irrigations with small amounts of water (90 % of the evapotranspiration requirements) were applied throughout the year.

  2. An investigation of the basic physics of irrigation in urology and the role of automated pump irrigation in cystoscopy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Dwayne; Manecksha, Rustom P; Syrrakos, Konstantinos; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of height, external pressure, and bladder fullness on the flow rate in continuous, non-continuous cystoscopy and the automated irrigation fluid pumping system (AIFPS). Each experiment had two 2-litre 0.9% saline bags connected to a continuous, non-continuous cystoscope or AIFPS via irrigation tubing. Other equipment included height-adjustable drip poles, uroflowmetry devices, and model bladders. In Experiment 1, saline bags were elevated to measure the increment in flow rate. In Experiment 2, saline bags were placed under external pressures to evaluate the effect on flow rate. In Experiment 3, flow rate changes in response to variable bladder fullness were measured. Elevating saline bags caused an increase in flow rates, however the increment slowed down beyond a height of 80 cm. Increase in external pressure on saline bags elevated flow rates, but inconsistently. A fuller bladder led to a decrease in flow rates. In all experiments, the AIFPS posted consistent flow rates. Traditional irrigation systems were susceptible to changes in height of irrigation solution, external pressure application, and bladder fullness thus creating inconsistent flow rates. The AIFPS produced consistent flow rates and was not affected by any of the factors investigated in the study.

  3. Untangling the effects of shallow groundwater and deficit irrigation on irrigation water productivity in arid region: New conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jingyuan; Huo, Zailin; Wang, Fengxin; Kang, Shaozhong; Huang, Guanhua

    2018-04-01

    Water scarcity and salt stress are two main limitations for agricultural production. Groundwater evapotranspiration (ET g ) with upward salt movement plays an important role in crop water use and water productivity in arid regions, and it can compensate the impact of deficit irrigation on crop production. Thus, comprehensive impacts of shallow groundwater and deficit irrigation on crop water use results in an improvement of irrigation water productivity (IWP). However, it is difficult to quantify the effects of groundwater and deficit irrigation on IWP. In this study, we built an IWP evaluation model coupled with a water and salt balance model and a crop yield estimation model. As a valuable tool of IWP simulation, the calibrated model was used to investigate the coupling response of sunflower IWP to irrigation water depths (IWDs), groundwater table depth (GTDs) and groundwater salinities (GSs). A total of 210 scenarios were run in which five irrigation water depths (IWDs) and seven groundwater table depths (GTDs) and six groundwater salinities (GSs) were used. Results indicate that increasing GS clearly increases the negative effect on a crop's actual evapotranspiration (ET a ) as salt accumulation in root zone. When GS is low (0.5-1g/L), increasing GTD produces more positive effect than negative effect. In regard to relatively high GS (2-5g/L), the negative effect of shallow-saline groundwater reaches a maximum at 2m GTD. Additionally, the salt concentration in the root zone maximizes its value at 2.0m GTD. In most cases, increasing GTD and GS reduces the benefits of irrigation water and IWP. The IWP increases with decreasing irrigation water. Overall, in arid regions, capillary rise of shallow groundwater can compensate for the lack of irrigation water and improve IWP. By improving irrigation schedules and taking advantages of shallow saline groundwater, we can obtain higher IWP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Adopting adequate leaching requirement for practical response models of basil to salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babazadeh, Hossein; Tabrizi, Mahdi Sarai; Darvishi, Hossein Hassanpour

    2016-07-01

    Several mathematical models are being used for assessing plant response to salinity of the root zone. Objectives of this study included quantifying the yield salinity threshold value of basil plants to irrigation water salinity and investigating the possibilities of using irrigation water salinity instead of saturated extract salinity in the available mathematical models for estimating yield. To achieve the above objectives, an extensive greenhouse experiment was conducted with 13 irrigation water salinity levels, namely 1.175 dS m-1 (control treatment) and 1.8 to 10 dS m-1. The result indicated that, among these models, the modified discount model (one of the most famous root water uptake model which is based on statistics) produced more accurate results in simulating the basil yield reduction function using irrigation water salinities. Overall the statistical model of Steppuhn et al. on the modified discount model and the math-empirical model of van Genuchten and Hoffman provided the best results. In general, all of the statistical models produced very similar results and their results were better than math-empirical models. It was also concluded that if enough leaching was present, there was no significant difference between the soil salinity saturated extract models and the models using irrigation water salinity.

  5. Low salinity hydrocarbon water disposal through deep subsurface drip irrigation: leaching of native selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton R.; Engle, Mark A.; Boehlke, Adam R.; Zupancic, John W.; Brown, Adrian; Figueroa, Linda; Wolkersdorfer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    A subsurface drip irrigation system is being used in Wyoming’s Powder River Basin that treats high sodium, low salinity, coal bed methane (CBM) produced water with sulfuric acid and injects it into cropped fields at a depth of 0.92 m. Dissolution of native gypsum releases calcium that combats soil degradation that would otherwise result from high sodium water. Native selenium is leached from soil by application of the CBM water and traces native salt mobilization to groundwater. Resulting selenium concentrations in groundwater at this alluvial site were generally low (0.5–23 μg/L) compared to Wyoming’s agricultural use suitability standard (20 μg/L).

  6. In vivo effects of endotoxin on DNA synthesis in rat nasal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Harkema, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A.

    Airway inflammation in bacterial infections is characterized by the presence of neutrophils and often epithelial injury and repair. Release of endotoxin from bacteria may contribute to these processes. The purpose of this study was to determine the in vivo effects of repeated endotoxin exposure on DNA synthesis in rat nasal epithelium in the presence and absence of neutrophilic influx. Rats were intranasally instilled, once a day for 3 days, with endotoxin or saline (controls). Before the first and third instillations, half of the saline and endotoxin-instilled animals were depleted of circulating blood neutrophils by administering a rabbit anti-rat neutrophil antiserum.more » Rats were sacrificed 6 or 24 h after the last instillation. Two hours prior to sacrifice, rats were intraperitoneally injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), an analog of thymidine that is incorporated in the nucleus of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle. Nasal tissues were processed for light microscopy and immunohistochemical detection of BrdU in nasal epithelial cells. The numbers of nasal epithelial cells, BrdU-labeled epithelial nuclei, and neutrophils per millimeter of basal lamina in the epithelium lining the nasal turbinates in the proximal nasal passages were determined by morphometric analysis. The authors did not observe a neutrophilic influx in the nasal tissues of neutrophil-depleted rats at 6 or 24 h after the last endotoxin instillation; however, the numbers of nasal epithelial cells and the BrdU-labeling index were significantly increased compared to saline-instilled controls. In contrast, non-neutrophil-depleted rats instilled with endotoxin had a marked neutrophilic influx, but no significant differences in the number of nasal epithelial cells at 6 or 24 h, compared to controls. In addition, the BrdU-labeling index in neutrophil-sufficient rats was increased only 6 h after the last instillation, compared to controls.« less

  7. Assessing the Risk of Aquifer Salinization in a Large-Scale Coastal Irrigation Scheme in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccaria, Daniele; Passarella, Giuseppe; D'Agostino, Daniela; Giordano, Raffaele; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; Maggi, Sabino; Bruno, Delia; Foglia, Laura

    2017-04-01

    A research study was conducted on a coastal irrigated agricultural area of southern Italy to assess the risks of aquifer degradation likely resulting from the intensive groundwater pumping from individual farm wells and reduced aquifer recharge. Information were collected both from farmers and delivery system's operators during a survey conducted in 2012 revealing that farmers depend mainly on groundwater with the aim to achieve flexible irrigation management as opposed to the rigid rotational delivery service of surface water supply provided by the local water management agency. The study area is intensively farmed by small land-holding growers with high-value micro-irrigated horticultural crops. Our team appraised the soil and aquifer degradation hazards using a simplified procedure for environmental risk assessment that allowed identifying the risk-generating processes, evaluating the magnitude of impacts, and estimating the overall risks significance. We also collected the stakeholders' perceptions on agricultural water management and use through field interviews, whereas parallel investigations revealed significant aquifer salinity increase during the recent years. As a final step, some preliminary risk mitigation options were appraised by exploring the growers' response to possible changes of irrigation deliveries by the water management agency. The present study integrated multi-annual observations, data interpretation, and modelling efforts, which jointly enabled the analysis of complex water management scenarios and the development of informed decisions. Keywords: Environmental risk assessment, Fuzzy cognitive maps, Groundwater degradation, Seawater intrusion

  8. [Simulation of effect of irrigation with reclaimed water on soil water-salt movement by ENVIRO-GRO model].

    PubMed

    Lü, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

    2012-12-01

    As the conflict between water supply and demand, wastewater reuse has become an important measure, which can relieve the water shortage in Beijing. In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing, a city of water shortage, under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this research. The accumulation trends of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, it investigated the effects of different irrigation practices on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation. Results indicated that annual averages of soil salinity (EC(e)) increased 29.5%, 97.2%, 197.8% respectively, with the higher irrigation, normal irrigation, and low irrigation under equilibrium conditions. Irrigation frequency had little effect on soil salt-water movement, and soil salt accumulation was in a downward trend with low frequency of irrigation. Under equilibrium conditions, annual averages of EC(e) increased 23.7%, 97.2%, 208.5% respectively, with irrigation water salinity (EC(w)) 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 dS x m(-1). Soil salinity increased slightly with EC(w) = 0.6 dS x m(-1), while soil salinization did not appear. Totally, the growth of Blue grass was not influenced by soil salinity under equilibrium conditions with the regular irrigation in Beijing, but mild soil salinization appeared.

  9. Modelling Regional Hotspots of Water Pollution Induced by Salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsy, M.; Floerke, M.

    2014-12-01

    Insufficient water quality is one of the main global topics causing risk to human health, biodiversity, and food security. At this, salinization of water and land resources is widely spread especially in arid to semi-arid climates, where salinization, often induced by irrigation agriculture, is a fundamental aspect of land degradation. High salinity is crucial to water use for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes, and therefore poses a risk to human health and ecosystem status. However, salinization is also an economic problem, in particular in those regions where agriculture makes a significant contribution to the economy and/or where agriculture is mainly based on irrigation. Agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water resulting in lower yields. Hence, not only the quantity of irrigation water is of importance for growing cops but also its quality, which may further reduce the available resources. Thereby a major concern for food production and security persists, as irrigated agriculture accounts for over 30% of the total agricultural production. In this study, the large scale water quality model WorldQual was applied to simulate recent total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to food security. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries, as these are most threatened by water pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use were examined, indicating limitations to crop production. For this purpose, model simulations were conducted for the year 2010 to show the recent status of surface water quality and to identify hotspots and main causes of pollution. Our results show that salinity hotspots mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is by far the dominant sector contributing to water abstractions as

  10. Irrigation of steppe soils in the south of Russia: Problems and solutions (Analysis of Irrigation Practices in 1950-1990)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minashina, N. G.

    2009-07-01

    Experience in irrigation of chernozems in the steppe zone of Russia for a period from 1950 to 1990 is analyzed. By the end of this period and in the subsequent years, the areas under irrigation reduced considerably, and the soil productivity worsened. This was caused by the improper design of irrigation systems, on the one hand, and by the low tolerance of chernozems toward increased moistening upon irrigation, on the other hand. The analysis of the factors and regimes of soil formation under irrigation conditions shows that irrigation-induced changes in the soil hydrology also lead to changes in the soil physicochemical, biochemical, and other properties. In particular, changes in the composition of exchangeable cations lead to the development of solonetzic process. In many areas, irrigation of chernozems was accompanied by the appearance of solonetzic, vertic, saline, and eroded soils. The development of soil degradation processes is described. In general, the deterioration of irrigated chernozems was related to the absence of adequate experience in irrigation of steppe soils, unskilled personnel, improper regime of irrigation, and excessively high rates of watering. In some cases, the poor quality of irrigation water resulted in the development of soil salinization and alkalization. To improve the situation, the training of personnel is necessary; the strategy of continuous irrigation should be replaced by the strategy of supplementary irrigation in the critical periods of crop development.

  11. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaib Jadoon, Khan; Umer Altaf, Muhammad; McCabe, Matthew Francis; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Nisar; Moghadas, Davood; Weihermüller, Lutz

    2017-10-01

    A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In MCMC the posterior distribution is computed using Bayes' rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell's equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness as compared to layers electrical conductivity are not very informative and are therefore difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC-based inversion to field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provides useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  12. Effect of irrigation water salinity and sodicity and water table position on water table chemistry beneath Atriplex lentiformis and Hordeum marinum

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, L.S.; Bauder, J.W.; Phelps, S.D.

    2006-04-15

    Coal bed methane (CBM) extraction in Montana and Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) produces large quantities of modestly saline-sodic water. This study assessed effects of irrigation water quality and water table position on water chemistry of closed columns, simulating a perched or a shallow water table. The experiment assessed the potential salt loading in areas where shallow or perched water tables prevent leaching or where artificial drainage is not possible. Water tables were established in sand filled PVC columns at 0.38, 0.76, and1.14 m below the surface, after which columns were planted to one of three species, two halophytic Atriplexmore » spp. and Hordeum marinum Huds. (maritime barley), a glycophyte. As results for the two Atriplex ssp. did not differ much, only results from Atriplex lentiformis (Torn) S. Wats. (big saltbush) and H. marinum are presented. Irrigation water representing one of two irrigation sources was used: Powder River (PR) (electrolytic conductivity (EC) = 0.19 Sm{sup -1}, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) = 3.5) or CBM water (EC = 0.35 Sm-1, SAR = 10.5). Continuous irrigation with CBM and PR water led to salt loading over time, the extent being proportional to the salinity and sodicity of applied water. Water in columns planted to A. lentiformis with water tables maintained at 0.38 m depth had greater EC and SAR values than those with 0.76 and 1.14 m water table positions. Elevated EC and SAR values most likely reflect the shallow rooted nature of A. lentiformis, which resulted in enhanced ET with the water table close to the soil surface.« less

  13. Effectiveness of nasal irrigation for chronic rhinosinusitis and fatigue in patients with Gulf War illness: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hayer, Supriya D; Rabago, David P; Amaza, Iliya P; Kille, Tony; Coe, Christopher L; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Zakletskaia, Larissa; Mundt, Marlon P; Krahn, Dean; Obasi, Chidi N; Molander, Rachel C

    2015-03-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) affects 1 in 7 returned Persian Gulf War veterans. Quality-of-life impact is large; there is no cure. Chronic sinus symptoms and fatigue are common. Nasal irrigation with saline (NI-S) or xylitol (NI-X) improve sinus symptoms and fatigue in the general population. This trial will assess the effect of NI-S and NI-X on sinus and fatigue symptoms, economic outcomes and pro-inflammatory milieu among participants with GWI. 75 participants (age 35 to 65 years, 25 in each of three arms) with GWI will be recruited from the Veteran's Administration and the community. They will use routine care for sinus symptoms and fatigue and be randomized to continued usual care alone or additional therapy with NI-S or NI-X. Participants will be able to adjust specific elements of the NI procedure. The primary outcome (Sinonasal Outcome Test, SNOT-20) and other self-reported assessments will occur at baseline, 8 and 26 weeks; lab assessment of pro-inflammatory cellular and cytokine profiles will occur at baseline and 26 weeks. Other outcomes will include fatigue-specific and overall health-related quality of life, pro-inflammatory cellular and cytokine profiles, cost-effectiveness and participant satisfaction. Baseline demographic and clinical data from the first 10 participants show effective participant recruitment, enrollment, randomization, retention and data collection. Early study conduct suggests that our participant-oriented approach will yield high rates of participant adherence and data capture, facilitating robust analysis. Results of this study will clarify the value of NI for chronic sinus symptoms and fatigue among patients with GWI. clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01700725. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. A randomized, prospective, double-blind study of the efficacy of dexpanthenol nasal spray on the postoperative treatment of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis after endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Tantilipikorn, Pongsakorn; Tunsuriyawong, Prayuth; Jareoncharsri, Perapun; Bedavanija, Anan; Assanasen, Paraya; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Metheetrairut, Choakchai

    2012-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of dexpanthenol nasal spray compared with normal saline spray in the postoperative treatment of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). A prospective, randomized controlled study was conducted in CRS patients who underwent ESS. The enrolled patients had never been operated intranasally. These patients received either dexpanthenol or normal saline nasal spray intranasally four times a day for six weeks post-operatively. Fifty CRS patients were recruited in the present study. Age ranged from 23 to 63 years (means 43.4 +/- 11.2 years). Forty-four percent of patients were diagnosed as CRS without nasal polyps (NP) (CRSs NP) and 56% were CRS with NP (CRSw NP). Twenty-five cases were randomly assigned to use dexpanthenol nasal spray whereas the other 25 cases used normal saline nasal spray. The preoperative severity of CRS, determined by the computerized tomography (CT) scan scoring system of Lund-McKay was 13.9 +/- 6.2 in the dexpanthenol group and 13.6 +/- 6.9 in the normal saline group, which were not statistically different (p > 0.05). The endoscopic scoring was 10.2 +/- 2 in the dexpanthenol group and 10.7 +/- 3 in the normal saline group, which were not statistically different (p > 0.05). The mucociliary transit time improvement (time difference between pre- and post-treatment by nasal spray) was 8.4 +/- 3.3 minutes in the dexpanthenol group and 1.7 +/- 1.2 minutes in the normal saline group, which were statistically different (p < 0.05). The majority of the postoperative symptom scores and all of the endoscopic scores of the dexpanthenol group were not statistically different from those of the normal saline group. However, dexpanthenol nasal spray has superior efficacy compared with normal saline nasal spray on improvement of mucociliary clearance and nasal discharge in the postoperative care of CRS patients after ESS.

  15. Characterization of mechanisms and processes of groundwater salinization in irrigated coastal area using statistics, GIS, and hydrogeochemical investigations.

    PubMed

    Bouzourra, Hazar; Bouhlila, Rachida; Elango, L; Slama, Fairouz; Ouslati, Naceur

    2015-02-01

    Coastal aquifers are at threat of salinization in most parts of the world. This study was carried out in coastal shallow aquifers of Aousja-Ghar El Melh and Kalâat el Andalous, northeastern of Tunisia with an objective to identify sources and processes of groundwater salinization. Groundwater samples were collected from 42 shallow dug wells during July and September 2007. Chemical parameters such as Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), Cl(-), SO4 (2-), HCO3 (-), NO3 (-), Br(-), and F(-) were analyzed. The combination of hydrogeochemical, statistical, and GIS approaches was used to understand and to identify the main sources of salinization and contamination of these shallow coastal aquifers as follows: (i) water-rock interaction, (ii) evapotranspiration, (iii) saltwater is started to intrude before 1972 and it is still intruding continuously, (iv) irrigation return flow, (v) sea aerosol spray, and finally, (vi) agricultural fertilizers. During 2005/2006, the overexploitation of the renewable water resources of aquifers caused saline water intrusion. In 2007, the freshening of a brackish-saline groundwater occurred under natural recharge conditions by Ca-HCO3 meteoric freshwater. The cationic exchange processes are occurred at fresh-saline interfaces of mixtures along the hydraulic gradient. The sulfate reduction process and the neo-formation of clays minerals characterize the hypersaline coastal Sebkha environments. Evaporation tends to increase the concentrations of solutes in groundwater from the recharge areas to the discharge areas and leads to precipitate carbonate and sulfate minerals.

  16. Heavy metal water pollution associated with the use of sewage sludge compost and limestone outcrop residue for soil restoration: effect of saline irrigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Gimeno, Ana; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Gómez, Ignacio; Belén Almedro-Candel, María; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    The use of composted sewage sludge and limestone outcrop residue in soil restoration and technosol making can influence the mobility of heavy metals into groundwater. The use of compost from organic residues is a common practice in soil and land rehabilitation, technosol making, and quarry restoration (Jordán et al. 2008). Compost amendments may improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils (Jordão et al. 2006; Iovieno et al. 2009). However, the use of compost and biosolids may have some negative effects on the environment (Karaca 2004; Navarro-Pedreño et al. 2004). This experiment analyzed the water pollution under an experimental design based on the use of columns (0-30 cm) formed by both wastes. Two waters of different quality (saline and non-saline) were used for irrigation. The presence of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the leachates was checked under controlled conditions inside a greenhouse (mean values: 20°±5°C and around 60% relative humidity). Sixteen 30-cm tall columns made of PVC pipe with internal diameters of 10.5 cm were prepared. The columns were filled with one of these materials: either sewage sludge compost (SW) or limestone outcrop residue (LR), fraction (<4 mm). The columns were irrigated with 2000 mL/week (230 mm) for twelve weeks (April to July). Half of them were irrigated with non-saline water (NS) and the others were so with saline water (S) from the beginning of the experiment. Four treatments combining the quality of the irrigation water (saline and non-saline) and wastes were studied: SW-NS, SW-S, LR-NS, and LR-S. After 24 hours of irrigation on the first day of each week, the leachates were taken and analyzed the heavy metal content (AAS-ES espectometer). The environmental risk due to the presence of heavy metals associated with the use of these materials was very low in general (under 0.1 mg/L). The use of sewage sludge favoured the presence of these metals in the lecheates and no effect

  17. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  18. Salinity Management in Agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Existing guidelines and standards for reclamation of saline soils and management to control salinity exist but have not been updated for over 25 years. In the past few years a looming water scarcity has resulted in questioning of the long term future of irrigation projects in arid and semi arid regi...

  19. Salinity trends in the Ebro River (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo-Gonzalez, M.° Angeles; Isidoro, Daniel; Quilez, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    In the Ebro River Basin (Spain), the increase in water diversion for irrigation (following the increase in irrigated area) and the recovery of natural vegetation in the upper reaches, along with climate change have induced changes in the river flow and its associated salt loads. This study was supported by the Ebro River Basin Administration (CHE) and aimed to establish the trends in the salt concentrations and loads of the Ebro River at Tortosa (no 027, the extreme downstream gauging station). The CHE databases from 1972-73 to 2011-12, including mean monthly flows (Q) and concentration readings (electrical conductivity converted to total dissolved solids -TDS- by regression) from monthly grab samples, have been used. The trends were established by (i) harmonic regression analysis; (ii) linear regression by month; and (iii) the non-parametric Mann-Kendall method. Additionally, (iv) the regressions of TDS on Q in the current and previous months were established, allowing for analyzing separately the trends in TDS linked to- (TDSq) and independent of- (TDSaj) the observed changes in flow. In all cases, the trends were analyzed for different periods within the full span 1973-2012 (1973 to 2012, 1981 to 2012, 1990-2012 and 2001-2012), trying to account for periods with sensibly similar patterns of land use change. An increase in TDS was found for all the periods analyzed that was lower as shorter periods were used, suggesting that lower salinity changes might be taking place in the last years, possibly due to the reduction in the rate of irrigation development and to the on-going irrigation modernization process. The higher seasonal TDS increases were found in autumn and winter months and the increase in TDS was linked both to intrinsic changes in salinity (TDSaj) and to the observed decrease in flow (TDSq). On the other hand, the salt loads decreased, especially in autumn, as a result of the observed flow decrease. These results are based on the observed evolution of

  20. Effect on patient anxiety of lidocaine infiltration into nasal packing after septoplasty: prospective, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Sahin, C; Aras, H I

    2015-08-01

    This prospective, controlled study investigated the effect on patient anxiety of lidocaine infiltration into nasal packing following septoplasty. The study included 50 patients who underwent septoplasty operation. Patient anxiety levels were measured 24 hours pre-operatively; 48 hours post-operatively, before saline or lidocaine infiltration; and 15 minutes after lidocaine or saline infiltration into the packing. The patients were asked to mark their level of pain during pack removal on a visual analogue scale. Hamilton Anxiety Scale scores for lidocaine infiltration patients were: 15.1 ± 7.4 pre-operatively; 16 ±7.6 post-operatively, before infiltration; and 13.7 ± 6.6 at 15 minutes after infiltration. The scores for saline infiltration patients were: 16.3 ± 6.8 pre-operatively, 16.4 ± 5.5 before infiltration and 16.1 ± 6.1 after infiltration. The visual analogue scale pain score was 5.3 ± 2.0 in the lidocaine study group and 7.5 ± 1.8 in the control saline group. Infiltration of lidocaine into nasal packing significantly reduced patient pain. Patients developed mild to moderate anxiety before nasal packing removal. Use of techniques without nasal packing can be recommended after septoplasty to ease patient post-operative discomfort.

  1. Development and application of a conceptual hydrologic model to predict soil salinity within modern Tunisian oases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askri, Brahim; Bouhlila, Rachida; Job, Jean Olivier

    2010-01-01

    SummaryIn modern oases situated in the south of Tunisia, secondary salination of irrigated lands is a crucial problem. The visible salt deposits and soil salination processes are the consequence of several factors including the excessive use of saline irrigation water, seepage from earthen canal systems, inefficient irrigation practices and inadequate drainage. Understanding the mechanism of the secondary salination is of interest in order to maintain existing oases, and thus ensure the sustainability of date production in this part of the country. Therefore, a conceptual, daily, semi-distributed hydrologic model (OASIS_MOD) was developed to analyse the impact of irrigation management on the water table fluctuation, soil salinity and drain discharge, and to evaluate measures to control salinity within an oasis ecosystem. The basic processes incorporated in the model are irrigation, infiltration, percolation to the shallow groundwater, soil evaporation, crop transpiration, groundwater flow, capillary rise flux, and drain discharge. OASIS_MOD was tested with data collected in a parcel of farmland situated in the Segdoud oasis, in the south-west of Tunisia. The calibration results showed that groundwater levels were simulated with acceptable accuracy, since the differences between the simulated and measured values are less than 0.22 m. However, the model under-predicted some water table peaks when irrigation occurs due to inconsistencies in the irrigation water data. The validation results showed that deviations between observed and simulated groundwater levels have increased to about 0.5 m due to under-estimation of groundwater inflow from an upstream palm plantation. A long-term simulation scenario revealed that the soil salinity and groundwater level have three types of variability in time: a daily variability due to irrigation practices, seasonal fluctuation due to climatic conditions and annual variability explained by the increase in cultivated areas. The

  2. [Soil sandy desertification and salinization and their interrelationships in Yanghuang irrigated area of Hongsipu, Ningxia of northwest China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-guo; Song, Nai-ping

    2011-09-01

    By the methods of controlled and typical sampling, this paper analyzed the texture, salinization characteristics, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and their correlations in the 0-40 cm soil profiles of corn land, medlar land, and non-utilized land in Yanghuang irrigated area of Hongsipu, Northwest China. Under controlled sampling, the salt content in the soil profiles was 0.69-1.30 g x kg(-1) (except in non-utilized land where the 0-10 cm soil salt content was up to 1.74 g x kg(-1)), with no obvious salinization. The sodium adsorption ratio and exchangeable sodium percentage in the 20-40 cm soil layer of medlar land were 12.18 and 14.1%, respectively, and the total content of clay and silt in the 0-40 cm soil profile of medlar land was up to 37.3% whereas that in the 0-20 cm soil layer of corn land was only 13.5%. In the 20-40 cm soil layer of corn land, the indices of sandy desertification and salinization had significant correlations under controlled sampling but no correlations under typical sampling, while the CEC and the sandy desertification and salinization indices had significant correlations under typical sampling. In different land use types in the study area, soil sandy desertification and salinization had complicated interrelationships, and CEC could be used as the indicator for the changes in soil environmental quality.

  3. Hydrochemical characterization of a groundwater aquifer and its water quality in relation to irrigation in the Jinghuiqu irrigation district of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuhua; Li, Lin; Hu, Anyan

    2013-03-01

    The Jinghuiqu irrigation district is located in the semi-arid regions of northwestern China, where groundwater is the most important natural source for local industry, agriculture and residents. The present work was conducted in the Jinghuiqu irrigation district to characterize the groundwater aquifer, which has undergone long-term flood irrigation for over 2000 years. Isotopic and hydrochemical analyses, along with geological and hydrogeological tools, were used to determine the chemical properties and evolutionary processes of the groundwater aquifer. Results showed that the groundwater chemistry had changed significantly from 1990 to 2009. Water with concentrations of CaMgSO4 had decreased significantly, from 60% to 28% of the total water samples, during the period, while water with concentrations of NaSO4 and NaCl increased significantly, from 28% to 72%. The salinity of the groundwater increased rapidly and the affected area had expanded to most of the irrigation district. Stable isotope studies showed that most of the groundwater concentrations were derived from sulfate mineral dissolution. The minerals saturation indices (SI), ion ratios and oxygen isotope values of the groundwater indicated that the shallow groundwater had mainly experienced mineral dissolution, cation exchange, and mixing of the irrigated surface waters and groundwater. The groundwater quality had continuously evolved toward salinization as concentrations of SO4(2-) and Na+ grew to dominate it. Water quality risk analyses showed that most of the saline groundwater is not suitable for domestic and irrigation uses, especially in the middle and eastern parts of the irrigation district. These findings indicate that the irrigation district should strengthen the groundwater resources management.

  4. Seasonal induced changes in spinach rhizosphere microbial community structure with varying salinity and drought.

    PubMed

    Mark Ibekwe, A; Ors, Selda; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Liu, Xuan; Suarez, Donald L

    2017-02-01

    Salinity is a common problem under irrigated agriculture, especially in low rainfall and high evaporative demand areas of southwestern United States and other semi-arid regions around the world. However, studies on salinity effects on soil microbial communities are relatively few while the effects of irrigation-induced salinity on soil chemical and physical properties and plant growth are well documented. In this study, we examined the effects of salinity, temperature, and temporal variability on soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in sand tanks irrigated with prepared solutions designed to simulate saline wastewater. Three sets of experiments with spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Racoon) were conducted under saline water during different time periods (early winter, late spring, and early summer). Bacterial 16S V4 rDNA region was amplified utilizing fusion primers designed against the surrounding conserved regions using MiSeq® Illumina sequencing platform. Across the two sample types, bacteria were relatively dominant among three phyla-the Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes-accounted for 77.1% of taxa detected in the rhizosphere, while Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria accounted for 55.1% of taxa detected in soil. The results were analyzed using UniFrac coupled with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) to compare diversity, abundance, community structure, and specific bacterial groups in soil and rhizosphere samples. Permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) analysis showed that soil temperature (P=0.001), rhizosphere temperature (P=0.001), rhizosphere salinity (P=0.032), and evapotranspiration (P=0.002) significantly affected beta diversity of soil and rhizosphere microbial communities. Furthermore, salinity had marginal effects (P=0.078) on soil beta diversity. However, temporal variability differentially affected rhizosphere microbial communities irrigated with saline wastewater. Therefore, microbial communities in

  5. In vitro safety evaluation of human nasal epithelial cell monolayers exposed to carrageenan sinus wash.

    PubMed

    Ramezanpour, Mahnaz; Murphy, Jae; Smith, Jason L P; Vreugde, Sarah; Psaltis, Alkis James

    2017-12-01

    Carrageenans have shown to reduce the viral load in nasal secretions and lower the incidence of secondary infections in children with common cold. Despite the widespread use of carrageenans in topical applications, the effect of carrageenans on the sinonasal epithelial barrier has not been elucidated. We investigate the effect of different carrageenans on the sinonasal epithelial barrier and inflammatory response in vitro. Iota and Kappa carrageenan delivered in saline irrigation solutions applied to air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of primary human nasal epithelial cells from chronic rhinosinusitis patients and controls. Epithelial barrier structure was assessed by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and immunolocalization of F actin. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF), toxicity, and inflammatory response was studied. Kappa or Iota carrageenan in the different solutions was not toxic, did not have detrimental effects on epithelial barrier structure and CBF. Rather, application of Kappa carrageenan significantly increased TEER and suppressed interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion in ALI cultures from CRS patients. Kappa or Iota carrageenan solution was safe and did not negatively affect epithelial barrier function. Kappa carrageenan increased TEER and decreased IL-6 production in CRS patients, indicating positive effects on epithelial barrier function in vitro. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  6. Effects of salinity on eggplant (Solanum Melongena L.) growth and evapotranspiration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of irrigation water salinity on eggplant growth, yield, water consumption and mineral matter accumulation in leaves and fruits were investigated with a greenhouse experiment. For this purpose, five saline irrigation waters with electrical conductivities of 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 5.0, 7.0 dS/m an...

  7. [Effects of brackish water irrigation on soil enzyme activity, soil CO2 flux and organic matter decomposition].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian-qian; Wang, Fei; Liu, Tao; Chu, Gui-xin

    2015-09-01

    Brackish water irrigation utilization is an important way to alleviate water resource shortage in arid region. A field-plot experiment was set up to study the impact of the salinity level (0.31, 3.0 or 5.0 g · L(-1) NaCl) of irrigated water on activities of soil catalase, invertase, β-glucosidase, cellulase and polyphenoloxidase in drip irrigation condition, and the responses of soil CO2 flux and organic matter decomposition were also determined by soil carbon dioxide flux instrument (LI-8100) and nylon net bag method. The results showed that in contrast with fresh water irrigation treatment (CK), the activities of invertase, β-glucosidase and cellulase in the brackish water (3.0 g · L(-1)) irrigation treatment declined by 31.7%-32.4%, 29.7%-31.6%, 20.8%-24.3%, respectively, while soil polyphenoloxidase activity was obviously enhanced with increasing the salinity level of irrigated water. Compared to CK, polyphenoloxidase activity increased by 2.4% and 20.5%, respectively, in the brackish water and saline water irrigation treatments. Both soil microbial biomass carbon and microbial quotient decreased with increasing the salinity level, whereas, microbial metabolic quotient showed an increasing tendency with increasing the salinity level. Soil CO2 fluxes in the different treatments were in the order of CK (0.31 g · L(-1)) > brackish water irrigation (3.0 g · L(-1)) ≥ saline water irrigation (5.0 g · L(-1)). Moreover, CO2 flux from plastic film mulched soil was always much higher than that from no plastic film mulched soil, regardless the salinity of irrigated water. Compared with CK, soil CO2 fluxes in the saline water and brackish water treatments decreased by 29.8% and 28.2% respectively in the boll opening period. The decomposition of either cotton straw or alfalfa straw in the different treatments was in the sequence of CK (0.31 g · L(-1)) > brackish water irrigation (3.0 g · L(-1)) > saline water treatment (5.0 g · L(-1)). The organic matter

  8. Polymer tensiometers in a saline environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; Gooren, H. P. A.; Bakker, G.; Russell, W.; Hoogendam, C. W.; Huiskes, C.; Shouse, P.; de Rooij, G. H.

    2010-05-01

    It is estimated that 20% of all cultivated land and nearly half of the irrigated land is salt-affected, which pose major economic and environmental problems. Salinity may be the result of two processes; dryland and irrigation salinity. Dryland salinity is caused by a rise in the groundwater table, which occurs as a result of the replacement of deep-rooted, perennial native vegetation by shallow-rooted annual species meant for production. Irrigation salinity may occur as a result of poor water quality, poor drainage, or inefficient use of water. Consequently, new strategies to enhance crop yield stability on saline soils represent a major research priority (Botella et al. 2005). At the same time, native vegetation is capable of thriving under saline and/or dry conditions. The plant physiology of such vegetation has been investigated thoroughly, but the relation with in situ soil properties (soil moisture and salinity) may be more difficult to unravel as soil moisture sensors are less sensitive in dry soil, and the signal of most soil moisture content sensors is strongly attenuated by soil salinity. Recently, polymer tensiometer were developed that are able to measure matric potentials (closely related to a soil's moisture status) in dry soils. Polymer tensiometers consist of a solid ceramic, a stainless steel cup and a pressure transducer. The ceramic consist of a support layer and a membrane with 2 nm pore-size to prevent polymer leakage. Between the ceramic membrane and the pressure transducer a tiny chamber is located, which contains the polymer solution. The polymer's osmotic potential strongly reduces the total water potential inside the polymer tensiometer, which causes build-up of osmotic pressure. Polymer tensiometers would thus be an ideal instrument to measure in dry soil, if the polymer inside the tensiometer is not affected by the salts in the soil solution. We will address some key issues regarding the use of POTs in saline environments by showing

  9. Basics of Compounding: Compounding Irrigation Solutions for Sterile and Nonsterile Preparations.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2017-01-01

    Compounding pharmacists are sometimes called upon to prepare irrigation solutions, especially in the hospital or clinical setting. Irrigations are indicated for washing or bathing surgical incisions, wounds, and body tissues, including body cavities. Some irrigation solutions coming in contact with exposed tissue, must meet stringent requirements of sterility and bacterial endotoxins. Compounded irrigation solutions may involve wound(s), the bladder, and also may be for ophthalmic, otic, and nasal application. Some vaginal douches/instillations and rectal solutions may also be used as irrigations. As with any medication administered to the body or used on body tissues, there are requirements, and these may vary depending on the type of irrigation solution involved. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  10. Physical characteristics of commercial and home-made nasal lavage solutions.

    PubMed

    Lilic, N; Waldvogel-Thurlow, S; Douglas, R G

    2014-01-01

    Nasal saline lavage forms a cornerstone of chronic rhinosinusitis management. A number of saline lavage recipes and products are currently available but little is known of their relative physical characteristics. To determine the osmolarity and pH of nasal lavage solutions, both commercial preparations and home-made recipes, and to determine the reproducibility of saline solution preparation. Five home-made recipes and two commercial products were prepared in triplicate and analysed. Eight consecutive clinic patients prepared a commercial product and 11 prepared a home-made recipe, and the osmolarity and pH were measured. The osmolarity of the solutions varied widely, from 140 to 788 mmol/l and the pH varied from 7.88 to 8.50. The commercial and home-made solutions had similar reproducibility when prepared by patients. Some recipes were markedly hypo-osmolar and some were hyper-osmolar. All were slightly alkaline. The home-made recipes had similar physical characteristics and reproducibility to commercial preparations.

  11. Heavy metal displacement in salt-water-irrigated soil during phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Wahla, Intkhab Hazoor; Kirkham, M B

    2008-09-01

    In regions where phytoremediation is carried out, brackish water must often be used. However, no information exists concerning the consequences of saline-water irrigation on the mobility of heavy metals in sludge applied to soil during phytoremediation. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of NaCl irrigation on displacement of seven heavy metals in sludge (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) applied to the surface of soil columns containing barley plants. Half the columns received NaCl irrigation (10,000 mg L(-1)) and half the columns received tap-water irrigation. Half the columns were treated with the chelating agent EDTA. With no EDTA, irrigation with the NaCl solution increased the concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, and Pb in the drainage water above drinking-water standards. Irrigation of sludge farms with brackish water is not recommended, because saline water increased the mobility of the heavy metals and they polluted the drainage water.

  12. Irrigation water quality influences heavy metal uptake by willows in biosolids.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, W Scott; Baker, Alan J M; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2015-05-15

    Phytoextraction is an effective method to remediate heavy metal contaminated landscapes but is often applied for single metal contaminants. Plants used for phytoextraction may not always be able to grow in drier environments without irrigation. This study investigated if willows (Salix x reichardtii A. Kerner) can be used for phytoextraction of multiple metals in biosolids, an end-product of the wastewater treatment process, and if irrigation with reclaimed and freshwater influences the extraction process. A plantation of willows was established directly onto a tilled stockpile of metal-contaminated biosolids and irrigated with slightly saline reclaimed water (EC ∼2 dS/cm) at a wastewater processing plant in Victoria, Australia. Biomass was harvested annually and analysed for heavy metal content. Phytoextraction of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc was benchmarked against freshwater irrigated willows. The minimum irrigation rate of 700 mm per growing season was sufficient for willows to grow and extract metals. Increasing irrigation rates produced no differences in total biomass and also no differences in the extraction of heavy metals. The reclaimed water reduced both the salinity and the acidity of the biosolids significantly within the first 12 months after irrigation commenced and after three seasons the salinity of the biosolids had dropped to <15% of initial values. A flushing treatment to remove excess salts was therefore not necessary. Irrigation had an impact on biosolids attributes such as salinity and pH, and that this had an influence on metal extraction. Reclaimed water irrigation reduced the biosolid pH and this was associated with reductions of the extraction of Ni and Zn, it did not influence the extraction of Cu and enhanced the phytoextraction of Cd, which was probably related to the high chloride content of the reclaimed water. Our results demonstrate that flood-irrigation with reclaimed water was a successful treatment to grow willows in a

  13. Bladder irrigation in patients with indwelling catheters.

    PubMed

    Bruun, J N; Digranes, A

    1978-01-01

    The effect of intermittent bladder irrigation on the bacterial counts in urine samples was studied in patients with indwelling catheter and pre-existing urinary tract infection. Four different irrigating solutions were used. Irrigation with saline or 0.25% acetic acid had no effect on the urinary bacterial count. The bacterial counts were effectively reduced during intermittent irrigation both with 0.02% chlorhexidine and with 0.25% silver nitrate. Silver nitrate gave the greatest reduction of bacterial counts but chlorhexidine is preferable due to fewer side effects and greater convenience.

  14. [Effect of shifting sand burial on evaporation reduction and salt restraint under saline water irrigation in extremely arid region].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Xin-Wen; Lei, Jia-Qiang; Li, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Yong-Dong

    2014-05-01

    The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt is drip-irrigated with high saline groundwater (2.58-29.70 g x L(-1)), and shifting sand burial and water-salt stress are most common and serious problems in this region. So it is of great importance to study the effect of shifting sand burial on soil moisture evaporation, salt accumulation and their distribution for water saving, salinity restraint, and suitable utilization of local land and water resources. In this study, Micro-Lysimeters (MLS) were used to investigate dynamics of soil moisture and salt under different thicknesses of sand burial (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm), and field control experiments of drip-irrigation were also carried out to investigate soil moisture and salt distribution under different thicknesses of shifting sand burial (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 cm). The soil daily and cumulative evaporation decreased with the increase of sand burial thickness in MLS, cumulative evaporation decreased by 2.5%-13.7% compared with control. And evaporative inhibiting efficiency increased with sand burial thickness, evaporative inhibiting efficiency of 1-5 cm sand burial was 16.7%-79.0%. Final soil moisture content beneath the interface of sand burial increased with sand burial thickness, and it increased by 2.5%-13.7% than control. The topsoil EC of shifting sand in MLS decreased by 1.19-6.00 mS x cm(-1) with the increasing sand burial thickness, whereas soil salt content beneath the interface in MLS increased and amplitude of the topsoil salt content was higher than that of the subsoil. Under drip-irrigation with saline groundwater, average soil moisture beneath the interface of shifting sand burial increased by 0.4% -2.0% compare with control, and the highest value of EC was 7.77 mS x cm(-1) when the sand burial thickness was 10 cm. The trend of salt accumulation content at shifting sand surface increased firstly, and then decreased with the increasing sand burial thickness. Soil salt contents beneath the

  15. Influence of irrigation protocols on the bond strength of fiber posts cemented with a self-adhesive luting agent 24 hours after endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Lima, Jessica Ferraz Carvalho; Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Humel, Maria Malerba Colombi; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different irrigation protocols on the bond strength, at different root depths, of fiber posts cemented with a self-adhesive cement 24 hours after endodontic treatment. Fifty-six bovine incisor roots were endodontically prepared and separated into 7 groups (n = 8) according to irrigation protocols: group 1, sterile saline (control); group 2, chlorhexidine (CHX) gel 2% and saline; group 3, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 5.25% and saline; group 4, CHX and saline (final irrigation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA] 17%); group 5, NaOCl and saline (final irrigation with EDTA); group 6, CHX and saline (final irrigation with NaOCl and EDTA); and group 7, NaOCl (final irrigation with CHX and EDTA). No statistically significant difference was found among the groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the different irrigation protocols did not influence the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement, which presented similar behaviors at the 3 root depths studied.

  16. Natural establishment and selenium accumulation of herbaceous plant species in soils with elevated concentrations of selenium and salinity under irrigation and tillage practices.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Enberg, A; Tanji, K K

    1993-04-01

    The effects of irrigation and tillage practices were studied on species richness, biomass, and selenium accumulation of naturally established herbaceous plants in soils with elevated levels of selenium (Se) and salinity at Kesterson Reservoir, Merced County, California. The four different irrigation-tillage practice combinations were (1) no irrigation, no tillage; (2) irrigation, no tillage; (3) no irrigation, tillage; and (4) irrigation, tillage. The fields were allowed to become colonized naturally by herbaceous plant species. For the Mediterranean climate in the study site, irrigation was conducted biweekly through the summer months, and tillage was done in 3-month intervals. Biomass and Se accumulation of Atriplex patula L, Bassia hyssopifolia Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl., Melilotus indica (L.) All., and Salsola kali L. were substantially affected by irrigation. The degree and direction of the effects were found to be species dependent. The field plots which were tilled at 3-month intervals remained bare throughout the experiment. The total soil Se concentrations in the top 15 cm soil horizon were found to be in the range of 40 to 70 mg kg-1 dry wt. Soil Se concentrations below 25 cm soil depth were much lower and within a range of 2 to 4 mg kg-1. Less than 1/10th of the total soil Se inventory in the top soil horizon was water extractable, and the distribution of the Se inventory did not change significantly over the period of 1990 and 1991 despite the irrigation and tillage practices suggesting that a large portion of the Se inventory was not remobilized. The water-extractable soil Se concentration was found to be significantly lower in soils with the greatest biomass production suggesting an effective bioextraction of soil selenium by the native herbaceous plants.

  17. An overview of soil water sensors for salinity & irrigation management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. Accurate irrigation management is even more important in salt affected soils ...

  18. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Four Different Types of Needles in Irrigating Endodontically Treated Teeth.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-08

    3. Shih, M.; Marshall, F. J.; and Rosen, S. The bactericidal efficiency of sodium hypochlorite as an endodontic irrigant. Oral Surg 29(4): 613-619...and Rosen9 investi- gated the cleansing effect of sodium hypochlorite and normal saline on the apical one third using a standard irrigating method. They...found that sodium hypochlorite was no better than normal saline solutiun in irrigating this segment. Salzgeber and Brilliant10 investigated the

  19. Comparison of nasal hyperosmolar xylitol and xylometazoline solutions on quality of life in patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy secondary to nonallergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Cingi, Cemal; Birdane, Leman; Ural, Ahmet; Oghan, Fatih; Bal, Cengiz

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to objectively determine and compare the efficacy and effectiveness of xylitol solution (Xlear Nasal Sprey®) compared with xylometazoline and physiological saline with respect to quality of life (QoL) in patients with nasal congestion. A prospective, randomized study was performed in 42 patients who had nasal obstruction and hypertrophied turbinate mucosa that was refractory to medical treatment. The study population was randomized into 3 groups according to the application of xylometazoline, physiological saline, and xylitol hyperosmolar solution. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated objectively (4-phase rhinomanometry) and subjectively (visual analogue scale VAS.) before and after the application of the nasal solutions. QoL was evaluated by means of Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ). VAS scores and 4-phase rhinomanometry scores were better in the group treated with xylometazoline compared to those treated with xylitol or saline. The xylitol procedure yielded better results than the saline procedure, but differences were not statistically significant in both objective and subjective evaluation methods. For overall QoL, there was a significant improvement from baseline for the xylometazoline and xylitol groups. However, the improvement in the xylometazoline group was significantly greater than that obtained in the xylitol group. Xlear Nasal Spray® is an effective modality in the treatment of nasal congestion and has positive effect on the QoL of patients. Further studies are needed in order to plan an ongoing treatment of Xlear Nasal Sprey® at certain intervals for continuous relief of symptoms and a better and longstanding QoL. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  20. Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis in neurosurgery: clinical trial of systemic flomoxef administration and saline containing gentamicin for irrigation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Jimbo, M; Ide, M; Tanaka, N; Umebara, Y; Hagiwara, S

    1996-06-01

    The efficacy of a new protocol consisting of a prophylactic antibiotic regimen of peri- and postoperative intravenous administration of flomoxef and irrigation of the operative field with saline containing gentamicin was assessed by comparing infection rates in two consecutive series of patients who underwent neurosurgical procedures. Group A received postoperative flomoxef administration, with saline containing no antibiotics for irrigation, from July 1988 to December 1989. Group B received the new protocol from January 1990 to December 1991. For further evaluation, this protocol was continued in most patients who underwent surgery from January 1992 through December 1993 (Group C). Only adult or adolescent patients who underwent clean neurosurgical procedures were included. The number of patients and procedures in each group were: 76 patients (97 procedures) in Group A, 103 (133) in Group B, and 107 (137) in Group C. There were no significant differences between Groups A and B in age, sex, clinical category, coexistent disease, clinical outcome, surgical procedures, general anesthesia, emergency operation, steroid administration, and the timing (season), duration, and frequency of surgery. Meningitis developed in three patients and subcutaneous infection in one in Group A. None of the patients in Group B experienced postoperative infection. This difference in infection rates (4.1% vs. 0%) was statistically significant (p = 0.0305). Furthermore, no postoperative infections developed in the Group C patients. The most appropriate interval for multiple dose administration was determined by analyzing intraoperative time-related changes in the serum flomoxef concentration during surgery in 21 recent patients. Serum flomoxef concentrations fell below therapeutic levels (3.0 micrograms/ml) by the 6th post-administration hour in 70% of patients. We conclude that this antibiotic regimen significantly reduces the postoperative infection rate following neurosurgical

  1. A coupled agronomic-economic model to consider allocation of brackish irrigation water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Gal, Alon; Weikard, Hans-Peter; Shah, Syed Hamid Hussain; van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.

    2013-05-01

    In arid and semiarid regions, irrigation water is scarce and often contains high concentrations of salts. To reduce negative effects on crop yields, the irrigated amounts must include water for leaching and therefore exceed evapotranspiration. The leachate (drainage) water returns to water sources such as rivers or groundwater aquifers and increases their level of salinity and the leaching requirement for irrigation water of any sequential user. We develop a conceptual sequential (upstream-downstream) model of irrigation that predicts crop yields and water consumption and tracks the water flow and level of salinity along a river dependent on irrigation management decisions. The model incorporates an agro-physical model of plant response to environmental conditions including feedbacks. For a system with limited water resources, the model examines the impacts of water scarcity, salinity and technically inefficient application on yields for specific crop, soil, and climate conditions. Moving beyond the formulation of a conceptual frame, we apply the model to the irrigation of Capsicum annum on Arava Sandy Loam soil. We show for this case how water application could be distributed between upstream and downstream plots or farms. We identify those situations where it is beneficial to trade water from upstream to downstream farms (assuming that the upstream farm holds the water rights). We find that water trade will improve efficiency except when loss levels are low. We compute the marginal value of water, i.e., the price water would command on a market, for different levels of water scarcity, salinity and levels of water loss.

  2. [Influence of saltwater irrigation on the yield and quality of Cynodon dactylon under desert conditions].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ruilian; Dov, Paternak; Zhao, Halin

    2002-08-01

    Responses of six varieties (Suwannee, Coast cross, Tifton44, Tifton68, Tifton78 and Tifton85) of Cynodon dactylon to irrigation-water salinity were investigated in field by means of a double line source experimental design. The digestibility of the grass by goat was analyzed using the rumen gastric justice digestion method. The results showed that the six varieties grew well, and had a high yield of fresh grass when eletro-conductivity (Eci) < 10 ds.m-1. Particularly when Eci = 4.4 ds.m-1, the fresh grass yield of Coast cross, Suwannee, Tifton44, Tifton68, Tifton78 and Tifton85 was respectively increased by 142.1%, 61.1%, 136%, 121.1%, 202.3% and 109.7%, in comparison with fresh water (Eci = 1.2) irrigation. Dry matter yield was also elevated with the increasing salinity of irrigated water. There was no obvious effect of salinity on crude protein, fiber and ash contents in the six varieties. Goats were fond of eating the hay irrigated by saline water, perhaps because of its higher digestibility. At least, the yield and quality of Cynodon dactylon were not effected by saltwater irrigation.

  3. Plolyamines and other secondary metabolites of green-leaf and red-leaf almond rootstocks triggered in response to salinity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Almond trees are very sensitive to salinity, and saline water is the only alternative for irrigation in many semiarid regions. Thus, the use of salt-tolerant rootstocks may allow an economically-feasible yield under saline irrigation. In this study, we evaluated the effects of chloride salts on plan...

  4. The long-term resistance mechanisms, critical irrigation threshold and relief capacity shown by Eugenia myrtifolia plants in response to saline reclaimed water.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Hernández, José Antonio; Álvarez, Sara; Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2017-02-01

    Salts present in irrigation water are serious problems for commercial horticulture, particularly in semi-arid regions. Reclaimed water (RW) typically contains, among others elements, high levels of salts, boron and heavy metal. Phytotoxic ion accumulation in the substrate has been linked to different electric conductivities of the treatments. Based on these premises, we studied the long-term effect of three reclaimed water treatments with different saline concentrations on Eugenia myrtifolia plants. We also looked at the ability of these plants to recover when no drainage was applied. The RW with the highest electric conductivity (RW3, EC = 6.96 dS m -1 ) provoked a number of responses to salinity in these plants, including: 1) accumulation and extrusion of phytotoxic ions in roots; 2) a decrease in the shoot/root ratio, leaf area, number of leaves; 3) a decrease in root hydraulic conductivity, leaf water potential, the relative water content of leaves, leaf stomatal conductance, the leaf photosynthetic rate, water-use efficiency and accumulated evapotranspiration in order to limit water loss; and 4) changes in the antioxidant defence mechanisms. These different responses induced oxidative stress, which can explain the damage caused in the membranes, leading to the death of RW3 plants during the relief period. The behaviour observed in RW2 plants was slightly better compared with RW3 plants, although at the end of the experiment about 55% of the RW2 plants also died, however RW containing low salinity level (RW1, EC = 2.97 dS m -1 ) can be effective for plant irrigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Significant reduction in the incidence of C5 palsy after cervical laminoplasty using chilled irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, S; Hosono, N; Mukai, Y; Tateishi, K; Fuji, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether chilled irrigation saline decreases the incidence of clinical upper limb palsy (ULP; a reduction of one grade or more on manual muscle testing; MMT), based on the idea that ULP results from thermal damage to the nerve roots by heat generated by friction during bone drilling. Irrigation saline for drilling was used at room temperature (RT, 25.6°C) in open-door laminoplasty in 400 patients (RT group) and chilled to a mean temperature of 12.1°C during operations for 400 patients (low-temperature (LT) group). We assessed deltoid, biceps, and triceps brachii muscle strength by MMT. ULP occurring within two days post-operatively was categorised as early-onset palsy. The incidence of ULP (4.0% vs 9.5%, p = 0.003), especially early-onset palsy (1.0% vs 5.5%, p < 0.001), was significantly lower for the LT group than for the RT group. Multivariate analysis indicated that RT irrigation saline use, concomitant foraminotomy, and opened side were significant predictors for ULP. Using chilled irrigation saline during bone drilling significantly decreased the ULP incidence, particularly the early-onset type, and shortened the recovery period for ULP. Chilled irrigation saline can thus be recommended as a simple method for preventing ULP. Chilled irrigation during laminoplasty reduces C5 palsy. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  6. Chloride and sulfate salinity effects on selenium accumulation by tall fescue. [Festuca arundinacea Schreb

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Wu; Zhang-Zhi Huang

    The discovery of high levels of Se in soil and water samples from the San Joaquin Valley, California, and of its responsibility for deformity and death of wildlife at Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge have renewed interest in the bioaccumulation of this element. Greenhouse nutrient solution culture and field experiments were conducted to examine the effects of Cl and SO{sub 4} salt on growth and Se accumulation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivars Alta, Falcon, and Olympic. Sulfate salt substantially reduced growth inhibition and Se accumulation. Tall fescue from the field irrigated with water low in salinity had higher tissuemore » Se concentration than plants from the field irrigated with water high in salinity. No difference in tissue Se concentration was found among the three tall fescue cultivars; however, forage-type Alta produced the most shoot biomass and accumulated the most total Se. The soil irrigated with water high in salinity had 10 times higher Se concentration than soil irrigated with water low in salinity. The highest soil Se concentration was found in the top 15 cm of soil. Growing fescue for one year reduced soil Se by 50%. Selenium concentrations below 15-cm depth were lower and similar between the bare soil and the soil under tall fescue. Both the high and low salinity water irrigations did not cause high levels of Se accumulation by the tall fescue cultivars unless there was continual addition of Se into the system. This study generated important information for Se bioaccumulation management in soils with elevated salinity and Se levels.« less

  7. An Herbal Nasal Drop Enhanced Frontal and Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes S.; Cheung, Mei-chun; Sze, Sophia L.; Leung, Winnie W.; Shi, Dejian

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the neuro-electrophysiological activity of the brain associated with the application of a herbal remedy developed by a Shaolin monk based upon the Chan healing principle of clearing the orifices (i.e., the nasal cavities). A repeated-measures design was used. Fourteen normal adults were administered herbal remedy and saline solution intranasally on separate sessions. Two intervals of eyes-closed resting EEG data were obtained individually before and after each administration. Results showed that only the herbal remedy but not the saline solution induced elevation in cordance, an index correlated with cerebral perfusion, in the anterior brain region. In addition, the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), as examined by the LORETA analysis, was also increased after the application of the herbal remedy but not saline solution. The present study provided some preliminary evidence suggesting that the herbal nasal drop enhanced the activity of the frontal lobe and ACC. Implications for the potential clinical application of the herbal remedy to treat patients with frontal lobe disorders were discussed. PMID:19996154

  8. Change in the nose areas in children with mouth breathing after nasal cleansing and massage.

    PubMed

    Melo, Ana Carolina Cardoso de; Gomes, Adriana de Oliveira Camargo; Cunha, Daniele Andrade da; Lima, Sandro Júnior Henrique; Lima, Wigna Rayssa Pereira; Cunha, Renata Andrade da; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the changes occurred in the nasal cavity geometry, before and after nasal cleansing, through nasal aeration and acoustic rhinometry in children with oral breathing. Twenty children aged four to 12 years were included in the study. The gathering of participants was conducted at the Multifunctional Laboratory of the Speech Pathology Department of the Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE. The following procedures were conducted: Identification Index of Signs and Symptoms of Oral Breathing; marking of nasal expiratory airflow using the graded mirror of Altmann, and examination of the Nasal Geometry by Acoustic Rhinometry. The same procedures were performed after nasal massage and cleansing with saline solution. Significant change was observed in the areas with respect to the nasal airflow on both sides after nasal cleansing and massage. As for nasal geometry, measured by acoustic rhinometry, comparison between the nostrils showed that the effect of cleansing and massage was discrete. Nasal aeration measures showed sensitivity to the cleansing and massage technique and measures of nasal geometry confirmed its effect on respiratory physiology.

  9. Comparison of irrigation solutions and devices in a contaminated musculoskeletal wound survival model.

    PubMed

    Owens, Brett D; White, Daniel W; Wenke, Joseph C

    2009-01-01

    There is much to learn about the effectiveness of different methods currently used for the irrigation of open wounds. The purpose of this study was to compare various approaches in a survival animal model. We used an established goat model involving the creation of a reproducible complex musculoskeletal wound followed by inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (lux) bacteria. This genetically altered luminescent bacterium provides the ability for quantitative analysis with a photon-counting camera system. For Study 1, wound irrigation was performed six hours after the injury and inoculation; the goats were assigned to four treatment groups: normal saline solution, bacitracin solution, castile soap, and benzalkonium chloride. All wounds received sharp débridement and irrigation with use of a pulsatile lavage device (19 psi). Images and photon counts were obtained prior to irrigation, after irrigation, and forty-eight hours after injury and inoculation. For Study 2, we used the same animal model and compared bulb syringe and pulsatile lavage irrigation with saline solution. In Study 1, the irrigation treatment lowered the bacterial counts in all treatment groups. The greatest reduction was seen with castile soap, which lowered the photon count to 13% of the pretreatment level. This was followed by benzalkonium chloride, bacitracin, and saline solution at 18%, 22%, and 29%, respectively. At forty-eight hours, imaging showed a rebound in bacterial counts in every group. The highest rebound was measured in the castile soap group, which rebounded to 120% of the pretreatment level. The benzalkonium chloride group experienced a rebound to 94% of the pretreatment level. These were followed by bacitracin solution (89%) and normal saline solution (68%). In Study 2, both treatment methods were effective in removing 75% of the bacteria initially. At forty-eight hours, the bacterial levels in the pulsed lavage group rebounded to 94% of the original levels (compared with 48% in

  10. Projections of on-farm salinity in coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Clarke, D; Williams, S; Jahiruddin, M; Parks, K; Salehin, M

    2015-06-01

    This paper quantifies the expected impacts of climate change, climate variability and salinity accumulation on food production in coastal Bangladesh during the dry season. This forms part of a concerted series of actions on agriculture and salinity in Bangladesh under the UK funded Ecosystems for Poverty Alleviation programme and the British Council INSPIRE scheme. The work was undertaken by developing simulation models for soil water balances, dry season irrigation requirements and the effectiveness of the monsoon season rainfall at leaching accumulated salts. Simulations were run from 1981 to 2098 using historical climate data and a daily climate data set based on the Met Office Hadley Centre HadRM3P regional climate model. Results show that inter-seasonal and inter-annual variability are key factors that affect the viability of dry season vegetable crop growing. By the end of the 21(st) century the dry season is expected to be 2-3 weeks longer than now (2014). Monsoon rainfall amounts will remain the same or possibly slightly increase but it will occur over a slightly shorter wet season. Expectations of sea level rise and additional saline intrusion into groundwater aquifers mean that dry season irrigation water is likely to become more saline by the end of the 21(st) century. A study carried out at Barisal indicates that irrigating with water at up to 4 ppt can be sustainable. Once the dry season irrigation water quality goes above 5 ppt, the monsoon rainfall is no longer able to leach the dry season salt deposits so salt accumulation becomes significant and farm productivity will reduce by as a much as 50%, threatening the livelihoods of farmers in this region.

  11. Irrigation efficiency and quality of irrigation return flows in the Ebro River Basin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Causapé, J; Quílez, D; Aragüés, R

    2006-06-01

    The review analysis of twenty two irrigation efficiency (IE) studies carried out in the Ebro River Basin shows that IE is low (average IE)(avg)(= 53%) in surface-irrigated areas with high-permeable and shallow soils inadequate for this irrigation system, high (IE)(avg)(= 79%) in surface-irrigated areas with appropriate soils for this system, and very high (IE)(avg)(= 94%) in modern, automated and well managed sprinkler-irrigated areas. The unitary salt (total dissolved solids) and nitrate loads exported in the irrigation return flows (IRF) of seven districts vary, depending on soil salinity and on irrigation and N fertilization management, between 3-16 Mg salt/ha x year and 23-195 kg NO)(3) (-)-N/ha x year, respectively. The lower nitrate loads exported from high IE districts show that a proper irrigation design and management is a key factor to reduce off-site nitrogen pollution. Although high IE's also reduce off-site salt pollution, the presence of salts in the soil or subsoil may induce relatively high salt loads (>or=14 Mg/ha x year) even in high IE districts. Two important constrains identified in our revision were the short duration of most surveys and the lack of standards for conducting irrigation efficiency and mass balance studies at the irrigation district level. These limitations {emphasize the need for the establishment of a permanent and standardized network of drainage monitoring stations for the appropriate off-site pollution diagnosis and control of irrigated agriculture.

  12. Transpiration Rate for Chile Peppers Irrigated with Brackish Groundwater and ro Concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, M. K.; Baath, G.

    2016-12-01

    Fresh water availability is declining in most of the semi-arid and arid regions across the world including southwestern United States. Use of marginal quality groundwater has been increasing for sustaining agriculture in these arid regions. Reverse Osmosis (RO) can treat brackish groundwater but the possibility of using RO concentrate for irrigation needs further exploration. This greenhouse study evaluates the transpiration rate, water use, leaching fraction and yield responses of five selected chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivars irrigated with natural brackish groundwater and RO concentrate. The four saline water treatments used for irrigation were tap water of EC 0.6 (control), ground water of EC 3 and 5 dS/m and RO concentrate of EC 8 dS/m. The transpiration of all chile peppers cultivars decreased and leaching fraction increased with increasing irrigation water salinity. Based on the water use efficiency (WUEY) of selected chile pepper cultivars, brackish water of EC ≤ 3 dS/m can be used for irrigation. The average yield of chile peppers was stable up to a saturated soil paste extract electrical conductivity (ECe) of about 2 dS/m, although further increases in ECe resulted in an exponential yield decline. This study showed that yield reductions in chile peppers irrigated with Ca rich brackish groundwater were less than those reported using NaCl dominant saline solution studies. Environmentally safe reuse of RO concentrate could stimulate implementation of inland desalination in water scarce areas and increase greenhouse chile pepper cultivation.

  13. Coastal surface water suitability analysis for irrigation in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahtab, Mohammad Hossain; Zahid, Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Water with adequate quality and quantity is very important for irrigation to ensure the crop yields. Salinity is common problem in the coastal waters in Bangladesh. The intensity of salinity in the coastal zone in Bangladesh is not same. It fluctuates over the year. Sodium is another hazard which may hamper permeability and ultimately affects the fertility. It can reduce the crop yields. Although surface water is available in the coastal zone of Bangladesh, but its quality for irrigation needs to be monitored over the year. This paper will investigate the overall quality of coastal surface waters. Thirty-three water samples from different rivers were collected both in wet period (October-December) and in dry period (February-April). Different physical and chemical parameters are considered for investigation of the adequacy of water with respect to international irrigation water quality standards and Bangladesh standards. A comparison between the dry and wet period coastal surface water quality in Bangladesh will also be drawn here. The analysis shows that coastal surface water in Bangladesh is overall suitable for irrigation during wet period, while it needs treatment (which will increase the irrigation cost) for using for irrigation during dry period. Adaptation to this situation can improve the scenario. An integrated plan should be taken to increase the water storing capacity in the coastal area to harvest water during wet period.

  14. Soil salinization in the agricultural lands of Rhodope District, northeastern Greece.

    PubMed

    Pisinaras, V; Tsihrintzis, V A; Petalas, C; Ouzounis, K

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify seasonal and spatial trends and soil salinization patterns in a part of Rhodope District irrigated land, northeastern Greece, located east of Vistonis Lagoon. The study area is irrigated from a coastal aquifer, where salt water intrusion occurs because of extensive groundwater withdrawals. Fourteen monitoring sites were established in harvest fields in the study area, where soil samples were collected. Electrical conductivity (ECe), pH, and ion concentrations were determined in the saturated paste extract of the soil samples in the laboratory using standard methods. A clear tendency was observed for ECe to increase from April to September, i.e., within the irrigation period, indicating the effect of saline groundwater to soil. In the last years, the change from moderately sensitive (e.g., corn) to moderately tolerant crops (e.g., cotton) in the south part of the study area indicates the impacts of soil salinity. The study proposes management methods to alleviate this problem.

  15. The impacts of irrigation with transferred and saline reclaimed water in the soil biological quality of two citrus species: Adaptations to low water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastida, Felipe; Abadía, Joaquín; García, Carlos; Torres, Irene; Ruiz Navarro, Antonio; José Alarcón, Juan; Nicolás, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean agroecosystems are limited by the availability of water and hence it is fundamental to find new water sources for sustainable agriculture in the face of climate change. Here, the effects of irrigation with water from different sources were analyzed in the soil microbial community and plant status of grapefruit and mandarin trees in a Mediterranean agro-ecosystem located in south-east of Spain. Four irrigation treatments were evaluated: i) water with an average electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.1 dS m-1 from the "Tagus-Segura" water-transfer canal (TW); ii) reclaimed water (EC = 3.21 dS m-1) from a wastewater-treatment-plant (RW); iii) irrigation with TW, except in the second stage of fruit development, when RW was applied (TWc); and iv) irrigation with RW except in the second stage, when TW was used (RWc). Phospholipid fatty acids indicated that microbial biomass was greater under grapefruit than under mandarin. In the case of grapefruit, TW showed a lower bacterial biomass than RW, RWc, and TWc, while RW showed the lowest values in the mandarin soil. In grapefruit soil, β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase activities, related to C cycling, were greater in RW and TWc than in TW and RWc. In mandarin soil, the greatest activity of these enzymes was found in TWc. The saline stress induced lower net photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (gs) in plants of RW, RWc and TWc in comparison with TW. The annual use of reclaimed water or the combined irrigation with TWc positively influenced the soil biological quality of a grapefruit agro-ecosystem. Conversely, the mandarin soil community was more sensitive to the annual irrigation with RW.

  16. A Trial of Wound Irrigation in the Initial Management of Open Fracture Wounds.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Mohit; Jeray, Kyle J; Petrisor, Brad A; Devereaux, P J; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Schemitsch, Emil H; Anglen, Jeff; Della Rocca, Gregory J; Jones, Clifford; Kreder, Hans; Liew, Susan; McKay, Paula; Papp, Steven; Sancheti, Parag; Sprague, Sheila; Stone, Trevor B; Sun, Xin; Tanner, Stephanie L; Tornetta, Paul; Tufescu, Ted; Walter, Stephen; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2015-12-31

    The management of open fractures requires wound irrigation and débridement to remove contaminants, but the effectiveness of various pressures and solutions for irrigation remains controversial. We investigated the effects of castile soap versus normal saline irrigation delivered by means of high, low, or very low irrigation pressure. In this study with a 2-by-3 factorial design, conducted at 41 clinical centers, we randomly assigned patients who had an open fracture of an extremity to undergo irrigation with one of three irrigation pressures (high pressure [>20 psi], low pressure [5 to 10 psi], or very low pressure [1 to 2 psi]) and one of two irrigation solutions (castile soap or normal saline). The primary end point was reoperation within 12 months after the index surgery for promotion of wound or bone healing or treatment of a wound infection. A total of 2551 patients underwent randomization, of whom 2447 were deemed eligible and included in the final analyses. Reoperation occurred in 109 of 826 patients (13.2%) in the high-pressure group, 103 of 809 (12.7%) in the low-pressure group, and 111 of 812 (13.7%) in the very-low-pressure group. Hazard ratios for the three pairwise comparisons were as follows: for low versus high pressure, 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70 to 1.20; P=0.53), for high versus very low pressure, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.78 to 1.33; P=0.89), and for low versus very low pressure, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.71 to 1.23; P=0.62). Reoperation occurred in 182 of 1229 patients (14.8%) in the soap group and in 141 of 1218 (11.6%) in the saline group (hazard ratio, 1.32, 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.66; P=0.01). The rates of reoperation were similar regardless of irrigation pressure, a finding that indicates that very low pressure is an acceptable, low-cost alternative for the irrigation of open fractures. The reoperation rate was higher in the soap group than in the saline group. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; FLOW Clinical

  17. Salinity Tolerance Turfgrass: History and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor

    2013-01-01

    Land and water resources are becoming scarce and are insufficient to sustain the burgeoning population. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting agricultural productions across the world. Cultivation of salt-tolerant turfgrass species may be promising option under such conditions where poor quality water can also be used for these crops. Coastal lands in developing countries can be used to grow such crops, and seawater can be used for irrigation of purposes. These plants can be grown using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can provide food, fuel, fodder, fibber, resin, essential oils, and pharmaceutical products and can be used for landscape reintegration. There are a number of potential turfgrass species that may be appropriate at various salinity levels of seawater. The goal of this review is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant turfgrasses, their current and potential uses, and their potential use in developing countries. The future for irrigating turf may rely on the use of moderate- to high-salinity water and, in order to ensure that the turf system is sustainable, will rely on the use of salt-tolerant grasses and an improved knowledge of the effects of salinity on turfgrasses. PMID:24222734

  18. The effect of prilocaine and prilocaine plus meperidine infiltration on the pain during nasal packing removal.

    PubMed

    Karaaslan, Kazim; Yilmaz, Fahrettin; Gulcu, Nebahat; Yigit, Beyhan; Kocoglu, Hasan

    2007-12-01

    Removing the nasal packing after nasal surgery is an uncomfortable and painful procedure. Since there is no controlled trial described in the literature about the local use of meperidine during packing removal, we aimed to compare the analgesic and sedative effects of the meperidine-prilocaine combination, injected into the packing 15 minutes before the procedure, with that of prilocaine during packing removal. Fifty adult patients, for whom nasal packing removal after nasal septoplasty was scheduled, were randomly allocated into one of two groups. In the prilocaine group (Group P, n = 25), 5 ml of 1% prilocaine in saline was injected into the pack 15 minutes before removal. In the prilocaine-meperidine group (Group MP, n = 25), 5 ml fluid combination containing prilocaine (10 mg/ml) and meperidine (1 mg/kg) was injected in nasal packs. Five ml saline was injected into the package in the contra-lateral nostril in both groups as control. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score was recorded during injections (t) and packing removal (t), and the Ramsay sedation score was evaluated. VAS score was not different from the control nostril in Group P (p > 0.05), where as it was significantly lower than the control nostril in Group MP (p < 0.05). Ramsay sedation scores were significantly higher in Group MP compared to the control nostril and actively treated nostril of Group P (p < 0.05). The injection of prilocaine plus meperidine into the nasal pack 15 minutes before nasal packing removal provides effective analgesia and mild sedation during the procedure.

  19. Simulating Salt Movement using a Coupled Salinity Transport Model in a Variably Saturated Agricultural Groundwater System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli Kivi, S.; Bailey, R. T.; Gates, T. K.

    2017-12-01

    Salinization is one of the major concerns in irrigated agricultural fields. Increasing salinity concentrations are due principally to a high water table that results from excessive irrigation, canal seepage, and a lack of efficient drainage systems, and lead to decreasing crop yield. High groundwater salinity loading to nearby river systems also impacts downstream areas, with saline river water diverted for application on irrigated fields. To assess the different strategies for salt remediation, we present a reactive transport model (UZF-RT3D) coupled with a salinity equilibrium chemistry module for simulating the fate and transport of salt ions in a variably-saturated agricultural groundwater system. The developed model accounts not for advection, dispersion, nitrogen and sulfur cycling, oxidation-reduction, sorption, complexation, ion exchange, and precipitation/dissolution of salt minerals. The model is applied to a 500 km2 region within the Lower Arkansas River Valley (LARV) in southeastern Colorado, an area acutely affected by salinization in the past few decades. The model is tested against salt ion concentrations in the saturated zone, total dissolved solid concentrations in the unsaturated zone, and salt groundwater loading to the Arkansas River. The model now can be used to investigate salinity remediation strategies.

  20. Simplifying field-scale assessment of spatiotemporal changes of soil salinity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Monitoring soil salinity (ECe) is important to properly plan agronomic and irrigation practices. Salinity can be readily measured through soil sampling directed by geospatial measurements of apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa). Using data from a long-term (1999-2012) monitoring study at a 32...

  1. Irrigation efficiency and water-policy implications for river-basin resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.; Vicuña, S.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, I.; Meza, F.; Varela-Ortega, C.

    2013-07-01

    Rising demand for food, fiber, and biofuels drives expanding irrigation withdrawals from surface- and groundwater. Irrigation efficiency and water savings have become watchwords in response to climate-induced hydrological variability, increasing freshwater demand for other uses including ecosystem water needs, and low economic productivity of irrigation compared to most other uses. We identify three classes of unintended consequences, presented here as paradoxes. Ever-tighter cycling of water has been shown to increase resource use, an example of the efficiency paradox. In the absence of effective policy to constrain irrigated-area expansion using "saved water", efficiency can aggravate scarcity, deteriorate resource quality, and impair river-basin resilience through loss of flexibility and redundancy. Water scarcity and salinity effects in the lower reaches of basins (symptomatic of the scale paradox) may partly be offset over the short-term through groundwater pumping or increasing surface water storage capacity. However, declining ecological flows and increasing salinity have important implications for riparian and estuarine ecosystems and for non-irrigation human uses of water including urban supply and energy generation, examples of the sectoral paradox. This paper briefly examines policy frameworks in three regional contexts with broadly similar climatic and water-resource conditions - central Chile, southwestern US, and south-central Spain - where irrigation efficiency directly influences basin resilience. The comparison leads to more generic insights on water policy in relation to irrigation efficiency and emerging or overdue needs for environmental protection.

  2. Irrigation efficiency and water-policy implications for river basin resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.; Vicuña, S.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, I.; Meza, F.; Varela-Ortega, C.

    2014-04-01

    Rising demand for food, fiber, and biofuels drives expanding irrigation withdrawals from surface water and groundwater. Irrigation efficiency and water savings have become watchwords in response to climate-induced hydrological variability, increasing freshwater demand for other uses including ecosystem water needs, and low economic productivity of irrigation compared to most other uses. We identify three classes of unintended consequences, presented here as paradoxes. Ever-tighter cycling of water has been shown to increase resource use, an example of the efficiency paradox. In the absence of effective policy to constrain irrigated-area expansion using "saved water", efficiency can aggravate scarcity, deteriorate resource quality, and impair river basin resilience through loss of flexibility and redundancy. Water scarcity and salinity effects in the lower reaches of basins (symptomatic of the scale paradox) may partly be offset over the short-term through groundwater pumping or increasing surface water storage capacity. However, declining ecological flows and increasing salinity have important implications for riparian and estuarine ecosystems and for non-irrigation human uses of water including urban supply and energy generation, examples of the sectoral paradox. This paper briefly considers three regional contexts with broadly similar climatic and water-resource conditions - central Chile, southwestern US, and south-central Spain - where irrigation efficiency directly influences basin resilience. The comparison leads to more generic insights on water policy in relation to irrigation efficiency and emerging or overdue needs for environmental protection.

  3. Remote Sensing Monitoring of Changes in Soil Salinity: A Case Study in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingwei; Vincent, Bernard; Yang, Jinzhong; Bouarfa, Sami; Vidal, Alain

    2008-11-07

    This study used archived remote sensing images to depict the history of changes in soil salinity in the Hetao Irrigation District in Inner Mongolia, China, with the purpose of linking these changes with land and water management practices and to draw lessons for salinity control. Most data came from LANDSAT satellite images taken in 1973, 1977, 1988, 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2006. In these years salt-affected areas were detected using a normal supervised classification method. Corresponding cropped areas were detected from NVDI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) values using an unsupervised method. Field samples and agricultural statistics were used to estimate the accuracy of the classification. Historical data concerning irrigation/drainage and the groundwater table were used to analyze the relation between changes in soil salinity and land and water management practices. Results showed that: (1) the overall accuracy of remote sensing in detecting soil salinity was 90.2%, and in detecting cropped area, 98%; (2) the installation/innovation of the drainage system did help to control salinity; and (3) a low ratio of cropped land helped control salinity in the Hetao Irrigation District. These findings suggest that remote sensing is a useful tool to detect soil salinity and has potential in evaluating and improving land and water management practices.

  4. Can Tomato Inoculation with Trichoderma Compensate Yield and Soil Health Deficiency due to Soil Salinity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Karl; Apostolakis, Antonios; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major soil degradation threat, especially for arid coastal environments where it hinders agricultural production and soil health. Protected horticultural crops in the Mediterranean region, typically under deficit irrigation and intensive cultivation practices, have to cope with increasing irrigation water and soil salinization. This study quantifies the beneficial effects of the Trichoderma harzianum (TH) on the sustainable production of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), a major greenhouse crop of the RECARE project Case Study in Greece, the semi-arid coastal Timpaki basin in south-central Crete. 20 vigorous 20-day-old Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Elpida seedlings are treated with TH fungi (T) or without (N) and transplanted into 35 L pots under greenhouse conditions. Use of local planting soil with initial Electrical Conductivity (ECe) 1.8 dS m-1 and local cultivation practices aim to simulate the prevailing conditions at the Case Study. In order to simulate seawater intrusion affected irrigation, plants are drip irrigated with two NaCl treatments: slightly (S) saline (ECw = 1.1 dS m-1) and moderately (M) saline water (ECw = 3.5 dS m-1), resulting to very high and excessively high ECe, respectively. Preliminary analysis of below and aboveground biomass, soil quality, salinity, and biodiversity indicators, suggest that TH pre-inoculation of tomato plants at both S and M treatments improve yield, soil biodiversity and overall soil health.

  5. New techniques to control salinity-wastewater reuse interactions in golf courses of the Mediterranean regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrao, J.; Costa, M.; Rosado, V.; Gamito, P.; Santos, R.; Khaydarova, V.

    2003-04-01

    Due to the lack water around the Mediterranean regions, potable water luxurious uses - as in golf courses - are increasingly contested. In order to solve this problem, non conventional water resources (effluent, gray, recycled, reclaimed, brackish), like treated wastewater, for irrigation gained increasing role in the planning and development of additional water supplies in golf courses. In most cases, the intense use of effluent for irrigation attracted public awareness in respect of contaminating pathogens and heavy metals. The contaminating effect of salinity in soil and underground water is very often neglected. The objective of this work is to present the conventional techniques to control salinity of treated wastewater and to present some results on new clean techniques to solve this problem, in the framework of the INCO-COPERNICUS project (no. IC-15CT98-0105) "Adaptation of Efficient Water Use Criteria in Marginal Regions of Europe and Middle Asia with Scarce Sources Subject to Environmental Control, Climate Change and Socio-Economic Development" and of the INCO-DC project (no. IC18-CT98-0266) "Control of Salination and Combating Desertification Effects in the Mediterranean Region. Phase II". Saline water is the most common irrigation water in arid climates. Moreover, for each region treated wastewater is always more saline than tap water, and therefore, when treated wastewater is reused in golf courses, more salinity problems occur. Conventional techniques to combat the salination process in golf courses can be characterized by four generations: 1) Problem of root zone salination by soil leaching - two options can occur - when there is an impermeable layer, salts will be concentrated above this layer; on the other hand, when there is no impermeable layer, aquifers contamination can be observed; 2) Use of subsurface trickle irrigation - economy of water, and therefore less additional salts; however the problem of groundwater contamination due to natural rain

  6. [Three-dimension temporal and spatial dynamics of soil water for the artificial vegetation in the center of Taklimakan desert under saline water drip-irrigation].

    PubMed

    Ding, Xin-yuan; Zhou, Zhi-bin; Xu, Xin-wen; Lei, Jia-qiang; Lu, Jing-jing; Ma, Xue-xi; Feng, Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimension temporal and spatial dynamics of the soil water characteristics during four irrigating cycles of months from April to July for the artificial vegetation in the center of Taklimakan Desert under saline water drip-irrigation had been analyzed by timely measuring the soil water content in horizontal and vertical distances 60 cm and 120 cm away from the irrigating drips, respectively. Periodic spatial and temporal variations of soil water content were observed. When the precipitation effect was not considered, there were no significant differences in the characteristics of soil water among the irrigation intervals in different months, while discrepancies were obvious in the temporal and spatial changes of soil moisture content under the conditions of rainfall and non-rainfall. When it referred to the temporal changes of soil water, it was a little higher in April but a bit lower in July, and the soil water content in June was the highest among four months because some remarkable events of precipitation happened in this month. However, as a whole, the content of soil moisture was reduced as months (from April to July) went on and it took a decreasing tendency along with days (1-15 d) following a power function. Meanwhile, the characteristics of soil water content displayed three changeable stages in an irrigation interval. When it referred to the spatial distributions of soil water, the average content of soil moisture was reduced along with the horizontal distance following a linear regression function, and varied with double peaks along with the vertical distance. In addition, the spatial distribution characteristics of the soil water were not influenced by the factors of precipitation and irrigating time but the physical properties of soil.

  7. Moving forward on remote sensing of soil salinity at regional scale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil salinity undermines global agriculture by reducing crop yield and soil quality. Irrigation management can help control salinity levels within the root-zone. To best allocate water resources, accurate regional-scale inventories are needed. Two remote sensing approaches are currently used to moni...

  8. Ranking the Potential Yield of Salinity and Selenium from Subbasins in the Lower Gunnison River Basin Using Seasonal, Multi-parameter Regression Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linard, J.; Leib, K.; Colorado Water Science Center

    2010-12-01

    Elevated levels of salinity and dissolved selenium can detrimentally effect the quality of water where anthropogenic and natural uses are concerned. In areas, such as the lower Gunnison Basin of western Colorado, salinity and selenium are such a concern that control projects are implemented to limit their mobilization. To prioritize the locations in which control projects are implemented, multi-parameter regression models were developed to identify subbasins in the lower Gunnison River Basin that were most likely to have elevated salinity and dissolved selenium levels. The drainage area is about 5,900 mi2 and is underlain by Cretaceous marine shale, which is the most common source of salinity and dissolved selenium. To characterize the complex hydrologic and chemical processes governing constituent mobilization, geospatial variables representing 70 different environmental characteristics were correlated to mean seasonal (irrigation and nonirrigation seasons) salinity and selenium yields estimated at 154 sampling sites. The variables generally represented characteristics of the physical basin, precipitation, soil, geology, land use, and irrigation water delivery systems. Irrigation and nonirrigation seasons were selected due to documented effects of irrigation on constituent mobilization. Following a stepwise approach, combinations of the geospatial variables were used to develop four multi-parameter regression models. These models predicted salinity and selenium yield, within a 95 percent confidence range, at individual points in the Lower Gunnison Basin for irrigation and non-irrigation seasons. The corresponding subbasins were ranked according to their potential to yield salinity and selenium and rankings were used to prioritize areas that would most benefit from control projects.

  9. Impact Assessment of Salinization Affected Soil on Greenhouse Crops using SALTMED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappa, Polyxeni; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis; Varouchakis, Emmanouil

    2015-04-01

    Here we assess the effects of soil salinization on greenhouse crops and the potential benefits of rainwater harvesting as a soil amelioration technology. The study deals with the following scenarios: (a) variation of irrigation water salinity from 3,000 μS/cm to 500 μS/cm through mixing with rainwater, (b) crop substitution for increased tolerance and (c) climatic variability to account for the impact of climate change. In order to draw meaningful conclusions, a model that takes into account vegetation interaction, soil, irrigation water and climate variables is required. The SALTMED model is a reliable and tested physical process model that simulates evapotranspiration, plant water uptake, water and solute transport to estimate crop yield and biomass production under all irrigation systems. SALTMED is tested with the above scenarios in the RECARE FP7 Project Case Study of Timpaki, in the Island of Crete, Greece. Simulations are conducted for typical cultivations of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum anuumm and Solanum melongena. Preliminary results indicate the optimal combination from a set of solutions concerning the soil and water parameters can be beneficial against the salinization threat. Future research includes the validation of the results with field experiments. Keywords: salinization, greenhouse, tomato, SALTMED, rainwater, RECARE

  10. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Arindam; Kundabala, Mala

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The anti-microbial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (SHC) and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were compared with an experimental irrigant formulated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Materials and Methods: A sample of 36 single rooted anterior teeth with periapical radiolucency and absence of response to vitality tests that required root canal treatment were selected for this study. The test irrigants and their combinations were assigned to five different groups and saline served as the control. Access cavities were prepared using an aseptic technique and samples collected for both anaerobic culture and Gram stained smears, followed by irrigation and sample collection again. The number of organisms were expressed in colony forming units/ml after 72 h of incubation; the smears were analyzed for their microbial loads and tissue clearance and assessed as per defined criteria. Results: Our results found the maximum reduction in microbial loads, when analyzed by culture method, with a combination of SHC and the experimental neem irrigant. Maximum tissue clearance on the Gram Stained smears was also found with the same combination. Conclusion: Neem irrigant has anti-microbial efficacy and can be considered for endodontic use. PMID:24778508

  11. Agroforestry-based management of salt-affected croplands in irrigated agricultural landscape in Uzbekistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamzina, Asia; Kumar, Navneet; Heng, Lee

    2017-04-01

    In the lower Amu Darya River Basin, the decades of intensive irrigation led to elevated groundwater tables, resulting in ubiquitous soil salinization and adverse impact on crop production. Field-scale afforestation trials and farm-scale economic analyses in the Khorezm region have determined that afforestation can be an environmentally and financially attractive land-use option for degraded croplands because it combines a diversified agricultural production, carbon sequestration, an improved soil health and minimizes the use of irrigation water. We examined prospects for upscaling afforestation activity for regional land-use planning considering prevailing constraints in irrigated agriculture landscape. Assessment of salinity-induced cropland productivity decline using satellite imagery of multiple spatial and temporal resolution revealed that 18-38% of the marginally productive or abandoned cropland might be considered for conversion to agroforestry. Furthermore, a regional-scale water balance suggests that most of these marginal croplands are characterized by sufficient surface water supplies for irrigating the newly planted saplings, before they are able to rely on the groundwater alone. However, the 10-year monitoring of soil salt dynamics in the afforestation trials reveals increasing salinity levels due to the salt exclusion from the root water uptake by the trees. Further study focuses on enhancing long-term sustainability of afforestation as a management option for highly saline lands by examining salt tolerance of candidate species using 13C isotopic signature as the indicator of water and salt stress, salt leaching needs and implications for regional scale planning.

  12. Irrigation of floricultural and nursery crops with saline wastewaters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water security has become a major concern throughout the western United States and other arid and semiarid regions worldwide. Uncertainties concerning the allocation and dependability of good quality water have led to increased interest in the use alternative, non-potable waters for irrigated agric...

  13. Groundwater salinity and hydrochemical processes in the volcano-sedimentary aquifer of La Aldea, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Fuentes, Tatiana; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Heredia, Javier; Custodio, Emilio

    2014-06-15

    The origin of the groundwater salinity and hydrochemical conditions of a 44km(2) volcano-sedimentary aquifer in the semi-arid to arid La Aldea Valley (western Gran Canaria, Spain) has been studied, using major physical and chemical components. Current aquifer recharge is mainly the result of irrigation return flows and secondarily that of rainfall infiltration. Graphical, multivariate statistical and modeling tools have been applied in order to improve the hydrogeological conceptual model and identify the natural and anthropogenic factors controlling groundwater salinity. Groundwater ranges from Na-Cl-HCO3 type for moderate salinity water to Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 type for high salinity water. This is mainly the result of atmospheric airborne salt deposition; silicate weathering, and recharge incorporating irrigation return flows. High evapotranspiration produces significant evapo-concentration leading to relative high groundwater salinity in the area. Under average conditions, about 70% of the water used for intensive agricultural exploitation in the valley comes from three low salinity water runoff storage reservoirs upstream, out of the area, while the remaining 30% derives from groundwater. The main alluvial aquifer behaves as a short turnover time reservoir that adds to the surface waters to complement irrigation water supply in dry periods, when it reaches 70% of irrigation water requirements. The high seasonality and intra-annual variability of water demand for irrigation press on decision making on aquifer use by a large number of aquifer users acting on their own. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Canine model of nasal congestion and allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Tiniakov, Ruslan L; Tiniakova, Olga P; McLeod, Robbie L; Hey, John A; Yeates, Donovan B

    2003-05-01

    The ragweed- and histamine-induced decreases in nasal patency in cohorts of ragweed-sensitized and nonsensitized dogs were assessed. The volume of nasal airways (V(NA)) was assessed by acoustic rhinometry and resistance to airflow (R(NA)) by anterior rhinomanometry. Histamine delivered to the nasal passages of five dogs caused a rapid and prolonged increase in R(NA) (0.75 +/- 0.26 to 3.56 +/- 0.50 cmH(2)O. l(-1). min), an effect that was reversed by intranasal delivery of aerosolized phenylephrine. Ragweed challenge in five ragweed-sensitized dogs increased R(NA) from 0.16 +/- 0.02 to 0.53 +/- 0.07 cmH(2)O. l(-1). min and decreased V(NA) from 12.5 +/- 1.9 to 3.9 +/- 0.3 cm(3), whereas administration of saline aerosol neither increased R(NA) nor decreased V(NA). Prior administration of d-pseudoephedrine (30 mg po) attenuated the ragweed-induced increase in R(NA) and decrease in V(NA). Ragweed challenge changed neither R(NA) nor V(NA) in four nonsensitized dogs. Mediator-induced nasal congestion and allergen-induced allergic rhinitis in ragweed-sensitized dogs, which exhibit symptoms similar to human disease, can be used in the evaluation of safety and efficacy of antiallergic activity of potential drugs.

  15. The impact of conjunctive use of canal and tube well water in Lagar irrigated area, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmi, Syed Iftikhar; Ertsen, Maurits W.; Asi, Muhammad Rafique

    Introduction of the large gravity irrigation system in the Indus Basin in the late 19th century without a drainage system resulted in a rising water table, which resulted in water logging and salinity problems over large areas. In order to cope with the salinity and water logging problem, the Pakistan government initiated installation of 10,000 tube wells in different areas. This not only resulted in the lowering of water table, but also supplemented irrigation. Resulting benefits from the irrigation opportunities motivated framers to install private tube wells. The Punjab area meets 40% of its irrigation needs from groundwater abstraction. Today, farmers apply both surface water flows and groundwater from tube wells, creating a pattern of private and public water control. Sustainable use of groundwater needs proper quantification of the resource and information on processes involved in its recharge and discharge. The field work in the Lagar irrigated area, discussed in this paper, show that within the general picture of conjunctive use of canal water and groundwater, there is a clear spatial pattern between upstream and downstream areas, with upstream areas depending much less on groundwater than downstream areas. The irrigation context in the study area proves to be highly complex, with water users having differential access to canal and tube well water, resulting in different responses of farmers with their irrigation strategies, which in turn affect the salinity and water balances on the fields.

  16. Irrigation scheduling, freeze warning and soil salinity detecting. [in Cameron County Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Correlations of multispectral scanner (MSS) digital data differences between vegetated and bare soil areas with salinity levels from the eight saline areas using MSS bands seven and ten in the infrared region were significant. Correlations were derived for Cameron County, Texas. Detection of saline soils may be possible, using either film density readings or multispectral scanner data, when the lower reflectance of vegetation on highly saline soil and the higher reflectance of vegetation on lower saline soil are considered by using film on MSS contrasts between vegetation and bare soil.

  17. Evaluation of Soil Salinity Amelioration Technologies in Timpaki, Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagea, Ioanna; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis; Schwilch, Gudrun

    2015-04-01

    Salinization is a soil threat that adversely affects ecosystem services and diminishes soil functions in many arid and semi-arid regions. Soil salinity management depends on a range of factors, and can be complex expensive and time demanding. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. The WOCAT Technologies Questionnaire is a standardized methodology for monitoring, evaluating and documenting sustainable land management practices through interaction with the stakeholders. Here we use WOCAT for the systematic analysis and evaluation of soil salinization amelioration measures, for the RECARE project Case Study in Greece, the Timpaki basin, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinization due to irrigation with brackish water. Amelioration technologies that have already been applied in the case study by the stakeholders are examined and classified depending on the function they promote and/or improve. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost and input requirements. Preliminary results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity such as composting, mulching, rain water harvesting and seed biopriming are preferred by the stakeholders. Further work will include result validation using qualitative approaches. Keywords: soil salinity; salinization; evaluation of soil salinization amelioration techniques; WOCAT; RECARE FP7 project; Timpaki Crete

  18. Hydrological problems of water resources in irrigated agriculture: A management perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay

    2016-10-01

    The development of irrigated agriculture is necessary for fulfilling the rising food requirements of the burgeoning global population. However, the intensification of irrigated agriculture causes the twin menace of waterlogging and soil salinization in arid and semiarid regions where more than 75% of the world's population lives. These problems can be managed by either adopting preventive measures which decrease the inflow of water and salt or by employing remedial measures which increase the outflow. This paper presents an overview of various measures used for the management of waterlogging and salinity problems. The background, processes involved, and severity of waterlogging and salinity problems are provided. The role of drainage systems, conjunctive use of different water sources, use of computer-based mathematical models, and the use of remote sensing and GIS techniques in managing the problems are discussed. Conclusions are provided which could be useful for all the stakeholders.

  19. Biomass production, forage quality, and cation uptake of Quail bush, four-wing saltbush, and seaside barley irrigated with moderately saline-sodic water

    SciTech Connect

    Bauder, J.W.; Browning, L.S.; Phelps, S.D.

    2008-07-01

    The study reported here investigated capacity of Atriplex lentiformis (Torr.) S. Wats. (Quail bush), Atriplex X aptera A. Nels. (pro sp.) (Wytana four-wing saltbush), and Hordeum marinum Huds. (seaside barley) to produce biomass and crude protein and take up cations when irrigated with moderately saline-sodic water, in the presence of a shallow water table. Water tables were established at 0.38, 0.76, and 1.14m below the surface in sand-filled columns. The columns were then planted to the study species. Study plants were irrigated for 224 days; irrigation water was supplied every 7 days equal to water lost to evapotranspiration (ET) plusmore » 100mL (the volume of water removed in the most previous soil solution sampling). Water representing one of two irrigation sources was used: Powder River (PR) or coalbed natural gas (CBNG) wastewater. Biomass production did not differ significantly between water quality treatments but did differ significantly among species and water table depth within species. Averaged across water quality treatments, Hordeum marinum produced 79% more biomass than A. lentiformis and 122% more biomass than Atriplex X aptera, but contained only 11% crude protein compared to 16% crude protein in A. lentiformis and 14% crude protein in Atriplex X aptera. Atriplex spp. grown in columns with the water table at 0.38m depth produced more biomass, took up less calcium on a percentage basis, and took up more sodium on a percentage basis than when grown with the water table at a deeper depth. Uptake of cations by Atriplex lentiformis was approximately twice the uptake of cations by Atriplex X aptera and three times that of H. marinum. After 224 days of irrigation, crop growth, and cation uptake, followed by biomass harvest, EC and SAR of shallow groundwater in columns planted to A. lentiformis were less than EC and SAR of shallow ground water in columns planted to either of the other species.« less

  20. Assessing secondary soil salinization risk based on the PSR sustainability framework.

    PubMed

    Zhou, De; Lin, Zhulu; Liu, Liming; Zimmermann, David

    2013-10-15

    Risk assessment of secondary soil salinization, which is caused in part by the way people manage the land, is an essential challenge to agricultural sustainability. The objective of our study was to develop a soil salinity risk assessment methodology by selecting a consistent set of risk factors based on the conceptual Pressure-State-Response (PSR) sustainability framework and incorporating the grey relational analysis and the Analytic Hierarchy Process methods. The proposed salinity risk assessment methodology was demonstrated through a case study of developing composite risk index maps for the Yinchuan Plain, a major irrigation agriculture district in northwest China. Fourteen risk factors were selected in terms of the three PSR criteria: pressure, state, and response. The results showed that the salinity risk in the Yinchuan Plain was strongly influenced by the subsoil and groundwater salinity, land use, distance to irrigation canals, and depth to groundwater. To maintain agricultural sustainability in the Yinchuan Plain, a suite of remedial and preventative actions were proposed to manage soil salinity risk in the regions that are affected by salinity at different levels and by different salinization processes. The weight sensitivity analysis results also showed that the overall salinity risk of the Yinchuan Plain would increase or decrease as the weights for pressure or response risk factors increased, signifying the importance of human activities on secondary soil salinization. Ideally, the proposed methodology will help us develop more consistent management tools for risk assessment and management and for control of secondary soil salinization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  2. The golden ratio of nasal width to nasal bone length.

    PubMed

    Goynumer, G; Yayla, M; Durukan, B; Wetherilt, L

    2011-01-01

    To calculate the ratio of fetal nasal width over nasal bone length at 14-39 weeks' gestation in Caucasian women. Fetal nasal bone length and nasal width at 14-39 weeks' gestation were measured in 532 normal fetuses. The mean and standard deviations of fetal nasal bone length, nasal width and their ratio to one another were calculated in normal fetuses according to the gestational age to establish normal values. A positive and linear correlation was detected between the nasal bone length and the gestational week, as between the nasal width and the gestational week. No linear growth pattern was found between the gestational week and the ratio of nasal width to nasal bone length, nearly equal to phi, throughout gestation. The ratio of nasal width to nasal bone length, approximately equal to phi, can be calculated at 14-38 weeks' gestation. This might be useful in evaluating fetal abnormalities.

  3. Potential of combined Water Sensitive Urban Design systems for salinity treatment in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Fatemeh; Golzarian, Mahmood Reza; Myers, Baden

    2018-03-01

    Water sensitive urban design and similar concepts often recommend a 'treatment train' is employed to improve stormwater quality. In this study, the capability of a combined permeable pavement and bioretention basin was examined with a view to developing a permeable pavement reservoir that can supplement the irrigation needs of a bioretention system in semi-arid climates. Salinity was a key study parameter due to published data on salinity in permeable pavement storage, and the potential to harvest water contaminated with de-icing salts. To conduct experiments, roofwater was collected from a roof in Adelaide, South Australia. Water was amended with NaCl to produce a control runoff (no added salt), a medium (500 mg/l) and a high (1500 mg/l) salinity runoff. Water was then run through the pavement into the storage reservoir and used to irrigate the bioretention system. Samples were collected from the roof, the pavement reservoir and the bioretention system outflow to determine whether significant water quality impacts occurred. Results show that while salinity levels increased significantly as water passed through the pavement and through the bioretention system, the increase was beneficial for irrigation purposes as it was from Ca and Mg ions thus reducing the sodium absorption ratio to levels considered 'good' for irrigation in accordance with several guidelines. Permeable paving increased pH of water and this effect was prominent when the initial salt concentration increased. The study shows that permeable pavements with underlying storage can be used to provide supplementary irrigation for bioretention systems, but high initial salt concentrations may present constraints on beneficial use of stormwater. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Nasal polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... get rid of nasal polyps. Nasal steroid sprays shrink polyps. They help clear blocked nasal passages and ... is stopped. Corticosteroid pills or liquid may also shrink polyps, and can reduce swelling and nasal congestion. ...

  5. Comparison of Nasal Acceleration and Nasalance across Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, Elias B.; Virnik, Boris T.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of normalized nasal acceleration (NNA) relative to nasalance as estimates of nasalized versus nonnasalized vowel and sentence productions. Method: Participants were 18 healthy speakers of American English. NNA was measured using a custom sensor, and nasalance was measured using…

  6. Effect of lidocaine-soaked nasal packing on pain relief after endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ji-Hun; Park, Young-Min; Chung, Young-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Nasal packing is usually performed to control bleeding after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Although new packing materials have been developed, they still cause pain. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of lidocaine-soaked packs on pain after ESS. A prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial was conducted in 63 patients with CRS undergoing ESS. At the conclusion of the operation, 2% lidocaine-soaked biodegradable synthetic polyurethane foam and saline-soaked polyurethane foam were inserted in both nasal cavities of 31 patients and 32 control patients, respectively. The same lidocaine or saline was reapplied into the nasal packs at postoperative 8 hours. Pain was evaluated using a visual analog scale at postoperative 1, 4, 8, 16, 20, and 24 hour(s). The number of gauze that cleaned the blood around the nose was counted. Heart rate, rhythm, and blood pressures were checked preoperatively and postoperatively to evaluate the influence of lidocaine on vital signs. Postoperative pain decreased in lidocaine group at all of the postoperative time periods (p < 0.05). Lidocaine reduced postoperative bleeding at postoperative 8 and 24 hours. Changes of blood pressure from preoperative values in the lidocaine group were not different from those in the control group (p > 0.05). Heart rate in the lidocaine group was more stable than that in the control group (p < 0.05). Lidocaine-soaked packs significantly reduced postoperative pain without serious changes on vital sign. These findings suggest that topical lidocaine application to nasal packs could be a useful method to reduce pain during the early postoperative period after ESS.

  7. A partial least square regression method to quantitatively retrieve soil salinity using hyper-spectral reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yonghua; Jiao, Siong; Lin, Xudong

    2008-10-01

    Hetao Irrigation District located in Inner Mongolia, is one of the three largest irrigated area in China. In the irrigational agriculture region, for the reasons that many efforts have been put on irrigation rather than on drainage, as a result much sedimentary salt that usually is solved in water has been deposited in surface soil. So there has arisen a problem in such irrigation district that soil salinity has become a chief fact which causes land degrading. Remote sensing technology is an efficiency way to map the salinity in regional scale. In the principle of remote sensing, soil spectrum is one of the most important indications which can be used to reflect the status of soil salinity. In the past decades, many efforts have been made to reveal the spectrum characteristics of the salinized soil, such as the traditional statistic regression method. But it also has been found that when the hyper-spectral reflectance data are considered, the traditional regression method can't be treat the large dimension data, because the hyper-spectral data usually have too higher spectral band number. In this paper, a partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was established based on the statistical analysis on the soil salinity and the reflectance of hyper-spectral. Dataset were collect through the field soil samples were collected in the region of Hetao irrigation from the end of July to the beginning of August. The independent validation using data which are not included in the calibration model reveals that the proposed model can predicate the main soil components such as the content of total ions(S%), PH with higher determination coefficients(R2) of 0.728 and 0.715 respectively. And the rate of prediction to deviation(RPD) of the above predicted value are larger than 1.6, which indicates that the calibrated PLSR model can be used as a tool to retrieve soil salinity with accurate results. When the PLSR model's regression coefficients were aggregated according to the

  8. Nasal deposition of ciclesonide nasal aerosol and mometasone aqueous nasal spray in allergic rhinitis patients.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Ivor A; Blaiss, Michael S; Meltzer, Eli O; Evans, Philip; Connor, Alyson

    2014-01-01

    Sensory attributes of intranasal corticosteroids, such as rundown to the back of the throat, may influence patient treatment preferences. This study compares the nasal deposition and nasal retention of a radiolabeled solution of ciclesonide nasal aerosol (CIC-hydrofluoroalkane [HFA]) with a radiolabeled suspension of mometasone furoate monohydrate aqueous nasal spray (MFNS) in subjects with either perennial allergic rhinitis (AR) or seasonal AR. In this open-label, single-dose, randomized, crossover scintigraphy study, 14 subjects with symptomatic AR received a single dose of radiolabeled 74-μg CIC-HFA (37 μg/spray, 1 spray/each nostril) via a nasal metered-dose inhaler or a single dose of radiolabeled 200-μg MFNS (50 μg/spray, 2 sprays/each nostril), with a minimum 5-day washout period between treatments. Initial deposition (2 minutes postdose) of radiolabeled CIC-HFA and MFNS in the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, and on nasal wipes, and retention of radioactivity in the nasal cavity and nasal run-out on nasal wipes at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 minutes postdose were quantified with scintigraphy. At 2 and 10 minutes postdose, deposition of radiolabeled CIC-HFA was significantly higher in the nasal cavity versus radiolabeled MFNS (99.42% versus 86.50% at 2 minutes, p = 0.0046; and 81.10% versus 54.31% at 10 minutes, p < 0.0001, respectively; p values unadjusted for multiplicity). Deposition of radioactivity on nasal wipes was significantly higher with MFNS versus CIC-HFA at all five time points, and posterior losses of radiolabeled formulation were significantly higher with MFNS at 6, 8, and 10 minutes postdose. In this scintigraphic study, significantly higher nasal deposition and retention of radiolabeled aerosol CIC-HFA were observed versus radiolabeled aqueous MFNS in subjects with AR.

  9. Tuber and inulin production of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus, L.) under salinity stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salinization of soils and irrigation waters has increased soil salinity worldwide, and threaten to reduce crop yield. In the semiarid regions, fresh water scarcity demands salt- and drought-tolerant crops. Jerusalem artichoke (cv. Stampede), a North American crop with inulin-rich tubers, is a carb...

  10. Salinity in the Colorado River in the Grand Valley, western Colorado, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, David L.; von Guerard, Paul B.

    1996-01-01

    Salinity, or the dissolved-solids concentration, is the measure of salts such as sodium chloride, calcium bicarbonate, and calcium sulfate that are dissolved in water. About one-half of the salinity in the Colorado River Basin is from natural sources (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1995), such as thermal springs in the Glenwood-Dotsero area, located about 90 miles upstream from Grand Junction (fig. 1). Effects of human activities, such as irrigation, reservoir evaporation, and transbasin diversions, have increased the levels of salinity in the Colorado River. High salinity can affect industrial and municipal water users by causing increased water-treatment costs, increased deterioration of plumbing and appliances, increased soap needs, and undesirable taste of drinking water. High salinity also can cause lower crop yields by reducing water and nutrient uptake by plants and can increase agricultural production costs because of higher leaching and drainage requirements. Agricultural losses might occur when salinity reaches about 700?850 milligrams per liter (U.S Department of the Interior, 1994). Figure 1. Irrigated area in the Grand Valley and locations of sampling sites for the 1994?95 salinity study of the Colorado River. The Colorado River is the major source of irrigation water to the Grand Valley (fig. 1) and also is one source of water for the Clifton Water District, which supplies domestic water to part of the eastern Grand Valley. During spring and early summer in 1994, the Colorado River in the Grand Valley had lower than average streamflow. There was concern by water users about the effect of this low streamflow on salinity in the river. In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, began a study to evaluate salinity in the Colorado River. This fact sheet describes results of that study. The specific objectives of the fact sheet are to (1) compare salinity in the Colorado River among

  11. Monitoring the Impact of Climate Change on Soil Salinity in Agricultural Areas Using Ground and Satellite Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, D. L.; Scudiero, E.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in climatic patterns have had dramatic influence on agricultural areas worldwide, particularly in irrigated arid-zone agricultural areas subjected to recurring drought, such as California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV), or areas receiving above average rainfall for a decade or more, such as Minnesota's Red River Valley (RRV). Climate change has impacted water availability with an under or over abundance, which subsequently has impacted soil salinity levels in the root zone primarily from the upward movement of salts from shallow water tables. Inventorying and monitoring the impact of climate change on soil salinity is crucial to evaluate the extent of the problem, to recognize trends, and to formulate state-wide and field-scale irrigation, drainage, and crop management strategies that will sustain the agricultural productivity of the SJV and RRV. Over the past 3 decades, Corwin and colleagues at the U.S. Salinity Laboratory have developed proximal sensor (i.e., electrical resistivity and electromagnetic induction) and remote imagery (i.e., MODIS and Landsat 7) methodologies for assessing soil salinity at multiple scales: field (0.5 ha to 3 km2), landscape (3 to 10 km2), and regional (10 to 105 km2) scales. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of these scale-dependent salinity assessment technologies. Case studies for SJV and RRV are presented to demonstrate at multiple scales the utility of these approaches in assessing soil salinity changes due to management-induced changes and to changes in climate patterns, and in providing site-specific irrigation management information for salinity control. Decision makers in state and federal agencies, irrigation and drainage district managers, soil and water resource managers, producers, agriculture consultants, extension specialists, and Natural Resource Conservation Service field staff are the beneficiaries of this information.

  12. [Analysis of mineral elements of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown on saline land in Hetao Irrigation District by ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Tong, Wen-Jie; Chen, Fu; Wen, Xin-Ya

    2014-01-01

    The absorption and accumulation of ten mineral elements in four kinds of organs (root, steam, leaf and flower disc) in Helianthus annuus L. plants cultured in Hetao Irrigation District under different level of salinity stress were determined by ICP-AES with wet digestion (HNO3 + HClO4). The results showed that: (1) The contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, and Na were highest in roots, so was K in stems, B and Mg in leaves and P in flower discs, while no significant difference was detected in the content of Cu among these organs; (2) The cumulants of Ca, Mg, P, Cu, B and Zn were highest in flower discs, so were Na, Fe and Mn in roots and K in stems; (3) In sunflower plants, the proportion of mineral element cumulant for K : Ca : Mg : P : Na was 16.71 : 5.23 : 3.86 : 1.23 : 1.00, and for Zn : Fe : B : Mn: Cu was 56.28 : 27.75 : 1.93 : 1.17 : 1.00, respectively; (4) The effect of salinity stress on absorption of mineral elements differed according to the kind of organ and element, root was the most sensitive to soil salt content, followed by stem and leaf, and the effect on flower disc seemed complex.

  13. Assessment of possibilities and conditions of irrigation in Hungary by digital soil map products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborczi, Annamária; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Takács, Katalin; Szatmári, Gábor; Szabó, József; Pásztor, László

    2016-04-01

    Sustaining proper soil moisture is essentially important in agricultural management. However, irrigation can be really worth only, if we lay sufficient emphasis on soil conservation. Nationwide planning of irrigation can be taken place, if we have spatially exhaustive maps and recommendations for the different areas. Soil moisture in the pores originate from 'above' (precipitation), or from 'beneath' (from groundwater by capillary lift). The level of groundwater depends on topography, climatic conditions and water regime of the nearby river. The thickness of capillary zone is basicly related to the physical and water management properties of the soil. Accordingly the capillary rise of sandy soils - with very high infiltration rate and very poor water retaining capacity - are far smaller than in the case of clay soils - with very poor infiltration rate and high water retaining capacity. Applying irrigation water can be considered as a reinforcement from 'above', and it affects the salinity and sodicity as well as the soil structure, nutrient supply and soil formation. We defined the possibilities of irrigation according to the average salt content of the soil profile. The nationwide mapping of soil salinity was based on legacy soil profile data, and it was carried out by regression kriging. This method allows that environmental factors with exhaustive spatial extension, such as climatic-, vegetation-, topographic-, soil- and geologic layers can be taken into consideration to the spatial extension of the reference data. According to soil salinity content categories, the areas were delineated as 1. to be irrigated, 2. to be irrigated conditionally, 3. not to be irrigated. The conditions of irrigation was determined by the comparison of the 'actual' and the 'critical' depth of the water table. Since, if the water rises above the critical level, undesirable processes, such as salinization and alkalinization can be developed. The critical depth of the water table was

  14. Study of hydro-saline characteristics of soils a palm grove in basin of Ouargla (Northern Algerian Sahara)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezagui, D.; Bouhoun, M. Daddi; Boutoutaou, D.; Djaghoubi, A.

    2016-07-01

    Saharan soils are often faced with several problems of development, taking account the hydro-edaphic constraints, mainly of hydric types by water table, mechanical by gypso-calcareous crusts and saline by irrigation waters and upwelling of water table. Our work consists in doing a soil characterization of a palm grove in Ouargla in order to study the constraints hydro-halomorphes. The results show that irrigation water by two plies of Senonian and Mioplcène had a high salinity with a value of 2.83 and 5.10 dS.m-1 respectively. The conduct of irrigation is traditional random of submersion type. The palm grove has a poor drainage with a level of water table 156.67±15.71 cm and salinity of 31.37±34.04 dS.m-1. The drains are open type and their maintenance is not regular. This situation of management of irrigation-drainage promotes the upwelling of water table and the waterlogging in soils. The study of soil profiles shows the existence of mechanical obstruction of gypso-calcareous crusts which limit the entrenchment of the date palms and the leaching of salts. Soil salinity is excessive in profiles with a range of 8.98 ± 4.58 dS.m-1. This accumulation of salts is due to the dynamic ascending and descending of salts respectively under the effect of upwelling of water table and leaching by irrigation. The salinization, the upwelling of water table and the presence of gypso-calcareous crusts recorded in Ouargla testify to a degradation hydro-halomorphe and mechanic of soil which constitute the major constraints in the management of system irrigation-drainage and sustainable agricultural development of the palm groves of the basin of Ouargla. Some hydro-agricultural planning are necessary to apply in the oasis to improve the hydro-mechanical properties of soils in order to reduce their degradation.

  15. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Pardossi, Alberto; Incrocci, Luca; Incrocci, Giorgio; Malorgio, Fernando; Battista, Piero; Bacci, Laura; Rapi, Bernardo; Marzialetti, Paolo; Hemming, Jochen; Balendonck, Jos

    2009-01-01

    Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method). An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS), such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS’ (for both soil moisture and salinity) marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy) on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy. PMID:22574047

  16. Objective Measure of Nasal Air Emission Using Nasal Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cler, Meredith J.; Lien, Yu-An, S.; Braden, Maia N.; Mittleman, Talia; Downing, Kerri; Stepp, Cara, E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes the development and initial validation of an objective measure of nasal air emission (NAE) using nasal accelerometry. Method: Nasal acceleration and nasal airflow signals were simultaneously recorded while an expert speech language pathologist modeled NAEs at a variety of severity levels. In addition, microphone and…

  17. Effect of Fentanyl Nasal Packing Treatment on Patients With Acute Postoperative Pain After Nasal Operation: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwan-Sub; Yeo, Nam-Kyung; Kim, Seong-Su; Park, Woong-Sub; Kwak, Su-Hyun; Cho, Sang-Hyeon; Sung, Gyu-Wan; Kim, Hae-Sook; Yi, Sang-Wook; Cho, Hae Jun

    2018-05-01

    Nasal packing is an option for bleeding control after endoscopic sinus surgery and septoplasty. Although new packing materials have been developed, patients still suffer from pain and require additional analgesics treatments. In this study, a prospective, randomized, and double-blind controlled trial was designed to evaluate the effect of fentanyl-soaked packing on pain after endoscopic sinus surgery and septoplasty. One hundred fifty-two patients who underwent nasal surgeries due to chronic rhinosinusitis or nasal septal deviation were enrolled in this study. At the end of operation, 50 mcg fentanyl-soaked biodegradable synthetic polyurethane foams packing Nasopore or Merocel were applied to a group of 79 patients, and saline-soaked ones were applied to another group of 73 patients. To evaluate the influence of fentanyl on postoperative nasal pain, patients' conditions were assessed via means of Numeric Rating Scale, patient satisfaction, and Ramsay Sedation Scale. In addition, symptoms of headache or sore throat and any signs of cardiopulmonary-relevant indicators were monitored. The fentanyl group had significantly decreased Numeric Rating Scale and increased patient satisfaction in every operation type for the majority of postoperative time periods ( P < .05) with reduced postoperative headache and sore throat compared to the control group. The fentanyl group showed a higher score on Ramsay Sedation Scale than the control group ( P < .05 in group including endoscopic sinus surgery). There were no significant differences in cardiopulmonary-relevant indicators between the 2 groups ( P > .05). Fentanyl group showed significantly reduced postoperative pain without serious adverse effects. We suggest that topical fentanyl application to nasal packs can be a useful method to reduce pain during the early postoperative period after endoscopic sinus surgery and septoplasty.

  18. Seasonal induced changes in spinach rhizosphere microbial community structure with varying salinity and drought

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salinity is a common problem under irrigated agriculture, especially in low rainfall and high evaporative demand areas of southwestern United States and other semi-arid regions around the world. However, studies on salinity effects on soil microbial communities are relatively few while the effects o...

  19. Evaluation of polyvinylidene fluoride nasal sensor to assess deviated nasal septum in comparision with peak nasal inspiratory flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Roopa G; Rajanna, K; Mahapatra, D Roy; Prakash, Surya

    2014-01-01

    Deviated nasal septum (DNS) is one of the major causes of nasal obstruction. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nasal sensor is the new technique developed to assess the nasal obstruction caused by DNS. This study evaluates the PVDF nasal sensor measurements in comparison with PEAK nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) measurements and visual analog scale (VAS) of nasal obstruction. Because of piezoelectric property, two PVDF nasal sensors provide output voltage signals corresponding to the right and left nostril when they are subjected to nasal airflow. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the voltage signal corresponding to nasal airflow was analyzed to assess the nasal obstruction. PVDF nasal sensor and PNIF were performed on 30 healthy subjects and 30 DNS patients. Receiver operating characteristic was used to analyze the DNS of these two methods. Measurements of PVDF nasal sensor strongly correlated with findings of PNIF (r = 0.67; p < 0.01) in DNS patients. A significant difference (p < 0.001) was observed between PVDF nasal sensor measurements and PNIF measurements of the DNS and the control group. A cutoff between normal and pathological of 0.51 Vp-p for PVDF nasal sensor and 120 L/min for PNIF was calculated. No significant difference in terms of sensitivity of PVDF nasal sensor and PNIF (89.7% versus 82.6%) and specificity (80.5% versus 78.8%) was calculated. The result shows that PVDF measurements closely agree with PNIF findings. Developed PVDF nasal sensor is an objective method that is simple, inexpensive, fast, and portable for determining DNS in clinical practice.

  20. Salinization and arsenic contamination of surface water in southwest Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ayers, John C; George, Gregory; Fry, David; Benneyworth, Laura; Wilson, Carol; Auerbach, Leslie; Roy, Kushal; Karim, Md Rezaul; Akter, Farjana; Goodbred, Steven

    2017-09-11

    To identify the causes of salinization and arsenic contamination of surface water on an embanked island (i.e., polder) in the tidal delta plain of SW Bangladesh we collected and analyzed water samples in the dry (May) and wet (October) seasons in 2012-2013. Samples were collected from rice paddies (wet season), saltwater ponds used for brine shrimp aquaculture (dry season), freshwater ponds and tidal channels (both wet and dry season), and rainwater collectors. Continuous measurements of salinity from March 2012 to February 2013 show that tidal channel water increases from ~0.15 ppt in the wet season up to ~20 ppt in the dry season. On the polder, surface water exceeds the World Health Organization drinking water guideline of 10 μg As/L in 78% of shrimp ponds and 27% of rice paddies, raising concerns that produced shrimp and rice could have unsafe levels of As. Drinking water sources also often have unsafe As levels, with 83% of tubewell and 43% of freshwater pond samples having >10 μg As/L. Water compositions and field observations are consistent with shrimp pond water being sourced from tidal channels during the dry season, rather than the locally saline groundwater from tubewells. Irrigation water for rice paddies is also obtained from the tidal channels, but during the wet season when surface waters are fresh. Salts become concentrated in irrigation water through evaporation, with average salinity increasing from 0.43 ppt in the tidal channel source to 0.91 ppt in the rice paddies. Our observations suggest that the practice of seasonally alternating rice and shrimp farming in a field has a negligible effect on rice paddy water salinity. Also, shrimp ponds do not significantly affect the salinity of adjacent surface water bodies or subjacent groundwater because impermeable shallow surface deposits of silt and clay mostly isolate surface water bodies from each other and from the shallow groundwater aquifer. Bivariate plots of conservative element

  1. Potentials and problems of sustainable irrigation with water high in salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Gal, Alon

    2015-04-01

    Water scarcity and need to expand agricultural productivity have led to ever growing utilization of poor quality water for irrigation of crops. Almost in all cases, marginal or alternative water sources for irrigation contain relatively high concentrations of dissolved salts. When salts are present, irrigation water management, especially in the dry regions where water requirements are highest, must consider leaching in addition to crop evapotranspiration requirements. Leaching requirements for agronomic success are calculable and functions of climate, soil, and very critically, of crop sensitivity and the actual salinity of the irrigation water. The more sensitive the crop and more saline the water, the higher the agronomic cost and the greater the quantitative need for leaching. Israel is a forerunner in large-scale utilization of poor quality water for irrigation and can be used as a case study looking at long term repercussions of policy alternatively encouraging irrigation with recycled water or brackish groundwater. In cases studied in desert conditions of Israel, as much of half of the water applied to crops including bell peppers in greenhouses and date palms is actually used to leach salts from the root zone. The excess water used to leach salts and maintain agronomic and economic success when irrigating with water containing salts can become an environmental hazard, especially in dry areas where natural drainage is non-existent. The leachate often contains not only salts but also agrochemicals including nutrients, and natural contaminants can be picked up and transported as well. This leachate passes beyond the root zone and eventually reaches ground or surface water resources. This, together with evidence of ongoing increases in sodium content of fresh produce and increased SAR levels of soils, suggest that the current policy and practice in Israel of utilization of high amounts of low quality irrigation water is inherently non- sustainable. Current

  2. The geostatistic-based spatial distribution variations of soil salts under long-term wastewater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenyong; Yin, Shiyang; Liu, Honglu; Niu, Yong; Bao, Zhe

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and evaluate the spatial changes in soil salinity by using geostatistical methods. The study focused on the suburb area of Beijing, where urban development led to water shortage and accelerated wastewater reuse to farm irrigation for more than 30 years. The data were then processed by GIS using three different interpolation techniques of ordinary kriging (OK), disjunctive kriging (DK), and universal kriging (UK). The normality test and overall trend analysis were applied for each interpolation technique to select the best fitted model for soil parameters. Results showed that OK was suitable for soil sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and Na(+) interpolation; UK was suitable for soil Cl(-) and pH; DK was suitable for soil Ca(2+). The nugget-to-sill ratio was applied to evaluate the effects of structural and stochastic factors. The maps showed that the areas of non-saline soil and slight salinity soil accounted for 6.39 and 93.61%, respectively. The spatial distribution and accumulation of soil salt were significantly affected by the irrigation probabilities and drainage situation under long-term wastewater irrigation.

  3. Effect of Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation on Enterococcus faecalis from Root Canals: An Ex Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Chávez-Andrade, Gisselle Moraima; de Faria-Júnior, Norberto Batista; Watanabe, Evandro; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic irrigation aims to clean and disinfect the root canal system. Passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) is based on the use of an ultrasound-activated instrument into the root canal filled with irrigant. The aim of this study was to evaluate, ex vivo, the effectiveness of PUI in eliminating Enterococcus faecalis from root canals. Seventy-five extracted human single-root teeth were used. After root canal preparation, specimens were inoculated with E. faecalis and incubated at 37 °C for 21 days. Specimens were distributed into five groups (n=15), according to the irrigation method: PUI + saline solution (PUI/SS); PUI + 1% NaOCl (PUI/NaOCl); conventional needle irrigation (CNI) + saline solution (CNI/SS); CNI + 1% NaOCl (CNI/NaOCl); No irrigation (control). Microbiological samples were collected at three time points: initial (21 days after inoculation), post-irrigation (immediately after irrigation), and final (7 days after irrigation). Data were obtained in CFU mL-1 and subjected to analysis by ANOVA and Tukey's tests at 5% significance level. The post-irrigation samples did not demonstrate statistical difference between PUI/SS and CNI/SS nor between PUI/NaOCl and CNI/NaOCl (p>0.05), but PUI/NaOCl and CNI/NaOCl had lower CFU mL-1 number than the other groups (p>0.05). Statistically significant difference was observed between the initial and post-irrigation samples and between the post-irrigation and final samples (p<0.05) in all groups, except in the control. The final samples of all groups presented bacterial counts similar to the initial samples. PUI or CNI with 1% NaOCl contribute to disinfection, but are unable to eradicate E. faecalis from the root canal system.

  4. Nasally-Administered Oxytocin Has Limited Effects on Owner-Directed Attachment Behavior in Pet Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Thielke, Lauren E.; Rosenlicht, Giovanna; Saturn, Sarina R.; Udell, Monique A. R.

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored the effects of intranasal oxytocin, a naturally occurring hormone, on the behavior of pet dogs during an attachment test. Each dog participated in two testing sessions. On one visit saline was administered nasally, and on another, oxytocin was administered nasally. For half of the dogs (n = 20), solutions were administered with a Mucosal Atomization Device (MAD) and for half of the dogs (n = 20), solutions were administered using a nasal spray bottle. Condition order was counterbalanced and a double-blind methodology was employed. Following a 30-min wait period after administration of solutions, dog-owner pairs participated in the Secure Base Test, a short attachment test consisting of three 2-min phases: (1) Baseline- the owner was present, dogs were able to freely explore the testing room (2) Alone- dogs were left alone in the testing room (3) Return- owners re-entered the room and were reunited with their dog. In each phase the dog was evaluated for contact seeking, exploration, and avoidance behaviors. Although, oxytocin administration was expected to increase owner-directed proximity and contact seeking behavior, this effect was not observed. In fact, in the baseline phase, dogs spent significantly more time seeking the proximity of their owners when they received saline than when they received OT (p < 0.05). Sex differences were also assessed for the behavioral variables of interest in the Secure Base Test, and results indicated that OT did not affect dogs' behavior in the alone phase, but when saline was administered, females spent significantly more time in contact with the door than males in the alone phase (p < 0.05). Overall, the effects of nasally administered oxytocin on attachment related behavior appeared to be limited or inconsistent for this pet dog population. PMID:29033879

  5. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part II. geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Waters with low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios (SARs) present a challenge to irrigation because they degrade soil structure and infiltration capacity. In the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, such low salinity (electrical conductivity, EC 2.1 mS cm-1) and high-SAR (54) waters are co-produced with coal-bed methane and some are used for subsurface drip irrigation(SDI). The SDI system studied mixes sulfuric acid with irrigation water and applies water year-round via drip tubing buried 92 cm deep. After six years of irrigation, SAR values between 0 and 30 cm depth (0.5-1.2) are only slightly increased over non-irrigated soils (0.1-0.5). Only 8-15% of added Na has accumulated above the drip tubing. Sodicity has increased in soil surrounding the drip tubing, and geochemical simulations show that two pathways can generate sodic conditions. In soil between 45-cm depth and the drip tubing, Na from the irrigation water accumulates as evapotranspiration concentrates solutes. SAR values >12, measured by 1:1 water-soil extracts, are caused by concentration of solutes by factors up to 13. Low-EC (-1) is caused by rain and snowmelt flushing the soil and displacing ions in soil solution. Soil below the drip tubing experiences lower solute concentration factors (1-1.65) due to excess irrigation water and also contains relatively abundant native gypsum (2.4 ± 1.7 wt.%). Geochemical simulations show gypsum dissolution decreases soil-water SAR to 14 and decreasing EC in soil water to 3.2 mS cm-1. Increased sodicity in the subsurface, rather than the surface, indicates that deep SDI can be a viable means of irrigating with sodic waters.

  6. Soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of an inland arid region: Mulched drip irrigation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dongmei; Zhou, Tiantian

    2018-04-01

    Agricultural irrigation with trans-basin water diversion can effectively relieve the water paucity in arid and semi-arid regions, however, this may be accompanied by eco-environmental problems (e.g., saline soils, rising groundwater levels, water quality problems). The mechanism of soil water movement under irrigation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions is a key scientific problem that should be solved in order to evaluate agricultural water management and further improve current irrigation practices. This study investigated the impact of drip irrigation on soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of a cotton field in an inland arid region (the Karamay Agricultural Development Area), northwest China. Combining in situ observational physical data with temporal variation in stable isotopic compositions of soil water, we described the soil water flow system and mechanism in severe (Plot 1) and mild (Plot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. The infiltration depths are 0-150 cm for both plots. Drip irrigation scheduling makes no significant contribution to local groundwater recharge, however, groundwater can move into the unsaturated zone through capillary rise during cotton flowering and boll periods. Plot 2 is less prone to having secondary soil salinization than Plot 1 due to the existence of a middle layer (approximately 100 cm thick), which elongated the distance between the root zone and aquifer. Rise in the water table (approximately 60 cm for Plot 1 and 50 cm for Plot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. We estimated the soil water storage changes in the unsaturated zone and proposed a conceptual model for deciphering the movement process of soil water. This study provides a scientific basis for determining the rise of groundwater levels and potential development of saline soils and improving agricultural water management in arid regions.

  7. Impact of irrigation over India on the land surface fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rosnay, P. R.; Polcher, J. P.; Laval, K. L.; Sabre, M. S.

    2003-04-01

    Irrigation is the main water user in the world with 87 % of the global water consumption being attributed to use on irrigated crop land. There are large spatial variations of the irrigated areas, from 68 % in Asia and 16 % in America, 10 % in Europe and the remaining in Africa and Australia. India is the most important irrigating country in the world with a gross irrigation requirement estimated by the FAO at 457 cubic km by year. The environmental impacts of irrigation are very important: irrigation causes the soil salinization, it affects the water quality and ecology, and increases the incidence of water related diseases. Irrigation is also expected to affect the the land surface energy budget, and thereby the climate system. The work presented here is conducted in the framework of the PROMISE European project. It aims to analyze the sensitivity of the land surface fluxes to the intensive irrigation over Indian peninsula. Numerical experiments are conducted with the land surface scheme ORCHIDEE of the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, with a 1 degree spatial resolution. Two 2years simulations, forced by the ISLSCP (1987-88) data sets, are compared, with and without irrigation. The analysis focuses on the effect of land irrigation on the surface fluxes (partition of energy between latent and sensible fluxes), and the river flow.

  8. Effects of irrigation water salinity on evapotranspiration modified by leaching fractions in hot pepper plants.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Rangjian; Liu, Chunwei; Wang, Zhenchang; Yang, Zaiqiang; Jing, Yuanshu

    2017-08-03

    We investigated whether leaching fraction (LF) is able to modify the effects of irrigation water salinity (EC iw ) on evapotranspiration (ET). We conducted an experiment with a completely randomized block design using five levels of EC iw and two LFs. Results showed that the electrical conductivity of drainage water (EC dw ) in an LF of 0.29 was considerably higher during the 21-36 days after transplanting (DAT), and considerably lower after 50 DAT than in an LF of 0.17. The hourly, nighttime, daily, cumulative and seasonal ET all decreased considerably as a result of an increase in the EC iw . The daily ET started to be considerably higher in the LF of 0.29 than in the LF of 0.17 from 65 DAT. Compared with the LF of 0.17, the seasonal ET in the LF of 0.29 under various EC iw levels increased by 4.8%-8.7%. The Maas and Hoffman and van Genuchten and Hoffman models both corresponded well with the measured relative seasonal ET and the LF had no marked effects on these model parameters. Collectively, an increase in the level of EC iw always decreased the ET substantially. An increase in the LF increased the ET considerably, but there was a time lag.

  9. Response of the Rio Grande and shallow ground water in the Mesilla Bolson to irrigation, climate stress, and pumping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walton, J.; Ohlmacher, G.; Utz, D.; Kutianawala, M.

    1999-01-01

    The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez metropolitan area obtains its water from the Rio Grande and intermontane-basin aquifers. Shallow ground water in this region is in close communications with the surface water system. A major problem with both systems is salinity. Upstream usage of the water in the Rio Grande for irrigation and municipalities has led to concentration of soluble salts to the point where the surface water commonly exceeds drinking water standards. Shallow ground water is recharged by surface water (primarily irrigation canals and agricultural fields) and discharges to surface water (agricultural drains) and deeper ground water. The source of water entering the Rio Grande varies seasonally. During the irrigation season, water is released from reservoirs and mixes with the return flow from irrigation drains. During the non-irrigation season (winter), flow is from irrigation drains and river water quality is indicative of shallow ground water. The annual cycle can be ascertained from the inverse correlation between ion concentrations and discharge in the river. Water-quality data indicate that the salinity of shallow ground water increases each year during a drought. Water-management strategies in the region can affect water quality. Increasing the pumping rate of water-supply wells will cause shallow ground water to flow into the deeper aquifers and degrade the water quality. Lining the canals in the irrigation system to stop water leakage will lead to water quality degradation in shallow ground water and, eventually, deep ground water by removing a major source of high quality recharge that currently lowers the salinity of the shallow ground water.

  10. An evaluation of supervised classifiers for indirectly detecting salt-affected areas at irrigation scheme level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Sybrand Jacobus; van Niekerk, Adriaan

    2016-07-01

    Soil salinity often leads to reduced crop yield and quality and can render soils barren. Irrigated areas are particularly at risk due to intensive cultivation and secondary salinization caused by waterlogging. Regular monitoring of salt accumulation in irrigation schemes is needed to keep its negative effects under control. The dynamic spatial and temporal characteristics of remote sensing can provide a cost-effective solution for monitoring salt accumulation at irrigation scheme level. This study evaluated a range of pan-fused SPOT-5 derived features (spectral bands, vegetation indices, image textures and image transformations) for classifying salt-affected areas in two distinctly different irrigation schemes in South Africa, namely Vaalharts and Breede River. The relationship between the input features and electro conductivity measurements were investigated using regression modelling (stepwise linear regression, partial least squares regression, curve fit regression modelling) and supervised classification (maximum likelihood, nearest neighbour, decision tree analysis, support vector machine and random forests). Classification and regression trees and random forest were used to select the most important features for differentiating salt-affected and unaffected areas. The results showed that the regression analyses produced weak models (<0.4 R squared). Better results were achieved using the supervised classifiers, but the algorithms tend to over-estimate salt-affected areas. A key finding was that none of the feature sets or classification algorithms stood out as being superior for monitoring salt accumulation at irrigation scheme level. This was attributed to the large variations in the spectral responses of different crops types at different growing stages, coupled with their individual tolerances to saline conditions.

  11. [Preparation of freeze-dried powder of recombinate hirudin-2 nanoparticle for nasal delivery and permeability through nasal membrane in vitro].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Xia; Zhang, Jian-Bao; Yu, Ji-Ping; Ye, Jing; Wei, Bao-Hong; Zhang, Yu-Jie

    2013-06-01

    To optimize the freeze-dried powder preparation technology of recombinate hirudin-2 (rHV2) nanoparticle which has bio-adhesive characteristic for nasal delivery, also to investigate its stability and permeability through nasal membrane in vitro. Taking the appearance, rediffusion of nanoparticle and rHV2 encapsulation efficiency as the evaluation indexes. Cryoprotector, the preparative technique and the effect of illumination and high temperature factors on its stability for rHV2 freeze-dried powder were investigated. Using Fraze diffusion cell technique, the permeability of rHV2 across rabbit nasal mucous membrane in chitosan solution, chitosan nanoparticle, and nanoparticle frozen-dried powder were compared with that in normal saline solution. The optimized preparation of rHV2 nanoparticle freeze-dried powder was as follows: 5% trehalose and glucose (1:1) was used as cryoprotector, nanoparticle solution was freezed for 24 h in vacuum frozen-dryer after being pre-freezed for 24 h. The content of rHV2 in the freeze-dried powder was 1.1 ug/mg. Illumination had little effect on the appearance, rediffusion and encapsulation efficiency of the rHV2 freeze-dried powder. High temperature could obviously influence the appearance of nanoparticle freeze-dried powder. The permeability coefficient (P) of nanoparticle was 5 times more than that in chictonson solution. It was indicated that chitosan nanoparticle has effect on increasing the permeability of rHV2. The freeze-dried powder of chitosan nanoparticle can be a good nasal preparation of rHV2.

  12. Temperature changes and chondrocyte death during drilling in a bovine cartilage model and chondroprotection by modified irrigation solutions.

    PubMed

    Farhan-Alanie, Muhamed M H; Hall, Andrew C

    2014-11-01

    Drilling into cartilage/bone is often required for orthopaedic surgery. While drilling into bone has been studied, the response of cartilage has received little attention. We have measured cartilage and drill bit temperatures during drilling and quantified the zone of chondrocyte death (ZCD) around the hole in the presence/absence of irrigation solutions. Drilling was performed using a 1.5-mm orthopaedic drill bit applied to bovine metatarsophalangeal joints and temperatures recorded by infrared camera. Osteochondral explants were then incubated with 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) and propidium iodide (PI) to label living/dead chondrocytes respectively. The width of the ZCD was quantified by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and image analysis. Without irrigation, the ZCD following drilling for two seconds was 135 ± 15 μm and this increased (>fourfold, P < 0.001) with five seconds of drilling. Irrigation reduced the ZCD following drilling for both two and five seconds (P < 0.05, P < 0.001 respectively) to the same level (approx. 60 μm). Without irrigation, drill bit and cartilage temperature increased rapidly to >265 and 119 °C respectively, whereas the camera saturated at >282 °C during drilling for five seconds. With irrigation, the drill bit temperature was significantly reduced during drilling for two and five seconds (approx. 90 °C) with negligible change in cartilage temperature. Drilling while irrigating with hyperosmotic saline (600 mOsm) reduced (P < 0.01) the ZCD compared to saline, whereas chondrocyte death was increased (P < 0.01) by Ca(2+) saline (5 mM). Reducing temperature during drilling by irrigation markedly suppressed, but did not abolish chondrocyte death. Optimising the irrigation solution by raising osmolarity and reducing Ca(2+) content significantly reduced chondrocyte death during drilling and may be clinically beneficial.

  13. Genetic analysis of salinity responses in Medicago genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reduced availability of clean water in arid and semi-arid regions will require the use of low-quality/alternative waters for irrigation. The main consideration for using low-quality/alternative waters is often their salt concentration. Plants respond to salinity stress through a complex network of p...

  14. Similarity and Enhancement: Nasality from Moroccan Arabic Pharyngeals and Nasals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellou, Georgia Eve

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies of the articulation, acoustics, and perception of nasal and pharyngeal consonants and adjacent vowels were conducted to investigate nasality in Moroccan Arabic (MA). The status of nasality in MA is described as coarticulatorily complex, where two phoneme types (pharyngeal segments and nasal segments) yield similar…

  15. Salvage of infected craniotomy bone flaps with the wash-in, wash-out indwelling antibiotic irrigation system. Technical note and case series of 12 patients.

    PubMed

    Auguste, Kurtis I; McDermott, Michael W

    2006-10-01

    When complicated by infection, craniotomy bone flaps are commonly removed, discarded, and delayed cranioplasty is performed. This treatment paradigm is costly, carries the risks associated with additional surgery, and may cause cosmetic deformities. The authors present their experience with an indwelling antibiotic irrigation system used for the sterilization and salvage of infected bone flaps as an alternative to their removal and replacement. The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records for 12 patients with bone flap infections following craniotomy who received treatment with the wash-in, wash-out indwelling antibiotic irrigation system. Infected flaps were removed and scrubbed with povidone-iodine solution and soaked in 1.5% hydrogen peroxide while the wound was debrided. The bone flaps were returned to the skull and the irrigation system was installed. Antibiotic medication was infused through the system for a mean of 5 days. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was continued for 2 weeks and oral antibiotics for 3 months postoperatively. Wound checks were performed at clinic follow-up visits, and there was a mean follow-up period of 13 months. Eleven of the 12 patients who had undergone placement of the bone flap irrigation system experienced complete resolution of the infection. In five patients there was involvement of the nasal sinus cavities, and in four there was a history of radiation treatment. In the one patient whose infection recurred, there was both involvement of the nasal sinuses and a history of extensive radiation treatment. Infected bone flaps can be salvaged, thus avoiding the cost, risk, and possible disfigurement associated with flap removal and delayed cranioplasty. Although prior radiation treatment and involvement of the nasal sinuses may interfere with wound healing and clearance of the infection, these factors should not preclude the use of irrigation with antibiotic agents for bone flap salvage.

  16. Nasal Irrigation for Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Fatigue in Patients with Gulf War Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Early study conduct suggests that our participant-oriented approach will yield high rates of participant adherence and data capture, facilitating...ordinal response symptom severity scale [22] (Table 1). Exclusion criteria include self-reported pregnancy ; current use of NI, neurological...level of your daily fatigue over the past month on a 0–10 scale” Exclusion criteria • Self-reported pregnancy • Current use of NI or nasal spray

  17. [ARTCEREB irrigation and perfusion solution for cerebrospinal surgery: pharmacological assessment using human astrocytes exposed to test solutions].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Masuhiro; Doi, Kazuhisa; Enomoto, Riyo; Lee, Eibai; Naito, Shinsaku; Yamauchi, Aiko

    2009-09-01

    ARTCEREB irrigation and perfusion solution (Artcereb) is a preparation intended for the irrigation and perfusion of the cerebral ventricles, and it is therefore important to evaluate the effects of Artcereb on brain cells. In vitro assessment of the effects of Artcereb in cell cultures of human fetal astrocytes was conducted in comparison with normal saline and lactated Ringer's solution. The effects of exposure to Artcereb were evaluated based on microscopic images of the mitochondria stained with rhodamine 123. The effects of exposure to Artcereb on cell function were also evaluated by quantitative analysis of mitochondrial activity based on rhodamine 123 and (3)H-thymidine incorporation. Morphological changes in nuclear structure were also evaluated. The results of the present study showed that cell function in cell cultures of human astrocytes was relatively unaffected by exposure to Artcereb as compared with normal saline or lactated Ringer's solution, suggesting that Artcereb has less effect on brain cells than normal saline or lactated Ringer's solution when used for the irrigation or perfusion of the cerebral ventricles.

  18. Nattokinase, profibrinolytic enzyme, effectively shrinks the nasal polyp tissue and decreases viscosity of mucus.

    PubMed

    Takabayashi, Tetsuji; Imoto, Yoshimasa; Sakashita, Masafumi; Kato, Yukinori; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Yoshida, Kanako; Narita, Norihiko; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Fujieda, Shigeharu

    2017-10-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is often comorbid with asthma and resistant to therapeutic interventions. We recently reported that excessive fibrin deposition caused by impairment of fibrinolysis might play pivotal role in forming nasal polyp. Nattokinase (NK), a serine protease produced by Bacillus subtilis, has been reported to be a strong fibrinolytic enzyme. NK could be a promising drug candidate for use in the treatment of both CRSwNP and asthma. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NK on nasal polyp tissues from patients with CRSwNP. The nasal discharge from patients with CRSwNP and sputum from subjects with asthma were also used to investigate whether NK influences the viscosity of mucus. To examine the effects on NK on nasal polyp tissues, pieces of nasal polyps were incubated either with saline or NK (10-1000 FU/ml) at 37 °C for 24 h. We assessed the presence of fibrin in nasal polyp tissue incubated with NK by means of immunohistochemistry. To examine the effects of NK on nasal discharge and sputum from patients with CRSwNP and asthma, respectively, were incubated with NK solution at 37 °C for 1 h. NK effectively shrinks the nasal polyp tissue through fibrin degradation. We also found that the viscosity of the nasal discharge and sputum from patients with CRSwNP and asthma, respectively, was significantly reduced by incubation with NK solution. NK may be an effective alternative therapeutic option in patients with CRSwNP and comorbid asthma by causing fibrin degradation. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of salinity and selenium loading and land-use change in Montrose Arroyo, western Colorado, from 1992 to 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Salinity and selenium are naturally occurring and perva-sive in the lower Gunnison River Basin of Colorado, includ-ing the watershed of Montrose Arroyo. Although some of the salinity and selenium loading in the Montrose Arroyo study area is from natural sources, additional loading has resulted from the introduction of intensive irrigation in the water-shed. With increasing land-use change and the conversion from irrigated agricultural to urban land, land managers and stakeholders need information about the long-term effects of land-use change on salinity and selenium loading. In response to the need to advance salinity and selenium science, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Forum, and Colorado River Water Conservation District, developed a study to characterize salinity and selenium loading and how salinity and selenium sources may relate to land-use change in Montrose Arroyo. This report characterizes changes in salinity and selenium loading to Montrose Arroyo from March 1992 to February 2010 and the magnitude of land-use change between unirrigated desert, irrigated agricultural, and urban land-use/land-cover types, and discusses how the respective loads may relate to land-use change. Montrose Arroyo is an approximately 8-square-mile watershed in Montrose County in western Colorado. Salinity and selenium were studied in Montrose Arroyo in a 2001 study as part of a salinity- and selenium-control lateral project. The robust nature of the historical dataset indicated that Montrose Arroyo was a prime watershed for a follow-up study. Two sites from the 2001 study were used to monitor salinity and selenium loads in Montrose Arroyo in the follow-up study. Over the period of 2 water years and respective irrigation seasons (2008-2010), 27 water-quality samples were collected and streamflow measurements were made at the historical sites MA2 and MA4. Salinity and selenium concen-trations, loads

  20. Are existing irrigation salinity leaching requirement guidelines overly conservative or obsolete?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water scarcity and increased frequency of drought, resulting from erratic weather attributable to climatic change or alterations in historical weather patterns, have caused greater scrutiny of irrigated agriculture’s demand on water resources. The traditional guidelines for the calculation of the c...

  1. Updates on Water Use of Pistachio Orchards Grown in the San Joaquin Valley of California on Saline Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccaria, Daniele; Marino, Giulia; Whiting, Michael; Sanden, Blake; Ferguson, Louise; Lampinen, Bruce; Kent, Eric; Snyder, Richard; Grattan, Stephen; Little, Cayle

    2017-04-01

    Pistachio acreage is rapidly expanding in California thanks to its economic profitability and capacity to grow and produce in salt-affected soils. Our team at University of California is updating information on actual water use (ET) of mature pistachio orchards grown on saline soils under micro-irrigation methods. Actual Evapotranspiration (ETa) and Crop Coefficients (Ka) were determined for the 2015 and 2016 crop seasons on four pistachio orchards grown in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) on grounds with increasing levels of soil-water salinity, using the residual of energy balance method with a combination of eddy covariance and surface renewal equipment. Tree canopy cover, light interception, and plant water status across the orchards were also measured and evaluated. Our preliminary results show that salinity strongly affects the tree water use, resulting in 10-30% less ET for medium to high salt-affected soils. Salinity also showed a strong effect on tree water status and light interception, as suggested by values of the Midday Stem Water Potential (ΨSWP) around 10 to 15-bar lower in salt-affected than in the control orchard, and by the intercepted Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) decreasing from 75% in the control orchard to 25% in the severely salt affected grounds. The crop coefficient values we observed in this study are lower than those commonly used for irrigation scheduling in the SJV, suggesting that pistachio growers could better tailor irrigation management to the actual site-specific orchard conditions (e.g. canopy features and soil-water salinity) if they are provided updated information. Improved irrigation practices could likely lead to significant water savings and thus improve the resource-efficiency and competitiveness of pistachio production in the SJV. Keywords: Pistacia vera L., salinity, stem water potential, surface renewal, canopy cover.

  2. Balancing water scarcity and quality for sustainable irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Russo, David; Silber, Avner; Or, Dani

    2015-05-01

    The challenge of meeting the projected doubling of global demand for food by 2050 is monumental. It is further exacerbated by the limited prospects for land expansion and rapidly dwindling water resources. A promising strategy for increasing crop yields per unit land requires the expansion of irrigated agriculture and the harnessing of water sources previously considered "marginal" (saline, treated effluent, and desalinated water). Such an expansion, however, must carefully consider potential long-term risks on soil hydroecological functioning. The study provides critical analyses of use of marginal water and management approaches to map out potential risks. Long-term application of treated effluent (TE) for irrigation has shown adverse impacts on soil transport properties, and introduces certain health risks due to the persistent exposure of soil biota to anthropogenic compounds (e.g., promoting antibiotic resistance). The availability of desalinated water (DS) for irrigation expands management options and improves yields while reducing irrigation amounts and salt loading into the soil. Quantitative models are used to delineate trends associated with long-term use of TE and DS considering agricultural, hydrological, and environmental aspects. The primary challenges to the sustainability of agroecosystems lies with the hazards of saline and sodic conditions, and the unintended consequences on soil hydroecological functioning. Multidisciplinary approaches that combine new scientific knowhow with legislative, economic, and societal tools are required to ensure safe and sustainable use of water resources of different qualities. The new scientific knowhow should provide quantitative models for integrating key biophysical processes with ecological interactions at appropriate spatial and temporal scales.

  3. Saline-filled laparoscopic surgery: A basic study on partial hepatectomy in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Masanari; Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Ishikawa, Norihiko; Watanabe, Go

    2015-01-01

    There is still a poor understanding of the effects of pneumoperitoneum with insufflation of carbon dioxide gas (CO2) on malignant cells, and pneumoperitoneum has a negative impact on cardiopulmonary responses. A novel saline-filled laparoscopic surgery (SAFLS) is proposed, and the technical feasibility of performing saline-filled laparoscopic partial hepatectomy (LPH) was evaluated in a rabbit model. Twelve LPH were performed in rabbits, with six procedures performed using an ultrasonic device with CO2 pneumoperitoneum (CO2 group) and six procedures performed using a bipolar resectoscope (RS) in a saline-filled environment (saline group). Resection time, CO2 and saline consumption, vital signs, blood gas analysis, complications, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured. The effectiveness of the resections was evaluated by the pathological findings. LPH was successfully performed with clear observation by irrigation and good control of bleeding by coagulation with RS. There were no significant differences in all perioperative values, IL-1βand CRP levels between the two groups. All pathological specimens of the saline group showed that the resected lesions were coagulated and regenerated as well as in the CO2 group. SAFLS is feasible and provides a good surgical view with irrigation and identification of bleeding sites.

  4. The effect of OK-432 (Picibanil) injection on the histopathology of nasal turbinate.

    PubMed

    Sengul, S; Kaygusuz, I; Akin, M M; Yalcin, Ş; Karlidag, T; Keles, E; Arslan, I

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the histopathological effect of OK-432 (Picibanil) on rabbit nasal turbinates. A total of 21 rabbits were divided into 3 treatment groups and various parts of both nasal turbinates were injected with 0.5 ml OK-432, 0.2 ml OK-432 or 0.6 ml saline (control). Bilateral nasal turbinates were later excised and studied under light microscopy to assess any histopathological changes. Animals in the 0.2 ml and 0.5 ml OK-432 groups exhibited mild ciliary loss, goblet cell loss and epithelial damage, and a marked increase in inflammatory cell infiltration, submucosal vascularisation and fibrosis. There was a significant difference in histopathological changes between the two OK-432 treated groups. In addition, each OK-432 treated group had significantly more inflammatory cell infiltration, increased submucosal vascularisation and fibrosis compared with controls. The marked fibrosis observed in OK-432-injected turbinates may be responsible for a reduction in turbinate size.

  5. Assessment of nasalance and nasality in patients with a repaired cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Sinko, Klaus; Gruber, Maike; Jagsch, Reinhold; Roesner, Imme; Baumann, Arnulf; Wutzl, Arno; Denk-Linnert, Doris-Maria

    2017-07-01

    In patients with a repaired cleft palate, nasality is typically diagnosed by speech language pathologists. In addition, there are various instruments to objectively diagnose nasalance. To explore the potential of nasalance measurements after cleft palate repair by NasalView ® , we correlated perceptual nasality and instrumentally measured nasalance of eight speech items and determined the relationship between sensitivity and specificity of the nasalance measures by receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analyses and AUC (area under the curve) computation for each single test item and specific item groups. We recruited patients with a primarily repaired cleft palate receiving speech therapy during follow-up. During a single day visit, perceptive and instrumental assessments were obtained in 36 patients and analyzed. The individual perceptual nasality was assigned to one of four categories; the corresponding instrumental nasalance measures for the eight specific speech items were expressed on a metric scale (1-100). With reference to the perceptual diagnoses, we observed 3 nasal and one oral test item with high sensitivity. However, the specificity of the nasality indicating measures was rather low. The four best speech items with the highest sensitivity provided scores ranging from 96.43 to 100%, while the averaged sensitivity of all eight items was below 90%. We conclude that perceptive evaluation of nasality remains state of the art. For clinical follow-up, instrumental nasalance assessment can objectively document subtle changes by analysis of four speech items only. Further studies are warranted to determine the applicability of instrumental nasalance measures in the clinical routine, using discriminative items only.

  6. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    streams, drains, or lakes; by pumping or flow of wells; or by flow of springs. Waterlogging and the associated development of saline soils are common in parts of the Riverton irrigation project and adjacent irrigated land. The waterlogging is in part the result of the infiltration of irrigation water in excess of the capacity of the aquifers to store and transmit this added recharge. The solution of the drainage problems involves the consideration of a number of factors, some of which are inadequately known in some parts of the area and require further investigation before fully effective drainage measures can be designed. The results of an aquifer test to determine the hydrologic characteristics of the Wind River formation at Riverton indicate a transmissibility of 10,000 gallons per day per foot (10,000 gpd per ft) and a storage coefficient of 2 x 10-4. The results of the test provide a part of the necessary foundation for the solution of present and future water-supply problems at Riverton and throughout the project area. Water from shallow aquifers in irrigated tracts in the Riverton irrigation project area generally contains large amounts of dissolved solids that were leached from the soil and rocks by infiltrating irrigation water. However, wells tapping beds that receive considerable recharge from influent canal and drain seepage yield water of relatively low mineralizatoin. Dilute water is obtained also from some shallow wells in the alluvial bottom lands and on low stream terraces that border the Wind Rover. Water from deep aquifers generally is more dilute than that from shallow aquifers. However, ground water from the deep aquifers, unmixed with irrigation water, generally has a percent sodium greater than 80. Analyses of salt crusts on the ground surface in low areas that are affected by effluent seepage and a high water table show predominance of sodium sulfate salinity, and from determinations of the water-soluble and acid-soluble substances in several

  7. Internal lateral nasal osteotomy: double-guarded osteotome and mucosa tearing.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2011-04-01

    For the internal lateral nasal osteotomy, a 4-mm double-guarded straight osteotome that separates the external periost and mucoperiosteum while the osteotomy is progressing is presented. Before the osteotomy, the external periost and the internal mucoperiosteum are infiltrated with local anesthesia and elevated by tunneling with an elevator. As the sharp part is behind the guards, it is not possible for the osteotome to slip away laterally or medially from the nasal bone. By tunneling just at the base of the nasal bones, arteries, veins, and lymphatics are preserved while the superior part of the external periosteum and the internal mucoperichondrium maintained the bones in a stable position with firm support to both sides. Forty consecutive rhinoplasties were studied with an endoscope. In 35 primary rhinoplasties the mucosa laceration rate was 1.5%, whereas in secondary rhinoplasties it was 80%. The approach to the piriform aperture was intranasal in the first 16 cases and intraoral in the last 24 cases. The intraoral mucosal elevation and osteotomy were easier to carry out than in the intranasal approach. In general, minor lower-lid edema and ecchymosis were observed, possibly related to the fact that the periosteum was elevated, thus preserving the supraperiosteal arteries, veins, and lymphatics. When the mucosa was elevated, the internal irrigation of the mucosa and the lymphatics was also preserved, thus avoiding intraoperative bleeding, intranasal packing, and postoperative bleeding.

  8. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Salinity Control Unit was 10,700 tons/year. This accounts for approximately 27 percent of the decrease observed downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. Salinity loads were decreasing at the fastest rate (6,950 tons/year) in Region 4, which drains an area between the Colorado River at Cameo, Colorado (station CAMEO) and Colorado River above Glenwood Springs, Colorado (station GLEN) streamflow-gaging stations. Trends in salinity concentration and streamflow were tested at station CAMEO to determine if salinity concentration, streamflow, or both are controlling salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. Trend tests of individual ion concentrations were included as potential indicators of what sources (based on mineral composition) may be controlling trends in the upper Colorado. No significant trend was detected for streamflow from 1986 to 2003 at station CAMEO; however, a significant downward trend was detected for salinity concentration. The trend slope indicates that salinity concentration is decreasing at a median rate of about 3.54 milligrams per liter per year. Five major ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride) were tested for trends. The results indicate that processes within source areas with rock and soil types (or other unidentified sources) bearing calcium, sodium, and sulfate had the largest effect on the downward trend in salinity load upstream from station CAMEO. Downward trends in salinity load resulting from ground-water sources and/or land-use change were thought to be possible reasons for the observed decreases in salinity loads; however, the cause or causes of the decreasing salinity loads are not fully understood. A reduction in the amount of ground-water percolation from Region 4 (resulting from work done through Federal irrigation system improvement programs as well as privately funded irrigation system improvements) has helped reduce annual salinity load from Region 4 by approxima

  9. Rethinking the sustainability of Israel's irrigation practices in the Drylands.

    PubMed

    Tal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    Broad utilization of drip irrigation technologies in Israel has contributed to the 1600 percent increase in the value of produce grown by local farmers over the past sixty-five years. The recycling of 86% of Israeli sewage now provides 50% of the country's irrigation water and is the second, idiosyncratic component in Israel's strategy to overcome water scarcity and maintain agriculture in a dryland region. The sustainability of these two practices is evaluated in light of decades of experience and ongoing research by the local scientific community. The review confirms the dramatic advantages of drip irrigation over time, relative to flood, furrow and sprinkler irrigation and its significance as a central component in agricultural production, especially under arid conditions. In contrast, empirical findings increasingly report damage to soil and to crops from salinization caused by irrigation with effluents. To be environmentally and agriculturally sustainable over time, wastewater reuse programs must ensure extremely high quality treated effluents and ultimately seek the desalinization of recycled sewage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxicity of trace element and salinity mixtures to striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and Daphnia magna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Burch, S.A.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hunn, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests with reconstituted water were conducted to investigate the relationship between water hardness, salinity, and a mixture of trace elements found in irrigation drain waters entering Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (SWMA), near Fallon, Nevada. The SWMA has been the site of many fish kills in recent years, and previous toxicity studies indicated that one drain water, Pintail Bay, was acutely toxic to organisms acclimated or cultured in fresh water or salt water. This toxicity could reflect both the ionic composition of this saline water and the presence of trace elements. The lowest water salinity tested with Daphnia magna was near the upper salinity tolerance of these organisms; therefore, we were unable to differentiate between the toxic effects of ion composition and those of trace elements. In toxicity tests conducted with striped bass (Morone saxatilis), we found that the extent to which salinity was lethal to striped bass depended on the ion composition of that salinity. Survival of striped bass increased as hardness increased. In addition, a trace element mixture was toxic to striped bass, even though the concentrations of individual elements were below expected acutely lethal concentrations. Although salinity is an important water quality characteristic, the ionic composition of the water must be considered when one assesses the hazard of irrigation drain waters to aquatic organisms.

  11. Metal uptake of tomato and alfalfa plants as affected by water source, salinity, and Cd and Zn levels under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Mamoun A; Marschner, Bernd; Heinze, Stefanie

    2015-12-01

    Irrigation with wastewater is a promising option to improve crop yields and to reduce pressure on freshwater sources. However, heavy metal concentrations in wastewater may cause health concerns. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted in order to determine cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in sandy soil and plant tissues of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A 2 × 2 × 4 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement was utilized. Two water sources, fresh (FW) or treated wastewater (TWW), at two salinity levels (1 and 3 dS m(-1)) containing different levels of Cd and Zn were used. Samples were collected after a 90-day growth period. It was observed that the growth of both plants was depressed at the highest metal level (L3). Metal accumulation in plant parts increased with the increase of metal concentration and salinity in irrigation water. At low salinity, water source was the main factor which controlled metal accumulation, whereas, at high salinity, chloride appeared to be the principal factor controlling metal uptake regardless of water source. Metal translocation from roots to shoots increased in TWW-irrigated plants, even in the controls. Tomatoes accumulated Cd up to and above critical levels safe for human consumption, even though Cd concentration in irrigation water did not exceed the current recommended values. Therefore, food production in sandy soils may well pose a health hazard when irrigated with TWW containing heavy metals. Complexation with dissolved organic compounds (DOC) in TWW may be to be the principal factor responsible for increased metal uptake and transfer at low salinity, thereby increasing the risk of heavy metal contamination of food and forage crops.

  12. The Assessment of Irrigated Land Salinization in the Aral Sea Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlykhanov, Orazkhan K.; Toktaganova, Gulzhaz B.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the main industries of Kazakhstan, especially in the Kyzylorda Region. Before the reforms, agriculture in this region was better developed than the manufacturing industry; this is no longer the case. The main crop grown on the irrigated land of the region is rice. Inefficient distribution of cultivated areas, their excessive…

  13. Nasal Anatomy and Function.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ruchin G

    2017-02-01

    The nose is a complex structure important in facial aesthetics and in respiratory physiology. Nasal defects can pose a challenge to reconstructive surgeons who must re-create nasal symmetry while maintaining nasal function. A basic understanding of the underlying nasal anatomy is thus necessary for successful nasal reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Is irrigation with partial desalinated seawater a policy option for saving freshwater in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, Sebastian; Alquwaizany, Abdulaziz S.; Lehnert, Karl-H.; Frede, Hans-Georg; Breuer, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    The agriculture sector consumes with 88 % a majority of the almost fossil water resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Irrigation with saline water has been highlighted to be a promising technique to reduce fresh water consumption. Current desalination techniques, further developments, salt tolerant crop types and improved irrigation systems can potentially redesign future perspectives for irrigation agriculture, in particular by considering the growing desalination capacity in KSA (5 million m3 day-1 in 2003). Hence, we have analyzed the potential of using desalinated and partial desalinated seawater for growing crops in KSA by considering scenarios of salinity levels and desalination costs. The desalination process has been modelled with the ROSA© software considering a reverse osmosis (RO) plant. The spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER has been applied to assess the water footprint of crops (WFcrop). In order to maintain high crop yields, salts need to be washed out from the rooting zone, which requires the application of additional salt-free water. Therefore, high crop yields come along with additional water requirements and increased desalination effort and increased costs for proving high quality water. As an example, growing wheat with partial desalinated seawater from the Arabian Gulf with a RO plant has been investigated. Desalination reduces the salinity level from 76 dS m-1 to 0.5 dS m-1 considering two RO cycles, with cost of desalinized water in the range of 0.5 to 1.2 m-3. We acknowledge that cost only refer to desalination without considering others such as transport, water pumping or crop fertilization. The study shows that Boron is the most problematic salt component, because it is difficult to remove by RO and toxic in high concentrations for crops (wheat threshold of 0.5 to 1.0 mg l-1). The nationwide average WFcrop of wheat under surface irrigation is 2,628 m3 t-1 considering high water quality of 1 dS m-1 and 3,801 m3 t-1 at

  15. Island composite nasal flap for nasal dorsum skin defects.

    PubMed

    Skitarelić, Neven; Mladina, Ranko; Mraovic, Boris; Simurina, Tatjana; Skitarelić, Nataa; Vuković, Katarina

    2009-08-01

    Skin defects on the nasal dorsum remain a challenge for the plastic surgeon. There are few local nasal flap options for the repair of proximally positioned nasal skin defects. During a 3-year period, 22 patients were treated after excision of skin cancer in the proximal two-thirds of the nose. Nine patients (41%) were female and 13 (59%) were male, with an average age of 69 years. All patients were operated on under local anesthesia. The average follow-up was 25 months. In all patients, after tumor ablation, the skin defect was closed with an island composite nasal skin flap. Pathohistologic analysis confirmed that the margins of the removed tumor were free of malignant cells. Six patients (27.3%) had squamous cell and 16 (72.7%) had basal cell carcinoma. There was no total or partial flap loss. None of the patients has suffered from recurrence of the tumor. The island composite nasal flap is a reliable technique for the closure of proximal nasal skin defects. Complications in the elevation of the island composite flap were rare, and the final result was acceptable.

  16. The potential role of hyaluronic acid in postoperative radiofrequency surgery for chronic inferior turbinate hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Casale, Manuele; Manuele, Casale; Ciglia, Giacomo; Giacomo, Ciglia; Frari, Valeria; Valeria, Frari; Incammisa, Antonino; Antonino, Incammisa; Mazzola, Francesco; Francesco, Mazzola; Baptista, Peter; Peter, Baptista; Mladina, Ranko; Ranko, Mladina; Salvinelli, Fabrizio; Fabrizio, Salvinelli

    2013-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA) as an adjuvant treatment to hasten the improvement of nasal respiration and to minimize patients' discomfort in the postoperative radiofrequency volumetric tissue reduction (RFVTR) of inferior turbinates. We enrolled 57 patients randomly assigned into two groups, HA (22 patients) and saline group (35 patients), which received isotonic saline nasal irrigation. We used the monopolar device somnoplasty for all patients. Visual analogic scale (VAS) and nasal endoscopy were used to assess the outcomes of the treatments during the 1st month of follow-up. The mean VAS score of the HA group at the 1st week was significantly lower than the control group (3.36 ± 1.89 versus 6.95 ± 1.52; p < 0.05). The VAS score remained significantly lower in the HA group also at the 2nd week (3.43 ± 1.27 versus 5.75±1.39; p < 0.05), becoming similar to the control group at the 4th week (p = ns). Since the first visit the HA group also showed significantly lower crust score than the saline group (p < 0.05), and there was no crust found in either group at the last visit. The compliance to treatment was similar in both groups. The results of this prospective study suggest a role of HA as a supportive treatment for faster improvement of nasal respiration, also minimizing patients' discomfort in postoperative nasal surgery, promoting nasal mucosa healing in postoperative RFVTR for inferior turbinate hypertrophy.

  17. Validation and application of a two-dimensional model to simulate soil salt transport under mulched drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Huiqing; Zhao, Chengyi; Sheng, Yu; Chen, Yan; Shi, Jianchu; Li, Baoguo

    2017-04-01

    Water shortage and soil salinization increasingly become the main constraints for sustainable development of agriculture in Southern Xinjiang, China. Mulched drip irrigation, as a high-efficient water-saving irrigation method, has been widely applied in Southern Xinjiang for cotton production. In order to analyze the reasonability of describing the three-dimensional soil water and salt transport processes under mulched drip irrigation with a relatively simple two-dimensional model, a field experiment was conducted from 2007 to 2015 at Aksu of Southern Xinjiang, and soil water and salt transport processes were simulated through the three-dimensional and two-dimensional models based on COMSOL. Obvious differences were found between three-dimensional and two-dimensional simulations for soil water flow within the early 12 h of irrigation event and for soil salt transport in the area within 15 cm away from drip tubes during the whole irrigation event. The soil water and salt contents simulated by the two-dimensional model, however, agreed well with the mean values between two adjacent emitters simulated by the three-dimensional model, and also coincided with the measurements as corresponding RMSE less than 0.037 cm3 cm-3 and 1.80 g kg-1, indicating that the two-dimensional model was reliable for field irrigation management. Subsequently, the two-dimensional model was applied to simulate the dynamics of soil salinity for five numerical situations and for a widely adopted irrigation pattern in Southern Xinjiang (about 350 mm through mulched drip irrigation during growing season of cotton and total 400 mm through flooding irrigations before sowing and after harvesting). The simulation results indicated that the contribution of transpiration to salt accumulation in root layer was about 75% under mulched drip irrigation. Moreover, flooding irrigations before sowing and after harvesting were of great importance for salt leaching of arable layer, especially in bare strip where

  18. Correlation of Nasal Mucosal Temperature With Subjective Nasal Patency in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Ryan S.; Casey, Kevin P.; Pawar, Sachin S.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Historically, otolaryngologists have focused on nasal resistance to airflow and minimum airspace cross-sectional area as objective measures of nasal obstruction using methods such as rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry. However, subjective sensation of nasal patency may be more associated with activation of cold receptors by inspired air than with respiratory effort. Objective To investigate whether subjective nasal patency correlates with nasal mucosal temperature in healthy subjects. Design, Setting, and Participants Twenty-two healthy adults were recruited for this study. Subjects first completed the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) and a unilateral visual analog scale (VAS) to quantify subjective nasal patency. A miniaturized thermocouple sensor was then used to record nasal mucosal temperature bilaterally in two locations along the nasal septum: at the vestibule and across from the inferior turbinate head. Results The range of temperature oscillations during the breathing cycle, defined as the difference between end-expiratory and end-inspiratory temperatures, was greater during deep breaths (ΔTexp-insp = 6.2 ± 2.6°C) than during resting breathing (ΔTexp-insp = 4.2 ± 2.3°C) in both locations (p < 10−13). Mucosal temperature measured at the right vestibule had a statistically significant correlation with both right-side VAS score (Pearson r = −0.55, p=0.0076) and NOSE score (Pearson r = −0.47, p=0.028). No other statistically significant correlations were found between mucosal temperature and subjective nasal patency scores. Nasal mucosal temperature was lower in the first cavity to be measured, which was the right cavity in all subjects. Conclusions and Relevance The greater mucosal temperature oscillations during deep breathing is consistent with the common experience that airflow sensation is enhanced during deep breaths, thus supporting the hypothesis that mucosal cooling plays a central role in nasal airflow sensation

  19. Influence of cooling face masks on nasal air conditioning and nasal geometry.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, J; Hoffmann, T; Koehl, A; Walz, E M; Sommer, F

    2017-06-01

    Nasal geometries and temperature of the nasal mucosa are the primary factors affecting nasal air conditioning. Data on intranasal air conditioning after provoking the trigeminal nerve with a cold stimulus simulating the effects of an arctic condition is still missing. The objective was to investigate the influence of skin cooling face masks on nasal air conditioning, mucosal temperature and nasal geometry. Standardized in vivo measurements of intranasal air temperature, humidity and mucosal temperature were performed in 55 healthy subjects at defined detection sites before and after wearing a cooling face mask. Measurements of skin temperature, rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry were accomplished. After wearing the face mask the facial skin temperature was significantly reduced. Intranasal air temperature did not change. Absolute humidity and mucosal temperature increased significantly. The acoustic rhinometric results showed a significant increase of the volumes and the cross-sectional areas. There was no change in nasal airflow. Nasal mucosal temperature, humidity of inhaled air, and volume of the anterior nose increased after application of a cold face mask. The response is mediated by the trigeminal nerve. Increased mucosal temperatures as well as changes in nasal geometries seem to guarantee sufficient steady intranasal nasal air conditioning.

  20. Reduced nasal growth after primary nasal repair combined with cleft lip surgery.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Y; Okumoto, T; Iijima, Y; Inoue, Y

    2015-11-01

    Nasal growth after cleft lip surgery with or without primary nasal repair was evaluated using lateral cephalograms. In 14 patients who underwent simultaneous nasal repair with primary cleft lip repair and 12 patients without simultaneous nasal repair, lateral cephalograms were obtained at 5 and 10 years of age. Lateral cephalograms of normal Japanese children were used as a control. At 5 years of age, there were significant differences in the nasal height and columellar angle among the three groups. Children without simultaneous nasal repair had shorter noses with more upward tilt of the columella compared with the controls, while children with simultaneous nasal repair had much shorter noses and more upward tilt than those without repair. At 10 years of age, the children without simultaneous nasal repair showed no differences from the control group, while those with simultaneous repair still had shorter noses and more upward tilt of the columella. These findings suggest that performing nasal repair at the same time as primary cleft lip surgery has an adverse influence on the subsequent growth of the nose. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Implantation of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum for elimination of Staphylococcus aureus from the nasal cavity in volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Kiryukhina, Nataliya

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a well-documented risk factor of infection and inflammation of the skin, soft tissues and bacteremia. It is also known that most often etiology of these disorders is associated with autoinfection. The present-day methods of opportunistic pathogens eradication from the nasal cavity are based principally on the use of antiseptic and antibacterial agents. For instance, a local antibiotic mupirocin in the form of nasal ointment is considered to be the gold standard for the treatment of S. aureus carriage. The literature describes investigations showing how mupirocin can strengthen antibiotic resistance in S. aureus strains, including those with methicillin resistance (MRSA). It is also common knowledge that recolonization of the nasal mucous membrane takes place within several months after mupirocin treatment. This circumstance dictates the necessity to look for alternative ways of preventing the S. aureus carriage and methods of elimination. One of the methods of nasal S. aureus elimination is implantation of nonpathogenic microorganisms which will extrude opportunistic pathogens without impinging the symbiotic microbiota. Effectiveness of saline suspension of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum containing spray was assessed in a several chamber experiments with simulation of some spaceflight factors (dry immersion, isolation). Various schemes of application of preparations were applied. In all cases of corynebacteria application the strong inhibiting effect against S. aureus was detected. This fact opens a prospect of using nonpathogenic corynebacteria as a nasal probiotic. Administration of the nasal corynebacteria spray possibly prevented cross-infection by MRSA and appearance of staphylococcal infection. Further pre-clinical and clinical study of this bacterial therapy method is under development.

  2. [Endoscopic treatment of small osteoma of nasal sinuses manifested as nasal and facial pain].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Zheng, Tianqi; Li, Zhong; Deng, Hongyuan; Guo, Chaoxian

    2015-12-01

    To discuss the clinical features, diagnosis and endoscopic surgical intervention for small steoma of nasal sinuses causing nasal and facial pain. A retrospective review was performed on 21 patients with nasal and facial pain caused by small osteoma of nasal sinuses, and nasal endoscopic surgery was included in the treatment of all cases. The nasal and facial pain of all the patients was relieved. Except for one ase exhibiting periorbital bruise after operation, the other patients showed no postoperative complications. Nasal and facial pain caused by small osteoma of nasal sinuses was clinically rare, mostly due to the neuropathic pain of nose and face caused by local compression resulting from the expansion of osteoma. Early diagnosis and operative treatment can significantly relieve nasal and facial pain.

  3. [Simulation of effects of soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement with reclaimed water irrigation by ENVIRO-GRO model].

    PubMed

    Lü, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

    2012-12-01

    In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this study. The accumulation trends and profile distribution of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, the effects of different soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation were investigated. Results indicated that soil salinity in the profiles reached uniform equilibrium conditions by repeated simulation, with different initial soil salinity. Under the conditions of loam and clay loam soil, salinity in the profiles increased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions, while under the condition of sandy loam soil, salinity in the profiles decreased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions. The saturated soil salinity (EC(e)) under equilibrium conditions followed an order of sandy loam < loam < clay loam. Salt accumulations in Japan euonymus and Chinese pine were less than that in Blue grass. The temporal and spatial distributions of soil salinity were also different in these three types of plants. In addition, the growth of the plants was not influenced by soil salinity (except clay loam), but mild soil salinization occurred under all conditions (except sandy loam).

  4. Role of soap and water in the treatment of wound dehiscence compared to normal saline plus povidone-iodine: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Najafian, Aida; Fallahi, Soghra; Khorgoei, Tahereh; Ghahiri, Ataollah; Alavi, Azin; Rajaei, Minoo; Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eqbal

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section is increased. About 3-30% of the women who undergo cesarean experience surgical site infections (SSIs). Many methods, have been used to decrease the incidence of SSIs, but despite much effort, no definite efficacious method has been suggested. In this parallel, single-blinded, randomized control trial, 56 women with post-surgical superficial wound dehiscence were divided into two groups in a 1:1 ratio. One group was irrigated with normal saline for irrigation and Firooz® baby soapand the other with normal saline for irrigation and povidone-iodine. Formation of granulation tissue was monitored in both groups. Also, the reason for surgery, length of wound dehiscence, and duration of hospitalization and wound union after were compared in both group's. The soap group patients were irrigated for 4.18 ± 1.96 days compared to 5.36 ± 2.83 days for the patients in povidone-iodine group (P = 0.414). The granulation tissue was formed after 3.88 ± 1.94 days in the soap group compared to 4.48 ± 2.92 days in the other group (P = 0.391), and the duration of hospitalization was 5.48 ± 2.04 days in the soap group compared to 6.3 ± 2.95 days in the other group (P = 0.423). So, no differences were observed between the two groups. It can be concluded since there is no difference between the results of two groups, irrigation with normal saline and soap is safe, easy and causes no harm or allergy compared with povidone iodine and normal saline.

  5. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... is recommended by a doctor. Children 6 to 12 years of age should use oxymetazoline nasal spray carefully and under adult supervision. Oxymetazoline is in a class of medications called nasal decongestants. It works by narrowing the blood vessels in the nasal passages.

  6. Validation of polyvinylidene fluoride nasal sensor to assess nasal obstruction in comparison with subjective technique.

    PubMed

    Roopa Manjunatha, G; Mahapatra, D Roy; Prakash, Surya; Rajanna, K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the applicability of the PolyVinyliDene Fluoride (PVDF) nasal sensor to assess the nasal airflow, in healthy subjects and patients with nasal obstruction and to correlate the results with the score of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). PVDF nasal sensor and VAS measurements were carried out in 50 subjects (25-healthy subjects and 25 patients). The VAS score of nasal obstruction and peak-to-peak amplitude (Vp-p) of nasal cycle measured by PVDF nasal sensors were analyzed for right nostril (RN) and left nostril (LN) in both the groups. Spearman's rho correlation was calculated. The relationship between PVDF nasal sensor measurements and severity of nasal obstruction (VAS score) were assessed by ANOVA. In healthy group, the measurement of nasal airflow by PVDF nasal sensor for RN and LN were found to be 51.14±5.87% and 48.85±5.87%, respectively. In patient group, PVDF nasal sensor indicated lesser nasal airflow in the blocked nostrils (RN: 23.33±10.54% and LN: 32.24±11.54%). Moderate correlation was observed in healthy group (r=-0.710, p<0.001 for RN and r=-0.651, p<0.001 for LN), and moderate to strong correlation in patient group (r=-0.751, p<0.01 for RN and r=-0.885, p<0.0001 for LN). PVDF nasal sensor method is a newly developed technique for measuring the nasal airflow. Moderate to strong correlation was observed between PVDF nasal sensor data and VAS scores for nasal obstruction. In our present study, PVDF nasal sensor technique successfully differentiated between healthy subjects and patients with nasal obstruction. Additionally, it can also assess severity of nasal obstruction in comparison with VAS. Thus, we propose that the PVDF nasal sensor technique could be used as a new diagnostic method to evaluate nasal obstruction in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An improved delivery system for bladder irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi, Mohammad K; Rajaei, Mojtaba

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Occasionally, urologists may see patients requiring temporary bladder irrigation at hospitals without stocks of specialist irrigation apparatus. One option is to transfer the patient to a urology ward, but often there are outstanding medical issues that require continued specialist input. Here, we describe an improved system for delivering temporary bladder irrigation by utilizing readily available components and the novel modification of a sphygmomanometer blub. This option is good for bladder irrigation in patients with moderate or severe gross hematuria due to various causes. Materials and methods In this prospective study from March 2007 to April 2009, we used our new system in eligible cases. In this system, an irrigant bag with 1 L of normal saline was suspended 80 cm above the indwelled 3-way Foley catheter, and its drainage tube was inserted into the irrigant port of the catheter. To increase the flow rate of the irrigant system, we inserted a traditional sphygmomanometer bulb at the top of the irrigant bag. This closed system was used for continuous bladder irrigation (CBI) in patients who underwent open prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), or transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB). This high-pressure system is also used for irrigation during cystourethroscopy, internal urethrotomy, and transurethral lithotripsy. Our 831 eligible cases were divided into two groups: group 1 were endourologic cases and group 2 were open prostatectomy, TURP, and TURB cases. The maximum and average flow rates were evaluated. The efficacy of our new system was compared prospectively with the previous traditional system used in 545 cases. Results In group 1, we had clear vision at the time of endourologic procedures. The success rate of this system was 99.5%. In group 2, the incidence of clot retention decreased two fold in comparison to traditional gravity-dependent bladder flow system. These changes were statistically significant

  8. An improved delivery system for bladder irrigation.

    PubMed

    Moslemi, Mohammad K; Rajaei, Mojtaba

    2010-10-05

    Occasionally, urologists may see patients requiring temporary bladder irrigation at hospitals without stocks of specialist irrigation apparatus. One option is to transfer the patient to a urology ward, but often there are outstanding medical issues that require continued specialist input. Here, we describe an improved system for delivering temporary bladder irrigation by utilizing readily available components and the novel modification of a sphygmomanometer blub. This option is good for bladder irrigation in patients with moderate or severe gross hematuria due to various causes. In this prospective study from March 2007 to April 2009, we used our new system in eligible cases. In this system, an irrigant bag with 1 L of normal saline was suspended 80 cm above the indwelled 3-way Foley catheter, and its drainage tube was inserted into the irrigant port of the catheter. To increase the flow rate of the irrigant system, we inserted a traditional sphygmomanometer bulb at the top of the irrigant bag. This closed system was used for continuous bladder irrigation (CBI) in patients who underwent open prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), or transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB). This high-pressure system is also used for irrigation during cystourethroscopy, internal urethrotomy, and transurethral lithotripsy. Our 831 eligible cases were divided into two groups: group 1 were endourologic cases and group 2 were open prostatectomy, TURP, and TURB cases. The maximum and average flow rates were evaluated. The efficacy of our new system was compared prospectively with the previous traditional system used in 545 cases. In group 1, we had clear vision at the time of endourologic procedures. The success rate of this system was 99.5%. In group 2, the incidence of clot retention decreased two fold in comparison to traditional gravity-dependent bladder flow system. These changes were statistically significant (P = 0.001). We did not observe any adverse

  9. Histological study of the effect of some irrigating solutions on bacterial endotoxin in dogs.

    PubMed

    Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra da; Leonardo, Mario Roberto; Assed, Sada; Tanomaru Filho, Mário

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, histopathologically, the effectiveness of mechanical preparation of root canals using different irrigating solutions in dog teeth filled with LPS after pulpectomy. A total of 120 root canals of 6 mongrel dogs were filled with a solution of LPS after pulpectomy. The irrigating solutions used were saline, 1, 2.5, and 5% sodium hypochlorite, and 2% chlorhexidine. No irrigation was used in the control group. The animals were sacrificed after 60 days and the teeth were fixed and demineralized. Subsequently, serial 6-microm sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Mallory's trichrome for histopathological analysis and Brown-Brenn for verification of bacterial contamination. Analysis showed that the inflammatory infiltrate was statistically less intense in the groups in which the root canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine. However, none of the irrigating solutions completely inactivated the harmful effects of LPS. Mechanical preparation associated with different irrigating solutions did not completely inactivate LPS.

  10. Irrigation salinity hazard assessment and risk mapping in the lower Macintyre Valley, Australia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingyi; Prochazka, Melissa J; Triantafilis, John

    2016-05-01

    In the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia, secondary soil salinization occurs due to excessive deep drainage and the presence of shallow saline water tables. In order to understand the cause and best management, soil and vadose zone information is necessary. This type of information has been generated in the Toobeah district but owing to the state border an inconsistent methodology was used. This has led to much confusion from stakeholders who are unable to understand the ambiguity of the results in terms of final overall risk of salinization. In this research, a digital soil mapping method that employs various ancillary data is presented. Firstly, an electromagnetic induction survey using a Geonics EM34 and EM38 was used to characterise soil and vadose zone stratigraphy. From the apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) collected, soil sampling locations were selected and with laboratory analysis carried out to determine average (2-12m) clay and EC of a saturated soil-paste extract (ECe). EM34 ECa, land surface parameters derived from a digital elevation model and measured soil data were used to establish multiple linear regression models, which allowed for mapping of various hazard factors, including clay and ECe. EM38 ECa data were calibrated to deep drainage obtained from Salt and Leaching Fraction (SaLF) modelling of soil data. Expert knowledge and indicator kriging were used to determine critical values where the salinity hazard factors were likely to contribute to a shallow saline water table (i.e., clay ≤35%; ECe>2.5dS/m, and deep drainage >100mm/year). This information was combined to produce an overall salinity risk map for the Toobeah district using indicator kriging. The risk map shows potential salinization areas and where detailed information is required and where targeted research can be conducted to monitor soil conditions and water table heights and determine best management strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. CPAP and High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen in Bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Ian P; McBride, Antonia K S; Smith, Rachel; Fernandes, Ricardo M

    2015-09-01

    Severe respiratory failure develops in some infants with bronchiolitis because of a complex pathophysiologic process involving increased airways resistance, alveolar atelectasis, muscle fatigue, and hypoxemia due to mismatch between ventilation and perfusion. Nasal CPAP and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen may improve the work of breathing and oxygenation. Although the mechanisms behind these noninvasive modalities of respiratory support are not well understood, they may help infants by way of distending pressure and delivery of high concentrations of warmed and humidified oxygen. Observational studies of varying quality have suggested that CPAP and HFNC may confer direct physiologic benefits to infants with bronchiolitis and that their use has reduced the need for intubation. No trials to our knowledge, however, have compared CPAP with HFNC in bronchiolitis. Two randomized trials compared CPAP with oxygen delivered by low-flow nasal cannula or face mask and found some improvements in blood gas results and some physiologic parameters, but these trials were unable to demonstrate a reduction in the need for intubation. Two trials evaluated HFNC in bronchiolitis (one comparing it with headbox oxygen, the other with nebulized hypertonic saline), with the results not seeming to suggest important clinical or physiologic benefits. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of respiratory failure in bronchiolitis, discuss these trials in detail, and consider how future research studies may be designed to best evaluate CPAP and HFNC in bronchiolitis.

  12. Neurotoxic, inflammatory, and mucosecretory responses in the nasal airways of mice repeatedly exposed to the macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxin roridin A: dose-response and persistence of injury.

    PubMed

    Corps, Kara N; Islam, Zahidul; Pestka, James J; Harkema, Jack R

    2010-04-01

    Macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins encountered in water-damaged buildings have been suggested to contribute to illnesses of the upper respiratory tract. Here, the authors characterized the adverse effects of repeated exposures to roridin A (RA), a representative macrocyclic trichothecene, on the nasal airways of mice and assessed the persistence of these effects. Young, adult, female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to single daily, intranasal, instillations of RA (0.4, 2, 10, or 50 microg/kg body weight [bw]) in saline (50 microl) or saline alone (controls) over 3 weeks or 250 microg/kg RA over 2 weeks. Histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and morphometric analyses of nasal airways conducted 24 hr after the last instillation revealed that the lowest-effect level was 10 microg/kg bw. RA exposure induced a dose-dependent, neutrophilic rhinitis with mucus hypersecretion, atrophy and exfoliation of nasal transitional and respiratory epithelium, olfactory epithelial atrophy and loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). In a second study, the persistence of lesions in mice instilled with 250 microg/kg bw RA was assessed. Nasal inflammation and excess luminal mucus were resolved after 3 weeks, but OSN loss was still evident in olfactory epithelium (OE). These results suggest that nasal inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and olfactory neurotoxicity could be important adverse health effects associated with short-term, repeated, airborne exposures to macrocyclic trichothecenes.

  13. Correlation of Nasal Mucosal Temperature With Subjective Nasal Patency in Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ryan S; Casey, Kevin P; Pawar, Sachin S; Garcia, Guilherme J M

    2017-01-01

    Historically, otolaryngologists have focused on nasal resistance to airflow and minimum airspace cross-sectional area as objective measures of nasal obstruction using methods such as rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry. However, subjective sensation of nasal patency may be more associated with activation of cold receptors by inspired air than with respiratory effort. To investigate whether subjective nasal patency correlates with nasal mucosal temperature in healthy individuals. Healthy adult volunteers first completed the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) and a unilateral visual analog scale to quantify subjective nasal patency. A miniaturized thermocouple sensor was then used to record nasal mucosal temperature bilaterally in 2 locations along the nasal septum: at the vestibule and across from the inferior turbinate head. Nasal mucosal temperature and subjective patency scores in healthy individuals. The 22 healthy adult volunteers (12 [55%] male; mean [SD] age, 28.3 [7.0] years) had a mean (SD) NOSE score of 5.9 (8.4) (range, 0-30) and unilateral VAS score of 1.2 (1.4) (range, 0-5). The range of temperature oscillations during the breathing cycle, defined as the difference between end-expiratory and end-inspiratory temperatures, was greater during deep breaths (mean [SD] change in temperature, 6.2°C [2.6°C]) than during resting breathing (mean [SD] change in temperature, 4.2°C [2.3°C]) in both locations (P < .001). Mucosal temperature measured at the right vestibule had a statistically significant correlation with both right-side visual analog scale score (Pearson r = -0.55; 95% CI, -0.79 to -0.17; P = .008) and NOSE score (Pearson r = -0.47; 95% CI, -0.74 to -0.06; P = .03). No other statistically significant correlations were found between mucosal temperature and subjective nasal patency scores. Nasal mucosal temperature was lower (mean of 1.5°C lower) in the first cavity to be measured, which was the right cavity in all

  14. Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hamilos, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is highly prevalent in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and accounts for significant morbidity and contribution to CF lung disease. Mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene occur with increased prevalence in patients with CRS without CF, suggesting some contribution to CRS pathophysiology. Nasal polyps (NPs) occur with increased prevalence in patients with CF of all ages and have a more neutrophilic appearance with fewer eosinophils and increased submucosal glandular elements in comparison to NPs from patients without CF. Mainstays of medical treatment include isotonic saline irrigations and topical intranasal glucocorticoids, with some evidence that topical intranasal glucocorticoids reduce NP size. Although inhaled hypertonic saline (7%) has been widely studied as a mucolytic agent for CF lung disease, there are no reports of its use in CF CRS. Mucolytics have also not been studied as a treatment for CRS in CF, and most evidence does not support their use for CF lung disease. Nasally nebulized dornase alfa (recombinant human deoxyribonuclease) following sinus surgery shows promise for treatment. Other unproven therapies include addition of baby shampoo to isotonic saline to potentially thin mucus and help prevent biofilm formation. There are no data to support the use of low-dose oral macrolide antibiotics or the use of prophylactic oral antibiotics for CRS in patients with CF. However, there is some support for the use of topical antibiotics, including colistimethate sodium or tobramycin, administered as a sinus irrigation or antral lavage in patients following sinus surgery when susceptible bacteria are cultured. Key components of CF sinus surgical management include extensive surgery to ensure that the maxillary, frontal, sphenoid, and ethmoid sinuses are all widely opened with smoothing of bony overhangs to prevent mucus retention and bacterial recolonization, postoperative meticulous daily nasal irrigations

  15. Irrigation of Abdomen With Imipenem Solution Decreases Surgical Site Infections in Patients With Perforated Appendicitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hesami, Mohammad Ali; Alipour, Hamid; Nikoupour Daylami, Hamed; Alipour, Bijan; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perforated appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdomen requiring emergent surgery for immediate appendectomy and peritoneal cavity irrigation; however, the efficacy of irrigation with antibiotic solutions is controversial. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of imipenem solution irrigation on post-operative surgical site infections (SSIs), hospital length of stay, and hospital costs. We hypothesized that there would be lower rate of SSIs, a shorter hospital stay, and lower hospital cost in patients with perforated appendicitis who received peritoneal cavity irrigation with imipenem solution in comparison to their counterparts who received irrigation with normal saline. Patients and Methods: In this randomized single-blind parallel-group clinical trial, we enrolled 90 patients with perforated appendicitis with 12-50 years of age and randomly allocated them into experimental group (n = 45) and control group (n = 45). The control group received peritoneal irrigation with normal saline (0.9%) and experimental group underwent peritoneal irrigation with imipenem solution (1 mg/mL). All surgical procedures were performed in Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. The study primary outcome was surgical site infections (including wound infection and abdominal abscess) and the secondary outcomes were length of hospital stay and hospital cost. Chi-squared and t-tests were used to analyze the study data. Results: Imipenem solution irrigation was associated with significant clinical improvement at one-month follow-up. The experimental group presented with significantly lower rate of SSIs and shorter length of hospital stay. The experimental group had lower rate of SSIs compared to the control group (4.4% vs. 22.2%, respectively) (p= 0.013). The duration of hospital stay was nearly one day longer in control group (5.84 ± 2.58 days) vs. experimental group (4.91 ± 1.29 days) (P = 0.034), and

  16. [Dexpanthenol nasal spray in comparison to dexpanthenol nasal ointment. A prospective, randomised, open, cross-over study to compare nasal mucociliary clearance].

    PubMed

    Verse, T; Klöcker, N; Riedel, F; Pirsig, W; Scheithauer, M O

    2004-07-01

    Recent technical developments in metered pump systems allow the production and use of preservative-free nasal products. The aim of the current study is to compare the tolerability of a preservative-free dexpanthenol (5%) nasal spray with that of the established dexpanthenol (5%) nasal ointment, also without preservatives. The main outcome measure was in vivo mucociliary clearance. Mucociliary clearance was assessed by saccharin migration time in 20 volunteers. Wash-out phases were 7 days and the spray or ointment was always applied 20 min before the saccharin test. The study was designed to test for non-inferiority. Saccharin migration time was slightly longer after ointment administration, however, these were not significantly different to nasal spray. The saccharin migration time showed a significant correlation with the age of the volunteers. The upper confidence limit of dexpanthenol nasal spray was markedly less than that of the ointment. Therefore, dexpanthenol nasal spray is at least equal to if not better than dexpanthenol nasal ointment. Due to its ease of administration, preservative-free dexpanthenol nasal spray offers a valuable therapeutic alternative.

  17. Nasal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  18. Tracing Anthropogenic Salinity Inputs to the Semi-arid Rio Grande River: A Multi-isotope Tracer (U, S, B and Sr) Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, S.; Nyachoti, S. K.; Ma, L.; Szynkiewicz, A.; McIntosh, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    High salinity in the Rio Grande has led to severe reductions in crop productivity and accumulation of salts in soils. These pressing issues exist for other arid rivers worldwide. Salinity contributions to the Rio Grande have not been adequately quantified, especially from agriculture, urban activities, and geological sources. Here, we use major element concentrations and U, S, B, Sr isotopic signatures to fingerprint the salinity sources. Our study area focuses on a 200 km long stretch of the Rio Grande from Elephant Butte Reservoir, NM to El Paso, TX. River samples were collected monthly from 2014 to 2015. Irrigation drains, groundwater wells, city drains and wastewater effluents were sampled as possible anthropogenic salinity end-members. Major element chemistry, U, S and Sr isotope ratios in the Rio Grande waters suggest multiple salinity inputs from geological, agricultural, and urban sources. Natural upwelling of groundwater is significant for the Rio Grande near Elephant Butte, as suggested by high TDS values and high (234U/238U), 87Sr/86Sr, δ34S ratios. Agricultural activities (e.g. flood irrigation, groundwater pumping, fertilizer use) are extensive in the Mesilla Valley. Rio Grande waters from this region have characteristic lower (234U/238U), 87Sr/86Sr, and δ34S ratios, with possible agricultural sources from use of fertilizers and gypsum. Agricultural practices during flood irrigation also intensify evaporation of Rio Grande surface water and considerably increase water salinity. Shallow groundwater signatures were also identified at several river locations, possibly due to the artificial pumping of local groundwater for irrigation. Impacts of urban activities to river chemistry (high NO3 and B concentrations) were evident for locations downstream to Las Cruces and El Paso wastewater treatment plants, supporting the use of the B isotope as an urban salinity tracer. This study improves our understanding of human impacts on water quality and elemental

  19. Surface-water salinity in the Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, water years 1989 through 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of dissolved solids in water (salinity) can result in numerous and costly issues for agricultural, industrial, and municipal water users. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-320) authorized planning and construction of salinity-control projects in the Colorado River Basin. One of the first projects was the Lower Gunnison Unit, a project to mitigate salinity in the Lower Gunnison and Uncompahgre River Basins. In cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study to quantify changes in salinity in the Gunnison River Basin. Trends in salinity concentration and load during the period water years (WY) 1989 through 2004 (1989-2004) were determined for 15 selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Gunnison River Basin. Additionally, trends in salinity concentration and load during the period WY1989 through 2007 (1989-2007) were determined for 5 of the 15 sites for which sufficient data were available. Trend results also were used to identify regions in the Lower Gunnison River Basin (downstream from the Gunnison Tunnel) where the largest changes in salinity loads occur. Additional sources of salinity, including residential development (urbanization), changes in land cover, and natural sources, were estimated within the context of the trend results. The trend results and salinity loads estimated from trends testing also were compared to USBR and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) estimates of off-farm and on-farm salinity reduction from salinity-control projects in the basin. Finally, salinity from six additional sites in basins that are not affected by irrigated agriculture or urbanization was monitored from WY 2008 to 2010 to quantify what portion of salinity may be from nonagricultural or natural sources. In the Upper Gunnison area, which refers to Gunnison River Basin above the site located on the Gunnison River below the Gunnison Tunnel, estimated mean annual

  20. Leaf water relations and net gas exchange responses of salinized Carrizo citrange seedlings during drought stress and recovery.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, J G; Syvertsen, J P; Botía, P; García-Sánchez, F

    2007-08-01

    Since salinity and drought stress can occur together, an assessment was made of their interacting effects on leaf water relations, osmotic adjustment and net gas exchange in seedlings of the relatively chloride-sensitive Carrizo citrange, Citrus sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata. Plants were fertilized with nutrient solution with or without additional 100 mm NaCl (salt and no-salt treatments). After 7 d, half of the plants were drought stressed by withholding irrigation water for 10 d. Thus, there were four treatments: salinized and non-salinized plants under drought-stress or well-watered conditions. After the drought period, plants from all stressed treatments were re-watered with nutrient solution without salt for 8 d to study recovery. Leaf water relations, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence, proline, quaternary ammonium compounds and leaf and root concentrations of Cl(-) and Na(+) were measured. Salinity increased leaf Cl(-) and Na(+) concentrations and decreased osmotic potential (Psi(pi)) such that leaf relative water content (RWC) was maintained during drought stress. However, in non-salinized drought-stressed plants, osmotic adjustment did not occur and RWC decreased. The salinity-induced osmotic adjustment was not related to any accumulation of proline, quaternary ammonium compounds or soluble sugars. Net CO(2) assimilation rate (A(CO2)) was reduced in leaves from all stressed treatments but the mechanisms were different. In non-salinized drought-stressed plants, lower A(CO2) was related to low RWC, whereas in salinized plants decreased A(CO2) was related to high levels of leaf Cl(-) and Na(+). A(CO2) recovered after irrigation in all the treatments except in previously salinized drought-stressed leaves which had lower RWC and less chlorophyll but maintained high levels of Cl(-), Na(+) and quaternary ammonium compounds after recovery. High leaf levels of Cl(-) and Na(+) after recovery apparently came from the roots. Plants preconditioned by

  1. Nasal Physiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Nasal Physiology Jeremiah A. Alt, MD, PhD Noam Cohen, MD, ... control the inflammation. CONCLUSION An understanding of the physiology of the nose is critical to understand nasal ...

  2. Evidence for Upward Flow of Saline Water from Depth into the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer in Southeastern Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, D.; Paul, J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater salinization is occurring in the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial (MRVA) aquifer in southeastern Arkansas (SE AR). Water samples from the MRVA aquifer in Chicot and Desha counties have yielded elevated Cl-concentrations with some as high as 1,639 mg/L. Considering that the MRVA aquifer is the principle source of irrigation water for the agricultural economy of SE AR, salinization needs to be addressed to ensure the sustainability of crop, groundwater, and soil resources in the area. The origin of elevated salinity in MRVA aquifer was investigated using spatial and factor analysis of historical water quality data, and sampling and tracer analysis of groundwater from irrigation, municipal, and flowing industrial wells in SE AR. Spatial analysis of Cl- data in relation to soil type, geomorphic features and sand-blow density indicate that the Cl- anomalies are more closely related to the sand-blow density than soil data, suggesting an underlying tectonic control for the distribution of salinity. Factor analysis of historical geochemical data from the MRVA and underlying Sparta aquifer shows dilute and saline groups, with saline groups weighted positively with Cl- or Na+ and Cl-. Tracer data suggest a component of evaporatively evolved crustal water of pre-modern age has mixed with younger, fresher meteoric sources in SE AR to create the saline conditions in the MRVA aquifer. Stable hydrogen and oxygen values of waters sampled from the Tertiary Sparta and MRVA aquifers deviate from the global and local meteoric water lines along an evaporative trend (slope=4.4) and mixing line with Eocene Wilcox Group groundwaters. Ca2+ and Cl- contents vary with Br- along mixing trends between dilute MRVA water and Jurassic Smackover Formation pore fluids in southern AR. Increasing Cl- content with C-14 age in MRVA aquifer groundwater suggests that the older waters are more saline. Helium isotope ratios decrease with He gas content for more saline water, consistent with

  3. Study of the technical performance of localized irrigation and its environmental and agroeconomic impact in the first areas of collective reconversion at the irrigated perimeter of the Tadla - Beni Moussa perimeter of the west - Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouradi, Abdellah; Ait Yacine, Zehor; El Harti, Abderrazak

    2018-05-01

    The evaluation of the performance of the localized irrigation system involved a selected sample of farmers to reflect the diversity of the study area. The hydraulic diagnosis revealed the absence of apparent malfunctioning anomalies of the installations studied (Coefficient of Distribution Uniformity ≥ 90% with average application efficiencies and overall of 90.54 and 86.83% respectively). In terms of the combined use of surface and underground irrigation water this new technique has saved about 30% compared to conventional irrigation. The agro-economic evaluation revealed that the crops practiced have high value-added and optimize the value of irrigation water. The environmental impact has resulted in an average drawdown of the static level of groundwater of 2.59 m due mainly to the new irrigation method introduced, which limited the percolation of water to the aquifer. The drip-to-drip transition resulted in an increase in salinity relative compared to the reference situation (+ 0.59 %, or 0.01 mS / cm) but to different degrees depending on the prospecting soil horizon. The practice of fertilization remains the major and probable cause of soil salinization of aquifers. The effect of soluble salts on the soil was investigated through the risks associated with sodium, which showed that the soil permeability problem does not arise at this time (SAR ≤ 15). The residual sodium carbonate remains less than 1.25 meq / l thus not causing soil dispersion.

  4. [Effect of absorption enhancers on nasal ginsenoside Rg1 delivery and its nasal ciliotoxicity].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-mei; Zhu, Jia-bi; Sun, Wei-dong; Zhang, Li-jian

    2006-02-01

    The enhancing activity and safety of several absorption enhancers were evaluated as potential nasal absorption enhancers to increase intranasal absorption of ginsenoside Rg1. Nasal circulatory perfusion test in vivo had been employed to investigate the effect of absorption enhancers for nasal mucosa absorption of ginsenoside Rgl in rats. The safety of the absorption enhancers were evaluated by testing cilia movement of the in situ toad palate model, the hemolysis of erythrocyte membrane of the rabbit, leaching of protein and LDH from the mice nasal mucosa and the effect on cilia structural and specific cellular changes of nasal mucosa. Absorption enhancers were necessary to facilitate ginsenoside Rg1 absorption by nasal mucosa. Among the absorption enhancers 1% sodium deoxycholate had great effect to facilite ginsenoside Rgl absorption by nasal mucosa; 1% dipotassium glycyrrhizinate and 1% azone had moderate effect to facilitate ginsenoside Rg1 absorption by nasal mucosa; 1% Tween-80, 2% beta-cyclodextrin, 0.5% borneol (dissolved in paraffin liquid), 0.5% chitosan, 5% hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin and 0.1% EDTA had low effect to facilitate ginsenoside Rgl absorption by nasal mucosa. 1% sodium deoxycholate, 1% azone and 1% dipotassium glycyrrhizinate had serious nasal toxicity; 1% Tween-80, 2% beta-cyclodextrin, 5% hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin had moderate nasal toxicity; 0.5% borneol (dissolved in paraffin liquid), 0.5% chitosan and 0.1% EDTA have little nasal toxicity. 0.5% borneol and 0.5% chitosan were the promising candidates having a good balance between enhancing activity and safety for nasal ginsenoside Rg1 delivery.

  5. Influence of the Apical Preparation Size and the Irrigant Type on Bacterial Reduction in Root Canal-treated Teeth with Apical Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Renata Costa Val; Zandi, Homan; Kristoffersen, Anne Karin; Enersen, Morten; Mdala, Ibrahimu; Ørstavik, Dag; Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2017-07-01

    This clinical study evaluated the influence of the apical preparation size using nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation and the effect of a disinfectant on bacterial reduction in root canal-treated teeth with apical periodontitis. Forty-three teeth with posttreatment apical periodontitis were selected for retreatment. Teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the irrigant used (2.5% sodium hypochlorite [NaOCl], n = 22; saline, n = 21). Canals were prepared with the Twisted File Adaptive (TFA) system (SybronEndo, Orange, CA). Bacteriological samples were taken before preparation (S1), after using the first instrument (S2), and then after the third instrument of the TFA system (S3). In the saline group, an additional sample was taken after final irrigation with 1% NaOCl (S4). DNA was extracted from the clinical samples and subjected to quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the levels of total bacteria and streptococci. S1 from all teeth were positive for bacteria. Preparation to the first and third instruments from the TFA system showed a highly significant intracanal bacterial reduction regardless of the irrigant (P < .01). Apical enlargement to the third instrument caused a significantly higher decrease in bacterial counts than the first instrument (P < .01). Intergroup comparison revealed no significant difference between NaOCl and saline after the first instrument (P > .05). NaOCl was significantly better than saline after using the largest instrument in the series (P < .01). Irrespective of the type of irrigant, an increase in the apical preparation size significantly enhanced root canal disinfection. The disinfecting benefit of NaOCl over saline was significant at large apical preparation sizes. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Enzymatic saccharification of dilute acid pretreated saline crops for fermentable sugar production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four saline crops [athel (Tamarix aphylla L), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), Jose Tall Wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum), and Creeping Wild Ryegrass (Leymus triticoides)] that are used in farms for salt uptake from soil and drainage irrigation water have the potential for fuel ethanol product...

  7. Enzymatic saccharization of dilute acid pretreated saline crops for fermentable sugar production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four saline crops [athel (Tamarix aphylla L), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), Jose Tall Wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum), and Creeping Wild Ryegrass (Leymus triticoides)] that are used in farms for salt uptake from soil and drainage irrigation water have the potential for fuel ethanol product...

  8. Effect of irrigation on soil health: a case study of the Ikere irrigation project in Oyo State, southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adejumobi, M A; Awe, G O; Abegunrin, T P; Oyetunji, O M; Kareem, T S

    2016-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the significant contributors to the food security of the millennium development goals (MDGs); however, the modification of soil matrix by irrigation could alter the overall soil health due to changes in soil properties and processes. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation on soil quality status of the Ikere center pivot irrigation project site in Oyo State, southwest Nigeria. Disturbed soil samples were collected from 0 to 30, 30 to 60, and 60 to 90-cm layers from four different sites in three replicates, within the project location for the determination of soil bio-chemical properties. The average values of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) < 13, electrical conductivity (EC) <4 μS/cm, and pH < 8.5 showed that the soil condition is normal in relation to salinity and sodicity hazards. The effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC), soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), and calcium ion (Ca 2+ ) concentrations were low while the available phosphorus (P) was moderate. The principal component analysis showed EC, ECEC, SAR, SOM, and TN as the minimum data set (MDS) for monitoring and assessing the soil quality status of this irrigation field. In terms of bio-chemical properties, the soil quality index (SQI) of the field was average (about 0.543) while the sampling locations were ranked as site 2 > site 4 > site 3 > site 1 in terms of SQI. The results of this study are designated as baseline for future evaluation of soil quality status of this irrigation field and further studies should incorporate soil physical and more biological properties when considering overall soil quality status.

  9. Nasal computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Ned F

    2006-05-01

    Chronic nasal disease is often a challenge to diagnose. Computed tomography greatly enhances the ability to diagnose chronic nasal disease in dogs and cats. Nasal computed tomography provides detailed information regarding the extent of disease, accurate discrimination of neoplastic versus nonneoplastic diseases, and identification of areas of the nose to examine rhinoscopically and suspicious regions to target for biopsy.

  10. Therapeutic effect of intraductal irrigation of the salivary gland: A technical report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chena; Kim, Jo-Eun; Huh, Kyoung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive and inflammatory disease often occurs in the major salivary glands, and no predictive treatment has yet been developed for this condition. The aim of this report was to introduce an intraductal irrigation procedure and to illustrate its application to practical patient cases. Two patients complaining of pain and swelling in the parotid gland during meals who underwent sialography were diagnosed as having sialodochitis with sialadenitis. Intraductal irrigation was then performed on the parotid gland on the side of the complaint. The irrigation procedure was conducted in the same manner as the sialography procedure, except that saline was used as the filling solution. Symptom severity was evaluated with a numerical rating scale (NRS) at the initial visit and a month after the irrigation. The initial NRS value of patient 1 was 10. The value decreased to 6 and then to 0 after 2 irrigation procedures. The NRS value of patient 2 regarding the symptoms involving the left parotid gland decreased from 4-5 to 1 after 4 irrigation procedures performed at 1-month intervals. Intraductal irrigation of the salivary gland may be a simple, safe, and effective treatment option for patients with obstructive and inflammatory disease of the salivary gland that is capable of resolving their symptoms.

  11. Therapeutic effect of intraductal irrigation of the salivary gland: A technical report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chena; Kim, Jo-Eun; Huh, Kyoung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Obstructive and inflammatory disease often occurs in the major salivary glands, and no predictive treatment has yet been developed for this condition. The aim of this report was to introduce an intraductal irrigation procedure and to illustrate its application to practical patient cases. Materials and Methods Two patients complaining of pain and swelling in the parotid gland during meals who underwent sialography were diagnosed as having sialodochitis with sialadenitis. Intraductal irrigation was then performed on the parotid gland on the side of the complaint. The irrigation procedure was conducted in the same manner as the sialography procedure, except that saline was used as the filling solution. Symptom severity was evaluated with a numerical rating scale (NRS) at the initial visit and a month after the irrigation. Results The initial NRS value of patient 1 was 10. The value decreased to 6 and then to 0 after 2 irrigation procedures. The NRS value of patient 2 regarding the symptoms involving the left parotid gland decreased from 4-5 to 1 after 4 irrigation procedures performed at 1-month intervals. Conclusion Intraductal irrigation of the salivary gland may be a simple, safe, and effective treatment option for patients with obstructive and inflammatory disease of the salivary gland that is capable of resolving their symptoms. PMID:28680849

  12. [Dexpanthenol nasal spray as an effective therapeutic principle for treatment of rhinitis sicca anterior].

    PubMed

    Kehrl, W; Sonnemann, U

    1998-09-01

    Controlled clinical studies on medical treatment of rhinitis sicca anterior have not yet been published. Therapy recommendations are based on experiences but not on results of controlled clinical studies. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and tolerance of a new form of application of Dexpanthenol in physiologic saline solution (Nasicur). A randomized comparison of parallel groups was performed. One group was treated with the nasal spray while the control group received a placebo. The assessment of nasal breathing resistance and the extent of crust formation according to scores were defined as target parameters. Statistical analysis was carried out according to Wilcoxon at alpha < or = 0.05. Forty-eight outpatients diagnosed with rhinitis sicca anterior were included in this study. Twenty-four received the medication, and 29 were treated with a placebo. The superiority of the dexpanthenol nasal spray in comparison to the placebo medication was demonstrated for both target parameters as clinically relevant and statistically significant. The placebo spray showed clinical improvement of the other treatment outcome parameters. Dexpanthenol nasal spray showed no statistically significant difference in comparison to placebo. The clinically proven efficacy is emphasized by good tolerance of both treatments which was validated by the objective rhinoscopy findings. Good compliance was confirmed. The result of the controlled clinical study confirms that the dexpanthenol nasal spray is an effective medicinal treatment of rhinitis sicca anterior and is more effective than common medications.

  13. Perception of Better Nasal Patency Correlates with Increased Mucosal Cooling after Surgery for Nasal Obstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Guilherme; Sullivan, Corbin; Frank-Ito, Dennis; Kimbell, Julia; Rhee, John

    2014-11-01

    Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a common health problem with 340,000 patients undergoing surgery annually in the United States. Traditionally, otolaryngologists have focused on airspace cross-sectional areas and nasal resistance to airflow as objective measures of nasal patency, but neither of these variables correlated consistently with patients' symptoms. Given that the sensation of nasal airflow is also associated with mucosal cooling (i.e., heat loss) during inspiration, we investigated the correlation between the sensation of nasal obstruction and mucosal cooling in 10 patients before and after NAO surgery. Three-dimensional models of the nasal anatomy were created based on pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to quantify nasal resistance and mucosal cooling. Patient-reported symptoms were measured by a visual analog scale and the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE), a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire. Our results revealed that the subjective sensation of nasal obstruction correlated with both nasal resistance and heat loss, but the strongest correlation was between the NOSE score and the nasal surface area where heat flux exceeds 50 W /m2 . In conclusion, a significant post-operative increase in mucosal cooling correlates well with patients' perception of better nasal patency after NAO surgery.

  14. Nasal Ketorolac Challenge Using Acoustic Rhinometry in Patients With Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Quiralte-Castillo, J; Ávila-Castellano, M R; Cimbollek, S; Benaixa, P; Leguisamo, S; Baynova, K; Labella, M; Quiralte, J

    Safer and less time-consuming alternatives to single-blind placebo-controlled oral challenge (SBPCOC) have been sought for the diagnosis of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). Nasal challenges with various nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and assessment methods have been developed. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the utility and safety of nasal ketorolac challenge (NKC) using acoustic rhinometry in patients with suspected AERD. The study population comprised 36 patients with suspected AERD. NKC was performed with placebo (saline) and 13 mg of ketorolac sprayed as aerosol into both nostrils. A positive challenge result was defined as an increase of ≥30% in nasal symptoms (recorded using a visual analog scale) and a 30% drop in the sum of the volumes of both nasal cavities at 2-8 cm. Patients with a negative NKC result underwent SBPCOC with aspirin (cumulative dose of 750 mg). A naso-ocular reaction during NKC was detected in 21 patients. Four patients also developed mild asthma exacerbations (although only 1 experienced a decrease in FEV1 >15%). No other significant adverse events occurred. The remaining 15 patients with a negative NKC result had a negative response during aspirin SBPCOC. NKC assessed using acoustic rhinometry is a reliable method for the study of patients with AERD. We suggest that NKC assessed with acoustic rhinometry was useful and safe for selection of candidates for safe oral aspirin challenge.

  15. [Clinical effects of nasal glucocorticoid on amelioration of nasal obstruction in patients with persistent non-allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Sail, Giyab A; Zuo, Ke-jun; Xu, Geng

    2009-09-01

    To observe the efficacy of nasal glucocorticoid continuously used for 12 weeks on nasal obstruction in patients with persistent non-allergic rhinitis (PNAR). The changes of nasal obstruction, nasal resistance, nasal mucous membrane and quality of life in 47 patients with PNAR were observed. The efficacy of nasal glucocorticoid (Mometasone Furoate Nasal Spray, MFNS 200 microg/day) on patients with PNAR was evaluated. The results of nasal glucocorticoid (MFNS) continuously used for 12 weeks demonstrated: (1) After treatment, the nasal obstruction, nasal discharge, nasal obstruction related dizziness, headache, hyposmia, daily life activity, whole body fatigue, mental status were significantly improved (P < 0.05). (2) Nasal resistance showed significant amelioration (pre-treatment = 0.28 +/- 0.10, post- treatment = 0.16 +/- 0.05; F = 91.471, P < 0.05). (3) SF-36 questionnaire revealed that role physical, bodily pain, general health, role emotional had significant amelioration (P < 0.01). (4) SNOT-20 questionnaire revealed that the defatigation, impaired concentration, pinch the nose, nasal discharging into the throat, sleep quality had significant amelioration (P < 0.01). (5) Continued treatment for 12 weeks was better than 4 weeks, continued treatment had good effect. The study shows that nasal glucocorticoid improved the nasal obstruction, nasal resistance, nasal mucous membrane and quality of life in patients with PNAR.

  16. Algal derivatives may protect crops from residual soil salinity: a case study on a tomato-wheat rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stasio, Emilio; Raimondi, Giampaolo; Van Oosten, Michael; Maggio, Albino

    2017-04-01

    In coastal areas, summer crops are frequently irrigated with saline water. As a consequence, salts may accumulate in the root zone with detrimental effects on the following winter crops if the rainfall is insufficient to leach them. Two field experiments were performed in 2015-2016 on a field used for tomato (summer) wheat (winter) rotation cropping. The spring-summer experiment was carried in order to evaluate the effect of two algal derivatives (Ascophyllum nodosum), Rygex and Super Fifty, on a tomato crop exposed to increasing salinity and reduced nutrient availability. In the autumn-winter experiment we investigated the effect of residual salts from the previous summer irrigations on plant growth and yield of wheat treated with the same two algal extracts. The salt treatment for the irrigated summer crop was 80 mM NaCl plus a non-salinized control. The nutrient regimes were 100% and 50% of the tomato nutritional requirements. With both the seaweeds applications the salt stressed plants were demonstrated improved Relative Water Content and water potential. Nevertheless the total fresh biomass and the fruit fresh weight were enhanced only in the non salinized controls. Application of algal derivatives increased the total fresh weight over controls in the non salinized plants. The seaweed treatments enhanced the fruit fresh weight with an increase of 30% and 46% for Rygex and Super Fifty, respectively. Preliminary analysis of the ion profile in roots, shoots and leaves, indicates that the seaweed extracts may enhance the assimilation of ions in fruits affecting their nutritional value. The residual salinity of the summer experiment reduced the wheat biomass production. However, the seaweed extracts treatments improved growth under salinity. In the salt stressed plants the Super Fifty application increased shoots and ears by 34% and 23% respectively, compared to the non treated plants. Plant height was increased by application of seaweeds extracts for both the

  17. Evaluating management-induced soil salinization in golf courses in semi-arid landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J.; Udeigwe, T. K.; Weindorf, D. C.; Kandakji, T.; Gautam, P.; Mahmoud, M. M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Site-specific information on land management practices are often desired to make better assertions of their environmental impacts. A study was conducted in Lubbock, TX, in the Southern High Plains of the United States, an area characterized by semi-arid climatic conditions, to (1) examine the potential management-induced alteration in soil salinity indicators in golf course facilities and (2) develop predictive relationships for a more rapid soil salinity examination within these urban landscape soils using findings from portable x-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometer. Soil samples were collected from the managed (well irrigated) and non-managed (non irrigated) areas of seven golf course facilities at 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm depths, and analyzed for a suite of chemical properties. Among the extractable cations, sodium (Na) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the managed zones of all the golf facilities. Soil electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), parameters often used in characterizing soil salinity and sodicity, were in most part significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the managed areas. Water quality report collected over a 22-year period (1991-2013, all years not available) indicated a gradual increase in pH, EC, SAR, total alkalinity, and extractable ions, thus, supporting the former findings. Findings from the PXRF suggested possible differences in chemical species and sources that contribute to salinity between the managed and non-managed zones. PXRF quantified Cl and S, and to a lesser extent Ca, individually and collectively explained 23-85% of the variability associated with soil salinity at these facilities.

  18. Evaluating management-induced soil salinization in golf courses in semi-arid landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J.; Udeigwe, T. K.; Weindorf, D. C.; Kandakji, T.; Gautam, P.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    Site-specific information on land management practices are often desired to make better assessments of their environmental impacts. A study was conducted in Lubbock, Texas, in the Southern High Plains of the United States, an area characterized by semi-arid climatic conditions, to (1) examine the potential management-induced alterations in soil salinity indicators in golf course facilities and (2) develop predictive relationships for a more rapid soil salinity examination within these urban landscape soils using findings from a portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometer. Soil samples were collected from managed (well irrigated) and non-managed (non-irrigated) areas of seven golf course facilities at 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm depths and analyzed for a suite of chemical properties. Among the extractable cations, sodium (Na) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the managed zones of all the golf facilities. Soil electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), parameters often used in characterizing soil salinity and sodicity, were for the most part significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the managed areas. Water quality reports collected over a 22-year period (1991-2013, all years not available) indicated a gradual increase in pH, EC, SAR, total alkalinity, and extractable ions, thus supporting the former findings. Findings from the PXRF suggested possible differences in chemical species and sources that contribute to salinity between the managed and non-managed zones. PXRF-quantified Cl and S, and to a lesser extent Ca, individually and collectively explained 23-85% of the variability associated with soil salinity at these facilities.

  19. Salinity Stress Does Not Affect Root Uptake, Dissemination and Persistence of Salmonella in Sweet-basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Nirit; Sela Saldinger, Shlomo; Dudai, Nativ; Gorbatsevich, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Crop produce can be contaminated in the field during cultivation by bacterial human pathogens originating from contaminated soil or irrigation water. The bacterial pathogens interact with the plant, can penetrate the plant via the root system and translocate and survive in above-ground tissues. The present study is first to investigate effects of an abiotic stress, salinity, on the interaction of plants with a bacterial human pathogen. The main sources of human bacterial contamination of plants are manures and marginal irrigation waters such as treated or un-treated wastewater. These are often saline and induce morphological, chemical and physiological changes in plants that might affect the interaction between the pathogens and the plant and thereby the potential for plant contamination. This research studied effects of salinity on the internalization of the bacterial human pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Newport via the root system of sweet-basil plants, dissemination of the bacteria in the plant, and kinetics of survival in planta . Irrigation with 30 mM NaCl-salinity induced typical salt-stress effects on the plant: growth was reduced, Na and Cl concentrations increased, K and Ca concentrations reduced, osmotic potential and anti-oxidative activity were increased by 30%, stomatal conductance was reduced, and concentrations of essential-oils in the plants increased by 26%. Despite these physical, chemical and morphological changes in the plants, root internalization of the bacteria and its translocation to the shoot were not affected, and neither was the die-off rate of Salmonella in planta . The results demonstrate that the salinity-induced changes in the sweet-basil plants did not affect the interaction between Salmonella and the plant and thereby the potential for crop contamination.

  20. Research on chemical characteristics of soil salt crusts with saline groundwater drip-irrigation in the Tarim Desert Highway Shelterbelt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianguo; Xu, Xinwen; Lei, Jiaqiang; Li, Shengyu

    2013-01-01

    Soil salt crusts are special layers at soil surface which are widely distributed in the Trim Desert Highway Shelterbelt under drip-irrigation with high salinity groundwater. In order to reveal annual variation of their chemical characteristics, soil salt crusts in shelterbelt of different ages in hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert were sampled. SOM, total salt, inions and pH were analyzed. Following results were obtained. SOM of salt crusts increased with the shelterbelt ages, but increasing trend became lower gradually. Total salt, ions, and pH of salt crusts reduced gradually with the shelterbelt ages. Total salt of salt crusts in shelterbelt of different ages was much higher than shifting sandy land. Ions were higher than shifting sandy land, Cl(-), Na(+), and SO4 (2-) increased more obvious, then Mg(2+), K(+), Ca(2+) and HCO3 (-), CO3 (2-) was little and nearly had no change. pH was all alkaline, pH of salt crusts in shelterbelt of 11 years was even lower than shifting sandy land. We can include that the quality of shallow soil (0~30 cm) in the Trim Desert Highway Shelterbelt becomes better gradually.

  1. Immediate effect of benzalkonium chloride in decongestant nasal spray on the human nasal mucosal temperature.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, J; Leiacker, R; Wiesmiller, K; Rettinger, G; Keck, T

    2004-08-01

    Benzalkonium chloride is a preservative commonly used in nasal decongestant sprays. It has been suggested that benzalkonium chloride may be harmful to the nasal mucosa. Decongestion with the vasoconstrictor xylometazoline containing benzalkonium chloride has been shown to cause a significant reduction of the nasal mucosal temperature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the short-term influence of xylometazoline nasal spray with and without benzalkonium chloride on the nasal mucosal temperature. Healthy volunteers (30) were included in the study. Fifteen volunteers received xylometazoline nasal spray (1.0 mg/mL) containing benzalkonium chloride (0.1 mg/mL) and 15 age-matched subjects, received xylometazoline nasal spray without benzalkonium chloride. Using a miniaturized thermocouple the septal mucosal temperature was continuously measured at defined intranasal detection sites before and after application of the nasal spray. The mucosal temperature values did not significantly differ between the group receiving xylometazoline containing benzalkonium chloride and the group receiving xylometazoline spray without benzalkonium chloride before and after decongestion (P > 0.05). In both study groups septal mucosal temperatures significantly decreased after decongestion (P < 0.05) because of a reduction of the nasal mucosal blood flow following vasoconstriction. This study indicates that benzalkonium chloride itself does not seem to influence nasal blood flow and nasal mucosal temperature in topical nasal decongestants.

  2. Nitrogen and salt loads in the irrigation return flows of the Ebro River Basin (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidoro, Daniel; Balcells, Maria; Clavería, Ignacio; Dechmi, Farida; Quílez, Dolores; Aragüés, Ramón

    2013-04-01

    The conservation of the quality of surface waters demanded by the European Water Framework Directive requires, among others, an assessment of the irrigation-induced pollution. The contribution of the irrigation return flows (IRF) to the pollution of the receiving water bodies is given by its pollutant load, since this load determines the quality status or pollutant concentration in these water bodies. The aim of this work was to quantify the annual nitrogen and salt loads in the IRF of four irrigated catchments within the Ebro River Basin: Violada (2006-10), Alcanadre (2008-10), Valcuerna (2010), and Clamor Amarga (2010). The daily flow (Q), salt (EC) and nitrate concentration (NO3) were measured in the drainage outlets of each basin. The net irrigation-induced salt and nitrogen loads were obtained from these measurements after discounting the salt and nitrogen inputs from outside the catchments and the non-irrigated areas. The N-fertilizer applications were obtained from farmer surveys and animal farming statistical sources. Irrigation water salinity was very low in all catchments (EC < 0.4 dS/m), but IRF salinity was very high in Valcuerna (7.9 dS/m) with underlain saline lutites, high to moderate in Clamor (2.6 dS/m) and Violada (2.1 dS/m) with gypsum-rich soils, and low in Alcanadre (1.0 dS/m) due to dilution in the inefficient traditional flood-irrigation system. Annual salt loads were highest in Valcuerna (11.9 Mg/ha) and lowest in Alcanadre (3.6 Mg/ha) and Clamor (3.3 Mg/ha). Salt load was also high in flood-irrigated Violada (10.3 Mg/ha), but dropped to 2.6 Mg/ha after its modernization to sprinkler irrigation (in 2008-09). N-fertilizer applications ranged from 221 kg/ha in the corn-dominated Valcuerna in 2010 to 63 kg/ha in 2008 in Violada, when farmers barely applied fertilizers due to the irrigation modernization works in progress that year. The highest N applications derived from pig slurry applications by farmers that used their lands as disposal sites

  3. Surgical management of nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Moche, Jason A; Palmer, Orville

    2012-05-01

    The proper evaluation of the patient with nasal obstruction relies on a comprehensive history and physical examination. Once the site of obstruction is accurately identified, the patient may benefit from a trial of medical management. At times however, the definitive treatment of nasal obstruction relies on surgical management. Recognizing the nasal septum, nasal valve, and turbinates as possible sites of obstruction and addressing them accordingly can dramatically improve a patient's nasal breathing. Conservative resection of septal cartilage, submucous reduction of the inferior turbinate, and structural grafting of the nasal valve when appropriate will provide the optimal improvement in nasal airflow and allow for the most stable results. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Snoring and Nasal Congestion

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat the various causes of nasal congestion include: Topical nasal steroid spray Topical nasal antihistamine spray Oral antibiotic (in case of ... include more than just the decrease in oxygen levels at night during the apnea episodes. They also ...

  5. The challenge of salinity: Hope for the future with new avocado rootstocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    California avocado growers face diminishing returns in areas where Phytophthora root rot and saline irrigation water predominate. To help find answers to this production issue, a research trial was planted at the University of California, Riverside (UCR) in 2011. The goal of this trial was to determ...

  6. Topical nasal decongestant oxymetazoline (0.05%) provides relief of nasal symptoms for 12 hours.

    PubMed

    Druce, H M; Ramsey, D L; Karnati, S; Carr, A N

    2018-05-22

    Nasal congestion, often referred to as stuffy nose or blocked nose is one of the most prevalent and bothersome symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection. Oxymetazoline, a widely used intranasal decongestant, offers fast symptom relief, but little is known about the duration of effect. The results of 2 randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, single-dose, parallel, clinical studies (Study 1, n=67; Study 2, n=61) in which the efficacy of an oxymetazoline (0.05% Oxy) nasal spray in patients with acute coryzal rhinitis was assessed over a 12-hour time-period. Data were collected on both subjective relief of nasal congestion (6-point nasal congestion scale) and objective measures of nasal patency (anterior rhinomanometry) in both studies. A pooled study analysis showed statistically significant changes from baseline in subjective nasal congestion for 0.05% oxymetazoline and vehicle at each hourly time-point from Hour 1 through Hour 12 (marginally significant at Hour 11). An objective measure of nasal flow was statistically significant at each time-point up to 12 hours. Adverse events on either treatment were infrequent. The number of subjects who achieved an improvement in subjective nasal congestion scores of at least 1.0 was significantly higher in the Oxy group vs. vehicle at all hourly time-points on a 6-point nasal congestion scale. This study shows for the first time, that oxymetazoline provides both statistically significant and clinically meaningful relief of nasal congestion and improves nasal airflow for up to 12 hours following a single dose.

  7. The Probable Effect of Irrigation Solution and Time on Bond Strength to Coronal Dentin: An In Vitro Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Anvar, Ehsan; Mirshahpanah, Mostafa; Hemati, Hamidreza; Danesh Kazemi, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of root canal irrigants on the microtensile bond strength of 2-step self-etch adhesive to dentin. n this study 36 sound extracted human third molars were used. After grinding 3 mm of occlusal surface, teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups based on irrigation material naming normal saline, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and also irrigation time (5 or 30 min). Next, teeth were restored with Clearfil SE bond adhesive resin system and Z250 composite. The teeth were then thermo cycled by thermo cycling machine, for 500 cycles between 5 º and 55 º C with 60 sec dwell time and 12 sec transfer time. All samples were sectioned into bucco-lingual slabs. The sections were submitted to the micro tensile testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. Data was analyzed using the one-way ANOVA test with the level of significance set at 0.05. Irrigation with normal saline, 5.25% NaOCl and 2% CHX for 5 or 30 min did not significantly change the microtensile bond strength of adhesive to dentin ( P =0.729 for time and P =0.153 for material). However the maximum and minimum microtensile bond strength was attributed to normal saline (44.13 N) and NaOCl (31.29 N) groups, respectively. Iirrigation solution and time have no influence on microtensile bond strength of two-step self-etch adhesive to coronal dentin.

  8. The Probable Effect of Irrigation Solution and Time on Bond Strength to Coronal Dentin: An In Vitro Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Anvar, Ehsan; Mirshahpanah, Mostafa; Hemati, Hamidreza; Danesh Kazemi, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of root canal irrigants on the microtensile bond strength of 2-step self-etch adhesive to dentin. Methods and Materials: n this study 36 sound extracted human third molars were used. After grinding 3 mm of occlusal surface, teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups based on irrigation material naming normal saline, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and also irrigation time (5 or 30 min). Next, teeth were restored with Clearfil SE bond adhesive resin system and Z250 composite. The teeth were then thermo cycled by thermo cycling machine, for 500 cycles between 5º and 55ºC with 60 sec dwell time and 12 sec transfer time. All samples were sectioned into bucco-lingual slabs. The sections were submitted to the micro tensile testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. Data was analyzed using the one-way ANOVA test with the level of significance set at 0.05. Results: Irrigation with normal saline, 5.25% NaOCl and 2% CHX for 5 or 30 min did not significantly change the microtensile bond strength of adhesive to dentin (P=0.729 for time and P=0.153 for material). However the maximum and minimum microtensile bond strength was attributed to normal saline (44.13 N) and NaOCl (31.29 N) groups, respectively. Conclusion: Iirrigation solution and time have no influence on microtensile bond strength of two-step self-etch adhesive to coronal dentin. PMID:29225638

  9. Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.; Maritan, Amos; Porporato, Amilcare

    2010-05-01

    Large areas of cultivated land worldwide are affected by soil salinity. Estimates report that 10% of arable land in over 100 countries, and nine million km2 are salt affected, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. High salinity causes both ion specific and osmotic stress effects, with important consequences for plant production and quality. Salt accumulation in the root zone may be due to natural factors (primary salinization) or due to irrigation (secondary salinization). Simple (e.g., vertically averaged over the soil depth) coupled soil moisture and salt balance equations have been used in the past. Despite their approximations, these models have the advantage of parsimony, thus allowing a direct analysis of the interplay of the main processes. They also provide the ideal starting point to include external, random hydro-climatic fluctuations in the analysis of long-term salinization trends. We propose a minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In fact, soil salinity statistics are obtained as a function of climate, soil and vegetation parameters. These, in turn, can be combined with soil moisture statistics to obtain a full characterization of soil salt concentrations and the ensuing risk of primary salinization. In particular, the solutions show the existence of two quite distinct regimes, the first one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant with increasing rainfall frequency, and the

  10. Perceiving nasal patency through mucosal cooling rather than air temperature or nasal resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Blacker, Kara; Luo, Yuehao; Bryant, Bruce; Jiang, Jianbo

    2011-01-01

    Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency) is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive. The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA) were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss) being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool.

  11. Functional anatomy of the nasal bones and adjacent structures. Consequences for nasal surgery.

    PubMed

    Popko, M; Verlinde-Schellekens, S A M W; Huizing, E H; Bleys, R L A W

    2018-03-01

    The periosteum of the nasal bones, the periosteal-perichondrial nasal envelope, and the cartilaginous support of the bony vault were studied in serial coronal sections of four human cadaver noses. To differentiate between the various tissue components, the sections were stained according to Mallory-Cason and Verhoeff-Van Gieson stain. The results demonstrated: 1. the presence of clearly distinguishable layers of the periosteum covering the nasal bones; 2. the presence of a continuous periosteal-perichondrial covering of the bony and cartilaginous nasal vaults; 3. the way the cartilaginous support of the bony vault is constructed. The findings described in the present study may have clinical relevance in nasal surgery.

  12. Evaluation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations' response to salinity stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa is a moderately salt tolerant crop with high economic return, therefore more suitable for production with lower quality water than most high value crops. This study was conducted to examine the effects of the irrigation water salt type (ST=Cl- or SO4 2-) and five salinity levels (ECiw= 0.85,...

  13. The influence of irrigating solutions on the accuracy of the electronic apex locator facility in the Tri Auto ZX handpiece.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, A; Eldeniz, A U; Ari, H; Belli, S; Esener, T

    2007-05-01

    To determine the influence of various irrigating solutions on the accuracy of the electronic apex locator facility in the Tri Auto ZX handpiece. One hundred and forty teeth with single canals and mature apices, scheduled for extraction for either periodontal or prosthetic reasons in 76 patients were used. Following informed written consent local anaesthesia was administered, access cavities were prepared and pulp tissue removed. The teeth were then randomly divided into seven groups according to the irrigating solutions used. The root canal length measurements were completed using the Tri Auto ZX handpiece with automatic reverse function in the presence of one or other of the following solutions: 0.9% saline, 2.5% NaOCl, 3% H(2)O(2), 0.2% chlorhexidine, 17% EDTA, Ultracaine D-S or in the absence of an irrigating solution (control). Files were immobilized in the access cavity with composite resin. After extraction, the apical regions of the teeth were exposed and the file tips examined under a stereomicroscope. Distances between the file tips and the apical constriction were measured (mm) and analysed using a one-way anova and post hoc Tukey test. Mean distances from the apical constriction to the file tip were longer in the 0.9% saline group (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference on file tip position between the other solutions. Tri Auto ZX gave reliable results with all irrigating solutions apart from in the presence of 0.9% saline.

  14. Effect of irrigation and stainless steel drills on dental implant bed heat generation.

    PubMed

    Bullon, B; Bueno, E F; Herrero, M; Fernandez-Palacin, A; Rios, J V; Bullon, P; Gil, F J

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is assessing the influence of the use of different drill types and external irrigation on heat generation in the bone. In-vitro study to compare two different sequences for implant-bed preparation by means of two stainless steels: precipitation-hardening stainless steel (AISI 420B) (K drills), and martensitic stainless steel (AISI 440) (S drills). Besides, the drilled sequences were realized without irrigation, and with external irrigation by means of normal saline solution at room temperature. The study was realized on bovine ribs using: K without irrigation (KSI) and with irrigation (KCI) and S without irrigation (SSI) and with irrigation (SCI) with five drills for each system. Each drill was used 100 times. Bone temperature was measured with a thermocouple immediately after drilled. Average bone temperature with irrigation was for K drills 17.58±3.32 °C and for S drills 16.66±1.30 °C. Average bone temperature without irrigation was for K drills 23.58±2.94 °C and for S drills 19.41±2.27 °C. Statistically significant differences were found between K without irrigation versus S with irrigation and K with irrigation (p<0.05, Bonferroni correction). Lower temperature variation coefficient throughout the 50 measurements was observed in irrigated groups (K=5.6%, S=5.1% vs. without irrigation groups K=9.4%, S=9.3%). The first K drill generated more heat than the remaining drills. No significant differences were detected among temperature values in any of the analyzed drill groups. Unlike irrigation, drill use and type were observed to have no significant impact on heat generation. The stainless steel AISI 420B presents better mechanical properties and corrosion resistance than AISI440.

  15. Response of biotic communities to salinity changes in a Mediterranean hypersaline stream

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Josefa; Millán, Andrés; Hernández, Juan; Gutiérrez, Cayetano; Abellán, Pedro; Sánchez, David; Ruiz, Mar

    2006-01-01

    Background This study investigates the relationship between salinity and biotic communities (primary producers and macroinvertebrates) in Rambla Salada, a Mediterranean hypersaline stream in SE Spain. Since the 1980's, the mean salinity of the stream has fallen from about 100 g L-1 to 35.5 g L-1, due to intensive irrigated agriculture in the watershed. Furthermore, large dilutions occur occasionally when the water irrigation channel suffers cracks. Results Along the salinity gradient studied (3.5 – 76.4 g L-1) Cladophora glomerata and Ruppia maritima biomass decreased with increasing salinity, while the biomass of epipelic algae increased. Diptera and Coleoptera species dominated the community both in disturbed as in re-established conditions. Most macroinvertebrates species found in Rambla Salada stream are euryhaline species with a broad range of salinity tolerance. Eight of them were recorded in natural hypersaline conditions (~100 g L-1) prior to important change in land use of the watershed: Ephydra flavipes, Stratyomis longicornis, Nebrioporus ceresyi, N. baeticus, Berosus hispanicus, Enochrus falcarius, Ochthebius cuprescens and Sigara selecta. However, other species recorded in the past, such as Ochthebius glaber, O. notabilis and Enochrus politus, were restricted to a hypersaline source or absent from Rambla Salada. The dilution of salinity to 3.5 – 6.8 gL-1 allowed the colonization of species with low salininty tolerance, such as Melanopsis praemorsa, Anax sp., Simulidae, Ceratopogonidae and Tanypodinae. The abundance of Ephydra flavipes and Ochthebius corrugatus showed a positive significant response to salinity, while Anax sp., Simulidae, S. selecta, N. ceresyi, N. baeticus, and B. hispanicus showed significant negative correlations. The number of total macroinvertebrate taxa, Diptera and Coleoptera species, number of families, Margalef's index and Shannon's diversity index decreased with increasing salinity. However, the rest of community

  16. Field note: irrigation of tree stands with groundwater containing 1,4-dioxane.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Ari M; Tammi, Carl E

    2009-07-01

    Coniferous and deciduous tree stands totaling 14 ha were recently planted on a closed landfill, and when mature, the stands are expected to be part of a natural treatment system for recovered groundwater. The trees would be irrigated at the rate of 189 L/min year-round with water containing 1,4-dioxane (< 10 mg/L), a compound that would be taken up and phytovolatilized by the trees. The water is moderately saline and contains elevated levels of manganese. This paper describes a concurrent series of preliminary studies, performed prior to the full-scale planting, to assess the feasibility of the phytoremediation system. Greenhouse experiments were carried out to identify tree species that can take up 1,4-dioxane and are tolerant of the water. Estimates were made of the area of the tree stand necessary to transpire the irrigation water plus precipitation. The landfill matrix was characterized in terms of its percolation rate and water holding capacity and based on those results salinity-modeling studies were carried out to estimate the fate and leaching potential of the various inorganic species that would accumulate in the root-zone of the trees. A pilot study, currently in progress on the landfill, suggested that the landfill cap is a suitable matrix for the establishment of large trees, and that the stands could be irrigated without the production of excess drainage.

  17. Comparison between Perceptual Assessments of Nasality and Nasalance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnegard, Karin; Lohmander, Anette; van Doorn, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are different reports of the usefulness of the Nasometer[TM] as a complement to listening, often as correlation calculations between listening and nasalance measurements. Differences between findings have been attributed to listener experience and types of speech stimuli. Aims: To compare nasalance scores from the Nasometer with…

  18. Water and solute balances as a basis for sustainable irrigation agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2015-04-01

    The growing development of irrigated agriculture is necessary for the sustainable production of the food required by the increasing World's population. Such development is limited by the increasing scarcity and low quality of the available water resources and by the competitive use of the water for other purposes. There are also increasing problems of contamination of surface and ground waters to be used for other purposes by the drainage effluents of irrigated lands. Irrigation and drainage may cause drastic changes in the regime and balance of water and solutes (salts, sodium, contaminants) in the soil profile, resulting in problems of water supply to crops and problems of salinization, sodification and contamination of soils and ground waters. This is affected by climate, crops, soils, ground water depth, irrigation and groundwater composition, and by irrigation and drainage management. In order to predict and prevent such problems for a sustainable irrigated agriculture and increased efficiency in water use, under each particular set of conditions, there have to be considered both the hydrological, physical and chemical processes determining such water and solute balances in the soil profile. In this contribution there are proposed the new versions of two modeling approaches (SOMORE and SALSODIMAR) to predict those balances and to guide irrigation water use and management, integrating the different factors involved in such processes. Examples of their application under Mediterranean and tropical climate conditions are also presented.

  19. The assessment of treated wastewater quality and the effects of mid-term irrigation on soil physical and chemical properties (case study: Bandargaz-treated wastewater)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaboosi, Kami

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of inflow and outflow wastewater of the Bandargaz wastewater treatment plant on the basis of the data collection of operation period and the samples taken during the study. Also the effects of mid-term use of the wastewater for irrigation (from 2005 to 2013) on soil physical and chemical characteristics were studied. For this purpose, 4 samples were taken from the inflow and outflow wastewater and 25 quality parameters were measured. Also, the four soil samples from a depth of 0-30 cm of two rice field irrigated with wastewater in the beginning and middle of the planting season and two samples from one adjacent rice field irrigated with fresh water were collected and their chemical and physical characteristics were determined. Average of electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, sodium adsorption ratio, chemical oxygen demand and 5 days biochemical oxygen demand in treated wastewater were 1.35 dS/m, 707 ppm, 0.93, 80 ppm and 40 ppm, respectively. Results showed that although some restrictions exist about chlorine and bicarbonate, the treated wastewater is suitable for irrigation based on national and international standards and criteria. In comparison with fresh water, the mid-term use of wastewater caused a little increase of soil salinity. However, it did not lead to increase of soil salinity beyond rice salinity threshold. Also, there were no restrictions on soil in the aspect of salinity and sodium hazard on the basis of many irrigated soil classifications. In comparison with fresh water, the mid-term use of wastewater caused the increase of total N, absorbable P and absorbable K in soil due to high concentration of those elements in treated wastewater.

  20. Efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation with natural irrigants (Morinda citrifolia juice, Aloe Vera and Propolis) in comparison with 1% sodium hypochlorite for removal of E. faecalis biofilm: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Anuj; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Ballal, Suma

    2013-01-01

    Present study evaluated the efficacy of natural derivative irrigants, Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ), Aloe Vera and Propolis in comparison to 1% sodium hypochlorite with passive ultrasonic irrigation for removal of the intraradicular E. faecalis biofilms in extracted single rooted human permanent teeth. Biofilms of E. faecalis were grown on the prepared root canal walls of 60 standardized root halves which were longitudinally sectioned. These root halves were re-approximated and the samples were divided into five groups of twelve each. The groups were, Group A (1% NaOCl), Group B (MCJ), Group C (Aloe vera), Group D (Propolis) and Group E (Saline). These groups were treated with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) along with the respective irrigants. The root halves were processed for scanning electron microscopy. Three images (X2.5), coronal, middle and apical, were taken for the twelve root halves in each of the five groups. The images were randomized and biofilm coverage assessed independently by three calibrated examiners, using a four-point scoring system. 1% NaOCl with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm and was superior to the natural irrigants like MCJ, Aloe vera and Propolis tested in this study. 1% NaOCl used along with passive ultrasonic irrigation was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm when compared to natural irrigants (MCJ, Aloe Vera and Propolis).

  1. Perceiving Nasal Patency through Mucosal Cooling Rather than Air Temperature or Nasal Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Blacker, Kara; Luo, Yuehao; Bryant, Bruce; Jiang, Jianbo

    2011-01-01

    Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency) is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive.The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA) were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss) being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool. PMID:22022361

  2. Aerial biomass and elemental changes in Atriplex canescens and A. acanthocarpa as affected by salinity and soil water availability

    Treesearch

    Ricardo Mata-Gonzalez; Ruben Melendez-Gonzalez; J. Jesus Martinez-Hernandez

    2001-01-01

    Atriplex canescens and A. acanthocarpa from the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico were subjected to different salinity and irrigation treatments in a greenhouse study. Plants were grown in pots containing soil and irrigated with NaCl solutions of 0, 50, and 100 mM at 40 and 80 percent available soil water. Aerial biomass of A. canescens declined as NaCl treatments increased...

  3. Salinity Stress Does Not Affect Root Uptake, Dissemination and Persistence of Salmonella in Sweet-basil (Ocimum basilicum)

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Nirit; Sela (Saldinger), Shlomo; Dudai, Nativ; Gorbatsevich, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Crop produce can be contaminated in the field during cultivation by bacterial human pathogens originating from contaminated soil or irrigation water. The bacterial pathogens interact with the plant, can penetrate the plant via the root system and translocate and survive in above-ground tissues. The present study is first to investigate effects of an abiotic stress, salinity, on the interaction of plants with a bacterial human pathogen. The main sources of human bacterial contamination of plants are manures and marginal irrigation waters such as treated or un-treated wastewater. These are often saline and induce morphological, chemical and physiological changes in plants that might affect the interaction between the pathogens and the plant and thereby the potential for plant contamination. This research studied effects of salinity on the internalization of the bacterial human pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Newport via the root system of sweet-basil plants, dissemination of the bacteria in the plant, and kinetics of survival in planta. Irrigation with 30 mM NaCl-salinity induced typical salt-stress effects on the plant: growth was reduced, Na and Cl concentrations increased, K and Ca concentrations reduced, osmotic potential and anti-oxidative activity were increased by 30%, stomatal conductance was reduced, and concentrations of essential-oils in the plants increased by 26%. Despite these physical, chemical and morphological changes in the plants, root internalization of the bacteria and its translocation to the shoot were not affected, and neither was the die-off rate of Salmonella in planta. The results demonstrate that the salinity-induced changes in the sweet-basil plants did not affect the interaction between Salmonella and the plant and thereby the potential for crop contamination. PMID:28512466

  4. Comparison of Early-period Results of Nasal Splint and Merocel Nasal Packs in Septoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bingöl, Fatih; Budak, Ali; Şimşek, Eda; Kılıç, Korhan; Bingöl, Buket Özel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Several types of nasal packs are used postoperatively in septoplasty. In this study, we compared two commonly used nasal packing materials, the intranasal septal splint with airway and Merocel tampon, in terms of pain, bleeding, nasal obstruction, eating difficulties, discomfort in sleep, and pain and bleeding during removal of packing in the early period. Methods The study group included 60 patients undergoing septoplasty. Patients were divided into two groups (n=30 in each group). An intranasal splint with airway was used for the patients in the first group after septoplasty, while Merocel nasal packing was used for the second group. Patients were investigated in terms of seven different factors - pain, bleeding while the tampon was in place, nasal obstruction, eating difficulties, night sleep, pain during removal of the nasal packing, and bleeding after removal of packing. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of pain 24 hours after operation (p=0.05), while visual analog scale (VAS) scores for nasal obstruction, night sleep, eating difficulties, and pain during packing removal were lower in the nasal splint group with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of postoperative bleeding (p=0.23). Significantly less bleeding occurred during removal of the packing in the nasal splint group (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study indicates that the nasal splint was more comfortable and effective in terms of causing lesser bleeding and pain during removal of packing. PMID:29392071

  5. Environmental impact of irrigation in la violada district (Spain): I. Salt export patterns.

    PubMed

    Isidoro, D; Quílez, D; Aragüés, R

    2006-01-01

    Salt loading in irrigation return flows contributes to the salinization of the receiving water bodies, particularly when originated in salt-affected areas as frequently found in the middle Ebro River basin (Spain). We determined the salt loading in La Violada Gully from the total dissolved solids (TDS) and flows (Q) during the 1995 to 1998 hydrological years. Since this gully collects flows from various sources, an end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) was performed to quantify the drainage flow from La Violada Irrigation District (VID). Three flow components were identified in La Violada Gully: drainage waters from VID (Qd); tail-waters from irrigation ditches, spill-over, and seepage from the Monegros Canal (Qo); and ground water inflows (Qg) originating in the dryland watershed. Gypsum in the soils of VID was the main source for salts in La Violada Gully (flow-weighted mean TDS=1720 mg L-1, dominated by sulfate and calcium). The contribution of Qg to the total gully flow during the 1996 irrigation season was low (6.5% of the total flow). The 1995 to 1998 annual salt load average in La Violada Gully was 78 628 Mg, 71% of which was exported during the irrigation season. The 1995 to 1998 irrigation season salt load average in Qd was 43 015 Mg (77% of the total load). Thus, irrigated agriculture in VID was the main source of salt loading in this gully, with a yield of 11.1 Mg of salts per hectare of irrigated land for the irrigation season. Efficient irrigation systems and irrigation management practices that reduce Qd are key factors for controlling off-site salt pollution of these gypsum-rich irrigated areas.

  6. Nasalance measures in Cantonese-speaking women.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, T L

    2001-03-01

    To establish and evaluate stimulus materials for nasalance measurement in Cantonese speakers, to provide normative data for Cantonese-speaking women, and to evaluate session-to-session reliability of nasalance measures. One hundred forty-one Cantonese-speaking women with normal resonance who were students in the Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Hong Kong. Participants read aloud four speech stimuli: oral sentences, nasal sentences, an oral paragraph (similar to the Zoo Passage), and an oral-nasal paragraph (similar to the Rainbow Passage). Data were collected and analyzed using the Kay Nasometer 6200. Data collection was repeated for a subgroup of speakers (n = 28) on a separate day. Nasalance materials were evaluated by using statistical tests of difference and correlation. Group mean (standard deviation) nasalance scores for oral sentences, nasal sentences, oral paragraph, and oral-nasal paragraph were 16.79 (5.99), 55.67 (7.38), 13.68 (7.16), and 35.46 (6.22), respectively. There was a significant difference in mean nasalance scores for oral versus nasal materials. Correlations between stimuli were as expected, ranging from 0.43 to 0.91. Session-to-session reliability was within 5 points for over 95% of speakers for the oral stimuli but for less than 76% of speakers for the nasal and oral-nasal stimuli. Standard nasalance materials have been developed for Cantonese, and normative data have been established for Cantonese women. Evaluation of materials indicated acceptable differentiation between oral and nasal materials. Two stimuli (nasal sentences and oral paragraph) are recommended for future use. Comparison with findings from other languages showed similarities in scores; possible language-specific differences are discussed. Session-to-session reliability was poorer for nasal than oral stimuli.

  7. Nasal septal hematoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001292.htm Nasal septal hematoma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A nasal septal hematoma is a collection of blood within the septum ...

  8. Same Noses, Different Nasalance Scores: Data from Normal Subjects and Cleft Palate Speakers for Three Systems for Nasalance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim; Klaiman, Paula; Fischbach, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Nasalance scores from the Nasometer, the NasalView and the OroNasal System were compared. The data was collected from 50 normal participants and 19 hypernasal patients with cleft palate. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the non-nasal Zoo Passage and that the OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences.…

  9. Intra-Operative Surgical Irrigation of the Surgical Incision: What Does the Future Hold-Saline, Antibiotic Agents, or Antiseptic Agents?

    PubMed

    Edmiston, Charles E; Leaper, David J

    2016-12-01

    Intra-operative surgical site irrigation (lavage) is common practice in surgical procedures in general, with all disciplines advocating some form of irrigation before incision closure. This practice, however, has been neither standardized nor is there compelling evidence that it effectively reduces the risk of surgical site infection (SSI). This narrative review addresses the laboratory and clinical evidence that is available to support the practice of irrigation of the abdominal cavity and superficial/deep incisional tissues, using specific irrigation solutions at the end of an operative procedure to reduce the microbial burden at wound closure. Review of PubMed and OVID for pertinent, scientific, and clinical publications in the English language was performed. Incision irrigation was found to afford a three-fold benefit: First, to hydrate the bed; second, to assist in allowing better examination of the area immediately before closure; and finally, by removing superficial and deep incisional contamination and lowering the bioburden, expedite the healing process. The clinical practice of intra-operative peritoneal lavage is highly variable and is dependent solely on surgeon preference. By contrast, intra-operative irrigation after device-related procedures has become a standard of care for the prophylaxis of acute peri-prosthetic infection. The clinical evidence that supports the use of antibiotic irrigation is limited and based on retrospective analysis and few acceptable randomized controlled trials. The results of laboratory and animal studies using aqueous 0.05% chlorhexidine gluconate are favorable, suggesting that further studies are justified to determine its clinical efficacy. The adoption of appropriate and standardized intra-operative irrigation practices into peri-operative care bundles, which include other evidence-based strategies (weight-based antimicrobial prophylaxis, antimicrobial sutures, maintenance of normothermia, and glycemic control), offers

  10. Nasal hydropulsion.

    PubMed

    Elizabeth, Ashbaugh

    2013-08-01

    Intranasal tumors of dogs and cats pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the small animal practitioner. A simplified flushing technique to biopsy and debulk nasal tumors, that often results in immediate clinical relief for the patient is described. This technique can also be utilized to remove nasal foreign bodies. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of endodontic irrigants on biofilm matrix polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Tawakoli, P N; Ragnarsson, K T; Rechenberg, D K; Mohn, D; Zehnder, M

    2017-02-01

    To specifically investigate the effect of endodontic irrigants at their clinical concentration on matrix polysaccharides of cultured biofilms. Saccharolytic effects of 3% H 2 O 2 , 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), 17% EDTA, 5% NaOCl and 0.9% saline (control) were tested using agarose (α 1-3 and β 1-4 glycosidic bonds) blocks (n = 3) in a weight assay. The irrigants were also applied to three-species biofilms (Streptococcus mutans UAB 159, Streptococcus oralis OMZ 607 and Actinomyces oris OMZ 745) grown anaerobically on hydroxyapatite discs (n = 6). Glycoconjugates in the matrix and total bacterial cell volumes were determined using combined Concanavalin A-/Syto 59-staining and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Volumes of each scanned area (triplicates/sample) were calculated using Imaris software. Data were compared between groups using one-way anova/Tukey HSD, α = 0.05. The weight assay revealed that NaOCl was the only irrigant under investigation capable of dissolving the agarose blocks. NaOCl eradicated stainable matrix and bacteria in cultured biofilms after 1 min of exposure (P < 0.05 compared to all groups, volumes in means ± standard deviation, 10 -3  mm 3 per 0.6 mm 2 disc; NaOCl matrix: 0.10 ± 0.08, bacteria: 0.03 ± 0.06; saline control matrix: 4.01 ± 1.14, bacteria: 11.56 ± 3.02). EDTA also appeared to have some effect on the biofilm matrix (EDTA matrix: 1.90 ± 0.33, bacteria: 9.26 ± 2.21), whilst H 2 O 2 and CHX merely reduced bacterial cell volumes. Sodium hypochlorite can break glycosidic bonds. It dissolves glycoconjugates in the biofilm matrix. It also lyses bacterial cells. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Ipratropium Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... follow these steps: Remove the clear plastic dust cap and the safety clip from the nasal spray ... the other nostril. Replace the clear plastic dust cap and safety clip. If the nasal tip becomes ...

  13. Nasal fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000554.htm Nasal fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on this ... that gives your nose its shape. A nasal fracture occurs when the bony part of your nose ...

  14. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lining of the nose) after nasal polyp removal surgery. Beclomethasone nasal spray should not be used ... room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).Unneeded medications should be ...

  15. Renal sympathetic denervation using an externally irrigated radiofrequency ablation catheter for treatment of resistant hypertension - Acute safety and short term efficacy.

    PubMed

    Yalagudri, Sachin; Raju, Narayana; Das, Bharati; Daware, Ashwin; Maiya, Shreesha; Jothiraj, Kannan; Ravikishore, A G

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the acute safety and short term efficacy of renal sympathetic denervation (RSDN) using solid tip radiofrequency ablation (RFA) catheter and saline irrigation through the renal guiding catheter to achieve effective denervation. RSDN using a specialized solid-tip RFA catheter has recently been demonstrated to safely reduce systemic blood pressure in patients with refractory hypertension, the limitation being inadequate power delivery in renal arteries. So, we used solid-tip RFA catheter along with saline irrigation for RSDN. Nine patients with resistant hypertension underwent CT and conventional renal angiography, followed by bilateral or unilateral RSDN using 5F RFA catheter with saline irrigation through renal guiding catheter. Repeat renal angiography was performed at the end of the procedure. In all patients, pre- and post-procedure serum creatinine was measured. Over 1-month period: 1) the systolic/diastolic blood pressure decreased by -57 ± 20/-25 ± 7.5 mm Hg; 2) all patients experienced a decrease in systolic blood pressure of at least -36 mm Hg (range 36-98 mm Hg); 3) there was no evidence of renal artery injury immediate post-procedure. There was no significant change in serum creatinine level. This data shows the acute procedural safety and short term efficacy of RSDN using modified externally irrigated solid tip RFA catheter. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nasal Harmony in Aguaruna.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Gui-Sun

    A discussion of the nasal harmony of Aguaruna, a language of the Jivaroan family in South America, approaches the subject from the viewpoint of generative phonology. This theory of phonology proposes an underlying nasal consonant, later deleted, that accounts for vowel nasalization. Complex rules that suppose a complex system of vowel and…

  17. Use of saline water in energy development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Israelsen, C.E.; Adams, V.D.; Batty, J.C.

    1980-06-01

    Information was assembled relative to future energy-related projects in the upper basin, and estimates were made of their anticipated water needs. Using computer models, various options were tested for using saline water for coal-fired power plant cooling. Both cooling towers and brine evaporation ponds were included. Information is presented of several proven water treatment technologies, and comparisons are made of their cost effectiveness when placed in various combinations in the power plant makeup and blowdown water systems. A relative value scale was developed which compares graphically the relative values of waters of different salinities based on three different water treatmentmore » options and predetermined upper limits of cooling tower circulating salinities. Coal from several different mines was slurried in waters of different salinities. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory to determine which constituents had been leached from or absorbed by the coal, and what possible deleterious effects this might have on the burning properties of the coal, or on the water for culinary use or irrigation.« less

  18. External Nasal Neuralgia: A Neuropathic Pain Within the Territory of the External Nasal Nerve.

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Héctor; Aledo-Serrano, Ángel; Gimeno-Hernández, Jesús; Cuadrado, María-Luz

    2015-10-01

    Nasal pain is a challenging diagnosis and very little has been reported in the neurological literature. The nose is a sophisticated structure regarding its innervation, which is supplied by the first and second divisions of the trigeminal nerve. Painful cranial neuropathies are an important group in the differential diagnosis, although they have been described only scarcely. Here, we report a case that can conform a non-traumatic external nasal nerve neuralgia. A 76-year-old woman was referred to our office due to pain in her left nose. She was suffering from daily excruciating attacks, which were strictly limited to the territory supplied by her left external nasal nerve (left ala nasi and apex nasi). She denied previous traumatisms and the ancillary tests did not yield any underlying pathology. An anesthetic blockade of her left external nasal nerve achieved a marked reduction of the number of episodes as well as their intensity. External nasal neuralgia seems a specific neuralgia causing nasal pain. Anesthetic blockades of the external nasal nerve may be a valid treatment for this condition. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  19. Oxygation enhances growth, gas exchange and salt tolerance of vegetable soybean and cotton in a saline vertisol.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Surya P; Midmore, David J

    2009-07-01

    Impacts of salinity become severe when the soil is deficient in oxygen. Oxygation (using aerated water for subsurface drip irrigation of crop) could minimize the impact of salinity on plants under oxygen-limiting soil environments. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of oxygation (12% air volume/volume of water) on vegetable soybean (moderately salt tolerant) and cotton (salt tolerant) in a salinized vertisol at 2, 8, 14, 20 dS/m EC(e). In vegetable soybean, oxygation increased above ground biomass yield and water use efficiency (WUE) by 13% and 22%, respectively, compared with the control. Higher yield with oxygation was accompanied by greater plant height and stem diameter and reduced specific leaf area and leaf Na+ and Cl- concentrations. In cotton, oxygation increased lint yield and WUE by 18% and 16%, respectively, compared with the control, and was accompanied by greater canopy light interception, plant height and stem diameter. Oxygation also led to a greater rate of photosynthesis, higher relative water content in the leaf, reduced crop water stress index and lower leaf water potential. It did not, however, affect leaf Na+ or Cl- concentration. Oxygation invariably increased, whereas salinity reduced the K+ : Na+ ratio in the leaves of both species. Oxygation improved yield and WUE performance of salt tolerant and moderately tolerant crops under saline soil environments, and this may have a significant impact for irrigated agriculture where saline soils pose constraints to crop production.

  20. Does rhinoplasty improve nasal breathing?

    PubMed

    Xavier, Rui

    2010-08-01

    Rhinoplasty is a surgical procedure that aims to improve nasal aesthetics and nasal breathing. The aesthetic improvement of the nose is usually judged subjectively by the patient and the surgeon, but the degree of improvement of nasal obstruction is difficult to assess by clinical examination only. The measurement of peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) is a reliable tool that has been shown to correlate with other objective methods of assessing nasal breathing and with patients' symptoms of nasal obstruction. Twenty-three consecutive patients undergoing rhinoplasty have been evaluated by measurement of PNIF before and after surgery. All but three patients had an increase in PNIF after surgery. The mean preoperative PNIF was 86.5 L/min and the mean postoperative PNIF was 123.0 L/min ( P < 0.001). Not surprisingly, the greatest improvement in PNIF was achieved when bilateral spreader grafts were used. This study suggests that rhinoplasty does improve nasal breathing. (c) Thieme Medical Publishers

  1. Season-long Changes in Infiltration Rates Associated with Irrigation Water Sodicity and pH

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is increasing need to substitute low quality waters, including saline sodic waters and treated municipal waste water for fresh water when irrigating land in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. In almost all instances low quality waters are more sodic than the fresh waters currently utili...

  2. Management of nasal septal perforation using silicone nasal septal button

    PubMed Central

    Mullace, M; Gorini, E; Sbrocca, M; Artesi, L; Mevio, N

    2006-01-01

    Summary Nasal septal perforation may present with various symptoms: epistaxis, crusting, secondary infection, whistling and nasal obstruction. Perforation may be treated by conservative pharmacological treatment or closed by surgical approach. A useful alternative is mechanical obturation, achieved inserting a prosthesis. The present report refers to a study on 15 patients (10 male, 5 female, mean age 38.5 years) treated by insertion of a one-piece or two-piece silicone septal button (Xomed). In the follow-up period, insertion of the nasal button reduced epistaxis, eliminated whistling during inspiration, and reduced nasal obstruction and crusting around the margin of the perforation. Contraindications are presence of acute infection with osteitis, chronic septal disease (Wegener), neoplasia and extremely large perforations. The latest buttons appear to be superior to the conventional type on account of plasticity and adaptability which offer greater conformity to the septum. This study also reveals that the new septal button is well tolerated by patients. PMID:18236638

  3. Effect of electrolyzed strong acid water on peritoneal irrigation of experimental perforated peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Akio; Nose, Keisuke; Yonekura, Takeo; Kosumi, Takuya; Yamauchi, Katsuji; Oyanagi, Harumasa

    2009-01-01

    Electrolyzed strong acid water (ESAW) is generated by the electrolysis of a weak sodium chloride solution. Although ESAW is known to have a strong bactericidal activity and to be harmless to the living body, its effectiveness and safety in the treatment of perforated peritonitis has not been well established. Male Wistar rats were used for the study. Three hours after cecal ligation and puncture, the cecum was resected and the peritoneal cavity was irrigated with 50 ml of saline (Group S, n=12) or ESAW (Group E, n=14). The 5-day survival rate was compared between the two groups. In another pair of animals (n=10 each), bacteria in the ascitic fluid were counted at 6 and 18 h after irrigation. No adverse effects of ESAW were observed in the experimental group. The 5-day survival rate was 25% (3/12) and 85.7% (12/14) in Groups S and E, respectively (P < 0.01). The bacterial count at 18 h after the irrigation in Groups S and E was (5.0 +/- 2.5) x 10(5)/ml and (2.2 +/- 2.0) x 10(4)/ml, respectively (P < 0.0001). Peritoneal lavage with ESAW had no adverse effect, and achieved more effective decontamination than saline for perforated peritonitis. Therefore, the results of this study are considered to warrant and support the clinical application of ESAW.

  4. Complications of Nasal Bone Fractures.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Yeom, Seung Han; Hwang, Suk Hyun

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the treatment of nasal bone fractures. The search terms ("nasal bone fracture" AND complication) and ("nasal bone fracture" AND [anosmia OR olfaction OR olfactory nerve OR smell]) and (anosmia AND ["nasal preparation" OR "nasal antiseptics"]) were used to search PubMed and SCOPUS. Of the 500 titles, 40 full papers were reviewed. One paper was excluded, and 3 mined papers were added. Ultimately, 12 papers were analyzed. The overall deformity rate was 10.4% ± 4.8%. No significant differences were found between patients who underwent closed reduction (14.7% ± 7.3%) and those who underwent open reduction (9.4% ± 4.4%), between those who underwent local anesthesia (5.8% ± 4.5%), and those who underwent general anesthesia (8.8% ± 3.8%), or between those who received timely treatment (5.7%) and those whose treatment was delayed (9.0%). Septal deviation occurred in 10.0% of patients as a sequela of nasal bone fracture. The nasal obstruction rate was 10.5% ± 5.3%. Fewer patients of nasal obstruction occurred in the open reduction patients (6.9% ± 4.4%) than in the closed reduction patients (15.2%). One patient of epiphora and 1 patient of diplopia were reportedAmong the 77 patients with nasal bone fractures, 29 (37.7% ± 11.3%) complained of olfactory disturbances. No significant associations were found between the type of fracture and the presence of olfactory disturbances. It is recommended for providers to explain to patients that approximately one-tenth of nasal bone fractures exhibit deformity, septal deviation, or nasal obstruction after surgery. Surgeons should take considerable care to avoid the olfactory mucosa during reduction surgery.

  5. Changes in nasal airflow and heat transfer correlate with symptom improvement after surgery for nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kimbell, J S; Frank, D O; Laud, Purushottam; Garcia, G J M; Rhee, J S

    2013-10-18

    Surgeries to correct nasal airway obstruction (NAO) often have less than desirable outcomes, partly due to the absence of an objective tool to select the most appropriate surgical approach for each patient. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can be used to investigate nasal airflow, but variables need to be identified that can detect surgical changes and correlate with patient symptoms. CFD models were constructed from pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans for 10 NAO patients showing no evidence of nasal cycling. Steady-state inspiratory airflow, nasal resistance, wall shear stress, and heat flux were computed for the main nasal cavity from nostrils to posterior nasal septum both bilaterally and unilaterally. Paired t-tests indicated that all CFD variables were significantly changed by surgery when calculated on the most obstructed side, and that airflow, nasal resistance, and heat flux were significantly changed bilaterally as well. Moderate linear correlations with patient-reported symptoms were found for airflow, heat flux, unilateral allocation of airflow, and unilateral nasal resistance as a fraction of bilateral nasal resistance when calculated on the most obstructed nasal side, suggesting that these variables may be useful for evaluating the efficacy of nasal surgery objectively. Similarity in the strengths of these correlations suggests that patient-reported symptoms may represent a constellation of effects and that these variables should be tracked concurrently during future virtual surgery planning. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of 4% Sodium Hypochlorite in eliminating Enterococcus faecalis from the Root Canal when Used with Three Irrigation Methods: An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Priyank, Harsh; Pandey, Vinisha; Bagul, Abhishek; Majety, Kishore Kumar; Verma, Parul; Choudhury, Basanta Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Endodontic treatment removes all pathogens, such as Enterococcus faecalis from pulp and root canals. The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of sodium hypo-chlorite (NaOCl) in removing E. faecalis from the root canal used with three different irrigation methods. This study was conducted on freshly extracted maxillary incisors. After biomechanical preparation, root canals were injected with E. faecalis. Three groups were made which contained 30 teeth in each group; 2 mL of NaOCl solution was used for irrigation followed by agitation with K-files in group I; 2 mL of NaOCl solution was used for irrigation and ultrasonic agitation was done in group II. In group III, an alternate irrigation with NaOCl and 3% hydrogen peroxide was done. The fourth group (control) was irrigated with sterile saline solution. E. fae-calis bacteria were sampled to the root canals with paper points and were transferred to tubes that contained 5 mL of brain heart infusion broth. Tubes were incubated and the presence of broth turbidity was suggestive of bacteria remaining in the root canal. All three groups showed no statistically significant difference. However, difference existed between experimental groups and control groups. The author concluded that all three methods of application of NaOCl were effective in disinfecting the root canal than the saline solution. No single irrigant has 100% efficiency. Thus by this study, a best irrigating solution with maximum properties can be established.

  7. Effect of Deviated Nasal Septum Type on Nasal Mucociliary Clearance, Olfactory Function, Quality of Life, and Efficiency of Nasal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Berkiten, Güler; Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Saltürk, Ziya; Atar, Yavuz; Yildirim, Güven; Uyar, Yavuz; Aydoğdu, Imran; Arslanoğlu, Ahmet

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of deviated nasal septum (DNS) type on nasal mucociliary clearance, quality of life (QoL), olfactory function, and efficiency of nasal surgery (septoplasty with or without inferior turbinate reduction and partial middle turbinectomy). Fifty patients (20 females and 30 males) with septal deviation were included in the study and were divided into 6 groups according to deviation type after examination by nasal endoscopy and paranasal computed tomography. The saccharin clearance test to evaluate the nasal mucociliary clearance time, Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center smell test for olfactory function, and sinonasal outcome test-22 (SNOT-22) for patient satisfaction were applied preoperatively and postoperatively at the sixth week after surgery. Nasal mucociliary clearance, smell, and SNOT-22 scores were measured before surgery and at the sixth week following surgery. No significant difference was found in olfactory and SNOT-22 scores for any of the DNS types (both convex and concave sides) (P > 0.05). In addition, there was no difference in the saccharin clearance time (SCT) of the concave and convex sides (P > 0.05). According to the DNS type, the mean SCT of the convex sides showed no difference, but that of the concave sides showed a difference in types 3, 4, 5, and 6. These types had a prolonged SCT (P < 0.05). Olfactory scores revealed no difference postoperatively in types 5 and 6 but were decreased significantly in types 1 to 4 (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the healing of both the mucociliary clearance (MCC) and olfactory functions. SNOT-22 results showed a significant decrease in type 3. All DNS types disturb the QoL regarding nasal MCC and olfaction functions. MCC values, olfactory function, and QoL scores are similar among the DNS types. Both sides of the DNS types affect the MCC scores symmetrically. Septal surgery improves olfaction function and QoL at the

  8. Modeling and assessing field irrigation water use in a canal system of Hetao, upper Yellow River basin: Application to maize, sunflower and watermelon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Dongyang; Xu, Xu; Hao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Guanhua

    2016-01-01

    Water saving in irrigation is a key issue in the upper Yellow River basin. Excessive irrigation leads to water waste, water table rising and increased salinity. Land fragmentation associated with a large dispersion of crops adds to the agro-hydrological complexity of the irrigation system. The model HYDRUS-1D, coupled with the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach (dualKc), was applied to simulate the water and salt movement processes. Field experiments were conducted for maize, sunflower and watermelon crops in the command area of a typical irrigation canal system in Hetao Irrigation District during 2012 and 2013. The model was calibrated and validated in three crop fields using two-year experimental data. Simulations of soil moisture, salinity concentration and crop yield fitted well with the observations. The irrigation water use was then evaluated and results showed that large amounts of irrigation water percolated due to over-irrigation but their reuse through capillary rise was also quite large. That reuse was facilitated by the dispersion of crops throughout largely fragmented field, thus with fields reusing water percolated from nearby areas due to the rapid lateral migration of groundwater. Beneficial water use could be improved when taking this aspect into account, which was not considered in previous researches. The non-beneficial evaporation and salt accumulation into the root zone were found to significantly increase during non-growth periods due to the shallow water tables. It could be concluded that when applying water saving measures, close attention should be paid to cropping pattern distribution and groundwater control in association with irrigation scheduling and technique improvement.

  9. Influence of different operating conditions on irrigation uniformity with microperforated tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Pizani, María Alejandra; Jesús Farías Ramírez, Asdrúbal

    2013-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture is a safe alternative to meet the growing demand for food. Numerous studies show that proper management of localized irrigation can increase crop yields and reduce soil salinization. Therefore, periodic field systems irrigation assessments are needed in order to optimize the use efficiency of irrigation water, as well as, to increase the agricultural area covered by the same amount of water and to reduce the environmental impact. It was assessed the behavior of micro perforated tapes under different operating conditions, crops and regions of Venezuela. Evaluations were made on irrigated areas using Santeno ® Type I tape with the following crops: Banana (Musa sp), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L) and forage sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum). In the other hand, Santeno ® Type II tape was used with papaya (Carica papaya L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.) crops (the last crop using inverted irrigation tape). The procedures used for sampling and determining the uniformity indices of the system were performed using a series of adjustments to the methodology proposed by Keller and Karmeli (1975), Deniculi (1980) and De Santa and De Juan (1993), in order to increase the number of observations as a function of irrigation time. The calculated irrigation uniformity indices were as follow: Distribution Coefficient (UD), Uniformity Coefficient (CUC), Coefficient of Variation of Flows (CV) and Statistical Uniformity Coefficient (Us). The indices characterization was made according to Merrian and Keller (1978); Bralts (1986); Pizarro (1990) y ASAE (1996), respectively. The results showed that the irrigation uniformity for the evaluated systems varied from excellent to unacceptable, mainly due to the lack of maintenance and the absent of manometric connectors. Among the findings, it is possible to highlight the need for technical support to farmers, both in the installation, management and maintenance of irrigation systems. In this sense

  10. Efficacy of a carrageenan nasal spray in patients with common cold: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Martin; Enzenhofer, Elisabeth; Schneider, Sven; Rauch, Margit; Bodenteich, Angelika; Neumann, Kurt; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva; Grassauer, Andreas; Lion, Thomas; Mueller, Christian A

    2013-11-13

    The common cold is the most widespread viral infection in humans. Iota-carrageenan has previously shown antiviral effectiveness against cold viruses in clinical trials. This study investigated the efficacy of a carrageenan-containing nasal spray on the duration of the common cold and nasal fluid viral load in adult patients. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 211 patients suffering from early symptoms of the common cold were treated for seven days. Application was performed three times daily with either a carrageenan-supplemented nasal spray or saline solution as placebo with an overall observation period of 21 days. The primary endpoint was the duration of disease defined as the time until the last day with symptoms followed by all other days in the study period without symptoms. During the study, but prior unblinding, the definition of disease duration was adapted from the original protocol that defines disease duration as the time period of symptoms followed by 48 hours without symptoms. In patients showing a laboratory-confirmed cold virus infection and adherence to the protocol, alleviation of symptoms was 2.1 days faster in the carrageenan group in comparison to placebo (p = 0.037). The primary endpoint that had been prespecified but was changed before unblinding was not met. Viral titers in nasal fluids showed a significantly greater decrease in carrageenan patients in the intention-to-treat population (p = 0.024) and in the per protocol population (p = 0.018) between days 1 and 3/4. In adults with common cold virus infections, direct local administration of carrageenan with nasal sprays reduced the duration of cold symptoms. A significant reduction of viral load in the nasal wash fluids of patients confirmed similar findings from earlier trials in children and adults. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN80148028.

  11. Freshwater salinization syndrome on a continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Likens, Gene E.; Pace, Michael L.; Utz, Ryan M.; Haq, Shahan; Gorman, Julia; Grese, Melissa

    2018-01-01

    Salt pollution and human-accelerated weathering are shifting the chemical composition of major ions in fresh water and increasing salinization and alkalinization across North America. We propose a concept, the freshwater salinization syndrome, which links salinization and alkalinization processes. This syndrome manifests as concurrent trends in specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, and base cations. Although individual trends can vary in strength, changes in salinization and alkalinization have affected 37% and 90%, respectively, of the drainage area of the contiguous United States over the past century. Across 232 United States Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring sites, 66% of stream and river sites showed a statistical increase in pH, which often began decades before acid rain regulations. The syndrome is most prominent in the densely populated eastern and midwestern United States, where salinity and alkalinity have increased most rapidly. The syndrome is caused by salt pollution (e.g., road deicers, irrigation runoff, sewage, potash), accelerated weathering and soil cation exchange, mining and resource extraction, and the presence of easily weathered minerals used in agriculture (lime) and urbanization (concrete). Increasing salts with strong bases and carbonates elevate acid neutralizing capacity and pH, and increasing sodium from salt pollution eventually displaces base cations on soil exchange sites, which further increases pH and alkalinization. Symptoms of the syndrome can include: infrastructure corrosion, contaminant mobilization, and variations in coastal ocean acidification caused by increasingly alkaline river inputs. Unless regulated and managed, the freshwater salinization syndrome can have significant impacts on ecosystem services such as safe drinking water, contaminant retention, and biodiversity. PMID:29311318

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of irrigant extrusion using passive ultrasonic irrigation, EndoActivator, or syringe irrigation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Figueroa, Carolina; McClanahan, Scott B; Bowles, Walter R

    2014-10-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation is critical to endodontic success, and several new methods have been developed to improve irrigation efficacy (eg, passive ultrasonic irrigation [PUI] and EndoActivator [EA]). Using a novel spectrophotometric method, this study evaluated NaOCl irrigant extrusion during canal irrigation. One hundred fourteen single-rooted extracted teeth were decoronated to leave 15 mm of the root length for each tooth. Cleaning and shaping of the teeth were completed using standardized hand and rotary instrumentation to an apical file size #40/0.04 taper. Roots were sealed (not apex), and 54 straight roots (n = 18/group) and 60 curved roots (>20° curvature, n = 20/group) were included. Teeth were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl by 1 of 3 methods: passive irrigation with needle, PUI, or EA irrigation. Extrusion of NaOCl was evaluated using a pH indicator and a spectrophotometer. Standard curves were prepared with known amounts of irrigant to quantify amounts in unknown samples. Irrigant extrusion was minimal with all methods, with most teeth showing no NaOCl extrusion in straight or curved roots. Minor NaOCl extrusion (1-3 μL) in straight roots or curved roots occurred in 10%-11% of teeth in all 3 irrigant methods. Two teeth in both the syringe irrigation and the EA group extruded 3-10 μL of NaOCl. The spectrophotometric method used in this study proved to be very sensitive while providing quantification of the irrigant levels extruded. Using the PUI or EA tip to within 1 mm of the working length appears to be fairly safe, but apical anatomy can vary in teeth to allow extrusion of irrigant. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    MedlinePlus

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  14. Cosmetic rostral nasal reconstruction after nasal planum and premaxilla resection: technique and results in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Javier; Schmiedt, Chad W; McAnulty, Jonathan F

    2007-10-01

    To describe a novel reconstructive technique after nasal planum and premaxilla resection. Case report. Dogs (n=2) with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the nasal planum. A 9-year-old neutered female Labrador retriever (dog 1) and an 11-year-old neutered male Golden retriever (dog 2) had resection of the nasal planum and premaxilla for treatment of locally invasive SCC. Reconstruction of a nasal planum facsimile was based on use of the nonhaired pigmented margins of bilateral labial mucocutaneous rotation-advancement flaps. Reconstruction of the premaxilla by construction of a nasal planum facsimile resulted in uncomplicated wound healing and improved cosmesis. There was no tumor recurrence at 1290 (dog 1) and 210 (dog 2) days after surgery. Reconstruction of a nasal planum facsimile was successfully performed without complications in 2 dogs with high owner satisfaction with cosmetic appearance. This technique represents a significant advancement in surgical cosmetic outcome, may potentially reduce postoperative complications, and should be considered for dogs requiring nasal reconstruction after nasal planum resection with premaxillectomy.

  15. Satratoxin-G from the black mold Stachybotrys chartarum induces rhinitis and apoptosis of olfactory sensory neurons in the nasal airways of rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Carey, Stephan A; Plopper, Charles G; Hyde, Dallas M; Islam, Zahidul; Pestka, James J; Harkema, Jack R

    2012-08-01

    Satratoxin-G (SG) is a trichothecene mycotoxin of Stachybotrys chartarum, the black mold suggested to contribute etiologically to illnesses associated with water-damaged buildings. We have reported that intranasal exposure to SG evokes apoptosis of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and acute inflammation in the nose and brain of laboratory mice. To further assess the potential human risk of nasal airway injury and neurotoxicity, we developed a model of SG exposure in monkeys, whose nasal airways more closely resemble those of humans. Adult, male rhesus macaques received a single intranasal instillation of 20 µg SG (high dose, n = 3), or 5 µg SG daily for four days (repeated low dose, n = 3) in one nasal passage, and saline vehicle in the contralateral nasal passage. Nasal tissues were examined using light and electron microscopy and morphometric analysis. SG induced acute rhinitis, atrophy of the olfactory epithelium (OE), and apoptosis of OSNs in both groups. High-dose and repeated low-dose SG elicited a 13% and 66% reduction in OSN volume density, and a 14-fold and 24-fold increase in apoptotic cells of the OE, respectively. This model provides new insight into the potential risk of nasal airway injury and neurotoxicity caused by exposure to water-damaged buildings.

  16. Smart Polymers in Nasal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chonkar, Ankita; Nayak, Usha; Udupa, N.

    2015-01-01

    Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several temperature responsive, pH responsive and ion responsive polymers used in nasal delivery, their gelling mechanisms have been discussed. Smart polymers not only able to enhance the retention of the drug in nasal cavity but also provide controlled release, ease of administration, enhanced permeation of the drug and protection of the drug from mucosal enzymes. Thus smart polymeric approach can be effectively used for nasal delivery of peptide drugs, central nervous system dugs and hormones. PMID:26664051

  17. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis due to Curvularia lunata.

    PubMed

    Cavanna, Caterina; Seminari, Elena; Pusateri, Alessandro; Mangione, Francesca; Lallitto, Fabiola; Esposto, Maria Carmela; Pagella, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of Curvularia lunata infection in an immunocompetent male with an initial diagnosis of suspected left side allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS), treated surgically. He had a relapse of nasal polyposis and underwent a surgical revision under local anaesthesia with endoscopic nasal polypectomy. The histological examination of the surgical specimen showed an inflammatory polyp of the paranasal sinuses, with eosinophil and lymphocyte infiltration, but without evidence of fungi. However, Curvularia spp fungus grew in cultures of nasal sinus drainage and bioptical specimens. The fungus was identified by DNA sequencing as C. lunata. The patient was then treated with itraconazole (200 mg BID for 4 weeks), mometasone furoate nasal spray (100 mcg BID for 6 months) and normal saline nasal irrigations. At the last follow-up endoscopic evaluation after 19 month from treatment, the patient was symptomless and free from disease. No polyp recurrence nor seromucous discharges were noticed. This first case of C. lunata-associated AFRS reported in Italy, highlights the difficulty of this diagnosis and the usefulness of molecular identification of the fungal species involved.

  18. Risk factors for nasal malignancies in German men: the South-German Nasal cancer study.

    PubMed

    Greiser, Eberhard M; Greiser, Karin Halina; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Hagen, Rudolf; Lazszig, Roland; Maier, Heinz; Schick, Bernhard; Zenner, Hans Peter

    2012-11-06

    There are few studies of the effects of nasal snuff and environmental factors on the risk of nasal cancer. This study aimed to investigate the impact of using nasal snuff and of other risk factors on the risk of nasal cancer in German men. A population-based case-control study was conducted in the German Federal States of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg. Tumor registries and ear, nose and throat departments provided access to patients born in 1926 or later. Telephone interviews were conducted with 427 cases (mean age 62.1 years) and 2.401 population-based controls (mean age 60.8 years). Ever-use of nasal snuff was associated with an odds ratio (OR) for nasal cancer of 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-2.38) in the total study population, whereas OR in smokers was 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.02) and in never smokers was 1.10 (95% CI 0.43-2.80). The OR in ever-smokers vs. never-smokers was 1.60 (95% CI 1.24-2.07), with an OR of 1.06 (95% CI 1.05-1.07) per pack-year smoked, and the risk was significantly decreased after quitting smoking. Exposure to hardwood dust for at least 1 year resulted in an OR of 2.33 (95% CI 1.40-3.91) in the total population, which was further increased in never-smokers (OR 4.89, 95% CI 1.92-12.49) in analyses stratified by smoking status. The OR for nasal cancer after exposure to organic solvents for at least 1 year was 1.53 (1.17-2.01). Ever-use of nasal sprays/nasal lavage for at least 1 month rendered an OR of 1.59 (1.04-2.44). The OR after use of insecticides in homes was 1.48 (95% CI 1.04-2.11). Smoking and exposure to hardwood dust were confirmed as risk factors for nasal carcinoma. There is evidence that exposure to organic solvents, and in-house use of insecticides could represent novel risk factors. Exposure to asbestos and use of nasal snuff were risk factors in smokers only.

  19. Nasal obstruction and human communication.

    PubMed

    Malinoff, R; Moreno, C

    1989-04-01

    Nasal obstruction may cause a variety of communication disorders, particularly in children. The effects of nasal obstruction on hearing, speech, language, and voice are examined. Methods for assessing the effects of nasal obstruction are delineated, and recommendations for therapeutic interventions are described.

  20. Municipal, industrial, and irrigation water use in Washington, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dion, N.P.; Lum, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of water use in 1975 in the 39 counties and 62 Water Resources Inventory Areas of Washington, indicated that 2.49 trillion gallons of water was used for municipal, industrial, and irrigation purposes. That amount represents a 10-percent increase over a similar water-use assessment in 1965, but a slight decrease from that of 1970. Total municipal water use, which includes municipally supplied industrial water, was 283 billion gallons. Industry used 442 billion gallons, of which 121 billion gallons was from municipal systems and 321 billion gallons was for self-suppled systems. Of the 604 billion gallons of water used for municipal and industrial supplies 145 billion gallons was ground water, 444 billion gallons was fresh surface water, and 14.8 billion gallons was saline surface water. A compilation of statewide industrial use as categorized by SIC (Lumber and Wood Products), SIC 28 (Chemicals and Allied Products), and SIC 20 (Food and Kindred Products)--accounted for about 65 percent of the total water used in industrial processes , In 1975, 5.79 million acre-feet of irrigation water (1,890 billion gallons) as applied to 1.52 million acres. This water was 95 percent surface water and 5 percent ground water. About 97 percent of the irrigation water was supplied in eastern Washington, to about 94 percent of the irrigated acreage in the State. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... nasal airflow. The device decreases airway resistance and increases nasal airflow. The external nasal...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... nasal airflow. The device decreases airway resistance and increases nasal airflow. The external nasal...

  3. Inflammatory mediator profiles in tears accompanying keratoconjunctival responses induced by nasal allergy.

    PubMed

    Pelikan, Zdenek

    2013-07-01

    The allergic reaction taking place in the nasal mucosa can induce a secondary ocular (keratoconjunctival) response of an immediate (SIOR), late (SLOR) or delayed (SDYOR) type in some patients with keratoconjunctivitis (KC). To investigate the concentration changes of histamine, tryptase, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophilic peroxidase (EPO), leucotrienes (LTB₄, LTC₄, LTE₄), prostaglandins (PGD₂, PGE₂ and PGF₂α), thromboxane B₂ (TXB₂), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukins (IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5) in tears during the SIOR, SLOR and SDYOR. 19 SIORs (p<0.001), 28 SLORs (p<0.001) and 10 SDYORs (p<0.05) recorded in 57 KC patients following nasal challenges with allergens (NPT) and 57 phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control tests were repeated and supplemented with determination of the mediators in tears. The ocular response types were associated with significant changes (p<0.05) of mediators in tears as follows: (1) SIORs: histamine, tryptase, ECP, LTC₄, PGD₂, PGF₂α, IL-4 and IL-5; (2) SLORs: histamine, ECP, EDN, LTB₄, LTC₄, PGE₂, MPO, IL-4 and IL-5; (3) SDYORs: LTB4, TXB₂, MPO, IFN-γ and IL-2. No significant changes of these factors were measured in tears during the 57 PBS controls (p>0.1). These results demonstrate a causal involvement of nasal allergy in some KC patients, inducing a secondary keratoconjunctival response of an immediate (SIOR), late (SLOR) or delayed (SDYOR) type, associated with different inflammatory mediator profiles in the tears, suggesting participation of different hypersensitivity mechanisms. These results also emphasise the diagnostic value of nasal challenge with allergen combined with monitoring of ocular response in KC patients, responding insufficiently to the usual ophthalmologic therapy.

  4. Development of Strategies for Sustainable Irrigation Water Management in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2013-04-01

    use of the appropriate irrigation technologies confined to a field scale and local environmental conditions. In presented contribution a case studies of large and small irrigation schemes based on sprinklers at Saratov Region will be discussed. Analyze is focused on the identification of main causes of groundwater logging, following soil salinization and impact to surrounding environment at irrigation areas. This analyze is based on plot and field scales experimentations as well as time series about 40 years long monitoring of ground water and soils. Main conclusion from this analyze accuses current irrigation practice at this region using high irrigation dozes & intensities as well as uniformity of water application within the irrigated perimeter promoting chain of processes starting by ponding of applied water at mezodepression of soil surface, preferential flow through out macropores-cracks, wormholes, or decayed root channels and groundwater rising. Special attention is done to simulate relationships between uniform technology of water application by sprinkler and spatial nonuniformity of moisture storage (zoning of high soil moisture in depressions) in soil and as consequence of infiltration capacity. Technological alternative aimed at reducing these problems is analysed by the use of SWAP model application to uniform and nonuniform irrigation water applications. Model results indicate that use nonuniform water application technology is increasing an irrigation efficiency, increasing yield and stopping rising of groundwater. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. This study was financially supported by FP6 DESIRE project 037046

  5. Seasonal variation of methane flux from coastal saline rice field with the application of different organic manures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, A.; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh B.; Nayak, D. R.; Mahata, K. R.; Santra, S. C.; Adhya, T. K.

    2013-02-01

    A field experiment was conducted in an irrigated saline rice field of Gadakujang (a fishing hamlet of coastal Odisha, India, ravaged by the super cyclone of 1999 and cyclone BOB02 of 2006), to study the effects of locally available organic and fresh green manure amendment to the saline soil on methane (CH4) emission during wet and dry seasons using the conventional closed chamber flux measurement method. In a first report of this kind, CH4 emission vis-à-vis yield improvement of rice with different locally available organic manure application from coastal saline rice field soil of Odisha, is reported. The study confirms that CH4 flux from the saline soil planted to rice is significantly lower than that of irrigated inland non-saline rice field during both wet and dry seasons. Cumulative seasonal CH4 flux from different treatments of the coastal saline rice field ranged between 119.51 and 263.60 kg ha-1 during the wet season and 15.35-100.88 kg ha-1 during the dry season. Lower CH4 emission during the dry season may be attributed to the increased soil salinity (EC1:2) that went up from 0.76 dS m-1 during the wet season to 3.96 dS m-1 during the dry season. Annual CH4 emission per Mg grain yield was significantly low from plots treated with locally available green manure Morning glory (Ipomoea lacunosa) (17.27) with significantly high rice grain yield. Study indicates that Morning glory may be used as a potential green manure to increase grain yield and reduced CH4 emission from the coastal saline rice ecosystems of the tropics.

  6. [The effect of parecoxib sodium for preemptive analgesia on nasal endoscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Kong, Yonggang; Yang, Xilin; Li, Xinchu

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the perioperative analgesic effects of parecoxib sodium in patients undergoing nasal endoscopic surgery. In the randomized, double blind, controlled study, 120 patients undergoing septoplasty were divided into 3 groups (n = 40): A group received parecoxib at a dose of 40 mg by muscle injection 30 min before the operation followed by saline at the same volume every 24 h for 48 h; B group received parecoxib at a dose of 40 mg by muscle injection 30 min before the operation followed by 40 mg every 24 h for 48 h; C group received an equal volume of 0.9% saline at the same time points. Patients were assessed with respect to pain score (VAS), rescue analgesia requirement and the side effects during the operation as well as at 3, 24, 48 h after the surgery. Intra-operative as well as the postoperative pain scores were less in the A group and B group than in the.control group. Compared with group A, group B had significantly lower VAS score at 24 h after the operation, however there were no significant difference on other time points. Fewer participants of both the A and B groups required rescue medication after operation. Administration of parecoxib can provide ideal analgesic effects without serious adverse side effects at the perioperative period for patients who received nasal endoscopic operation. Intramuscular parecoxib (40 mg 30 min before the operation followed 40 mg qd for 48 h) designed as preoperative analgesia mode resulted in sufficient perioperative analgesia that deserves popularization in the clinical works.

  7. Cytological Aspects on the Effects of a Nasal Spray Consisting of Standardized Extract of Citrus Lemon and Essential Oils in Allergic Rhinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Lydia; Naviglio, Daniele; Armone Caruso, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new formulation of nasal spray was set up based on the extract of lemon pulp, obtained by using a new solid-liquid technology of extraction, added to pure Aloe juice, soluble propoli, and essential oils of Ravensara and Niaouly. It was tested in a clinical study in which 100 subjects were recruited for a period of one month. Nasal scraping was used for collecting samples and after the application of the May-Grünwald Giemsa standard technique, glass slides were analysed by using optical microscope with a 1000x oil immersion. A control group constituted of ten people was recruited as control and this group was administered with physiological solution (saline solution). The comparison of results obtained before and after the application of nasal spray showed a total reduction of eosinophils granulocytes and mast cells; clinical data were confirmed by improvement of clinical pictures of patients. The lemon-based nasal spray was a good alternative to conventional medicine for the treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic and vasomotor rhinopathy. PMID:23304560

  8. A Case of Recurrent Schneiderian Papilloma of the Lacrimal Sac Invading the Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ji Hye; Choe, Mi Sun

    2009-01-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with a history of chronic epiphora, discharge from the right eye, and a palpable mass in the medial canthal area. Irrigation of the lacrimal system revealed bloody discharge. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a well-defined heterogeneous enhanced mass filling the lacrimal sac and upper nasolacrimal duct (NLD). A wide excision and surgical biopsy were performed. Histopathology showed the tumor to be an exophytic Schneiderian papilloma with moderate to severe dysplasia. Three months later, the mass was found to be invading the nasal cavity through the NLD. Endoscopic histopathological evaluation confirmed that it was identical to the originally identified papilloma. PMID:19568358

  9. Effect of Silicon on the Tolerance of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Salt Stress at Different Growth Stages: Case Study for the Management of Irrigation Water.

    PubMed

    A M, Daoud; M M, Hemada; N, Saber; A A, El-Araby; L, Moussa

    2018-04-03

    This paper aims to determine the most tolerant growth stage(s) of wheat to salinity stress with the addition of silicon. The aim was to investigate whether saline water could be used instead of good quality water for irrigation without implicating a greater risk to crop production. Local wheat cv. Gimmiza 11 was germinated and grown in sand cultures. Four different NaCl salinity levels were used as treatments: 0, 60, 90 and 120 mM. This was in the presence of 0 and 0.78 mM Si which added as sodium meta- silicate (Na₂SiO₃·9H₂O). Both the NaCl and Si treatments were carried out using a full strength nutrient solution that was adjusted at pH 6.0 and used for irrigation in four replications. The application of Si with the saline nutrient media significantly enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in plant leaves at the booting stage compared to the other stages. This was associated with a marked decline in the H₂O₂ content. At the booting stage, the Si treatment promoted CAT activity in 120 mM NaCl-stressed leaves compared to the leaves treated with only 120 mM NaCl solution. SOD showed greater prevalence at the booting stage when Si was added into the saline media, and it also revealed maximum activity at the milky stage with salinity stress. This was associated with a smaller reduction in shoot fresh and dry weights, greater reduction in the leaf Na⁺ content and an increase in the K⁺ content, which ultimately increased the cytosolic K⁺/Na⁺ ratio. Chlorophyll a and b and carotenoid (total photosynthetic pigments) were also higher at the booting stage of salt-stressed plants treated with Si compared to other stages. Accordingly, Si application enhanced the salt tolerance of wheat and reduced the inhibitory effect of Na⁺ and oxidative stress damage as growth proceeded towards maturity, particularly at the booting stage. This shows that saline water can be used for wheat irrigation at the booting stage (much water is

  10. [Nasal septal abscess].

    PubMed

    Barril, María F; Ferolla, Fausto M; José, Pablo; Echave, Cecilia; Tomezzoli, Silvana; Fiorini, Sandra; López, Eduardo Luis

    2008-12-01

    A nasal septal abscess (NA) is defined as a collection of pus between the cartilage or bony septum and its normally applied mucoperichondrium or mucoperiostium. It is an uncommon disease which should be suspected in a patient with acute onset of nasal obstruction and recent history of nasal trauma, periodontal infection or an inflammatory process of the rhinosinusal region. We report a case of an 8-year-old boy with bilateral NA caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MR-CO) in order to emphasize the importance of prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment to prevent the potentially dangerous spread of infection and the development of severe functional and cosmetic sequelae.

  11. Modelling soil salinity in Oued El Abid watershed, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouatassime Sabri, El; Boukdir, Ahmed; Karaoui, Ismail; Arioua, Abdelkrim; Messlouhi, Rachid; El Amrani Idrissi, Abdelkhalek

    2018-05-01

    Soil salinisation is a phenomenon considered to be a real threat to natural resources in semi-arid climates. The phenomenon is controlled by soil (texture, depth, slope etc.), anthropogenic factors (drainage system, irrigation, crops types, etc.), and climate factors. This study was conducted in the watershed of Oued El Abid in the region of Beni Mellal-Khenifra, aimed at localising saline soil using remote sensing and a regression model. The spectral indices were extracted from Landsat imagery (30 m resolution). A linear correlation of electrical conductivity, which was calculated based on soil samples (ECs), and the values extracted based on spectral bands showed a high accuracy with an R2 (Root square) of 0.80. This study proposes a new spectral salinity index using Landsat bands B1 and B4. This hydro-chemical and statistical study, based on a yearlong survey, showed a moderate amount of salinity, which threatens dam water quality. The results present an improved ability to use remote sensing and regression model integration to detect soil salinity with high accuracy and low cost, and permit intervention at an early stage of salinisation.

  12. Effect of 5% Chlorine Dioxide Irrigant on Micro Push Out Bond Strength of Resin Sealer to Radicular Dentin: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Devarasanahalli, Swapna V; Aswathanarayana, Ranjini M; Rashmi, K; Gowda, Yashwanth; Nadig, Roopa R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) has been recently investigated as a possible root canal irrigant due to its broad spectrum of antimicrobial action, tissue dissolution and smear layer removal properties. Literature is scarce on the effect of chlorine dioxide irrigation on the resin sealer dentin bond strength. Aim To compare 5% chlorine dioxide (ClO2) with or without Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) with 3% Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and EDTA combination as endodontic irrigants on the adhesion of AH Plus sealer to radicular dentin using micro- Push out Bond Strength (µPBS) test. Materials and Methods Forty freshly extracted central incisors were decoronated and randomly divided into four groups based on the different irrigation regimes followed during irrigation: Group I - 3% NaOCl + 17% EDTA, Group II - 5% ClO2 + 17% EDTA, Group III - 5% ClO2 and Group IV – Saline, and canal enlarged till Protaper F3. All the samples were obturated with F3 gutta-percha cones using AH Plus sealer and sectioned perpendicular to long axis to obtain 1mm thick slices from the middle and coronal portions for µPBS measurement in universal testing machine followed by assessment of failure pattern under stereomicroscope. Data was analysed using One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Bonferroni and t-test. Results Bond strength values were in the following order: Group I>Group II>Group III>Group IV, with no statistically significant difference amongst experimental groups on intergroup comparison, except with saline. The µPBS values were more in coronal third than middle third in all specimens, with no statistical significant difference. Mode of failure showed mixed patterns in all experimental groups except saline. Conclusion In the present study, the bond strength values of ClO2 were comparable with conventional NaOCl and EDTA combination and hence, ClO2 can be considered as an effective alternative endodontic irrigant. PMID:28658907

  13. Shallow groundwater and soil chemistry response to 3 years of subsurface drip irrigation using coalbed-methane-produced water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton R.; Boehlke, Adam R.; Engle, Mark A.; Geboy, Nicholas J.; Schroeder, K.T.; Zupancic, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Disposal of produced waters, pumped to the surface as part of coalbed methane (CBM) development, is a significant environmental issue in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin, USA. High sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of the waters could degrade agricultural land, especially if directly applied to the soil surface. One method of disposing of CBM water, while deriving beneficial use, is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), where acidified CBM waters are applied to alfalfa fields year-round via tubing buried 0.92 m deep. Effects of the method were studied on an alluvial terrace with a relatively shallow depth to water table (∼3 m). Excess irrigation water caused the water table to rise, even temporarily reaching the depth of drip tubing. The rise corresponded to increased salinity in some monitoring wells. Three factors appeared to drive increased groundwater salinity: (1) CBM solutes, concentrated by evapotranspiration; (2) gypsum dissolution, apparently enhanced by cation exchange; and (3) dissolution of native Na–Mg–SO4 salts more soluble than gypsum. Irrigation with high SAR (∼24) water has increased soil saturated paste SAR up to 15 near the drip tubing. Importantly though, little change in SAR has occurred at the surface.

  14. Shallow groundwater and soil chemistry response to 3 years of subsurface drip irrigation using coalbed-methane-produced water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bern, C. R.; Boehlke, A. R.; Engle, M. A.; Geboy, N. J.; Schroeder, K. T.; Zupancic, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Disposal of produced waters, pumped to the surface as part of coalbed methane (CBM) development, is a significant environmental issue in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin, USA. High sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of the waters could degrade agricultural land, especially if directly applied to the soil surface. One method of disposing of CBM water, while deriving beneficial use, is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), where acidified CBM waters are applied to alfalfa fields year-round via tubing buried 0.92 m deep. Effects of the method were studied on an alluvial terrace with a relatively shallow depth to water table (˜3 m). Excess irrigation water caused the water table to rise, even temporarily reaching the depth of drip tubing. The rise corresponded to increased salinity in some monitoring wells. Three factors appeared to drive increased groundwater salinity: (1) CBM solutes, concentrated by evapotranspiration; (2) gypsum dissolution, apparently enhanced by cation exchange; and (3) dissolution of native Na-Mg-SO4 salts more soluble than gypsum. Irrigation with high SAR (˜24) water has increased soil saturated paste SAR up to 15 near the drip tubing. Importantly though, little change in SAR has occurred at the surface.

  15. Nasal Glial Heterotopia with Cleft Palate.

    PubMed

    Chandna, Sudhir; Mehta, Milind A; Kulkarni, Abhishek Kishore

    2018-01-01

    Congenital midline nasal masses are rare anomalies of which nasal glial heterotopia represents an even rarer subset. We report a case of a 25-day-old male child with nasal glial heterotopia along with cleft palate suggesting embryonic fusion anomaly which was treated with excision and primary closure for nasal mass followed by palatal repair at later date.

  16. Ex vivo evaluation of various instrumentation techniques and irrigants in reducing E. faecalis within root canals.

    PubMed

    Basmaci, F; Oztan, M D; Kiyan, M

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate ex vivo the effectiveness of single-file instrumentation techniques compared with serial Ni-Ti rotary instrumentation with several irrigation regimens in reducing E. faecalis within root canals. A total of 81 extracted human mandibular premolar teeth with a single root canal were infected with E. faecalis before and after canal preparation. Samples were divided randomly into 9 groups, as follows: group 1-A: sterile phosphate-buffered saline + Self-adjusting file, group 1-B: 5% sodium hypochlorite + 15% EDTA + Self-adjusting file, group 1-C: 5% sodium hypochlorite + 7% maleic acid + Self-adjusting file, group 2-A: sterile phosphate-buffered saline + Reciproc (R25), group 2-B: 5% sodium hypochlorite + 15% EDTA + Reciproc (R25), group 2-C: 5% sodium hypochlorite + 7% maleic acid + Reciproc (R25), group 3-A: sterile phosphate-buffered saline + ProTaper, group 3-B: 5% sodium hypochlorite + 15% EDTA + ProTaper, group 3-C: 5% sodium hypochlorite + 7% maleic acid + ProTaper. anova was used to analyse statistically the differences in terms of reduction in colony counts between the groups, and Dunn's post hoc test was used for multiple comparisons. All techniques and irrigation regimens significantly reduced the number of bacterial cells in the root canal (P < 0.001). Comparisons amongst the groups revealed significant differences between group 1A (sterile phosphate-buffered saline + Self-adjusting file)/group 1B (5% sodium hypochlorite + 15% EDTA + Self-adjusting file) (P = 0.031), group 1A (sterile phosphate-buffered saline + Self-adjusting file)/group 2C (5% sodium hypochlorite + 7% maleic acid + Reciproc) (P = 0.003), group 2A (sterile phosphate-buffered saline + Reciproc)/group 3B (5% sodium hypochlorite + 15% EDTA + ProTaper) (P = 0.036), group 3B (5% sodium hypochlorite + 15% EDTA + ProTaper)/group 1A (sterile phosphate-buffered saline + Self-adjusting file) (P < 0.001), and group 3C (5% sodium

  17. [Hemangiopericytoma in nasal cavity: a case report].

    PubMed

    Hu, Honghai; Shi, Qifeng; Chen, Jidong

    2015-05-01

    We report a case of a 46 year old female patient with nasal hemangiopericytoma. She complained of left nasal congestion, pus snot for 10 years, sometimes with left nasal bleeding. Physical examination: in the left nasal tract saw red soft neoplasm, roughness surface, easy bleeding when touched. Sinus CT shows: bilateral maxillary sinus, ethmoid sinus, sphenoid sinus and the left posterior nasal cavity lesions, considering inflammation with the formation of polyps, tumor not excluded. The left nasal cavity neoplasm biopsy shows: hemangioma of left nasal cavity. After admission in general anesthesia, we do transnasal endoscopic sinus openning operation and the left nasal cavity neoplasm resection. Postoperative pathological examination shows: the left nasal cavity hemangiopericytoma. Immunohistochemical showed: Vimentin(+), Smooth muscle actin(+), Desmin(-), endothelial cells CD31(-) and CD34(-). No postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy, no tumor recurrence. After one year of follow-up, the contact was lost.

  18. Freshwater salinization syndrome on a continental scale.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Pace, Michael L; Utz, Ryan M; Haq, Shahan; Gorman, Julia; Grese, Melissa

    2018-01-23

    Salt pollution and human-accelerated weathering are shifting the chemical composition of major ions in fresh water and increasing salinization and alkalinization across North America. We propose a concept, the freshwater salinization syndrome, which links salinization and alkalinization processes. This syndrome manifests as concurrent trends in specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, and base cations. Although individual trends can vary in strength, changes in salinization and alkalinization have affected 37% and 90%, respectively, of the drainage area of the contiguous United States over the past century. Across 232 United States Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring sites, 66% of stream and river sites showed a statistical increase in pH, which often began decades before acid rain regulations. The syndrome is most prominent in the densely populated eastern and midwestern United States, where salinity and alkalinity have increased most rapidly. The syndrome is caused by salt pollution (e.g., road deicers, irrigation runoff, sewage, potash), accelerated weathering and soil cation exchange, mining and resource extraction, and the presence of easily weathered minerals used in agriculture (lime) and urbanization (concrete). Increasing salts with strong bases and carbonates elevate acid neutralizing capacity and pH, and increasing sodium from salt pollution eventually displaces base cations on soil exchange sites, which further increases pH and alkalinization. Symptoms of the syndrome can include: infrastructure corrosion, contaminant mobilization, and variations in coastal ocean acidification caused by increasingly alkaline river inputs. Unless regulated and managed, the freshwater salinization syndrome can have significant impacts on ecosystem services such as safe drinking water, contaminant retention, and biodiversity. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  19. Objective measurements for grading the nasal esthetics on Basal view in individuals with secondary cleft nasal deformity.

    PubMed

    He, Xing; Li, Hua; Shao, Yan; Shi, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain objective nasal measurements from the basal view that are predictive of nasal esthetics in individuals with secondary cleft nasal deformity. Thirty-three patients who had undergone unilateral cleft lip repair were retrospectively reviewed in this study. The degree of nasal deformity was subjectively ranked by seven surgeons using standardized basal-view measurements. Nine physical objective parameters including angles and ratios were measured. Correlations and regressions between these objective and subjective measurements were then analyzed. There was high concordance in subjective measurements by different surgeons (Kendall's harmonious coefficient = W = .825, P = .006). The strongest predictive factors for nasal aesthetics were the ratio of length of nasal alar (r = .370, P = .034) and the degree of deviation of the columnar axis (r = .451, P = .008). The columellar angle had a more powerful effect in rating nasal esthetics. There was reliable concordance in subjective ranking of nasal esthetics by surgeons. Measurement of the columnar angle may serve as an independent, objective predictor of esthetics of the nose.

  20. Nasal mucosal gene expression in patients with allergic rhinitis with and without nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Stephen B; Terrell, Jeffrey E; Conner, Edward R; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta F; Baker, James R

    2003-12-01

    Nasal polyps are a common problem that is difficult to diagnose and treat, in part because the cause of nasal polyposis is unknown. Although information on the pathogenesis of polyposis is lacking, there are reports suggesting that a genetic predisposition underlies this disorder. We sought to better understand the basis of nasal polyposis associated with allergic rhinitis. We hypothesize that the expression of unique genes is associated with the nasal polyposis phenotype. We examined 12000 human genes transcribed in the nasal mucosa of patients with allergic rhinitis with and without nasal polyps. Biopsy specimens of the mucosa of patients with and without polyps were obtained after the patients refrained from the use of topical or systemic steroid therapy for 2 weeks. Thirty-four genes were differentially expressed between the patient groups, including those for inflammatory molecules and putative growth factors. The greatest differential expression identified by the array analysis was for a group of genes associated with neoplasia, including mammaglobin, a gene transcribed 12-fold higher in patients with polyps compared with control patients with rhinitis alone. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed this differential expression and documented that the number of mammaglobin mRNA copies is actually 64-fold greater in tissues of patients with polyps versus control patients. The specificity of mammaglobin protein expression was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry, which showed specific staining in nasal polyp mucosal goblet cells only in patients with polyps. These data suggest that nasal polyposis involves deregulated cell growth, using gene activation in some ways similar to a neoplasm. In addition, mammaglobin, a gene of unknown function associated with breast neoplasia, might be related to polyp growth.

  1. Visualization and Quantification of Nasal and Olfactory Deposition in a Sectional Adult Nasal Airway Cast.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinxiang; Yuan, Jiayao Eddie; Zhang, Yu; Nevorski, Dannielle; Wang, Zhaoxuan; Zhou, Yue

    2016-06-01

    To compare drug deposition in the nose and olfactory region with different nasal devices and administration techniques. A Sar-Gel based colorimetry method will be developed to quantify local deposition rates. A sectional nasal airway cast was developed based on an MRI-based nasal airway model to visualize deposition patterns and measure regional dosages. Four nasal spray pumps and four nebulizers were tested with both standard and point-release administration techniques. Delivered dosages were measured using a high-precision scale. The colorimetry correlation for deposited mass was developed via image processing in Matlab and its performance was evaluated through comparison to experimental measurements. Results show that the majority of nasal spray droplets deposited in the anterior nose while only a small fraction (less than 4.6%) reached the olfactory region. For all nebulizers considered, more droplets went beyond the nasal valve, leading to distinct deposition patterns as a function of both the nebulizer type (droplet size and initial speed) and inhalation flow rate. With the point-release administration, up to 9.0% (±1.9%) of administered drugs were delivered to the olfactory region and 15.7 (±2.4%) to the upper nose using Pari Sinus. Standard nasal devices are inadequate to deliver clinically significant olfactory dosages without excess drug losses in other nasal epitheliums. The Sar-Gel based colorimetry method appears to provide a simple and practical approach to visualize and quantify regional deposition.

  2. Assessing the groundwater salinization in closed hydrologic basins due to overdraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Z.; Pauloo, R.; Fogg, G. E.

    2016-12-01

    Population growth and the expansion of agriculture, coupled with climate uncertainties, have accelerated groundwater pumping and overdraft in alluvial aquifers worldwide. In many agricultural basins, the low rate of replenishment is far exceeded by the rate of groundwater pumping in overdrafted aquifers, which results in the substantial water table declines and in effect contributes to the formation of a "closed" basin. In fact, even modest amounts of groundwater system drawdown that do not produce what is construed as overdraft, can result in most of the groundwater discharge occurring as evapotranspiration via irrigation practices, converting the basin to a closed groundwater basin. Moreover, in past decades, extreme weather conditions (i.e., severe drought in California for the past five years) have resulted in substantially reduced surface water storage. This increases demand for groundwater to supplement low surface water supplies, and consequently, drives groundwater overdraft, and hence, groundwater salinization. In these newly closed basins, just as in other naturally closed basins such as Death Valley and the Great Salt Lake, groundwater salinity must increase not only due to evaporation, but also due to rock water interactions in the groundwater system, and lack of a natural outlet for the groundwater. In this study, the water balance and salt balance in closed basins of the Central Valley, California are computed. Groundwater degradation under the current overdraft conditions is further investigated using simple models that are developed by upscaling more complex and heterogeneous transport models. The focus of this study is to determine the applicability of these simple models to represent regional transport without explicitly including the large-scale heterogeneity inherent in the more complex models. Groundwater salinization processes, including salt accumulation caused by evapotranspiration of applied irrigation water and rock

  3. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Lavandula angustifolia to Salinity Under Mineral Foliar Application

    PubMed Central

    Chrysargyris, Antonios; Michailidi, Evgenia; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2018-01-01

    Saline water has been proposed as a solution to partially cover plant water demands due to scarcity of irrigation water in hot arid areas. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) plants were grown hydroponically under salinity (0–25–50–100 mM NaCl). The overcome of salinity stress was examined by K, Zn, and Si foliar application for the plant physiological and biochemical characteristics. The present study indicated that high (100 mM NaCl) salinity decreased plant growth, content of phenolics and antioxidant status and essential oil (EO) yield, while low-moderate salinity levels maintained the volatile oil profile in lavender. The integrated foliar application of K and Zn lighten the presumable detrimental effects of salinity in terms of fresh biomass, antioxidant capacity, and EO yield. Moderate salinity stress along with balanced concentration of K though foliar application changed the primary metabolites pathways in favor of major volatile oil constituents biosynthesis and therefore lavender plant has the potential for cultivation under prevalent semi-saline conditions. Zn and Si application, had lesser effects on the content of EO constituents, even though altered salinity induced changings. Our results have demonstrated that lavender growth/development and EO production may be affected by saline levels, whereas mechanisms for alteration of induced stress are of great significance considering the importance of the oil composition, as well. PMID:29731759

  4. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Lavandula angustifolia to Salinity Under Mineral Foliar Application.

    PubMed

    Chrysargyris, Antonios; Michailidi, Evgenia; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2018-01-01

    Saline water has been proposed as a solution to partially cover plant water demands due to scarcity of irrigation water in hot arid areas. Lavender ( Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) plants were grown hydroponically under salinity (0-25-50-100 mM NaCl). The overcome of salinity stress was examined by K, Zn, and Si foliar application for the plant physiological and biochemical characteristics. The present study indicated that high (100 mM NaCl) salinity decreased plant growth, content of phenolics and antioxidant status and essential oil (EO) yield, while low-moderate salinity levels maintained the volatile oil profile in lavender. The integrated foliar application of K and Zn lighten the presumable detrimental effects of salinity in terms of fresh biomass, antioxidant capacity, and EO yield. Moderate salinity stress along with balanced concentration of K though foliar application changed the primary metabolites pathways in favor of major volatile oil constituents biosynthesis and therefore lavender plant has the potential for cultivation under prevalent semi-saline conditions. Zn and Si application, had lesser effects on the content of EO constituents, even though altered salinity induced changings. Our results have demonstrated that lavender growth/development and EO production may be affected by saline levels, whereas mechanisms for alteration of induced stress are of great significance considering the importance of the oil composition, as well.

  5. Impact of Soil Resistance to Penetration in the Irrigation Interval of Supplementary Irrigation Systems at the Humid Pampa, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández J., P.; Befani M., R.; Boschetti N., G.; Quintero C., E.; Díaz E., L.; Lado, M.; Paz-González, A.

    2015-04-01

    The Avellaneda District, located in northeastern of Santa Fe Province, Argentina, has an average annual rainfall of 1250 mm per year, but with a high variability in their seasonal distribution. Generally, the occurrence of precipitation in winter is low, while summer droughts are frequent. The yearly hydrological cycle shows a water deficit, given that the annual potential evapotranspiration is estimated at 1330 mm. Field crops such as soybean, corn, sunflower and cotton, which are affected by water stress during their critical growth periods, are dominant in this area. Therefore, a supplemental irrigation project has been developed in order to identify workable solutions. This project pumps water from Paraná River to provide a water supply to the target area under irrigation. A pressurized irrigation system operating on demand provides water to a network of channels, which in turn deliver water to farms. The scheduled surface of irrigation is 8800 hectares. The maximum flow rate was designed to be 8.25 m3/second. The soils have been classified as Aquic Argiudolls in areas of very gentle slopes, and Vertic Argiudolls in flat and concave reliefs; neither salinity nor excess sodium affect the soils of the study are. The objective of this study was to provide a quantitative data set to manage the irrigation project, through the determination of available water (AW), easily available water (EAw) and optimal water range (or interval) of the soil horizons. The study has been conducted in a text area of 1500 hectares in surface. Five soil profiles were sampled to determine physical properties (structure stability, effective root depth, infiltration, bulk density, penetration resistance and water holding capacity), chemical properties (pH, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, salinity, and sodium content ) and morphological characteristics of the successive horizons. Also several environmental characteristics were evaluated, including: climate, topographic

  6. Health risks associated with inhaled nasal toxicants.

    PubMed

    Feron, V J; Arts, J H; Kuper, C F; Slootweg, P J; Woutersen, R A

    2001-05-01

    Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and metabolism-based extrapolation of nasal data in animals to humans. Conspicuous findings in humans are the effects of outdoor air pollution on the nasal mucosa, and tobacco smoking as a risk factor for sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma. Objective methods in humans to discriminate between sensory irritation and olfactory stimulation and between adaptation and habituation have been introduced successfully, providing more relevant information than sensory irritation studies in animals. Against the background of chemoperception as a dominant window of the brain on the outside world, nasal neurotoxicology is rapidly developing, focusing on olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity. Better insight in the processes underlying neurogenic inflammation may increase our knowledge of the causes of the various chemical sensitivity syndromes. Nasal immunotoxicology is extremely complex, which is mainly due to the pivotal role of nasal lymphoid tissue in the defense of the middle ear, eye, and oral cavity against antigenic substances, and the important function of the nasal passages in brain drainage in rats. The crucial role of tissue damage and reactive epithelial hyperproliferation in nasal carcinogenesis has become overwhelmingly clear as demonstrated by the recently developed biologically based model for predicting formaldehyde nasal cancer risk in humans. The evidence of carcinogenicity of inhaled complex mixtures in experimental animals is very limited, while there is ample evidence that occupational exposure to mixtures such as wood, leather, or textile dust or chromium- and nickel-containing materials is associated with increased risk of nasal cancer. It is remarkable that these

  7. Nasal packing and stenting

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Nasal packs are indispensable in ENT practice. This study reviews current indications, effectiveness and risks of nasal packs and stents. In endoscopic surgery, nasal packs should always have smooth surfaces to minimize mucosal damage, improve wound healing and increase patient comfort. Functional endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery allows the use of modern nasal packs, since pressure is no longer required. So called hemostatic/resorbable materials are a first step in this direction. However, they may lead to adhesions and foreign body reactions in mucosal membranes. Simple occlusion is an effective method for creating a moist milieu for improved wound healing and avoiding dryness. Stenting of the frontal sinus is recommended if surgery fails to produce a wide, physiologically shaped drainage path that is sufficiently covered by intact tissue. PMID:22073095

  8. Appraisal of transverse nasal groove: a study.

    PubMed

    Sathyanarayana, Belagola D; Basavaraj, Halevoor B; Nischal, Kuchangi C; Swaroop, Mukunda R; Umashankar, Puttagangu N; Agrawal, Dhruv P; Swamy, Suchetha S; Okram, Sarda

    2012-01-01

    Transverse nasal groove is a condition of cosmetic concern which awaits due recognition and has been widely described as a shallow groove that extends transversely over the dorsum of nose. However, we observed variations in the clinical presentations of this entity, hitherto undescribed in literature. We conducted a clinicoepidemiological study of transverse nasal lesions in patients attending our outpatient department. We conducted a prospective observational study. We screened all patients attending our out-patient department for presence of transverse nasal lesions, signs of any dermatosis and associated other skin conditions. One hundred patients were recruited in the study. Females (80%) predominated over males. Most patients were of 15-45 years age group (70%). Majority of the transverse nasal lesions were classical transverse nasal groove (39%) and others included transverse nasal line (28%), strip (28%), ridge (4%) and loop (1%). Seborrhoeic diathesis was the most common condition associated with transverse nasal lesion. Occurrence of transverse nasal line, strip, ridge and loop, in addition to classical transverse nasal groove implies that latter is actually a subset of transverse nasal lesions. Common association of this entity with seborrheic dermatitis, seborrhea and dandruff raises a possibility of whether transverse nasal lesion is a manifestation of seborrheic diathesis.

  9. Characterization of streamflow, salinity, and selenium loading and land-use change in Montrose Arroyo, western Colorado, from 1992 to 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Rodney J.; Moore, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Land use was characterized for 1992, 2002, and 2009 for site MA3. The common land-use change in the MA3 subwatershed was a conversion from previously irrigated agricultural land to urban land use. The MA3 subwatershed had 124 acres of irrigated land use converted to urban land use and 27.1 acres of unirrigated desert converted to urban land use from 1992 to 2009. Consistent with findings in previous land-use change reports, salinity and dissolved-selenium loading at site MA3 showed significant decreases as irrigated land was converted to urban land use.

  10. Nasal budesonide offers superior symptom relief in perennial allergic rhinitis in comparison to nasal azelastine.

    PubMed

    Stern, M A; Wade, A G; Ridout, S M; Cambell, L M

    1998-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis is usually treated with oral antihistamines or nasal steroids. Topically active nasal antihistamine is a new treatment modality for allergic rhinitis. The efficacy in comparison to well established topical treatment alternatives is not fully known. To compare the efficacy of intranasally administered azelastine to budesonide, at their respectively recommended dosage, on the symptoms of perennial rhinitis patients. A placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel group study was conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of intranasal budesonide aqueous suspension (256 microg once daily) with azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray (280 microg twice daily (560 microg/day)) and with placebo in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis. The 195 patients (with at least a 2-year history of perennial allergic rhinitis) recorded individual nasal symptom scores, the degree of symptom control achieved and any adverse events experienced over a 2-week baseline period and a 6-week treatment period. Following treatment, the reductions in mean combined and individual nasal symptom scores from baseline values were significantly greater in the budesonide group compared with the placebo group (P < .0001 for all variables except runny nose P = .01). In patients treated with budesonide, there were also significantly larger reductions from baseline values in combined nasal symptom scores (P < .01) and in scores for all individual nasal symptoms (P < or = .05) compared with those treated with azelastine. The reductions from baseline in both combined and individual nasal symptom scores did not differ between azelastine and placebo. The study medications were well tolerated, producing no unexpected or serious treatment-related adverse events. A once-daily dose of 256 microg of intranasal budesonide aqueous suspension is significantly more effective at relieving the symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis compared with a twice daily dose of 280 microg of azelastine

  11. ZVI (Fe0) desalination: catalytic partial desalination of saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antia, David D. J.

    2018-05-01

    Globally, salinization affects between 100 and 1000 billion m3 a-1 of irrigation water. The discovery that zero valent iron (ZVI, Fe0) could be used to desalinate water (using intra-particle catalysis in a diffusion environment) raises the possibility that large-scale in situ desalination of aquifers could be undertaken to support agriculture. ZVI desalination removes NaCl by an adsorption-desorption process in a multi-stage cross-coupled catalytic process. This study considers the potential application of two ZVI desalination catalyst types for in situ aquifer desalination. The feasibility of using ZVI catalysts when placed in situ within an aquifer to produce 100 m3 d-1 of partially desalinated water from a saline aquifer is considered.

  12. Nasal symptoms following endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: assessment using the General Nasal Patient Inventory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi Yuen; Srirathan, Vinothan; Tirr, Erica; Kearney, Tara; Gnanalingham, Kanna K

    2011-04-01

    The endoscopic approach for pituitary tumors is a recent innovation and is said to reduce the nasal trauma associated with transnasal transsphenoidal surgery. The authors assessed the temporal changes in the rhinological symptoms following endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary lesions, using the General Nasal Patient Inventory (GNPI). The GNPI was administered to 88 consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery at 3 time points (presurgery, 3-6 months postsurgery, and at final follow-up). The total GNPI score and the scores for the individual GNPI questions were calculated and differences between groups were assessed once before surgery, several months after surgery, and at final follow-up. Of a maximum possible score of 135, the mean GNPI score at 3-6 months postsurgery was only 12.9 ± 12 and was not significantly different from the preoperative score (10.4 ± 13) or final follow-up score (10.3 ± 10). Patients with functioning tumors had higher GNPI scores than those with nonfunctioning tumors for each of these time points (p < 0.05). Individually, a mild increase in symptom severity was seen for symptoms attributable to the nasal trauma of surgery, with partial recovery (nasal sores and bleeding) or complete recovery (nasal blockage, painful sinuses, and unpleasant nasal smell) by final follow-up (p < 0.05). Progressive improvements in symptom severity were seen for symptoms more attributable to tumor mass preoperatively (for example, headaches and painkiller use [p < 0.05]). In total, by final follow-up 8 patients (9%) required further treatment or advice for ongoing nasal symptoms. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery is a well-tolerated minimally invasive procedure for pituitary fossa lesions. Overall patient-assessed nasal symptoms do not change, but some individual symptoms may show a mild worsening or overall improvement.

  13. Nasal Irrigation for Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Fatigue in Patients with Gulf War Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    xylitol has continued to provide daily use packets at no cost as indicated in the protocol and letter of support in the initial grant application...Pharmaceutical Research Center (PRC) which will be housing and dispensing all study medications ( Xylitol and Saline). We have final approval on all...recruitment strategies  Procurement of xylitol  Recruitment and enrollment of subjects 6 REPORTABLE OUTCOMES:  UW HS IRB continuing review

  14. Irrigation: Erosion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irrigation is essential for global food production. However, irrigation erosion can limit the ability of irrigation systems to reliably produce food and fiber in the future. The factors affecting soil erosion from irrigation are the same as rainfall—water detaches and transports sediment. However, t...

  15. Thoracic irrigation prevents retained hemothorax: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Nathan W; Carver, Thomas W; Paul, Jasmeet S

    2016-05-15

    Upward of 20% of patients undergoing thoracostomy tube (TT) placement develop retained hemothorax (HTx) requiring secondary intervention. The aim of this study was to define the rate of secondary intervention in patients undergoing prophylactic thoracic irrigation. A prospective observational trial of 20 patients who underwent thoracic irrigation at the time of TT placement was conducted. Patients with HTx identified on chest x-ray were included. After standard placement of a 36-French TT, the HTx was evacuated using a sterile suction catheter advanced within the TT. Warmed sterile saline was instilled into the chest through the TT followed by suction catheter evacuation. The TT was connected to the sterile drainage atrium and suction applied. TTs were managed in accordance with our standard division protocol. The population was predominantly (70%) male at median age 35 years, median ISS 13, with 55% suffering penetrating trauma. Thirteen (65%) patients underwent TT placement within 6 h of trauma with the remainder within 24 h. Nineteen patients received the full 1000-mL irrigation. The majority demonstrated significant improvement on postprocedure chest x-ray. The secondary intervention rate was 5%. A single patient required VATS on post-trauma day zero for retained HTx. Median TT duration was 5 d with median length of stay of 7 d. No adverse events related to the pleural lavage were noted. Thoracic irrigation at the time of TT placement for traumatic HTx may decrease the rate of retained HTx. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiological and ionic changes in dwarf coconut seedlings irrigated with saline water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of salt-tolerant plants is an important alternative to cope with the problem of salinity in semi-arid regions. The dwarf coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) has emerged as a salt-tolerant crop once established. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms that may contribute to t...

  17. Adjuncts to Improve Nasal Reconstruction Results.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Shayna Lee; Hurst, Eva A

    2017-02-01

    The final cosmetic appearance of nasal reconstruction scars is of paramount importance to both the patient and surgeon. Ideal postreconstruction nasal scars are flat and indistinguishable from surrounding skin. Unfortunately, even with meticulous surgical execution, nasal scars can occasionally be suboptimal. Abnormal fibroblast response can lead to hypertrophic nasal scars, and excessive angiogenesis may lead to telangiectasias or an erythematous scar. Imperfect surgical closure or poor postoperative management can lead to surgical outcomes with step-offs, depressions, suture marks, or dyspigmentation. Aesthetically unacceptable nasal scars can cause pruritus, tenderness, pain, sleep disturbance, and anxiety and depression in postsurgical patients. Fortunately, there are several minimally invasive or noninvasive techniques that allow for enhancement and improvement of cosmetic results with minimal risk and associated downtime. This article provides an overview of adjuncts to improve nasal reconstruction with a focus on techniques to be used in the postoperative period. Armed with an understanding of relevant available therapies, skillful surgeons may drastically improve the final cosmesis and outcome of nasal reconstruction scars. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Infiltration into cropped soils: effect of rain and sodium adsorption ratio-impacted irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Donald L; Wood, James D; Lesch, Scott M

    2008-01-01

    The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity criteria for water suitability for irrigation have been developed for conditions where irrigation water is the only water source. It is not clear that these criteria are applicable to environments where there is a combination of rain and irrigation during the growing season. The interaction of rainfall with irrigation water is expected to result in increased sodicity hazard because of the low electrical conductivity of rain. In this study we examined the effects of irrigation waters of SAR 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol(1/2) L(-1/2) and electrical conductivities of 1 and 2 dS m(-1) on the infiltration rate of two soils with alternating cycles of rain (simulated with a rainfall sprinkler) and irrigation water, separated by drying cycles. The infiltration rate of surface samples from two soils, Kobase silty clay (fine, smectitic, frigid, Torrertic Haplustept) and Glendive very fine sandy loam (coarse-loamy, mixed superactive, calcareous, frigid Aridic Ustifluvent) were evaluated under alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cropped conditions for over 140 d and under full canopy cover. Reductions in infiltration were observed for both soils for SAR above 2, and the reductions became more severe with increasing SAR. Saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements taken from undisturbed cores at the end of the experiment were highly variable, suggesting that in situ infiltration measurements may be preferred when evaluating SAR effects.

  19. Presurgical Nasal Molding With a Nasal Spring in Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Nasal Deformity With Incomplete Unilateral Cleft Lip With or Without Cleft Palate.

    PubMed

    Peanchitlertkajorn, Supakit

    2018-01-01

    Traditional nasoalveolar molding (NAM) requires steep learning curve for clinicians and significant compliance from parents. Nasal springs have been developed by the author to simplify presurgical nasal molding. This article presents the design, construction, and application of the spring. The treatment goal is to improve nasal deformity prior to primary repair in infants born with incomplete unilateral cleft lip with or without cleft palate. The design, fabrication, and utility of the nasal spring are described. The spring has a simpler design and construction compared to a traditional NAM appliance. Two patients with incomplete unilateral cleft lip with and without cleft palate are presented. The spring is constructed and delivered. The active arm of the spring can be 3-dimensionally (3-D) adjusted to mold the alar cartilage of the affected nostril. The spring does not require an oral plate for adherence as a traditional NAM appliance does, hence an oral impression is not needed. The spring is easy for clinicians to adjust. It also requires less compliance by parents. Main Outcome Measures/Results: The presurgical molding achieved by the use of a nasal spring improved surgical nasolabial aesthetic outcomes. The nasal springs are effective in reducing the initial cleft nasal deformity. This facilitates primary surgical cleft lip and nose correction and improves surgical outcomes in patients with incomplete unilateral cleft lip with or without cleft palate.

  20. Management of Intractable Nasal Hyperreactivity by Selective Resection of Posterior Nasal Nerve Branches

    PubMed Central

    Takahara, Daisuke; Hamamoto, Takao; Ishino, Takashi; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The posterior nasal nerves emerge from the sphenopalatine foramen and contain sensory and autonomic nerve components. Posterior nasal neurectomy is an effective method to remove pathological neural networks surrounding the inferior turbinate that cause unregulated nasal hypersensitivity with excess secretion in patients with severe allergic rhinitis (AR). We describe the sophisticated endoscopic surgical procedure that allows feasible access to the confined area and selective resection of the nerve branches with the preservation of the sphenopalatine artery (SPA). We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 23 symptomatic severe AR patients who failed to respond to standard medical treatment and underwent surgery. There have been no major complications after surgery including nasal bleeding or transient numbness of the upper teeth. The mean total nasal symptom scores (TNSS) were decreased by 70.2% at 12 months after the procedure. Our comparison of the clinical effectiveness based on the number of severed nerve branches revealed that the improvement of the TNSS was significantly higher in patients with >2 branches. We conclude that this minimally invasive technique that preserves the SPA is clinically useful and decreases the rate of postoperative complications. This trial is registered with UMIN000029025. PMID:29379524

  1. Management of Intractable Nasal Hyperreactivity by Selective Resection of Posterior Nasal Nerve Branches.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Daisuke; Takeno, Sachio; Hamamoto, Takao; Ishino, Takashi; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The posterior nasal nerves emerge from the sphenopalatine foramen and contain sensory and autonomic nerve components. Posterior nasal neurectomy is an effective method to remove pathological neural networks surrounding the inferior turbinate that cause unregulated nasal hypersensitivity with excess secretion in patients with severe allergic rhinitis (AR). We describe the sophisticated endoscopic surgical procedure that allows feasible access to the confined area and selective resection of the nerve branches with the preservation of the sphenopalatine artery (SPA). We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 23 symptomatic severe AR patients who failed to respond to standard medical treatment and underwent surgery. There have been no major complications after surgery including nasal bleeding or transient numbness of the upper teeth. The mean total nasal symptom scores (TNSS) were decreased by 70.2% at 12 months after the procedure. Our comparison of the clinical effectiveness based on the number of severed nerve branches revealed that the improvement of the TNSS was significantly higher in patients with >2 branches. We conclude that this minimally invasive technique that preserves the SPA is clinically useful and decreases the rate of postoperative complications. This trial is registered with UMIN000029025.

  2. An application of aerial remote sensing to monitor salinization at Xinding Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yu-Liang

    In this paper, a method to interpret the high, mid, low salinized ploughland and the salinized wasteland using comprehensive aerophoto interpretation principles will be described for Xinding Basin, Shanxi Province. The dynamic change of salinized soil during 7 years from 1980 to 1987 will be compared with the typical Dingxiang County. The map and data obtained, with an accuracy of more than 90%, are provided to the local government as the scientific grounds to instruct agricultural productivity. Soil salinization is a worldwide problem. With the sharp increase in world population and modern industrialisation development, the natural resource consumption is increasing day and day, and bringing about a lack of land resource worldwide. As a kind of back-up land resource, salinized land has not only attracted the concern and study of the agricultural scientists in all countries, but also by the whole society. Shanxi is such a province in China where more than 1/3 of its total area of irrigation land is salinized. The statistics used to monitor this salinized area lack objectivity and accuracy. In 1987, the government of Shanxi Province began to investigate the salinized area of the whole province, using remote sensing technology. We selected the Xinding Basin in central Shanxi as the test district to perform the aerial remote sensing investigation, and, at the same time, studied the salinization dynamic change on the Dingxiang County used as the typical district.

  3. [Disturbances of nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum and the rationale for its surgical correction].

    PubMed

    Tulebaev, R K; Mustafin, A A; Zholdybaeva, Z T

    2011-01-01

    Serious disturbances of nasal aerodynamics contribute to the development of diseases of the broncho-pulmonary apparatus. The early recognition of ventilation problems in patients with the curved nasal septum is paramount for the efficacious prevention and treatment of respiratory complications. The authors describe principles of rhinosurgical correction of affected nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum.

  4. Nasal Irrigation for Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Fatigue in Patients with Gulf War Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    materials (neti pots, xylitol , saline), and subject recruitment and enrollment. The human subjects research approval process required protocol submission...application submitted on 11/25/11 was also approved on 7/10/12. The company that provided xylitol (Danisco) is now owned by a private company (DuPont) a...regarding continuity of study as well as procurement and packaging of xylitol packets (sachets) for individual use by participants in the xylitol arm of

  5. A Nasal Epithelial Receptor for Staphylococcus aureus WTA Governs Adhesion to Epithelial Cells and Modulates Nasal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Faulstich, Manuela; Grau, Timo; Severin, Yannik; Unger, Clemens; Hoffmann, Wolfgang H.; Rudel, Thomas; Autenrieth, Ingo B.; Weidenmaier, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Nasal colonization is a major risk factor for S. aureus infections. The mechanisms responsible for colonization are still not well understood and involve several factors on the host and the bacterial side. One key factor is the cell wall teichoic acid (WTA) of S. aureus, which governs direct interactions with nasal epithelial surfaces. We report here the first receptor for the cell wall glycopolymer WTA on nasal epithelial cells. In several assay systems this type F-scavenger receptor, termed SREC-I, bound WTA in a charge dependent manner and mediated adhesion to nasal epithelial cells in vitro. The impact of WTA and SREC-I interaction on epithelial adhesion was especially pronounced under shear stress, which resembles the conditions found in the nasal cavity. Most importantly, we demonstrate here a key role of the WTA-receptor interaction in a cotton rat model of nasal colonization. When we inhibited WTA mediated adhesion with a SREC-I antibody, nasal colonization in the animal model was strongly reduced at the early onset of colonization. More importantly, colonization stayed low over an extended period of 6 days. Therefore we propose targeting of this glycopolymer-receptor interaction as a novel strategy to prevent or control S. aureus nasal colonization. PMID:24788600

  6. Genotypic Variation for Salinity Tolerance in Cenchrus ciliaris L.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dakheel, Abdullah J.; Hussain, M. Iftikhar

    2016-01-01

    Scarcity of irrigation water and increasing soil salinization has threatened the sustainability of forage production in arid and semi-arid region around the globe. Introduction of salt-tolerant perennial species is a promising alternative to overcome forage deficit to meet future livestock needs in salt-affected areas. This study presents the results of a salinity tolerance screening trial which was carried out in plastic pots buried in the open field for 160 buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) accessions for three consecutive years (2003–2005). The plastic pots were filled with sand, organic, and peat moss mix and were irrigated with four different quality water (EC 0, 10, 15, and 20 dS m−1). The results indicate that the average annual dry weights (DW) were in the range from 122.5 to 148.9 g/pot in control; 96.4–133.8 g/pot at 10 dS m−1; 65.6–80.4 g/pot at 15 dS m−1, and 55.4–65.6 g/pot at 20 dS m−1. The highest DW (148.9 g/pot) was found with accession 49 and the lowest with accession 23. Principle component analysis shows that PC-1 contributed 81.8% of the total variability, while PC-2 depicted 11.7% of the total variation among C. ciliaris accessions for DW. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that a number of accessions collected from diverse regions could be grouped into a single cluster. Accessions 3, 133, 159, 30, 23, 142, 141, 95, 49, 129, 124, and 127 were stable, salt tolerant, and produced good dry biomass yield. These accessions demonstrate sufficient salinity tolerance potential for promotion in marginal lands to enhance farm productivity and reduce rural poverty. PMID:27516762

  7. Oxymetazoline plus dexpanthenol in nasal congestion.

    PubMed

    Jagade, Mohan V; Langade, Deepak G; Pophale, Rupesh R; Prabhu, Arun

    2008-12-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of Oxymetazoline 0.05 % plus Dexpanthanol 5% versus Xylometazoline 0.1 % nasal drops in patients with nasal congestion due to allergic rhinitis and following nasal surgery. An investigator-blind, randomized, controlled, phase IV clinical trial conducted in 100 patients with acute allergic rhinitis or patients post-nasal surgery. Patients received either Oxymetazoline 0.05% with Dexpanthanol 5% (OD) or Xylometazoline 0.1% (XO) nasal drops. Relief from nasal congestion was significantly better in the OD group then in the XO group (mean nasal scores 1.24 vs 1.86). Significantly more improvement in sneezing and decrease in nasal discharge was seen in the OD group than the XO group. Nasal irritation in the OD group was significantly less as compared to XO group (0.38 v/s 1.12 on second day and 0.10 vs 0.36 on the fourth day). The recovery time for OD group was 1.08 hours, which was significantly (46 min) lesser than that of the XO group. Rebound congestion was significantly less in OD as compared to XO group (6.25% vs 82.98%). 93.75% of the physicians in the OD group and 51.28% in XO group reported response to therapy as good to excellent. 95.83% patients in the OD group and only 52.91% patients in the XO group rated tolerability to therapy as good to excellent. Oxymetazoline and dexpanthenol combination has a better efficacy, shorter recovery time, causes lesser rebound congestion and has better tolerability than xylometazoline.

  8. Efficacy of laser-driven irrigation versus ultrasonic in removing an airlock from the apical third of a narrow root canal.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Harry Huiz; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that air entrapment occurs in the apical third of a root canal during irrigation. A second objective was to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference between laser-driven irrigation (an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser) and passive ultrasonic irrigation in removing an airlock from the apical third. One hundred twenty extracted human teeth with single narrow root canals were randomised into two experimental groups (n = 40) and two control groups (n = 20). The specimens were shaped using hand instruments up to a size 30/0.02 file. The teeth were irrigated with a mixture of saline, radiopaque contrast and ink in solution. In the passive ultrasonic irrigation group, the irrigant was activated with an ultrasonic device for 60 s. In the laser group, the irrigant was activated with a laser for 60 s. It was concluded that if the insertion of irrigation needle is shorter than the working length, air entrapment may develop in the apical third, but the use of laser-driven irrigation is completely effective in removing it. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2013 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  9. Comparison of the Effects of Various Irrigating Solutions on Dentine Permeability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Quantitative study of sodium hypochlorite as an in vitro endodontic irrigant. J Endod 3(5):194-196, 1977. 14. Spangberg, L.; Engstrom, B.; and Langeland...Endod 4(2):60-64, 1978. 16. Cunningham, W.I., and Balekjian, A.Y. Effect of temperature on collagen-dissolving ability of sodium hypochlorite endodontic ... sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide vs. normal saline solution. J Endod 3(2):49-53, 1977. 8. Senia, E.S.; Marshall, F.J.; and Rosen, S. The

  10. Use of saline water in energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Israelsen, C.E.; Adams, V.D.; Batty, J.C.

    1980-06-01

    Maps were made of the Upper Colorado River Basin showing locations of coal deposits, oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and tar sand, in relationship to cities and towns in the area. Superimposed on these are locations of wells showing four ranges of water quality; 1000 to 3000 mg/l, 3000 to 10,000 mg/l, 10,000 to 35,000 mg/l, and over 35,000 mg/l. Information was assembled relative to future energy-related projects in the upper basin, and estimates were made of their anticipated water needs. Using computer models, various options were tested for using saline water for coal-fired power plant cooling. Both coolingmore » towers and brine evaporation ponds were included. Information is presented of several proven water treatment technologies, and comparisons are made of their cost effectiveness when placed in various combinations in the power plant makeup and blowdown water systems. A relative value scale was developed which compares graphically the relative values of waters of different salinities based on three different water treatment options and predetermined upper limits of cooling tower circulating salinities. Coal from several different mines was slurried in waters of different salinities. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory to determine which constituents had been leached from or absorbed by the coal, and what possible deleterious effects this might have on the burning properties of the coal, or on the water for culinary use or irrigation.« less

  11. Nasal dermoid sinus cyst.

    PubMed

    Cauchois, R; Laccourreye, O; Bremond, D; Testud, R; Küffer, R; Monteil, J P

    1994-08-01

    Nasal dermoid sinus cyst is one of the diagnoses of midline nasal masses in children. This retrospective study analyzes the various theories regarding the origin of this congenital abnormality, the differential diagnosis, and the value of magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the various surgical options available.

  12. Speech rate reduction and "nasality" in normal speakers.

    PubMed

    Brancewicz, T M; Reich, A R

    1989-12-01

    This study explored the effects of reduced speech rate on nasal/voice accelerometric measures and nasality ratings. Nasal/voice accelerometric measures were obtained from normal adults for various speech stimuli and speaking rates. Stimuli included three sentences (one obstruent-loaded, one semivowel-loaded, and one containing a single nasal), and /pv/ syllable trains.. Speakers read the stimuli at their normal rate, half their normal rate, and as slowly as possible. In addition, a computer program paced each speaker at rates of 1, 2, and 3 syllables per second. The nasal/voice accelerometric values revealed significant stimulus effects but no rate effects. The nasality ratings of experienced listeners, evaluated as a function of stimulus and speaking rate, were compared to the accelerometric measures. The nasality scale values demonstrated small, but statistically significant, stimulus and rate effects. However, the nasality percepts were poorly correlated with the nasal/voice accelerometric measures.

  13. The activity of N-acetyl-β-d-hexosaminidase A and B and β-glucuronidase in nasal polyps and hypertrophic nasal concha.

    PubMed

    Chojnowska, Sylwia; Minarowska, Alina; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Kępka, Alina; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Gościk, Elżbieta; Kowal, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Ewa; Konarzewska-Duchnowska, Emilia; Minarowski, Łukasz; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Ładny, Jerzy Robert; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Nasal polyps and hypertrophic lower nasal conchae are common disorders of nasal cavity. The majority of etiopathogenetic theories indicate inflammatory background of polyps and hypertrophic concha. N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase and β-glucuronidase are lysosomal exoglycosidases revealing accelerated activity in inflammatory processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the catabolism of glycoconjugates in nasal polyps and hypertrophic nasal concha basing on the activity of N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase (HEX) and β-glucuronidase (GLU). Material consisted of nasal polyps taken from 40 patients during polypectomy in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and hypertrophic lower nasal conchae taken from 20 patients during mucotomy. The activity of HEX, HEX A, HEX B and GLU in supernatant of homogenates of nasal polyps and hypertrophic lower nasal concha tissues has been estimated using colorimetric method. Statistically significant decrease has been observed in concentration of the activity (per 1mg of tissue) of HEX (p<0.05), HEX B (p<0.001) and specific activity (per 1mg of protein) of HEX B (p<0.001) in nasal polyps tissue in comparison to hypertrophic lower nasal conchae tissue. Decrease in the activity and specific activity concentration of the majority of examined lysosomal exoglycosidases (increasing in inflammations) in comparison to hypertrophic lower nasal conchae suggests electrolytes disorders and questions the inflammatory background of nasal polyps. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of long-term wastewater irrigation impacts on the soil geochemical properties and the bioaccumulation of heavy metals to the agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Christou, Anastasis; Eliadou, Elena; Michael, Costas; Hapeshi, Evroula; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo

    2014-08-01

    An extensive field survey was employed for assessing the impacts of long-term wastewater irrigation of forage crops and orange orchards in three suburban agricultural areas in Cyprus (areas I, II, and III), as compared to rainfed agriculture, on the soil geochemical properties and the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Co) to the agricultural products. Both ryegrass fields and orange orchards in areas I and II were continuously wastewater irrigated for 10 years, whereas clover fields in area III for 0.5, 4, and 8 years. The results revealed that wastewater reuse for irrigation caused a slight increase in soil salinity and Cl(-) content in areas I and II, and a remarkable increase, having strong correlation with the period in which wastewater irrigation was practiced, in area III. Soil salinization in area III was due to the high electrical conductivity (EC) of the wastewater applied for irrigation, attributed to the influx of seawater to the sewage collection network in area III. In addition, the wastewater irrigation practice resulted in a slight decrease of the soil pH values in area III, while a subtle impact was identified regarding the CaCO3, Fe, and heavy metal content in the three areas surveyed. The heavy metal content quantified in the forage plants' above-ground parts was below the critical levels of phytotoxicity and the maximum acceptable concentration in dairy feed, whereas heavy metals quantified in orange fruit pulp were below the maximum permissible levels (MPLs). Heavy metal phytoavailability was confined due to soil properties (high pH and clay content), as evidenced by the calculated low transfer factor (TF).

  15. Distilled water nasal provocation in hyperreactive patients.

    PubMed

    Baudoin, T; Anzic, S A; Kalogjera, L

    1999-01-01

    Nonisotonic aerosol may act as a provocation agent in the upper and lower airways of hyperreactive individuals. The purpose of the study was to compare the results of nasal challenge with distilled water in patients with allergic rhinitis to those with noninfective nonallergic rhinitis (NINAR), with respect to the potential clinical use of the obtained data. A group of 68 ambulatory patients with allergic rhinitis or NINAR (39 perennial allergic, 6 seasonal, 23 NINAR) were challenged with 10 mL of distilled water aerosol after the baseline active anterior rhinomanometry. Patients with nasal polyposis at endoscopy, significant unilateral septal deviation, positive bacteriologic swab, recent nasal surgery, and uncertain anamnestic data about the medication taken 6 weeks before the provocation were excluded from the study. After 10 minutes of nasal provocation, rhinomanometry was repeated to assess the response. In 15 patients of the perennial allergic group, the same measurements were performed after a 2-week oral antihistamine and topical steroid therapy. Nasal resistance was significantly increased on the more patent side of the nose after nasal provocation with distilled water aerosol in allergic patients in comparison to the nasal resistance before provocation. In the patients with NINAR, the provocation resulted in a significant rise on the more patent side, but the total nasal airway resistance (NAR) levels were also significantly increased. The systemic antihistamine and topical steroid 2-week therapy in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis significantly reduced the response to nasal distilled water provocation. Nasal provocation with distilled water aerosol is a cheap, simple, and acceptable method that provides useful clinical data on the level of nonspecific nasal hyperreactivity and the therapy success.

  16. Nasal microenvironments and interspecific interactions influence nasal microbiota complexity and S. aureus carriage.

    PubMed

    Yan, Miling; Pamp, Sünje J; Fukuyama, Julia; Hwang, Peter H; Cho, Do-Yeon; Holmes, Susan; Relman, David A

    2013-12-11

    The indigenous microbiota of the nasal cavity plays important roles in human health and disease. Patterns of spatial variation in microbiota composition may help explain Staphylococcus aureus colonization and reveal interspecies and species-host interactions. To assess the biogeography of the nasal microbiota, we sampled healthy subjects, representing both S. aureus carriers and noncarriers at three nasal sites (anterior naris, middle meatus, and sphenoethmoidal recess). Phylogenetic compositional and sparse linear discriminant analyses revealed communities that differed according to site epithelium type and S. aureus culture-based carriage status. Corynebacterium accolens and C. pseudodiphtheriticum were identified as the most important microbial community determinants of S. aureus carriage, and competitive interactions were only evident at sites with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. In vitro cocultivation experiments provided supporting evidence of interactions among these species. These results highlight spatial variation in nasal microbial communities and differences in community composition between S. aureus carriers and noncarriers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nasal microenvironments and interspecific interactions influence nasal microbiota complexity and S. aureus carriage

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Miling; Pamp, Sünje J.; Fukuyama, Julia; Hwang, Peter H.; Cho, Do-Yeon; Holmes, Susan; Relman, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The indigenous microbiota of the nasal cavity plays important roles in human health and disease. Patterns of spatial variation in microbiota composition may help explain Staphylococcus aureus colonization, and reveal interspecies and species-host interactions. To assess the biogeography of the nasal microbiota, we sampled healthy subjects, representing both S. aureus carriers and non-carriers, at 3 nasal sites (anterior naris, middle meatus, and sphenoethmoidal recess). Phylogenetic compositional and sparse linear discriminant analyses revealed communities that differed according to site epithelium type and S. aureus culture-based carriage status. Corynebacterium accolens and C. pseudodiphtheriticum were identified as the most important microbial community determinants of S. aureus carriage, with competitive interactions evident only at sites with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. In vitro co-cultivation experiments provided supporting evidence of interactions among these species. These results highlight spatial variation in nasal microbial communities and differences in community composition between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. PMID:24331461

  18. Insights into the Groundwater Salinization Processes in Manas River Basin, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, M.; Liu, Y.; Liang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Manas River Basin (MRB) is a typical mountains-oasis-desert inland basin in northwest China, where groundwater salinization is threatening the local water use and the environment, but the groundwater salinization process is not clear. Based on groundwater flow system analysis by integrating flow fields, hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics, a deuterium excess analytical method was used to quantitatively assess salinization mechanism and calculate the contribution ratios of evapoconcentration effect to the salinities. 73 groundwater samples and 11 surface water samples were collected from the basin. Hydrochemical diagrams and δD and δ18O compositions indicated that evapoconcentration, mineral dissolution and transpiration, increased the groundwater salinities (i.e. total dissolved solids). The results showed that the average contribution ratios of evapoconcentration effect to the increased salinities were 5.8% and 32.7% in groundwater and surface water, respectively. From the piedmont plain to the desert plain, the evapoconcentration effect increased the average groundwater loss from 7% to 29%. However, it only increased slight salinity (0 - 0.27 g/L), as determined from the deuterium excess signals. Minerals dissolution and anthropogenic activities are the major cause of groundwater salinization problem. The results revealed that fresh water in the rivers directly and quickly infiltrated the aquifers in the piedmont area with evapoconcentration affected weakly, and the fresh water interacted with the sediments and dissolved soluble minerals, subsequently increasing the salinities. Combined with the groundwater stable isotopic compositions and hydrochemical evolution, the relationships between δ18O and Cl and salinities reveal the soil evaporites leaching by the vertical recharge (irrigation return flow and channels leakage) mainly affect the groundwater salinization processes in the middle alluvial-diluvial plain and the desert land. The saline water

  19. Identification of saline soils with multi-year remote sensing of crop yields

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D; Ortiz-Monasterio, I; Gurrola, F C

    2006-10-17

    Soil salinity is an important constraint to agricultural sustainability, but accurate information on its variation across agricultural regions or its impact on regional crop productivity remains sparse. We evaluated the relationships between remotely sensed wheat yields and salinity in an irrigation district in the Colorado River Delta Region. The goals of this study were to (1) document the relative importance of salinity as a constraint to regional wheat production and (2) develop techniques to accurately identify saline fields. Estimates of wheat yield from six years of Landsat data agreed well with ground-based records on individual fields (R{sup 2} = 0.65).more » Salinity measurements on 122 randomly selected fields revealed that average 0-60 cm salinity levels > 4 dS m{sup -1} reduced wheat yields, but the relative scarcity of such fields resulted in less than 1% regional yield loss attributable to salinity. Moreover, low yield was not a reliable indicator of high salinity, because many other factors contributed to yield variability in individual years. However, temporal analysis of yield images showed a significant fraction of fields exhibited consistently low yields over the six year period. A subsequent survey of 60 additional fields, half of which were consistently low yielding, revealed that this targeted subset had significantly higher salinity at 30-60 cm depth than the control group (p = 0.02). These results suggest that high subsurface salinity is associated with consistently low yields in this region, and that multi-year yield maps derived from remote sensing therefore provide an opportunity to map salinity across agricultural regions.« less

  20. Cytokine profiles in tears accompanying the secondary conjunctival responses induced by nasal allergy.

    PubMed

    Pelikan, Zdenek

    2014-02-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) occurs either in a primary form, due to the allergic reaction localized in the conjunctivae or in a secondary form, induced by an allergic reaction initiated primarily in the nasal mucosa. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytokine profiles in tears associated with the secondary conjunctival response (SCR) types. In 47 AC patients developing 16 immediate (SICR; p < 0.01), 20 late (SLCR; p < 0.001) and 11 delayed (SDYCR; p < 0.05) responses to nasal provocation tests (NPTs) with allergens, the NPTs were repeated and combined with recording of cytokine concentrations in the tears. The SCRs were associated with significant concentration changes of particular cytokines in tears (p < 0.05) as follows: (1): SICRs: interleukin (IL)-3, IL-4, IL-10 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); (2) SLCRs: IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, GM-CSF and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF); and (3) SDYCRs: IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, interferon gamma, G-CSF and tumor necrosis factor alpha. No significant cytokine changes were recorded in tears during the phosphate-buffered saline controls or negative SCRs. Different cytokine profiles in the tears accompanying the immediate, late and delayed types of SCR, induced by nasal allergy, would indicate involvement of different hypersensitivity mechanisms in the particular SCR types. The low cytokine concentrations in tears recorded during the SCRs may suggest their origin from the nasal mucosa. These results emphasize the diagnostic value of NPTs with allergens combined with monitoring of various ocular features in patients suffering from the secondary form of AC. These results may also have an impact on the therapeutical approach to this clinical entity.

  1. A hypothesis of the Effect of a New Nasal Spray Made from Natural Medicines on Allergic Rhinitis in Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Hailong; Wang, Yufang

    2018-01-01

    To verify the effect of a new nasal spray made from natural medicines on allergic rhinitis in animals. Methods: The main natural medicines contained in Acusine nasal spray plus essential traditional Chinese medicine contained in drugs for allergic rhinitis in Chinese market were used. By preparation process of extraction of traditional Chinese medicine such as steam distillation, ethanol extraction, a new nasal spray made from natural medicines was prepared. In the meantime, 24 BALB/c mice and New Zealand white rabbits were used. Then, mice were randomly divided into four group; control group, beclomethasone dipropionate group, Acusine group and new spray group, 6 mice in each group. Moreover, the effect of the new nasal spray made on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was conducted by detecting absorptions of Evan’s blue (620nm) in the four groups. Allergic rhinitis models in 40 New Zealand white rabbits were established. Consequently, 40 allergic rhinitis models in rabbits were randomly divided into control group, Acusine group and new spray group, 10 rabbits in each group. The four groups were sprayed nasally with saline, Acusine spray and new spray respectively, three times/d, for 30 days. The nasal resistances in the four groups were measured with a rhinoresistometer. Moreover, their nasal mucosa was taken for HE staining. Consequently, their pathological manifestations were observed. The results: Absorption of Evan’s blue (620nm) of new spray group will be found significantly lower than Acusine group (P<0.05) and will have no significantly difference compared with beclomethasone dipropionate group(P>0.05). On the other hand, absorption of Evan’s blue (620nm) of beclomethasone dipropionate group will be significantly lower than Acusine group (P<0.05). Moreover, The nasal resistances of new spray group will be significantly lower than Acusine group (P<0.05) and will have no significantly difference compared with beclomethasone dipropionate group (P».05

  2. Simulating the nasal cycle with computational fluid dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ruchin G.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Frank-Ito, Dennis O.; Kimbell, Julia S.; Rhee, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) Develop a method to account for the confounding effect of the nasal cycle when comparing pre- and post-surgery objective measures of nasal patency. (2) Illustrate this method by reporting objective measures derived from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models spanning the full range of mucosal engorgement associated with the nasal cycle in two subjects. Study Design Retrospective Setting Academic tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods A cohort of 24 nasal airway obstruction patients was reviewed to select the two patients with the greatest reciprocal change in mucosal engorgement between pre- and post-surgery computed tomography (CT) scans. Three-dimensional anatomic models were created based on the pre- and post-operative CT scans. Nasal cycling models were also created by gradually changing the thickness of the inferior turbinate, middle turbinate, and septal swell body. CFD was used to simulate airflow and to calculate nasal resistance and average heat flux. Results Before accounting for the nasal cycle, Patient A appeared to have a paradoxical worsening nasal obstruction in the right cavity postoperatively. After accounting for the nasal cycle, Patient A had small improvements in objective measures postoperatively. The magnitude of the surgical effect also differed in Patient B after accounting for the nasal cycle. Conclusion By simulating the nasal cycle and comparing models in similar congestive states, surgical changes in nasal patency can be distinguished from physiological changes associated with the nasal cycle. This ability can lead to more precise comparisons of pre and post-surgery objective measures and potentially more accurate virtual surgery planning. PMID:25450411

  3. Asian irrigation, African rain: Remote impacts of irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrese, Philipp; Hagemann, Stefan; Claussen, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation is not only vital for global food security but also constitutes an anthropogenic land use change, known to have strong effects on local hydrological and energy cycles. Using the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System Model, we show that related impacts are not confined regionally but that possibly as much as 40% of the present-day precipitation in some of the arid regions in Eastern Africa are related to irrigation-based agriculture in Asia. Irrigation in South Asia also substantially influences the climate throughout Southeast Asia and China via the advection of water vapor and by altering the Asian monsoon. The simulated impact of irrigation on remote regions is sensitive to the magnitude of the irrigation-induced moisture flux. Therefore, it is likely that a future extension or decline of irrigated areas due to increasing food demand or declining fresh water resources will also affect precipitation and temperatures in remote regions.

  4. Irrigation water quality of Al-Gharraf Canal, south of Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein Ewaid, Salam

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the water quality of Al-Gharraf Canal south of Iraq for irrigation purpose, analysis of 12 physiochemical parameters of water samples by standard methods was carried out at five stations during the year 2016 (water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, nitrate, sodium, potassium). Seven irrigation water quality indices were calculated like; sodium percentage (% Na), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium bicarbonate (RSBC), Kelly’s ratio (KR), permeability index (PI), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). The results represented as diagrams (Piper, Stiff, Schoeller, Durov, Gibbs, and Wilcox) using AquaChem and RockWork hydro-chemical software. Chemical analysis for canal water demonstrates the calcic chlorinated water type, the dominance of alkalis water, the major cations was in the order of: Na+ > Ca2+ > K+ > Mg2+ and major anions was: Cl- > SO42- > HCO3- > NO3-, the mean values of the irrigation water quality indices were (in meq/l) were; SAR (2.37), % Na (43.4), PI (%) (52.3), SSP (% (38.1), MAR (%) (34.5), KR (0.61), RSBC (-1.78). The results indicate the suitability of canal water for irrigational purposes based on the calculated indices for the majority of crops under special management for salinity and permeability control. The presentation of chemical analysis by diagrams and numbers makes understanding of complex water system too simpler and quicker. This study is a comprehensive assessment towards providing indicators and classification indices on irrigation water quality of the canal ecosystem, which will be the basis for future planning decisions on agricultural demand management measures and water quality monitoring to protect this principal water resource.

  5. [Clinical analysis of nasal mucosa contact headache].

    PubMed

    Gu, Qingjia; Wen, Bei; Li, Jingxian; Fan, Jiangang; He, Gang

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the efficacy of nasal mucosa contact point headache with the treatment of endoscopic sinus surgery. Clinical data of 75 cases with nasal mucosa contact point headache treated in our department from Jan 2008 to Nov 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were performed with endoscopic sinus surgery. All patients were followed up for more than six months. They all achieved significant efficacy and no complications occurred. Nasal mucosa contact point headache and primary headache had different clinical features and different treatment. Misdiagnosis were easily made if not being carefully analyzed. Three lines tension relaxing septorhinoplasty combined with nasal bone fracture correction can achieve satisfactory curative effect and can effectively prevent the occurrence of complications. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the awareness of this disease. Nasal structure abnormality is the main reason of nasal mucosa contact point headache. The implementation of individualized nasal endoscopic sinus surgery can achieve satisfactory curative effect.

  6. Modeling Soil Sodicity Problems under Dryland and Irrigated Conditions: Case Studies in Argentina and Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2014-05-01

    Salt-affected soils, both saline and sodic, my develop both under dryland and irrigated conditions, affecting negatively the physical and chemical soil properties, the crop production and the animal and human health.Among the development processes of salt-affected soils, the processes of sodification have been generally received less attention and is less understood than the development of saline soils. Although in both of them, hydrological processes are involved in their development, in the case of sodic soils we have to consider some additional chemical and physicochemical reactions, making more difficult their modeling and prediction. In this contribution we present two case studies: one related to the development of sodic soils in the lowlands of the Argentina Pampas, under dryland conditions and sub-humid temperate climate, with pastures for cattle production; the other deals with the development of sodic soils in the Colombia Cauca Valley, under irrigated conditions and tropical sub-humid climate, in lands used for sugarcane cropping dedicated to sugar and ethanol production. In both cases the development of sodicity in the surface soil is mainly related to the effects of the composition and level of groundwater, affected in the case of Argentina Pampas by the off-site changes in dryland use and management in the upper zones and by the drainage conditions in the lowlands, and in the case of the Cauca Valley, by the on-site irrigation and drainage management in lands with sugarcane. There is shown how the model SALSODIMAR, developed by the main author, based on the balance of water and soluble componentes of both the irrigation water and groundwater under different water and land management conditions, may be adapted for the diagnosis and prediction of both problems, and for the selection of alternatives for their management and amelioration.

  7. A New Weak Chelator in Endodontics: Effects of Different Irrigation Regimens with Etidronate on Root Dentin Microhardness

    PubMed Central

    Tartari, Talita; de Almeida Rodrigues Silva e Souza, Patrícia; Vila Nova de Almeida, Bruno; Carrera Silva Júnior, José Otávio; Facíola Pessoa, Oscar; Silva e Souza Junior, Mario Honorato

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA), etidronic (HEBP), and citric acid (CA) associated in different irrigation regimens on root dentin microhardness. Forty-five root halves of single-rooted teeth were sectioned into thirds that were embedded in acrylic resin, polished, randomly assigned into 3 groups, and treated as follows: G1: saline solution; G2: 5% NaOCl + 18% HEBP, mixed in equal parts; and G3: 2.5% NaOCl. After measurements, the G3 samples were distributed into subgroups G4, G5, and G6, which were submitted to 17% EDTA, 10% CA and 9% HEBP, respectively. Following the new measurements, these groups received a final flush with 2.5% NaOCl, producing G7, G8, and G9. Microhardness was measured with Knoop indenter under a 25 g load for 15 seconds, before and after treatments. The data were statistically analyzed using paired Student's t-test (α<0.05) to compare values before and after treatments and analysis of variance (ANOVA) (α<0.05) to detect any differences among thirds. Except G1, all tested irrigation regimens significantly decreased the microhardness. There were no differences between root thirds before treatments, and all root thirds exhibited equal responses to same treatment. Except saline, all tested irrigation regimens reduced the root dentin microhardness. PMID:23983692

  8. Effectiveness of T. harzianum and Humate Amendment in Soil Salinity Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolakis, Antonios; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major soil degradation threat, especially for the water stressed parts of the Mediterranean region, where it hinders soil fertility and thus agricultural productivity. Soil salinity management can be complex and expensive, often resorting to the use of chemical amendments thus risking soil and aquifer pollution. This study quantifies the beneficial effects of (a) a commercial strain of the beneficial fungus Trichoderma harzianum (TH), and (b) a commercial humate fertilizer enhancer (HFE) approved for organic farming, against soil salinization. The treatments are tested in the context of a Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) greenhouse simulation of the cultivation conditions typical for the semi-arid coastal Timpaki basin in south-central Crete. 20 vigorous 20-day-old Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Elpida seedlings are treated either with TH or HFE, using soil substrates and irrigation treatments of two degradation states. 20 additional plants serve either as controls or guard rows. All plants are transplanted into 35 L pots under greenhouse conditions. Preliminary analysis of soil salinity and crop yield indicators suggest that both treatments are beneficial for the soil-plant system, each to a different extent depending on initial soil conditions.

  9. Salinity management using an anionic polymer in a pecan field with calcareous-sodic soil.

    PubMed

    Ganjegunte, Girisha K; Sheng, Zhuping; Braun, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Soil salinity and sodicity have long been recognized as the major concerns for irrigated agriculture in the Trans-Pecos Basin, where fields are being flood irrigated with Rio Grande River water that has elevated salinity. Reclamation of these salt-affected lands is difficult due to fine-texture, high shrink-swell soils with low permeability. Conventional practice of subsoiling to improve soil permeability is expensive and has had limited success on the irrigated soils that have appreciable amounts of readily weatherable Ca minerals. If these native Ca sources can be effectively used to counter sodicity, it can improve soil permeability and reduce amelioration costs. This study evaluated the effects of 3 yr of polyacrylamide (PAM) application at 10 mg L concentration during the first irrigation of the season to evaluate soil permeability, in situ Ca mineral dissolution, and leaching of salts from the effective root zone in a pecan field of El Paso County, TX. Results indicated that PAM application improved water movement throughout the effective root zone that resulted in Na leaching. Polymer application significantly decreased CaCO (estimated based on inorganic C analysis) concentrations in the top 45 cm compared with baseline levels, indicating solubilization and redistribution of calcite. The PAM application also reduced soil electrical conductivity (EC) in the top 60 cm (4.64-2.76 dS m) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) from 13.1 to 5.7 mmol L in the top 75-cm depths. As evidence of improved soil conditions, pecan nut yields increased by 34% in PAM-treated fields over the control. Results suggested that PAM application helped in effective use of native Ca sources present in soils of the study site and reduced Na by improving soil permeability. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Simulating the effect of water management decisions on groundwater flow and quality in the Kyzylkum Irrigation Scheme, Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naudascher, R. M.; Marti, B. S.; Siegfried, T.; Wolfgang, K.; Anselm, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Kyzylkum Irrigation Scheme lies north of the Chardara reservoir on the banks of the river Syr Darya in South Kazakhstan. It was designed as a model Scheme and developed to a size of 74'000 ha during Soviet times for rice and cotton production. However, since the 1990s only very limited funds were available for maintenance and as a result, problems like water logging and salinization of soils and groundwater are now omnipresent in the scheme. The aim of this study was to develop a numerical groundwater flow model for the region in Modflow and to evaluate the effect of various infrastructure investments on phreatic evaporation (a major driver for soil salinization). Decadal groundwater observation data from 2011 to 2015 were used to calibrate the annual model and to validate the monthly model. Scenarios simulated were (partial) lining of main and/or secondary and tertiary canal system, improvement of drainage via horizontal canals or pumps, combinations of these and a joint groundwater-surface-water use scenario. Although the annual average model is sufficient to evaluate the yearly water balance, the transient model is a prerequisite for analysing measures against water logging and salinization, both of which feature strong seasonality. The transient simulation shows that a combination of leakage reduction (lining of canals) and drainage improvement measures is needed to lower the groundwater levels enough to avoid phreatic evaporation. To save water, joint surface water and groundwater irrigation can be applied in areas where groundwater salinity is low enough but without proper lining of canals, it is not sufficient to mitigate the ongoing soil degradation due to salinization and water logging.

  11. Effect of terfenadine on nasal, eustachian tube, and pulmonary function after provocative intranasal histamine challenge.

    PubMed

    Skoner, D P; Doyle, W J; Boehm, S; Fireman, P

    1991-12-01

    Previous studies have documented that intranasal histamine challenge results in nasal and eustachian tube obstruction (ETO) in human volunteers. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of pretreatment with terfenadine, a nonsedating antihistamine on the pathophysiologic consequences of intranasal histamine challenge. Fifteen subjects with allergic rhinitis were challenged intranasally with saline and increasing histamine doses (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mg) before pretreatment (baseline) and after 1 week of pretreatment with terfenadine, 60 mg b.i.d., terfenadine, 120 mg b.i.d., and placebo. Nasal conductance as measured by posterior rhinomanometry showed a dose-dependent, monotonic decrease following sequential administration of the histamine solutions, but there were no apparent differences in the average responses among the four challenge sessions. The frequency of ETO after histamine challenge was decreased by pretreatment with both doses of terfenadine, although this was not significant. Histamine-induced sneezing and rhinorrhea, but not congestion, were significantly reduced by terfenadine pretreatment. There was no evidence of extension of the histamine effects to the lower airway. The results of the present study suggest that terfenadine, a nonsedating antihistamine, had a favorable effect on sneezing and rhinorrhea after provocative intranasal histamine challenge, but did not significantly attenuate the subjective or objective nasal and ET obstructive responses.

  12. Relationships between groundwater, surface water, and soil salinity in Polder 32, Southwest Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, D. C.; Ayers, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    In the coastal areas of Southwest Bangladesh polders are surrounded by tidal channels filled with brackish water. In the wet season, farmers create openings in the embankments to irrigate rice paddies. In the dry season, farmers do the same to create saline shrimp ponds. Residents on Polder 32, located within the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta system, practice these seasonal farming techniques. Soils in the area are entisols, being sediment recently deposited, and contain mostly silt-sized particles. Brackish water in brine shrimp ponds may deposit salt in the soil, causing soil salinization. However, saline connate groundwater could also be contributing to soil salinization. Groundwater, surface water (fresh water pond, rice paddy and tidal channel water) and soil samples have been analyzed via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and ion chromatography in an attempt to correlate salinity measurements with each other in order to determine major sources of soil salinity. Multiple parameters, including distances of samples from tidal channels, inland streams, shrimp ponds and tube wells were measured to see if spatial correlations exist. Similarly, values from wet and dry seasons were compared to quantify temporal variations. Salt content in many soil samples were found to be high enough to significantly decrease rice yields. Continued soil salinization can decrease these yields even more, leading to farmers not producing enough food to sustain their families.

  13. Fluid lavage of open wounds (FLOW): a multicenter, blinded, factorial pilot trial comparing alternative irrigating solutions and pressures in patients with open fractures.

    PubMed

    Petrisor, Bradley; Sun, Xin; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Jeray, Kyle J; Sprague, Sheila; Tanner, Stephanie; Schemitsch, Emil; Sancheti, Parag; Anglen, Jeff; Tornetta, Paul; Bosse, Michael; Liew, Susan; Walter, Stephen

    2011-09-01

    Open fractures are an important source of morbidity and are associated with delayed union, nonunion, and infection. Preventing infection through meticulous irrigation and debridement is an important goal in management, and different lavage fluids and irrigation techniques (e.g., high- or low-pressure lavage) have been described for this purpose. However, there are a limited number of randomized trials comparing irrigating solutions or irrigating technique. We compared the use of castile soap versus normal saline and high- versus low-pressure pulsatile lavage on the rates of reoperations and complications in patients with open fracture wounds. We conducted a multicenter, blinded, randomized 2 × 2 factorial pilot trial of 111 patients in whom an open fracture wound was treated with either castile soap solution or normal saline and either high- or low-pressure pulsatile lavage. The primary composite outcome of reoperation, measured at 12 months after initial operative procedure, included infection, wound healing problems, and nonunion. Planned reoperations were not included. Secondary outcomes included all infection, all wound healing problems, and nonunion as well as functional outcomes scores (EuroQol-5 dimensions and short form-12). Eighty-nine patients completed the 1-year follow-up. Among all patients, 13 (23%) in the castile soap group and 13 (24%) in the saline group had a primary outcome event (hazard ratio, 0.91, 95% confidence interval: 0.42-2.00, p = 0.52). Sixteen patients (28%) in the high-pressure group and 10 patients (19%) in the low-pressure group had a primary outcome event (hazard ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.24-1.27, p = 0.17). Functional outcome scores showed no significant differences at any time point between groups. The fluid lavage of open wounds pilot randomized controlled trial demonstrated the possibility that the use of low pressure may decrease the reoperation rate for infection, wound healing problems, or nonunion. We have

  14. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  15. Pulp tissue dissolution capacity of QMix 2in1 irrigation solution.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Dilara; Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Kustarci, Alper; Er, Kursat; Siso, Seyda Herguner

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tissue dissolution efficacy of four root canal irrigation solutions (sodium hypochlorite [NaOCl], chlorhexidine gluconate [CHX], Octenidine [OCT], and QMix 2in1) on bovine pulp tissue. Fifty bovine pulp tissue samples, each weighing 6.55 mg, were prepared and randomly divided into four experimental groups and one control group (n = 10) according to the dissolution irrigants used: (1) 5.25% NaOCl group; (2) 2% CHX group; (3) OCT group; (4) QMix 2in1 group; and (5) control group (saline solution). These samples were then placed into special bovine dentin reservoir models and immersed for 1 h with each test solution (0.1 mL of each) at room temperature. The pulp samples were then blotted dry and weighed again. The percentage of weight loss was calculated. Statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey tests (P = 0.05). Saline solution did not dissolve the bovine pulp tissue. All groups, except OCT, dissolved pulp samples more effectively than the control group (P < 0.05). The highest tissue dissolution was observed in 5.25% NaOCl group (P < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between the tissue-dissolving effect between QMix 2in1 and those of 2% CHX. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, NaOCl exhibited the best tissue-dissolving effect out of all solutions tested. CHX and QMix 2in1 were able to dissolve pulp tissue but less than NaOCl. OCT and saline solutions could not exhibit significantly tissue-dissolving effectiveness. This study shown that QMix 2in1 has little capacity to dissolve pulp tissue therefore used alone is not sufficient for this purpose.

  16. Pulp tissue dissolution capacity of QMix 2in1 irrigation solution

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Dilara; Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Kustarci, Alper; Er, Kursat; Siso, Seyda Herguner

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the tissue dissolution efficacy of four root canal irrigation solutions (sodium hypochlorite [NaOCl], chlorhexidine gluconate [CHX], Octenidine [OCT], and QMix 2in1) on bovine pulp tissue. Materials and Methods: Fifty bovine pulp tissue samples, each weighing 6.55 mg, were prepared and randomly divided into four experimental groups and one control group (n = 10) according to the dissolution irrigants used: (1) 5.25% NaOCl group; (2) 2% CHX group; (3) OCT group; (4) QMix 2in1 group; and (5) control group (saline solution). These samples were then placed into special bovine dentin reservoir models and immersed for 1 h with each test solution (0.1 mL of each) at room temperature. The pulp samples were then blotted dry and weighed again. The percentage of weight loss was calculated. Statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey tests (P = 0.05). Results: Saline solution did not dissolve the bovine pulp tissue. All groups, except OCT, dissolved pulp samples more effectively than the control group (P < 0.05). The highest tissue dissolution was observed in 5.25% NaOCl group (P < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between the tissue-dissolving effect between QMix 2in1 and those of 2% CHX. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, NaOCl exhibited the best tissue-dissolving effect out of all solutions tested. CHX and QMix 2in1 were able to dissolve pulp tissue but less than NaOCl. OCT and saline solutions could not exhibit significantly tissue-dissolving effectiveness. This study shown that QMix 2in1 has little capacity to dissolve pulp tissue therefore used alone is not sufficient for this purpose. PMID:26430374

  17. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions

    PubMed Central

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. Objective: The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics. Methods: This article presents an overview of ultrasonic irrigation methods and their debridement efficacy. In this paper the relevant literature on passive ultrasonic irrigation is reviewed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews listed in MEDLINE and Cochrane were included in the review. Results: The use of ultrasound in the irrigation procedure results in improved canal cleanliness, better irrigant transfer to the canal system, soft tissue debridement, and removal of smear layer and bacteria. There are many in vitro studies, but there is a need to standardize protocols, and correlate the clinical efficacy of ultrasonic devices with improved treatment outcomes. Understanding the basis of ultrasonic irrigation is fundamental for clinicians and researchers to improve the design and use of ultrasonic irrigation. Key words:Ultrasonic irrigation, ultrasound, smear layer, endodontics. PMID:22143738

  18. [Effects of inhibiting the phosphorylation of JNK by absorbed INF-γon the remodeling of nasal mucosa in allergic rhinitis rats].

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Chen, Y L; Ma, Y Y; Zhang, Y D; Sun, C W; You, C P

    2016-07-05

    Objective: To study the role of phosphorylated JNK(c-Jun N-terminal kinase) on nasal mucosa remodeling in allergic rhinitis(AR) rats and the influence of IFN-γon IL-1β,JNK and nasal mucosa remodeling. Method: According to random number table,48 Wistar rats were divided into control group(A group),AR group(B group),IFN-γgroup(C group) and triamcinolone acetonide group(D group).The rats in group B,C and D were sensitized and provocated for inducing AR by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin(OVA) and Al(OH)₃.Thirty minutes before intranasally challenged,rats in three groups were administrated by instillation of PBS,IFN-γand triamcinolone acetonide into nasal cavities,while the group A rats were administrated by saline solution.Ten rats in each group were selected to enter the final experiment.The density of IL-1βin serum and nasal lavage fluid were tested by ELISA.The mean absorbance (m A ) of phosphorylated JNK and c-Jun were tested by immunohistochemistry.Western Blot detected the P-JNK level in nasal tissue homogenate. Result: The density of IL-1βin serum and nasal lavage fluid in group C and group D were significantly lower than that of group B ( P <0.01).Immunohistochemistry study showed that the protein expression level of phosphorylated JNK and c-Jun of nasal mucosa were significantly increased in group B,but significantly reduced in group C and group D .The mA of phosphorylated JNK and c-Jun in group B were significantly higher than those in the group C and group D( P <0.01).The Western blot showed that the P-JNK of nasal tissue homogenate in group B was higher than that of group C and group D ( P <0.01). Conclusion: The phosphorylation of JNK played an important role in nasal mucosa remodeling.IFN-γcould inhibit the phosphorylation of JNK and reduce the nasal mucosa remodeling.The mechanisms may be achieved through down-regulation of IL-1β. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of root canal irrigants against biofilm forming pathogens- An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ghivari, Sheetal Basavraj; Bhattacharya, Haimanti; Bhat, Kishore G.; Pujar, Madhu A.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to check the antimicrobial activity of the 5% Sodium hypochlorite, 2% Chlorhexidine, 0.10% Octenidine (OCT), and 2% Silver Zeolite (SZ) at different time intervals against a single species biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans model prepared on a nitrocellulose membrane. Settings and Design: In vitro nitrocellulose biofilm model was used to check antibacterial efficacy of root canal irrigants. Materials and Methods: The in vitro nitrocellulose biofilm model was used to check the antibacterial activity of root canal irrigants. Single species biofilms were suspended into 96-well microtiter plate and treated with root canal irrigants for 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 s, respectively. The remaining microbial load in the form of colony-forming unit/ml after antimicrobial treatment was tabulated and data were statistically analyzed. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 17, Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA, Mann–Whitney U-test, and Wilcoxon matched pair test (P < 0.05) were used. Results: All tested microorganisms were eliminated within 30 s by all the antimicrobial substances tested except normal saline. 2% chlorhexidine and 0.10% OCT were equally effective against C. albicans at 30 s. Conclusion: The newly tested irrigants have shown considerable antibacterial activity against selected single species biofilm. OCT (0.10%) can be used as an alternative endodontic irrigant. PMID:29279615

  20. Small-Incision Laparoscopy-Assisted Surgery Under Abdominal Cavity Irrigation in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Takuro; Aoe, Tomohiko; Yu, Wen-Wei; Ebihara, Yuma; Kawahira, Hiroshi; Isono, Shiro; Naya, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgeries are performed under carbon dioxide insufflation. Switching from gas to an isotonic irrigant introduces several benefits and avoids some adverse effects of gas insufflation. We developed an irrigating device and apparatus designed for single-incision laparoscopic surgery and tested its advantages and drawbacks during surgery in a porcine model. Materials and Methods: Six pigs underwent surgical procedures under general anesthesia. A 30-cm extracorporeal cistern was placed over a 5–6-cm abdominal incision. The abdomen was irrigated with warm saline that was drained via a suction tube placed near the surgical field and continuously recirculated through a closed circuit equipped with a hemodialyzer as a filter. Irrigant samples from two pigs were cultured to check for bacterial and fungal contamination. Body weight was measured before and after surgery in four pigs that had not received treatments affecting hemodynamics or causing diuresis. Results: One-way flow of irrigant ensured laparoscopic vision by rinsing blood from the surgical field. Through a retroperitoneal approach, cystoprostatectomy was successfully performed in three pigs, nephrectomy in two, renal excision in two, and partial nephrectomy in one, under simultaneous ultrasonographic monitoring. Through a transperitoneal approach, liver excision and hemostasis with a bipolar sealing device were performed in three pigs, and bladder pedicle excision was performed in one pig. Bacterial and fungal contamination of the irrigant was observed on the draining side of the circuit, but the filter captured the contaminants. Body weight increased by a median of 2.1% (range, 1.2–4.4%) of initial weight after 3–5 hours of irrigation. Conclusions: Surgery under irrigation is feasible and practical when performed via a cistern through a small abdominal incision. This method is advantageous, especially in the enabling of continuous and free

  1. Numerical simulation and nasal air-conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Tilman; Lindemann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Heating and humidification of the respiratory air are the main functions of the nasal airways in addition to cleansing and olfaction. Optimal nasal air conditioning is mandatory for an ideal pulmonary gas exchange in order to avoid desiccation and adhesion of the alveolar capillary bed. The complex three-dimensional anatomical structure of the nose makes it impossible to perform detailed in vivo studies on intranasal heating and humidification within the entire nasal airways applying various technical set-ups. The main problem of in vivo temperature and humidity measurements is a poor spatial and time resolution. Therefore, in vivo measurements are feasible only to a restricted extent, solely providing single temperature values as the complete nose is not entirely accessible. Therefore, data on the overall performance of the nose are only based on one single measurement within each nasal segment. In vivo measurements within the entire nose are not feasible. These serious technical issues concerning in vivo measurements led to a large number of numerical simulation projects in the last few years providing novel information about the complex functions of the nasal airways. In general, numerical simulations merely calculate predictions in a computational model, e.g. a realistic nose model, depending on the setting of the boundary conditions. Therefore, numerical simulations achieve only approximations of a possible real situation. The aim of this review is the synopsis of the technical expertise on the field of in vivo nasal air conditioning, the novel information of numerical simulations and the current state of knowledge on the influence of nasal and sinus surgery on nasal air conditioning. PMID:22073112

  2. Spectral Discrimination of Salinity and Fertilizer Stress in Wheat (Triticum Sativa L.) using Photosynthesis Parameters and Hpyerspectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, S. H.; Houborg, R.; Tester, M.; McCabe, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Multidisciplinary research has long sought the ability to estimate the parameters of plant functions such as photosynthetic capacity under stress conditions from remotely sensed data. Yet, the main goal has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects of saline water irrigation and the rate of fertilizer application on the photosynthetic response of wheat in a greenhouse based experiment. After two weeks of germination, the plants were subjected to irrigation with sea water blended with high quality reverse osmosis (RO) water. Three levels of water salinity having electrical conductivities (EC) of 0.3, 7.0, 14.0 dSm-1 were obtained by mixing sea water with RO water and plants were irrigated to approximately 70% of field capacity without excess drainage. Three levels of NPK fertilizer at the rate of null, half and full recommended doses were also employed in the experiment. The two key determinants of photosynthetic capacity, the maximum rates of RuBP carboxylation (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport based on NADPH requirement (Jmax), were obtained through standard gas exchange technique.CO2 response curves of net CO2 assimilation (An) against variable CO2 concentrations in the intracellular spaces (Ci) at constant environmental conditions were drawn and a Sharkey model was fit to the obtained data. Hyperspectral reflectance (λ = 350-2500 nm) of fresh leaves were obtained and the hyperspectral characteristics and their correlations with the photosynthetic parameters were drawn. Unique contributions from different spectral regions of the hyperspectral data were analyzed. Our results revealed that saline irrigation adversely affects some of the biochemical photosynthetic parameters while favors others and it can be reflected in shifts in patterns at various regions of the hyperspectral data. These results suggest a promising strategy for developing remote sensing methods to characterize photosynthetic activity of

  3. A new approach to the treatment of nasal bone fracture: radiologic classification of nasal bone fractures and its clinical application.

    PubMed

    Han, Daniel Seung Youl; Han, Yea Sik; Park, Jin Hyung

    2011-11-01

    A radiologic examination is required in the treatment of nasal bone fracture to determine the fracture condition. Thus, there is an increasing need for radiologic classification of nasal bone fractures that can be applied to clinical practice. Computed tomography was performed in 125 patients with nasal bone fractures to determine which axial view best showed the entire nasal view. The obtained axial view was then used as a reference for classification. The length from the top to the base of the nasal bone was divided into upper, middle, and lower levels, after which the fracture location was determined. If the fracture spanned the boundaries of these levels, it was classified as the total level. Subsequently, the fracture was subclassified based on the fracture direction and pattern and the concurrent fracture. Radiologic examination of patients with nasal bone fracture showed that nasal bone fracture was frequently found at the total, middle, upper, and lower levels, in that order. Nasal bone fractures at the upper level showed lower frequencies of complication and reoperation than the fractures at the other levels, whereas nasal bone fractures at the total level showed the highest frequencies of complication and reoperation. Radiologic classification can be useful for preoperative and postoperative evaluations of nasal bone fractures and can be helpful in understanding such fractures because it can efficiently predict the prognosis of a fracture. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A pilot study of direct delivery of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin to the lung by the nasal route in a mouse model of Niemann-Pick C1 disease: motor performance is unaltered and lung disease is worsened.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Robert P; Deutsch, Gail; Patil, Ruturaj

    2018-05-01

    We have tested the efficacy of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) delivered by the nasal route in the mouse model of juvenile Niemann-Pick C1 disease (NPC1), as pulmonary disease has not responded to systemic therapy with this drug. Since mice have no gag reflex, coating of the nasal cavity, with possible access to the brain, would be followed by delivery of HPBCD to the lung. While foamy macrophages, containing stored cholesterol, were found in the Npc1 nmf164 homozygous mice, a marked inflammatory response was found with inhaled HPBCD, both in mutant and wild-type animals. Slight inflammation also occasionally occurred with saline inhalation. There was no difference between the saline-treated, HPBCD-treated, and untreated Npc1 nmf164 homozygous mice for weight, balance beam performance, or coat hanger performance. Interestingly, there was a trend to longer survival in the HPBCD-treated Npc1 nmf164 homozygous mice, which, when combined with the survival times of the saline-treated survivals (each of which was not different), became significant.

  5. Efficacy and safety of an antiviral Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study in volunteers with early symptoms of the common cold.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Ron; Meier, Christiane; Jawad, Martez; Weinmüllner, Regina; Grassauer, Andreas; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva

    2010-08-10

    The common cold, the most prevalent contagious viral disease in humans still lacks a safe and effective antiviral treatment. Iota-Carrageenan is broadly active against respiratory viruses in-vitro and has an excellent safety profile. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of an Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray in patients with common cold symptoms. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory trial, 35 human subjects suffering from early symptoms of common cold received Iota-Carrageenan (0.12%) in a saline solution three times daily for 4 days, compared to placebo. Administration of Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray reduced the symptoms of common cold (p = 0.046) and the viral load in nasal lavages (p = 0.009) in patients with early symptoms of common cold. Pro-inflammatory mediators FGF-2, Fractalkine, GRO, G-CSF, IL-8, IL-1alpha, IP-10, IL-10, and IFN-alpha2 were reduced in the Iota-Carrageenan group. Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray appears to be a promising treatment for safe and effective treatment of early symptoms of common cold. Larger trials are indicated to confirm the results.

  6. Nasal and Oral Inspiration During Natural Speech Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Hoit, Jeannette D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the typical pattern for inspiration during speech breathing in healthy adults, as well as the factors that might influence it. Method Ten healthy adults, 18–45 years of age, performed a variety of speaking tasks while nasal ram pressure, audio, and video recordings were obtained. Inspirations were categorized as a nasal only, oral only, simultaneous nasal and oral, or alternating nasal and oral inspiration. The method was validated using nasal airflow, oral airflow, audio, and video recordings for two participants. Results The predominant pattern was simultaneous nasal and oral inspirations for all speaking tasks. This pattern was not affected by the nature of the speaking task or by the phonetic context surrounding the inspiration. The validation procedure confirmed that nearly all inspirations during counting and paragraph reading were simultaneous nasal and oral inspirations; whereas for sentence reading, the predominant pattern was alternating nasal and oral inspirations across the three phonetic contexts. Conclusions Healthy adults inspire through both the nose and mouth during natural speech breathing. This pattern of inspiration is likely beneficial in reducing pathway resistance while preserving some of the benefits of nasal breathing. PMID:24129013

  7. Role of solute-transport models in the analysis of groundwater salinity problems in agricultural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, Leonard F.

    1981-01-01

    Undesirable salinity increases occur in both groundwater and surface water and are commonly related to agricultural practices. Groundwater recharge from precipitation or irrigation will transport and disperse residual salts concentrated by evapotranspiration, salts leached from soil and aquifer materials, as well as some dissolved fertilizers and pesticides. Where stream salinity is affected by agricultural practices, the increases in salt load usually are attributable mostly to a groundwater component of flow. Thus, efforts to predict, manage, or control stream salinity increases should consider the role of groundwater in salt transport. Two examples of groundwater salinity problems in Colorado, U.S.A., illustrate that a model which simulates accurately the transport and dispersion of solutes in flowing groundwater can be (1) a valuable investigative tool to help understand the processes and parameters controlling the movement and fate of the salt, and (2) a valuable management tool for predicting responses and optimizing the development and use of the total water resource. ?? 1981.

  8. Azithromycin add-on therapy in high-risk postendoscopic sinus surgery patients failing corticosteroid irrigations: A clinical practice audit.

    PubMed

    Maniakas, Anastasios; Desrosiers, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has a high potential for recurrence after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS), despite a postoperative therapy of topical corticosteroid irrigations. Azithromycin (AZI) is a macrolide antibiotic with anti-inflammatory properties that may be of benefit in such steroid-unresponsive patients. Follow-up study was performed to (1) review the effectiveness of the management strategy of adding AZI in high-risk post-ESS patients failing standard management and (2) identify predictive factors for steroid nonresponsiveness. A retrospective audit of the postoperative evolution of all patients undergoing ESS for CRS in 2010 by a single surgeon was undertaken. Patients deemed at high risk of recurrence based on preoperative history and/or perioperative findings received nasal irrigation with 0.5 mg of budesonide (BUD) in 240 mL of saline twice daily after ESS. Patients showing signs of endoscopic recurrence at 4 months, despite BUD, had AZI at 250 mg three times a week added to their treatment regimen. A total of 57 high-risk patients underwent ESS during this period. At 4 months, 63.2% (36/57) had a favorable outcome solely with BUD. Twelve of the 21 nonresponders received AZI, with an additional 66.7% (8/12) subsequently showing a favorable response. Failure of BUD was associated with female gender (p = 0.048), having elevated alpha-1-antitrypsin levels (p = 0.037) and lower recovery rates of Staphylococcus aureus (p = 0.063). Although the AZI subgroup was too small for statistical analysis, female gender was more frequently associated with failure of both BUD and AZI, while IgE was not useful. A significant subgroup of high-risk patients showing disease recurrence after ESS despite topical corticosteroid therapy may respond to the addition of AZI as part of their therapy. These findings suggest that topical steroid-unresponsive CRS may represent a distinct entity and that alternate anti-inflammatory agents may be required for optimal management.

  9. Seasonal/Yearly Salinity Variations in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David H.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael D.; DiLeo, Jeanne Sandra; Hager, Stephen E.; Knowles, Noah; Nichols, Frederic H.; Schemel, Laurence E.; Smith, Richard E.; Uncles, Reginald J.

    1995-01-01

    The ability of resource agencies to manage fish, wildlife and freshwater supplies of San Francisco Bay estuary requires an integrated knowledge of the relations between the biota and their physical environment. A key factor in these relations is the role of salinity in determining both the physical and the biological character of the estuary. The saltiness of the water, and particularly its seasonal and interannual patterns of variability, affects which aquatic species live where within the estuary. Salinity also determines where water can and cannot be diverted for human consumption and irrigated agriculture, and plays a role in determining the capacity of the estuary to cleanse itself of wastes. In short, salinity is a fundamental property of estuarine physics and chemistry that, in turn, determines the biological characteristics of each estuary. Freshwater is a major control on estuarine salinity. Most freshwater supplied to the Bay is from river flow through the Delta, which is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada. Most contaminants in San Francisco Bay are from the Sacramento/San Joaquin Valley and the local watershed around the Bay rather than the sea or atmosphere. Land is the primary source of freshwater and freshwater serves as a tracer of land-derived substances such as the trace metals (copper, lead and selenium), pesticides and plant nutrients (nitrate and phosphate). The U.S. Geological Survey is collaborating with other agencies and institutions in studying San Francisco Bay salinity using field observations and numerical simulations to define the physical processes that control salinity. The issues that arise from salinity fluctuations, however, differ in the northern and southern parts of the bay. In North Bay we need to know how salinity responds to freshwater flow through the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta; this knowledge will benefit water managers who determine how much delta flow is needed a) to protect freshwater supplies for municipal water

  10. Remote Sensing Soil Salinity Map for the San Joaquin Vally, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudiero, E.; Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinization is a major natural hazard to worldwide agriculture. We present a remote imagery approach that maps salinity within a range (i.e., salinities less than 20 dS m-1, when measured as the electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract), accuracy, and resolution most relevant to agriculture. A case study is presented for the western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV), California, USA (~870,000 ha of farmland) using multi-year Landsat 7 ETM+ canopy reflectance and the Canopy Response Salinity Index (CRSI). Highly detailed salinity maps for 22 fields (542 ha) established from apparent soil electrical conductivity directed sampling were used as ground-truth (sampled in 2013), totaling over 5000 pixels (30×30 m) with salinity values in the range of 0 to 35.2 dS m-1. Multi-year maximum values of CRSI were used to model soil salinity. In addition, soil type, elevation, meteorological data, and crop type were evaluated as covariates. The fitted model (R2=0.73) was validated: i) with a spatial k-folds (i.e., leave-one-field-out) cross-validation (R2=0.61), ii) versus salinity data from three independent fields (sampled in 2013 and 2014), and iii) by determining the accuracy of the qualitative classification of white crusted land as extremely-saline soils. The effect of land use change is evaluated over 2396 ha in the Broadview Water District from a comparison of salinity mapped in 1991 with salinity predicted in 2013 from the fitted model. From 1991 to 2013 salinity increased significantly over the selected study site, bringing attention to potential negative effects on soil quality of shifting from irrigated agriculture to fallow-land. This is cause for concern since over the 3 years of California's drought (2010-2013) the fallow land in the WSJV increased from 12.7% to 21.6%, due to drastic reduction in water allocations to farmers.

  11. A GIS-based assessment of groundwater suitability for irrigation purposes in flat areas of the wet Pampa plain, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Asunción; Lima, María Lourdes; Quiroz Londoño, Orlando Mauricio; Martínez, Daniel Emilio; Massone, Héctor Enrique

    2012-09-01

    The Pampa in Argentina is a large plain with a quite obvious dependence on agriculture, water availability and its quality. It is a sensitive environment due to weather changes and slope variations. Supplementary irrigation is a useful practice for compensating the production in the zone. However, potential negative impacts of this type of irrigation in salinization and sodification of soils are evident. Most conventional methodologies for assessing water irrigation quality have difficulties in their application in the region because they do not adjust to the defined assumptions for them. Consequently, a new GIS-based methodology integrating multiparametric data was proposed for evaluating and delineating groundwater suitability zones for irrigation purposes in flat areas. Hydrogeological surveys including water level measurements, groundwater samples for chemical analysis and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were performed. The combination of EC, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, slopes and hydraulic gradient parameters generated an irrigation water index (IWI). With the integration of the IWI 1 to 3 classes (categories of suitable waters for irrigation) and the aquifer thickness the restricted irrigation water index (RIWI) was obtained. The IWI's index application showed that 61.3 % of the area has "Very high" to "Moderate" potential for irrigation, while the 31.4 % of it has unsuitable waters. Approximately, 46 % of the tested area has high suitability for irrigation and moderate groundwater availability. This proposed methodology has advantages over traditional methods because it allows for better discrimination in homogeneous areas.

  12. Oronasal Masks Require a Higher Pressure than Nasal and Nasal Pillow Masks for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sheetal; Joosten, Simon; Turton, Anthony; Edwards, Bradley A.; Landry, Shane; Mansfield, Darren R.; Hamilton, Garun S.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Oronasal masks are frequently used for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to (1) determine if CPAP requirements are higher for oronasal masks compared to nasal mask interfaces and (2) assess whether polysomnography and patient characteristics differed among mask preference groups. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all CPAP implementation polysomnograms between July 2013 and June 2014. Prescribed CPAP level, polysomnography results and patient data were compared according to mask type (n = 358). Results: Oronasal masks were used in 46%, nasal masks in 35% and nasal pillow masks in 19%. There was no difference according to mask type for baseline apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), body mass index (BMI), waist or neck circumference. CPAP level was higher for oronasal masks, 12 (10–15.5) cm H2O compared to nasal pillow masks, 11 (8–12.5) cm H2O and nasal masks, 10 (8–12) cm H2O, p < 0.0001 (Median [interquartile range]). Oronasal mask type, AHI, age, and BMI were independent predictors of a higher CPAP pressure (p < 0.0005, adjusted R2 = 0.26.). For patients with CPAP ≥ 15 cm H2O, there was an odds ratio of 4.5 (95% CI 2.5–8.0) for having an oronasal compared to a nasal or nasal pillow mask. Residual median AHI was higher for oronasal masks (11.3 events/h) than for nasal masks (6.4 events/h) and nasal pillows (6.7 events/h), p < 0.001. Conclusions: Compared to nasal mask types, oronasal masks are associated with higher CPAP pressures (particularly pressures ≥ 15 cm H2O) and a higher residual AHI. Further evaluation with a randomized control trial is required to definitively establish the effect of mask type on pressure requirements. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1209. Citation: Deshpande S, Joosten S, Turton A, Edwards BA, Landry S, Mansfield DR, Hamilton GS. Oronasal masks require a higher pressure than nasal and

  13. Phenotype and function of nasal dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haekyung; Ruane, Darren; Law, Kenneth; Ho, Yan; Garg, Aakash; Rahman, Adeeb; Esterházy, Daria; Cheong, Cheolho; Goljo, Erden; Sikora, Andrew G.; Mucida, Daniel; Chen, Benjamin; Govindraj, Satish; Breton, Gaëlle; Mehandru, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Intranasal vaccination generates immunity across local, regional and distant sites. However, nasal dendritic cells (DC), pivotal for the induction of intranasal vaccine- induced immune responses, have not been studied in detail. Here, using a variety of parameters, we define nasal DCs in mice and humans. Distinct subsets of “classical” DCs, dependent on the transcription factor zbtb46 were identified in the murine nose. The murine nasal DCs were FLT3 ligand-responsive and displayed unique phenotypic and functional characteristics including the ability to present antigen, induce an allogeneic T cell response and migrate in response to LPS or live bacterial pathogens. Importantly, in a cohort of human volunteers, BDCA-1+ DCs were observed to be the dominant nasal DC population at steady state. During chronic inflammation, the frequency of both BDCA-1+ and BDCA-3hi DCs was reduced in the nasal tissue, associating the loss of these immune sentinels with chronic nasal inflammation. The present study is the first detailed description of the phenotypic, ontogenetic and functional properties of nasal DCs and will inform the design of preventative immunization strategies as well as therapeutic modalities against chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:25669151

  14. Thoracic irrigation prevents retained hemothorax: A prospective propensity scored analysis.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Nathan W; Carver, Thomas W; Milia, David; Paul, Jasmeet S

    2017-12-01

    Thoracic trauma resulting in hemothorax (HTx) is typically managed with thoracostomy tube (TT) placement; however, up to 20% of patients develop retained HTx which may necessitate further intervention for definitive management. Although optimal management of retained HTx has been extensively researched, little is known about prevention of this complication. We hypothesized that thoracic irrigation at the time of TT placement would significantly decrease the rate of retained HTx necessitating secondary intervention. A prospective, comparative study of patients with traumatic HTx who underwent bedside TT placement was conducted. The control group consisted of patients who underwent standard TT placement, whereas the irrigation group underwent standard TT placement with immediate irrigation using 1 L of warmed sterile 0.9% saline. Patients who underwent emergency thoracotomy, those with TTs removed within 24 hours, or those who died within 30 days of discharge were excluded. The primary end point was secondary intervention defined by additional TT placement or operative management for retained HTx. A propensity-matched analysis was performed with scores estimated using a logistic regression model based on age, sex, mechanism of injury, Abbreviated Injury Scale chest score, and TT size. In over a 30-month period, a total of 296 patients underwent TT placement for the management of traumatic HTx. Patients were predominantly male (79.6%) at a median age of 40 years and were evenly split between blunt (48.8%) and penetrating (51.2%) mechanisms. Sixty (20%) patients underwent thoracic irrigation at time of initial TT placement. The secondary intervention rate was significantly lower within the study group (5.6% vs. 21.8%; OR, 0.16; p < 0.001). No significant differences in TT duration, ventilator days, or length of stay were noted between the irrigation and control cohort. Thoracic irrigation at the time of initial TT placement for traumatic HTx significantly reduced the

  15. Regional deposition of mometasone furoate nasal spray suspension in humans.

    PubMed

    Shah, Samir A; Berger, Robert L; McDermott, John; Gupta, Pranav; Monteith, David; Connor, Alyson; Lin, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Nasal deposition studies can demonstrate whether nasal sprays treating allergic rhinitis and polyposis reach the ciliated posterior nasal cavity, where turbinate inflammation and other pathology occurs. However, quantifying nasal deposition is challenging, because in vitro tests do not correlate to human nasal deposition; gamma scintigraphy studies are thus used. For valid data, the radiolabel must distribute, as the drug, into different-sized droplets, remain associated with the drug in the formulation after administration, and not alter its deposition. Some nasal deposition studies have demonstrated this using homogenous solutions. However, most commercial nasal sprays are heterogeneous suspensions. Using mometasone furoate nasal suspension (MFS), we developed a technique to validate radiolabel deposition as a surrogate for nasal cavity drug deposition and characterized regional deposition and nasal clearance in humans. Mometasone furoate (MF) formulation was spiked with diethylene triamine pentacaetic acid. Both unlabeled and radiolabeled formulations (n = 3) were sprayed into a regionally divided nasal cast. Drug deposition was quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography within each region; radiolabel deposition was determined by gamma camera. Healthy subjects (n = 12) were dosed and imaged for six hours. Scintigraphic images were coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging scans to quantify anterior and posterior nasal cavity deposition and mucociliary clearance. The ratio of radiolabel to unlabeled drug was 1.05 in the nasal cast and regionally appeared to match, indicating that in vivo radiolabel deposition could represent drug deposition. In humans, MFS delivered 86% (9.2) of metered dose to the nasal cavity, approximately 60% (9.1) of metered dose to the posterior nasal cavity. After 15 minutes, mucociliary clearance removed 59% of the initial radiolabel in the nasal cavity, consistent with clearance rates from the ciliated posterior surface. MFS

  16. Regional deposition of mometasone furoate nasal spray suspension in humans.

    PubMed

    Shah, S A; Berger, R L; McDermott, J; Gupta, P; Monteith, D; Connor, A; Lin, W

    2014-11-21

    Nasal deposition studies can demonstrate whether nasal sprays treating allergic rhinitis and polyposis reach the ciliated posterior nasal cavity, where turbinate inflammation and other pathology occurs. However, quantifying nasal deposition is challenging, because in vitro tests do not correlate to human nasal deposition; gamma scintigraphy studies are thus used. For valid data, the radiolabel must distribute, as the drug, into different-sized droplets, remain associated with the drug in the formulation after administration, and not alter its deposition. Some nasal deposition studies have demonstrated this using homogenous solutions. However, most commercial nasal sprays are heterogeneous suspensions. Using mometasone furoate nasal suspension (MFS), we developed a technique to validate radiolabel deposition as a surrogate for nasal cavity drug deposition and characterized regional deposition and nasal clearance in humans. Mometasone furoate (MF) formulation was spiked with diethylene triamine pentacaetic acid. Both unlabeled and radiolabeled formulations (n = 3) were sprayed into a regionally divided nasal cast. Drug deposition was quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography within each region; radiolabel deposition was determined by gamma camera. Healthy subjects (n = 12) were dosed and imaged for six hours. Scintigraphic images were coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging scans to quantify anterior and posterior nasal cavity deposition and mucociliary clearance. The ratio of radiolabel to unlabeled drug was 1.05 in the nasal cast and regionally appeared to match, indicating that in vivo radiolabel deposition could represent drug deposition. In humans, MFS delivered 86% (9.2) of metered dose to the nasal cavity, approximately 60% (9.1) of metered dose to the posterior nasal cavity. After 15 minutes, mucociliary clearance removed 59% of the initial radiolabel in the nasal cavity, consistent with clearance rates from the ciliated posterior surface. MFS

  17. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Nasal Surgery to Increase Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence in Sleep Apnea Patients With Nasal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kempfle, Judith S.; BuSaba, Nicholas Y.; Dobrowski, John M.; Westover, Michael B.; Bianchi, Matt T.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Nasal surgery has been implicated to improve continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compliance in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and nasal obstruction. However, the cost-effectiveness of nasal surgery to improve CPAP compliance is not known. We modeled the cost-effectiveness of two types of nasal surgery versus no surgery in patients with OSA and nasal obstruction undergoing CPAP therapy. Study Design Cost-effectiveness decision tree model. Methods We built a decision tree model to identify conditions under which nasal surgery would be cost-effective to improve CPAP adherence over the standard of care. We compared turbinate reduction and septoplasty to nonsurgical treatment over varied time horizons from a third-party payer perspective. We included variables for cost of untreated OSA, surgical cost and complications, improved compliance postoperatively, and quality of life. Results Our study identified nasal surgery as a cost-effective strategy to improve compliance of OSA patients using CPAP across a range of plausible model assumptions regarding the cost of untreated OSA, the probability of adherence improvement, and a chronic time horizon. The relatively lower surgical cost of turbinate reduction made it more cost-effective at earlier time horizons, whereas septoplasty became cost-effective after a longer timespan. Conclusions Across a range of plausible values in a clinically relevant decision model, nasal surgery is a cost-effective strategy to improve CPAP compliance in OSA patients with nasal obstruction. Our results suggest that OSA patients with nasal obstruction who struggle with CPAP therapy compliance should undergo evaluation for nasal surgery. PMID:27653626

  18. Nasal Chondromesenchymal Hamartoma in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Finitsis, Stefanos; Giavroglou, Constantinos; Potsi, Stamatia, E-mail: matinapotsi@hotmail.co

    Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) is a benign tumor that was described in 1998. The occurrence of this lesion in the nasal cavity of infants and children is especially rare, with only 21 cases reported in the international literature. We report a 12-month-old boy with respiratory distress due to nasal obstruction. Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a soft-tissue mass obstructing the left nasal cavity. Digital subtraction angiography and preoperative superselective embolization with microparticles were also performed. The tumor was completely resected surgically. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analyses of the tumor disclosed a NCMH. The imaging characteristics of themore » tumor are described and the radiology literature is reviewed.« less

  19. Assessment of the effect of deviated nasal septum on the structure of nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junguo; Dou, Xin; Liu, Dingding; Song, Panpan; Qian, Xiaoyun; Wang, Shoulin; Gao, Xia

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of DNS on the structure of nasal cavity. The paranasal sinus coronal view CT of 108 patients with DNS and 129 hospitalized patients without DNS was retrospectively analyzed. The transverse diameter of nasal cavity (a), transverse diameter of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (b), angle between maxillary and palatal bone, interalveolar distance, and maxillary rotation distance were measured. The ratio of a/b in experimental group was 0.367 ± 0.006 which was significantly (P = 0.0023) less than that in control group (0.391 ± 0.005). For the angle between maxillary and palatal bone, there was no significant difference found between DNS and control group for both right and left sides. The interalveolar distance was 40.75 mm in experimental group, and 38.8 mm in control (P = 0.0002). For the maxillary rotation distance, findings were considered as significant (P < 0.0001) in experimental group (11.25 mm) compared with control (10.1 mm). The present study demonstrates that long-term DNS affects the development of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus, as well as increases the interalveolar distance and maxillary rotation distance. These influences may be caused by the alteration of airflow inside the nasal cavities.

  20. Irrigation strategies using subsurface drip irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is practiced on approximately 60,000 ha in the Texas High Plains region of the USA. Adoption of SDI continues to increase in the region. This has been attributed to record drought in Texas and the US Southwest in recent years, declining irrigation well yields, and ev...

  1. A Real-time Irrigation Forecasting System in Jiefangzha Irrigation District, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the irrigation efficiency, we need to know when and how much to irrigate in real time. If we know the soil moisture content at this time, we can forecast the soil moisture content in the next days based on the rainfall forecasting and the crop evapotranspiration forecasting. Then the irrigation should be considered when the forecasting soil moisture content reaches to a threshold. Jiefangzha Irrigation District, a part of Hetao Irrigation District, is located in Inner Mongolia, China. The irrigated area of this irrigation district is about 140,000 ha mainly planting wheat, maize and sunflower. The annual precipitation is below 200mm, so the irrigation is necessary and the irrigation water comes from the Yellow river. We set up 10 sites with 4 TDR sensors at each site (20cm, 40cm, 60cm and 80cm depth) to monitor the soil moisture content. The weather forecasting data are downloaded from the website of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The reference evapotranspiration is estimated based on FAO-Blaney-Criddle equation with only the air temperature from ECMWF. Then the crop water requirement is forecasted by the crop coefficient multiplying the reference evapotranspiration. Finally, the soil moisture content is forecasted based on soil water balance with the initial condition is set as the monitoring soil moisture content. When the soil moisture content reaches to a threshold, the irrigation warning will be announced. The irrigation mount can be estimated through three ways: (1) making the soil moisture content be equal to the field capacity; (2) making the soil moisture saturated; or (3) according to the irrigation quota. The forecasting period is 10 days. The system is developed according to B2C model with Java language. All the databases and the data analysis are carried out in the server. The customers can log in the website with their own username and password then get the information about the irrigation forecasting

  2. Characterization of deposition from nasal spray devices using a computational fluid dynamics model of the human nasal passages.

    PubMed

    Kimbell, Julia S; Segal, Rebecca A; Asgharian, Bahman; Wong, Brian A; Schroeter, Jeffry D; Southall, Jeremy P; Dickens, Colin J; Brace, Geoff; Miller, Frederick J

    2007-01-01

    Many studies suggest limited effectiveness of spray devices for nasal drug delivery due primarily to high deposition and clearance at the front of the nose. Here, nasal spray behavior was studied using experimental measurements and a computational fluid dynamics model of the human nasal passages constructed from magnetic resonance imaging scans of a healthy adult male. Eighteen commercially available nasal sprays were analyzed for spray characteristics using laser diffraction, high-speed video, and high-speed spark photography. Steadystate, inspiratory airflow (15 L/min) and particle transport were simulated under measured spray conditions. Simulated deposition efficiency and spray behavior were consistent with previous experimental studies, two of which used nasal replica molds based on this nasal geometry. Deposition fractions (numbers of deposited particles divided by the number released) of 20- and 50-microm particles exceeded 90% in the anterior part of the nose for most simulated conditions. Predicted particle penetration past the nasal valve improved when (1) the smaller of two particle sizes or the lower of two spray velocities was used, (2) the simulated nozzle was positioned 1.0 rather than 0.5 or 1.5 cm into the nostril, and (3) inspiratory airflow was present rather than absent. Simulations also predicted that delaying the appearance of normal inspiratory airflow more than 1 sec after the release of particles produced results equivalent to cases in which no inspiratory airflow was present. These predictions contribute to more effective design of drug delivery devices through a better understanding of the effects of nasal airflow and spray characteristics on particle transport in the nose.

  3. Distinguishing rhinitis and nasal neoplasia by radiography.

    PubMed

    Russo, M; Lamb, C R; Jakovljevic, S

    2000-01-01

    To compare the incidence of radiographic signs in dogs with rhinitis and primary nasal neoplasia and to assess the performance of observers for distinguishing these conditions, the nasal radiographs of 72 dogs with either rhinitis (n = 42) or primary nasal neoplasia (n = 30) were examined by two independent observers using custom-designed forms to record their interpretations. Rhinitis was associated with a higher incidence of focal or multifocal lesions, localised soft tissue opacities, lucent foci, and a lack of frontal sinus involvement. Neoplasia was associated with soft tissue opacities and loss of turbinate detail that affected the entire ipsilateral nasal cavity, signs of invasion of the bones surrounding the nasal cavity, and soft tissue/fluid opacities within the ipsilateral frontal sinus. The signs with the highest positive predictive value (PPV) for rhinitis were absence of frontal sinus lesions and lucent foci in nasal cavity (PPV of each 82%), and invasion of surrounding bones for neoplasia (PPV 88%). There were no significant differences in the position of the lesion within the nasal cavity, incidence of unilateral versus bilateral lesions, calcified lesions, or absence of teeth. There was moderate agreement between observers about the diagnosis (kappa 0.59). Areas (SE) under ROC curves were 0.94 (0.03) and 0.96 (0.03) for observers A and B, respectively (not significantly different; P = 0.68). These results indicate a high accuracy for radiologists examining dogs with nasal diseases. Differentiation of rhinitis and nasal neoplasia should be based on finding combinations of radiologic signs that together have a high PPV. Differences in interpretation between experienced observers in this study suggest that certain signs are potential sources of error.

  4. Preparation and in vitro characterization of thermosensitive and mucoadhesive hydrogels for nasal delivery of phenylephrine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Shen, Yan; Wang, Wei; Sun, Chunmeng; Li, Chang; Xiong, Yerong; Tu, Jiasheng

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a nasal delivery system of phenylephrine hydrochloride (PE) in spray form to make prolonged remedy of nasal congestion. The formulations contain the thermosensitive hydrogel, i.e., Poloxamer 407 (P407) and Poloxamer 188 (P188) mixtures, and mucoadhesives, i.e., ε-polylysine (ε-PL) and low molecular weight sodium hyaluronate (MW 11,000Da). The in vitro characterizations of formulations including rheology studies, texture profiles and in vitro mucoadhesion potential were investigated after gelation temperatures measurements. The results showed that the concentration of P407 or P188 had significant influence on gelation temperature and texture profiles. The addition of mucoadhesives, though lowered the gel strength of formulations, increased interaction with mucin. After screening, two formulations (i.e., 1.0% PE/0.5% ε-PL/17% P407/0.5% P188 or Formulation A; and 1.0% PE/0.5% HA/17% P407/0.8% P188 or Formulation B) presenting suitable gelation temperatures (∼32°C) were used for further studies on in vitro release behaviors and mucosa ciliotoxicity. Both formulations showed sustained release of PE for up to 8h and similar toxicity to saline, the negative control. Thus, the thermosensitive and mucoadhesive PE-containing hydrogels are promising to achieve prolonged decongestion in nasal cavity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Usage of polyvinylpyrrolidonic films for nasal cavity tamponade].

    PubMed

    Kriukov, A I; Karel'skaia, N A; Kleshnin, D A; Pashkin, I I

    2006-01-01

    The experience in otorhinolaryngological application of hydrogel films for nasal tamponade in nasal hemorrhage after surgical interventions on the intranasal structures and in nasal hemorrhage in leukemia patients was analysed.

  6. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril to...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen cannula is a two-pronged device used to administer oxygen to a patient through...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen cannula is a two-pronged device used to administer oxygen to a patient through...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril to...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen cannula is a two-pronged device used to administer oxygen to a patient through...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen cannula is a two-pronged device used to administer oxygen to a patient through...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen cannula is a two-pronged device used to administer oxygen to a patient through...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril to...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril to...

  15. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril to...

  16. A review of nasal polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Jonathan Ray; Ah-See, Kim Wong

    2008-01-01

    Nasal polyps are common, affecting up to four percent of the population. Their etiology remains unclear, but they are known to have associations with allergy, asthma, infection, cystic fibrosis, and aspirin sensitivity. They present with nasal obstruction, anosmia, rhinorrhoea, post nasal drip, and less commonly facial pain. Clinical examination reveals single or multiple grey polypoid masses in the nasal cavity. Computerized tomography allows evaluation of the extent of the disease and is essential if surgical treatment is to be considered. Management of polyposis involves a combination of medical therapy and surgery. There is good evidence for the use of corticosteroids (systemic and topical) both as primary treatment and as postoperative prophylaxis against recurrence. Surgical treatment has been refined significantly over the past twenty years with the advent of endoscopic sinus surgery and, in general, is reserved for cases refractory to medical treatment. Recurrence of the polyposis is common with severe disease recurring in up to ten percent of patients. PMID:18728843

  17. Variable rate irrigation (VRI)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) technology is now offered by all major manufacturers of moving irrigation systems, mostly on center pivot irrigation systems. Variable irrigation depths may be controlled by sector only, in which case only the speed of the irrigation lateral is regulated. Or, variable ...

  18. Effect of Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation solution on Enterococcus Faecalis biofilm in an ex-vivo root canal model.

    PubMed

    Sahar-Helft, Sharonit; Stabholtz, Adam; Moshonov, Joshua; Gutkin, Vitaly; Redenski, Idan; Steinberg, Doron

    2013-07-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate mineral content and surface morphology of root canals coated with Enterococcus faecalis biofilm after treatment with several endodontic irrigation solutions, with and without Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation (LAI). LAI has been introduced as a powerful method for root canal irrigation resulting in smear-layer removal from the root canal wall. Distal and palatal roots from 60 freshly extracted human molars were used in this study. The coronal of each tooth was removed. Roots were split longitudinally and placed in an ultrasonic bath to remove the smear layer, creating conditions for the formation of E. faecalis biofilm. After incubation, the two halves were reassembled in impression material to simulate clinical conditions. Specimens were divided into two main groups: roots rinsed with irrigation solutions and roots subjected to laser irradiation combined with irrigation solutions. Solutions tested were 2% chlorhexidine and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and saline. Surface morphology: 17% EDTA irrigant solution combined with Er:YAG laser showed the best results for removing bacteria from the root canal walls. Chemical analysis: all samples treated with combined laser irradiation and irrigation solution had low surface levels of Ca compared with samples treated with irrigation alone. The Ca/P ratio was highest in the laser-EDTA group. Overall, mineral changes caused by laser with irrigation solutions were minimal, and statistically nonsignificant. In vitro irrigation solutions, combined with Er:YAG laser irradiation, were effective in removing E. faecalis biofilm from root canal walls. Irrigation solutions without laser irradiation were less effective, leaving a layer of biofilm on the dentin surface.

  19. Normal and variant anatomy of the nasal tip.

    PubMed

    Ketcham, Amy S; Dobratz, Eric J

    2012-04-01

    A thorough understanding of nasal tip anatomy is a prerequisite to understanding the nuances of restructuring the nasal tip. The three-dimensional structural anatomy of the nasal tip is complex. Additionally, the interrelationship between these structures determines the ultimate form and function of the nasal tip. As a result, alteration of one structure in the tip will often lead to change in other portions of the nasal tip. This dynamic concept of anatomy in the nasal tip makes proper alteration of the nasal tip one of the most challenging tasks faced by a rhinoplasty surgeon. This article provides a fundamental knowledge of the normal anatomy of the tip structures and how their interaction with each other determines the shape and support of the lower portion of the nose. It also provides a description of some common variants of tip anatomy that cause patients to seek consultation for rhinoplasty. A proper understanding of the concepts presented provides a foundation to build on as the reader continues to explore the "nuances of the nasal tip." Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Normative Nasalance Scores for Brazilian Portuguese Using New Speech Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Marino, Viviane Cristina de Castro; Dutka, Jeniffer de Cássia Rillo; de Boer, Gillian; Cardoso, Vanessa Moraes; Ramos, Renata Giorgetto; Bressmann, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Normative data were established for newly developed speech materials for nasalance assessment in Brazilian Portuguese. Nasalance scores of preexisting passages (oral ZOO-BR, low-pressure oral ZOO-BR2 and NASAL-BR), new nasalance passages (oral Dudu no zoológico, oral Dudu no bosque, oral-nasal O cãozinho Totó and nasal O nenê) and Brasilcleft articulation screening sentences were collected from 245 speakers of Brazilian Portuguese, including 121 males and 124 females, divided into 4 groups: children (5-9 years), adolescents (10-19 years), young adults (20-24 years) and adults (25-35 years). Across all nasalance passages, adult females scored on average 2 percentage points higher than males. Children scored 2-4 percentage points lower than older groups for the preexisting nasalance passages ZOO-BR and ZOO-BR2. Nasalance scores for the new nasalance passages were not significantly different from the preexisting passages. Scores for high-pressure sentences did not differ significantly from the oral nasalance passage Dudu no bosque. The nasalance scores for the new nasalance passages were equivalent to the preexisting materials. The new shortened and simplified nasalance passages will be useful for assessing young children. Normative scores for the Brasilcleft high-pressure sentences were equivalent to the new oral passage Dudu no bosque. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Nasal patency and otorhinolaryngologic-orofacial features in children.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Jovana de Moura; Berwig, Luana Cristina; Schuch, Luiz Henrique; Ritzel, Rodrigo Agne; Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo da; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2017-11-21

    Nasal obstruction is a common symptom in childhood, related to rhinitis and pharyngeal tonsil hypertrophy. In the presence of nasal obstruction, nasal patency may be reduced, and nasal breathing is replaced by mouth breathing. Orofacial and otorhinolaryngologic changes are related to this breathing mode. Objective evaluation of upper airways may be obtained through nasal patency measurement. To compare nasal patency and otorhinolaryngologic-orofacial features in children. One hundred and twenty three children, 6-12 year-old, and of both sexes underwent speech therapy evaluation, according to Orofacial Myofunctional Evaluation protocol, clinical and endoscopic otorhinolaryngologic examination and nasal patency measurement, using the absolute and predicted (%) peak nasal inspiratory flow values. Lower values of absolute and estimated peak nasal inspiratory flow values were found in children with restless sleep (p=0.006 and p=0.002), nasal obstruction report (p=0.027 and p=0.023), runny nose (p=0.004 and p=0.012), unsystematic lip closure during mastication (p=0.040 and p=0.026), masticatory speed reduced (p=0.006 and p=0.008) and altered solid food swallowing (p=0.006 and p=0.001). Absolute peak nasal inspiratory flow was lower in children with pale inferior turbinate (p=0.040), reduced hard palate width (p=0.037) and altered speech (p=0.004). Higher absolute values were found in children with increased tongue width (p=0.027) and, higher absolute and predicted (%) in children with mild everted lip (p=0.008 and p=0.000). Nasal patency was lower in children with restless sleep, rhinitis signs and symptoms, hard palate width reduced and with changes in mastication, deglutition and speech functions. It is also emphasized that most of the children presented signs and symptom of allergic rhinitis. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Acoustic Analysis of Nasal Vowels in Monguor Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hanbin

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the spectrum characteristics and acoustic features for the nasal vowels [ɑ˜] and [ɔ˜] in Monguor language. On the base of acoustic parameter database of the Monguor speech, the study finds out that there are five main zero-pole pairs appearing for the nasal vowel [ɔ˜] and two zero-pole pairs appear for the nasal vowel [ɔ˜]. The results of regression analysis demonstrate that the duration of the nasal vowel [ɔ˜] or the nasal vowel [ɔ˜] can be predicted by it