Science.gov

Sample records for saline solution mouth

  1. A prospective clinical evaluation of the effects of chlorhexidine, warm saline mouth washes and microbial growth on intraoral sutures.

    PubMed

    Fomete, B; Saheeb, B D; Obiadazie, A C

    2015-06-01

    Post operative care of sutured wound is important after surgery. Sutured wounds within the oral cavity are kept clean through frequent rinses with either normal saline, chlorhexidine mouth rinses, hydrogen peroxide diluted with saline, or fresh tap water. The patients were randomised into 3 groups (A, B and C). The container used had 34 chlorhexidine, 34 warm saline and 32 warm water mouth rinses. The latter served as control. All selected patients had scaling and polishing done preoperatively when needed. All participants in each group did not receive antibiotics but received analgesics (paracetamol 1 g 8 h for 5 days,). There were 49 females and 51 males, in the age range between 18 and 50 years. Microorganisms were found to grow on sutures with streptococcus viridians predominating followed by staphylococcus epidermides. The effects of chlorhexidine, warm saline and warm tap water mouth washes were not statistically significant. Chlorhexidine, warm salt water and warm tap water averagely produced the same number of colony forming units of bacteria, which shows that the three different mouth washes are equally effective as post-operative mouth rinses after oral surgery.

  2. Comparison between Saline Solution Containing Heparin versus Saline Solution in the Lock of Totally Implantable Catheters.

    PubMed

    Brito, Antonio Rafael de Oliveira; Nishinari, Kenji; Saad, Paulo Fernandes; Saad, Karen Ruggeri; Pereira, Monica Aparecida Tomé; Emídio, Suellen Cristina Dias; Yazbek, Guilherme; Bomfim, Guilherme Andre Zottele; Cavalcante, Rafael Noronha; Krutman, Mariana; Teivelis, Marcelo Passos; Pignataro, Bruno Soriano; Fonseca, Igor Yoshio Imagawa; Centofanti, Guilherme; Soares, Bruno Leonardo Freitas

    2018-02-01

    There are only 3 studies comparing the efficacy of 2 different types of lock used in totally implantable catheters regarding occlusion or reflux dysfunction. The present study contains the largest published casuistry (862 patients) and is the only one that analyzes 3 parameters: occlusion, reflux dysfunction, and flow dysfunction. This was a retrospective study of patients operated at a large oncology center and followed up in the outpatient clinic between 2007 and 2015. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the type of lock: the Hep group (heparine), whose lock was composed of saline solution 0.9% with heparin (100 IU/mL) and the SS group (saline solution), whose lock was composed of saline solution 0.9%. The Hep group was composed of 270 patients (31%) and the SS group of 592 patients (69%). Regarding occlusion, there were 8 cases in the Hep group (2.96%) and 8 in the SS group (1.35%; P = 0.11); in relation to reflux dysfunction, there were 8 cases in the Hep group (2.96%) and 8 in the SS group (1.35%; P = 0.11); in relation to flow dysfunction, there was 1 case in the Hep group (0.37%) and 4 cases in the SS group (0.68%; P = 1). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding occlusion, reflux dysfunction, and flow dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of warm saline mouth rinse in prevention of alveolar osteitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Osunde, Otasowie Daniel; Bassey, Godwin Obi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the role warm saline rinse in the prevention of alveolar osteitis following dental extractions. Apparently patients aged 16 and above who were referred to the Oral Surgery Clinic of our institution, with an indication for non-surgical extraction of pathologic teeth were prospectively and uniformly randomized into warm saline group and control. The experimental group (n = 80) were instructed to gargle 6 times daily with warm saline and no such instructions were given to the second group (n = 80) to serve as controls. Information on demographic, indications for extraction, and development of alveolar osteitis were obtained and analyzed. Comparative statistics were done using Pearson's chi square or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. The demographic and other baseline parameters such as indications for extractions were comparable among the study groups (p > 0.05). The overall prevalence of alveolar osteitis was 13.7%. There was a statistical significant difference between the study groups with respect to development of alveolar osteitis (X2 = 15.00, df = 1, p = 0.001).The risk of development of alveolar osteitis was 4 times higher in the control group (OR = 4.33, P = 0.001). Warm saline mouth rinse instruction is beneficial in the prevention of development of alveolar osteitis after dental extractions.

  4. Variations in peak nasal inspiratory flow among healthy students after using saline solutions.

    PubMed

    Olbrich Neto, Jaime; Olbrich, Sandra Regina Leite Rosa; Mori, Natália Leite Rosa; Oliveira, Ana Elisa de; Corrente, José Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Nasal hygiene with saline solutions has been shown to relieve congestion, reduce the thickening of the mucus and keep nasal cavity clean and moist. Evaluating whether saline solutions improve nasal inspiratory flow among healthy children. Students between 8 and 11 years of age underwent 6 procedures with saline solutions at different concentrations. The peak nasal inspiratory flow was measured before and 30 min after each procedure. Statistical analysis was performed by means of t test, analysis of variance, and Tukey's test, considering p<0.05. We evaluated 124 children at all stages. There were differences on the way a same concentration was used. There was no difference between 0.9% saline solution and 3% saline solution by using a syringe. The 3% saline solution had higher averages of peak nasal inspiratory flow, but it was not significantly higher than the 0.9% saline solution. It is important to offer various options to patients. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Eolian transport, saline lake basins, and groundwater solutes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Warren W.; Sanford, Ward E.

    1995-01-01

    Eolian processes associated with saline lakes are shown to be important in determining solute concentration in groundwater in arid and semiarid areas. Steady state mass balance analyses of chloride in the groundwater at Double Lakes, a saline lake basin in the southern High Plains of Texas, United States, suggest that approximately 4.5 × 105 kg of chloride is removed from the relatively small (4.7 km2) basin floor each year by deflation. This mass enters the groundwater down the wind gradient from the lake, degrading the water quality. The estimates of mass transport were independently determined by evaluation of solutes in the unsaturated zone and by solute mass balance calculations of groundwater flux. Transport of salts from the lake was confirmed over a short term (2 years) by strategically placed dust collectors. Results consistent with those at Double Lake were obtained from dune surfaces collected upwind and downwind from a sabkha near the city of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The eolian transport process provides an explanation of the degraded groundwater quality associated with the 30–40 saline lake basins on the southern half of the southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico and in many other arid and semiarid areas.

  6. Colloid transport in porous media: impact of hyper-saline solutions.

    PubMed

    Magal, Einat; Weisbrod, Noam; Yechieli, Yoseph; Walker, Sharon L; Yakirevich, Alexander

    2011-05-01

    The transport of colloids suspended in natural saline solutions with a wide range of ionic strengths, up to that of Dead Sea brines (10(0.9) M) was explored. Migration of microspheres through saturated sand columns of different sizes was studied in laboratory experiments and simulated with mathematical models. Colloid transport was found to be related to the solution salinity as expected. The relative concentration of colloids at the columns outlet decreased (after 2-3 pore volumes) as the solution ionic strength increased until a critical value was reached (ionic strength > 10(-1.8) M) and then remained constant above this level of salinity. The colloids were found to be mobile even in the extremely saline brines of the Dead Sea. At such high ionic strength no energetic barrier to colloid attachment was presumed to exist and colloid deposition was expected to be a favorable process. However, even at these salinity levels, colloid attachment was not complete and the transport of ∼ 30% of the colloids through the 30-cm long columns was detected. To further explore the deposition of colloids on sand surfaces in Dead Sea brines, transport was studied using 7-cm long columns through which hundreds of pore volumes were introduced. The resulting breakthrough curves exhibited a bimodal shape whereby the relative concentration (C/C(0)) of colloids at the outlet rose to a value of 0.8, and it remained relatively constant (for the ∼ 18 pore volumes during which the colloid suspension was flushed through the column) and then the relative concentration increased to a value of one. The bimodal nature of the breakthrough suggests different rates of colloid attachment. Colloid transport processes were successfully modeled using the limited entrapment model, which assumes that the colloid attachment rate is dependent on the concentration of the attached colloids. Application of this model provided confirmation of the colloid aggregation and their accelerated attachment during

  7. Mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution attenuates exercise-induced decline in executive function.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Kana; Kimura, Tetsuya; Yuhaku, Atsushi; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    A decline in executive function could have a negative influence on the control of actions in dynamic situations, such as sports activities. Mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution could serve as an effective treatment for preserving the executive function in exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution on executive function after sustained moderately high-intensity exercise. Eight young healthy participants completed 65 min of running at 75% V̇O 2 max with two mouth-rinsing conditions: with a carbohydrate solution (CHO) or with water (CON). Executive function was assessed before and after exercise by using the incongruent task of the Stroop Color and Word Test. The levels of blood glucose; and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), epinephrine, and norepinephrine (NE) were evaluated. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA, with condition (CHO and CON) and time (pre-exercise and post-exercise) as factors, was used to examine the main and interaction effects on the outcome measures. The reaction time in the incongruent condition of the Stroop test significantly increased after exercise in CON (pre-exercise 529 ± 45 ms vs. post-exercise 547 ± 60 ms, P  = 0.029) but not in CHO (pre-exercise 531 ± 54 ms vs. post-exercise 522 ± 80 ms), which resulted in a significant interaction (condition × time) on the reaction time ( P  = 0.028). The increased reaction time in CON indicates a decline in the executive function, which was attenuated in CHO. Increases in plasma epinephrine and NE levels demonstrated a trend toward attenuation accompanying CHO ( P  < 0.085), which appeared to be associated with the preservation of executive function. The blood glucose concentration showed neither significant interactions nor main effects of condition. These findings indicate that mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution attenuated the decline in executive function induced by

  8. [Effects of special mouth care with an aroma solution on oral status and oral cavity microorganism growth in elderly stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Hye; Park, Hyojung

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of oral care with an aroma solution on oral status and oral cavity microorganism growth in elderly patients with stroke. A non-equivalent control group, with a pretest-posttest design was used in this study. The participants were assigned to the experimental group (n=30) that received oral care with an aroma solution or the control group (n=31) that received 0.9% saline solution. To identify the effect of the experimental treatments, objective/subjective assessments of oral status and oral cavity microorganism growth were performed using the oral assessment guide, oral perception guide, and oral swab culture. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and t-test with the SPSS version 21.0 program. The objective oral status was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (t= -3.64, p<.001). There was no significant difference between the subjective oral status of the experimental group and control groups (t= -1.24, p=.109). Oral microorganism growth was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (t= -7.39, p<.001). These findings indicate that special mouth care using an aroma solution could be an effective oral health nursing intervention for elderly patients with stroke.

  9. Discoloration of titanium alloy in acidic saline solutions with peroxide.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Shinji; Hattori, Masayuki; Yoshinari, Masao; Kawada, Eiji; Oda, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare corrosion behavior in several titanium alloys with immersion in acidulated saline solutions containing hydrogen peroxide. Seven types of titanium alloy were immersed in saline solutions with varying levels of pH and hydrogen peroxide content, and resulting differences in color and release of metallic elements determined in each alloy. Some alloys were characterized using Auger electron spectroscopy. Ti-55Ni alloy showed a high level of dissolution and difference in color. With immersion in solution containing hydrogen peroxide at pH 4, the other alloys showed a marked difference in color but a low level of dissolution. The formation of a thick oxide film was observed in commercially pure titanium showing discoloration. The results suggest that discoloration in titanium alloys immersed in hydrogen peroxide-containing acidulated solutions is caused by an increase in the thickness of this oxide film, whereas discoloration of Ti-55Ni is caused by corrosion.

  10. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  11. Salinity stress response in estuarine fishes from the Murray Estuary and Coorong, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Afzal; Aktar, Shefali; Qin, Jian G

    2016-12-01

    Estuaries are unstable ecosystems and can be changed by the environmental and anthropogenic impact. The Murray Estuary and Coorong were degraded by drought and low freshwater input in the last decade and therefore transformed into the largest hyper-saline lagoon in Australia. This study evaluates the physiological stress of two estuarine fish species (small-mouthed hardyhead Atherinosoma microstoma and Tamar goby Afurcagobius tamarensis) to the induced salinity change in captivity. The test fishes were collected from the Coorong and transported to the laboratory in the water from the Coorong. Each fish species was exposed to different levels of salinity, and a number of enzymes were assessed to measure the stress response of fish to salinity change. The activity of reactive oxygen species was significantly increased with the salinity change in both fish species compared with the fish in the control. Significant salinity effect on superoxide dismutase activity was observed on Tamar goby but not on small-mouthed hardyhead. Conversely, the impact of salinity on catalase activity was detected on small-mouthed hardyhead but not on Tamar goby. The study reveals that the induction of physical stress by salinity changes occurred in both Tamar goby and small-mouthed hardyhead despite the varying response of antioxidant enzymes between fish species. The study provides an insight into the understanding of physiological adaptation in estuarine fish to salinity change. The results could improve our knowledge on stress response and resilience of estuarine fish to hypo- and hyper-salinity stress.

  12. The effectiveness of a saline mouth rinse regimen and education programme on radiation-induced oral mucositis and quality of life in oral cavity cancer patients: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Huang, B-S; Wu, S-C; Lin, C-Y; Fan, K-H; Chang, J T-C; Chen, S-C

    2018-03-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) and concurrent chemotherapy RT (CCRT) generate radiation-induced oral mucositis (OM) and lower quality of life (QOL). This study assessed the impact of a saline mouth rinse regimen and education programme on radiation-induced OM symptoms, and QOL in oral cavity cancer (OCC) patients receiving RT or CCRT. Ninety-one OCC patients were randomly divided into a group that received saline mouth rinses and an education programme and a control group that received standard care. OM symptoms and QOL were assessed with the WHO Oral Toxicity Scale, MSS-moo and UW-QOL. Data were collected at the first postoperative visit to the radiation department (T0) and at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after beginning RT or CCRT. Patients in both groups had significantly higher levels of physical and social-emotional QOL at 8 weeks after beginning RT or CCRT compared to the first visit. Patients in the saline rinse group had significantly better physical and social-emotional QOL as compared to the standard care group at 8 weeks. Radiation-induced OM symptoms and overall QOL were not different between the groups. We thus conclude the saline rinse and education programme promote better physical and social-emotional QOL in OCC patients receiving RT/CCRT. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Capacitive Deionization of High-Salinity Solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Sharma, Ketki; Gabitto, Jorge; Mayes, Richard T.; ...

    2014-12-22

    Desalination of high salinity solutions has been studied using a novel experimental technique and a theoretical model. Neutron imaging has been employed to visualize lithium ions in mesoporous carbon materials, which are used as electrodes in capacitive deionization for water desalination. Experiments were conducted with a flow-through capacitive deionization cell designed for neutron imaging and with lithium chloride ( 6LiCl) as the electrolyte. Sequences of neutron images have been obtained at a relatively high concentration of lithium chloride ( 6LiCl) solution to provide information on the transport of ions within the electrodes. A new model that computes the individual ionicmore » concentration profiles inside mesoporous carbon electrodes has been used to simulate the capacitive deionization process. Modifications have also been introduced into the simulation model to calculate results at high electrolyte concentrations. Experimental data and simulation results provide insight into why capacitive deionization is not effective for desalination of high ionic-strength solutions. The combination of experimental information, obtained through neutron imaging, with the theoretical model will help in the design of capacitive deionization devices, which can improve the process for high ionic-strength solutions.« less

  14. Common toads (Bufo arenarum) learn to anticipate and avoid hypertonic saline solutions.

    PubMed

    Daneri, M Florencia; Papini, Mauricio R; Muzio, Rubén N

    2007-11-01

    Toads (Bufo arenarum) were exposed to pairings between immersion in a neutral saline solution (i.e., one that caused no significant variation in fluid balance), followed by immersion in a highly hypertonic saline solution (i.e., one that caused water loss). In Experiment 1, solutions were presented in a Pavlovian conditioning arrangement. A group receiving a single neutral-highly hypertonic pairing per day exhibited a greater conditioned increase in heart rate than groups receiving either the same solutions in an explicitly unpaired fashion, or just the neutral solution. Paired toads also showed a greater ability to compensate for water loss across trials than that of the explicitly unpaired group. Using the same reinforcers and a similar apparatus, Experiment 2 demonstrated that toads learn a one-way avoidance response motivated by immersion in the highly hypertonic solution. Cardiac and avoidance conditioning are elements of an adaptive system for confronting aversive situations involving loss of water balance. Copyright 2007 APA.

  15. Response of the mesozooplankton community of the St Lucia estuary, South Africa, to a mouth-opening event during an extended drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerling, Hendrik L.; Vivier, Leon; Cyrus, Digby P.

    2010-03-01

    Mesozooplankton samples were collected between March 2005 and November 2008 in St Lucia, the largest estuarine lake system in South Africa. St Lucia experienced an extended period of drought before and during the present study. This drought led to natural closing of the estuary mouth as a result of flood-tide marine sediment deposition in 2002. In March 2007 the mouth was washed open by exceptionally high tidal and wave conditions. This resulted in an influx of a large volume of seawater. The mouth closed again in August 2007. Before opening of the mouth salinities in the Estuary were below 10 and large parts of North Lake dried up while South Lake retained a relatively stable waterbody with salinities between 10 and 30. When the mouth opened seawater flooded the system and salinities changed to about 35. After the mouth had closed again in August 2007 salinities increased in the lakes and decreased in the Estuary. The mesozooplankton community was dominated by copepods during all sampling sessions, especially by the estuarine calanoids Pseudodiaptomus stuhlmanni and Acartia natalensis. Mean mesozooplankton densities were significantly higher in South Lake before the mouth opened in March 2007. While zooplankton density decreased when the mouth opened species richness increased with the influx of coastal marine species, especially in the Estuary. Overall zooplankton densities declined progressively as salinity increased to hypersaline levels after mouth closure. Multivariate analyses supported significant differences between the lakes and the Estuary in terms of mesozooplankton community composition. Taxa mostly responsible for the similarities within and dissimilarity between sections of the system were the copepods P. stuhlmanni and A. natalensis with the meroplankton, crab zoeae and mollusc larvae, also contributing significantly after the mouth-opening event.

  16. Influence of Exceptionally High Salinities, Marked Variations in Freshwater Discharge and Opening of Estuary Mouth on the Characteristics of the Ichthyofauna of a Normally-Closed Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, G. C.; Potter, I. C.

    2002-08-01

    This study aimed to determine how the characteristics of the ichthyofauna of the normally-closed Wellstead Estuary on the south coast of Western Australia are influenced by the exceptionally high salinities attained during protracted periods of landlocking and, at other times, by atypically heavy freshwater discharge and consequently the opening of the estuary mouth. After 47 months of continuous closure, this estuary became open to the sea for 30 days in September/October 1997 and then closed again for a further six months. Nearshore, shallow and offshore, deeper waters of the lower, middle and upper regions of this estuary were sampled using seine and gill nets, respectively, in alternate months between July 1996 and May 1998. Mean monthly salinities in each region were >40 on all sampling occasions, except immediately preceding and following the opening of the estuary mouth and, in the lower estuary, they rose to a maximum of 112 in March 1997, before declining to a minimum of 14 in September 1997. The fish fauna of Wellstead Estuary was highly depauperate (20 species), presumably due mainly to the very limited opportunities for the immigration of marine species. However, appreciable numbers of two marine species ( Mugil cephalus and Aldrichetta forsteri) entered from the sea when the estuary was open in the period prior to October 1993 and were able to survive in the highly variable salinities found in this estuary when it was landlocked for the following 47 months. There was strong evidence that, as salinities rose to very high levels in 1997, all of the Leptatherina wallacei and Amoya bifrenatus found in the estuary died and some other species moved from the lower to upper reaches of the estuary where salinities did not rise to such high levels. The atherinid Atherinosoma elongata was the only species caught in March 1997 at the site in the lower estuary where the salinity reached 122. Subsequently, the number of species and overall density of fish in the

  17. The Habitat of Yellow Mouth Turban Turbo Chrysostomus, Linnaeus, 1758

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soekendarsi, E.

    2018-03-01

    In general, yellow mouth turban snail Turbo chrysostomus L. 1758 was found in intertidal and coral reef area. This animal is active at night (nocturnal) and settles the coral reef-flats area to do its activity as substrate. In doing its activity, yellow mouth turban snail can be found in the depth of 50 cm until 4 m of tidal area. The adult yellow mouth turban snails are found in great number at intertidal area’s border and at coastal area of coral reef-flats. Methodology that was used in this study is visual analysis (descriptive method), and divided into two parameters which were observed, i.e. abiotic and biotic. Abiotic components that were measured are; Oxygen (ppm), pH, Water Temperature (°C), Salinity (ppm), Ammonia (mg/L), Nitrate (mg/L), Nitrite (mg/L), and Calsium Carbonat (mg/L).Whereas, biotic components that were measured are; substrates, seaweeds, other organisms, and epilithon. The observation’s result of yellow mouth turban snail’s environmental condition showed: abiotic condition of the waters consists of oxygen 3-5 ppm, seawater pH 7-8, seawater temperature 23-26°C, and the salinity of 32-33 ppm. The Habitat of yellow mouth turban snail settled the reef-flats area that is overgrown covered by seaweed Sargassum sp. as the place to do its activity.

  18. Mouth Rinsing with Maltodextrin Solutions Fails to Improve Time Trial Endurance Cycling Performance in Recreational Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kulaksız, Tuğba Nilay; Koşar, Şükran Nazan; Bulut, Suleyman; Güzel, Yasemin; Willems, Marcus Elisabeth Theodorus; Hazir, Tahir; Turnagöl, Hüseyin Hüsrev

    2016-05-09

    The carbohydrate (CHO) concentration of a mouth rinsing solution might influence the CHO sensing receptors in the mouth, with consequent activation of brain regions involved in reward, motivation and regulation of motor activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of maltodextrin mouth rinsing with different concentrations (3%, 6% and 12%) after an overnight fast on a 20 km cycling time trial performance. Nine recreationally active, healthy males (age: 24 ± 2 years; V ˙ O 2 m a x : 47 ± 5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in this study. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted. Participants mouth-rinsed every 2.5 km for 5 s. Maltodextrin mouth rinse with concentrations of 3%, 6% or 12% did not change time to complete the time trial and power output compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Time trial completion times were 40.2 ± 4.0, 40.1 ± 3.9, 40.1 ± 4.4, and 39.3 ± 4.2 min and power output 205 ± 22, 206 ± 25, 210 ± 24, and 205 ± 23 W for placebo, 3%, 6%, and 12% maltodextrin conditions, respectively. Heart rate, lactate, glucose, and rating of perceived exertion did not differ between trials (p > 0.05). In conclusion, mouth rinsing with different maltodextrin concentrations after an overnight fast did not affect the physiological responses and performance during a 20 km cycling time trial in recreationally active males.

  19. Evaluating Battery-like Reactions to Harvest Energy from Salinity Differences using Ammonium Bicarbonate Salt Solutions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeyoung; Rahimi, Mohammad; Logan, Bruce E; Gorski, Christopher A

    2016-05-10

    Mixing entropy batteries (MEBs) are a new approach to generate electricity from salinity differences between two aqueous solutions. To date, MEBs have only been prepared from solutions containing chloride salts, owing to their relevance in natural salinity gradients created from seawater and freshwater. We hypothesized that MEBs could capture energy using ammonium bicarbonate (AmB), a thermolytic salt that can be used to convert waste heat into salinity gradients. We examined six battery electrode materials. Several of the electrodes were unstable in AmB solutions or failed to produce expected voltages. Of the electrode materials tested, a cell containing a manganese oxide electrode and a metallic lead electrode produced the highest power density (6.3 mW m(-2) ). However, this power density is still low relative to previously reported NaCl-based MEBs and heat recovery systems. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that MEBs could indeed be used to generate electricity from AmB salinity gradients. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Revisiting analytical solutions for steady interface flow in subsea aquifers: Aquitard salinity effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Adrian D.; Robinson, Neville I.

    2018-06-01

    Existing analytical solutions for the distribution of fresh groundwater in subsea aquifers presume that the overlying offshore aquitard, represented implicitly, contains seawater. Here, we consider the case where offshore fresh groundwater is the result of freshwater discharge from onshore aquifers, and neglect paleo-freshwater sources. A recent numerical modeling investigation, involving explicit simulation of the offshore aquitard, demonstrates that offshore aquitards more likely contain freshwater in areas of upward freshwater leakage to the sea. We integrate this finding into the existing analytical solutions by providing an alternative formulation for steady interface flow in subsea aquifers, whereby the salinity in the offshore aquitard can be chosen. The new solution, taking the aquitard salinity as that of freshwater, provides a closer match to numerical modeling results in which the aquitard is represented explicitly.

  1. Urinary composition predicts diuretic efficiency of hypertonic saline solution with furosemide therapy and heart failure prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ando, Tomotaka; Okuhara, Yoshitaka; Orihara, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Koichi; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Masuyama, Tohru; Hirotani, Shinichi

    2018-03-19

    Recently, we and other group have reported that furosemide administration along with hypertonic saline solution enhanced diuretic efficiency of furosemide. However, little is known about factors which associated with high diuretic efficiency by hypertonic saline solution with furosemide therapy. To identify predictors of diuretic efficiency in the hypertonic saline solution with furosemide therapy, we recruited 30 consecutive hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients with volume overload (77 ± 10 years, systolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg, and estimated glomerular filtration rate > 15 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ). Hypertonic saline with furosemide solution, consisting of 500 ml of 1.7% hypertonic saline solution with 40 mg of furosemide, was administered continuously over 24 h. The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of 24-h urine volume (UV) after initiation of diuretic treatment ≥ 2000 ml (high urine volume: HUV) and < 2000 ml (low urine volume: LUV). The basal clinical characteristics of both groups were analyzed and the predictors of HUV after receiving the treatment were identified. There were not significant differences between two groups in baseline clinical characteristics and medication. Univariate logistic analysis revealed that blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio, urine urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio (UUN/UCre), fractional excretion of sodium, and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion positively associated with HUV. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that UUN/UCre at baseline was independently associated with HUV, and UUN/UCre best predicts HUV by the therapy with a cut-off value of 6.16 g/dl/g Cre (AUC 0.910, 95% CI 0.696-0.999, sensitivity 80%, specificity 87%). The Kaplan-Meier curves revealed significant difference for HF rehospitalization and death rate at 180 days between patients with UUN/UCre ≥ 6.16 g/dl/g Cre and those with UUN/UCre < 6.16 g/dl/g Cre (log-rank P = 0

  2. Influence of salinity on the early development and biochemical dynamics of a marine fish, Inimicus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xu; Huang, Xuxiong; Wen, Wen

    2018-03-01

    Fertilised eggs of the devil stringer ( Inimicus japonicus) were incubated at different salinity levels (21, 25, 29, 33, and 37), and then the hatching performances, morphological parameters, and biochemical composition (protein, lipid and carbohydrate) of the larvae were assayed to determine the influence of salinity on the early development of I. japonicus. The tested salinity levels did not affect the times of hatching or mouth opening for yolk-sac larvae. However, the salinity significantly influenced the hatching and survival rates of open-mouthed larvae, as well as the morphology of yolk-sac larvae. The data indicated that 30.5 to 37.3 and 24.4 to 29.8 were suitable salinity ranges for the survival of embryos and larvae of I. japonicus, respectively. Larvae incubated at a salinity level of 29 had the greatest full lengths, and decreasing yolk volume was positively correlated with the environmental salinity. With increasing salinity, the individual dry weights of newly hatched larvae or open-mouthed larvae decreased significantly. Newly hatched larvae incubated at a salinity level of 29 had the greatest metabolic substrate contents and gross energy levels, while the openmouthed larvae's greatest values occurred at a salinity level of 25. Larvae incubated in the salinity range of 33 to 37 had the lowest nutritional reserves and energy values. Thus, the I. japonicus yolk-sac larvae acclimated more readily to the lower salinity level than the embryos, and higher salinity levels negatively influenced larval growth and development. In conclusion, the environmental salinity level should be maintained at 29-33 during embryogenesis and at 25-29 during early larval development for this species. Our results can be used to provide optimum aquaculture conditions for the early larval development of I. japonicus.

  3. Influence of salinity on the early development and biochemical dynamics of a marine fish, Inimicus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xu; Huang, Xuxiong; Wen, Wen

    2017-05-01

    Fertilised eggs of the devil stringer (Inimicus japonicus) were incubated at different salinity levels (21, 25, 29, 33, and 37), and then the hatching performances, morphological parameters, and biochemical composition (protein, lipid and carbohydrate) of the larvae were assayed to determine the influence of salinity on the early development of I. japonicus. The tested salinity levels did not affect the times of hatching or mouth opening for yolk-sac larvae. However, the salinity significantly influenced the hatching and survival rates of open-mouthed larvae, as well as the morphology of yolk-sac larvae. The data indicated that 30.5 to 37.3 and 24.4 to 29.8 were suitable salinity ranges for the survival of embryos and larvae of I. japonicus, respectively. Larvae incubated at a salinity level of 29 had the greatest full lengths, and decreasing yolk volume was positively correlated with the environmental salinity. With increasing salinity, the individual dry weights of newly hatched larvae or open-mouthed larvae decreased significantly. Newly hatched larvae incubated at a salinity level of 29 had the greatest metabolic substrate contents and gross energy levels, while the openmouthed larvae's greatest values occurred at a salinity level of 25. Larvae incubated in the salinity range of 33 to 37 had the lowest nutritional reserves and energy values. Thus, the I. japonicus yolk-sac larvae acclimated more readily to the lower salinity level than the embryos, and higher salinity levels negatively influenced larval growth and development. In conclusion, the environmental salinity level should be maintained at 29-33 during embryogenesis and at 25-29 during early larval development for this species. Our results can be used to provide optimum aquaculture conditions for the early larval development of I. japonicus.

  4. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... entrance to an estuary or river mouth that significantly restricts the movement of the salt water into and... estuary. The downstream migration of the salinity gradient can occur, displacing the maximum sedimentation... estuary below that which is considered normal can affect the location and type of mixing thereby changing...

  5. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... entrance to an estuary or river mouth that significantly restricts the movement of the salt water into and... estuary. The downstream migration of the salinity gradient can occur, displacing the maximum sedimentation... estuary below that which is considered normal can affect the location and type of mixing thereby changing...

  6. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... entrance to an estuary or river mouth that significantly restricts the movement of the salt water into and... estuary. The downstream migration of the salinity gradient can occur, displacing the maximum sedimentation... estuary below that which is considered normal can affect the location and type of mixing thereby changing...

  7. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... entrance to an estuary or river mouth that significantly restricts the movement of the salt water into and... estuary. The downstream migration of the salinity gradient can occur, displacing the maximum sedimentation... estuary below that which is considered normal can affect the location and type of mixing thereby changing...

  8. Salinization of the soil solution decreases the further accumulation of salt in the root zone of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia Lindl. growing above shallow saline groundwater.

    PubMed

    Alharby, Hesham F; Colmer, Timothy D; Barrett-Lennard, Edward G

    2018-01-01

    Water use by plants in landscapes with shallow saline groundwater may lead to the accumulation of salt in the root zone. We examined the accumulation of Na + and Cl - around the roots of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia Lindl. and the impacts of this increasing salinity for stomatal conductance, water use and growth. Plants were grown in columns filled with a sand-clay mixture and connected at the bottom to reservoirs containing 20, 200 or 400 mM NaCl. At 21 d, Na + and Cl - concentrations in the soil solution were affected by the salinity of the groundwater, height above the water table and the root fresh mass density at various soil depths (P < 0.001). However, by day 35, the groundwater salinity and height above the water table remained significant factors, but the root fresh mass density was no longer significant. Regression of data from the 200 and 400 mM NaCl treatments showed that the rate of Na + accumulation in the soil increased until the Na + concentration reached ~250 mM within the root zone; subsequent decreases in accumulation were associated with decreases in stomatal conductance. Salinization of the soil solution therefore had a feedback effect on further salinization within the root zone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Behavior of pure gallium in water and various saline solutions.

    PubMed

    Horasawa, N; Nakajima, H; Takahashi, S; Okabe, T

    1997-12-01

    This study investigated the chemical stability of pure gallium in water and saline solutions in order to obtain fundamental knowledge about the corrosion mechanism of gallium-based alloys. A pure gallium plate (99.999%) was suspended in 50 mL of deionized water, 0.01%, 0.1% or 1% NaCl solution at 24 +/- 2 degrees C for 1, 7, or 28 days. The amounts of gallium released into the solutions were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The surfaces of the specimens were examined after immersion by x-ray diffractometry (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the solutions containing 0.1% or more NaCl, the release of gallium ions into the solution was lowered when compared to deionized water after 28-day immersion. Gallium oxide monohydroxide was found by XRD on the specimens immersed in deionized water after 28-day immersion. XPS indicated the formation of gallium oxide/hydroxide on the specimens immersed in water or 0.01% NaCl solution. The chemical stability of pure solid gallium was strongly affected by the presence of Cl- ions in the aqueous solution.

  10. Acid-base and hemodynamic status of patients with intraoperative hemorrhage using two solution types: Crystalloid Ringer lactate and 1.3% sodium bicarbonate in half-normal saline solution.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Sayed Jalal; Heidari, Sayed Morteza; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Seirafi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative hemorrhage is one of the problems during surgery and, if it happens in a high volume without an immediate action to control, it can be fatal. Nowadays, various injectable solutions are used. The aim of this study was to compare the acid-base and hemodynamic status of the patient using two solutions, Ringer lactate and 1.3% sodium bicarbonate, in half saline solution. This clinical trial was performed at the Al-Zahra Hospital in 2013 on 66 patients who were randomly selected and put in two studied groups at the onset of hemorrhage. For the first group, crystalloid Ringer lactate solution and for the second group, 1.3% sodium bicarbonate in half-normal saline solution was used. Electrocardiogram, heart rate, O2 saturation non-invasive blood pressure and end-tidal CO2 were monitored. The arterial blood gas, blood electrolytes, glucose and blood urea nitrogen were measured before serum and blood injection. After the infusion of solutions and before blood transfusions, another sample was sent for measurement of blood parameters. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. The mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in the second group than in the first group at some times after the infusion of solutions. pHh levels, base excess, bicarbonate, sodium, strong ion differences and osmolarity were significantly greater and potassium and chloride were significantly lower in the second group than in the first group after the infusion of solutions. 1.3% sodium bicarbonate in half-normal saline solution can lead to a proper correction of hemodynamic instability. By maintaining hemodynamic status, osmolarity and electrolytes as well as better balance of acid-base, 1.3% sodium bicarbonate solution in half-normal saline solution can be more effective than Ringer lactate solution during intraoperative bleeding.

  11. The relationship between CDOM and salinity in estuaries: An analytical and graphical solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, D. G.; Brett, H. L.

    2008-09-01

    The relationship between coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and salinity in an estuary is explored using a simple box model in which the river discharge and concentration of CDOM in the river are allowed to vary with time. The results are presented as analytical and graphical solutions. The behaviour of the estuary depends upon the ratio, β, of the flushing time of the estuary to the timescale of the source variation. For small values of β, the variation in CDOM concentration in the estuary tracks that in the source, producing a linear relationship on a CDOM-salinity plot. As β increases, the estuary struggles to keep up with the changes in the source; and a curved CDOM-salinity plot results. For very large values of β, however, corresponding to estuaries with a long flushing time, the CDOM concentration in the estuary settles down to a mean value which again lies on a straight line on a CDOM-salinity plot (and extrapolates to the time-mean concentration in the source). The results are discussed in terms of the mapping of surface salinity in estuaries through the visible band remote sensing of CDOM.

  12. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000965.htm Hand-foot-mouth disease To use the sharing features ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  13. Irrigation solutions in open fractures of the lower extremities: evaluation of isotonic saline and distilled water.

    PubMed

    Olufemi, Olukemi Temiloluwa; Adeyeye, Adeolu Ikechukwu

    2017-01-01

    Open fractures are widely considered as orthopaedic emergencies requiring immediate intervention. The initial management of these injuries usually affects the ultimate outcome because open fractures may be associated with significant morbidity. Wound irrigation forms one of the pivotal principles in the treatment of open fractures. The choice of irrigation fluid has since been a source of debate. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of isotonic saline and distilled water as irrigation solutions in the management of open fractures of the lower extremities. Wound infection and wound healing rates using both solutions were evaluated. This was a prospective hospital-based study of 109 patients who presented to the Accident and Emergency department with open lower limb fractures. Approval was sought and obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Hospital. Patients were randomized into either the isotonic saline (NS) or the distilled water (DW) group using a simple ballot technique. Twelve patients were lost to follow-up, while 97 patients were available until conclusion of the study. There were 50 patients in the isotonic saline group and 47 patients in the distilled water group. Forty-one (42.3%) of the patients were in the young and economically productive strata of the population. There was a male preponderance with a 1.7:1 male-to-female ratio. The wound infection rate was 34% in the distilled water group and 44% in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.315). The mean time ± SD to wound healing was 2.7 ± 1.5 weeks in the distilled water group and 3.1 ± 1.8 weeks in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.389). It was concluded from this study that the use of distilled water compares favourably with isotonic saline as an irrigation solution in open fractures of the lower extremities. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  14. Dielectric properties characterization of saline solutions by near-field microwave microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sijia; Lin, Tianjun; Lasri, Tuami

    2017-01-01

    Saline solutions are of a great interest when characterizations of biological fluids are targeted. In this work a near-field microwave microscope is proposed for the characterization of liquids. An interferometric technique is suggested to enhance measurement sensitivity and accuracy. The validation of the setup and the measurement technique is conducted through the characterization of a large range of saline concentrations (0-160 mg ml-1). Based on the measured resonance frequency shift and quality factor, the complex permittivity is successfully extracted as exhibited by the good agreement found when comparing the results to data obtained from Cole-Cole model. We demonstrate that the near field microwave microscope (NFMM) brings a great advantage by offering the possibility to select a resonance frequency and a quality factor for a given concentration level. This method provides a very effective way to largely enhance the measurement sensitivity in high loss materials.

  15. Role of solute-transport models in the analysis of groundwater salinity problems in agricultural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, Leonard F.

    1981-01-01

    Undesirable salinity increases occur in both groundwater and surface water and are commonly related to agricultural practices. Groundwater recharge from precipitation or irrigation will transport and disperse residual salts concentrated by evapotranspiration, salts leached from soil and aquifer materials, as well as some dissolved fertilizers and pesticides. Where stream salinity is affected by agricultural practices, the increases in salt load usually are attributable mostly to a groundwater component of flow. Thus, efforts to predict, manage, or control stream salinity increases should consider the role of groundwater in salt transport. Two examples of groundwater salinity problems in Colorado, U.S.A., illustrate that a model which simulates accurately the transport and dispersion of solutes in flowing groundwater can be (1) a valuable investigative tool to help understand the processes and parameters controlling the movement and fate of the salt, and (2) a valuable management tool for predicting responses and optimizing the development and use of the total water resource. ?? 1981.

  16. Absolute Salinity, ''Density Salinity'' and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. G.; Pawlowicz, R.; McDougall, T. J.; Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models. First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. However, the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies. Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol SAdens; it stands out as the most appropriate representation of salinity for use in dynamical physical

  17. Absolute Salinity, "Density Salinity" and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. G.; Pawlowicz, R.; McDougall, T. J.; Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.

    2010-08-01

    Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models. First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. The Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies. Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol SAdens; it stands out as the most appropriate representation of salinity for use in dynamical physical

  18. Passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Calvin T.; Blume, Hans-Juergen C.; Kendall, Bruce M.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of measuring coastal-zone salinity from airborne microwave radiometers is developed. The theory, as presented, shows that precision measurements of salinity favor the lower microwave frequencies. To this end, L- and S-Band systems were built, and the flight results have shown that accuracies of at least one part per thousand were achieved.The aircraft results focus on flights conducted over the Chesapeake Bay and the mouth of the Savanna River off the Georgia Coast. This paper presents no new work, but rather summarizes the capabilities of the remote sensing technique.

  19. Topical Clonazepam Solution for the Management of Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Kuten-Shorrer, Michal; Treister, Nathaniel S; Stock, Shannon; Kelley, John M; Ji, Yisi D; Woo, Sook-Bin; Lerman, Mark A; Palmason, Stefan; Sonis, Stephen T; Villa, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two concentrations of topical clonazepam solution in improving symptoms of burning mouth syndrome (BMS). A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients diagnosed with BMS and managed with topical clonazepam solution between 2008 and 2015. A 0.5-mg/mL solution was prescribed until 2012, when this was changed to a 0.1 mg/mL solution. Patients were instructed to swish with 5 mL for 5 minutes and spit two to four times daily. The efficacies of the two concentrations were compared using patient-reported outcome measures at the first follow-up, including the reported percentage of improvement in burning symptoms and the change in burning severity from baseline ranked on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS). Response to treatment was compared between the two concentrations using Wilcoxon rank sum test. A total of 57 subjects were included, 32 in the 0.1-mg/mL cohort and 25 in the 0.5-mg/mL cohort, and evaluated at a median follow-up of 7 weeks. The median overall percentage improvement was 32.5% in the 0.1-mg/mL cohort and 75% in the 0.5-mg/mL cohort. The median reduction in NRS score was 0.5 points in the 0.1-mg/mL cohort and 6 points in the 0.5-mg/mL cohort. The use of either outcome measure revealed that the response to treatment with the 0.5-mg/mL solution was superior to that of the 0.1 mg/mL solution (P < .01). These findings suggest that a 0.5-mg/mL topical clonazepam solution is effective in the management of BMS. Future randomized clinical trials are warranted.

  20. Finding a solution: Heparinised saline versus normal saline in the maintenance of invasive arterial lines in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Everson, Matthew; Webber, Lucy; Penfold, Chris; Shah, Sanjoy; Freshwater-Turner, Dan

    2016-11-01

    We assessed the impact of heparinised saline versus 0.9% normal saline on arterial line patency. Maintaining the patency of arterial lines is essential for obtaining accurate physiological measurements, enabling blood sampling and minimising line replacement. Use of heparinised saline is associated with risks such as thrombocytopenia, haemorrhage and mis-selection. Historical studies draw variable conclusions but suggest that normal saline is at least as effective at maintaining line patency, although recent evidence has questioned this. We conducted a prospective analysis of the use of heparinised saline versus normal saline on unselected patients in the intensive care of our hospital. Data concerning duration of 471 lines insertion and reason for removal was collected. We found a higher risk of blockage for lines flushed with normal saline compared with heparinised saline (RR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.392-3.32, p  ≤ 0.001). Of the 56 lines which blocked initially (19 heparinised saline and 37 normal saline lines), 16 were replaced with new lines; 5 heparinised saline lines and 11 normal saline lines were reinserted; 5 of these lines subsequently blocked again, 3 of which were flushed with normal saline. Our study demonstrates a clinically important reduction in arterial line longevity due to blockages when flushed with normal saline compared to heparinised saline. We have determined that these excess blockages have a significant clinical impact with further lines being inserted after blockage, resulting in increased risks to patients, wasted time and cost of resources. Our findings suggest that the current UK guidance favouring normal saline flushes should be reviewed.

  1. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  2. Mouth development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Justin; Jacox, Laura A; Saldanha, Francesca; Sive, Hazel

    2017-09-01

    A mouth is present in all animals, and comprises an opening from the outside into the oral cavity and the beginnings of the digestive tract to allow eating. This review focuses on the earliest steps in mouth formation. In the first half, we conclude that the mouth arose once during evolution. In all animals, the mouth forms from ectoderm and endoderm. A direct association of oral ectoderm and digestive endoderm is present even in triploblastic animals, and in chordates, this region is known as the extreme anterior domain (EAD). Further support for a single origin of the mouth is a conserved set of genes that form a 'mouth gene program' including foxA and otx2. In the second half of this review, we discuss steps involved in vertebrate mouth formation, using the frog Xenopus as a model. The vertebrate mouth derives from oral ectoderm from the anterior neural ridge, pharyngeal endoderm and cranial neural crest (NC). Vertebrates form a mouth by breaking through the body covering in a precise sequence including specification of EAD ectoderm and endoderm as well as NC, formation of a 'pre-mouth array,' basement membrane dissolution, stomodeum formation, and buccopharyngeal membrane perforation. In Xenopus, the EAD is also a craniofacial organizer that guides NC, while reciprocally, the NC signals to the EAD to elicit its morphogenesis into a pre-mouth array. Human mouth anomalies are prevalent and are affected by genetic and environmental factors, with understanding guided in part by use of animal models. WIREs Dev Biol 2017, 6:e275. doi: 10.1002/wdev.275 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 The Authors. WIREs Developmental Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Causes of salinization of the Gulf of Taganrog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, G. G.; Grigorenko, K. S.

    2017-11-01

    Using the database of automatic hydrometeorological stations, installed in the Don RIver delta and Taganrog Bay seashore, the sources of the anomalois scale water negative surge and salinization of the Azov Sea under conditions of low river flow in 2015-2016 are studied. The new schemes of stratification and advection of salty sea waters in the Don River mouth under different weather conditions, water discharge and levels are given.

  4. Corrosion of dental aluminium bronze in neutral saline and saline lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Tibballs, J E; Erimescu, Raluca

    2006-09-01

    To compare the corrosion behaviours of two aluminium bronze, dental casting alloys during a standard immersion test and for immersion in neutral saline. Cast specimens of aluminium bronzes with 1.4 wt% Fe (G) and 4 wt% Fe (N) were subject to progressively longer periods (up to in total 7 days) immersed in 0.1 M saline, 0.1 M lactic acid solutions and examined by scanning electron microscopy with EDX analysis. Immersion in 0.1M neutral saline was for 7 days. In the acidic solution, exposed interdendritic volumes in alloy N corroded completely away in 7 days with dissolution of Ni-enriched precipitate species as well as the copper-rich matrix. Alloy G begins to corrode more slowly but by a similar mechanism. The number density of an Fe-enriched species is insufficient to maintain a continuous galvanic potential to the copper matrix, and dissolution becomes imperceptible. In neutral saline solution, galvanic action alone caused pit-etching, without the dissolution of either precipitate species. The upper limit for the total dissolution of metallic ions in the standard immersion test can be set at 200 microg cm(-2). Aluminium bronze dental alloys can be expected to release both copper and nickel ions into an acidic oral environment.

  5. Usefulness of underwater endoscopic submucosal dissection in saline solution with a monopolar knife for colorectal tumors (with videos).

    PubMed

    Nagata, Mitsuru

    2018-05-01

    Generally, colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is performed with a monopolar knife with CO 2 supply from an endoscope. There are few case reports about underwater ESD (UESD) in saline solution with a bipolar knife. The usefulness and safety of UESD in saline solution with a monopolar knife are unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the usefulness and safety of UESD in saline solution with a monopolar knife for colorectal tumors. This retrospective, observational study on UESD for colorectal tumors included 26 colorectal tumors from 24 patients treated with UESD at our department between October 2015 and February 2017. The characteristics of patients, factors associated with ESD difficulty, treatment results, and variations in blood test data before and after UESD were analyzed. En bloc resection was successful in all lesions without any serious adverse events. The median major diameter of the resected specimens was 30 mm (interquartile range [IQR], 28-35) and of the tumor 22.5 mm (IQR, 17.8-25.3). The median procedure time was 60 minutes (IQR, 45-111) and median speed of dissection 10.4 mm 2 /min (IQR, 6.4-12.2). No cases of perforation occurred. Post-ESD bleeding occurred in only 1 case, and endoscopic hemostasis was achieved. There was no case of electrolyte imbalance requiring treatment after UESD. UESD in saline solution with a monopolar knife for colorectal tumors is useful and safe. UESD has potential advantages that should be further assessed. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of the in vitro effects of saline, hypertonic hydroxyethyl starch, hypertonic saline, and two forms of hydroxyethyl starch on whole blood coagulation and platelet function in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wurlod, Virginie A; Howard, Judith; Francey, Thierry; Schweighauser, Ariane; Adamik, Katja N

    2015-01-01

    To compare the in vitro effects of hypertonic solutions and colloids to saline on coagulation in dogs. In vitro experimental study. Veterinary teaching hospital. Twenty-one adult dogs. Blood samples were diluted with saline, 7.2% hypertonic saline solution with 6% hydroxyethylstarch with an average molecular weight of 200 kDa and a molar substitution of 0.4 (HH), 7.2% hypertonic saline (HTS), hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 or hydroxyethyl starch 600/0.75 at ratios of 1:22 and 1:9, and with saline and HES at a ratio of 1:3. Whole blood coagulation was analyzed using rotational thromboelastometry (extrinsic thromboelastometry-cloting time (ExTEM-CT), maximal clot firmness (MCF) and clot formation time (CFT) and fibrinogen function TEM-CT (FibTEM-CT) and MCF) and platelet function was analyzed using a platelet function analyzer (closure time, CTPFA ). All parameters measured were impaired by saline dilution. The CTPFA was prolonged by 7.2% hypertonic saline solution with 6% hydroxyethylstarch with an average molecular weight of 200 kDa and a molar substitution of 0.4 (HH) and HTS but not by HES solutions. At clinical dilutions equivalent to those generally administered for shock (saline 1:3, HES 1:9, and hypertonic solutions 1:22), CTPFA was more prolonged by HH and HTS than other solutions but more by saline than HES. No difference was found between the HES solutions or the hypertonic solutions. ExTEM-CFT and MCF were impaired by HH and HTS but only mildly by HES solutions. At clinically relevant dilutions, no difference was found in ExTEM-CFT between HTS and saline or in ExTEM-MCF between HH and saline. No consistent difference was found between the 2 HES solutions but HH impaired ExTEM-CFT and MCF more than HTS. At high dilutions, FibTEM-CT and -MCF and ExTEM-CT were impaired by HES. Hypertonic solutions affect platelet function and whole blood coagulation to a greater extent than saline and HES. At clinically relevant dilutions, only CTPFA was markedly more

  7. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation by chest compression alone or with mouth-to-mouth ventilation.

    PubMed

    Hallstrom, A; Cobb, L; Johnson, E; Copass, M

    2000-05-25

    Despite extensive training of citizens of Seattle in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), bystanders do not perform CPR in almost half of witnessed cardiac arrests. Instructions in chest compression plus mouth-to-mouth ventilation given by dispatchers over the telephone can require 2.4 minutes. In experimental studies, chest compression alone is associated with survival rates similar to those with chest compression plus mouth-to-mouth ventilation. We conducted a randomized study to compare CPR by chest compression alone with CPR by chest compression plus mouth-to-mouth ventilation. The setting of the trial was an urban, fire-department-based, emergency-medical-care system with central dispatching. In a randomized manner, telephone dispatchers gave bystanders at the scene of apparent cardiac arrest instructions in either chest compression alone or chest compression plus mouth-to-mouth ventilation. The primary end point was survival to hospital discharge. Data were analyzed for 241 patients randomly assigned to receive chest compression alone and 279 assigned to chest compression plus mouth-to-mouth ventilation. Complete instructions were delivered in 62 percent of episodes for the group receiving chest compression plus mouth-to-mouth ventilation and 81 percent of episodes for the group receiving chest compression alone (P=0.005). Instructions for compression required 1.4 minutes less to complete than instructions for compression plus mouth-to-mouth ventilation. Survival to hospital discharge was better among patients assigned to chest compression alone than among those assigned to chest compression plus mouth-to-mouth ventilation (14.6 percent vs. 10.4 percent), but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.18). The outcome after CPR with chest compression alone is similar to that after chest compression with mouth-to-mouth ventilation, and chest compression alone may be the preferred approach for bystanders inexperienced in CPR.

  8. Saline as the Sole Contrast Agent for Successful MRI-guided Epidural Injections

    SciTech Connect

    Deli, Martin, E-mail: martin.deli@web.de; Fritz, Jan, E-mail: jfritz9@jhmi.edu; Mateiescu, Serban, E-mail: mateiescu@microtherapy.de

    Purpose. To assess the performance of sterile saline solution as the sole contrast agent for percutaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided epidural injections at 1.5 T. Methods. A retrospective analysis of two different techniques of MRI-guided epidural injections was performed with either gadolinium-enhanced saline solution or sterile saline solution for documentation of the epidural location of the needle tip. T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FLASH) images or T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) images visualized the test injectants. Methods were compared by technical success rate, image quality, table time, and rate of complications. Results. 105 MRI-guided epidural injections (12 of 105 withmore » gadolinium-enhanced saline solution and 93 of 105 with sterile saline solution) were performed successfully and without complications. Visualization of sterile saline solution and gadolinium-enhanced saline solution was sufficient, good, or excellent in all 105 interventions. For either test injectant, quantitative image analysis demonstrated comparable high contrast-to-noise ratios of test injectants to adjacent body substances with reliable statistical significance levels (p < 0.001). The mean table time was 22 {+-} 9 min in the gadolinium-enhanced saline solution group and 22 {+-} 8 min in the saline solution group (p = 0.75). Conclusion. Sterile saline is suitable as the sole contrast agent for successful and safe percutaneous MRI-guided epidural drug delivery at 1.5 T.« less

  9. Photosynthetic functions of Synechococcus in the ocean microbiomes of diverse salinity and seasons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yihwan; Jeon, Jehyun; Kwak, Min Seok; Kim, Gwang Hoon; Koh, InSong; Rho, Mina

    2018-01-01

    Synechococcus is an important photosynthetic picoplankton in the temperate to tropical oceans. As a photosynthetic bacterium, Synechococcus has an efficient mechanism to adapt to the changes in salinity and light intensity. The analysis of the distributions and functions of such microorganisms in the ever changing river mouth environment, where freshwater and seawater mix, should help better understand their roles in the ecosystem. Toward this objective, we have collected and sequenced the ocean microbiome in the river mouth of Kwangyang Bay, Korea, as a function of salinity and temperature. In conjunction with comparative genomics approaches using the sequenced genomes of a wide phylogeny of Synechococcus, the ocean microbiome was analyzed in terms of their composition and clade-specific functions. The results showed significant differences in the compositions of Synechococcus sampled in different seasons. The photosynthetic functions in such enhanced Synechococcus strains were also observed in the microbiomes in summer, which is significantly different from those in other seasons.

  10. Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.; Maritan, Amos; Porporato, Amilcare

    2010-05-01

    Large areas of cultivated land worldwide are affected by soil salinity. Estimates report that 10% of arable land in over 100 countries, and nine million km2 are salt affected, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. High salinity causes both ion specific and osmotic stress effects, with important consequences for plant production and quality. Salt accumulation in the root zone may be due to natural factors (primary salinization) or due to irrigation (secondary salinization). Simple (e.g., vertically averaged over the soil depth) coupled soil moisture and salt balance equations have been used in the past. Despite their approximations, these models have the advantage of parsimony, thus allowing a direct analysis of the interplay of the main processes. They also provide the ideal starting point to include external, random hydro-climatic fluctuations in the analysis of long-term salinization trends. We propose a minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In fact, soil salinity statistics are obtained as a function of climate, soil and vegetation parameters. These, in turn, can be combined with soil moisture statistics to obtain a full characterization of soil salt concentrations and the ensuing risk of primary salinization. In particular, the solutions show the existence of two quite distinct regimes, the first one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant with increasing rainfall frequency, and the

  11. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crow, Heidi C; Gonzalez, Yoly

    2013-02-01

    Pain in the tongue or oral tissues described as "burning" has been referred to by many terms including burning mouth syndrome. When a burning sensation in the mouth is caused by local or systemic factors, it is called secondary burning mouth syndrome and when these factors are treated the pain will resolve. When burning mouth syndrome occurs in the absence of identified risk indicators, the term primary burning mouth syndrome is utilized. This article focuses on descriptions, etiologic theories, and management of primary burning mouth syndrome, a condition for which underlying causative agents have been ruled out. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Combined glucose ingestion and mouth rinsing improves sprint cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Chong, Edwin; Guelfi, Kym J; Fournier, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated whether combined ingestion and mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution could improve maximal sprint cycling performance. Twelve competitive male cyclists ingested 100 ml of one of the following solutions 20 min before exercise in a randomized double-blinded counterbalanced order (a) 10% glucose solution, (b) 0.05% aspartame solution, (c) 9.0% maltodextrin solution, or (d) water as a control. Fifteen min after ingestion, repeated mouth rinsing was carried out with 11 × 15 ml bolus doses of the same solution at 30-s intervals. Each participant then performed a 45-s maximal sprint effort on a cycle ergometer. Peak power output was significantly higher in response to the glucose trial (1188 ± 166 W) compared with the water (1036 ± 177 W), aspartame (1088 ± 128 W) and maltodextrin (1024 ± 202 W) trials by 14.7 ± 10.6, 9.2 ± 4.6 and 16.0 ± 6.0% respectively (p < .05). Mean power output during the sprint was significantly higher in the glucose trial compared with maltodextrin (p < .05) and also tended to be higher than the water trial (p = .075). Glucose and maltodextrin resulted in a similar increase in blood glucose, and the responses of blood lactate and pH to sprinting did not differ significantly between treatments (p > .05). These findings suggest that combining the ingestion of glucose with glucose mouth rinsing improves maximal sprint performance. This ergogenic effect is unlikely to be related to changes in blood glucose, sweetness, or energy sensing mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract.

  13. Stability study of docetaxel solution (0.9%, saline) using Non-PVC and PVC tubes for intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Park, Kang Hoon; Chung, Dong June

    2015-01-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) are added to poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC) infusion tubes as a plasticizer to ensure tube flexibility. In addition to previously reported disadvantages of DEHP, released DEHP molecules from PVC tubes can easily interact with surfactants in anticancer drug solutions (i.e., polysorbate 80 for Taxotere®-Inj) and reduce the solubility of docetaxel in aqueous solution during anticancer drug administration. In this study, we investigated the in vitro stability of docetaxel in a 0.9% saline solution under an intravenous administration condition using a PVC tube (high DEHP content) and non-PVC infused tube. The docetaxel solution circulating through the non-PVC tube had better solution stability than through the PVC tube(high DEHP content).

  14. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Integrating Salinity Measurements from Aquarius into the Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Daniel; Lewis, David; Hilbert, Kent

    2007-01-01

    This Candidate Solution suggests the use of Aquarius sea surface salinity measurements to improve the NOAA/NCDDC (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration s National Coastal Data Development Center) HABSOS (Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System) DST (decision support tool) by enhancing development and movement forecasts of HAB events as well as potential species identification. In the proposed configuration, recurring salinity measurements from the Aquarius mission would augment HABSOS sea surface temperature and in situ ocean current measurements. Thermohaline circulation observations combined with in situ measurements increase the precision of HAB event movement forecasting. These forecasts allow coastal managers and public health officials to make more accurate and timely warnings to the public and to better direct science teams to event sites for collection and further measurements.

  15. Groundwater-saline lakes interaction - The contribution of saline groundwater circulation to solute budget of saline lakes: a lesson from the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiro, Yael; Weinstein, Yishai; Starinsky, Abraham; Yechieli, Yoseph

    2013-04-01

    Saline lakes act as base level for both surface water and groundwater. Thus, a change in lake levels is expected to result in changes in the hydrogeological system in its vicinity, exhibited in groundwater levels, location of the fresh-saline water interface, sub-lacustrine groundwater discharge (SGD) and saline water circulation. All these processes were observed in the declining Dead Sea system, whose water level dropped by ~35 meters in the last 50 years. This work focuses mainly on the effect of circulation of Dead Sea water in the aquifer, which continues even in this very rapid base level drop. In general, seawater circulation in coastal aquifers is now recognized as a major process affecting trace element mass balances in coastal areas. Estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) vary over several orders of magnitude (1-1000000 m3/yr per meter shoreline). These estimates are sensitive to fresh-saline SGD ratios and to the temporal and spatial scales of the circulation. The Dead Sea system is an excellent natural field lab for studying seawater-groundwater interaction and large-scale circulation due to the absence of tides and to the minor role played by waves. During Dead Sea water circulation in the aquifer several geochemical reactions occur, ranging from short-term adsorption-desorption reactions and up to long-term precipitation and dissolution reactions. These processes affect the trace element distribution in the saline groundwater. Barite and celestine, which are supersaturated in the lake water, precipitate during circulation in the aquifer, reducing barium (from 5 to 1.5 mg/L), strontium (from 350 to 300 mg/L) and the long-lived 226Ra (from 145 to 60 dpm/L) in the saline groundwater. Redox-controlled reactions cause a decrease in uranium from 2.4 to 0.1 μg/L, and an increase in iron from 1 to 13 mg/L. 228Ra (t1/2=5.75 yr) activity in the Dead Sea is ~1 dpm/L and increase gradually as the saline water flows further inland until reaching

  16. The Influence of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Self-Selected Intermittent Running Performance.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Ian; Homewood, George; Williams, Clyde; Carter, James; Goosey-Tolfrey, Vicky L

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the influence of mouth rinsing a carbohydrate solution on self-selected intermittent variable-speed running performance. Eleven male amateur soccer players completed a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) on 2 occasions separated by 1 wk. The modified LIST allowed the self-selection of running speeds during Block 6 of the protocol (75-90 min). Players rinsed and expectorated 25 ml of noncaloric placebo (PLA) or 10% maltodextrin solution (CHO) for 10 s, routinely during Block 6 of the LIST. Self-selected speeds during the walk and cruise phases of the LIST were similar between trials. Jogging speed was significantly faster during the CHO (11.3 ± 0.7 km · h(-1)) than during the PLA trial (10.5 ± 1.3 km · h(-1)) (p = .010); 15-m sprint speeds were not different between trials (PLA: 2.69 ± 0.18 s: CHO: 2.65 ± 0.13 s) (F(2, 10), p = .157), but significant benefits were observed for sprint distance covered (p = .024). The threshold for the smallest worthwhile change in sprint performance was set at 0.2 s. Inferential statistical analysis showed the chance that CHO mouth rinse was beneficial, negligible, or detrimental to repeated sprint performance was 86%, 10%, and 4%, respectively. In conclusion, mouth rinsing and expectorating a 10% maltodextrin solution was associated with a significant increase in self-selected jogging speed. Repeated 15-m sprint performance was also 86% likely to benefit from routinely mouth rinsing a carbohydrate solution in comparison with a taste-matched placebo.

  17. Corrosion behavior of ion implanted nickel-titanium orthodontic wire in fluoride mouth rinse solutions.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Masahiro; Yuasa, Toshihiro; Endo, Kazuhiko; Muguruma, Takeshi; Ohno, Hiroki; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the corrosion properties of ion implanted nickel-titanium wire (Neo Sentalloy Ionguard) in artificial saliva and fluoride mouth rinse solutions (Butler F Mouthrinse, Ora-Bliss). Non ion implanted nickel-titanium wire (Neo Sentalloy) was used as control. The anodic corrosion behavior was examined by potentiodynamic polarization measurement. The surfaces of the specimens were examined with SEM. The elemental depth profiles were characterized by XPS. Neo Sentalloy Ionguard in artificial saliva and Butler F Mouthrinse (500 ppm) had a lower current density than Neo Sentalloy. In addition, breakdown potential of Neo Sentalloy Ionguard in Ora-Bliss (900 ppm) was much higher than that of Neo Sentalloy although both wires had similar corrosion potential in Ora-Bliss (450 and 900 ppm). The XPS results for Neo Sentalloy Ionguard suggested that the layers consisted of TiO(2) and TiN were present on the surface and the layers may improve the corrosion properties.

  18. Modeling the effects of different irrigation water salinity on soil water movement, uptake and multicomponent solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakis, E. H.; Antonopoulos, V. Z.

    2015-11-01

    Simulation models can be important tools for analyzing and managing irrigation, soil salinization or crop production problems. In this study a mathematical model that describes the water movement and mass transport of individual ions (Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+) and overall soil salinity by means of the soil solution electrical conductivity, is used. The mass transport equations of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ have been incorporated as part of the integrated model WANISIM and the soil salinity was computed as the sum of individual ions. The model was calibrated and validated against field data, collected during a three year experiment in plots of maize, irrigated with three different irrigation water qualities, at Thessaloniki area in Northern Greece. The model was also used to evaluate salinization and sodification hazards by the use of irrigation water with increasing electrical conductivity of 0.8, 3.2 and 6.4 dS m-1, while maintaining a ratio of Ca2+:Mg2+:Na+ equal to 3:3:2. The qualitative and quantitative procedures for results evaluation showed that there was good agreement between the simulated and measured values of the water content, overall salinity and the concentration of individual soluble cations, at two soil layers (0-35 and 35-75 cm). Nutrient uptake was also taken into account. Locally available irrigation water (ECiw = 0.8 dS m-1) did not cause soil salinization or sodification. On the other hand, irrigation water with ECiw equal to 3.2 and 6.4 dS m-1 caused severe soil salinization, but not sodification. The rainfall water during the winter seasons was not sufficient to leach salts below the soil profile of 110 cm. The modified version of model WANISIM is able to predict the effects of irrigation with saline waters on soil and plant growth and it is suitable for irrigation management in areas with scarce and low quality water resources.

  19. Mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution does not influence cycle time trial performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Watson, Phillip; Nichols, David; Cordery, Philip

    2014-09-01

    Ten endurance-trained males were recruited to examine the possible role of carbohydrate (CHO) receptors in the mouth influencing exercise performance in the heat. Volunteers completed an incremental test to exhaustion to determine peak oxygen uptake, a familiarisation trial, followed by 2 experimental trials. Trials consisted of a 1-h time trial undertaken in a climatic chamber maintained at 30 °C, 60% relative humidity. Immediately before, and at regular intervals throughout exercise, subjects ingested a bolus of water and then were provided with either a placebo (PLA) or a 6.4% glucose (CHO) solution to rinse in the mouth for 10 s before being expectorated. There was no difference in total work done between the PLA and CHO trials (758.8 ± 149.0 kJ; 762.6 ± 141.1 kJ; P = 0.951). Pacing was also similar, with no differences in power output apparent during the experimental trials (P = 0.546). Core temperature (P = 0.615), heart rate (P = 0.505), ratings of perceived exertion (P = 0.181), and perceived thermal stress (P = 0.416) were not influenced by the nature of the intervention. Blood glucose concentrations were similar during the CHO and PLA trials (P = 0.117). In contrast to the findings of several studies undertaken in temperate conditions, the present investigation failed to support role of oral sensing of CHO in influencing performance during prolonged exercise in warm conditions.

  20. Mouth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... by some medicines and certain diseases Gum or tooth problems Bad breath Treatment for mouth disorders varies, depending on the problem. Keeping a clean mouth by brushing and flossing often is important.

  1. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  2. Mouth Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... lips and the inside of your mouth. Most oral cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. It's not clear what causes the mutations in squamous cells that lead to mouth cancer. But doctors have identified factors that may increase ...

  3. Mouth ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gingivostomatitis Herpes simplex ( fever blister ) Leukoplakia Oral cancer Oral lichen planus Oral thrush A skin sore caused by histoplasmosis may ... mouth Images Oral thrush Canker sore (aphthous ulcer) Lichen planus on the oral mucosa Mouth sores References Daniels TE, Jordan RC. ...

  4. Synovitis induced by joint lavage with hypertonic saline solutions in healthy dairy calves

    PubMed Central

    Achard, Damien; Francoz, David; Desrochers, André; Girard, Christiane; Piché, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single joint lavage with 7.2% or 15% hypertonic saline solutions (HSS) on the tarsocrural joints of healthy calves. The tarsi of 10 calves were randomly lavaged with 7.2% HSS, 15% HSS, or isotonic saline. Synovial fluid samples were collected aseptically on days 1 (before joint lavage), 2, 3, 4, and 8 for complete cytological analysis. Lameness, joint swelling, and pain were recorded daily. Calves were euthanized on day 8 for gross and histological analyses of synovial membranes and articular cartilage. Synovitis was evaluated using a scoring system reflecting inflammatory changes in synovial membranes. Joints irrigated with HSS were more distended and painful compared with isotonic control joints. Swelling decreased consistently in the joints lavaged with 7.2% HSS, whereas it remained unchanged in joints lavaged with 15% HSS. Slight to moderate lameness was observed in the joints lavaged with 15% HSS. In comparison to isotonic saline joints, total protein concentration was significantly increased on day 2 and 3 for the joints lavaged with 7.2% HSS (P ≤ 0.01) and on days 2, 3, and 4 in the joints lavaged with 15% HSS (P ≤ 0.0006). Gross and histological findings revealed that synovitis was more severe in the joints lavaged with 15% HSS but variable in the joints lavaged with 7.2% HSS. No significant differences were observed for the articular cartilage. Fifteen percent HSS is not recommended for joint lavage. Although irrigation with 7.2% HSS may induce a variable synovitis, it was found appropriate for joint lavage. Its effects on septic joints remain undetermined. PMID:23024450

  5. Hydrogeologic processes in saline systems: Playas, sabkhas, and saline lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yechieli, Y.; Wood, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Pans, playas, sabkhas, salinas, saline lakes, and salt flats are hydrologically similar, varying only in their boundary conditions. Thus, in evaluating geochemical processes in these systems, a generic water and solute mass-balance approach can be utilized. A conceptual model of a coastal sabkha near the Arabian Gulf is used as an example to illustrate the various water and solute fluxes. Analysis of this model suggests that upward flux of ground water from underlying formations could be a major source of solutes in the sabkha, but contribute only a small volume of the water. Local rainfall is the main source of water in the modeled sabkha system with a surprisingly large recharge-to-rainfall ratio of more than 50%. The contribution of seawater to the solute budget depends on the ratio of the width of the supratidal zone to the total width and is generally confined to a narrow zone near the shoreline of a typical coastal sabkha. Because of a short residence time of water, steady-state flow is expected within a short time (50,000 years). The solute composition of the brine in a closed saline system depends largely on the original composition of the input water. The high total ion content in the brine limits the efficiency of water-rock interaction and absorption. Because most natural systems are hydrologically open, the chemistry of the brines and the associated evaporite deposits may be significantly different than that predicted for hydrologically closed systems. Seasonal changes in temperature of the unsaturated zone cause precipitation of minerals in saline systems undergoing evaporation. Thus, during the hot dry season months, minerals exhibit retrograde solubility so that gypsum, anhydrite and calcite precipitate. Evaporation near the surface is also a major process that causes mineral precipitation in the upper portion of the unsaturated zone (e.g. halite and carnallite), provided that the relative humidity of the atmosphere is less than the activity of water

  6. The Influence of Serial Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing on Power Output during a Cycle Sprint.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shaun M; Findlay, Scott; Kavaliauskas, Mykolas; Grant, Marie Clare

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of serial administration of a carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on performance, metabolic and perceptual responses during a cycle sprint. Twelve physically active males (mean (± SD) age: 23.1 (3.0) years, height: 1.83 (0.07) m, body mass (BM): 86.3 (13.5) kg) completed the following mouth rinse trials in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind fashion; 1. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml CHO (6% w/v maltodextrin) solution, 2. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml placebo (PLA) solution. Following mouth rinse administration, participants completed a 30 second sprint on a cycle ergometer against a 0.075 g·kg(-1) BM resistance. Eight participants achieved a greater peak power output (PPO) in the CHO trial, resulting in a significantly greater PPO compared with PLA (13.51 ± 2.19 vs. 13.20 ± 2.14 W·kg(-1), p < 0.05). Magnitude inference analysis reported a likely benefit (81% likelihood) of the CHO mouth rinse on PPO. In the CHO trial, mean power output (MPO) showed a trend for being greater in the first 5 seconds of the sprint and lower for the remainder of the sprint compared with the PLA trial (p > 0.05). No significant between-trials difference was reported for fatigue index, perceived exertion, arousal and nausea levels, or blood lactate and glucose concentrations. Serial administration of a CHO mouth rinse may significantly improve PPO during a cycle sprint. This improvement appears confined to the first 5 seconds of the sprint, and may come at a greater relative cost for the remainder of the sprint. Key pointsThe paper demonstrates that repeated administration of a carbohydrate mouth rinse can significantly improve peak power output during a single 30 second cycle sprint.The ergogenic effect of the carbohydrate mouth rinse may relate to the duration of exposure of the oral cavity to the mouth rinse, and associated greater stimulation of oral carbohydrate receptors.The significant increase in peak power

  7. Modeling Diffusion as a Result of Observing Salinity, Water Temperature and Mixing of the Norwalk River into Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliano, A. L.; Gillotte, C. N.; Wooldridge, T. R.

    2016-02-01

    This project investigates the space and time variability of salinity and temperature in the lower Norwalk River using a one-dimensional numerical model. The project uses surface measurements taken at two locations, one at the Norwalk Maritime Museum (NMM) and the other at the mouth of the river as it drains into the Norwalk Islands region adjacent to Long Island Sound (LIS). The model covers a relatively small distance of 1-2km. The size of the upriver neck and the first buoy is approximately five times smaller than the mouth between the second buoy site and Peach Island. The instrumentation will be responsible for generally characterizing the thermal physics occurring at the river-ocean environment. A one-dimensional advection-diffusion model will be used to simulate results. The data points will measure the salinity, water temperature, and pressure during a series of deployments in the river during a three-season period between 2013 and 2014. Further processes will ultimately show the overall advection occurring in the river. The upriver site is maintained by the Norwalk River Museum. A YSI XXX attached to a tether buoy is used to measure salinity and temperature at the surface.Preliminary results suggest typical temperature range at the upriver site is greater than at the mouth of the Norwalk River, and the daily peak temperature lag depends upon several factors, such as tidal state. The phenomenon of a salt wedge will also be considered.

  8. Influence of albumin on the electrochemical behaviour of Zr in phosphate buffered saline solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu-Ning; Huang, Xian-Qiu; Shinbine, Alyssa; Luo, Jing-Li

    2013-02-01

    The corrosion behaviour of Zr in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solutions with various concentrations (0-4 g L(-1)) of albumin was studied by electrochemical techniques and surface analysis. Addition of albumin to PBS solutions moved the open circuit potential (OCP) to less nobler direction. OCP, polarization resistance and impedance increased and the corrosion current decreased over immersion duration. At early stages of immersion, the resistance was increased with the concentration of albumin because of the high adsorption kinetics of albumin on metal. After the long term immersion, the resistance in PBS without albumin was higher than PBS with albumin owing to the anodic dissolution effect of albumin on metal. According to the analysis of effective capacitances, a normal distribution of time-constants was proposed to estimate the surface film on Zr. A corrosion mechanism of Zr in PBS with different albumin was proposed based on electrochemical analysis.

  9. Mouth and Teeth (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Mouth and Teeth KidsHealth / For Parents / Mouth and Teeth What's in ... daily lives. Basic Anatomy of the Mouth and Teeth The entrance to the digestive tract, the mouth ...

  10. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

  11. Intravenous hypertonic saline solution (7.5%) and oral electrolytes to treat of calves with noninfectious diarrhea and metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Leal, M L R; Fialho, S S; Cyrillo, F C; Bertagnon, H G; Ortolani, E L; Benesi, F J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of treating osmotic diarrhea and dehydration in calves with hypertonic saline solution (HSS) IV, isotonic electrolyte solution (IES) PO, and a combination of these 2 solutions (HSS + IES). Eighteen male calves 8-30 days of age were used to evaluate the efficacy of 3 methods of fluid therapy after induction of osmotic diarrhea and dehydration. The diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administration of saccharose, spironolactone, and hydrochlorothiazide for 48 hours. The animals were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups: Group 1: 7.2% hypertonic saline solution-HSS (5 mL/kg IV); Group 2: oral isotonic electrolyte solution IES (60 mL/kg PO); or Group 3: HSS+IES. Clinical signs and laboratory finding observed 48 hours post-induction (Time 0) included diarrhea, dehydration, lethargy, and metabolic acidosis. Calves treated with HSS + IES experienced decreases in hematocrit, total protein concentration, albumin concentration, urea nitrogen concentration, and plasma volume as well as increases in blood pH, blood bicarbonate concentration, and central venous pressure between 1 and 3 hours post-treatment. These findings also were observed in animals treated with IES, however, at a slower rate than in the HSS + IES-treated animals. Animals treated with HSS continued to display signs of dehydration, lethargy, and metabolic acidosis 24 hours post-treatment. Treatment with a combination of HSS and IES produced rapid and sustainable correction of hypovolemia and metabolic acidosis in calves with noninfections diarrhea and dehydration. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Salinity index determination of porous materials using open-ended probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szypłowska, Agnieszka; Kafarski, Marcin; Wilczek, Andrzej; Lewandowski, Arkadiusz; Skierucha, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    The relations among soil water content, bulk electrical conductivity and electrical conductivity of soil solution can be described by a number of theoretical and empirical models. The aim of the paper is to examine the performance of open-ended coaxial probes with and without a short antenna in determination of complex dielectric permittivity spectra, moisture and salinity of porous materials using the salinity index approach. Glass beads of 0.26 and 1.24 mm average diameters moistened to various water contents with distilled water and KCl solutions were used to model the soil material. Due to the larger sensitivity zone, only the probe with the antenna enabled determination of bulk electrical conductivity and salinity index of the samples. The relations between bulk electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the samples were highly linear, which was consistent with the salinity index model. The slope of the relation between salinity index and electrical conductivity of moistening solutions closely matched the value for 100 % sand presented in literature.

  13. Population and osmoregulatory responses of a euryhaline fish to extreme salinity fluctuations in coastal lagoons of the Coorong, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedderburn, Scotte D.; Bailey, Colin P.; Delean, Steven; Paton, David C.

    2016-01-01

    River flows and salinity are key factors structuring fish assemblages in estuaries. The osmoregulatory ability of a fish determines its capacity to tolerate rising salt levels when dispersal is unfeasible. Estuarine fishes can tolerate minor fluctuations in salinity, but a relatively small number of species in a few families can inhabit extreme hypersaline waters. The Murray-Darling Basin drains an extensive area of south-eastern Australia and river flows end at the mouth of the River Murray. The system is characterized by erratic rainfall and highly variable flows which have been reduced by intensive river regulation and water extraction. The Coorong is a coastal lagoon system extending some 110 km south-eastwards from the mouth. It is an inverted estuary with a salinity gradient that typically ranges from estuarine to triple that of sea water. Hypersalinity in the southern region suits a select suite of biota, including the smallmouth hardyhead Atherinosoma microstoma - a small-bodied, euryhaline fish with an annual life cycle. The population response of A. microstoma in the Coorong was examined during a period of considerable hydrological variation and extreme salinity fluctuations (2001-2014), and the findings were related to its osmoregulatory ability. Most notably, the species was extirpated from over 50% of its range during four continuous years without river flows when salinities exceeded 120 (2007-2010). These salinities exceeded the osmoregulatory ability of A. microstoma. Substantial river flows that reached the Coorong in late 2010 and continued into 2011 led salinities to fall below 100 throughout the Coorong by January 2012. Subsequently, A. microstoma recovered to its former range by January 2012. The findings show that the consequences of prolonged periods of insufficient river flows to temperate inverted estuaries will include substantial declines in the range of highly euryhaline fishes, which also may have wider ecological consequences.

  14. Effect of low-concentration povidone iodine on postoperative complications after third molar surgery: a pilot split-mouth study.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud Hashemi, Hamid; Mohammadi, Farnoosh; Hasheminasab, Mahboube; Mahmoud Hashemi, Ali; Zahraei, Shohreh; Mahmoud Hashemi, Talieh

    2015-01-01

    Povidone iodine is used primarily as an antiseptic to decrease surgical site infection. Its hemostatic and antiedematous properties in oral surgery also have been investigated recently. A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed in 30 patients undergoing mandibular third molar removal in a split-mouth design. In the study group, a povidone iodine solution with a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL was used as the coolant and irrigant solution, whereas normal saline was used in the control group. Swelling (orotragus and mentotragus distances), trismus (maximum interincisal opening), and pain (visual analog scale score) were evaluated on postoperative days 2 and 7. In the study group, a significant decrease in swelling and trismus was observed at the 2 postoperative visits (P = .00) compared with the control group. The decrease of pain in the study group was not statistically significant at either postoperative visit (P > .05). More patients (63%) were subjectively satisfied with the side treated with povidone iodine. Povidone iodine irrigation is an inexpensive and safe method to lessen the postoperative sequelae of third molar surgery. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Polymer tensiometers in a saline environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; Gooren, H. P. A.; Bakker, G.; Russell, W.; Hoogendam, C. W.; Huiskes, C.; Shouse, P.; de Rooij, G. H.

    2010-05-01

    It is estimated that 20% of all cultivated land and nearly half of the irrigated land is salt-affected, which pose major economic and environmental problems. Salinity may be the result of two processes; dryland and irrigation salinity. Dryland salinity is caused by a rise in the groundwater table, which occurs as a result of the replacement of deep-rooted, perennial native vegetation by shallow-rooted annual species meant for production. Irrigation salinity may occur as a result of poor water quality, poor drainage, or inefficient use of water. Consequently, new strategies to enhance crop yield stability on saline soils represent a major research priority (Botella et al. 2005). At the same time, native vegetation is capable of thriving under saline and/or dry conditions. The plant physiology of such vegetation has been investigated thoroughly, but the relation with in situ soil properties (soil moisture and salinity) may be more difficult to unravel as soil moisture sensors are less sensitive in dry soil, and the signal of most soil moisture content sensors is strongly attenuated by soil salinity. Recently, polymer tensiometer were developed that are able to measure matric potentials (closely related to a soil's moisture status) in dry soils. Polymer tensiometers consist of a solid ceramic, a stainless steel cup and a pressure transducer. The ceramic consist of a support layer and a membrane with 2 nm pore-size to prevent polymer leakage. Between the ceramic membrane and the pressure transducer a tiny chamber is located, which contains the polymer solution. The polymer's osmotic potential strongly reduces the total water potential inside the polymer tensiometer, which causes build-up of osmotic pressure. Polymer tensiometers would thus be an ideal instrument to measure in dry soil, if the polymer inside the tensiometer is not affected by the salts in the soil solution. We will address some key issues regarding the use of POTs in saline environments by showing

  16. Antimicrobial effects of chlorhexidine, matrica drop mouthwash (chamomile extract), and normal saline on hospitalized patients with endotracheal tubes

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Maryam; Jouybari, Leila; Moghadam, Shahram; Ghaemi, Ezatolah; Behnampoor, Naser; Sanagoo, Akram; Hesam, Moslem

    2016-01-01

    Background: The functions and use of mouthwashes are variable depending on their type. Oral care in patients with endotracheal tubes is important to prevent side effects such as pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effects of chlorhexidine, drop of Matrica mouthwash (chamomile extract), and normal saline on hospitalized patients with endotracheal tube in an intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 39 patients admitted to the ICU were selected by convenience sampling, were matched based on age and sex, and randomly assigned to three groups (chlorhexidine, Matrica, saline). Mouth washing was performed every 8 to 48 hours. The samples were taken at time zero (before the intervention) and 48 hours after the intervention for bacterial culture. Antibacterial activity of each mouthwash on microorganisms was measured based on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pneumococcal, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, and Escherichia coli. The obtained data were then analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Package version 18. Results: Chlorhexidine mouthwash was more effective in preventing colonization of bacteria in the mouth (point probability = 0.06) in comparison with chamomile and saline mouthwashes. Nevertheless, none of the tested mouthwashes were able to remove pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and Acinetobacter. Conclusions: 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash has a significant effect on the bacterial colonization rate in comparison with Matrica and normal saline mouthwashes in ICU hospitalized patients with endotracheal tube. PMID:27904627

  17. Removal of Soluble Strontium via Incorporation into Biogenic Carbonate Minerals by Halophilic Bacterium Bacillus sp. Strain TK2d in a Highly Saline Solution

    PubMed Central

    Dotsuta, Yuma; Nakano, Yuriko; Ochiai, Asumi; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Radioactive strontium (90Sr) leaked into saline environments, including the ocean, from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after a nuclear accident. Since the removal of 90Sr using general adsorbents (e.g., zeolite) is not efficient at high salinity, a suitable alternative immobilization method is necessary. Therefore, we incorporated soluble Sr into biogenic carbonate minerals generated by urease-producing microorganisms from a saline solution. An isolate, Bacillus sp. strain TK2d, from marine sediment removed >99% of Sr after contact for 4 days in a saline solution (1.0 × 10−3 mol liter−1 of Sr, 10% marine broth, and 3% [wt/vol] NaCl). Transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that Sr and Ca accumulated as phosphate minerals inside the cells and adsorbed at the cell surface at 2 days of cultivation, and then carbonate minerals containing Sr and Ca developed outside the cells after 2 days. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed that Sr, but not Mg, was present in the carbonate minerals even after 8 days. X-ray absorption fine-structure analyses showed that a portion of the soluble Sr changed its chemical state to strontianite (SrCO3) in biogenic carbonate minerals. These results indicated that soluble Sr was selectively solidified into biogenic carbonate minerals by the TK2d strain in highly saline environments. IMPORTANCE Radioactive nuclides (134Cs, 137Cs, and 90Sr) leaked into saline environments, including the ocean, from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Since the removal of 90Sr using general adsorbents, such as zeolite, is not efficient at high salinity, a suitable alternative immobilization method is necessary. Utilizing the known concept that radioactive 90Sr is incorporated into bones by biomineralization, we got the idea of removing 90Sr via incorporation into biominerals. In this study, we revealed the ability of the isolated ureolytic bacterium to remove Sr under high-salinity

  18. Maturation of the MOUTh Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski-Jaudon, Rita A.; Kolanowski, Ann M.; Winstead, Vicki; Jones-Townsend, Corteza; Azuero, Andres

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to describe a personalized practice originally conceived as a way to prevent and minimize care-resistant behavior to provide mouth care to older adult with dementia. The original intervention, Managing Oral Hygiene Using Threat Reduction Strategies (MOUTh), matured during the clinical trial study into a relationship-centered intervention with emphasis on developing strategies that support residents behavioral health and staff involved in care. Relationships that were initially pragmatic (i.e., focused on the task of completing mouth care) developed into more personal and responsive relationships that involved deeper engagement between mouth care providers and nursing home (NH) residents. Mouth care was accomplished and completed in a manner enjoyable to NH residents and mouth care providers. The MOUTh intervention may also concurrently affirm the dignity and personhood of the care recipient because of its emphasis on connecting with older adults. PMID:26934969

  19. Do catheter washouts extend patency time in long-term indwelling urethral catheters? A randomized controlled trial of acidic washout solution, normal saline washout, or standard care.

    PubMed

    Moore, Katherine N; Hunter, Kathleen F; McGinnis, Rosemary; Bacsu, Chasta; Fader, Mandy; Gray, Mikel; Getliffe, Kathy; Chobanuk, Janice; Puttagunta, Lakshmi; Voaklander, Donald C

    2009-01-01

    Blockage of long-term indwelling catheters with mineral deposit is an ongoing management issue, but evidence on optimal management is lacking. Our purpose was to examine whether catheter washouts prevent or reduce catheter blockage. A multisite randomized controlled trial. Adults with long-term indwelling catheters that required changing every 3 weeks or less, living in the community, and requiring supportive or continuing care were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: control (usual care, no washout), saline washout, or commercially available acidic washout solution (Contisol Maelor Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Wrexham, UK). At baseline visit, the catheter was changed and participants were followed weekly for 8 weeks, with checks for catheter patency and urine pH. Participants randomized to saline or commercial solution had a weekly washout with the appropriate solution. Endpoints were 8 weeks (completion data), 3 or more catheter changes in the 8-week period, or symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) requiring antibiotics. The study hypothesis was that catheter life would be extended by 25% in the commercial solution group. It was not possible to blind participants or research nurses to washout versus no intervention, but participants in the saline and washout solution groups were blinded to solution type. One hundred twelve potential participants were screened; 73 were enrolled, randomized, and included in the final analysis. Of these, 53 completed the full 8 weeks of data collection; 16 terminated early because of 3 catheter changes or self-reported 'UTI'. Other reasons for termination were hematuria, latex sensitivity, deceased/severe illness, or personal choice. Analysis of variance was used to analyze mean differences on demographic variables and mean number of weeks in study. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed no statistical difference between the groups in time to first catheter change. At this time, the evidence is

  20. Side Effects: Mouth and Throat Problems

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatments may cause dental, mouth, and throat side effects such as changes in taste (dysgeusia), dry mouth (xerostomia), infections, mouth sores, pain or swelling in your mouth (oral mucositis), sensitivity to foods, and swallowing problems.

  1. Biochar-manure compost in conjunction with pyroligneous solution alleviated salt stress and improved leaf bioactivity of maize in a saline soil from central China: a 2-year field experiment.

    PubMed

    Lashari, Muhammad Siddique; Ye, Yingxin; Ji, Haishi; Li, Lianqing; Kibue, Grace Wanjiru; Lu, Haifei; Zheng, Jufeng; Pan, Genxing

    2015-04-01

    Salinity is a major stress threatening crop production in dry lands. A 2-year field experiment was conducted to assess the potential of a biochar product to alleviate salt-stress to a maize crop in a saline soil. The soil was amended with a compost at 12 t ha(-1) of wheat straw biochar and poultry manure compost (BPC), and a diluted pyroligneous solution (PS) at 0.15 t ha(-1) (BPC-PS). Changes in soil salinity and plant performance, leaf bioactivity were examined in the first (BPC-PS1) and second (BPC-PS2) year following a single amendment. While soil salinity significantly decreased, there were large increases in leaf area index, plant performance, and maize grain yield, with a considerable decrease in leaf electrolyte leakage when grown in amendments. Maize leaf sap nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium increased while sodium and chloride decreased, leaf bioactivity related to osmotic stress was significantly improved following the treatments. These effects were generally greater in the second than in the first year. A combined amendment of crop straw biochar with manure compost plus pyroligneous solution could help combat salinity stress to maize and improve productivity in saline croplands in arid/semi-arid regions threatened increasingly by global climate change. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The application of crystal soaking technique to study the effect of zinc and cresol on insulinotropin crystals grown from a saline solution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Haren, A M

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of zinc and cresol on the structure of insulinotropin crystals. Insulinotropin crystals grown from a saline solution were treated with zinc and/or m-cresol using a crystal soaking technique. The effects of these additives on the crystal structure were investigated with powder X-ray diffraction, photomicrography, and differential scanning calorimetry. The molecular interaction between insulinotropin and m-trifluorocresol in solution was also studied by 19F NMR: The data suggest that the original crystals grown from a saline solution have relatively weak lattice forces. After the addition of m-cresol to the suspension of the insulinotropin crystals, the crystals were immediately rendered amorphous. The m-cresol molecules which diffused into the crystals through solvent channels may have disturbed the lattice interactions that maintain the integrity of the crystal. In contrast, the zinc added to the suspension stabilized the crystal lattice so that the subsequent addition of m-cresol did not alter the integrity of the crystals. A marked increase in melting point (206 degrees versus 184 degrees) and heat of fusion (24.6 J/g versus 1.4 J/g) of the crystals was observed after the treatment with zinc. The solubility of the zinc treated crystals in a pH 7.1 phosphate buffered saline was 1/20 of that of the original crystals. When the insulinotropin crystals were treated with the additives using a crystal soaking method, the crystals underwent structural changes. Zinc stabilized the crystal lattice, and reduced the solubility of the peptide.

  3. Amphioxus mouth after dorso-ventral inversion.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Takao; Reimer, James D; Morov, Arseniy R; Kuratani, Shigeru; Yasui, Kinya

    2016-01-01

    Deuterostomes (animals with 'secondary mouths') are generally accepted to develop the mouth independently of the blastopore. However, it remains largely unknown whether mouths are homologous among all deuterostome groups. Unlike other bilaterians, in amphioxus the mouth initially opens on the left lateral side. This peculiar morphology has not been fully explained in the evolutionary developmental context. We studied the developmental process of the amphioxus mouth to understand whether amphioxus acquired a new mouth, and if so, how it is related to or differs from mouths in other deuterostomes. The left first somite in amphioxus produces a coelomic vesicle between the epidermis and pharynx that plays a crucial role in the mouth opening. The vesicle develops in association with the amphioxus-specific Hatschek nephridium, and first opens into the pharynx and then into the exterior as a mouth. This asymmetrical development of the anterior-most somites depends on the Nodal-Pitx signaling unit, and the perturbation of laterality-determining Nodal signaling led to the disappearance of the vesicle, producing a symmetric pair of anterior-most somites that resulted in larvae lacking orobranchial structures. The vesicle expressed bmp2/4, as seen in ambulacrarian coelomic pore-canals, and the mouth did not open when Bmp2/4 signaling was blocked. We conclude that the amphioxus mouth, which uniquely involves a mesodermal coelomic vesicle, shares its evolutionary origins with the ambulacrarian coelomic pore-canal. Our observations suggest that there are at least three types of mouths in deuterostomes, and that the new acquisition of chordate mouths was likely related to the dorso-ventral inversion that occurred in the last common ancestor of chordates.

  4. Changing the culture of mouth care: mouth care without a battle.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Sheryl; Sloane, Philip D; Cohen, Lauren W; Barrick, Ann Louise

    2014-02-01

    Culture change aims to fundamentally improve care provision in a manner consistent with individual preferences. However, few studies of culture change have focused on the quality of daily care, despite the fact that system-wide efforts are important to assure the effectiveness, adoption, and sustainability of person-centered care to meet daily needs. This paper describes a new culture change practice, Mouth Care Without a Battle. The focus on mouth care is predicated on the important association between person-centered support for oral hygiene and quality of life. Mouth Care Without a Battle is a person-centered approach to quality mouth care for persons with cognitive and physical impairment. It was developed by an interdisciplinary team of clinician researchers based on literature review, consultation with experts, environmental scan of existing programs, and testing in nursing homes. Building from the success of Bathing Without a Battle, Mouth Care Without a Battle was evaluated in terms of changed care practices and outcomes, developed into a training program, and packaged for dissemination as a digital video disk (DVD) and website. The development and evaluation of Mouth Care Without a Battle demonstrate attention to the areas necessary to establish the evidence-base for culture change, to ultimately empower and support staff to provide care to achieve quality outcomes. As illustrated in this paper, it is beneficial to build the evidence base for culture change by attending to care processes and outcomes benefiting all residents, ability to implement culture change, and costs of implementation.

  5. Distribution of Glass Eel by the Water Surface Salinity Using Landsat TM at Pelabuhan Ratu Bay, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irianto, D. S.; Supriatna; Pin, TjiongGiok

    2016-11-01

    Eel (Anguilla spp.) is consumed fish that has an important economic value, either for local or international market. Pelabuhanratu Bay is an area with big potential for supplying eel seed. One of important factor, which affect an eel existence, is salinity, because eel migrate from fresh water, brackish, and sea naturally although the otherwise so that need ways to describe the distribution of glass eel by the salinity. To find out the percentage of salinity, it obtained from Landsat 8 Imagery in year 2015 using salinity prediction of Algorithm Cimandiri. The research has been conducted at Cimandiri Estuary, Citepus Estuary, and Cimaja Estuary based on wet and dry months. The existence of glass eel which is obtained from the catch was occurs on dry month when the most catch was occurs at the edge of estuary. The catch is reduced if it's farther from the edge of estuary, at the beach towards the sea and the inside of the river mouth with the percentage of salinity towards the sea is increase while the percentage of salinity towards the river is decrease.

  6. Salinity Gradients for Sustainable Energy: Primer, Progress, and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Brogioli, Doriano; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Nijmeijer, Kitty

    2016-11-15

    Combining two solutions of different composition releases the Gibbs free energy of mixing. By using engineered processes to control the mixing, chemical energy stored in salinity gradients can be harnessed for useful work. In this critical review, we present an overview of the current progress in salinity gradient power generation, discuss the prospects and challenges of the foremost technologies - pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix) and provide perspectives on the outlook of salinity gradient power generation. Momentous strides have been made in technical development of salinity gradient technologies and field demonstrations with natural and anthropogenic salinity gradients (for example, seawater-river water and desalination brine-wastewater, respectively), but fouling persists to be a pivotal operational challenge that can significantly ebb away cost-competitiveness. Natural hypersaline sources (e.g., hypersaline lakes and salt domes) can achieve greater concentration difference and, thus, offer opportunities to overcome some of the limitations inherent to seawater-river water. Technological advances needed to fully exploit the larger salinity gradients are identified. While seawater desalination brine is a seemingly attractive high salinity anthropogenic stream that is otherwise wasted, actual feasibility hinges on the appropriate pairing with a suitable low salinity stream. Engineered solutions are foulant-free and can be thermally regenerative for application in low-temperature heat utilization. Alternatively, PRO, RED, and CapMix can be coupled with their analog separation process (reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and capacitive deionization, respectively) in salinity gradient flow batteries for energy storage in chemical potential of the engineered solutions. Rigorous techno-economic assessments can more clearly identify the prospects of low-grade heat conversion and large-scale energy storage

  7. Low basal salivary flow and burning mouth syndrome: new evidence in this enigmatic pathology.

    PubMed

    Spadari, Francesco; Venesia, Paolo; Azzi, Lorenzo; Veronesi, Giovanni; Costantino, Dario; Croveri, Fabio; Farronato, Davide; Tagliabue, Angelo; Tettamanti, Lucia

    2015-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome remains a puzzling condition. One symptom commonly associated with the burning sensation is xerostomia. The current study measured basal and stimulated salivary flow in a group of burning mouth syndrome patients. Three groups of patients were recruited: 44 burning mouth syndrome patients, 27 oral lichen planus patients and 40 healthy patients. We chose to measure basal salivary flow and stimulated salivary flow in the three groups of patients using the 'spitting' method. Thus, the patients were asked to spit every minute for 5 min. Afterwards, they were asked to repeat the procedure a second time, but a drop of citric acid was positioned on their tongue every minute to stimulate salivary secretion. After 14 days, the same procedure was repeated for 15 min. Although there was no significant difference between the burning mouth syndrome group and the other two groups regarding the stimulated volumes, an important difference was found in the basal volumes, with the burning mouth syndrome patients showing lower values. The outcomes of our research demonstrate the presence of very low basal salivary flow in burning mouth syndrome patients compared with the other two groups, but the stimulated salivary flow was equal, if not higher, in the burning mouth syndrome patients. This study contributes new topics for further investigation of a solution to the very mysterious pathology represented by burning mouth syndrome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Salinization and Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  9. Effects of caffeine and carbohydrate mouth rinses on repeated sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Beaven, C Martyn; Maulder, Peter; Pooley, Adrian; Kilduff, Liam; Cook, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Our purpose was to examine the effectiveness of carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinses in enhancing repeated sprint ability. Previously, studies have shown that a carbohydrate mouth rinse (without ingestion) has beneficial effects on endurance performance that are related to changes in brain activity. Caffeine ingestion has also demonstrated positive effects on sprint performance. However, the effects of carbohydrate or caffeine mouth rinses on intermittent sprints have not been examined previously. Twelve males performed 5 × 6-s sprints interspersed with 24 s of active recovery on a cycle ergometer. Twenty-five milliliters of either a noncaloric placebo, a 6% glucose, or a 1.2% caffeine solution was rinsed in the mouth for 5 s prior to each sprint in a double-blinded and balanced cross-over design. Postexercise maximal heart rate and perceived exertion were recorded, along with power measures. A second experiment compared a combined caffeine-carbohydrate rinse with carbohydrate only. Compared with the placebo mouth rinse, carbohydrate substantially increased peak power in sprint 1 (22.1 ± 19.5 W; Cohen's effect size (ES), 0.81), and both caffeine (26.9 ± 26.9 W; ES, 0.71) and carbohydrate (39.1 ± 25.8 W; ES, 1.08) improved mean power in sprint 1. Experiment 2 demonstrated that a combination of caffeine and carbohydrate improved sprint 1 power production compared with carbohydrate alone (36.0 ± 37.3 W; ES, 0.81). We conclude that carbohydrate and (or) caffeine mouth rinses may rapidly enhance power production, which could have benefits for specific short sprint exercise performance. The ability of a mouth-rinse intervention to rapidly improve maximal exercise performance in the absence of fatigue suggests a central mechanism.

  10. Incomplete turgor adjustment in Cladophora rupestrisunder fluctuating salinity regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiencke, Christian; Gorham, John; Tomos, Deri; Davenport, John

    1992-04-01

    Turgor pressure fluctuates strongly in Cladophora rupestrissubjected to low salinities and shows only a small tendency to readjust to the normal value in full seawater (incomplete turgor adjustment). This was revealed by direct turgor pressure measurements and by chemical analyses of osmotic solutes after exposure of upper and lower shore Cladophorato the different salinity regimes occurring in the intertidal zone or representing steady state osmotic acclimation. The main internal osmotic solutes were K +, Cl -, amino acids, NO 3-and glycine betaine. Na +, SO 42-and PO 43-were of less importance. The sum of the charges on the cations was similar to that for the anions. K +, Cl -and, to a lesser extent, amino acids were responsible for limited turgor pressure adjustment which did occur. The concentrations of the major osmotic solutes were influenced not only by salinity but also by light: those of amino acids and NO 3-were increased while those of K +and Cl -were decreased under illumination. Cladophorapopulations from the upper and lower shore differed in their ability to restore internal K +and Cl -levels on transfer to full seawater after long term exposure to low salinity. This may indicate ecotypic variation.

  11. Effects of peptide YY (PYY) on mouth to caecum intestinal transit time and on the rate of gastric emptying in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Savage, A P; Adrian, T E; Carolan, G; Chatterjee, V K; Bloom, S R

    1987-01-01

    The effect of an infusion of two doses of peptide YY (PYY), a novel putative gastrointestinal hormone, has been assessed on mouth to caecum intestinal transit time and on the rate of gastric emptying after ingestion of an inert 200 ml liquid meal thought unlikely to interrupt fasting gastrointestinal motility patterns. A low dose of PYY was chosen to give plasma concentrations within the range seen postprandially in healthy subjects, while the high dose mimicked the raised levels seen in several malabsorptive conditions. During infusion of PYY at 0.18 pmol/kg/min plasma concentrations rose from a basal of 8 +/- 2 pmol/l to 38 +/- 5 pmol/l and at 0.51 pmol/kg/min to 87 +/- 10 pmol/l. Mouth to caecum transit time was delayed from 67 +/- 4 mins on the saline infusion day to 94 +/- 7 mins (p less than 0.01) on the low dose and 192 +/- 9 mins (p less than 0.001) on the high dose infusion day. Time to 50% gastric emptying was prolonged from 37 +/- 8 mins during saline infusion to 63 +/- 10 mins (p less than 0.05) during low and 130 +/- 12 mins (p less than 0.001) during high dose infusion. Thus the infusion of PYY shows a dose related inhibition of mouth to caecum intestinal transit time and of the rate of gastric emptying and suggests this novel hormonal peptide to be of importance in gastrointestinal physiology. PMID:3557189

  12. Effects of peptide YY (PYY) on mouth to caecum intestinal transit time and on the rate of gastric emptying in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Savage, A P; Adrian, T E; Carolan, G; Chatterjee, V K; Bloom, S R

    1987-02-01

    The effect of an infusion of two doses of peptide YY (PYY), a novel putative gastrointestinal hormone, has been assessed on mouth to caecum intestinal transit time and on the rate of gastric emptying after ingestion of an inert 200 ml liquid meal thought unlikely to interrupt fasting gastrointestinal motility patterns. A low dose of PYY was chosen to give plasma concentrations within the range seen postprandially in healthy subjects, while the high dose mimicked the raised levels seen in several malabsorptive conditions. During infusion of PYY at 0.18 pmol/kg/min plasma concentrations rose from a basal of 8 +/- 2 pmol/l to 38 +/- 5 pmol/l and at 0.51 pmol/kg/min to 87 +/- 10 pmol/l. Mouth to caecum transit time was delayed from 67 +/- 4 mins on the saline infusion day to 94 +/- 7 mins (p less than 0.01) on the low dose and 192 +/- 9 mins (p less than 0.001) on the high dose infusion day. Time to 50% gastric emptying was prolonged from 37 +/- 8 mins during saline infusion to 63 +/- 10 mins (p less than 0.05) during low and 130 +/- 12 mins (p less than 0.001) during high dose infusion. Thus the infusion of PYY shows a dose related inhibition of mouth to caecum intestinal transit time and of the rate of gastric emptying and suggests this novel hormonal peptide to be of importance in gastrointestinal physiology.

  13. Tolerance of Hordeum marinum accessions to O2 deficiency, salinity and these stresses combined

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Al Imran; English, Jeremy Parker; Colmer, Timothy David

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims When root-zone O2 deficiency occurs together with salinity, regulation of shoot ion concentrations is compromised even more than under salinity alone. Tolerance was evaluated amongst 34 accessions of Hordeum marinum, a wild species in the Triticeae, to combined salinity and root-zone O2 deficiency. Interest in H. marinum arises from the potential to use it as a donor for abiotic stress tolerance into wheat. Methods Two batches of 17 H. marinum accessions, from (1) the Nordic Gene Bank and (2) the wheat belt of Western Australia, were exposed to 0·2 or 200 mol m−3 NaCl in aerated or stagnant nutrient solution for 28–29 d. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was included as a sensitive check species. Growth, root porosity, root radial O2 loss (ROL) and leaf ion (Na+, K+, Cl−) concentrations were determined. Key Results Owing to space constraints, this report is focused mainly on the accessions from the Nordic Gene Bank. The 17 accessions varied in tolerance; relative growth rate was reduced by 2–38 % in stagnant solution, by 8–42 % in saline solution (aerated) and by 39–71 % in stagnant plus saline treatment. When in stagnant solution, porosity of adventitious roots was 24–33 %; salinity decreased the root porosity in some accessions, but had no effect in others. Roots grown in stagnant solution formed a barrier to ROL, but variation existed amongst accessions in apparent barrier ‘strength’. Leaf Na+ concentration was 142–692 µmol g−1 d. wt for plants in saline solution (aerated), and only increased to 247–748 µmol g−1 d. wt in the stagnant plus saline treatment. Leaf Cl− also showed only small effects of stagnant plus saline treatment, compared with saline alone. In comparison with H. marinum, wheat was more adversely affected by each stress alone, and particularly when combined; growth reductions were greater, adventitious root porosity was 21 %, it lacked a barrier to ROL, leaf K+ declined to lower levels, and leaf Na+ and

  14. Molecular characterization and transcriptional regulation of the renin-angiotensin system genes in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858): differential gene regulation by salinity.

    PubMed

    Armesto, Paula; Cousin, Xavier; Salas-Leiton, Emilio; Asensio, Esther; Manchado, Manuel; Infante, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the complete cDNA sequence encoding angiotensinogen (agt) in the euryhaline flatfish Senegalese sole was obtained. Additionally, putative coding sequences belonging to other renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genes including renin (ren), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ace2), as well as angiotensin II receptor type I (agtr1) and type II (agtr2), were also identified. In juvenile tissues, agt transcripts were mainly detected in liver, ren in kidney, ace and ace2 in intestine, agtr1 in kidney and brain, and agtr2 in liver and kidney. Expression analysis of the six RAS genes after a salinity shift revealed a clear increase of agt mRNA abundance in liver just after transferring soles to high salinity water (60 ppt) with a peak at 48 h. Moreover, gene expression analysis in gills showed transcriptional regulation of ace and agtr1 at 48 h and agtr2 at 96 h after transferring soles to 60 ppt. Incubation of larvae before mouth opening (until 3 days post hatch; dph) at low salinity (10 ppt) resulted in a coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of RAS genes. Nevertheless, no differences in mRNA abundance between salinities were observed when larvae were cultivated to low salinity after mouth opening. Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) signal for agt and ace in 3 dph larvae incubated at 10 ppt and 35 ppt confirmed that the former gene was mainly expressed in liver whereas the later gene was mainly located in pharynx and posterior gut, without pronounced differences in intensity between salinities. Possible physiological significance of all these results is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diluted povidone-iodine versus saline for dressing metal-skin interfaces in external fixation.

    PubMed

    Chan, C K; Saw, A; Kwan, M K; Karina, R

    2009-04-01

    To compare infection rates associated with 2 dressing solutions for metal-skin interfaces. 60 patients who underwent distraction osteogenesis with external fixators were equally randomised into 2 dressing solution groups (diluted povidone-iodine vs. saline). Fixations were attained using either rigid stainless steel 5-mm diameter half pins or smooth stainless steel 1.8-mm diameter wires. Half-pin fixation had one metal-skin interface, whereas wire fixation had 2 interfaces. Patients were followed up every 2 weeks for 6 months. Of all 788 metal-skin interfaces, 143 (18%) were infected: 72 (19%) of 371 in the diluted povidone-iodine group and 71 (17%) of 417 in the saline group. Dressing solution and patient age did not significantly affect infection rates. Half-pin fixation was more likely to become infected than wire fixation (25% vs 15%). Saline is as effective as diluted povidone-iodine as a dressing solution for metal-skin interfaces of external fixators. Saline is recommended in view of its easy availability and lower costs.

  16. Corrosion, ion release and Mott-Schottky probe of chromium oxide coatings in saline solution with potential for orthopaedic implant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogwu, A. A.; Oje, A. M.; Kavanagh, J.

    2016-04-01

    We report our investigation on chromium oxide thin film coatings that show a negligible ion release during electrochemical corrosion testing in saline solution. The chemical constituents of the films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering were identified to be predominantly Cr2O3 based on Raman spectroscopy anti-symmetric stretching vibration modes for CrIII-O and other peaks and an FTIR spectroscopy E u vibrational mode at 409 cm-1. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, multiplet fitting for 2P 3/2 and 2P 1/2 states also confirmed the predominantly Cr2O3 stoichiometry in the films. The prepared chromium oxide coatings showed superior pitting corrosion resistance compared to the native chromium oxide films on bare uncoated stainless steel when tested under open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarisation and cyclic voltammetry in saline solution. The chromium ion released into solution during the corrosion testing of stainless steel substrates coated with chromium oxide coatings was found to be negligibly small based on atomic absorption spectroscopy measurements. Our Mott-Schottky analysis investigation showed that the negligibly small ion release from the chromium oxide coated steel substrates is most likely due to a much lower defect density on the surface of the deposited coatings compared to the native oxide layer on the uncoated steel substrates. This opens up the opportunity for using chromium oxide surface coatings in hip, knee and other orthopaedic implants where possible metal ion release in vivo still poses a great challenge.

  17. The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Satellite observations.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Raul A; Piola, Alberto R; Fenco, Harold; Matano, Ricardo P; Combes, Vincent; Chao, Yi; James, Corinne; Palma, Elbio D; Saraceno, Martin; Strub, P Ted

    2014-11-01

    Satellite-derived sea surface salinity (SSS) data from Aquarius and SMOS are used to study the shelf-open ocean exchanges in the western South Atlantic near 35°S. Away from the tropics, these exchanges cause the largest SSS variability throughout the South Atlantic. The data reveal a well-defined seasonal pattern of SSS during the analyzed period and of the location of the export of low-salinity shelf waters. In spring and summer, low-salinity waters over the shelf expand offshore and are transferred to the open ocean primarily southeast of the river mouth (from 36°S to 37°30'S). In contrast, in fall and winter, low-salinity waters extend along a coastal plume and the export path to the open ocean distributes along the offshore edge of the plume. The strong seasonal SSS pattern is modulated by the seasonality of the along-shelf component of the wind stress over the shelf. However, the combined analysis of SSS, satellite-derived sea surface elevation and surface velocity data suggest that the precise location of the export of shelf waters depends on offshore circulation patterns, such as the location of the Brazil Malvinas Confluence and mesoscale eddies and meanders of the Brazil Current. The satellite data indicate that in summer, mixtures of low-salinity shelf waters are swiftly driven toward the ocean interior along the axis of the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence. In winter, episodic wind reversals force the low-salinity coastal plume offshore where they mix with tropical waters within the Brazil Current and create a warmer variety of low-salinity waters in the open ocean. Satellite salinity sensors capture low-salinity detrainment events from shelves SW Atlantic low-salinity detrainments cause highest basin-scale variability In summer low-salinity detrainments cause extended low-salinity anomalies.

  18. The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Satellite observations

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Raul A; Piola, Alberto R; Fenco, Harold; Matano, Ricardo P; Combes, Vincent; Chao, Yi; James, Corinne; Palma, Elbio D; Saraceno, Martin; Strub, P Ted

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-derived sea surface salinity (SSS) data from Aquarius and SMOS are used to study the shelf-open ocean exchanges in the western South Atlantic near 35°S. Away from the tropics, these exchanges cause the largest SSS variability throughout the South Atlantic. The data reveal a well-defined seasonal pattern of SSS during the analyzed period and of the location of the export of low-salinity shelf waters. In spring and summer, low-salinity waters over the shelf expand offshore and are transferred to the open ocean primarily southeast of the river mouth (from 36°S to 37°30′S). In contrast, in fall and winter, low-salinity waters extend along a coastal plume and the export path to the open ocean distributes along the offshore edge of the plume. The strong seasonal SSS pattern is modulated by the seasonality of the along-shelf component of the wind stress over the shelf. However, the combined analysis of SSS, satellite-derived sea surface elevation and surface velocity data suggest that the precise location of the export of shelf waters depends on offshore circulation patterns, such as the location of the Brazil Malvinas Confluence and mesoscale eddies and meanders of the Brazil Current. The satellite data indicate that in summer, mixtures of low-salinity shelf waters are swiftly driven toward the ocean interior along the axis of the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence. In winter, episodic wind reversals force the low-salinity coastal plume offshore where they mix with tropical waters within the Brazil Current and create a warmer variety of low-salinity waters in the open ocean. Key Points Satellite salinity sensors capture low-salinity detrainment events from shelves SW Atlantic low-salinity detrainments cause highest basin-scale variability In summer low-salinity detrainments cause extended low-salinity anomalies PMID:26213672

  19. Changes in biomechanical properties of glenohumeral joint capsules with adhesive capsulitis by repeated capsule-preserving hydraulic distensions with saline solution and corticosteroid.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun S; Chung, Sun G; Kim, Tae Uk; Kim, Hee Chan

    2012-12-01

    To investigate whether capsule-preserving hydraulic distension with saline solution and corticosteroid for adhesive capsulitis induces biomechanical alterations in glenohumeral joint capsules along with clinical improvements. A case series. University outpatient clinic of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Eighteen patients with unilateral adhesive capsulitis. INTERVENTION AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Three hydraulic distensions with saline solution and corticosteroid were performed with 1-month intervals. To avoid rupturing capsules, all distensions were monitored by using real-time pressure-volume curves. Stiffness, maximal volume capacity, and pressure at the maximal volume capacity of the capsule were measured at each intervention. Clinical parameters, such as pain and range of motion, were recorded before, 3 days after, and 1 month after each distension. Stiffness decreased (47.6 ± 27.1 mm Hg/mL to 31.7 ± 18.4 mm Hg/mL to 24.2 ± 14.0 mm Hg/mL, mean SD) and maximal volume capacity increased (18.8 ± 7.3 mL to 20.5 ± 7.5 mL to 24.2 ± 7.0 mL, mean SD) significantly (P = .001 for both) at each repeated hydraulic distension. Pressure at the maximal volume capacity tended to decrease, but the decrements were not statistically significant (P = .662). The clinical parameters were significantly improved throughout and 1 month after the 3 repeat procedures (P < .05 for all). Capsule-preserving hydraulic distension changed the biomechanical properties of the glenohumeral joint capsule, lessening the stiffness and enlarging the volume capacity. These alterations were accompanied by improved range of motion and relief of pain. Repeated capsule-preserving hydraulic distension with saline solution and corticosteroid would be useful to treat adhesive capsulitis and to evaluate the treatment results. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantifying the degradation of TNT and RDX in a saline environment with and without UV-exposure.

    PubMed

    Sisco, Edward; Najarro, Marcela; Bridge, Candice; Aranda, Roman

    2015-06-01

    Terrorist attacks in a maritime setting, such as the bombing of the USS Cole in 2000, or the detection of underwater mines, require the development of proper protocols to collect and analyse explosive material from a marine environment. In addition to proper analysis of the explosive material, protocols must also consider the exposure of the material to potentially deleterious elements, such as UV light and salinity, time spent in the environment, and time between storage and analysis. To understand how traditional explosives would be affected by such conditions, saline solutions of explosives were exposed to natural and artificial sunlight. Degradation of the explosives over time was then quantified using negative chemical ionization gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/NCI-MS). Two explosives, trinitrotoluene (TNT) and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), were exposed to different aqueous environments and light exposures with salinities ranging from freshwater to twice the salinity of ocean water. Solutions were then aged for up to 6 months to simulate different conditions the explosives may be recovered from. Salinity was found to have a negligible impact on the degradation of both RDX and TNT. RDX was stable in solutions of all salinities while TNT solutions degraded regardless of salinity. Solutions of varying salinities were also exposed to UV light, where accelerated degradation was seen for both explosives. Potential degradation products of TNT were identified using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and correspond to proposed degradation products discussed in previously published works [1]. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. AFM and SFG studies of pHEMA-based hydrogel contact lens surfaces in saline solution: adhesion, friction, and the presence of non-crosslinked polymer chains at the surface.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Han; Opdahl, Aric; Marmo, Chris; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2002-04-01

    The surfaces of two types of soft contact lenses neutral and ionic hydrogels--were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and sum-frequency-generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. AFM measurements in saline solution showed that the presence of ionic functional groups at the surface lowered the friction and adhesion to a hydrophobic polystyrene tip. This was attributed to the specific interactions of water and the molecular orientation of hydrogel chains at the surface. Friction and adhesion behavior also revealed the presence of domains of non-crosslinked polymer chains at the lens surface. SFG showed that the lens surface became partially dehydrated upon exposure to air. On this partially dehydrated lens surface, the non-crosslinked domains exhibited low friction and adhesion in AFM. Fully hydrated in saline solution, the non-crosslinked domains extended more than tens of nanometers into solution and were mobile.

  2. Extracting renewable energy from a salinity difference using a capacitor.

    PubMed

    Brogioli, Doriano

    2009-07-31

    Completely renewable energy can be produced by using water solutions of different salinity, like river water and sea water. Many different methods are already known, but development is still at prototype stage. Here I report a novel method, based on electric double-layer capacitor technology. Two porous electrodes, immersed in the salt solution, constitute a capacitor. It is first charged, then the salt solution is brought into contact with fresh water. The electrostatic energy increases as the salt concentration of the solution is reduced due to diffusion. This device can be used to turn sources of salinity difference into completely renewable sources of energy. An experimental demonstration is given, and performances and possible improvements are discussed.

  3. Dry mouth and older people.

    PubMed

    Thomson, W M

    2015-03-01

    Dry mouth is more common among older people than in any other age group. Appropriate definition and accurate measurement of dry mouth is critical for better understanding, monitoring and treatment of the condition. Xerostomia is the symptom(s) of dry mouth; it can be measured using methods ranging from single questions to multi-item summated rating scales. Low salivary flow (known as salivary gland hypofunction, or SGH) must be determined by measuring that flow. The relationship between SGH and xerostomia is not straightforward, but both conditions are common among older people, and they affect sufferers' day-to-day lives in important ways. The major risk factor for dry mouth is the taking of particular medications, and older people take more of those than any other age group, not only for symptomatic relief of various age-associated chronic diseases, but also in order to reduce the likelihood of complications which may arise from those conditions. The greater the number taken, the greater the associated anticholinergic burden, and the more likely it is that the individual will suffer from dry mouth. Since treating dry mouth is such a challenge for clinicians, there is a need for dentists, doctors and pharmacists to work together to prevent it occurring. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  4. Microbiological evaluation of octenidine dihydrochloride mouth rinse after 5 days' use in orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Alev Aksoy; Cetin, Emel Sesli; Hüssein, Emad; Adiloglu, Ali Kudret

    2009-07-01

    To determine the absolute and relative antibacterial activity of octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) against total and cariogenic bacteria in saliva samples of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances during 5 days of usage. The study group consisted of 5 male and 13 female subjects who were selected from patients in the Clinic of Orthodontics. Each patient was given physiologic saline (PS), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine complex (PVP-I), and OCT every morning for 5 days, each separated by a 2-week interval. Total and cariogenic bacteria in saliva samples of orthodontically treated patients with fixed appliances were collected during 5 days of usage. Unstimulated saliva was collected as a baseline sample. Saliva samples were collected at 15 minutes, and on the second, third, and fifth day after rinsing the mouth with any of the solutions for 30 seconds, and bacterial counts were detected. OCT showed an ultimate reduction of total viable oral bacteria, Lactobacillus species, and Streptococcus mutans in vivo. OCT also had a significantly greater inhibitory effect than 0.2% CHX and 7.5% PVP-I, from the beginning of the study until the fifth day after the orthodontic appliances were bonded (P < .1). OCT compared favorably with respect to CHX and PVP-I complex in orthodontically treated patients with fixed appliances (P

  5. Efficacy of mouth rinses and toothpaste on tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Torres, C R G; Perote, L C C C; Gutierrez, N C; Pucci, C R; Borges, A B

    2013-01-01

    People increasingly desire tooth whitening. Considering the wide range of whitening products on the market, this study evaluated the efficacy of whitening toothpastes and mouth rinses compared with the 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) whitening gel. We obtained 120 cylindrical specimens from bovine teeth, which were darkened for 24 hours in a coffee solution. The color measurement was performed by a spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* system, and specimens were divided into six groups according to the use of the following agents: group 1, conventional fluoridated toothpaste; group 2, Close Up White Now; group 3, Listerine Whitening; group 4, Colgate Plax Whitening; group 5, experimental mouth rinse with Plasdone; and group 6, 10% CP Whiteness Perfect. After the simulation of 12 weeks of treatment for groups 1 to 5 and 14 days of treatment for group 6, the specimens were subjected to a new color reading. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (α=0.05), which showed significant differences among groups after 12 weeks for ΔE (p=0.001). Results of the Tukey test revealed that groups 3, 4, and 6 presented significantly higher color alteration than groups 1, 2, and 5. The whitening toothpaste Close Up White Now and the experimental mouth rinse with Plasdone showed similar color alteration as conventional toothpaste after a 12-week treatment simulation. These groups presented significantly lower color alteration compared with whitening mouth rinses Listerine and Colgate Plax Whitening, which showed similar results to those observed after 14 days of bleaching with 10% CP treatment.

  6. Comparative effect of fluoride, essential oil and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on dental plaque and gingivitis in patients with and without dental caries: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Charugundla, B R; Anjum, S; Mocherla, M

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of fluoride, essential oil (EO) and chlorhexidine (CHX)-containing mouth rinses on dental plaque and gingivitis and to compare their relative efficacy in patients with and without dental caries. A randomized, controlled, double- blind, crossover clinical trial was conducted for a period of 8 weeks. Thiry-six qualifying subjects, aged 12-44 years, were included in the study. Subjects were divided into caries and caries-free groups and were randomly assigned to one of the following mouth rinse groups: fluoride; EO; CHX and saline as negative control. Subjects used their respective mouth rinse for a period of 7-days each with 1-week wash-out periods. Primary efficacy variables were Quigley-Hein plaque index (PI) and Loe and Silness gingival index. Fluoride and CHX mouth rinses showed significant reduction in plaque after use of mouth rinses (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed with respect to each other in reducing gingivitis (P > 0.05). Further significant differences were found in reducing plaque and gingivitis in caries-free subjects in comparison to those with caries (P < 0.05). All the three mouth rinses significantly reduced plaque accumulation and gingivitis especially in caries-free subjects in comparison to those with caries, and amongst the three, fluoride and CHX proved to be more effective than EO mouth rinse. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The effects of magnetic fields exposure on relative permittivity of saline solutions measured by a high resolution SPR system

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li; Zhao, Xinyuan; Fei, Yue; Yu, Dongdong; Qian, Jun; Tong, Jinguang; Chen, Guangdi; He, Sailing

    2016-01-01

    A measurement system for the relative permittivity of a physiological solution under 50 Hz magnetic fields (MF) is presented. It is based on a phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system. Relative permittivity was analyzed for different solute concentrations of sodium chloride under various MF exposure parameters. We found that MF exposure at 0.2–4.0 mT step-wise decreased significantly the SPR phase signal of a 0.9% sodium chloride solution while 0.1 mT of MF exposure did not. The decreases in the SPR phase signal depended on the duration of MF exposure, and the signal reached a plateau after 15 min of exposure. Interestingly, the decreased SPR phase signal showed a gradual increase and approached the background level when the exposure was drawn off. In addition, we found that the response of the sodium chloride solution to MF also depended on its concentration. In brief, the relative permittivity of sodium chloride in solutions appears to be practically affected by 50 Hz MF exposure. Our data indicates that the relative permittivity of the saline solution influenced by MF exposure should be considered when investigating the biological effects of MF exposure on organisms in experimental study. PMID:27121618

  8. Dynamics of Mouth Opening in Hydra

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Jason A.; Hyland, Callen; Steele, Robert E.; Collins, Eva-Maria S.

    2016-01-01

    Hydra, a simple freshwater animal famous for its regenerative capabilities, must tear a hole through its epithelial tissue each time it opens its mouth. The feeding response of Hydra has been well-characterized physiologically and is regarded as a classical model system for environmental chemical biology. However, due to a lack of in vivo labeling and imaging tools, the biomechanics of mouth opening have remained completely unexplored. We take advantage of the availability of transgenic Hydra lines to perform the first dynamical analysis, to our knowledge, of Hydra mouth opening and test existing hypotheses regarding the underlying cellular mechanisms. Through cell position and shape tracking, we show that mouth opening is accompanied by changes in cell shape, but not cellular rearrangements as previously suggested. Treatment with a muscle relaxant impairs mouth opening, supporting the hypothesis that mouth opening is an active process driven by radial contractile processes (myonemes) in the ectoderm. Furthermore, we find that all events exhibit the same relative rate of opening. Because one individual can open consecutively to different amounts, this suggests that the degree of mouth opening is controlled through neuronal signaling. Finally, from the opening dynamics and independent measurements of the elastic properties of the tissues, we estimate the forces exerted by the myonemes to be on the order of a few nanoNewtons. Our study provides the first dynamical framework, to our knowledge, for understanding the remarkable plasticity of the Hydra mouth and illustrates that Hydra is a powerful system for quantitative biomechanical studies of cell and tissue behaviors in vivo. PMID:26958895

  9. Hyaluronic acid improves "pleasantness" and tolerability of nebulized hypertonic saline in a cohort of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Buonpensiero, Paolo; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Sepe, Angela; Di Pasqua, Antonio; Ferri, Pasqualina; Siano, Maria; Terlizzi, Vito; Raia, Valeria

    2010-11-01

    Inhaled hypertonic saline improves lung function and decreases pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis. However, side effects such as cough, narrowing of airways and saltiness cause intolerance of the therapy in 8% of patients. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of an inhaled solution of hyaluronic acid and hypertonic saline with hypertonic solution alone on safety and tolerability. A total of 20 patients with cystic fibrosis aged 6 years and over received a single treatment regimen of 7% hypertonic saline solution or hypertonic solution with 0.1% hyaluronate for 2 days nonconsecutively after a washout period in an open crossover study. Cough, throat irritation, and salty taste were evaluated by a modified ordinal score for assessing tolerability; "pleasantness" was evaluated by a five-level, Likert-type scale. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second was registered before and after the end of the saline inhalations. All 20 patients (nine males, 11 females, mean age 13 years, range 8.9-17.7) completed the study. The inhaled solution of 0.1% hyaluronic acid and hypertonic saline significantly improved tolerability and pleasantness compared to hypertonic saline alone. No major adverse effects were observed. No difference was documented in pulmonary function tests between the two treatments. Hyaluronic acid combined with hypertonic saline solution may contribute to improved adherence to hypertonic saline therapy. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm our findings. Considering the extraordinary versatility of hyaluronic acid in biological reactions, perspective studies could define its applicability to halting progression of lung disease in cystic fibrosis.

  10. [Ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the infant. Mouth to mouth and nose, or bag-valve-mask? A quasi-experimental study].

    PubMed

    Santos-Folgar, Myriam; Otero-Agra, Martín; Fernández-Méndez, Felipe; Hermo-Gonzalo, María Teresa; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio

    2018-02-08

    It has been observed that health professionals have difficulty performing quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of this study was to compare the quality of ventilations performed by Nursing students on an infant model using different methods (mouth-to-mouth-and-nose or bag-valve-mask). A quasi-experimental cross-sectional study was performed that included 46 second-year Nursing students. Two quantitative 4-minute tests of paediatric CPR were performed: a) mouth-to-mouth-and-nose ventilations, and b) ventilations with bag-valve-mask. A Resusci Baby QCPR Wireless SkillReporter® mannequin from Laerdal was used. The proportion of ventilations with adequate, excessive, and insufficient volume was recorded and analysed, as well as the overall quality of the CPR (ventilations and chest compressions). The students were able to give a higher number of ventilations with adequate volume using the mouth-to-mouth-and-nose method (55±22%) than with the bag-valve-mask (28±16%, P<.001). The overall quality of the CPR was also significantly higher when using the mouth-to-mouth-and-nose method (60±19 vs. 48±16%, P<.001). Mouth-to-mouth-and-nose ventilation method is more efficient than bag-valve-mask ventilations in CPR performed by nursing students with a simulated infant model. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  11. Mouth and neck radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... to doing. Try to get more sleep at night. Rest during the day when you can. Take a few weeks off ... neck - discharge; Head and neck cancer - radiation; Squamous cell cancer - mouth and neck radiation; Mouth and neck ...

  12. The Bay of Bengal : an ideal laboratory for studying salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vialard, jerome; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Akhil, Valiya; Chaitanya, Akurathi; Krishna-Mohan, Krishna; D'Ovidio, Francesco; Keerthi, Madhavan; Benshila, Rachid; Durand, Fabien; Papa, Fabrice; Suresh, Iyappan; Neetu, Singh

    2017-04-01

    The Bay of Bengal combines several unique features that make it an excellent laboratory to study the variability of salinity and its potential effects on the oceanic circulation and climate. This basin receives very large quantities of freshwater in association to the southwest monsoon, either directly from rain or indirectly through the runoffs of the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Irrawaddy. This large quantity of freshwater in a small, semi enclosed basin results in some of the lowest sea surface salinities (SSS) and strongest near-surface haline stratification in the tropical band. The strong monsoon winds also drive an energetic circulation, which exports the excess water received during the monsoon and results in strong horizontal salinity gradients. In this talk, I will summarize several studies of the Bay of Bengal salinity variability and its impacts undertaken in the context of an Indo-French collaboration. In situ data collected along the coast by fishermen and model results show that the intense, coastally-trapped East India Coastal Current (EICC) transports the very fresh water near the Ganges-Brahmaputra river mouth along the eastern Bay of Bengal rim to create a narrow, very fresh "river in the sea" after the southwest monsoon. The salinity-induced pressure gradient contributes to almost 50% of the EICC intensity and sustains mesoscale eddy generation through its effect on horizontal current shears and baroclinic gradients. Oceanic eddies play a strong role in exporting this fresh water from the coast to the basin interior. This "river in the sea" has a strong interannual variability related to the EICC remote modulation by the Indian Ocean Dipole (a regional climate mode). I will also discuss the potential effect of haline stratification on the regional climate through its influence on the upper ocean budget. Finally, I will briefly discuss the performance of remote-sensing for observing SSS in the Bay of Bengal.

  13. Dynamics of Mouth Opening in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jason A; Hyland, Callen; Steele, Robert E; Collins, Eva-Maria S

    2016-03-08

    Hydra, a simple freshwater animal famous for its regenerative capabilities, must tear a hole through its epithelial tissue each time it opens its mouth. The feeding response of Hydra has been well-characterized physiologically and is regarded as a classical model system for environmental chemical biology. However, due to a lack of in vivo labeling and imaging tools, the biomechanics of mouth opening have remained completely unexplored. We take advantage of the availability of transgenic Hydra lines to perform the first dynamical analysis, to our knowledge, of Hydra mouth opening and test existing hypotheses regarding the underlying cellular mechanisms. Through cell position and shape tracking, we show that mouth opening is accompanied by changes in cell shape, but not cellular rearrangements as previously suggested. Treatment with a muscle relaxant impairs mouth opening, supporting the hypothesis that mouth opening is an active process driven by radial contractile processes (myonemes) in the ectoderm. Furthermore, we find that all events exhibit the same relative rate of opening. Because one individual can open consecutively to different amounts, this suggests that the degree of mouth opening is controlled through neuronal signaling. Finally, from the opening dynamics and independent measurements of the elastic properties of the tissues, we estimate the forces exerted by the myonemes to be on the order of a few nanoNewtons. Our study provides the first dynamical framework, to our knowledge, for understanding the remarkable plasticity of the Hydra mouth and illustrates that Hydra is a powerful system for quantitative biomechanical studies of cell and tissue behaviors in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment of high salinity brines by direct contact membrane distillation: Effect of membrane characteristics and salinity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Guan, Yunshan; Cheng, Fangqin; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) is one of the attractive technologies for high salinity brine treatment. In this study, four polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were examined in treating highly concentrated salt solutions. Results showed that non-supported membranes generally have a higher overall mass transfer coefficient but porosity seems to be the most important parameter controlling membrane flux and thermal efficiency. Supported membranes with large thickness had relatively higher thermal efficiency than small thickness. This can be attributed to their reduced heat loss through heat condition. In addition, KCl, NaCl and MgCl2 solutions showed distinct trends over flux decline at high salt concentrations (⩾2.0M). The difference in flux was largely due to the discrepancy in water activities of these solutions (KCl>NaCl>MgCl2). However, the effect of viscosity on permeate flux could not be neglected for MgCl2 at high salt concentrations as the suddenly increased viscosity could lead to serious temperature polarization. This study indicates that membrane distillation is a promising technology for high salinity brine treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A randomised crossover comparison of mouth-to-face-shield ventilation and mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation by surf lifeguards in a manikin.

    PubMed

    Adelborg, K; Bjørnshave, K; Mortensen, M B; Espeseth, E; Wolff, A; Løfgren, B

    2014-07-01

    Thirty surf lifeguards (mean (SD) age: 25.1 (4.8) years; 21 male, 9 female) were randomly assigned to perform 2 × 3 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a manikin using mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (AMBU LifeKey) and mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (Laerdal Pocket Mask). Interruptions in chest compressions, effective ventilation (visible chest rise) ratio, tidal volume and inspiratory time were recorded. Interruptions in chest compressions per cycle were increased with mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (mean (SD) 8.6 (1.7) s) compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (6.9 (1.2) s, p < 0.0001). The proportion of effective ventilations was less using mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (199/242 (82%)) compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (239/240 (100%), p = 0.0002). Tidal volume was lower using mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (mean (SD) 0.36 (0.20) l) compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (0.45 (0.20) l, p = 0.006). No differences in inspiratory times were observed between mouth-to-face-shield ventilation and mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation. In conclusion, mouth-to-face-shield ventilation increases interruptions in chest compressions, reduces the proportion of effective ventilations and decreases delivered tidal volumes compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Phosphorus sorption capacity of biochars varies with biochar type and salinity level.

    PubMed

    Dugdug, Abdelhafid Ahmed; Chang, Scott X; Ok, Yong Sik; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Anyia, Anthony

    2018-02-10

    Biochar is recognized as an effective material for recovering excess nutrients, including phosphorus (P), from aqueous solutions. Practically, that benefits the environment through reducing P losses from biochar-amended soils; however, how salinity influences P sorption by biochar is poorly understood and there has been no direct comparison on P sorption capacity between biochars derived from different feedstock types under non-saline and saline conditions. In this study, biochars derived from wheat straw, hardwood, and willow wood were used to compare P sorption at three levels of electrical conductivity (EC) (0, 4, and 8 dS m -1 ) to represent a wide range of salinity conditions. Phosphorus sorption by wheat straw and hardwood biochars increased as aqueous solution P concentration increased, with willow wood biochar exhibiting an opposite trend for P sorption. However, the pattern for P sorption became the same as the other biochars after the willow wood biochar was de-ashed with 1 M HCl and 0.05 M HF. Willow wood biochar had the highest P sorption (1.93 mg g -1 ) followed by hardwood (1.20 mg g -1 ) and wheat straw biochars (1.06 mg g -1 ) in a 25 mg L -1 P solution. Although the pH in the equilibrium solution was higher with willow wood biochar (~ 9.5) than with the other two biochars (~ 6.5), solution pH had no or minor effects on P sorption by willow wood biochar. The high sorption rate of P by willow wood biochar could be attributed to the higher concentrations of salt and other elements (i.e., Ca and Mg) in the biochar in comparison to that in wheat straw and hardwood biochars; the EC values were 2.27, 0.53, and 0.27 dS m -1 for willow wood, wheat straw, and hardwood biochars, respectively. A portion of P desorbed from the willow wood biochar; and that desorption increased with the decreasing P concentration in the aqueous solution. Salinity in the aqueous solution influenced P sorption by hardwood and willow wood but not by wheat straw

  17. Investigation of Lake Water Salinity by Using Four-Band Salinity Algorithm on WorldView-2 Satellite Image for a Saline Industrial Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budakoǧlu, Murat; Karaman, Muhittin; Damla Uça Avcı, Z.; Kumral, Mustafa; Geredeli (Yılmaz), Serpil

    2014-05-01

    Salinity of a lake is an important characteristic since, these are potentially industrial lakes and the degree of salinity can significantly be used for determination of mineral resources and for the production management. In the literature, there are many studies of using satellite data for salinity related lake studies such as determination of salinity distribution and detection of potential freshwater sources in less salt concentrated regions. As the study area Lake Acigol, located in Denizli (Turkey) was selected. With it's saline environment, it's the major sodium sulphate production resource of Turkey. In this study, remote sensing data and data from a field study was used and correlated. Remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor and analyze lake properties by using it complementary to field data. Worldview-2 satellite data was used in this study which consists of 8 bands. At the same time with the satellite data acquisition, a field study was conducted to collect the salinity values in 17 points of the laker with using YSI 556 Multiparametre for measurements. The values were measured as salinity amount in grams per kilogram solution and obtained as ppt unit. It was observed that the values vary from 34 ppt - 40.1 ppt and the average is 38.056 ppt. In Thalassic serie, the lake was in mixoeuhaline state in the time of issue. As a first step, ATCOR correction was performed on satellite image for atmospheric correction. There were some clouds on the lake field, hence it was decided to continue the study by using the 12 sampling points which were clear on the image. Then, for each sampling point, a spectral value was obtained by calculating the average at a 11*11 neighborhood. The relation between the spectral reflectance values and the salinity was investigated. The 4-band algorithm, which was used for determination of chlorophyll-a distribution in highly turbid coastal environment by Wei (2012) was applied. Salinity α (Λi-1 / Λj-1) * (Λk-1 / Λm-1) (i

  18. Cryoelectrolysis-electrolytic processes in a frozen physiological saline medium.

    PubMed

    Lugnani, Franco; Macchioro, Matteo; Rubinsky, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Cryoelectrolysis is a new minimally invasive tissue ablation surgical technique that combines the ablation techniques of electrolytic ablation with cryosurgery. The goal of this study is to examine the hypothesis that electrolysis can take place in a frozen aqueous saline solution. To examine the hypothesis we performed a cryoelectrolytic ablation protocol in which electrolysis and cryosurgery are delivered simultaneously in a tissue simulant made of physiological saline gel with a pH dye. We measured current flow, voltage and extents of freezing and pH dye staining. Using optical measurements and measurements of currents, we have shown that electrolysis can occur in frozen physiological saline, at high subzero freezing temperatures, above the eutectic temperature of the frozen salt solution. It was observed that electrolysis occurs when the tissue resides at high subzero temperatures during the freezing stage and essentially throughout the entire thawing stage. We also found that during thawing, the frozen lesion temperature raises rapidly to high subfreezing values and remains at those values throughout the thawing stage. Substantial electrolysis occurs during the thawing stage. Another interesting finding is that electro-osmotic flows affect the process of cryoelectrolysis at the anode and cathode, in different ways. The results showing that electrical current flow and electrolysis occur in frozen saline solutions imply a mechanism involving ionic movement in the fluid concentrated saline solution channels between ice crystals, at high subfreezing temperatures. Temperatures higher than the eutectic are required for the brine to be fluid. The particular pattern of temperature and electrical currents during the thawing stage of frozen tissue, can be explained by the large amounts of energy that must be removed at the outer edge of the frozen lesion because of the solid/liquid phase transformation on that interface. Electrolysis can occur in a frozen domain at high

  19. Modeling as a tool for management of saline soils and irrigation waters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Optimal management of saline soils and irrigation waters requires consideration of many interrelated factors including, climate, water applications and timing, water flow, plant water uptake, soil chemical reactions, plant response to salinity and solution composition, soil hydraulic properties and ...

  20. Enhancement of nitrate uptake and growth of barley seedlings by calcium under saline conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, M. R.; Aslam, M.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of Ca2+ on NO3- assimilation in young barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var CM 72) seedlings in the presence and absence of NaCl was studied. Calcium increased the activity of the NO3- transporter under saline conditions, but had little effect under nonsaline conditions. Calcium decreased the induction period for the NO3- transporter under both saline and nonsaline conditions but had little effect on its apparent Km for NO3- both in the presence and absence of NaCl. The enhancement of NO3- transport by Ca2+ under saline conditions was dependent on the presence of Ca2+ in the uptake solution along with the salt, since Ca2+ had no effect when supplied before or after salinity stress. Although Mn2+ and Mg2+ enhanced NO3- uptake under saline conditions, neither was as effective as Ca2+. In longer studies, increasing the Ca2+ concentration in saline nutrient solutions resulted in increases in NO3- assimilation and seedling growth.

  1. Dissolution of man-made vitreous fibers in rat alveolar macrophage culture and Gamble's saline solution: influence of different media and chemical composition of the fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Luoto, K; Holopainen, M; Karppinen, K; Perander, M; Savolainen, K

    1994-01-01

    The effect of different chemical compositions of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) on their dissolution by alveolar macrophages (AM) in culture and in Gamble's solution was studied. The fibers were exposed to cultured rat AMs, culture medium alone; or Gamble's saline solution for 2, 4, or 8 days. The dissolution of the fibers was studied by measuring the amount of silicon (Si), iron (Fe), and aluminum (Al) in each medium. The AMs in culture dissolved Fe and Al from the fibers but the dissolution of Si was more marked in the cell culture medium without cells and in the Gamble's solution. The dissolution of Si, Fe, and Al was different for different fibers, and increased as a function of time. The Fe and Al content of the fibers correlated negatively with the dissolution of Si by AMs from the MMVF, i.e., when the content of Fe and Al of the fibers increased the dissolution of Si decreased. These results suggest that the chemical composition of MMVFs has a marked effect on their dissolution. AMs seem to affect the dissolution of Fe and Al from the fibers. This suggests that in vitro models with cells in the media rather than only culture media or saline solutions would be preferable in dissolution studies of MMVFs. PMID:7882911

  2. Dry Mouth Treatment: Tips for Controlling Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dry Mouth Mouthwash, which also offer protection against tooth decay. Avoid using over-the-counter antihistamines and decongestants ... and drinks because they increase your risk of tooth decay. Brush with a fluoride toothpaste — ask your dentist ...

  3. On the flocculation and settling characteristics of low- and high-concentration sediment suspensions: effects of particle concentration and salinity conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhongfan; Xiong, Xiangzhong; Liang, Chaohuang; Zhao, Ming

    2018-05-01

    It remains unclear how the primary particle concentration and salinity conditions influence the flocculation and settling characteristics of water-sediment suspensions. In this study, two sets of experiments were performed to examine the flocculation and settling properties of low- and high-concentration sediment suspensions. In low-concentration suspensions, the sediment concentration undergoes a rapid initial decrease followed by a slow decrease until it approaches zero with increasing flocculation time. Increases in salinity or the valence of cations from the saline solution added to the suspension lead to a more rapidly decreasing sediment concentration with flocculation time. The valence of cations from the saline solution has a larger influence on the flocculation-settling behaviours of the suspension than the salinity. In high-concentration sediment suspensions, the height of the clear water-turbid water interface in the water-sediment suspension experiences an initial, rapidly decreasing phase followed by a slowly decreasing phase with increasing flocculation time. Increasing the primary particle concentration, salinity or valence of cations from the saline solution added to the suspension causes the height reduction of the clear water-turbid water interface to become gentler. Finally, the valence of cations from the saline solution has a greater influence on the settling characteristics of the high-concentration water-sediment suspension than the salinity.

  4. Flux of low salinity water from Aniva Bay (Sakhalin Island) to the southern Okhotsk Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguma, Sachiko; Ono, Tsuneo; Watanabe, Yutaka W.; Kasai, Hiromi; Watanabe, Shuichi; Nomura, Daiki; Mitsudera, Humio

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between the low salinity water in the shelf region of the southern Okhotsk Sea which was seasonally sampled (0-200 m), and fluxes of low salinity water from Aniva Bay. To express the source of freshwater mixing in the surface layer, we applied normalized total alkalinity (NTA) and stable isotopes of seawater as chemical tracers. NTA-S diagrams indicate that NTA of low salinity water in the upper 30 m layer just off the Soya Warm Current is clearly higher than in the far offshore region in summer and autumn. Using NTA-S regression lines, we could deduce that the low salinity and high NTA water in the upper layer originates from Aniva Bay. For convenience, we defined this water as the Aniva Surface Water (ASW) with values S < 32, NTA > 2450 μmol kg -1. Formation and transport processes of ASW are discussed using historical data. The interaction between the maximum core of high NTA water on the bottom slope of eastern Aniva Bay and an anticyclonic eddy at the mouth of Aniva Bay are concluded to control ASW formation. Upwelling of the Cold Water Belt water at the tip of Cape Krillion is considered to cause ASW outflow from Aniva Bay.

  5. Salinity and hydrology of closed lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langbein, Walter Basil

    1961-01-01

    Lakes without outlets, called closed lakes, are exclusively features of the arid and semiarid zones where annual evaporation exceeds rainfall. The number of closed lakes increases with aridity, so there are relatively few perennial closed lakes, but "dry" lakes that rarely contain water are numerous.Closed lakes fluctuate in level to a much greater degree than the open lakes of the humid zone, because variations in inflow can be compensated only by changes in surface area. Since the variability of inflow increases with aridity, it is possible to derive an approximate relationship for the coefficient of variation of lake area in terms of data on rates of evaporation, lake area, lake depth, and drainage area.The salinity of closed lakes is highly variable, ranging from less than 1 percent to over 25 percent by weight of salts. Some evidence suggests that the tonnage of salts in a lake solution is substantially less than the total input of salts into the lake over the period of existence of the closed lake. This evidence suggests further that the salts in a lake solution represent a kind of long-term balance between factors of gain and loss of salts from the solution.Possible mechanisms for the loss of salts dissolved in the lake include deposition in marginal bays, entrapment in sediments, and removal by wind. Transport of salt from the lake surface in wind spray is also a contributing, but seemingly not major, factor.The hypothesis of a long-term balance between input to and losses from the lake solution is checked by deriving a formula for the equilibrium concentration and comparing the results with the salinity data. The results indicate that the reported salinities seemingly can be explained in terms of their geometric properties and hydrologic environment.The time for accumulation of salts in the lake solution the ratio between mass of salts in the solution and the annual input may also be estimated from the geometric and hydrologic factors, in the absence of

  6. The Guianese paradox: How can the freshwater outflow from the Amazon increase the salinity of the Guianan shore?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambs, Luc; Muller, Etienne; Fromard, F.

    2007-08-01

    SummaryFrench Guiana is notable for the extent of its rain forests, which occupy 97% of the country, and the influence of the Amazon along its shores. In fact, the shores and estuaries support a mangrove forest typical of saline conditions. This paper reports the chemical characteristics, conductivity and salinity and the stable isotopes (oxygen and deuterium) of the rivers and shores between the Cayenne area and the border with Surinam. The results show a quite homogenous freshwater pool over the country. However, the low slope of the coast, a result of the wide mud banks deposited by the Amazonian plume, have turned the mouths of the smaller rivers to the northwest, creating large salty areas where mangroves grow several kilometers inland. Despite the large amount of Amazonian water, the Guianan coast exhibits high salinity. In fact, the freshwater itself remains far from the shore, following the north Brazilian current, while only the mud plume arrives at the coast, creating this paradox.

  7. Assessment of salinity intrusion in the James and Chickahominy Rivers as a result of simulated sea-level rise in Chesapeake Bay, East Coast, USA.

    PubMed

    Rice, Karen C; Hong, Bo; Shen, Jian

    2012-11-30

    Global sea level is rising, and the relative rate in the Chesapeake Bay region of the East Coast of the United States is greater than the worldwide rate. Sea-level rise can cause saline water to migrate upstream in estuaries and rivers, threatening freshwater habitat and drinking-water supplies. The effects of future sea-level rise on two tributaries of Chesapeake Bay, the James and Chickahominy (CHK) Rivers, were evaluated in order to quantify the salinity change with respect to the magnitude of sea-level rise. Such changes are critical to: 1) local floral and faunal habitats that have limited tolerance ranges to salinity; and 2) a drinking-water supply for the City of Newport News, Virginia. By using the three-dimensional Hydrodynamic-Eutrophication Model (HEM-3D), sea-level rise scenarios of 30, 50, and 100 cm, based on the U.S. Climate Change Science Program for the mid-Atlantic region for the 21st century, were evaluated. The model results indicate that salinity increases in the entire river as sea level rises and that the salinity increase in a dry year is greater than that in a typical year. In the James River, the salinity increase in the middle-to-upper river (from 25 to 50 km upstream of the mouth) is larger than that in the lower and upper parts of the river. The maximum mean salinity increase would be 2 and 4 ppt for a sea-level rise of 50 and 100 cm, respectively. The upstream movement of the 10 ppt isohaline is much larger than the 5 and 20 ppt isohalines. The volume of water with salinity between 10 and 20 ppt would increase greatly if sea level rises 100 cm. In the CHK River, with a sea-level rise of 100 cm, the mean salinity at the drinking-water intake 34 km upstream of the mouth would be about 3 ppt in a typical year and greater than 5 ppt in a dry year, both far in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's secondary standard for total dissolved solids for drinking water. At the drinking-water intake, the number of days of salinity

  8. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... A sticky, dry feeling in the mouth Trouble chewing, swallowing, tasting, or speaking A burning feeling in ... avoiding drinks with caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol, and chewing sugarless gum or sucking on sugarless hard candy. ...

  9. Normal saline solution versus other viscous solutions for submucosal injection during endoscopic mucosal resection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yandrapu, Harathi; Desai, Madhav; Siddique, Sameer; Vennalganti, Prashanth; Vennalaganti, Sreekar; Parasa, Sravanthi; Rai, Tarun; Kanakadandi, Vijay; Bansal, Ajay; Titi, Mohammad; Repici, Alessandro; Bechtold, Matthew L; Sharma, Prateek; Choudhary, Abhishek

    2017-04-01

    EMR is being increasingly practiced for the removal of large colorectal polyps. A variety of solutions such as normal saline solution (NS) and other viscous and hypertonic solutions (VS) have been used as submucosal injections for EMR. A systematic review and meta-analysis is presented comparing the efficacy and adverse events of EMR performed using NS versus VS. Two independent reviewers conducted a search of all databases for human, randomized controlled trials that compared NS with VS for EMR of colorectal polyps. Data on complete en bloc resection, presence of residual lesions, and adverse events were extracted using a standardized protocol. Pooled odds ratio (OR) estimates along with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using fixed effect or random effects models. Five prospective, randomized controlled trials (504 patients) met the inclusion criteria. The mean polyp sizes were 20.84 mm with NS and 21.44 mm with VS. On pooled analysis, a significant increase in en bloc resection (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.11-3.29; P = .02; I 2  = 0%) and decrease in residual lesions (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.32-0.91; P = .02; I 2  = 0%) were noted in VS compared with NS. There was no significant difference in the rate of overall adverse events between the 2 groups. Use of VS during EMR leads to higher rates of en bloc resection and lower rates of residual lesions compared with NS, without any significant difference in adverse events. Endoscopists could consider using VS for EMR of large colorectal polyps and NS for smaller polyps because there is no significant difference in the outcomes with lesions <2 cm. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Nagaiwa, Miho; Gunjigake, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency by evaluating masticatory variables. Ten adult nasal breathers with normal occlusion and no temporomandibular dysfunction were selected. Subjects were instructed to bite the chewing gum on the habitual side. While breathing through the mouth and nose, the glucide elution from the chewing gum, number of chewing strokes, duration of chewing, and electromyography (EMG) activity of the masseter muscle were evaluated as variables of masticatory efficiency. The durations required for the chewing of 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 250 strokes were significantly (P < .05) longer while breathing through the mouth. There was no significant difference in the glucide elution rate (%) for each chewing stroke between nose and mouth breathings. The glucide elution rates for 1- and 3-minute chewing were significantly (P < .05) lower while breathing through the mouth. However, there was no significant difference in the glucide elution rate for 5-minute chewing between nose and mouth breathings. While chewing for 1, 3, and 5 minutes, the chewing stroke and EMG activity of the masseter muscle were significantly (P < .05) lower during mouth breathing. It takes a longer amount of time to complete chewing to obtain higher masticatory efficiency when breathing through the mouth. Therefore, mouth breathing will decrease the masticatory efficiency if the duration of chewing is restricted in everyday life.

  11. Seasonal variability of salinity, temperature, turbidity and suspended chlorophyll in the Tweed Estuary.

    PubMed

    Uncles, R J; Bloomer, N J; Frickers, P E; Griffiths, M L; Harris, C; Howland, R J; Morris, A W; Plummer, D H; Tappin, A D

    2000-05-05

    Results are presented from a campaign of measurements that were undertaken to examine seasonal variability in physical and chemical fluxes and processes within the Tweed Estuary during the period September 1996-August 1997. The study utilised monthly surveys, each of approximately 1 week duration. This article interprets a subset of the salinity, temperature, turbidity [suspended particulate matter (SPM) levels] and chlorophyll a data. Measurements discussed here were obtained throughout the estuary during high-speed transects that covered the region between the tidal river and the coastal zone. Longitudinal distributions of surface salinity depended strongly on freshwater runoff. During high runoff the surface salinity was low and the freshwater-saltwater interface (FSI) was located close to the mouth. The reverse was true at times of low runoff. Salinity stratification was generally strong. During the surveys, river runoff temperatures ranged from approximately 2 to 18 degrees C and coastal waters (approximately 33 salinity) from approximately 6 to 15 degrees C. Turbidity was low throughout the campaign (SPM < 30 mg l(-1)). Because of rapid flushing times (one or two tides), turbidity tended to mix conservatively between river and coastal waters. Higher coastal turbidity was associated with stronger wind events, and higher fluvial turbidity with spate events. Suspended chlorophyll a levels were usually low throughout the estuary (typically < 2 microg l(-1)) and showed large spatial variability. Because of the rapid flushing of the estuary, it is hypothesised that it was not possible for several algal cell divisions to occur before algae were flushed to the coastal zone. A 'bloom' occurred during the May 1997 survey, when chlorophyll a levels reached 14 microg l(-1). Higher chlorophyll a concentrations at that time occurred at very low salinities, indicating that these waters and algae were largely fluvially derived, and may have resulted from increasing

  12. Safety and Efficacy of a Mouth-Rinse with Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor in Patients with Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Huang, Xin-En; Ji, Zhu-Qing; Liu, Meng-Yan; Qian, Ting; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    To assess the safety and effectiveness of a mouth-rinse with G-CSF (JiSaiXin, produced by NCPC Biotechnology Co., Ltd) in treating patients with chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (CIM). A consecutive cohort of patients with advanced cancers and CIM were treated with mouth-rinse G-CSF. All chemotherapy for patients with advanced cancers was adopted from regimens suggested by NCCN guidelines. The mouth-rinse with G-CSF at a dose of 150-300ug plus 100ml-500ml normal saline was started from the time of oral mucositis was confirmed and continuously used for at least 7 days as one course. After at least two courses of treatment, safety and efficacy were evaluated. There were 7 female and 7 male patients with advanced cancer and CIM recruited into this study, including 5 with colorectal, 2 with lung, 1 patient with gastric, 1 with cervical and 1 with pancreatic cancer, as well as 2 patients with diffuse large B cell lymphomas, 1 with nasopharyngeal and 1 with gastric cancer. The median age was 57 (41-79) years. Grade 1 to 2 myelosuppression was observed in 3/14 patients, and Grade 4 myelosuppression in 1/14. Adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract were documented in 5/14 patients, and were Grade 1 to Grade 3. No treatment related death was documented. Regarding CIM, the median response time to mouth rinse of G-CSF was 2 (1-5) days, and all patients with CIM demonstrated a positive response. Mouth-rinse with G-CSF proved to be safe and effective in treating patients with advanced cancers and CIM. However, further randomized controlled studies should be conducted to clarify the effectiveness of this treatment with other lesions.

  13. Mouth and Teeth: How To Keep Them Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Mouth and Teeth: How to Keep Them Healthy Mouth and Teeth: How to Keep Them Healthy Share Print Taking good care of your mouth and teeth throughout your whole life can help prevent problems ...

  14. The origin of mouth-exhaled ammonia.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Metsälä, M; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L

    2014-09-01

    It is known that the oral cavity is a production site for mouth-exhaled NH3. However, the mechanism of NH3 production in the oral cavity has been unclear. Since bacterial urease in the oral cavity has been found to produce ammonia from oral fluid urea, we hypothesize that oral fluid urea is the origin of mouth-exhaled NH3. Our results show that under certain conditions a strong correlation exists between oral fluid urea and oral fluid ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3) (rs = 0.77, p < 0.001). We also observe a strong correlation between oral fluid NH3 and mouth-exhaled NH3 (rs = 0.81, p < 0.001). We conclude that three main factors affect the mouth-exhaled NH3 concentration: urea concentration, urease activity and oral fluid pH. Bacterial urease catalyses the hydrolysis of oral fluid urea to ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3). Oral fluid ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3) and pH determine the concentration of oral fluid NH3, which evaporates from oral fluid into gas phase and turns to mouth-exhaled NH3.

  15. Cryoelectrolysis—electrolytic processes in a frozen physiological saline medium

    PubMed Central

    Lugnani, Franco; Macchioro, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Background Cryoelectrolysis is a new minimally invasive tissue ablation surgical technique that combines the ablation techniques of electrolytic ablation with cryosurgery. The goal of this study is to examine the hypothesis that electrolysis can take place in a frozen aqueous saline solution. Method To examine the hypothesis we performed a cryoelectrolytic ablation protocol in which electrolysis and cryosurgery are delivered simultaneously in a tissue simulant made of physiological saline gel with a pH dye. We measured current flow, voltage and extents of freezing and pH dye staining. Results Using optical measurements and measurements of currents, we have shown that electrolysis can occur in frozen physiological saline, at high subzero freezing temperatures, above the eutectic temperature of the frozen salt solution. It was observed that electrolysis occurs when the tissue resides at high subzero temperatures during the freezing stage and essentially throughout the entire thawing stage. We also found that during thawing, the frozen lesion temperature raises rapidly to high subfreezing values and remains at those values throughout the thawing stage. Substantial electrolysis occurs during the thawing stage. Another interesting finding is that electro-osmotic flows affect the process of cryoelectrolysis at the anode and cathode, in different ways. Discussion The results showing that electrical current flow and electrolysis occur in frozen saline solutions imply a mechanism involving ionic movement in the fluid concentrated saline solution channels between ice crystals, at high subfreezing temperatures. Temperatures higher than the eutectic are required for the brine to be fluid. The particular pattern of temperature and electrical currents during the thawing stage of frozen tissue, can be explained by the large amounts of energy that must be removed at the outer edge of the frozen lesion because of the solid/liquid phase transformation on that interface. Conclusion

  16. Hedgehog activity controls opening of the primary mouth

    PubMed Central

    Tabler, Jacqueline M.; Bolger, Trióna G.; Wallingford, John; Liu, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    To feed or breathe, the oral opening must connect with the gut. The foregut and oral tissues converge at the primary mouth, forming the buccopharyngeal membrane (BPM), a bilayer epithelium. Failure to form the opening between gut and mouth has significant ramifications, and many craniofacial disorders have been associated with defects in this process. Oral perforation is characterized by dissolution of the BPM, but little is known about this process. In humans, failure to form a continuous mouth opening is associated with mutations in Hedgehog (Hh) pathway members; however, the role of Hh in primary mouth development is untested. Here, we show, using Xenopus, that Hh signaling is necessary and sufficient to initiate mouth formation, and that Hh activation is required in a dose-dependent fashion to determine the size of the mouth. This activity lies upstream of the previously demonstrated role for Wnt signal inhibition in oral perforation. We then turn to mouse mutants to establish that SHH and Gli3 are indeed necessary for mammalian mouth development. Our data suggest that Hh-mediated BPM persistence may underlie oral defects in human craniofacial syndromes. PMID:25300580

  17. Trench mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever. Good oral hygiene is vital to the treatment of trench mouth. Brush and floss your teeth thoroughly at least twice a day, or after each meal and at bedtime, if possible. Salt-water rinses (one half teaspoon or 3 grams of ...

  18. Corrosion behavior of pristine and added MgB2 in Phosphate Buffered Saline Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalu, D.; Bojin, D.; Ghiban, B.; Aldica, G.; Badica, P.

    2012-09-01

    We have obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), dense samples of MgB2 added with Ho2O3. Starting composition was (MgB2)0.975(HoO1.5)0.025 and we used addition powders with an average particle size below and above 100 nm. For Mg, pristine and added MgB2 samples we measured potentiodynamic polarization curves in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) solution media at room temperature. MgB2 based composites show corrosion/ degradation effects. This behavior is in principle similar to Mg based alloys in the same media. Our work suggests that the different morphologies and phase compositions of the SPS-ed samples influence the interaction with corrosion medium; hence additions can play an important role in controlling the corrosion rate. Pristine MgB2 show a significant improvement of the corrosion resistance, if compared with Mg. The best corrosion resistance is obtained for pristine MgB2, followed by MgB2 with nano-Ho2O3 and μ-Ho2O3 additions.

  19. Sea surface salinity fronts in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Etcheverry, L.; Maximenko, N. A.; Melnichenko, O.

    2016-12-01

    Marine fronts are narrow boundaries that separate water masses of different properties. These fronts are caused by various forcing and believed to be an important component of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system, particularly in the tropical oceans. In this study, we use sea surface salinity (SSS) observations from Aquarius satellite to investigate the spatial structure and temporal variability of SSS fronts in the tropical Atlantic. A number of frontal features have been identified. The mean magnitude of the SSS gradient is maximum near the mouth of the Congo River (0.3-0.4 psu/100km). Relative maxima are also observed in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the Gulf of Guinea, and the mouth of the Amazon River. The pattern of the magnitude of the SSS anomaly gradient revealed that the interaction between river plumes and saltier interior water is complex and highly variable during the three-year observation period. The variability of the magnitude of the density anomaly gradient computed from Aquarius SSS and Reynolds SST is also discussed. Images of the ocean color are utilized to trace the movement of the Congo and Amazon River plumes and compare them with the magnitude of the SSS gradient. Additionally, we analyze de circulation associated with the Amazon plume with altimetry data, and the vertical structure and its changes in time through Argo profiles.

  20. Effects of carbohydrate mouth rinse and caffeine on high-intensity interval running in a fed state.

    PubMed

    Devenney, Simon; Mangan, Shane; Shortall, Marcus; Collins, Kieran

    2018-05-01

    The current study aims to identify if mouth rinsing with a 6% carbohydrate mouth-rinse (CMR) solution and mouth rinsing and ingestion of caffeine (CMR+CAFF) can affect exercise performance during steady-state (SS) running and high-intensity intervals (HIIT) in comparison with a 0% control solution (PLA) when in a fed state. Eight recreationally trained males completed 3 trials (CMR, CMR+CAFF, and PLA) of 45 min SS running and an HIIT protocol (90% peak treadmill velocity) until fatigue in a double blinded, repeated-measures study. Participants ingested a capsule of either CAFF or PLA before and after SS. Participants received a 25-mL bolus of carbohydrate solution (CMR and CMR+CAFF trials) or taste-matched PLA (PLA trial) prior to HIIT protocol and after every second effort. Heart rate and lactate responses were recorded throughout the SS and HIIT protocol. CMR+CAFF was significantly different when compared with PLA (p = 0.001; Cohens d = 1.34) and CMR (p = 0.031; Cohens d = 0.87) in relation to distance covered before fatigue. Although there was no significant difference between CMR and PLA, there was a small benefit for CMR (p = 0.218; Cohens d = 0.46). Results indicate that CMR and ingestion of CAFF leads to improvements in performance during interval sessions while participants were in a fed state. These findings indicate that the regular use of CMR can decrease the risk of gastrointestinal distress reported by athletes, which can be applicable to athletes in a real-world setting.

  1. 16 CFR 1500.134 - Policy on first aid labeling for saline emesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy on first aid labeling for saline... REGULATIONS § 1500.134 Policy on first aid labeling for saline emesis. (a) This section states the Consumer Product Safety Commission's policy concerning first aid instructions for the use of a salt solution to...

  2. Mouth Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... or radiation patients, bone marrow or stem cell recipients, or patients with weak immune systems should also consider having regular oral screenings by a physician. The first sign of oral cancer is a mouth sore that does not heal. What kind of screenings are performed? ...

  3. Deciphering the protective role of spermidine against saline-alkaline stress at physiological and proteomic levels in tomato.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Hao; Zou, Zhi-Rong; Liu, Yi; Hu, Xiao-Hui

    2015-02-01

    In this research, the protective effect of spermidine (Spd) in mitigating saline-alkaline stress in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) at physiological and proteomic levels were examined. The results showed that saline-alkaline stress induced accumulation of H2O2 and O2(-*), and increased the activities of antioxidase (SOD, CAT, and POD). Spermidine efficiently alleviated the inhibitory role of saline-alkaline on plant growth and inhibited saline-alkaline stress-induced H2O2 and O2(-*) accumulation. Proteomics investigations of the leaves of tomato seedlings, responding to a 75 mM saline-alkaline solution and 0.25 mM Spd, were performed. Maps of the proteome of leaf extracts were obtained by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. An average of 49, 47 and 34 spots, which appeared repeatedly and that significantly altered the relative amounts of polypeptides by more than twofold, were detected for seedlings treated with saline-alkaline solution (S) compared to normal solution (CK), saline-alkaline plus spermidine (MS) compared to CK, or S versus MS, respectively. Thirty-nine of these proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and were classified into five functional categories, including energy and metabolism, signal transduction, amino acid metabolism, protein metabolism, and stress-defense response. Proteomics analysis coupled with bioinformatics indicated that Spd treatment helps tomato seedlings combat saline-alkaline stress by modulating the defense mechanism of plants and activating cellular detoxification, which protect plants from oxidative damage induced by saline-alkaline stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and evolution of the vertebrate primary mouth

    PubMed Central

    Soukup, Vladimír; Horácek, Ivan; Cerny, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The vertebrate oral region represents a key interface between outer and inner environments, and its structural and functional design is among the limiting factors for survival of its owners. Both formation of the respective oral opening (primary mouth) and establishment of the food-processing apparatus (secondary mouth) require interplay between several embryonic tissues and complex embryonic rearrangements. Although many aspects of the secondary mouth formation, including development of the jaws, teeth or taste buds, are known in considerable detail, general knowledge about primary mouth formation is regrettably low. In this paper, primary mouth formation is reviewed from a comparative point of view in order to reveal its underestimated morphogenetic diversity among, and also within, particular vertebrate clades. In general, three main developmental modes were identified. The most common is characterized by primary mouth formation via a deeply invaginated ectodermal stomodeum and subsequent rupture of the bilaminar oral membrane. However, in salamander, lungfish and also in some frog species, the mouth develops alternatively via stomodeal collar formation contributed both by the ecto- and endoderm. In ray-finned fishes, on the other hand, the mouth forms via an ectoderm wedge and later horizontal detachment of the initially compressed oral epithelia with probably a mixed germ-layer derivation. A very intriguing situation can be seen in agnathan fishes: whereas lampreys develop their primary mouth in a manner similar to the most common gnathostome pattern, hagfishes seem to undergo a unique oropharyngeal morphogenesis when compared with other vertebrates. In discussing the early formative embryonic correlates of primary mouth formation likely to be responsible for evolutionary–developmental modifications of this area, we stress an essential role of four factors: first, positioning and amount of yolk tissue; closely related to, second, endoderm formation during

  5. Assessment of salinity intrusion in the James and Chickahominy Rivers as a result of simulated sea-level rise in Chesapeake Bay, East Coast, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Karen; Bo Hong,; Jian Shen,

    2012-01-01

    Global sea level is rising, and the relative rate in the Chesapeake Bay region of the East Coast of the United States is greater than the worldwide rate. Sea-level rise can cause saline water to migrate upstream in estuaries and rivers, threatening freshwater habitat and drinking-water supplies. The effects of future sea-level rise on two tributaries of Chesapeake Bay, the James and Chickahominy (CHK) Rivers, were evaluated in order to quantify the salinity change with respect to the magnitude of sea-level rise. Such changes are critical to: 1) local floral and faunal habitats that have limited tolerance ranges to salinity; and 2) a drinking-water supply for the City of Newport News, Virginia. By using the three-dimensional Hydrodynamic-Eutrophication Model (HEM-3D), sea-level rise scenarios of 30, 50, and 100 cm, based on the U.S. Climate Change Science Program for the mid-Atlantic region for the 21st century, were evaluated. The model results indicate that salinity increases in the entire river as sea level rises and that the salinity increase in a dry year is greater than that in a typical year. In the James River, the salinity increase in the middle-to-upper river (from 25 to 50 km upstream of the mouth) is larger than that in the lower and upper parts of the river. The maximum mean salinity increase would be 2 and 4 ppt for a sea-level rise of 50 and 100 cm, respectively. The upstream movement of the 10 ppt isohaline is much larger than the 5 and 20 ppt isohalines. The volume of water with salinity between 10 and 20 ppt would increase greatly if sea level rises 100 cm. In the CHK River, with a sea-level rise of 100 cm, the mean salinity at the drinking-water intake 34 km upstream of the mouth would be about 3 ppt in a typical year and greater than 5 ppt in a dry year, both far in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's secondary standard for total dissolved solids for drinking water. At the drinking-water intake, the number of days of

  6. Responses of spinach to salinity and nutrient deficiency in growth, physiology and nutritional value

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salinity and nutrient depleted soil are major constraints to crop production, especially for vegetable crops. The effects of salinity and nutrient deficiency on spinach were evaluated in sand cultures under greenhouse conditions. Plants were watered every day with Hoagland nutrition solution, depriv...

  7. A comparison of dioctahedral smectite and iodine glycerin cream with topical mouth rinse in treatment of chemotherapy induced oral mucositis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Xiang; Fan, Zu-Yan; Lin, Qu; Wu, Dong-Hao; Wu, Xiang-Yuan; Chen, Yan-Ru; Fang, Heng-Ying; Wu, Dong-Bing; Wen, Jing-Yun; Dong, Min; Ma, Xiao-Kun; Wan, Xiang-Bo

    2015-04-01

    To compare the efficacy of dioctahedral smectite and iodine glycerin (DSIG) cream with topical mouth rinse (composed of saline, gentamicin and Vitamin B12) in treatment of chemotherapy induced oral mucositis (OM). A total of 130 intensive chemotherapy or stem cells transplantation induced OM patients were recruited. Among these patients, 67 patients received topical mouth rinse and 63 patients received DSIG cream treatment. The OM would be treated on the OM appearance and sustained for 5 days. OM severity was measured daily using The American Oncology Nursing Society recommended Oral Assessment Guideline (OAG) score system. Compared with topical mouth rinse treatment, a significant lower OAG score was observed in DSIG cream treated patients. Specifically, the OAG scores were respectively 12.1 ± 1.1, 12.0 ± 1.2, 11.3 ± 1.3 and 10.4 ± 1.3 from day 2 to day 5 in topical mouth rinse treatment subgroup. Correspondingly, the OAG scores were respectively 10.2 ± 1.0, 9.3 ± 0.9, 8.5 ± 0.6 and 8.0 ± 0.2 for DSIG cream treatment subset (all P < 0.05). Importantly, compared with topical mouth rinse treatment, the DSIG cream significantly shortened OM repair time (4.68 ± 0.98 vs. 8.76 ± 1.80 days, P < 0.001). After 5 days treatment, 54 patients (85.7%) obtained complete regression with an OAG score ≤8, and 7 patients (11.1%) had partial regression with an OAG score of 9-10 in DSIG cream treatment subgroup. However, only 2 patients (3.0%) obtained completed regression and 32 patients (47.8%) had partial regression in topical mouth rinse treatment cohort. Moreover, no serious side-effect was observed in both cohorts. Compared with topical mouth rinse, DSIG cream significantly lowered the OAG score and shortened OM duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Equiosmolar Solutions of Hypertonic Saline and Mannitol Do Not Impair Blood Coagulation During Elective Intracranial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Palazón, Joaquín; Fuentes-García, Diego; Doménech-Asensi, Paloma; Piqueras-Pérez, Claudio; Falcón-Araña, Luis; Burguillos-López, Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of equiosmolar, equivolemic solutions of 3% hypertonic saline (HS) and 20% mannitol on blood coagulation assessed by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and standard coagulation tests during elective craniotomy. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial, 40 patients undergoing elective craniotomy were randomized to receive 5 mL/kg of either 20% mannitol or 3% HS for intraoperative brain relaxation. Fibrinogen, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count were simultaneously measured intraoperatively with ROTEM for EXTEM, INTEM, and FIBTEM analysis. ROTEM parameters were: clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), maximum clot firmness (MCF), and α-angle. No significant differences between groups were found in ROTEM variables CT, CFT, MCF, α-angle (EXTEM and INTEM), and MCF (FIBTEM) nor standard coagulation tests. ROTEM parameters did not show changes after administration of hyperosmolar solutions relating to basal values, except for an increase of CFT EXTEM (118±28 vs. 128±26 s) and decrease of CT INTEM (160±18 vs. 148±15 s) with values within normal range. Significant decreases from baseline levels were observed for hematocrit (-7%), platelet count (-10%), and fibrinogen (-13%) after HS infusion, and hematocrit (-9%), platelet count (-13%), and fibrinogen (-9%) after mannitol infusion, but remaining normal. The use of 5 mL/kg of equiosmolar solutions of 3% HS and 20% mannitol applied to reach a brain relaxation during elective craniotomy does not induce coagulation impairment as evidenced by ROTEM and standard coagulation tests.

  9. Ultrastructure in frozen/etched saline solutions: on the internal cleansing of ice.

    PubMed

    Menger, Fredric M; Galloway, Ashley L; Chlebowski, Mary E; Apkarian, Robert P

    2004-05-19

    Seawater, with its 3.5% salt content, freezes into hexagonal ice (Ih) that encloses concentrated brine within its matrix. When unsubmerged sea ice reaches a certain height and temperature, the brine drains downward through narrow channels. This mechanism was now modeled by frozen 2-3.5% saline as investigated by cryo-etch high-resolution secondary electron microscopy. Thus, saline was either plunge-frozen in liquid ethane at -183 degrees C or else high-pressure frozen to -105 degrees C in 5-6 ms. Ice from a freshly exposed surface was then subjected to a high-vacuum sublimation ("etching"), a procedure that removes pure bulk ice in preference to ice from frozen hydrated salt. After chromium-coating the etched surface with a 2-nm film, the sample was examined by cryo-HRSEM. Granular icy "fences" were seen surrounding empty areas where amorphous ice had originally resided. Since the fences, about 1-2 mum high, survived the etching, it is likely that they consist of frozen brine. The presence of such fences suggests that, during freezing, saline can purge itself of salt with remarkable speed (5-6 ms). Alternatively, channels (perhaps routed around submicroscopic crystallites of cubic ice (Ic) embedded in the amorphous ice at -105 degrees C) can guide the migration of salt to the periphery of ice patches. Macromolecules fail to form fences because they diffuse too slowly or because they are too large to pass through the channels.

  10. Comparison of 7.2% hypertonic saline - 6% hydroxyethyl starch solution and 6% hydroxyethyl starch solution after the induction of anesthesia in patients undergoing elective neurosurgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Shao, Liujiazi; Wang, Baoguo; Wang, Shuangyan; Mu, Feng; Gu, Ke

    2013-01-01

    The ideal solution for fluid management during neurosurgical procedures remains controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a 7.2% hypertonic saline - 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HS-HES) solution and a 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solution on clinical, hemodynamic and laboratory variables during elective neurosurgical procedures. Forty patients scheduled for elective neurosurgical procedures were randomly assigned to the HS-HES group orthe HES group. Afterthe induction of anesthesia, patients in the HS-HES group received 250 mL of HS-HES (500 mL/h), whereas the patients in the HES group received 1,000 mL of HES (1000 mL/h). The monitored variables included clinical, hemodynamic and laboratory parameters. Chictr.org: ChiCTR-TRC-12002357 The patients who received the HS-HES solution had a significant decrease in the intraoperative total fluid input (p<0.01), the volume of Ringer's solution required (p<0.05), the fluid balance (p<0.01) and their dural tension scores (p<0.05). The total urine output, blood loss, bleeding severity scores, operation duration and hemodynamic variables were similar in both groups (p>0.05). Moreover, compared with the HES group, the HS-HES group had significantly higher plasma concentrations of sodium and chloride, increasing the osmolality (p<0.01). Our results suggest that HS-HES reduced the volume of intraoperative fluid required to maintain the patients undergoing surgery and led to a decrease in the intraoperative fluid balance. Moreover, HS-HES improved the dural tension scores and provided satisfactory brain relaxation. Our results indicate that HS-HES may represent a new avenue for volume therapy during elective neurosurgical procedures.

  11. On the dynamics of the Mouth of the Columbia River: Results from a three-dimensional fully coupled wave-current interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akan, Çiǧdem; Moghimi, Saeed; Özkan-Haller, H. Tuba; Osborne, John; Kurapov, Alexander

    2017-07-01

    Numerical simulations were performed using a 3-D ocean circulation model (ROMS) two-way coupled to a phase-averaged wave propagation model (SWAN), to expand our understanding of the dynamics of wave-current interactions at the Mouth of the Columbia River (MCR). First, model results are compared with water elevations, currents, temperature, salinity, and wave measurements obtained by the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers during the Mega-Transect Experiment in 2005. We then discuss the effects of the currents on the waves and vice versa. Results show that wave heights are intensified notably at the entrance of the mouth in the presence of the tidal currents, especially in ebb flows. We also find nonlocal modifications to the wave field because of wave focusing processes that redirect wave energy toward the inlet mouth from adjacent areas, resulting in the presence of a tidal signatures in areas where local currents are weak. The model also suggests significant wave amplification at the edge of the expanding plume in the later stages of ebb, some tens of kilometers offshore of the inlet mouth, with potential implications for navigation safety. The effect of waves on the location of the plume is also analyzed, and results suggest that the plume is shifted in the down-wave direction when wave effects are considered, and that this shift is more pronounced for larger waves, and consistent with the presence of alongshore advection terms in the salt advection equation, which are related to the Stokes velocities associated with waves.

  12. Burning mouth syndrome: the role of contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Marino, R; Capaccio, P; Pignataro, L; Spadari, F

    2009-05-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a burning sensation or stinging disorder affecting the oral mucosa in the absence of any clinical signs or mucosal lesions. Some studies have suggested that burning mouth syndrome could be caused by the metals used in dental prostheses, as well as by acrylate monomers, additives and flavouring agents, although others have not found any aetiologic role for hypersensitivity to dental materials. To evaluate the extent and severity of adverse reactions to dental materials in a group of patients with burning mouth syndrome, and investigate the possible role of contact allergy in its pathogenesis. We prospectively studied 124 consecutive patients with burning mouth syndrome (108 males; mean age 57 years, range 41-83), all of whom underwent allergen patch testing between 2004 and 2007. Sixteen patients (13%) showed positive patch test reactions and were classified as having burning mouth syndrome type 3 or secondary burning mouth syndrome (Lamey's and Scala's classifications). Although we did not find any significant association between the patients and positive patch test reactions, it would be advisable to include hypersensitivity to dental components when evaluating patients experiencing intermittent oral burning without any clinical signs.

  13. Dry mouth: a critical topic for older adult patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Phuu; Suarez-Durall, Piedad; Mulligan, Roseann

    2015-01-01

    Diminished salivary flow, or dry mouth impacts the oral health of many older adults, dentate and edentulous. As a result typical oral conditions can prove more challenging to both the patient's comfort and home care and the treatment selected by the clinician. This paper will review issues of dry mouth from a clinical and symptomatic perspective and will include the condition's causes, treatment and prevention. We performed a review of PubMed using the words: older adults, dry mouth, xerostomia, radiation-induced xerostomia, and salivary gland hypofunction. We selected 90 articles with a clinical application perspective. When it comes to treatment of dry mouth conditions, either objective or subjective, there are no easy answers as to the best course of action for a specific individual. While most of the cited studies have examined the most difficult cases of dry mouth (e.g., Sjögren's syndrome, and that seen during and post head and neck cancer treatments), there are many older adults who demonstrate dry mouth from the use of multiple medications. This paper presents a summary of the etiology, diagnosis, prevention, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of dry mouth (salivary hypofunction and xerostomia in older adults). It is important to understand the causes of dry mouth and to educate our patients. Starting a prevention program as early as possible considering the most practical, cost effective and efficient treatments with the best risk-benefit ratio will help to diminish dry mouth symptoms and sequelae. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Organic matter and salinity modify cadmium soil (phyto)availability.

    PubMed

    Filipović, Lana; Romić, Marija; Romić, Davor; Filipović, Vilim; Ondrašek, Gabrijel

    2018-01-01

    Although Cd availability depends on its total concentration in soil, it is ultimately defined by the processes which control its mobility, transformations and soil solution speciation. Cd mobility between different soil fractions can be significantly affected by certain pedovariables such as soil organic matter (SOM; over formation of metal-organic complexes) and/or soil salinity (over formation of metal-inorganic complexes). Phytoavailable Cd fraction may be described as the proportion of the available Cd in soil which is actually accessible by roots and available for plant uptake. Therefore, in a greenhouse pot experiment Cd availability was observed in the rhizosphere of faba bean exposed to different levels of SOM, NaCl salinity (50 and 100mM) and Cd contamination (5 and 10mgkg -1 ). Cd availability in soil does not linearly follow its total concentration. Still, increasing soil Cd concentration may lead to increased Cd phytoavailability if the proportion of Cd 2+ pool in soil solution is enhanced. Reduced Cd (phyto)availability by raised SOM was found, along with increased proportion of Cd-DOC complexes in soil solution. Data suggest decreased Cd soil (phyto)availability with the application of salts. NaCl salinity affected Cd speciation in soil solution by promoting the formation of CdCl n 2-n complexes. Results possibly suggest that increased Cd mobility in soil does not result in its increased availability if soil adsorption capacity for Cd has not been exceeded. Accordingly, chloro-complex possibly operated just as a Cd carrier between different soil fractions and resulted only in transfer between solid phases and not in increased (phyto)availability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Salinity and Confining Pressure on Hydration-Induced Fracture Propagation and Permeability of Mancos Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shifeng; Sheng, James J.

    2017-11-01

    Low-salinity water imbibition was considered an enhanced recovery method in shale oil/gas reservoirs due to the resulting hydration-induced fractures, as observed at ambient conditions. To study the effect of confining pressure and salinity on hydration-induced fractures, time-elapsed computerized tomography (CT) was used to obtain cross-sectional images of shale cores. Based on the CT data of these cross-sectional images, cut faces parallel to the core axial in the middle of the core and 3D fracture images were also reconstructed. To study the effects of confining pressure and salinity on shale pore fluid flowing, shale permeability was measured with Nitrogen (N2), distilled water, 4% KCl solution, and 8% KCl solution. With confining pressures increased to 2 MPa or more, either in distilled water or in KCl solutions of different salinities, fractures were observed to close instead to propagate at the end of the tests. The intrinsic permeabilities of #1 and #2 Mancos shale cores were 60.0 and 7000 nD, respectively. When tested with distilled water, the permeability of #1 shale sample with 20.0 MPa confining pressure loaded, and #2 shale sample with 2.5 MPa confining pressure loaded, decreased to 0.45 and 15 nD, respectively. Using KCl can partly mitigate shale permeability degradation. Compared to 4% KCl, 8% KCl can decrease more permeability damage. From this point of view, high salinity KCl solution should be required for the water-based fracturing fluid.

  16. Genetic variation and plasticity of Plantago coronopus under saline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smekens, Marret J.; van Tienderen, Peter H.

    2001-08-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may allow organisms to cope with variation in the environmental conditions they encounter in their natural habitats. Salt adaptation appears to be an excellent example of such a plastic response. Many plant species accumulate organic solutes in response to saline conditions. Comparative and molecular studies suggest that this is an adaptation to osmotic stress. However, evidence relating the physiological responses to fitness parameters is rare and requires assessing the potential costs and benefits of plasticity. We studied the response of thirty families derived from plants collected in three populations of Plantago coronopus in a greenhouse experiment under saline and non-saline conditions. We indeed found a positive selection gradient for the sorbitol percentage under saline conditions: plant families with a higher proportion of sorbitol produced more spikes. No effects of sorbitol on fitness parameters were found under non-saline conditions. Populations also differed genetically in leaf number, spike number, sorbitol concentration and percentages of different soluble sugars. Salt treatment led to a reduction of vegetative biomass and spike production but increased leaf dry matter percentage and leaf thickness. Both under saline and non-saline conditions there was a negative trade-off between vegetative growth and reproduction. Families with a high plasticity in leaf thickness had a lower total spike length under non-saline conditions. This would imply that natural selection under predominantly non-saline conditions would lead to a decrease in the ability to change leaf morphology in response to exposure to salt. All other tests revealed no indication for any costs of plasticity to saline conditions.

  17. Preparation of non-aggregating aqueous fullerenes in highly saline solutions with a biocompatible non-ionic polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aich, Nirupam; Boateng, Linkel K.; Flora, Joseph R. V.; Saleh, Navid B.

    2013-10-01

    Size-tunable stable aqueous fullerenes were prepared with different concentrations of biocompatible block-copolymer pluronic (PA) F-127, ranging from 0.001% to 1% (w/v). Size uniformity increased with the increase in PA concentration, yielding optimum 58.8 ± 5.6 and 61.8 ± 5.6 nm nC60s and nC70s, respectively (0.10%w/v PA), as observed using a dynamic light scattering technique. Fullerene aqueous suspensions also manifested enhanced stability in saline solution, Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM), and Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) culture medium. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to elaborate on the morphology and size specificity of fullerene clusters. Physicochemical characterizations of the suspended fullerenes were performed through UV-vis spectroscopy and electrophoretic mobility measurements. PA molecules showed size restriction by encasement, as observed via molecular dynamics simulations. Such solubilization with controllable size and non-aggregating behavior can facilitate application enhancement and mechanistic environmental and toxicological studies of size-specific fullerenes.

  18. Effects of salinity and flooding on seedlings of cabbage palm (Sabal palmetto).

    PubMed

    Perry, L; Williams, K

    1996-03-01

    Sabal palmetto (Walt.) Lodd. ex Schultes (cabbage palm) dominates the coastal limit of many forests in North Florida and Georgia, United States. Changes in saltwater flooding due to sea level rise have been credicted with pushing the coastal limit of cabbage palms inland, eliminating regeneration before causing death of mature trees. Localized freshwater discharge along the coast causes different forest stands to experience tidal flooding with waters that differ in salinity. To elucidate the effect of such variation on regeneration failure under tidal flooding, we examined relative effects of flooding and salinity on the performance of cabbage palm seedlings. We examined the relationship between seedling establishment and degree of tidal inundation in the field, compared the ability of seedlings to withstand tidal flooding at two coastal sites that differed in tidal water salinity, and investigated the physiological responses of cabbage palm seedlings to salinity and flooding in a factorial greenhouse experiment. Seedling survival was inversely correlated with depth and frequency of tidal flooding. Survival of seedlings at a coastal site flooded by waters low in salinity [c. 3 parts per thousand (ppt)] was greater than that at a site flooded by waters higher in salinity (up to 23 ppt). Greenhouse experiments revealed that leaves of seedlings in pots flushed twice daily with salt solutions of 0 ppt and 8 ppt exhibited little difference in midmorning net CO 2 assimilation rates; those flushed with solutions of 15 ppt and 22 ppt, in contrast, had such low rates that they could not be detected. Net CO 2 assimilation rates also declined with increasing salinity for seedlings in pots that were continuously inundated. Continuous root zone inundation appeared to ameliorate effects of salinity on photosynthesis, presumably due to increased salt concentrations and possibly water deficits in periodically flushed pots. Such problems associated with periodic flushing by salt

  19. [ARTCEREB irrigation and perfusion solution for cerebrospinal surgery: pharmacological assessment using human astrocytes exposed to test solutions].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Masuhiro; Doi, Kazuhisa; Enomoto, Riyo; Lee, Eibai; Naito, Shinsaku; Yamauchi, Aiko

    2009-09-01

    ARTCEREB irrigation and perfusion solution (Artcereb) is a preparation intended for the irrigation and perfusion of the cerebral ventricles, and it is therefore important to evaluate the effects of Artcereb on brain cells. In vitro assessment of the effects of Artcereb in cell cultures of human fetal astrocytes was conducted in comparison with normal saline and lactated Ringer's solution. The effects of exposure to Artcereb were evaluated based on microscopic images of the mitochondria stained with rhodamine 123. The effects of exposure to Artcereb on cell function were also evaluated by quantitative analysis of mitochondrial activity based on rhodamine 123 and (3)H-thymidine incorporation. Morphological changes in nuclear structure were also evaluated. The results of the present study showed that cell function in cell cultures of human astrocytes was relatively unaffected by exposure to Artcereb as compared with normal saline or lactated Ringer's solution, suggesting that Artcereb has less effect on brain cells than normal saline or lactated Ringer's solution when used for the irrigation or perfusion of the cerebral ventricles.

  20. Impact Assessment of Salinization Affected Soil on Greenhouse Crops using SALTMED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappa, Polyxeni; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis; Varouchakis, Emmanouil

    2015-04-01

    Here we assess the effects of soil salinization on greenhouse crops and the potential benefits of rainwater harvesting as a soil amelioration technology. The study deals with the following scenarios: (a) variation of irrigation water salinity from 3,000 μS/cm to 500 μS/cm through mixing with rainwater, (b) crop substitution for increased tolerance and (c) climatic variability to account for the impact of climate change. In order to draw meaningful conclusions, a model that takes into account vegetation interaction, soil, irrigation water and climate variables is required. The SALTMED model is a reliable and tested physical process model that simulates evapotranspiration, plant water uptake, water and solute transport to estimate crop yield and biomass production under all irrigation systems. SALTMED is tested with the above scenarios in the RECARE FP7 Project Case Study of Timpaki, in the Island of Crete, Greece. Simulations are conducted for typical cultivations of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum anuumm and Solanum melongena. Preliminary results indicate the optimal combination from a set of solutions concerning the soil and water parameters can be beneficial against the salinization threat. Future research includes the validation of the results with field experiments. Keywords: salinization, greenhouse, tomato, SALTMED, rainwater, RECARE

  1. FREQUENCY OF MOUTHING BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children may be more likely than adults to be exposed to pesticides following a residential application as a result of hand- and object-to-mouth contacts in contaminated areas. However, relatively few studies have specifically evaluated mouthing behavior in children less ...

  2. FREQUENCY OF MOUTHING BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children, as compared to adults, are more likely to be exposed after a pesticide application due to potential hand- and object-to-mouth contacts in contaminated areas. However, relatively few studies have specifically evaluated mouthing behavior in children <60 months of...

  3. [Burning mouth caused by denture material].

    PubMed

    Feilzer, A J

    2009-09-01

    A 60-year-old man with an edentulous maxilla was referred by his dentist to an allergy clinic with complaints of burning mouth and bad taste. In the majority of cases, it is hard or impossible to detect the cause of burning mouth. In this case, ultimately the complaint could be solved by eliminating exposure to possible allergenic components of denture base resins.

  4. Cold physical plasma treated buffered saline solution as effective agent against pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bekeschus, Sander; Kading, Andre; Schroder, Tim; Wende, Kristian; Hackbarth, Christine; Liedtke, Kim Rouven; van der Linde, Julia; von Woedtke, Thomas; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Partecke, Lars-Ivo

    2018-05-07

    Cold physical plasma has been suggested as a new anticancer tool recently. However, direct use of plasma is limited to visible tumors and in some clinical situations not feasible. This includes repetitive treatment of peritoneal metastases which commonly occur in advanced gastrointestinal cancer and in pancreatic cancer in particular. In case of diffuse intraperitoneal metastatic spread Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Intraoperative Chemotherapy (HIPEC) is used as therapeutic approach. Plasma treated solutions may combine their suspected systemic non-toxic characteristics with the anticancer effects of HIPEC. Previous work has provided evidence for an anti-cancer efficacy of plasma treated cell culture medium but the clinical relevance of such an approach is low due to its complex formulation and lack of medical accreditation. Therefore, plasma treated phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) which closely resembles medically certified solutions was investigated for its cytotoxic effect on 2D monolayer murine pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. It significantly decreased cancer cell metabolisms and proliferation whereas plasma treated Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium had no effect. Moreover, tumor cell growth attenuation was significantly higher when compared to syngeneic primary murine fibroblasts. Both results were confirmed in a human pancreatic cancer cell line. Finally, plasma treated PBS also decreased tumor sizes of pancreatic tumors in the TUM-CAM model in a three-dimensional manner, and induction of apoptosis was found to be responsible for all anticancer effects identified. Altogether, plasma treated PBS inhibited cell growth in 2D and 3D models of cancer. These results may help facilitating the development of new plasma derived anticancer agent with clinical relevance in the future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Burning mouth syndrome: an enigmatic disorder.

    PubMed

    Javali, M A

    2013-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic oral pain or burning sensation affecting the oral mucosa, often unaccompanied by mucosal lesions or other evident clinical signs. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and may be accompanied by xerostomia and altered taste. Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by an intense burning or stinging sensation, preferably on the tongue or in other areas of mouth. This disorder is one of the most common, encountered in the clinical practice. This condition is probably of multifactorial origin; however the exact underlying etiology remains uncertain. This article discusses several aspects of BMS, updates current knowledge about the etiopathogenesis and describes the clinical features as well as the diagnosis and management of BMS patients.

  6. Analytical Solution for Interface Flow to a Sink With an Upconed Saline Water Lens: Strack's Regimes Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacimov, A. R.; Obnosov, Y. V.

    2018-01-01

    A study is made of a steady, two-dimensional groundwater flow with a horizontal well (drain), which pumps out freshwater from an aquifer sandwiched between a horizontal bedrock and ponded soil surface, and containing a lens-shaped static volume of a heavier saline water (DNAPL-dense nonaqueous phase liquid) as a free surface. For flow toward a line sink, an explicit analytical solution is obtained by a conformal mapping of the hexagon in the complex potential plane onto a reference plane and the Keldysh-Sedov integral representation of a mixed boundary-value problem for a complex physical coordinate. The interface is found as a function of the pumping rate, the well locus, the ratio of liquid densities, and the hydraulic heads at the soil surface and in the well. The shape with two inflexion points and fronts varies from a small-thickness bedrock-spread pancake to a critical curvilinear triangle, which cusps toward the sink. The problem is mathematically solvable in a relatively narrow band of geometric and hydraulic parameters. A similar analytic solution for a static heavy bubble confined by a closed-curve interface (no contact with the bedrock) is outlined as an illustration of the method to solve a mixed boundary-value problem.

  7. Comparison of 7.2% hypertonic saline - 6% hydroxyethyl starch solution and 6% hydroxyethyl starch solution after the induction of anesthesia in patients undergoing elective neurosurgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Liujiazi; Wang, Baoguo; Wang, Shuangyan; Mu, Feng; Gu, Ke

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The ideal solution for fluid management during neurosurgical procedures remains controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a 7.2% hypertonic saline - 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HS-HES) solution and a 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solution on clinical, hemodynamic and laboratory variables during elective neurosurgical procedures. METHODS: Forty patients scheduled for elective neurosurgical procedures were randomly assigned to the HS-HES group or the HES group. After the induction of anesthesia, patients in the HS-HES group received 250 mL of HS-HES (500 mL/h), whereas the patients in the HES group received 1,000 mL of HES (1000 mL/h). The monitored variables included clinical, hemodynamic and laboratory parameters. Chictr.org: ChiCTR-TRC-12002357 RESULTS: The patients who received the HS-HES solution had a significant decrease in the intraoperative total fluid input (p<0.01), the volume of Ringer's solution required (p<0.05), the fluid balance (p<0.01) and their dural tension scores (p<0.05). The total urine output, blood loss, bleeding severity scores, operation duration and hemodynamic variables were similar in both groups (p>0.05). Moreover, compared with the HES group, the HS-HES group had significantly higher plasma concentrations of sodium and chloride, increasing the osmolality (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that HS-HES reduced the volume of intraoperative fluid required to maintain the patients undergoing surgery and led to a decrease in the intraoperative fluid balance. Moreover, HS-HES improved the dural tension scores and provided satisfactory brain relaxation. Our results indicate that HS-HES may represent a new avenue for volume therapy during elective neurosurgical procedures. PMID:23644851

  8. [Preliminary establishment of cytological examination and the normal reference values for hypertonic saline solution-induced sputum of healthy children in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Chen, De-hui; Zhong, Guo-yu; Luo, Wei; Chen, Qiao-li; Chen, Ru-chong; Lin, Yu-neng; Pan, Xiao-an; Li, Jin-ying; Wu, Shang-zhi; Lai, Ke-fang; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2012-07-01

    To establish the method of cytological examination and the normal reference values for hypertonic saline solution-induced sputum of healthy children (age range from 5 to 15 years) with physical examination in Guangzhou. A total of 352 children, 5 to 15 years old, were enrolled from primary school and middle school in Guangzhou from January to December, 2010. All subjects completed a standardized questionnaire on the presence of respiratory, allergic symptoms and family history, the medical history and the physical examination was performed by doctors, lung function (forced expiratory volume at 1 s in predicted normal, FEV(1)%) was determined. There were 266 healthy children (137 males, 129 females) who were selected and undergone hypertonic saline solution induction of sputum, and cytological examination was performed. Hypertonic saline (5%) was nebulized and inhaled for 15 - 30 min. No expectoration within 30 min was defined as failure, and the procedure was terminated. The part of opaque and higher density sputum samples was detected by cytology. The proportion of neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, macrophages and monocytes was calculated. This study was approved by the institutional Ethics Review Committee of First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College. Informed consent was obtained from the legal guardians of all participants following a detailed description of the purpose and potential benefits of the study. There were 175 subjects' induced sputum specimens (175/266, 65.8%), non-qualified sputum samples were obtained from 16 of the subjects. The proportions of median (IQR) of lymphocytes were 0.012 (0.020), 95%CI were ranged from 0.015 to 0.022; neutrophils 0.207 (0.330), 95%CI 0.266 - 0.356 macrophages 0.761 (0.327), 95%CI 0.607 - 0.699; eosinophils 0.004 (0.019), 95%CI 0.013 - 0.022. There were no significant differences in proportions of cytological findings of female or male, different age groups and second-hand smoking or not (all P > 0

  9. Reexamining ultrafiltration and solute transport in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuzil, C. E.; Person, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Geologic ultrafiltration—slowing of solutes with respect to flowing groundwater—poses a conundrum: it is consistently observed experimentally in clay-rich lithologies, but has been difficult to identify in subsurface data. Resolving this could be important for clarifying clay and shale transport properties at large scales as well as interpreting solute and isotope patterns for applications ranging from nuclear waste repository siting to understanding fluid transport in tectonically active environments. Simulations of one-dimensional NaCl transport across ultrafiltering clay membrane strata constrained by emerging data on geologic membrane properties showed different ultrafiltration effects than have often been envisioned. In relatively high-permeability advection-dominated regimes, salinity increases occurred mostly within membrane units while their effluent salinity initially fell and then rose to match solute delivery. In relatively low-permeability diffusion-dominated regimes, salinity peaked at the membrane upstream boundary and effluent salinity remained low. In both scenarios, however, only modest salinity changes (up to ˜3 g L-1) occurred because of self-limiting tendencies; membrane efficiency declines as salinity rises, and although sediment compaction increases efficiency, it is also decreases permeability and allows diffusive transport to dominate. It appears difficult for ultrafiltration to generate brines as speculated, but widespread and less extreme ultrafiltration effects in the subsurface could be unrecognized. Conditions needed for ultrafiltration are present in settings that include topographically-driven flow systems, confined aquifer systems subjected to injection or withdrawal, compacting basins, and accretionary complexes.

  10. Reexamining ultrafiltration and solute transport in groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, Christopher E.; Person, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Geologic ultrafiltration—slowing of solutes with respect to flowing groundwater—poses a conundrum: it is consistently observed experimentally in clay-rich lithologies, but has been difficult to identify in subsurface data. Resolving this could be important for clarifying clay and shale transport properties at large scales as well as interpreting solute and isotope patterns for applications ranging from nuclear waste repository siting to understanding fluid transport in tectonically active environments. Simulations of one-dimensional NaCl transport across ultrafiltering clay membrane strata constrained by emerging data on geologic membrane properties showed different ultrafiltration effects than have often been envisioned. In relatively high-permeability advection-dominated regimes, salinity increases occurred mostly within membrane units while their effluent salinity initially fell and then rose to match solute delivery. In relatively low-permeability diffusion-dominated regimes, salinity peaked at the membrane upstream boundary and effluent salinity remained low. In both scenarios, however, only modest salinity changes (up to ∼3 g L−1) occurred because of self-limiting tendencies; membrane efficiency declines as salinity rises, and although sediment compaction increases efficiency, it is also decreases permeability and allows diffusive transport to dominate. It appears difficult for ultrafiltration to generate brines as speculated, but widespread and less extreme ultrafiltration effects in the subsurface could be unrecognized. Conditions needed for ultrafiltration are present in settings that include topographically-driven flow systems, confined aquifer systems subjected to injection or withdrawal, compacting basins, and accretionary complexes.

  11. Mouth cancer in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Giagkou, E; Christodoulou, D K; Katsanos, K H

    2016-05-01

    Mouth cancer is a major health problem. Multiple risk factors for developing mouth cancer have been studied and include history of tobacco and alcohol abuse, age over 40, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, human papilloma virus infection (HPV), nutritional deficiencies, chronic irritation, and existence or oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia and lichen planus. An important risk factor for mouth cancer is chronic immunosuppression and has been extensively reported after solid organ transplantation as well as HIV-infected patients. Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not yet considered as a risk factor for oral cancer development. However, a significant number of patients with IBD are receiving immunosuppressants and biological therapies which could represent potential oral oncogenic factors either by direct oncogenic effect or by continuous immunosuppression favoring carcinogenesis, especially in patients with HPV(+) IBD. Education on modifiable risk behaviors in patients with IBD is the cornerstone of prevention of mouth cancer. Oral screening should be performed for all patients with IBD, especially those who are about to start an immunosuppressant or a biologic. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Graft preservation solutions in cardiovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Bernhard; Reineke, David; Heinisch, Paul Philip; Schönhoff, Florian; Huber, Christoph; Kadner, Alexander; Englberger, Lars; Carrel, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    Vein grafts are still the most commonly used graft material in cardiovascular surgery and much effort has been spent in recent years on investigating the optimal harvesting technique. One other related topic of similar importance remained more or less an incidental one. The storage solutions of vein grafts following procurement and prior to implantation are, despite their assumed impact, a relatively neglected theme. There is no doubt that the endothelium plays a key role in long-term patency of vein grafts, but the effects of the different storage solutions on the endothelium remain unclear : In a review of the literature, we could find 20 specific papers that addressed the question, of which the currently available preservation solutions are superior, harmless, damaging or ineffective. The focus lies on saline and autologous whole blood. Besides these two storage media, novel or alternative solutions have been investigated with surprising findings. In addition, a few words will be spent on potential alternatives and novel solutions on the market. As there is currently no randomized clinical trial regarding saline versus autologous whole blood available, this review compares all previous studies and methods of analysis to provide a certain level of evidence on this topic. In summary, saline has negative effects on the endothelial layers and therefore may compromise graft patency. Related factors, such as distension pressure, may outbalance the initial benefit of autologous whole blood or storage solutions and intensify the harmful effects of warm saline. In addition, there is no uniform consent on the superiority of autologous whole blood for vein graft storage. This may open the door to alternatives such as the University of Wisconsin solution or one of the specific designed storage solutions like TiProtec™ or Somaluthion™. Whether these preservation solutions are superior or advantageous remains the subject of further studies. © The Author 2016. Published

  13. Development of prenatal lateralization: evidence from fetal mouth movements.

    PubMed

    Reissland, N; Francis, B; Aydin, E; Mason, J; Exley, K

    2014-05-28

    Human lateralized behaviors relate to the asymmetric development of the brain. Research of the prenatal origins of laterality is equivocal with some studies suggesting that fetuses exhibit lateralized behavior and other not finding such laterality. Given that by around 22weeks of gestation the left cerebral hemisphere compared to the right is significantly larger in both male and female fetuses we expected that the right side of the fetal face would show more movement with increased gestation. This longitudinal study investigated whether fetuses from 24 to 36weeks of gestation showed increasing lateralized behaviors during mouth opening and whether lateralized mouth movements are related to fetal age, gender and maternal self-reported prenatal stress. Following ethical approval, fifteen healthy fetuses (8 girls) of primagravid mothers were scanned four times from 24 to 36-gestation. Two types of mouth opening movements - upper lip raiser and mouth stretch - were coded in 60 scans for 10min. We modeled the proportion of right mouth opening for each fetal scan using a generalized linear mixed model, which takes account of the repeated measures design. There was a significant increase in the proportion of lateralized mouth openings over the period increasing by 11% for each week of gestational age (LRT change in deviance=10.92, 1df; p<0.001). No gender differences were found nor was there any effect of maternally reported stress on fetal lateralized mouth movements. There was also evidence of left lateralization preference in mouth movement, although no evidence of changes in lateralization bias over time. This longitudinal study provides important new insights into the development of lateralized mouth movements from 24 to 36 weeks of gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cerebral effects of resuscitation with hypertonic saline and a new low-sodium hypertonic fluid in hemorrhagic shock and head injury.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, A A; Matsuoka, T; Wisner, D H

    1996-07-01

    A 2400-mOsm/L hypertonic solution (isosal) with a lower sodium content, compared with conventional 7.5% hypertonic saline, was formulated using a mixture of sodium chloride, glucose, and mixed amino acids. This solution was developed to minimize hypernatremia during resuscitation. We assessed the effects of isosal on hemodynamics, brain edema, and plasma sodium concentration after head injury associated with hemorrhagic shock. DESIGN. Prospective, randomized laboratory study. University research laboratory. Twenty-one adult female Suffolk sheep, weighing 39 to 49 kg. Animals were subjected to a 2-hr period of hemorrhagic shock to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 to 45 mm Hg in the presence of a freeze injury to the cerebral cortex. The hemorrhagic shock/head injury phase was followed by 2 hrs of resuscitation with isosal, a new 2400-mosm/L low-sodium hypertonic fluid, 2400 mosm/L of 7.5% hypertonic saline, or lactated Ringer's solution. Initial resuscitation was with a bolus injection of 8 mL/kg of the study solution; subsequent resuscitation in all three groups was with lactated Ringer's solution as needed to maintain baseline cardiac output. Serial hemodynamics, intracranial pressure, electrolytes, and osmolarity were measured. AT the end of resuscitation, the animals were killed and brain water content (mL H2O/g dry weight) of the injured and uninjured areas was determined. Resuscitation volumes were significantly lower in the isosal (19 +/- 5 mL/kg) and 7.5% hypertonic saline (14 +/- 2 mL/mg) groups compared with the lactated Ringer's solution (35 +/- 5 mL/kg) group. Intracranial pressure after 2 hrs of resuscitation was significantly lower in the isosal (7 +/- 1 mm Hg) and hypertonic saline groups (4 +/- 1 mm Hg). Water content in all areas of the brain was significantly lower in the hypertonic saline group compared with the lactated Ringer's solution group. Brain water content in the isosal group was lower than in the lactated Ringer's solution group only

  15. Evolution of the electrical resistivity anisotropy during saline tracer tests: insights from geoelectrical milli-fluidic experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jougnot, D.; Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Legendre, R.; Le Borgne, T.; Meheust, Y.; Linde, N.

    2017-12-01

    The use of time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography has been largely developed in environmental studies to remotely monitor water saturation and contaminant plumes migration. However, subsurface heterogeneities, and corresponding preferential transport paths, yield a potentially large anisotropy in the electrical properties of the subsurface. In order to study this effect, we have used a newly developed geoelectrical milli-fluidic experimental set-up with a flow cell that contains a 2D porous medium consisting of a single layer of cylindrical solid grains. We performed saline tracer tests under full and partial water saturations in that cell by jointly injecting air and aqueous solutions with different salinities. The flow cell is equipped with four electrodes to measure the bulk electrical resistivity at the cell's scale. The spatial distribution of the water/air phases and the saline solute concentration field in the water phase are captured simultaneously with a high-resolution camera by combining a fluorescent tracer with the saline solute. These data are used to compute the longitudinal and transverse effective electrical resistivity numerically from the measured spatial distributions of the fluid phases and the salinity field. This approach is validated as the computed longitudinal effective resistivities are in good agreement with the laboratory measurements. The anisotropy in electrical resistivity is then inferred from the computed longitudinal and transverse effective resistivities. We find that the spatial distribution of saline tracer, and potentially air phase, drive temporal changes in the effective resistivity through preferential paths or barriers for electrical current at the pore scale. The resulting heterogeneities in the solute concentrations lead to strong anisotropy of the effective bulk electrical resistivity, especially for partially saturated conditions. Therefore, considering the electrical resistivity as a tensor could improve our

  16. Immersing lungs in hydrogen-rich saline attenuates lung ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mamoru; Chen-Yoshikawa, Toyofumi F; Saito, Masao; Tanaka, Satona; Miyamoto, Ei; Ohata, Keiji; Kondo, Takeshi; Motoyama, Hideki; Hijiya, Kyoko; Aoyama, Akihiro; Date, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Anti-oxidant effects of hydrogen have been reported in studies examining ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of immersing lungs in hydrogen-rich saline on lung IRI. Lewis rats were divided into three groups: (i) sham, (ii) normal saline and (iii) hydrogen-rich saline. In the first experiment, the left thoracic cavity was filled with either normal saline or hydrogen-rich saline for 1 h. Then, we measured the hydrogen concentration in the left lung using a sensor gas chromatograph ( N = 3 per group). In the second experiment, lung IRI was induced by occlusion of the left pulmonary hilum for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 3 h. During the ischaemic period, the left thoracic cavity was filled with either normal saline or hydrogen-rich saline. After reperfusion, we assessed lung function, histological changes and cytokine production ( N = 5-7 per group). Immersing lungs in hydrogen-rich saline resulted in an elevated hydrogen concentration in the lung (6.9 ± 2.9 μmol/1 g lung). After IRI, pulmonary function (pulmonary compliance and oxygenation levels) was significantly higher in the hydrogen-rich saline group than in the normal saline group ( P  < 0.05). Similarly, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (interleukin-1β and interleukin-6) in the left lung were significantly lower in the hydrogen-rich saline group than in the normal saline group ( P  < 0.05). Immersing lungs in hydrogen-rich saline delivered hydrogen into the lung and consequently attenuated lung IRI. Hydrogen-rich solution appears to be a promising approach to managing lung IRI. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  17. Vein Graft Preservation Solutions, Patency, and Outcomes After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Alexander, John H.; Schulte, Phillip J.; Brophy, Colleen M.; Mack, Michael J.; Peterson, Eric D.; Williams, Judson B.; Gibson, C. Michael; Califf, Robert M.; Kouchoukos, Nicholas T.; Harrington, Robert A.; Ferguson, T. Bruce; Lopes, Renato D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE In vitro and animal model data suggest that intraoperative preservation solutions may influence endothelial function and vein graft failure (VGF) after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Clinical studies to validate these findings are lacking. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of vein graft preservation solutions on VGF and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing CABG surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data from the Project of Ex-Vivo Vein Graft Engineering via Transfection IV (PREVENT IV) study, a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled 3014 patients at 107 US sites from August 1, 2002, through October 22, 2003, were used. Eligibility criteria for the trial included CABG surgery for coronary artery disease with at least 2 planned vein grafts. INTERVENTIONS Preservation of vein grafts in saline, blood, or buffered saline solutions. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES One-year angiographic VGF and 5-year rates of death, myocardial infarction, and subsequent revascularization. RESULTS Most patients had grafts preserved in saline (1339 [44.4%]), followed by blood (971 [32.2%]) and buffered saline (507 [16.8%]). Baseline characteristics were similar among groups. One-year VGF rates were much lower in the buffered saline group than in the saline group (patient-level odds ratio [OR], 0.59 [95% CI, 0.45-0.78; P < .001]; graft-level OR, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.49-0.79; P < .001]) or the blood group (patient-level OR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.46-0.83; P = .001]; graft-level OR, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.48-0.81; P < .001]). Use of buffered saline solution also tended to be associated with a lower 5-year risk for death, myocardial infarction, or subsequent revascularization compared with saline (hazard ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.64-1.02; P = .08]) and blood (0.81 [0.63-1.03; P = .09]) solutions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Patients undergoing CABG whose vein grafts were preserved in a buffered saline solution had lower VGF rates and trends

  18. Effect of povidone-iodine addition on the corrosion behavior of cp-Ti in normal saline.

    PubMed

    Bhola, Rahul; Bhola, Shaily M; Mishra, Brajendra; Olson, David L

    2010-05-01

    The effect of various concentrations of povidone-iodine (PI) on the corrosion behavior of a commercially pure titanium alloy (Ti-1) has been investigated in normal saline solution to simulate the povidone-iodine addition in an oral environment. The open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization measurements have been used to characterize the electrochemical phenomena occurring on the alloy surface. The open circuit potential values for Ti-1 in various concentrations of PI shift considerably towards noble direction as compared to pure normal saline. In the potentiodynamic polarization curve for Ti-1 in various solutions, the cathodic current density has increased for all concentrations of PI and the anodic current density has decreased. Only the 0.1% PI concentration is able to inhibit corrosion of Ti-1 in normal saline and the other higher concentrations studied, accelerate corrosion. The EIS data for Ti-1 in normal saline and in various concentrations of PI follows a one time constant circuit, suggesting the formation of a single passive film on Ti-1 which is not altered by the addition of PI to normal saline.

  19. Variation in salinity tolerance among larval anurans: implications for community composition and the spread of an invasive, non-native species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Mary E.; Walls, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians in freshwater coastal wetlands periodically experience acute exposure to salinity from hurricane-related overwash events, as well as chronic exposure associated with rising sea levels. In a comparative experimental approach, we examined whether seven species of anuran amphibians vary in their tolerance to changes in salinity. In a laboratory study, we exposed larval Hyla cinerea (Green Treefrog), H. squirella (Squirrel Treefrog), Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog), L. sphenocephalus (Southern Leopard Frog), Anaxyrus terrestris (Southern Toad), and Gastrophryne carolinensis (Eastern Narrow-mouthed Toad) from an inland population in north central Florida, USA, and Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog) tadpoles from an inland population in southwest Florida, to acute salinity for 72 h. For each species, we replicated trials in which tadpoles were exposed to salinities of 0.2 (control), 5, 10, 12, 14, and 16 ppt. For all species, tadpoles reared in the control and 5 ppt treatments had 96.7–100% survival. No individuals of G. carolinensis survived at salinities exceeding 5 ppt and no individuals of any species survived in the 14 or 16 ppt treatments. For all other native species, survival at 10 ppt ranged from 46.7 to 80%, but declined to 0% at 12 ppt (except for H. cinerea, of which only 3.3% survived at 12 ppt). In contrast, all individuals of the invasive, non-native O. septentrionalis survived exposure to a salinity of 10 ppt, and survival in this species remained relatively high at 12 ppt. Our results illustrate that the non-native O. septentrionalis has a higher salinity tolerance than the native species tested, which may contribute to its invasion potential. Moreover, species commonly associated with coastal freshwater wetlands differ in their salinity tolerances, suggesting that salt water intrusion due to storm surges and sea level rise may affect the species composition of these ecosystems.

  20. Mouth-watering words: Articulatory inductions of eating-like mouth movements increase perceived food palatability.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Boecker, Lea

    2016-04-01

    We explored the impact of consonantal articulation direction of names for foods on expected palatability for these foods (total N = 256). Dishes (Experiments 1-2) and food items (Experiment 3) were labeled with names whose consonants either wandered from the front to the back of the mouth (inward, e.g., PASOKI) or from the back to the front of the mouth (outward; e.g., KASOPI). Because inward (outward) wandering consonant sequences trigger eating-like (expectoration-like) mouth movements, dishes and foods were rated higher in palatability when they bore an inward compared to an outward wandering name. This effect occurred already under silent reading and for hungry and satiated participants alike. As a boundary condition, this articulation effect did occur when also additional visual information on the product was given (Experiment 3), but vanished when this visual information was too vivid and rich in competing palatability cues (Experiment 2). Future marketing can exploit this effect by increasing the appeal of food products by using inward wandering brand names, that is, names that start with the lips and end in the throat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mouthing activity data for children aged 7 to 35 months old in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Ming-Chien; Özkaynak, Halûk; Beamer, Paloma; Dang, Winston; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Young children’s mouthing activities thought to be among the most important exposure pathways. Unfortunately, mouthing activity studies have only been conducted in a few countries. In the current study, we used videotaping and computer-based translating method to obtain mouthing activity data for 66 children aged 7 to 35 months old in Taiwan. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies were 8.91 and 11.39 contacts h−1, respectively. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth hourly contact durations were 0.34 and 0.46 min h−1, respectively. The indoor object-to-mouth activities were significantly and negatively correlated with age. Children aged 12 to <24 months in the current study had lower indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies than children of same age group in the United States. We also found that indoor mouthing duration with pacifier was significantly and negatively correlated with indoor mouthing duration with other non-dietary objects. The results of the current study indicate that the mouthing behaviors might be different between different countries or populations with different ethnic or lifestyle characteristics. We conclude that using hand-to-mouth frequency values from the current literature may not be most reliable for estimating non-dietary exposures of young children living in Taiwan or even in other similar Asian countries. PMID:25027450

  2. Salinity controls on plant transpiration and soil water balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perri, S.; Molini, A.; Suweis, S. S.; Viola, F.; Entekhabi, D.

    2017-12-01

    Soil salinization and aridification represent a major threat for the food security and sustainable development of drylands. The two problems are deeply connected, and their interplay is expected to be further enhanced by climate change and projected population growth. Salt-affected land is currently estimated to cover around 1.1 Gha, and is particularly widespread in semi-arid to hyper-arid climates. Over 900 Mha of these saline/sodic soils are potentially available for crop or biomass production. Salt-tolerant plants have been recently proposed as valid solution to exploit or even remediate salinized soils. However the effects of salinity on evapotranspiration, soil water balance and the long-term salt mass balance in the soil, are still largely unexplored. In this contribution we analyze the feedback of evapotranspiration on soil salinization, with particular emphasis on the role of vegetation and plant salt-tolerance. The goal is to introduce a simple modeling framework able to shed some light on how (a) soil salinity controls plant transpiration, and (b) salinization itself is favored/impeded by different vegetation feedback. We introduce at this goal a spatially lumped stochastic model of soil moisture and salt mass dynamics averaged over the active soil depth, and accounting for the effect of salinity on evapotranspiration. Here, the limiting effect of salinity on ET is modeled through a simple plant response function depending on both salt concentration in the soil and plant salt-tolerance. The coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance is hence used to obtain the conditional steady-state probability density function (pdf) of soil moisture for given salt tolerance and salinization level, Our results show that salinity imposes a limit in the soil water balance and this limit depends on plant salt-tolerance mainly through the control of the leaching occurrence (tolerant plants exploit water more efficiently than the sensitive ones). We also analyzed the

  3. Oscillating Adriatic temperature and salinity regimes mapped using the Self-Organizing Maps method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matić, Frano; Kovač, Žarko; Vilibić, Ivica; Mihanović, Hrvoje; Morović, Mira; Grbec, Branka; Leder, Nenad; Džoić, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to document salinity and temperature regimes in the middle and south Adriatic Sea by applying the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method to the available long-term temperature and salinity series. The data were collected on a seasonal basis between 1963 and 2011 in two dense water collecting depressions, Jabuka Pit and Southern Adriatic Pit, and over the Palagruža Sill. Seasonality was removed prior to the analyses. Salinity regimes have been found to oscillate rapidly between low-salinity and high-salinity SOM solutions, ascribed to the advection of Western and Eastern Mediterranean waters, respectively. Transient salinity regimes normally lasted less than a season, while temperature transient regimes lasted longer. Salinity regimes prolonged their duration after the major basin-wide event, the Eastern Mediterranean Transient, in the early 1990s. A qualitative relationship between high-salinity regimes and dense water formation and dynamics has been documented. The SOM-based analyses have a large capacity for classifying the oscillating ocean regimes in a basin, which, in the case of the Adriatic Sea, beside climate forcing, is an important driver of biogeochemical changes that impacts trophic relations, appearance and abundance of alien organisms, and fisheries, etc.

  4. Novel mouth-exercising device for oral submucous fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pravinkumar G; Patil, Smita P

    2012-10-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in progressive juxtaepithelial fibrosis of the oral soft tissues and can cause increasing difficulty in mastication, swallowing, speaking, and mouth opening. The treatment of severe trismus requires a combination of surgical release and physiotherapy. Often physiotherapy alone can modify tissue remodeling in OSMF to increase oral opening. This article describes the fabrication and use of a new mouth-exercising device that helps the patient to squeeze/stretch the cheek mucosa to increase elasticity. The device can be used as a sole treatment modality or can be used in association with pharmacological and surgical treatment modalities for OSMF. Improvement in mouth opening was observed in four OSMF patients treated with a mouth-exercising device for 6 months as a sole treatment modality. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. Effect of sodium hypochlorite and saline on cyclic fatigue resistance of WaveOne Gold and Reciproc reciprocating instruments.

    PubMed

    Elnaghy, A M; Elsaka, S E

    2017-10-01

    To compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of WaveOne Gold (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA) and Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) reciprocating instruments during immersion in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and saline solutions at body temperature. A total of 180 new WaveOne Gold primary size 25, .07 taper, and Reciproc size 25, .08 taper were randomly divided into three groups: group 1: no immersion (control, air); group 2: immersion in saline at 37 ± 1 °C; and group 3: immersion in 5% NaOCl at 37 ± 1 °C. The instruments were reciprocated in the test solution until fracture, and the number of cycles to failure was recorded. The data were analysed statistically using t-tests and one-way analysis of variance (anova) with the significance level set at P < 0.05. A Weibull analysis was performed on number of cycles to failure data. WaveOne Gold instruments had significantly greater number of cycles to failure than Reciproc instruments in all groups (P < 0.001). Fatigue resistance for both instruments tested in air was significantly higher than that in saline and NaOCl solutions (P < 0.001). For both instruments, there was no significant difference in the fatigue resistance between saline and NaOCl solutions (P > 0.05). The Weibull analysis showed that the predicted cycles of WaveOne Gold in air was 1027 cycles for 99% survival. However, Reciproc instruments tested in NaOCl solution had the lowest predicted cycles (613 cycles) among the groups. Immersion of WaveOne Gold and Reciproc reciprocating instruments in saline and NaOCl solutions decreased considerably their cyclic fatigue resistance. The fatigue resistance of WaveOne Gold instruments was higher than that of Reciproc instruments. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Lavandula angustifolia to Salinity Under Mineral Foliar Application

    PubMed Central

    Chrysargyris, Antonios; Michailidi, Evgenia; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2018-01-01

    Saline water has been proposed as a solution to partially cover plant water demands due to scarcity of irrigation water in hot arid areas. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) plants were grown hydroponically under salinity (0–25–50–100 mM NaCl). The overcome of salinity stress was examined by K, Zn, and Si foliar application for the plant physiological and biochemical characteristics. The present study indicated that high (100 mM NaCl) salinity decreased plant growth, content of phenolics and antioxidant status and essential oil (EO) yield, while low-moderate salinity levels maintained the volatile oil profile in lavender. The integrated foliar application of K and Zn lighten the presumable detrimental effects of salinity in terms of fresh biomass, antioxidant capacity, and EO yield. Moderate salinity stress along with balanced concentration of K though foliar application changed the primary metabolites pathways in favor of major volatile oil constituents biosynthesis and therefore lavender plant has the potential for cultivation under prevalent semi-saline conditions. Zn and Si application, had lesser effects on the content of EO constituents, even though altered salinity induced changings. Our results have demonstrated that lavender growth/development and EO production may be affected by saline levels, whereas mechanisms for alteration of induced stress are of great significance considering the importance of the oil composition, as well. PMID:29731759

  7. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Lavandula angustifolia to Salinity Under Mineral Foliar Application.

    PubMed

    Chrysargyris, Antonios; Michailidi, Evgenia; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2018-01-01

    Saline water has been proposed as a solution to partially cover plant water demands due to scarcity of irrigation water in hot arid areas. Lavender ( Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) plants were grown hydroponically under salinity (0-25-50-100 mM NaCl). The overcome of salinity stress was examined by K, Zn, and Si foliar application for the plant physiological and biochemical characteristics. The present study indicated that high (100 mM NaCl) salinity decreased plant growth, content of phenolics and antioxidant status and essential oil (EO) yield, while low-moderate salinity levels maintained the volatile oil profile in lavender. The integrated foliar application of K and Zn lighten the presumable detrimental effects of salinity in terms of fresh biomass, antioxidant capacity, and EO yield. Moderate salinity stress along with balanced concentration of K though foliar application changed the primary metabolites pathways in favor of major volatile oil constituents biosynthesis and therefore lavender plant has the potential for cultivation under prevalent semi-saline conditions. Zn and Si application, had lesser effects on the content of EO constituents, even though altered salinity induced changings. Our results have demonstrated that lavender growth/development and EO production may be affected by saline levels, whereas mechanisms for alteration of induced stress are of great significance considering the importance of the oil composition, as well.

  8. Running Performance With Nutritive and Nonnutritive Sweetened Mouth Rinses.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Keely R; Krishnan, Sridevi; Ringos, Lara; Garcia, Vanessa; Cooper, Jamie A

    2017-09-01

    Using mouth rinse (MR) with carbohydrate during exercise has been shown to act as an ergogenic aid. To investigate if nutritive or nonnutritive sweetened MR affects exercise performance and to assess the influence of sweetness intensity on endurance performance during a time trial (TT). This randomized, single-blinded study had 4 treatment conditions. Sixteen subjects (9 men, 7 women) completed a 12.8-km TT 4 different times. During each TT, subjects mouth-rinsed and expectorated a different solution at time 0 and every 12.5% of the TT. The 4 MR solutions were sucrose (S) (sweet taste and provides energy of 4 kcal/g), a lower-intensity sucralose (S1:1) (artificial sweetener that provides no energy but tastes sweet), a higher-intensity sucralose (S100:1), and water as control (C). Completion times for each TT, heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were also recorded. Completion time for S was faster than for C (1:03:47 ± 00:02:17 vs 1:06:56 ± 00:02:18, respectively; P < .001) and showed a trend to be faster vs S100:1 (1:03:47 ± 00:02:17 vs 1:05:38 ± 00:02:12, respectively; P = .07). No other TT differences were found. Average HR showed a trend to be higher for S vs C (P = .08). The only difference in average or maximum RPE was for higher maximum RPE in C vs S1:1 (P = .02). A sweet-tasting MR did improve endurance performance compared with water in a significant manner (mean 4.5% improvement; 3+ min.); however, the presence of energy in the sweet MR appeared necessary since the artificial sweeteners did not improve performance more than water alone.

  9. Postprocedural pain in shoulder arthrography: differences between using preservative-free normal saline and normal saline with benzyl alcohol as an intraarticular contrast diluent.

    PubMed

    Storey, Troy F; Gilbride, George; Clifford, Kelly

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the effect of benzyl alcohol, a common preservative in normal saline, on postprocedural pain after intraarticular injection for direct shoulder MR arthrography. From April 2011 through January 2013, 138 patients underwent direct shoulder MR arthrography. Using the Wong-Baker Faces Pain Scale, patients were asked to report their shoulder pain level immediately before and immediately after the procedure and then were contacted by telephone 6, 24, and 48 hours after the procedure. Fourteen patients did not receive the prescribed amount of contrast agent for diagnostic reasons or did not complete follow-up. Sixty-two patients received an intraarticular solution including preservative-free normal saline (control group) and 62 patients received an intraarticular solution including normal saline with 0.9% benzyl alcohol as a contrast diluent (test group). Patients were randomized as to which intraarticular diluent they received. Fluoroscopic and MR images were reviewed for extracapsular contrast agent administration or extravasation, full-thickness rotator cuff tears, and adhesive capsulitis. The effect of preservative versus control on pain level was estimated with multiple regression, which included time after procedure as the covariate and accounted for repeated measures over patients. Pain scale scores were significantly (p = 0.0382) higher (0.79 units; 95% CI, 0.034-1.154) with benzyl alcohol preservative compared with control (saline). In both study arms, the pain scale scores decreased slightly after the procedure, increased by roughly 1 unit over baseline for the test group and 0.3 unit over baseline for the control group by 6 hours after the procedure, were 0.50 unit over baseline for the test group and 0.12 unit over baseline for the control group at 24 hours, then fell to be slightly greater than baseline at 48 hours with benzyl alcohol and slightly less than baseline without benzyl alcohol. These trends

  10. On the Conventionalization of Mouth Actions in Australian Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Trevor; van Roekel, Jane; Schembri, Adam

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the conventionalization of mouth actions in Australian Sign Language. Signed languages were once thought of as simply manual languages because the hands produce the signs which individually and in groups are the symbolic units most easily equated with the words, phrases and clauses of spoken languages. However, it has long been acknowledged that non-manual activity, such as movements of the body, head and the face play a very important role. In this context, mouth actions that occur while communicating in signed languages have posed a number of questions for linguists: are the silent mouthings of spoken language words simply borrowings from the respective majority community spoken language(s)? Are those mouth actions that are not silent mouthings of spoken words conventionalized linguistic units proper to each signed language, culturally linked semi-conventional gestural units shared by signers with members of the majority speaking community, or even gestures and expressions common to all humans? We use a corpus-based approach to gather evidence of the extent of the use of mouth actions in naturalistic Australian Sign Language-making comparisons with other signed languages where data is available--and the form/meaning pairings that these mouth actions instantiate.

  11. Nebulized isotonic saline improves voice production in Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Kristine; Nissen, Shawn L; Merrill, Ray M; Miner, Alison; Channell, Ron W; Miller, Karla L; Elstad, Mark; Kendall, Katherine A; Roy, Nelson

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the effects of a topical vocal fold hydration treatment on voice production over time. Prospective, longitudinal, within-subjects A (baseline), B (treatment), A (withdrawal/reversal), B (treatment) experimental design. Eight individuals with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disease causing laryngeal dryness, completed an 8-week A-B-A-B experiment. Participants performed twice-daily audio recordings of connected speech and sustained vowels and then rated vocal effort, mouth dryness, and throat dryness. Two-week treatment phases introduced twice-daily 9-mL doses of nebulized isotonic saline (0.9% Na(+)Cl(-)). Voice handicap and patient-based measures of SS disease severity were collected before and after each 2-week phase. Connected speech and sustained vowels were analyzed using the Cepstral Spectral Index of Dysphonia (CSID). Acoustic and patient-based ratings during each baseline and treatment phase were analyzed and compared. Baseline CSID and patient-based ratings were in the mild-to-moderate range. CSID measures of voice severity improved by approximately 20% with nebulized saline treatment and worsened during treatment withdrawal. Posttreatment CSID values fell within the normal-to-mild range. Similar patterns were observed in patient-based ratings of vocal effort and dryness. CSID values and patient-based ratings correlated significantly (P < .05). Nebulized isotonic saline improves voice production based on acoustic and patient-based ratings of voice severity. Future work should optimize topical vocal fold hydration treatment formulations, dose, and delivery methodologies for various patient populations. This study lays the groundwork for future topical vocal fold hydration treatment development to manage and possibly prevent dehydration-related voice disorders. 2b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Hospital acquired Janthinobacterium lividum septicemia in Srinagarind Hospital.

    PubMed

    Patijanasoontorn, B; Boonma, P; Wilailackana, C; Sitthikesorn, J; Lumbiganon, P; Chetchotisakd, P; Noppawinyoowong, C; Simajareuk, K

    1992-03-01

    Nine patients admitted to the intensive care unit, Srinagarind Hospital, who had septicaemia by J. lividum were reported. Seven patients died, one directly of septicaemia, despite intensive antimicrobial therapy. Investigation revealed that the sources of infection were: special mouth wash solution, distilled water and normal saline used in the ward. After changing to uncontaminated solution and more meticulous care of medical equipment, there was no evidence of the micro-organism after one year follow-up.

  13. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mod...

  14. A Literature Review of Word of Mouth and Electronic Word of Mouth: Implications for Consumer Behavior.

    PubMed

    Huete-Alcocer, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    The rise and spread of the Internet has led to the emergence of a new form of word of mouth (WOM): electronic word of mouth (eWOM), considered one of the most influential informal media among consumers, businesses, and the population at large. Drawing on these ideas, this paper reviews the relevant literature, analyzing the impact of traditional WOM and eWOM in the field of consumer behavior and highlighting the main differences between the two types of recommendations, with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the potential of both.

  15. A Literature Review of Word of Mouth and Electronic Word of Mouth: Implications for Consumer Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Huete-Alcocer, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    The rise and spread of the Internet has led to the emergence of a new form of word of mouth (WOM): electronic word of mouth (eWOM), considered one of the most influential informal media among consumers, businesses, and the population at large. Drawing on these ideas, this paper reviews the relevant literature, analyzing the impact of traditional WOM and eWOM in the field of consumer behavior and highlighting the main differences between the two types of recommendations, with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the potential of both. PMID:28790950

  16. Plant aquaporins: new perspectives on water and nutrient uptake in saline environment.

    PubMed

    del Martínez-Ballesta, M C; Silva, C; López-Berenguer, C; Cabañero, F J; Carvajal, M

    2006-09-01

    The mechanisms of salt stress and tolerance have been targets for genetic engineering, focusing on ion transport and compartmentation, synthesis of compatible solutes (osmolytes and osmoprotectants) and oxidative protection. In this review, we consider the integrated response to salinity with respect to water uptake, involving aquaporin functionality. Therefore, we have concentrated on how salinity can be alleviated, in part, if a perfect knowledge of water uptake and transport for each particular crop and set of conditions is available.

  17. Surfing for mouth guards: assessing quality of online information.

    PubMed

    Magunacelaya, Macarena B; Glendor, Ulf

    2011-10-01

    The Internet is an easily accessible and commonly used source of health-related information, but evaluations of the quality of this information within the dental trauma field are still lacking. The aims of this study are (i) to present the most current scientific knowledge regarding mouth guards used in sport activities, (ii) to suggest a scoring system to evaluate the quality of information pertaining to mouth guard protection related to World Wide Web sites and (iii) to employ this scoring system when seeking reliable mouth guard-related websites. First, an Internet search using the keywords 'athletic injuries/prevention and control' and 'mouth protector' or 'mouth guards' in English was performed on PubMed, Cochrane, SvedMed+ and Web of Science to identify scientific knowledge about mouth guards. Second, an Internet search using the keywords 'consumer health information Internet', 'Internet information public health' and 'web usage-seeking behaviour' was performed on PubMed and Web of Science to obtain scientific articles seeking to evaluate the quality of health information on the Web. Based on the articles found in the second search, two scoring systems were selected. Then, an Internet search using the keywords 'mouth protector', 'mouth guards' and 'gum shields' in English was performed on the search engines Google, MSN and Yahoo. The websites selected were evaluated for reliability and accuracy. Of the 223 websites retrieved, 39 were designated valid and evaluated. Nine sites scored 22 or higher. The mean total score of the 39 websites was 14.2. Fourteen websites scored higher than the mean total score, and 25 websites scored less. The highest total score, presented by a Public Institution Web site (Health Canada), was 31 from a maximum possible score of 34, and the lowest score was 0. This study shows that there is a high amount of information about mouth guards on the Internet but that the quality of this information varies. It should be the responsibility

  18. Salt exclusion and mycorrhizal symbiosis increase tolerance to NaCl and CaCl2 salinity in ‘Siam Queen’ basil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on growth and nutrient uptake in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Plants were fertilized with a complete nutrient solution and exposed to no, low, or moderate levels of salinity from NaCl or CaCl2. Plants in the control and moderate salinity tre...

  19. Stochastic modeling of soil salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suweis, S.; Porporato, A. M.; Daly, E.; van der Zee, S.; Maritan, A.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-12-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The equations for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equations to a single stochastic differential equation (generalized Langevin equation) driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. Generalized Langevin equations with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual Ito (I) or Stratonovich (S) prescription dilemma. Different interpretations lead to different results and then choosing between the I and S prescriptions is crucial to describe correctly the dynamics of the model systems. We show how this choice can be determined by physical information about the timescales involved in the process. We also show that when the multiplicative noise is at most linear in the random variable one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We then apply these results to the generalized Langevin equation that drives the salt mass dynamics. The stationary analytical solutions for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in longterm soil salinization trends, with significant consequences, e.g. for climate change impacts on rain fed agriculture.

  20. Microbial fuel cells in saline and hypersaline environments: Advancements, challenges and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Grattieri, Matteo; Minteer, Shelley D

    2018-04-01

    This review is aimed to report the possibility to utilize microbial fuel cells for the treatment of saline and hypersaline solutions. An introduction to the issues related with the biological treatment of saline and hypersaline wastewater is reported, discussing the limitation that characterizes classical aerobic and anaerobic digestions. The microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology, and the possibility to be applied in the presence of high salinity, is discussed before reviewing the most recent advancements in the development of MFCs operating in saline and hypersaline conditions, with their different and interesting applications. Specifically, the research performed in the last 5years will be the main focus of this review. Finally, the future perspectives for this technology, together with the most urgent research needs, are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of temperature, light and salinity on seed germination and radicle growth of the geographically widespread halophyte shrub Halocnemum strobilaceum.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiao-Xia; Huang, Zhen-Ying; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2008-01-01

    The small leafy succulent shrub Halocnemum strobilaceum occurs in saline habitats from northern Africa and Mediterranean Europe to western Asia, and it is a dominant species in salt deserts such as those of north-west China. The effects of temperature, light/darkness and NaCl salinity were tested on seed germination, and the effects of salinity were tested on seed germination recovery, radicle growth and radicle elongation recovery, using seeds from north-west China; the results were compared with those previously reported on this species from 'salt steppes' in the Mediterranean region of Spain. Seed germination was tested over a range of temperatures in light and in darkness and over a range of salinities at 25 degrees C in the light. Seeds that did not germinate in the NaCl solutions were tested for germination in deionized water. Seeds from which radicles had barely emerged in deionized water were transferred to NaCl solutions for 10 d and then back to deionized water for 10 d to test for radicle growth and recovery. Seeds germinated to higher percentages in light than in darkness and at high than at low temperatures. Germination percentages decreased with an increase in salinity from 0.1 to 0.75 M NaCl. Seeds that did not germinate in NaCl solutions did so after transfer to deionized water. Radicle elongation was increased by low salinity, and then it decreased with an increase in salinity, being completely inhibited by > or = 2.0 M NaCl. Elongation of radicles from salt solutions < 3.0 M resumed after seedlings were transferred to deionized water. The seed and early seedling growth stages of the life cycle of H. strobilaceum are very salt tolerant, and their physiological responses differ somewhat between the Mediterranean 'salt steppe' of Spain and the inland cold salt desert of north-west China.

  2. Bilobed perforator free flaps for combined hemitongue and floor-of-the-mouth defects.

    PubMed

    Longo, B; Ferri, G; Fiorillo, A; Rubino, C; Santanelli, F

    2013-11-01

    Combined hemiglossectomy and floor-of-the-mouth defects need accurate reconstructive planning to restore swallowing and speech function. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate outcomes of the bilobed design applied to perforator free flaps for combined hemitongue and floor-of-the-mouth defects. Twelve patients with a mean age of 71 years (range, 60-84) addressed to combined hemiglossectomy and floor-of-the-mouth resection and bilobed-shaped perforator free-flap reconstruction were prospectively enrolled. Defects were classified as follows: type 1, including only the anterior mobile portion of the tongue (n = 3); type 2, involving both mobile tongue and tongue base (n = 6); and type 3, including segmental mandibulectomy combined with a type 1 or type 2 defect (n = 3). The Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni post hoc tests were used to compare outcomes. Type 1 defects were reconstructed by three anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator flaps; type 2 defects were reconstructed by four ALT flaps and two vertical deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps; and type 3 defects were restored by three osteocutaneous fibula flaps. Eleven flaps (91.6%) healed uneventfully, while one (8.4%) suffered a small area of skin necrosis whose revision did not compromise functional results. Six patients achieved normal intelligible speech, five had acceptable intelligible speech and one had unintelligible speech (p = 0.356). Swallowing function was considered normal in eight patients and with mild impairment in four (p = 0.178). Cosmesis resulted excellent in seven patients and good in five (p = 0.855). The bilobed-shaped perforator free flaps were shown to be a safe and predictable solution for combined hemitongue and floor-of-the-mouth defects providing optimal aesthetic and functional outcomes. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Burning mouth syndrome mainly affects women, particularly after the menopause, when its prevalence may be 18-33%. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for burning mouth syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anaesthetics (local), antidepressants, benzodiazepines (topical clonazepam), benzydamine hydrochloride, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), dietary supplements, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women. PMID:19450321

  4. Persuasive Aid: Looking the Gift Horse in the Mouth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-14

    9% E-I c I The National War College National Defense University Persuasive AId. Looklng the Gift Horse In the Mouth A paper submitted In...14 SEP 1998 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 14-09-1998 to 14-09-1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Persuasive Aid. Looking the Gift Horse in the Mouth...Interest). The adage goes that one should “never look a gift horse In the mouth.” Yet that IS exactly what many aid recipients are doing - questioning

  5. Effect of lingual nerve block on burning mouth syndrome (stomatodynia): a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Grémeau-Richard, Christelle; Dubray, Claude; Aublet-Cuvelier, Bruno; Ughetto, Sylvie; Woda, Alain

    2010-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (stomatodynia) is associated with changes of a neuropathic nature the main location of which, peripheral or central, remains unknown. A randomised, double-blind crossover design was used to investigate the effects of lingual nerve block on spontaneous burning pain and a possible correlation with the effects of topical clonazepam, the patient's response to a psychological questionnaire, and the taste and heat thresholds. The spontaneous burning was measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS) just before and 15 min after injection. The decreases in VAS score after lidocaine or saline injection were not significantly different (2.7+/-3.9 and 2.0+/-2.6, respectively; n=20). However, two groups of patients could be identified: in a "peripheral group" (n=10) the VAS decrease due to lingual nerve injection was 4.3+/-3.1cm after lidocaine and 0.9+/-0.3 cm after saline (p=0.02). In a "central group" (n=7), there were an increase in pain intensity score (-0.8+/-2.6 cm) after lidocaine and a decrease (1.5+/-3.0 cm) after saline (p=0.15). An increase in the hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) score and a decreased taste sensitivity and heat pain threshold of painful oral area were seen in patients compared with age-and-sex-matched controls (p<0.05). Topical clonazepam treatment tended to be more effective (p=0.07) and HAD score lower (p<0.03) in the peripheral than in the central group. These results suggest that the neuropathic disorder associated with stomatodynia may be predominantly peripheral, central or mixed depending on the individual. Topical application of clonazepam and HAD may serve as indicators of which mechanism is dominating. Copyright 2009 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Classification of postural profiles among mouth-breathing children by learning vector quantization.

    PubMed

    Mancini, F; Sousa, F S; Hummel, A D; Falcão, A E J; Yi, L C; Ortolani, C F; Sigulem, D; Pisa, I T

    2011-01-01

    Mouth breathing is a chronic syndrome that may bring about postural changes. Finding characteristic patterns of changes occurring in the complex musculoskeletal system of mouth-breathing children has been a challenge. Learning vector quantization (LVQ) is an artificial neural network model that can be applied for this purpose. The aim of the present study was to apply LVQ to determine the characteristic postural profiles shown by mouth-breathing children, in order to further understand abnormal posture among mouth breathers. Postural training data on 52 children (30 mouth breathers and 22 nose breathers) and postural validation data on 32 children (22 mouth breathers and 10 nose breathers) were used. The performance of LVQ and other classification models was compared in relation to self-organizing maps, back-propagation applied to multilayer perceptrons, Bayesian networks, naive Bayes, J48 decision trees, k, and k-nearest-neighbor classifiers. Classifier accuracy was assessed by means of leave-one-out cross-validation, area under ROC curve (AUC), and inter-rater agreement (Kappa statistics). By using the LVQ model, five postural profiles for mouth-breathing children could be determined. LVQ showed satisfactory results for mouth-breathing and nose-breathing classification: sensitivity and specificity rates of 0.90 and 0.95, respectively, when using the training dataset, and 0.95 and 0.90, respectively, when using the validation dataset. The five postural profiles for mouth-breathing children suggested by LVQ were incorporated into application software for classifying the severity of mouth breathers' abnormal posture.

  7. Indicators: Salinity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Salinity is the dissolved salt content of a body of water. Excess salinity, due to evaporation, water withdrawal, wastewater discharge, and other sources, is a chemical sterssor that can be toxic for aquatic environments.

  8. Salinization of groundwater around underground LPG storage caverns, Korea : statistical interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Chang, H.

    2001-12-01

    In this research, we investigate the reciprocal influence between groundwater flow and its salinization occurred in two underground cavern sites, using major ion chemistry, PCA for chemical analysis data, and cross-correlation for various hydraulic data. The study areas are two underground LPG storage facilities constructed in South Sea coast, Yosu, and West Sea coastal regions, Pyeongtaek, Korea. Considerably high concentration of major cations and anions of groundwaters at both sites showed brackish or saline water types. In Yosu site, some great chemical difference of groundwater samples between rainy and dry season was caused by temporal intrusion of high-saline water into propane and butane cavern zone, but not in Pyeongtaek site. Cl/Br ratios and δ 18O- δ D distribution for tracing of salinization source water in both sites revealed that two kind of saline water (seawater and halite-dissolved solution) could influence the groundwater salinization in Yosu site, whereas only seawater intrusion could affect the groundwater chemistry of the observation wells in Pyeongtaek site. PCA performed by 8 and 10 chemical ions as statistical variables in both sites showed that intensive intrusion of seawater through butane cavern was occurred at Yosu site while seawater-groundwater mixing was observed at some observation wells located in the marginal part of Pyeongtaek site. Cross-correlation results revealed that the positive relationship between hydraulic head and cavern operating pressure was far more conspicuous at propane cavern zone in both sites (65 ~90% of correlation coefficients). According to the cross-correlation results of Yosu site, small change of head could provoke massive influx of halite-dissolved solution from surface through vertically developed fracture networks. However in Pyeongtaek site, the pressure-sensitive observation wells are not completely consistent with seawater-mixed wells, and the hydraulic change of heads at these wells related to the

  9. Etched FBG coated with polyimide for simultaneous detection the salinity and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dong; Ma, Jianxun; Ibrahim, Zainah; Ismail, Zubaidah

    2017-06-01

    In marine environment, concrete structures can corrode because of the PH alkalinity of concrete paste; and the salinity PH is heavily related with the concentration of salt in aqueous solutions. In this study, an optical fiber salinity sensor is proposed on the basis of an etched FBG (EFBG) coated with a layer of polyimide. Chemical etching is employed to reduce the diameter of FBG and to excite Cladding Mode Resonance Wavelengths (CMRWs). CMRW and Fundamental Mode Resonance Wavelength (FMRW) can be used to measure the Refractive index (RI) and temperature of salinity. The proposed sensor is then characterized with a matrix equation. Experimental results show that FMRW and 5th CMRW have the detection sensitivities of 15.407 and 125.92 nm/RIU for RI and 0.0312 and 0.0435 nm/°C for temperature, respectively. The proposed sensor can measure salinity and temperature simultaneously.

  10. Association between oral habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Grippaudo, C; Paolantonio, E G; Antonini, G; Saulle, R; La Torre, G; Deli, R

    2016-10-01

    The ratio of bad habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion is an important issue in view of prevention and early treatment of disorders of the craniofacial growth. While bad habits can interfere with the position of the teeth and normal pattern of skeletal growth, on the other hand obstruction of the upper airway, resulting in mouth breathing, changes the pattern of craniofacial growth causing malocclusion. Our crosssectional study, carried out on 3017 children using the ROMA index, was developed to verify if there was a significant correlation between bad habits/mouth breathing and malocclusion. The results showed that an increase in the degree of the index increases the prevalence of bad habits and mouth breathing, meaning that these factors are associated with more severe malocclusions. Moreover, we found a significant association of bad habits with increased overjet and openbite, while no association was found with crossbite. Additionally, we found that mouth breathing is closely related to increased overjet, reduced overjet, anterior or posterior crossbite, openbite and displacement of contact points. Therefore, it is necessary to intervene early on these aetiological factors of malocclusion to prevent its development or worsening and, if already developed, correct it by early orthodontic treatment to promote eugnatic skeletal growth. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  11. Split-mouth design in Paediatric Dentistry clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Pozos-Guillén, A; Chavarría-Bolaños, D; Garrocho-Rangel, A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the essential concepts of the split-mouth design, its underlying assumptions, advantages, limitations, statistical considerations, and possible applications in Paediatric Dentistry clinical investigation. In Paediatric Dentistry clinical investigation, and as part of randomised controlled trials, the split-mouth design is commonly used. The design is characterised by subdividing the child's dentition into halves (right and left), where two different treatment modalities are assigned to one side randomly, in order to allow further outcome evaluation. Each participant acts as their own control by making within- patient rather than between-patient comparisons, thus diminishing inter-subject variability and increasing study accuracy and power. However, the main problem with this design comprises the potential contamination of the treatment effect from one side to the other, or the "carry-across effect"; likewise, this design is not indicated when the oral disease to be treated is not symmetrically distributed (e.g. severity) in the mouth of children. Thus, in spite of its advantages, the split-mouth design can only be applied in a limited number of strictly selected cases. In order to obtain valid and reliable data from split mouth design studies, it is necessary to evaluate the risk of carry-across effect as well as to carefully analise and select adequate inclusion criteria, sample-size calculation and method of statistical analysis.

  12. Effects of salinity and the extent of water on supercritical CO2-induced phlogopite dissolution and secondary mineral formation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hongbo; Ray, Jessica R; Jun, Young-Shin

    2011-02-15

    To ensure the viability of geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS), we need a holistic understanding of reactions at supercritical CO2 (scCO2)-saline water-rock interfaces and the environmental factors affecting these interactions. This research investigated the effects of salinity and the extent of water on the dissolution and surface morphological changes of phlogopite [KMg2.87Si3.07Al1.23O10(F,OH)2], a model clay mineral in potential GCS sites. Salinity enhanced the dissolution of phlogopite and affected the location, shape, size, and phase of secondary minerals. In low salinity solutions, nanoscale particles of secondary minerals formed much faster, and there were more nanoparticles than in high salinity solutions. The effect of water extent was investigated by comparing scCO2-H2O(g)-phlogopite and scCO2-H2O(l)-phlogopite interactions. Experimental results suggested that the presence of a thin water film adsorbed on the phlogopite surface caused the formation of dissolution pits and a surface coating of secondary mineral phases that could change the physical properties of rocks. These results provide new information for understanding reactions at scCO2-saline water-rock interfaces in deep saline aquifers and will help design secure and environmentally sustainable CO2 sequestration projects.

  13. Chemotherapy and Your Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... moist. • Drink a lot of water. • Suck ice chips. • Use sugarless gum or sugar-free hard candy. • ... Stay Away From • Sharp, crunchy foods, like taco chips, that could scrape or cut your mouth. • Foods ...

  14. Saline infusion sonohysterography.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Saline infusion sonohysterography consists of ultrasonographic imaging of the uterus and uterocervical cavity, using real-time ultrasonography during injection of sterile saline into the uterus. When properly performed, saline infusion sonohysterography can provide information about the uterus and endometrium. The most common indication for sonohysterography is abnormal uterine bleeding. sonohysterography should not be performed in a woman who is pregnant or could be pregnant or in a woman with a pelvic infection or unexplained pelvic tenderness. Physicians who perform or supervise diagnostic saline infusion sonohysterograpy should have training, experience, and demonstrated competence in gynecologic ultrasonography and saline infusion sonohysterography. Portions of this document were developed jointly with the American College of Radiology and the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. Carbohydrate and Caffeine Mouth Rinses Do Not Affect Maximum Strength and Muscular Endurance Performance.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Neil D; Kornilios, Evangelos; Richardson, Darren L

    2015-10-01

    Oral carbohydrate (CHO) rinsing has beneficial effects on endurance performance and caffeine (CAF) mouth rinsing either independently or in conjunction with CHO may enhance sprinting performance. However, the effects of CHO and CAF mouth rinses on resistance exercise have not been examined previously. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CHO and CAF rinsing on maximum strength and muscular endurance performance. Fifteen recreationally resistance-trained males completed an exercise protocol, which involved a 1 repetition maximum (RM) bench press followed by 60% of their 1RM to failure in a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced crossover design. Before exercise, 25 ml of a 6% (15 g; 0.20 ± 0.02 g·kg(-1)) CHO, 1.2% (300 mg; 3.9 ± 0.3 mg·kg(-1)) CAF, carbohydrate with caffeine (C + C) solutions, or water (placebo; PLA) were rinsed for 10 seconds. During the remaining session, no solution was rinsed (control; CON). All solutions were flavored with (200 mg) sucralose. Felt arousal was recorded pre- and post-rinse, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded immediately after the repetitions to failure. There were no significant differences in 1RM (p = 0.808; ηp(2)= 0.02), the number of repetitions performed (p = 0.682; ηp(2)= 0.03), or the total exercise volume (p = 0.482; ηp(2)= 0.03) between conditions. Rating of perceived exertion was similar for all trials (p = 0.330; ηp(2)= 0.08), whereas Felt arousal increased as a consequence of rinsing (p = 0.001; ηp(2)= 0.58), but was not different between trials (p = 0.335; ηp(2)= 0.08). These results suggest that rinsing with a CHO and CAF solution either independently or combined has no significant effect on maximum strength or muscular endurance performance.

  16. The effect of a new formaldehyde-free binder on the dissolution rate of glass wool fibre in physiological saline solution.

    PubMed

    Potter, Russell M; Olang, Nassreen

    2013-04-12

    The in-vitro dissolution rate of fibres is a good predictor of the in-vivo behavior and potential health effects of inhaled fibres. This study examines the effect of a new formaldehyde-free carbohydrate-polycarboxylic acid binder on the in-vitro dissolution rate of biosoluble glass fibres. Dissolution rate measurements in pH 7.4 physiological saline solution show that the presence of the binder on wool insulation glass fibres has no effect on their dissolution. There is no measurable difference between the dissolution rates of continuous draw fibres before and after binder was applied by dipping. Nor is there a measurable difference between the dissolution rates of a production glass wool sample with binder and that same sample after removal of the binder by low-temperature ashing. Morphological examination shows that swelling of the binder in the solution is at least partially responsible for the development of open channels around the glass-binder interface early in the dissolution. These channels allow fluid to reach the entire glass surface under the binder coating. There is no evidence of any delay in the dissolution rate as a result of the binder coating.

  17. The effect of a new formaldehyde-free binder on the dissolution rate of glass wool fibre in physiological saline solution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The in-vitro dissolution rate of fibres is a good predictor of the in-vivo behavior and potential health effects of inhaled fibres. This study examines the effect of a new formaldehyde-free carbohydrate-polycarboxylic acid binder on the in-vitro dissolution rate of biosoluble glass fibres. Dissolution rate measurements in pH 7.4 physiological saline solution show that the presence of the binder on wool insulation glass fibres has no effect on their dissolution. There is no measurable difference between the dissolution rates of continuous draw fibres before and after binder was applied by dipping. Nor is there a measurable difference between the dissolution rates of a production glass wool sample with binder and that same sample after removal of the binder by low-temperature ashing. Morphological examination shows that swelling of the binder in the solution is at least partially responsible for the development of open channels around the glass-binder interface early in the dissolution. These channels allow fluid to reach the entire glass surface under the binder coating. There is no evidence of any delay in the dissolution rate as a result of the binder coating. PMID:23587247

  18. Comparison of Irrigation Solutions and Devices in a Contaminated Musculoskeletal Wound Survival Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    greatest reduction was seen with castile soap, which lowered the photon count to 13% of the pretreatment level. This was followed by benzalkonium chloride ...castile soap was significantly greater than that with the normal saline solution (p = 0.0069), while the reductions with benzalkonium chloride (p...the goats were assigned to four treatment groups: normal saline solution, bacitracin solution, castile soap, and benzalkonium chloride . All wounds

  19. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth in sign language*

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Current conceptions of human language include a gestural component in the communicative event. However, determining how the linguistic and gestural signals are distinguished, how each is structured, and how they interact still poses a challenge for the construction of a comprehensive model of language. This study attempts to advance our understanding of these issues with evidence from sign language. The study adopts McNeill’s criteria for distinguishing gestures from the linguistically organized signal, and provides a brief description of the linguistic organization of sign languages. Focusing on the subcategory of iconic gestures, the paper shows that signers create iconic gestures with the mouth, an articulator that acts symbiotically with the hands to complement the linguistic description of objects and events. A new distinction between the mimetic replica and the iconic symbol accounts for the nature and distribution of iconic mouth gestures and distinguishes them from mimetic uses of the mouth. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth is a salient feature of human language, regardless of whether the primary linguistic modality is oral or manual. Speakers gesture with their hands, and signers gesture with their mouths. PMID:20445832

  20. Impact of the water salinity on the hydraulic conductivity of fen peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosch, Lennart; Janssen, Manon; Lennartz, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Coastal peatlands represent an interface between marine and terrestrial ecosystems; their hydrology is affected by salt and fresh water inflow alike. Previous studies on bog peat have shown that pore water salinity can have an impact on the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of peat because of chemical pore dilation effects. In this ongoing study, we are aiming at quantifying the impact of higher salinities (up to 3.5 %) on Ks of fen peat to get a better understanding of the water and solute exchange between coastal peatlands and the adjacent sea. Two approaches differing in measurement duration employing a constant-head upward-flow permeameter were conducted. At first, Ks was measured at an initial salinity for several hours before the salinity was abruptly increased and the measurement continued. In the second approach, Ks was measured for 15 min at the salt content observed during sampling. Then, samples were completely (de)salinized via diffusion for several days/weeks before a comparison measurement was carried out. The results for degraded fen peats show a decrease of Ks during long-term measurements which does not depend on the water salinity. A slow, diffusion-controlled change in salinity does not modify the overall outcome that the duration of measurements has a stronger impact on Ks than the salinity. Further experiments will show if fen peat soils differing in their state of degradation exhibit a different behavior. A preliminary conclusion is that salinity might have a less important effect on hydraulic properties of fen peat than it was observed for bog peat.

  1. Burning mouth syndrome: a discussion of a complex pathology.

    PubMed

    Zur, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a complex pathology for which there is very little information about the etiology and pathogenesis. This lack of knowledge leaves patients with suboptimal treatments. This article discusses the existing scientific evidence about this disease. Since topical oral use of clonazepam have been shown to be effective and safe to treat some patients suffering with burning mouth syndrome, formulations including clonazepam are included with this article. Compounding topical preparations of clonazepam offers opportunities for compounding pharmacists to be more involved in improving the quality of life of burning mouth syndrome patients.

  2. Physical characteristics of commercial and home-made nasal lavage solutions.

    PubMed

    Lilic, N; Waldvogel-Thurlow, S; Douglas, R G

    2014-01-01

    Nasal saline lavage forms a cornerstone of chronic rhinosinusitis management. A number of saline lavage recipes and products are currently available but little is known of their relative physical characteristics. To determine the osmolarity and pH of nasal lavage solutions, both commercial preparations and home-made recipes, and to determine the reproducibility of saline solution preparation. Five home-made recipes and two commercial products were prepared in triplicate and analysed. Eight consecutive clinic patients prepared a commercial product and 11 prepared a home-made recipe, and the osmolarity and pH were measured. The osmolarity of the solutions varied widely, from 140 to 788 mmol/l and the pH varied from 7.88 to 8.50. The commercial and home-made solutions had similar reproducibility when prepared by patients. Some recipes were markedly hypo-osmolar and some were hyper-osmolar. All were slightly alkaline. The home-made recipes had similar physical characteristics and reproducibility to commercial preparations.

  3. A prospective randomized trial of two solutions for intrapartum amnioinfusion: effects on fetal electrolytes, osmolality, and acid-base status.

    PubMed

    Pressman, E K; Blakemore, K J

    1996-10-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effects of intrapartum amnioinfusion with normal saline solution versus lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose on neonatal electrolytes and acid-base balance. Patients undergoing amnioinfusion for obstetric indications were randomized to receive normal saline solution or lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose at standardized amnioinfusion rates. Data were collected prospectively on maternal demographics, course of labor, and maternal and neonatal outcome. Arterial cord blood was obtained for analysis of electrolytes, glucose, osmolality, lactic acid, and blood gases. Control subjects with normal fetal heart rate patterns, and clear amniotic fluid not receiving amnioinfusion were studied concurrently. Data were collected on 59 patients (21 normal saline solution, 18 lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose, and 20 controls). Maternal demographics, course of labor, and neonatal outcome were similar in all three groups. Cesarean sections were performed more often in the amnioinfusion groups (33.3% for normal saline solution, 38.9% for lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose) than in the control group (5.0%), p < 0.05. Cord arterial electrolytes, glucose, osmolality, lactic acid, and blood gases were not altered by amnioinfusion with either solution. Intrapartum amnioinfusion with normal saline solution or lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose has no effect on neonatal electrolytes or acid-base balance.

  4. A randomized clinical trial in subjects with dry mouth evaluating subjective perceptions of an experimental oral gel, an oral rinse and a mouth spray compared to water.

    PubMed

    Jose, Anto; Siddiqi, Muhammad; Cronin, Matthew; DiLauro, Thomas S; Bosma, Mary Lynn

    2016-02-01

    This multicenter, randomized, parallel group study analyzed the effectiveness of an experimental oral gel, a commercially available oral rinse and a commercially available mouth spray versus water alone at relieving self-reported symptoms of dry mouth over a 28-day home use treatment period. The effects of the study treatments on dry mouth-related quality of life (QoL) were also investigated. Eligible subjects were stratified by dry mouth severity (mild, moderate or severe) and randomized to receive one of the study treatments. Prior to first use they completed a questionnaire designed to assess their baseline dry mouth-related QoL. Following first use and on Day 8 (2 hours post-treatment only) and Day 29, subjects completed the modified Product Performance and Attributes Questionnaire (PPAQ) I at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 hours post-treatment. Subjects further assessed treatment performance using the PPAQ II questionnaire on Days 8 and 29 and the dry mouth-related QoL questionnaire on Day 29. In 396 randomized subjects almost all comparisons of responses to PPAQ I, including those for the primary endpoint (response to PPAQ I Question 1 'Relieving the discomfort of dry mouth' after 2 hours on Day 29), were statistically significant in favor of active treatment groups versus water (P < 0.05). All comparisons of responses to PPAQ II on Days 8 and 29 were statistically significant in favor of active treatments versus water (P < 0.05). Moreover, nearly all comparisons for dry mouth-related QoL scores on Day 29 were statistically significant in favor of the active treatments versus water. All the dry mouth management strategies in this trial were well tolerated.

  5. Sensing the effects of mouth breathing by using 3-tesla MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-A.; Kang, Chang-Ki

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effects of mouth breathing and typical nasal breathing on brain function by using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The study had two parts: the first test was a simple contrast between mouth and nasal breathing, and the second test involved combined breathing modes, e.g., mouth inspiration and nasal expiration. Eleven healthy participants performed the combined breathing task while undergoing 3T fMRI. In the group-level analysis, contrast images acquired by using an individual participantlevel analysis were processed using the one-sample t test. We also conducted a region-of-interest analysis comparing signal intensity changes between the breathing modes; the region was selected using an automated anatomical labeling map. The results demonstrated that the BOLD signal in the hippocampus and brainstem was significantly decreased in mouth breathing relative to nasal breathing. On the other hand, both the precentral and postcentral gyri showed activation that was more significant in mouth breathing compared to nasal breathing. This study suggests that the BOLD activity patterns between mouth and nasal breathing may be induced differently, especially in the hippocampus, which could provide clues to explain the effects on brain cognitive function due to mouth breathing.

  6. Meta-analysis: Risk of dry mouth with second generation antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Cappetta, Kiley; Beyer, Chad; Johnson, Jessica A; Bloch, Michael H

    2018-06-08

    The goal of this meta-analysis was to quantify the risk of dry mouth associated with commonly prescribed antidepressant agents and examine the potential implications of medication class, dose, and pharmacodynamics and dose on risk of treatment-induced dry mouth. A PubMed search was conducted to identify double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy and tolerability of second generation antidepressant medications for adults with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and OCD. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to quantify the pooled risk ratio of treatment-emergent dry mouth with second generation antidepressants compared to placebo. Stratified subgroup analysis and meta-regression was utilized to further examine the effects antidepressant agent, class, dosage, indication, and receptor affinity profile on the measured risk of dry mouth. 99 trials involving 20,868 adults. SNRIs (Relative Risk (RR)=2.24, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.95-2.58, z=11.2, p<0.001) were associated with a significantly greater risk of dry mouth (test for subgroup differences χ 2 =7.6, df=1; p=0.006) compared to placebo than SSRIs (RR=1.65, 95% CI: 1.39-1.95, z=5.8, p<0.001). There was a significant difference found in the risk of dry mouth between diagnostic indications within the SNRI class (test for subgroup differences χ 2 =9.63, df=1; p=0.002). Anxiety diagnoses (RR=2.78, 95% CI: 2.29-3.38, z=10.32, p<0.001) were associated with a greater risk of dry mouth compared to depression (RR=1.80, 95% CI: 1.48-2.18, z=5.85, p<0.001). Decreased affinity for Alpha-1 (PE=0.18, 95% CI: 0.07-0.28, z=3.26, p=0.001) and Alpha-2 (PE=0.49, 95% CI: 0.22-0.75, z=3.64, p<0.001) receptors and SERT (PE=0.07, 95% CI: 0.01-0.14, z=2.10, p<0.05) was significantly associated with increased risk of dry mouth. The current meta-analysis suggests that SSRIs, SNRIs, and atypical antidepressants are all associated with varying degrees of increased risk of dry mouth. SNRIs were

  7. Antiseptic mouth rinses: an update on comparative effectiveness, risks and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Osso, Diane; Kanani, Nehal

    2013-02-01

    Antiseptic mouth rinses are widely recommended and marketed to improve oral health. This article summarizes current studies on the comparative effectiveness of selected antiseptic mouth rinses in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as well as risks associated with daily exposure, including salivary flow rate, oral cancer and wear of composite restorations. Electronic database searches were conducted using Google Scholar and PubMed to identify articles comparing the effectiveness of 4 commercially marketed antiseptic mouth rinses differing in active ingredients (0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, essential oils (menthol, thymol and eucalyptol) and methyl salicylate, 0.7% cetylpyridinium chloride and 20% aloe vera gel) for controlling plaque and gingivitis. Criteria for inclusion included controlled clinical trials and systematic reviews appearing in English language publications evaluating the comparative effectiveness of the mouth rinses in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as well as risks associated with daily usage. The majority of studies have shown mouth rinses containing chlorhexidine gluconate or essential oils and methyl salicylate provide clinically significant anti-gingivitis and anti-plaque benefits. Cetylpyridinium chloride has been found to provide only limited clinical benefits compared to inactive control mouth rinse. Inadequate evidence is available to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of aloe vera gel. Chlorhexidine, essential oils and cetylpyridinium have been found to be safe. However, limited data are available on the effects of the mouth rinse on wear patterns of dental restorations. Studies reviewed reported no significant difference in salivary flow rate related to alcohol based mouth rinse. Research supports the effectiveness of antiseptic mouth rinses in reducing plaque and gingivitis as an adjunct to home care. Insufficient evidence is available to support the claim that oral antiseptics can reduce the risk of developing periodontitis or the

  8. Salinity build-up in osmotic membrane bioreactors: Causes, impacts, and potential cures.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoye; Xie, Ming; Li, Yun; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Wenhai

    2018-06-01

    Osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR), which integrates forward osmosis (FO) with biological treatment, has been developed to advance wastewater treatment and reuse. OMBR is superior to conventional MBR, particularly in terms of higher effluent quality, lower membrane fouling propensity, and higher membrane fouling reversibility. Nevertheless, advancement and future deployment of OMBR are hindered by salinity build-up in the bioreactor (e.g., up to 50 mS/cm indicated by the mixed liquor conductivity), due to high salt rejection of the FO membrane and reverse diffusion of the draw solution. This review comprehensively elucidates the relative significance of these two mechanisms towards salinity build-up and its associated effects in OMBR operation. Recently proposed strategies to mitigate salinity build-up in OMBR are evaluated and compared to highlight their potential in practical applications. In addition, the complementarity of system optimization and modification to effectively manage salinity build-up are recommended for sustainable OMBR development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of salinity and temperature shock on Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed spores release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwinda, F. K.; Satyantini, W. H.; Masithah, E. W.

    2018-04-01

    One of the reproductive aspects of development step that is considered as the solution of this issue is seaweed sporulation technique through which is induced through salinity and temperature shock. This study aims to determine the effect of combination and interaction of salinity and temperature shock on the release of K. alvarezii spores in order to produce superior seeds. This research was conducted using Complete Randomized Design Factorial which consists of nine combinations of treatments and three replications. The used treatment in this study is the combination of different environmental factors such as salinity shock and temperature shock. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results showed that salinity (31 ppt, 33 ppt, and 35 ppt) and temperature (30°C, 32°C, and 34°C). shock affected the osmoregulation system and the release of K. alvarezii spores. The salinity shock and temperature shock had interaction with K. alvarezii spore release on the sixth and seventh day with the best treatment at 32°C temperature and 31 ppt salinity and released 5413 cells/ml spores on the seventh day.

  10. Survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cheese.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, J H

    1976-09-01

    Persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the manufacture of Cheddar, Mozzarella, Camembert cheese prepared from milk of cows experimentally infected with the virus was studied. Cheese samples were made on a laboratory scale with commercial lactic acid starter cultures and the microbial protease MARZYME as a coagulant. Milk was heated at different temperatures for different intervals before it was made into cheese. Food-and-mouth disease virus survived the acidic conditions of Cheddar and Camembert cheese processing but not that of Mozzarella. Foot-and-mouth disease virus survived processing but not curing for 30 days in Cheddar cheese preparaed from heated milk. However, the virus survived curing for 60 days but not for 120 days in cheese (pH 5) prepared from unheated milk. Foot-and-mouth disease virus survived in Camembert cheese (pH 5) for 21 days at 2 C but not for 35 days.

  11. Mouthing of Soil Contaminated Objects is Associated with Environmental Enteropathy in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomohiko; Perin, Jamie; Oldja, Lauren; Biswas, Shwapon; Sack, R Bradley; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Haque, Rashidul; Bhuiyan, Nurul Amin; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Akter, Mahmuda; Talukder, Kaisar A; Shahnaij, Mohammad; Faruque, Abu G; George, Christine Marie

    2017-06-01

    To characterise childhood mouthing behaviours and to investigate the association between object-to-mouth and food-to-mouth contacts, diarrhoea prevalence and environmental enteropathy. A prospective cohort study was conducted of 216 children ≤30 months of age in rural Bangladesh. Mouthing contacts with soil and food and objects with visible soil were assessed by 5-h structured observation. Stool was analysed for four faecal markers of intestinal inflammation: alpha-1-antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase, neopterin and calprotectin. Overall 82% of children were observed mouthing soil, objects with visible soil, or food with visible soil during the structured observation period. Sixty two percent of children were observed mouthing objects with visible soil, 63% were observed mouthing food with visible soil, and 18% were observed mouthing soil only. Children observed mouthing objects with visible soil had significantly elevated faecal calprotectin concentrations (206.81 μg/g, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.27, 407.36). There was also a marginally significant association between Escherichia coli counts in soil from a child's play space and the prevalence rate of diarrhoea (diarrhoea prevalence ratio: 2.03, 95% CI 0.97, 4.25). These findings provide further evidence to support the hypothesis that childhood mouthing behaviour in environments with faecal contamination can lead to environmental enteropathy in susceptible paediatric populations. Furthermore, these findings suggest that young children mouthing objects with soil, which occurred more frequently than soil directly (60% vs. 18%), was an important exposure route to faecal pathogens and a risk factor for environmental enteropathy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Burning mouth syndrome: Evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings.

    PubMed

    Halac, Gulistan; Tekturk, Pinar; Eroglu, Saliha; Cikrikcioglu, Mehmet Ali; Cimendur, Ozlem; Kilic, Elif; Asil, Talip

    2016-07-30

    Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic and persistent painful condition characterized by burning sensation in the oral mucosa. We investigated the etiological factors of patients presented with the history of burning in the mouth who admitted our outpatient clinics over the 8-years period and who had no underlying identifiable local factors. We also tried to determine their demographic and clinical characteristics. Our aim was to investigate the association between burning mouth and psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety, chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus (DM) and other laboratory studies in patients complaining of solely burning in the mouth. The study included patients with the history of burning in mouth who presented in our outpatient clinic between 2005 and 2012. They were evaluated by a neurologist, a psychiatrist, an internist, and a dentist. Complete blood counts, biochemical analysis and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed for all patients. A total of 26 (22 (84%) females, 4 (15%) males; mean age 55.9 years) patients were enrolled in this study. Five (19.2%) of the patients had depression, 2 (7.7%) had anxiety disorder, 2 (7.7%) had diabetes mellitus, 8 (30%) had B12 vitamin deficiency, 3 (11.5%) had decreased ferritin levels in blood, and 1 (3.8%) had folic acid deficiency. Cranial MRI of all patients were normal. Nine patients (34.6%) had no etiological causes. A multidisciplinary approach in the management of burning mouth and establishment of common criteria for the diagnosis would provide insight into the underlying pathophysiological mechanism.

  13. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and metabolic disorders, as well as drug reactions. BMS has clear predisposition to peri-/post menopausal females. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and involves peripheral and central neuropathic pathways. Clinical diagnosis relies on careful history taking, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Treatment is often tedious and is aimed at correction of underlying medical conditions, supportive therapy, and behavioral feedback. Drug therapy with alpha lipoic acid, clonazepam, capsaicin, and antidepressants may provide symptom relief. Psychotherapy may be helpful. Short term follow up data is promising, however, long term prognosis with treatment is lacking. BMS remains an important medical condition which often places a recognizable burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate recognition and treatment. PMID:23429751

  14. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2013-02-07

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and metabolic disorders, as well as drug reactions. BMS has clear predisposition to peri-/post menopausal females. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and involves peripheral and central neuropathic pathways. Clinical diagnosis relies on careful history taking, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Treatment is often tedious and is aimed at correction of underlying medical conditions, supportive therapy, and behavioral feedback. Drug therapy with alpha lipoic acid, clonazepam, capsaicin, and antidepressants may provide symptom relief. Psychotherapy may be helpful. Short term follow up data is promising, however, long term prognosis with treatment is lacking. BMS remains an important medical condition which often places a recognizable burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate recognition and treatment.

  15. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Burning mouth syndrome mainly affects women, particularly after the menopause, when its prevalence may be 18% to 33%. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of selected treatments for burning mouth syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2015 (BMJ Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). Results At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 70 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 45 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 25 studies and the further review of 20 full publications. Of the 20 full articles evaluated, one systematic review and nine RCTs were added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for five PICO combinations. Conclusions In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for six interventions based on information about the effectiveness and safety of alphalipoic acid, benzodiazepines, benzydamine hydrochloride, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and tricyclic antidepressants. PMID:26745781

  16. Surface-water salinity in the Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, water years 1989 through 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2012-01-01

    salinity load was 110,000 tons during WY 1989-2004. Analysis of both study periods (WY 1989-2004 and WY 1989-2007) showed an initial decrease in salinity load with a minimum in 1997. The net change over either study period was only significant during WY 1989-2007. Salinity load significantly decreased at the Gunnison River near Delta by 179,000 tons during WY 1989-2004. Just downstream, the Uncompahgre River enters the Gunnison River where there also was a highly significant decrease in salinity load of 55,500 tons. The site that is located at the mouth of the study area is the Gunnison River near Grand Junction where the decrease was the largest. Salinity loads decreased by 247,000 tons during WY 1989-2004 at this site though the decrease attenuated by 2007 and the net change was a decrease of 207,000 tons. The trend results presented in this study indicate that the effect of urbanization on salinity loads is difficult to discern from the effects of irrigated agriculture and that natural sources contribute a fraction of the total salinity load for the entire basin. Based on the calculated yields and geology, 23-63 percent of the estimated annual salinity load was from natural sources at the Gunnison River near Grand Junction during WY 1989-2007. The largest changes in salinity load occurred at the Gunnison River near Grand Junction as well as the two sites located in Delta: the Gunnison River at Delta and the Uncompahgre River at Delta. Those three sites, especially the two sites at Delta, were the most affected by irrigated agriculture, which was observed in the estimated mean annual loads. Irrigated acreage, especially acreage underlain by Mancos Shale, is the target of salinity-control projects intended to decrease salinity loads. The NRCS and the USBR have done the majority of salinity control work in the Lower Gunnison area of the Gunnison River Basin, and the focus has been in the Uncompahgre River Basin and in portions of the Lower Gunnison River Basin (downstream

  17. Effect of salinity and temperature on treatment of concentrated wastewater from RO by FO-MD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yingru; Huang, Manhong; Deng, Qian

    2018-02-01

    In this study the appropriate temperature of the membrane distillation (MD) hot side (the permeation flux of MD was controlled by adjusting the hot side temperature) was selected according to the water flux of FO process so that the water transfer rate on both sides of FO and MD was consistent and the FO-MD process could be stable operation. When the salt concentration of feed solution was 30, 55, 80 and 100 g/L, the desalination rates changed little, which were 99.1%, 98.4%, 98.9% and 98.7%, respectively. The removal rate of COD was 93.8%, 94.2%, 91.6% and 92.7% which also changed little like the desalination rates. The removal rate of chromaticity increased with the increase of salinity, which attained 96.6%, 97.0%, 97.2% and 97.9%, respectively. This study proved that salinity of the feed solution affected little on the removal rate of contaminants but great on the water flux, with the increase of salinity from 30 to 100 g/L, the water flux was 6.05, 4.81, 4.33 and 3.87 LMH with the appropriate temperature (67.5±0.5, 64.5±0.5, 62.5±0.5 and 60.5±0.5 °C) of MD hot side. In a word, FO-MD was first used to treat the high salinity RO water with over 30 g/L total dissolved solids (TDS), FO-MD was a promising new process for high salinity wastewater treatment, and the hybrid system can solve the problem of lower draw solution concentration, and the high-quality production water will be obtained directly by this hybrid system with low membrane fouling tendency.

  18. Modified surgical treatment of intermittent open-mouth mandibular locking in a cat.

    PubMed

    Lobprise, H B; Wiggs, R B

    1992-03-01

    Intermittent open-mouth locking related to disorders of the temporomandibular joint are not uncommon. As a result of joint laxity, the mandible shifts to one side. The coronoid process then becomes locked lateral to the zygomatic arch. These patients present with the mouth opened and an inability to close the mouth. This article describes a case of intermittent open-mouth mandibular locking in a cat and a modified surgical treatment combining zygomatic arch and coronoid process reduction.

  19. Silver behaviour along the salinity gradient of the Gironde Estuary.

    PubMed

    Lanceleur, Laurent; Schäfer, Jörg; Blanc, Gérard; Coynel, Alexandra; Bossy, Cécile; Baudrimont, Magalie; Glé, Corine; Larrose, Aurélie; Renault, Sophie; Strady, Emilie

    2013-03-01

    Dissolved and particulate Ag concentrations (Ag(D) and Ag(P), respectively) were measured in surface water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) along the salinity gradient of the Gironde Estuary, South West France, during three cruises (2008-2009) covering contrasting hydrological conditions, i.e. two cruises during intermediate and one during high freshwater discharge (~740 and ~2,300 m(3)/s). Silver distribution reflected non-conservative behaviour with 60-70 % of Ag(P) in freshwater particles being desorbed by chlorocomplexation. The amount of Ag(P) desorbed was similar to the so-called reactive, potentially bioavailable Ag(P) fraction (60 ± 4 %) extracted from river SPM by 1 M HCl. Both Ag(P) (0.22 ± 0.05 mg/kg) and Ag(P)/Th(P) (0.025-0.028) in the residual fraction of fluvial and estuarine SPM were similar to those in SPM from the estuary mouth and in coastal sediments from the shelf off the Gironde Estuary, indicating that chlorocomplexation desorbs the reactive Ag(P). The data show that desorption of reactive Ag(P) mainly occurs inside the estuary during low and intermediate discharge, whereas expulsion of partially Ag(P)-depleted SPM (Ag(P)/Th(P) ~0.040) during the flood implies ongoing desorption in the coastal ocean, e.g. in the nearby oyster production areas (Marennes-Oléron Bay). The highest Ag(D) levels (6-8 ng/L) occurred in the mid-salinity range (15-20) of the Gironde Estuary and were decoupled from freshwater discharge. In the maximum turbidity zone, Ag(D) were at minimum, showing that high SPM concentrations (a) induce Ag(D) adsorption in estuarine freshwater and (b) counterbalance Ag(P) desorption in the low salinity range (1-3). Accordingly, Ag behaviour in turbid estuaries appears to be controlled by the balance between salinity and SPM levels. The first estimates of daily Ag(D) net fluxes for the Gironde Estuary (Boyle's method) showed relatively stable theoretical Ag(D) at zero salinity (Ag (D) (0) = 25-30 ng/L) for the contrasting

  20. Common buffers, media, and stock solutions.

    PubMed

    2001-05-01

    This appendix describes the preparation of selected bacterial media and of buffers and reagents used in the manipulation of nucleic acids and proteins. Recipes for cell culture media and reagents are located elsewhere in the manual. RECIPES: Acids, concentrated stock solutions; Ammonium acetate, 10 M; Ammonium hydroxide, concentrated stock solution; ATP, 100 mM; BCIP, 5% (w/v); BSA (bovine serum albumin), 10% (100 mg/ml); Denhardt solution, 100x; dNTPs: dATP, dTTP, dCTP, and dGTP; DTT, 1 M; EDTA, 0.5 M (pH 8.0); Ethidium bromide solution; Formamide loading buffer, 2x; Gel loading buffer, 6x; HBSS (Hanks balanced salt solution); HCl, 1 M; HEPES-buffered saline, 2x; KCl, 1 M; LB medium; LB plates; Loading buffer; 2-ME, (2-mercaptoethanol)50 mM; MgCl(2), 1 M; MgSO(4), 1 M; NaCl, 5 M; NaOH, 10 M; NBT (nitroblue tetrazolium chloride), 5% (w/v); PCR amplification buffer, 10x; Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pH approximately 7.3; Potassium acetate buffer, 0.1 M; Potassium phosphate buffer, 0.1 M; RNase a stock solution (DNase-free), 2 mg/ml; SDS, 20%; SOC medium; Sodium acetate, 3 M; Sodium acetate buffer, 0.1 M; Sodium phosphate buffer, 0.1 M; SSC (sodium chloride/sodium citrate), 20x; SSPE (sodium chloride/sodium phosphate/EDTA), 20x; T4 DNA ligase buffer, 10x; TAE buffer, 50x; TBE buffer, 10x; TBS (Tris-buffered saline); TCA (trichloroacetic acid), 100% (w/v); TE buffer; Terrific broth (TB); TrisCl, 1 M; TY medium, 2x; Urea loading buffer, 2x.

  1. Salinity alters curcumin, essential oil and chlorophyll of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    PubMed

    Mostajeran, A; Gholaminejad, A; Asghari, G

    2014-01-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is a perennial rhizomatous plant from the family of Zingibraceae, native in South Asia. The main components of turmeric are curcuminoids and essential oil which are responsible for turmeric characteristic such as odor and taste. Due to the large areas of saline land in Iran and less information related to cultivation of turmeric, in this research, the effect of salinity on growth, curcumin and essential oil of turmeric was evaluated. Rhizomes were planted in coco peat and perlite for germination. Then uniform germinated rhizomes transferred to hydroponic condition containing Hoagland's solution. Two months old plants were exposed to salinity (0, 20, 60 and 100 mM NaCl) for two months via hydroponic media using Hoagland's solution. Then dry weight of different plant parts, chlorophyll, curcumin and essential oil components of turmeric were determined. The result indicated that, dry weight reductions in 100 mM NaCl were 191%, 141%, 56%, 30% in leaf, pseudo-stem, root and rhizome, respectively (This is almost equal to 6.9, 2.87, 0.34 and 0.23 mg plant(-1) mM(-1)NaCl reduction of dry weight, respectively). The reductions in chlorophyll a and b are almost 3.32 and 0.79 μg/gFW respectively due to one unit addition of NaCl (P < 0.05). The addition of curcumin of rhizome for four months old plant versus three months were almost 5 fold for 0 mM NaCl and 2 fold for 100 mM NaCl due to one month of delay in harvest. Low salinity has positive effect in curcumin production but higher salinity (higher than 60 mM) had adverse effect and causes 24% reduction of curcumin compared to control plants. There were more para-cymene and terpineol in volatile oils of turmeric rhizome than the other components, most of the volatile oil compounds were unchanged or varied slightly as salinity changed.

  2. Salinity alters curcumin, essential oil and chlorophyll of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mostajeran, A.; Gholaminejad, A.; Asghari, G.

    2014-01-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is a perennial rhizomatous plant from the family of Zingibraceae, native in South Asia. The main components of turmeric are curcuminoids and essential oil which are responsible for turmeric characteristic such as odor and taste. Due to the large areas of saline land in Iran and less information related to cultivation of turmeric, in this research, the effect of salinity on growth, curcumin and essential oil of turmeric was evaluated. Rhizomes were planted in coco peat and perlite for germination. Then uniform germinated rhizomes transferred to hydroponic condition containing Hoagland's solution. Two months old plants were exposed to salinity (0, 20, 60 and 100 mM NaCl) for two months via hydroponic media using Hoagland's solution. Then dry weight of different plant parts, chlorophyll, curcumin and essential oil components of turmeric were determined. The result indicated that, dry weight reductions in 100 mM NaCl were 191%, 141%, 56%, 30% in leaf, pseudo-stem, root and rhizome, respectively (This is almost equal to 6.9, 2.87, 0.34 and 0.23 mg plant-1 mM-1NaCl reduction of dry weight, respectively). The reductions in chlorophyll a and b are almost 3.32 and 0.79 μg/gFW respectively due to one unit addition of NaCl (P < 0.05). The addition of curcumin of rhizome for four months old plant versus three months were almost 5 fold for 0 mM NaCl and 2 fold for 100 mM NaCl due to one month of delay in harvest. Low salinity has positive effect in curcumin production but higher salinity (higher than 60 mM) had adverse effect and causes 24% reduction of curcumin compared to control plants. There were more para-cymene and terpineol in volatile oils of turmeric rhizome than the other components, most of the volatile oil compounds were unchanged or varied slightly as salinity changed. PMID:25598799

  3. Detecting internet search activity for mouth cancer in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Murray, G; O'Rourke, C; Hogan, J; Fenton, J E

    2016-02-01

    Mouth Cancer Awareness Day in Ireland was launched in September 2010 by survivors of the disease to promote public awareness of suspicious signs of oral cancer and to provide free dental examinations. To find out whether its introduction had increased public interest in the disease, we used Google Trends to find out how often users in Ireland had searched for "oral cancer" and "mouth cancer" across all Google domains between January 2005 and December 2013. The number of internet searches for these cancers has increased significantly (p <0.001) and has peaked each September since the awareness day was launched in 2010. More people searched for "mouth cancer" than for "oral cancer". These findings may have valuable clinical implications, as an increase in public awareness of mouth cancer could result in earlier presentation and better prognosis. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cystic mass of the floor of the mouth

    PubMed Central

    Lucena-Rivero, Elizabeth-Daniela; Brunet-Garcia, Laia; Faubel-Serra, Marta

    2018-01-01

    Background Epidermoid and dermoid cysts in the oral cavity are relatively uncommon lesions of developmental origin. They often remain asymptomatic for years until they grow enough to interfere with speech, deglutition and less often with breathing which can pose a critical risk to the airway and require immediate surgery. Case description A case of an epidermoid cyst of the floor of the mouth affecting a 37-year-old man is presented; this lesion was surgically enucleated with an intraoral approach. Patient did well postoperatively and there was no evidence of recurrence up to 2 years of follow up. Clinical implications Floor of the mouth is a challenging site for the diagnosis of a broad variety of lesions which the surgeon should be aware. Depending on the anatomical relation to the muscles of the floor of the mouth dermoid cysts are classified as supramylohyoid or inframylohyoid, and they will both have different clinical and radiological features. This article also includes literature review about the etiopathological, clinical, radiological and histological features, the differential diagnosis and its treatment. Key words:Epidermoid cyst, dermoid cyst, floor of mouth. PMID:29721231

  5. Effect of Temperature, Light and Salinity on Seed Germination and Radicle Growth of the Geographically Widespread Halophyte Shrub Halocnemum strobilaceum

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xiao-Xia; Huang, Zhen-Ying; Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The small leafy succulent shrub Halocnemum strobilaceum occurs in saline habitats from northern Africa and Mediterranean Europe to western Asia, and it is a dominant species in salt deserts such as those of north-west China. The effects of temperature, light/darkness and NaCl salinity were tested on seed germination, and the effects of salinity were tested on seed germination recovery, radicle growth and radicle elongation recovery, using seeds from north-west China; the results were compared with those previously reported on this species from ‘salt steppes’ in the Mediterranean region of Spain. Methods Seed germination was tested over a range of temperatures in light and in darkness and over a range of salinities at 25 °C in the light. Seeds that did not germinate in the NaCl solutions were tested for germination in deionized water. Seeds from which radicles had barely emerged in deionized water were transferred to NaCl solutions for 10 d and then back to deionized water for 10 d to test for radicle growth and recovery. Key Results Seeds germinated to higher percentages in light than in darkness and at high than at low temperatures. Germination percentages decreased with an increase in salinity from 0·1 to 0·75 m NaCl. Seeds that did not germinate in NaCl solutions did so after transfer to deionized water. Radicle elongation was increased by low salinity, and then it decreased with an increase in salinity, being completely inhibited by ≥2·0 m NaCl. Elongation of radicles from salt solutions <3·0 m resumed after seedlings were transferred to deionized water. Conclusions The seed and early seedling growth stages of the life cycle of H. strobilaceum are very salt tolerant, and their physiological responses differ somewhat between the Mediterranean ‘salt steppe’ of Spain and the inland cold salt desert of north-west China. PMID:17428834

  6. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  7. Foot-and-mouth disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. An outbreak of FMD can have a significant economic impact because of the restrictions on international trade of susceptible animals and their products with FMD-free countries. In this chapter we discuss vario...

  8. Case study on combined CO₂ sequestration and low-salinity water production potential in a shallow saline aquifer in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tausif Khizar; Nasrabadi, Hadi

    2012-10-30

    CO₂ is one of the byproducts of natural gas production in Qatar. The high rate of natural gas production from Qatar's North Field (world's largest non-associated gas field) has led to the production of significant amounts of CO₂. The release of CO₂ into the atmosphere may be harmful from the perspective of global warming. In this work, we study the CO₂ sequestration potential in Qatar's Aruma aquifer. The Aruma aquifer is a saline aquifer in the southwest of Qatar. It occupies an area of approximately 1985 km₂ on land (16% of Qatar's total area). We have developed a compositional model for CO₂ sequestration in the Aruma aquifer on the basis of available log and flow test data. We suggest water production at some distance from the CO₂ injection wells as a possible way to control the pore pressure. This method increases the potential for safe sequestration of CO₂ in the aquifer without losing integrity of the caprock and without any CO₂ leakage. The water produced from this aquifer is considerably less saline than seawater and could be a good water source for the desalination process, which is currently the main source of water in Qatar. The outcome of the desalination process is water with higher salinity than the seawater that is currently discharged into the sea. This discharge can have negative long-term environmental effects. The water produced from the Aruma aquifer is considerably less saline than seawater and can be a partial solution to this problem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of malocclusion among mouth breathing children: do expectations meet reality?

    PubMed

    Souki, Bernardo Q; Pimenta, Giovana B; Souki, Marcelo Q; Franco, Leticia P; Becker, Helena M G; Pinto, Jorge A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to report epidemiological data on the prevalence of malocclusion among a group of children, consecutively admitted at a referral mouth breathing otorhinolaryngological (ENT) center. We assessed the association between the severity of the obstruction by adenoids/tonsils hyperplasia or the presence of allergic rhinitis and the prevalence of class II malocclusion, anterior open bite and posterior crossbite. Cross-sectional, descriptive study, carried out at an Outpatient Clinic for Mouth-Breathers. Dental inter-arch relationship and nasal obstructive variables were diagnosed and the appropriate cross-tabulations were done. Four hundred and one patients were included. Mean age was 6 years and 6 months (S.D.: 2 years and 7 months), ranging from 2 to 12 years. All subjects were evaluated by otorhinolaryngologists to confirm mouth breathing. Adenoid/tonsil obstruction was detected in 71.8% of this sample, regardless of the presence of rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis alone was found in 18.7% of the children. Non-obstructive mouth breathing was diagnosed in 9.5% of this sample. Posterior crossbite was detected in almost 30% of the children during primary and mixed dentitions and 48% in permanent dentition. During mixed and permanent dentitions, anterior open bite and class II malocclusion were highly prevalent. More than 50% of the mouth breathing children carried a normal inter-arch relationship in the sagital, transversal and vertical planes. Univariate analysis showed no significant association between the type of the obstruction (adenoids/tonsils obstructive hyperplasia or the presence of allergic rhinitis) and malocclusions (class II, anterior open bite and posterior crossbite). The prevalence of posterior crossbite is higher in mouth breathing children than in the general population. During mixed and permanent dentitions, anterior open bite and class II malocclusion were more likely to be present in mouth breathers. Although more children showed

  10. Role of xylo-oligosaccharides in protection against salinity-induced adversities in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiwei; Guo, Chen; Hussain, Saddam; Zhu, Bingxin; Deng, Fang; Xue, Yan; Geng, Mingjian; Wu, Lishu

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is a stringent abiotic constraint limiting crop growth and productivity. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOSs) in improving the salinity tolerance of Chinese cabbage. Salinity stress (0.5% NaCl solution) and four levels (0, 40, 80, 120 mg L(-1)) of XOSs were imposed on 20-day-old plants cultured under controlled conditions. Salinity stress decreased the aboveground fresh biomass, photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration, water use efficiency, and chlorophyll contents but increased the stomatal limitation value of Chinese cabbage compared with control. Such physiological interferences, disturbances in plant water relations, and visually noticeable growth reductions in Chinese cabbage were significantly alleviated by the addition of XOSs under salinity stress. Under salinity stress, application of XOSs significantly enhanced the activities of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase) and non-enzymatic (ascorbate, carotene) antioxidants and reduced the malondialdehyde content in the leaves of Chinese cabbage. The XOS-applied plants under salinity stress also recorded higher soluble sugars, proline, and soluble protein content in their leaves. Exposure of salinity stress increased the ratio of Na(+)/K(+), Na(+)/Ca(2+), and Na(+)/Mg(2+) in shoot as well as root of Chinese cabbage, however, XOS application significantly reduced these ratios particularly in shoot. Lower levels of XOSs (40 or 80 mg L(-1)) were more effective for most of the studied attributes. The greater salinity tolerance and better growth in these treatments were related with enhanced antioxidative defense system, reduced lipid peroxidation, increased osmolyte accumulation, and maintenance of ionic balance.

  11. A comparison of equivolume, equiosmolar solutions of hypertonic saline and mannitol for brain relaxation during elective supratentorial craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Palazón, Joaquín; Fuentes-García, Diego; Doménech-Asensi, Paloma; Piqueras-Pérez, Claudio; Falcón-Araña, Luis; Burguillos-López, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    Hyperosmolar solutions have been used in neurosurgery to reduce brain volume and facilitate surgical exposure. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of equivolume, equiosmolar solutions of mannitol and hypertonic saline (HS) on brain relaxation, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay, postoperative outcomes and incidence of side-effects in patients undergoing elective supratentorial craniotomy. In a randomised, prospective, double-blind study, 60 patients undergoing elective supratentorial craniotomy were randomised 1:1 to receive 3 ml/kg of either 20% mannitol or 3% HS. The primary outcome was the surgical condition of the brain assessed by the neurosurgeon using a 4-point scale after opening the dura (1 = relaxed, 2 = satisfactory, 3 = firm and 4 = bulging). Secondary outcomes were electrolytes, blood gases, plasma osmolality and haemodynamic variables measured at 0 min, 30 min, 2 h and 6 h after infusion. Also, predefined postoperative complications, length of ICU and hospital stay were recorded. Appropriate statistical tests were used for comparison; p < 0.05 was considered significant. There was no difference in brain relaxation [mannitol, 1(1-3) versus HS, 1(1.4) points; p = 0.55]. Patients with brain midline shift showed a worse response to hyperosmolar solutions than those without midline shift: 37% versus 8%, respectively; OR = 6.6 (95% CI, 1.54-28.83); p = 0.006. Plasma osmolality increased during the study period (6 h) in both the groups (p < 0.05 compared with baseline). No significant differences in postoperative complications or length of ICU and hospital stay were observed between the groups. Single doses of 3 ml/kg of 20% mannitol and 3% HS are safe and effective for intraoperative brain debulking during elective supratentorial craniotomy, but less effective in patients with pre-existing mass effect and midline shift.

  12. Coos, booms, and hoots: The evolution of closed-mouth vocal behavior in birds.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Eliason, Chad M; Miller, Edward H; Goller, Franz; Clarke, Julia A

    2016-08-01

    Most birds vocalize with an open beak, but vocalization with a closed beak into an inflating cavity occurs in territorial or courtship displays in disparate species throughout birds. Closed-mouth vocalizations generate resonance conditions that favor low-frequency sounds. By contrast, open-mouth vocalizations cover a wider frequency range. Here we describe closed-mouth vocalizations of birds from functional and morphological perspectives and assess the distribution of closed-mouth vocalizations in birds and related outgroups. Ancestral-state optimizations of body size and vocal behavior indicate that closed-mouth vocalizations are unlikely to be ancestral in birds and have evolved independently at least 16 times within Aves, predominantly in large-bodied lineages. Closed-mouth vocalizations are rare in the small-bodied passerines. In light of these results and body size trends in nonavian dinosaurs, we suggest that the capacity for closed-mouth vocalization was present in at least some extinct nonavian dinosaurs. As in birds, this behavior may have been limited to sexually selected vocal displays, and hence would have co-occurred with open-mouthed vocalizations. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Equal volumes of undiluted nalbuphine and lidocaine and normal diluted saline prevents nalbuphine-induced injection pain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-Yuan; Shen, Ya-Chun; Chen, Mao-Kai; Chau, Siu-Wah; Ku, Chia-Ling; Feng, Yu-Tung; Cheng, Kuang-I

    2011-12-01

    To determine if the intravenous co-administration of equal volumes of lidocaine and nalbuphine, with undiluted normal saline, prevents injection pain caused by nalbuphine. Eighty adult patients who were scheduled for minor surgeries under general anesthesia delivered via a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, single-blind clinical trial. In the saline group (control) (n = 40), 1 mL (10 mg) nalbuphine was diluted with 9 mL normal saline. In the lidocaine group (experimental) (n = 40), 1 mL (10 mg) nalbuphine was diluted with 1 mL lidocaine (20 mg). The two respective nalbuphine solutions were injected into the cephalic vein at a rate of 20 mL/minute (0.33 mL/second). Pain scores were categorized into five grades. Pain responses upon intravenous injection of nalbuphine, site of cannulation, size of the catheter, and hemodynamic responses to nalbuphine were also recorded. Overall, the median pain score of patients in the lidocaine group was lower than that of the saline group (p < 0.001). In addition, the incidence of injection pain was lower in the lidocaine group than the saline group (2.5% vs. 30%, p = 0.001). A solution of equal volumes of lidocaine and nalbuphine can decrease intravenous nalbuphine-induced injection pain. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Evaporation of NaCl solution from porous media with mixed wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstad, Mina; Shokri, Nima

    2016-05-01

    Evaporation of saline water from porous media is ubiquitous in many processes including soil salinization, crop production, and CO2 sequestration in deep saline acquirer. It is controlled by the transport properties of porous media, atmospheric conditions, and properties of the evaporating saline solution. In the present study, the effects of mixed wettability conditions on the general dynamics of water evaporation from porous media saturated with NaCl solution were investigated. To do so, we conducted a comprehensive series of evaporation experiments using sand mixtures containing different fractions of hydrophobic grains saturated with NaCl solutions. Our results showed that increasing fraction of hydrophobic grains in the mixed wettability sand pack had minor impact on the evaporative mass losses due to the presence of salt whose precipitation patterns were significantly influenced by the mixed wettability condition. Through macroscale and microscale investigations, we found formation of patchy efflorescence in the case of mixed wettability sand pack as opposed to crusty efflorescence in the case of completely hydrophilic porous media. Furthermore, the presence of salty water and hydrophobic grains in the sand pack significantly influenced the general dynamics and morphology of the receding drying front. Our results extend the understanding of the saline water evaporation from porous media with direct applications to various hydrological and engineering processes.

  15. Grasp with hand and mouth: a kinematic study on healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, M; Benuzzi, F; Gangitano, M; Grimaldi, S

    2001-10-01

    Neurons involved in grasp preparation with hand and mouth were previously recorded in the premotor cortex of monkey. The aim of the present kinematic study was to determine whether a unique planning underlies the act of grasping with hand and mouth in humans as well. In a set of four experiments, healthy subjects reached and grasped with the hand an object of different size while opening the mouth (experiments 1 and 3), or extending the other forearm (experiment 4), or the fingers of the other hand (experiment 5). In a subsequent set of three experiments, subjects grasped an object of different size with the mouth, while opening the fingers of the right hand (experiments 6-8). The initial kinematics of mouth and finger opening, but not of forearm extension, was affected by the size of the grasped object congruently with the size effect on initial grasp kinematics. This effect was due neither to visual presentation of the object, without the successive grasp motor act (experiment 2) nor to synchronism between finger and mouth opening (experiments 3, 7, and 8). In experiment 9 subjects grasped with the right hand an object of different size while pronouncing a syllable printed on the target. Mouth opening and sound production were affected by the grasped object size. The results of the present study are discussed according to the notion that in an action each motor act is prepared before the beginning of the motor sequence. Double grasp preparation can be used for successive motor acts on the same object as, for example, grasping food with the hand and ingesting it after bringing it to the mouth. We speculate that the circuits involved in double grasp preparation might have been the neural substrate where hand motor patterns used as primitive communication signs were transferred to mouth articulation system. This is in accordance with the hypothesis that Broca's area derives phylogenetically from the monkey premotor area where hand movements are controlled.

  16. Oyster Reefs Support Coastal Resilience by Altering Nearshore Salinity: An Observational and Modeling Study to Quantify a "Keystone" Ecosystem Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, D. A.; Olabarrieta, M.; Frederick, P.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2016-12-01

    Oyster reefs provide myriad ecosystem services, including water quality improvement, fisheries and other faunal support, shoreline protection from erosion and storm surge, and economic productivity. However, their role in directing flow during non-storm conditions has been largely neglected. In regions where oyster reefs form near the mouth of estuarine rivers, they likely alter ocean-estuary exchange by acting as fresh water "dams". We hypothesize that these reefs have the potential to detain fresh water and influence salinity over extensive areas, thus providing a "keystone" ecosystem service by supporting estuarine functions that rely on the maintenance of estuarine (i.e., brackish) conditions in the near-shore environment. In this work, we investigated the effects of shore-parallel reefs on near-shore salinity using field data and hydrodynamic modeling in a degraded reef complex in Suwannee Sound (Florida, USA). Results suggested that freshwater detention by long linear chains of oyster reefs plays an important role in modulating salinities, not only in the oysters' local environment, but over extensive estuarine areas (tens of square kilometers). Field data confirmed the presence of salinity differences between landward and seaward sides of the reef, with long-term mean salinity differences of >30% between sides. Modeled results expanded experimental findings by illustrating how oyster reefs affect the lateral and offshore extent of freshwater influence. In general, the effects of simulated reefs were most pronounced when they were highest in elevation, without gaps, and when riverine discharge was low. Taken together, these results describe a poorly documented ecosystem service provided by oyster reefs; provide an estimate of the magnitude and spatial extent of this service; and offer quantitative information to help guide future oyster reef restoration.

  17. A novel submucosal injection solution for endoscopic resection of large colorectal lesions: a randomized, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Repici, Alessandro; Wallace, Michael; Sharma, Prateek; Bhandari, Pradeep; Lollo, Gianluca; Maselli, Roberta; Hassan, Cesare; Rex, Douglas K

    2018-05-08

    SIC-8000 (Eleview) is a new FDA-approved solution for submucosal injection developed to provide long-lasting cushion to facilitate endoscopic resection maneuvers. Our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of SIC-8000 with those of saline solution, when performing endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of large colorectal lesions. In a randomized double-blind trial, patients undergoing EMR for ≥20 mm colorectal non-pedunculated lesions were randomized in a 1:1 ratio between SIC-8000 and saline solution as control solution in 5 tertiary centers. Endoscopists and patients were blinded to the type of submucosal solution used. Total volume to complete EMR and per lesion size and time of resection were primary end-points, whereas the Sydney Resection Quotient (SRQ), as well as other EMR outcomes, and the rate of adverse events were secondary. A 30-day telephone follow up was performed. An alpha level <0.05 was considered as statistically significant (NCT 02654418). Of the 327 patients screened, 226 (mean age: 66±10; males: 56%) were enrolled in the study and randomized between the 2 submucosal agents. Of these, 211 patients (mean size of the lesions 33±13 mm; I-s: 36%; proximal colon: 74%) entered in the final analysis (SIC-8000: 102; saline solution: 109). EMR was complete in all cases. The total volume needed for EMR was significantly less in the SIC-8000 arm compared with saline solution (16.1±9.8 mL vs 31.6±32.0 mL; p<0.001). This corresponded to an average volume per lesion size of 0.5±0.3 mL/mm and 0.9±0.6 mL/mm with SIC-8000 and saline solution, respectively, (p<0.001). The mean time to completely resect the lesion tended to be lower with SIC-8000 as compared with saline solution (19.1±16.8 minutes vs 29.7±68.9 minutes; p=0.1). The SRQ was significantly higher with SIC-8000 as compared with saline solution (10.3±8.1 vs 8.0±5.7; p=0.04) with a trend for a lower number of resected pieces (5.7±6.0 vs 6.5±5.04; p=0.052) and a higher rate of en bloc

  18. Chlorophyll Fluorescence as a Possible Tool for Salinity Tolerance Screening in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed Central

    Belkhodja, R.; Morales, F.; Abadia, A.; Gomez-Aparisi, J.; Abadia, J.

    1994-01-01

    The application of chlorophyll fluorescence measurements to screening barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes for salinity tolerance has been investigated. Excised barley leaves were cut under water and incubated with the cut end immersed in water or in a 100-mM NaCl solution, either in the dark or in high light. Changes in rapid fluorescence kinetics occurred in excised barley leaves exposed to the saline solution only when the incubation was carried out in the presence of high light. Fluorescence changes consisted of decreases in the variable to maximum fluorescence ratio and in increases in the relative proportion of variable fluorescence leading to point I in the Kautsky fluorescence induction curve. These relative increases in fluorescence at point I appeared to arise from a delayed plastoquinone reoxidation in the dark, since they disappeared after short, far-red illumination, which is known to excite photosystem I preferentially. We show that a significant correlation existed between some fluorescence parameters, measured after a combined salt and high-light treatment, and other independent measurements of salinity tolerance. These results suggest that chlorophyll fluorescence, and especially the relative fluorescence at point I in the Kautsky fluorescence induction curve, could be used for the screening of barley genotypes for salinity tolerance. PMID:12232117

  19. Microbially Mediated Plant Salt Tolerance and Microbiome-based Solutions for Saline Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuan; Druzhinina, Irina S; Pan, Xueyu; Yuan, Zhilin

    2016-11-15

    Soil salinization adversely affects plant growth and has become one of the major limiting factors for crop productivity worldwide. The conventional approach, breeding salt-tolerant plant cultivars, has often failed to efficiently alleviate the situation. In contrast, the use of a diverse array of microorganisms harbored by plants has attracted increasing attention because of the remarkable beneficial effects of microorganisms on plants. Multiple advanced '-omics' technologies have enabled us to gain insights into the structure and function of plant-associated microbes. In this review, we first focus on microbe-mediated plant salt tolerance, in particular on the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying root-microbe symbiosis. Unfortunately, when introducing such microbes as single strains to soils, they are often ineffective in improving plant growth and stress tolerance, largely due to competition with native soil microbial communities and limited colonization efficiency. Rapid progress in rhizosphere microbiome research has revived the belief that plants may benefit more from association with interacting, diverse microbial communities (microbiome) than from individual members in a community. Understanding how a microbiome assembles in the continuous compartments (endosphere, rhizoplane, and rhizosphere) will assist in predicting a subset of core or minimal microbiome and thus facilitate synthetic re-construction of microbial communities and their functional complementarity and synergistic effects. These developments will open a new avenue for capitalizing on the cultivable microbiome to strengthen plant salt tolerance and thus to refine agricultural practices and production under saline conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. De Novo Transcriptional Analysis of Alfalfa in Response to Saline-Alkaline Stress.

    PubMed

    An, Yi-Min; Song, Li-Li; Liu, Ying-Rui; Shu, Yong-Jun; Guo, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Saline-alkaline stress, caused by high levels of harmful carbonate salts and high soil pH, is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity. Alfalfa is a widely cultivated perennial forage legume with some tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, especially to saline-alkaline stress. To elucidate the mechanism underlying plant saline-alkaline tolerance, we conducted transcriptome analysis of whole alfalfa seedlings treated with saline-alkaline solutions for 0 day (control), 1 day (short-term treatment), and 7 days (long-term treatment) using ion torrent sequencing technology. A transcriptome database dataset of 53,853 unigenes was generated, and 2,286 and 2,233 genes were differentially expressed in the short-term and long-term treatment, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed 14 highly enriched pathways and demonstrated the differential response of metabolic pathways between the short-term and long-term treatment. The expression levels of 109 and 96 transcription factors were significantly altered significantly after 1 day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Specific responses of peroxidase, flavonoids, and the light pathway component indicated that the antioxidant capacity was one of the central mechanisms of saline-alkaline stress tolerance response in alfalfa. Among the 18 differentially expressed genes examined by real time PCR, the expression levels of eight genes, including inositol transporter, DNA binding protein, raffinose synthase, ferritin, aldo/keto reductase, glutathione S-transferase, xyloglucan endotrans glucosylase, and a NAC transcription factor, exhibited different patterns in response to saline and alkaline stress. The expression levels of the NAC transcription factor and glutathione S-transferase were altered significantly under saline stress and saline-alkaline stress; they were upregulated under saline-alkaline stress and downregulated under salt stress. Physiology assays showed an increased concentration of reactive oxygen

  1. De Novo Transcriptional Analysis of Alfalfa in Response to Saline-Alkaline Stress

    PubMed Central

    An, Yi-Min; Song, Li-Li; Liu, Ying-Rui; Shu, Yong-Jun; Guo, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Saline-alkaline stress, caused by high levels of harmful carbonate salts and high soil pH, is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity. Alfalfa is a widely cultivated perennial forage legume with some tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, especially to saline-alkaline stress. To elucidate the mechanism underlying plant saline-alkaline tolerance, we conducted transcriptome analysis of whole alfalfa seedlings treated with saline-alkaline solutions for 0 day (control), 1 day (short-term treatment), and 7 days (long-term treatment) using ion torrent sequencing technology. A transcriptome database dataset of 53,853 unigenes was generated, and 2,286 and 2,233 genes were differentially expressed in the short-term and long-term treatment, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed 14 highly enriched pathways and demonstrated the differential response of metabolic pathways between the short-term and long-term treatment. The expression levels of 109 and 96 transcription factors were significantly altered significantly after 1 day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Specific responses of peroxidase, flavonoids, and the light pathway component indicated that the antioxidant capacity was one of the central mechanisms of saline-alkaline stress tolerance response in alfalfa. Among the 18 differentially expressed genes examined by real time PCR, the expression levels of eight genes, including inositol transporter, DNA binding protein, raffinose synthase, ferritin, aldo/keto reductase, glutathione S-transferase, xyloglucan endotrans glucosylase, and a NAC transcription factor, exhibited different patterns in response to saline and alkaline stress. The expression levels of the NAC transcription factor and glutathione S-transferase were altered significantly under saline stress and saline-alkaline stress; they were upregulated under saline-alkaline stress and downregulated under salt stress. Physiology assays showed an increased concentration of reactive oxygen

  2. [Effect of compound hypertonic saline solution on septic rats].

    PubMed

    Dong, Fang; Xu, Liang; Xu, Gang; Wang, Huabing; Lu, Huizhi; Cai, Liping

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of compound hypertonic saline solution ( HSD ) on sepsis. 133 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, sham operation group ( n = 15 ), cecal ligation and puncture ( CLP ) group ( n = 45 ), CLP plus normal saline ( NS ) group ( n = 45 ), and CLP plus HSD group ( n = 28 ). A rat model of sepsis was reproduced by CLP, and the rats in sham operation group received celiotomy without ligation and puncture. All rats in four groups received subcutaneous injection of 30 mL/kg 0.9% sodium chloride after laparotomy. The rats in CLP plus NS group and CLP plus HSD group received infusion of 5 mL/kg 0.9% sodium chloride or 7.5% sodium chloride/6% dextran post CLP via jugular vein for 3 hours, with the infusion rate of 0.4 mL×kg(-1)×min(-1). The survival rate of each group was observed 9 hours and 18 hours after laparotomy. Mean arterial pressure ( MAP ) at 0, 9, 18 hours were monitored. Blood specimens were collected from all rats 0, 9 and 18 hours after laparotomy, respectively, for measurement of the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α), interleukin-1β ( IL-1β ), and procalcitonin ( PCT ). The rats were all sacrificed, and their lung tissues were harvested for the neutrophil count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( BALF ), myeloperoxidase ( MPO ) activity in lung tissue, wet/dry weight ratio ( W/D ) of lung, and pathological changes in lung tissue. There was no death in the sham operation group. The survival rates at 9 hours and 18 hours were 62.2% and 31.1% in the CLP group, 57.8% and 35.6% in the CLP plus NS group, 85.7% and 64.3% in the CLP plus HSD group, and they were all significantly higher compared with those of the CLP group and the CLP plus NS group ( P<0.05 or P<0.01 ). MAP levels in the CLP group and the CLP plus NS group were significantly lower than those in sham operation group, and the plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and PCT were significantly higher compared with those of sham operation group, while there was no

  3. Implicit Processing of the Eyes and Mouth: Evidence from Human Electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Pesciarelli, Francesca; Leo, Irene; Sarlo, Michela

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the time course of implicit processing of distinct facial features and the associate event-related potential (ERP) components. To this end, we used a masked priming paradigm to investigate implicit processing of the eyes and mouth in upright and inverted faces, using a prime duration of 33 ms. Two types of prime-target pairs were used: 1. congruent (e.g., open eyes only in both prime and target or open mouth only in both prime and target); 2. incongruent (e.g., open mouth only in prime and open eyes only in target or open eyes only in prime and open mouth only in target). The identity of the faces changed between prime and target. Participants pressed a button when the target face had the eyes open and another button when the target face had the mouth open. The behavioral results showed faster RTs for the eyes in upright faces than the eyes in inverted faces, the mouth in upright and inverted faces. Moreover they also revealed a congruent priming effect for the mouth in upright faces. The ERP findings showed a face orientation effect across all ERP components studied (P1, N1, N170, P2, N2, P3) starting at about 80 ms, and a congruency/priming effect on late components (P2, N2, P3), starting at about 150 ms. Crucially, the results showed that the orientation effect was driven by the eye region (N170, P2) and that the congruency effect started earlier (P2) for the eyes than for the mouth (N2). These findings mark the time course of the processing of internal facial features and provide further evidence that the eyes are automatically processed and that they are very salient facial features that strongly affect the amplitude, latency, and distribution of neural responses to faces.

  4. Implicit Processing of the Eyes and Mouth: Evidence from Human Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Pesciarelli, Francesca; Leo, Irene; Sarlo, Michela

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the time course of implicit processing of distinct facial features and the associate event-related potential (ERP) components. To this end, we used a masked priming paradigm to investigate implicit processing of the eyes and mouth in upright and inverted faces, using a prime duration of 33 ms. Two types of prime-target pairs were used: 1. congruent (e.g., open eyes only in both prime and target or open mouth only in both prime and target); 2. incongruent (e.g., open mouth only in prime and open eyes only in target or open eyes only in prime and open mouth only in target). The identity of the faces changed between prime and target. Participants pressed a button when the target face had the eyes open and another button when the target face had the mouth open. The behavioral results showed faster RTs for the eyes in upright faces than the eyes in inverted faces, the mouth in upright and inverted faces. Moreover they also revealed a congruent priming effect for the mouth in upright faces. The ERP findings showed a face orientation effect across all ERP components studied (P1, N1, N170, P2, N2, P3) starting at about 80 ms, and a congruency/priming effect on late components (P2, N2, P3), starting at about 150 ms. Crucially, the results showed that the orientation effect was driven by the eye region (N170, P2) and that the congruency effect started earlier (P2) for the eyes than for the mouth (N2). These findings mark the time course of the processing of internal facial features and provide further evidence that the eyes are automatically processed and that they are very salient facial features that strongly affect the amplitude, latency, and distribution of neural responses to faces. PMID:26790153

  5. Mouth Disorders - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... dialect) (繁體中文) Hmong (Hmoob) Russian (Русский) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) HealthReach resources will open in a ... Dry Mouth - español (Spanish) PDF California Dental Association Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Bad Breath - English PDF ...

  6. Mouth opening in patients irradiated for head and neck cancer: a prospective repeated measures study.

    PubMed

    Kamstra, J I; Dijkstra, P U; van Leeuwen, M; Roodenburg, J L N; Langendijk, J A

    2015-05-01

    Aims of this prospective cohort study were (1) to analyze the course of mouth opening up to 48months post-radiotherapy (RT), (2) to assess risk factors predicting decrease in mouth opening, and (3) to develop a multivariable prediction model for change in mouth opening in a large sample of patients irradiated for head and neck cancer. Mouth opening was measured prior to RT (baseline) and at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48months post-RT. The primary outcome variable was mouth opening. Potential risk factors were entered into a linear mixed model analysis (manual backward-stepwise elimination) to create a multivariable prediction model. The interaction terms between time and risk factors that were significantly related to mouth opening were explored. The study population consisted of 641 patients: 70.4% male, mean age at baseline 62.3years (sd 12.5). Primary tumors were predominantly located in the oro- and nasopharynx (25.3%) and oral cavity (20.6%). Mean mouth opening at baseline was 38.7mm (sd 10.8). Six months post-RT, mean mouth opening was smallest, 36.7mm (sd 10.0). In the linear mixed model analysis, mouth opening was statistically predicted by the location of the tumor, natural logarithm of time post-RT in months (Ln (months)), gender, baseline mouth opening, and baseline age. All main effects interacted with Ln (months). The mean mouth opening decreased slightly over time. Mouth opening was predicted by tumor location, time, gender, baseline mouth opening, and age. The model can be used to predict mouth opening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Low Tech Solutions: A Place To Begin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Arselia S., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This guide presents low tech solutions that have worked for some people with disabilities or their parents. Twenty-one ideas are offered to give children with physical disabilities more opportunities for play and art. Examples include recycling stuffed animals into puppets, punching a hole in top of playing cards to accommodate a mouth stick, and…

  8. A caffeine-maltodextrin mouth rinse counters mental fatigue.

    PubMed

    Van Cutsem, Jeroen; De Pauw, Kevin; Marcora, Samuele; Meeusen, Romain; Roelands, Bart

    2018-04-01

    Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity that has negative implications on many aspects in daily life. Caffeine and carbohydrate ingestion have been shown to be able to reduce these negative effects of mental fatigue. Intake of these substances might however be less desirable in some situations (e.g., restricted caloric intake, Ramadan). Rinsing caffeine or glucose within the mouth has already been shown to improve exercise performance. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the effect of frequent caffeine-maltodextrin (CAF-MALT) mouth rinsing on mental fatigue induced by a prolonged cognitive task. Ten males (age 23 ± 2 years, physical activity 7.3 ± 4.3 h/week, low CAF users) performed two trials. Participants first completed a Flanker task (3 min), then performed a 90-min mentally fatiguing task (Stroop task), followed by another Flanker task. Before the start and after each 12.5% of the Stroop task (eight blocks), subjects received a CAF-MALT mouth rinse (MR: 0.3 g/25 ml CAF: 1.6g/25 ml MALT) or placebo (PLAC: 25 ml artificial saliva). Self-reported mental fatigue was lower in MR (p = 0.017) compared to PLAC. Normalized accuracy (accuracy first block = 100%) was higher in the last block of the Stroop in MR (p = 0.032) compared to PLAC. P2 amplitude in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) decreased over time only in PLAC (p = 0.017). Frequent mouth rinsing during a prolonged and demanding cognitive task reduces mental fatigue compared to mouth rinsing with artificial saliva.

  9. RNS60, a charge-stabilized nanostructure saline alters Xenopus Laevis oocyte biophysical membrane properties by enhancing mitochondrial ATP production

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Kim, Duk-Soo; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2015-01-01

    We have examined the effects of RNS60, a 0.9% saline containing charge-stabilized oxygen nanobubble-based structures. RNS60 is generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor–Couette–Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. This study, implemented in Xenopus laevis oocytes, addresses both the electrophysiological membrane properties and parallel biological processes in the cytoplasm. Intracellular recordings from defolliculated X. laevis oocytes were implemented in: (1) air oxygenated standard Ringer's solution, (2) RNS60-based Ringer's solution, (3) RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen)-based Ringer's, and (4) ONS60 (saline containing high pressure oxygen without TCP modification)-based Ringer's. RNS60-based Ringer's solution induced membrane hyperpolarization from the resting membrane potential. This effect was prevented by: (1) ouabain (a blocker of the sodium/potassium ATPase), (2) rotenone (a mitochondrial electron transfer chain inhibitor preventing usable ATP synthesis), and (3) oligomycin A (an inhibitor of ATP synthase) indicating that RNS60 effects intracellular ATP levels. Increased intracellular ATP levels following RNS60 treatment were directly demonstrated using luciferin/luciferase photon emission. These results indicate that RNS60 alters intrinsic the electrophysiological properties of the X. laevis oocyte membrane by increasing mitochondrial-based ATP synthesis. Ultrastructural analysis of the oocyte cytoplasm demonstrated increased mitochondrial length in the presence of RNS60-based Ringer's solution. It is concluded that the biological properties of RNS60 relate to its ability to optimize ATP synthesis. PMID:25742953

  10. [Effect of hypertonic saline solution on the viscoelasticities of erythrocyte membrane in rats subjected to hemorrhagic shock].

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Hu, D; Liu, L; Wu, Z; Qin, J; Cai, S

    2001-12-01

    We have studied the effect of hypertonic saline solution on the viscoelasticities of erythrocyte membrane in hemorrhage-shocked rats using micropippette aspiration technique. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of 0.9% NaCl(NS), 7.5% NaCl (HS) and 5% NaCl-3.5% NaAc (HSA), respectively. The animals were bled to reach a mean arterial pressure of 5.3 kPa in 10 minutes and maintained in shock for 90 minutes. 4 ml/kg NS, HS and HSA was given intravenously and respectively in 5 minutes following hemorrhagic shock. The blood was collected to determine the viscoelasticities of erythrocyte membrane at baseline, shock and after treatment. The results showed that the elastic moduli and viscous coefficients of erythrocyte membrane were increased obviously following hemorrhagic shock. HS raised elastic moduli and reduced viscous coefficients significantly compared with NS after treatment. The elastic moduli and viscous coefficients of erythrocyte membrane were decreased remarkably in HSA group than in NS and HS group. These data suggested that HSA could improve the viscoelasticities of erythrocyte membrane significantly in rats subjected to hemorrhagic shock.

  11. Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Review of the Etiopathologic Factors and Management.

    PubMed

    Vellappally, Sajith

    2016-02-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by pain in the mouth with or with no inflammatory signs and no specific lesions. Synonyms found in literature include glossodynia, oral dysesthesia, glossopyrosis, glossalgia, stomatopyrosis, and stomatodynia. Burning mouth syndrome generally presents as a triad: Mouth pain, alteration in taste, and altered salivation, in the absence of visible mucosal lesions in the mouth. The syndrome generally manifests spontaneously, and the discomfort is typically of a continuous nature but increases in intensity during evening and at night. The etiopathogenesis seems to be complex and in a large number of patients probably involves interactions among local, systemic, and/or psychogenic factors. The differential diagnosis requires the exclusion of oral mucosal lesions or blood test alterations that can produce burning mouth sensation. Management is always based on the etiological agents involved. If burning persists after local or systemic conditions are treated, then treatment is aimed at controlling neuropathic symptoms. Treatment of BMS is still unsatisfactory, and there is no definitive cure. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required to bring the condition under better control. The aim of this review was to discuss several aspects of BMS, update current knowledge, and provide guidelines for patient management.

  12. Hydrogen cyanide in the headspace of oral fluid and in mouth-exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Metsälä, M; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L

    2014-06-01

    Mouth-exhaled hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentrations have previously been reported to originate from the oral cavity. However, a direct correlation between the HCN concentration in oral fluid and in mouth-exhaled breath has not been explicitly shown. In this study, we set up a new methodology to simultaneously measure HCN in the headspace of oral fluid and in mouth-exhaled breath. Our results show that there is a statistically significant correlation between stimulated oral fluid HCN and mouth-exhaled HCN (rs = 0.76, p < 0.001). This confirms that oral fluid is the main contributor to mouth-exhaled HCN. Furthermore, we observe that after the application of an oral disinfectant, both the stimulated oral fluid and mouth-exhaled HCN concentrations decrease. This implies that HCN production in the oral cavity is related to the bacterial and/or enzymatic activity.

  13. No Dose-Response Effect of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Concentration on 5-km Running Performance in Recreational Athletes.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Neil D; Thomas, James R; Kagka, Marion; Ramsbottom, Roger; Delextrat, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Clarke, ND, Thomas, JR, Kagka, M, Ramsbottom, R, and Delextrat, A. No dose-response effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse concentration on 5-km running performance in recreational athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 715-720, 2017-Oral carbohydrate rinsing has been demonstrated to provide beneficial effects on exercise performance of durations of up to 1 hour, albeit predominately in a laboratory setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different concentrations of carbohydrate solution mouth rinse on 5-km running performance. Fifteen healthy men (n = 9; mean ± SD age; 42 ± 10 years; height, 177.6 ± 6.1 cm; body mass, 73.9 ± 8.9 kg) and women (n = 6; mean ± SD age, 43 ± 9 years; height, 166.5 ± 4.1 cm; body mass, 65.7 ± 6.8 kg) performed a 5-km running time trial on a track on 4 separate occasions. Immediately before starting the time trial and then after each 1 km, subjects rinsed 25 ml of 0, 3, 6, or 12% maltodextrin for 10 seconds. Mouth rinsing with 0, 3, 6, or 12% maltodextrin did not have a significant effect on the time to complete the time trial (0%, 26:34 ± 4:07 minutes:seconds; 3%, 27:17 ± 4:33 minutes:seconds; 6%, 27:05 ± 3:52 minutes:seconds; 12%, 26:47 ± 4.31 minutes:seconds; p = 0.071; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.15), heart rate (p = 0.095; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.16), rating of perceived exertion (p = 0.195; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.11), blood glucose (p = 0.920; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.01), and blood lactate concentration (p = 0.831; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.02), with only nonsignificant trivial to small differences between concentrations. Results of this study suggest that carbohydrate mouth rinsing provides no ergogenic advantage over an acaloric placebo (0%) and that there is no dose-response relationship between carbohydrate solution concentration and 5-km track running performance.

  14. Colorimetric detection of mercury(II) in a high-salinity solution using gold nanoparticles capped with 3-mercaptopropionate acid and adenosine monophosphate.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cheng-Ju; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2008-11-04

    A new colorimetric sensor for sensing Hg2+ in a high-salinity solution has been developed using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorated with 3-mercaptopropionate acid (MPA) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Because of the high negative charge density of AMP on each AuNP surface, MPA/AMP-capped AuNPs are well dispersed in a high-salt solution. In contrast, the aggregation of MPA-capped AuNPs was induced by sodium ions, which shield the negative charges of the carboxylic groups of MPA. Through the coordination between the carboxylic group of MPA and Hg2+, the selectivity of MPA/AMP-capped AuNPs for Hg2+ in a high-salt solution is remarkably high over that of the other metals without the addition of a masking agent or a change in the temperature. We have carefully investigated the effect of the AMP concentration on the stability and sensitivity of MPA/AMP-capped AuNPs. Under optimum conditions, the lowest detectable concentration of Hg2+ using this probe was 500 nM on the basis of the measurement of the ratio of absorption at 620 nm to that at 520 nm. The sensitivity to Hg2+ can be further improved by modifying the MPA/AMP-capped AuNPs with highly fluorescent rhodamine 6G (R6G). By monitoring the fluorescence enhancement, the lowest detectable concentration of Hg2+ using R6G/MPA/AMP-capped AuNPs was 50 nM.

  15. Ion association in water solution of soil and vadose zone of chestnut saline solonetz as a driver of terrestrial carbon sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batukaev, Abdul-Malik A.; Endovitsky, Anatoly P.; Andreev, Andrey G.; Kalinichenko, Valery P.; Minkina, Tatiana M.; Dikaev, Zaurbek S.; Mandzhieva, Saglara S.; Sushkova, Svetlana N.

    2016-03-01

    The assessment of soil and vadose zone as the drains for carbon sink and proper modeling of the effects and extremes of biogeochemical cycles in the terrestrial biosphere are the key components to understanding the carbon cycle, global climate system, and aquatic and terrestrial system uncertainties. Calcium carbonate equilibrium causes saturation of solution with CaCO3, and it determines its material composition, migration and accumulation of salts. In a solution electrically neutral ion pairs are formed: CaCO30, CaSO40, MgCO30, and MgSO40, as well as charged ion pairs CaHCO3+, MgHCO3+, NaCO3-, NaSO4-, CaOH+, and MgOH+. The calcium carbonate equilibrium algorithm, mathematical model and original software to calculate the real equilibrium forms of ions and to determine the nature of calcium carbonate balance in a solution were developed. This approach conducts the quantitative assessment of real ion forms of solution in solonetz soil and vadose zone of dry steppe taking into account the ion association at high ionic strength of saline soil solution. The concentrations of free and associated ion form were calculated according to analytical ion concentration in real solution. In the iteration procedure, the equations were used to find the following: ion material balance, a linear interpolation of equilibrium constants, a method of ionic pairs, the laws of initial concentration preservation, operating masses of equilibrium system, and the concentration constants of ion pair dissociation. The coefficient of ion association γe was determined as the ratio of ions free form to analytical content of ion γe = Cass/Can. Depending on soil and vadose zone layer, concentration and composition of solution in the ionic pair's form are 11-52 % Ca2+; 22.2-54.6 % Mg2+; 1.1-10.5 % Na+; 3.7-23.8 HCO3-, 23.3-61.6 % SO42-, and up to 85.7 % CO32-. The carbonate system of soil and vadose zone water solution helps to explain the evolution of salted soils, vadose and saturation zones, and

  16. Effect of perfusion of bile salts solutions into the oesophagus of hiatal hernia patients and controls.

    PubMed Central

    Bachir, G S; Collis, J L

    1976-01-01

    Tests of the response to perfusion of the oesophagus were made in 54 patients divided into three groups. Group I consisted of patients with symptomatic hiatal hernia, group II hiatal hernia patients with peptic stricture, and group III normal individuals. Each individual oesophagus was perfused at a rate of 45-65 drops per minute over 25 minutes with six solutions: normal saline, N/10 HCl, taurine conjugates of bile salts in normal saline, taurine conjugates of bile salts in N/10 HCl, glycine conjugates of bile salts in normal saline, and taurine and glycine conjugates in a ratio of 1 to 2 in normal saline. It was found that acidified taurine solutions were more irritating than acid alone. With a 2mM/l solution of taurine in acid, symptoms are produced even in controls. With a 1 mM/l solution of the same conjugates, the majority of normal people feel slight heartburn or nothing, and therefore perfusion into the oesophagus of such a solution could be used as a test for oesophagitis. PMID:941112

  17. The occurrence and behavior of radium in saline formation water of the U.S. Gulf Coast region.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraemer, T.F.; Reid, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Ra was measured in deep saline formation waters produced from a variety of US Gulf Coast subsurface environments, including oil and gas reservoirs, and water-producing geopressured aquifers. A strong positive correlation was found between formation-water salinity and Ra activity, resulting from the interaction of formation water with aquifer matrix. Ra isotopes enter the fluid phase after being produced by the decay of parent elements U and Th on and within the solid matrix. The processes believed to be primarily responsible for transfering Ra from matrix to formation water are chemical leaching and alpha -particle recoil. Factors controlling the observed salinity-Ra relationship may be one or a combination of the following: 1) ion exchange; 2) increased solubility of matrix silica surrounding Ra atoms, coupled with a salinity-controlled rate of re-equilibration of silica between solution and quartz grains; and 3) the equilibration of Ra in solution with detrital baryte within the aquifer. No difference was found in the brine-Ra relation in water produced from oil or gas wells and water produced from wells penetrating only water-bearing aquifers, although the relation was more highly correlated for water-bearing aquifers than hydrocarbon-containing reservoirs.-P.Br.

  18. Morphology and Kinetics of Growth of CaCO3 Precipitates Formed in Saline Water at 30°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Xin; Wang, Baohui; Wu, Haiming

    2018-02-01

    The crystallization kinetics and morphology of CaCO3 crystals precipitated from the high salinity oilfield water were studied. The crystallization kinetics measurements show that nucleation and nuclei growth obey the first order reaction kinetics. The induction period of precipitation is extended in the high salinity solutions. Morphological studies show that impurity ions remain mostly in the solution phase instead of filling the CaCO3 crystal lattice. The morphology of CaCO3 precipitates can be changed from a smooth surface (calcite) to rough spheres (vaterite), and spindle rod bundles, or spherical, ellipsoid, flowers, plates and other shapes (aragonite).

  19. The Transcriptional Regulator, CosR, Controls Compatible Solute Biosynthesis and Transport, Motility and Biofilm Formation in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Shikuma, Nicholas J.; Davis, Kimberly R.; Fong, Jiunn N. C.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Vibrio cholerae inhabits aquatic environments and colonizes the human digestive tract to cause the disease cholera. In these environments, V. cholerae copes with fluctuations in salinity and osmolarity by producing and transporting small, organic, highly soluble molecules called compatible solutes, which counteract extracellular osmotic pressure. Currently, it is unclear how V. cholerae regulates the expression of genes important for the biosynthesis or transport of compatible solutes in response to changing salinity or osmolarity conditions. Through a genome-wide transcriptional analysis of the salinity response of V. cholerae, we identified a transcriptional regulator we name CosR for compatible solute regulator. The expression of cosR is regulated by ionic strength and not osmolarity. A transcriptome analysis of a ΔcosR mutant revealed that CosR represses genes involved in ectoine biosynthesis and compatible solute transport in a salinity-dependent manner. When grown in salinities similar to estuarine environments, CosR activates biofilm formation and represses motility independently of its function as an ectoine regulator. This is the first study to characterize a compatible solute regulator in V. cholerae and couples the regulation of osmotic tolerance with biofilm formation and motility. PMID:22690884

  20. In-Fiber Optic Salinity Sensing: A Potential Application for Offshore Concrete Structure Protection.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dong; Li, Peng; Yue, Yanchao; Ma, Jianxun; Yang, Hangzhou

    2017-05-04

    The protection of concrete structures against corrosion in marine environments has always been a challenge due to the presence of a saline solution-A natural corrosive agent to the concrete paste and steel reinforcements. The concentration of salt is a key parameter influencing the rate of corrosion. In this paper, we propose an optical fiber-based salinity sensor based on bundled multimode plastic optical fiber (POF) as a sensor probe and a concave mirror as a reflector in conjunction with an intensity modulation technique. A refractive index (RI) sensing approach is analytically investigated and the findings are in agreement with the experimental results. A maximum sensitivity of 14,847.486/RIU can be achieved at RI = 1.3525. The proposed technique is suitable for in situ measurement and monitoring of salinity in liquid.

  1. Saline-water bioleaching of chalcopyrite with thermophilic, iron(II)- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Watling, Helen R; Collinson, David M; Corbett, Melissa K; Shiers, Denis W; Kaksonen, Anna H; Watkin, Elizabeth L J

    2016-09-01

    The application of thermoacidophiles for chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) bioleaching in hot, acidic, saline solution was investigated as a possible process route for rapid Cu extraction. The study comprised a discussion of protective mechanisms employed for the survival and/or adaptation of thermoacidophiles to osmotic stress, a compilation of chloride tolerances for three genera of thermoacidophiles applied in bioleaching and an experimental study of the activities of three species in a saline bioleaching system. The data showed that the oxidation rates of iron(II) and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (tetrathionate) were reduced in the presence of chloride levels well below chloride concentrations in seawater, limiting the applicability of these microorganisms in the bioleaching of CuFeS2 in saline water. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Additive effects of Na+ and Cl– ions on barley growth under salinity stress

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Coventry, Stewart; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K.

    2011-01-01

    Soil salinity affects large areas of the world's cultivated land, causing significant reductions in crop yield. Despite the fact that most plants accumulate both sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl–) ions in high concentrations in their shoot tissues when grown in saline soils, most research on salt tolerance in annual plants has focused on the toxic effects of Na+ accumulation. It has previously been suggested that Cl– toxicity may also be an important cause of growth reduction in barley plants. Here, the extent to which specific ion toxicities of Na+ and Cl– reduce the growth of barley grown in saline soils is shown under varying salinity treatments using four barley genotypes differing in their salt tolerance in solution and soil-based systems. High Na+, Cl–, and NaCl separately reduced the growth of barley, however, the reductions in growth and photosynthesis were greatest under NaCl stress and were mainly additive of the effects of Na+ and Cl– stress. The results demonstrated that Na+ and Cl– exclusion among barley genotypes are independent mechanisms and different genotypes expressed different combinations of the two mechanisms. High concentrations of Na+ reduced K+ and Ca2+ uptake and reduced photosynthesis mainly by reducing stomatal conductance. By comparison, high Cl– concentration reduced photosynthetic capacity due to non-stomatal effects: there was chlorophyll degradation, and a reduction in the actual quantum yield of PSII electron transport which was associated with both photochemical quenching and the efficiency of excitation energy capture. The results also showed that there are fundamental differences in salinity responses between soil and solution culture, and that the importance of the different mechanisms of salt damage varies according to the system under which the plants were grown. PMID:21273334

  3. Influence of Ophthalmic Solutions on Tear Components.

    PubMed

    Shigeyasu, Chika; Yamada, Masakazu; Akune, Yoko

    2016-11-01

    Tear fluids are a mixture of secretions derived from lacrimal glands, accessory lacrimal glands, conjunctiva, and meibomian glands. Compositional changes to tears occur in the normal state and during ocular surface disease, such as dry eye conditions. We have investigated compositional changes to tears after topical application of ophthalmic solutions, with regard to tear-specific proteins (secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lipocalin-1, and lysozyme) and ocular surface mucin in normal and dry eye conditions using high-performance liquid chromatography. After application of saline solution (0.9% sodium chloride) in normal subjects, transient but significant decreases in all tear components were observed. The recovery of protein concentrations took up to 30 minutes and lasted longer when the saline solution was applied more frequently. When applying ophthalmic solutions, a balance between washout and dilutional effects should be considered in addition to the therapeutic effect. Investigation of the effect of diquafosol solution (3%) in normal subjects revealed a significant increase in sialic acid concentration, a marker of ocular mucin, at 5 minutes after application, whereas a significant decrease was observed with saline. This result indicates the accelerated secretion of mucin from ocular tissues induced by diquafosol. A clinical study to determine the efficacy of diquafosol in patients with dry eye revealed improvements in tear breakup time, keratoconjunctival staining scores, and Schirmer test score, accompanied by an increase in sialic acid concentration in tears. Investigating normal and dry eye conditions through tear analysis may clarify the pathophysiology of dry eye conditions and support the efficacy of treatments.

  4. The influence of closed brine pockets and permeable brine channels on the thermo-elastic properties of saline ice

    PubMed Central

    Lishman, Ben

    2017-01-01

    A model of the thermo-elastic behaviour of saline ice is formulated, and model solutions describing thermo-elastic waves (TEW) propagating into a half-space of the ice are investigated. The model is based on a proposal that saline ice is a matrix, which encompasses both closed brine pockets and permeable channels filled with brine. Experiments on the thermal expansion of saline ice samples, and on TEW in saline ice, have been performed in the cold laboratories of the University Centre in Svalbard and in University College London. The experimental data are compared with theoretical conclusions. The experimental data support our hypothesis that the brine in saline ice is divided between closed pockets and open, permeable channels. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Microdynamics of ice’. PMID:28025299

  5. Normal saline solution nasal-pharyngeal irrigation improves chronic cough associated with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Chen, Zhongchun; Cao, Yitan; Sun, Guangbin

    2017-03-01

    Upper airway inflammation is one of the most commonly identified causes of chronic cough, although the underlying mechanism is not clear. This study compared normal saline solution nasal-pharyngeal irrigation (NSNPI) and fluticasone propionate nasal spray (FPNS) treatment for chronic cough associated with allergic rhinitis (AR). Patients with suspected AR to house-dust mite were enrolled, and the symptom of cough was assessed by a cough symptom score and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire, and cough response to capsaicin was evaluated. AR was assessed by using the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Mini Juniper Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniRQLQ). Mediators, including histamine, leukotriene C4, and prostaglandin D2, and the major basic protein from nasal lavage fluid (NLF) were examined. The patients were treated with NSNPI (the NSNPI group) or FPNS (the FPNS group) for 30 days, after which they were reassessed. Forty-five of 50 patients completed this study. The scores of the cough symptom and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire, and the capsaicin cough threshold all improved statistically after NSNPI but did not change after FPNS. There were statistically significant changes in the evaluations of the MiniRQLQ and the mediators, including histamine and leukotriene C4, in the NLF in the NSNPI group. However, significant changes were found in the assessments of VAS, MiniRQLQ, and all above mediators including histamine, leukotriene C4, and prostaglandin D2, and the major basic protein in the NLF of the FPNS group. Furthermore, the assessments of VAS and all the mediators were reduced more in the FPNS group compared with those in the NSNPI group. The patients with suspected AR to house-dust mite reported a better relief of the cough symptom after 30 days of treatment with NSNPI compared with that after nasal corticosteroid.

  6. Facial type and head posture of nasal and mouth-breathing children.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Geovana de Paula; Souza, Juliana Alves; Boton, Luane de Moraes; Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo da; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    To verify the facial type and the head posture of nasal and mouth-breathing children from habitual and obstructive etiologies, as well as to correlate the morphological facial index to the head angulation position in the sagittal plane. Participants were 59 children with ages between 8 years and 11 years and 10 months. All subjects were undergone to speech-language pathology screening, otorhinolaryngologic evaluation, and nasopharyngoscopy, allowing the constitution of three groups: nasal breathers--15 children; mouth breathers from obstructive etiology--22 children; and habitual mouth breathers--22 children. In order to determine facial type and morphological facial index, the height and the width of the face were measured using a digital caliper. The head posture was assessed through physical examination and computerized photogrammetry. It was verified the predominance of short face in nasal breathers, and long face in mouth breathers. There was an association among facial type and breathing mode/mouth breathing etiology: the brachyfacial type was more frequent among nasal breathers, and less frequent in subjects with obstructive nasal breathing. Head posture was similar in all three groups. No correlation was found between morphological facial index and head posture. The brachyfacial type favors the nasal-breathing mode and the head posture is not influenced by breathing mode and by the etiology of mouth breathing, as well as it is not related to facial type.

  7. Slime coating of kaolinite on chalcopyrite in saline water flotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-li; Rao, Feng; Song, Shao-xian; Li, Yan-mei; Liu, Wen-biao

    2018-05-01

    In saline water flotation, the salinity can cause a distinguishable slime coating of clay minerals on chalcopyrite particles through its effect on their electrical double layers in aqueous solutions. In this work, kaolinite was used as a representative clay mineral for studying slime coating during chalcopyrite flotation. The flotation of chalcopyrite in the presence and absence of kaolinite in tap water, seawater, and gypsum-saturated water and the stability of chalcopyrite and kaolinite particles in slurries are presented. Zeta-potential distributions and scanning electron microscopy images were used to characterize and explain the different slime coating degrees and the different flotation performances. Kaolinite particles induced slime coating on chalcopyrite surfaces and reduced chalcopyrite floatability to the greatest extent when the pH value was in the alkaline range. At 0.24wt% of kaolinite, the chalcopyrite floatability was depressed by more than 10% at alkaline pH levels in tap water. Salinity in seawater and gypsum-saturated water compressed the electrical double layers and resulted in extensive slime coating.

  8. The role of attention in the localization of odors to the mouth.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J; Mahmut, Mehmet K; Oaten, Megan J

    2011-01-01

    Odors can be perceived as arising from the environment or as part of a flavor located in the mouth. One factor that may dictate where an odor is perceived to be is concurrent gustatory stimulation in the mouth. A taste may impair the ability to attend to an odor, especially if they are perceptually similar. Alternatively, salient mouth-based features of a flavor might command attention at the expense of smell. Experiment 1 and 2, using different stimulus sets, explored the impact of perceptually similar and dissimilar pairings of tastes in the mouth and odors at the nose. In each case, these were followed by judgments of the odor's location (mouth vs. nose). Perceptual similarity had no impact on localization judgments. Experiment 3 then manipulated the salience of the olfactory and gustatory cues and showed that each could independently shift the perceived location of an odorant-salient olfactory cues toward the nose and gustatory cues toward the mouth. These findings suggest that the salient features of a flavor may command attention at the expense of olfaction and, thereby, contribute to oral localization, with implications for flavor binding.

  9. Groundwater exchanges near a channelized versus unmodified stream mouth discharging to a subalpine lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, James; Naranjo, Ramon C.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Allander, Kip K.; Neilson, B.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Smith, David W.; Rosecrans, C.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The terminus of a stream flowing into a larger river, pond, lake, or reservoir is referred to as the stream-mouth reach or simply the stream mouth. The terminus is often characterized by rapidly changing thermal and hydraulic conditions that result in abrupt shifts in surface water/groundwater (sw/gw) exchange patterns, creating the potential for unique biogeochemical processes and ecosystems. Worldwide shoreline development is changing stream-lake interfaces through channelization of stream mouths, i.e., channel straightening and bank stabilization to prevent natural meandering at the shoreline. In the central Sierra Nevada (USA), Lake Tahoe's shoreline has an abundance of both “unmodified” (i.e., not engineered though potentially impacted by broader watershed engineering) and channelized stream mouths. Two representative stream mouths along the lake's north shore, one channelized and one unmodified, were selected to compare and contrast water and heat exchanges. Hydraulic and thermal properties were monitored during separate campaigns in September 2012 and 2013 and sw/gw exchanges were estimated within the stream mouth-shoreline continuum. Heat-flow and water-flow patterns indicated clear differences in the channelized versus the unmodified stream mouth. For the channelized stream mouth, relatively modulated, cool-temperature, low-velocity longitudinal streambed flows discharged offshore beneath warmer buoyant lakeshore water. In contrast, a seasonal barrier bar formed across the unmodified stream mouth, creating higher-velocity subsurface flow paths and higher diurnal temperature variations relative to shoreline water. As a consequence, channelization altered sw/gw exchanges potentially altering biogeochemical processing and ecological systems in and near the stream mouth.

  10. An inorganic CO2 diffusion and dissolution process explains negative CO2 fluxes in saline/alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Zhong-Yuan; Stevenson, Bryan A; Zheng, Xin-Jun; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    An 'anomalous' negative flux, in which carbon dioxide (CO2) enters rather than is released from the ground, was studied in a saline/alkaline soil. Soil sterilization disclosed an inorganic process of CO2 dissolution into (during the night) and out of (during the day) the soil solution, driven by variation in soil temperature. Experimental and modeling analysis revealed that pH and soil moisture were the most important determinants of the magnitude of this inorganic CO2 flux. In the extreme cases of air-dried saline/alkaline soils, this inorganic process was predominant. While the diurnal flux measured was zero sum, leaching of the dissolved inorganic carbon in the soil solution could potentially effect net carbon ecosystem exchange. This finding implies that an inorganic module should be incorporated when dealing with the CO2 flux of saline/alkaline land. Neglecting this inorganic flux may induce erroneous or misleading conclusions in interpreting CO2 fluxes of these ecosystems.

  11. An inorganic CO2 diffusion and dissolution process explains negative CO2 fluxes in saline/alkaline soils

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Zhong-Yuan; Stevenson, Bryan A.; Zheng, Xin-Jun; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    An ‘anomalous' negative flux, in which carbon dioxide (CO2) enters rather than is released from the ground, was studied in a saline/alkaline soil. Soil sterilization disclosed an inorganic process of CO2 dissolution into (during the night) and out of (during the day) the soil solution, driven by variation in soil temperature. Experimental and modeling analysis revealed that pH and soil moisture were the most important determinants of the magnitude of this inorganic CO2 flux. In the extreme cases of air-dried saline/alkaline soils, this inorganic process was predominant. While the diurnal flux measured was zero sum, leaching of the dissolved inorganic carbon in the soil solution could potentially effect net carbon ecosystem exchange. This finding implies that an inorganic module should be incorporated when dealing with the CO2 flux of saline/alkaline land. Neglecting this inorganic flux may induce erroneous or misleading conclusions in interpreting CO2 fluxes of these ecosystems. PMID:23778238

  12. The Photosynthesis, Na+/K+ Homeostasis and Osmotic Adjustment of Atriplex canescens in Response to Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ya-Qing; Guo, Huan; Wang, Suo-Min; Zhao, Bingyu; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Ma, Qing; Yin, Hong-Ju; Bao, Ai-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Atriplex canescens (fourwing saltbush) is a C4 perennial fodder shrub with excellent resistance to salinity. However, the mechanisms underlying the salt tolerance in A. canescens are poorly understood. In this study, 5-weeks-old A. canescens seedlings were treated with various concentrations of external NaCl (0–400 mM). The results showed that the growth of A. canescens seedlings was significantly stimulated by moderate salinity (100 mM NaCl) and unaffected by high salinity (200 or 400 mM NaCl). Furthermore, A. canescens seedlings showed higher photosynthetic capacity under NaCl treatments (except for 100 mM NaCl treatment) with significant increases in net photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency. Under saline conditions, the A. canescens seedlings accumulated more Na+ in either plant tissues or salt bladders, and also retained relatively constant K+ in leaf tissues and bladders by enhancing the selective transport capacity for K+ over Na+ (ST value) from stem to leaf and from leaf to bladder. External NaCl treatments on A. canescens seedlings had no adverse impact on leaf relative water content, and this resulted from lower leaf osmotic potential under the salinity conditions. The contribution of Na+ to the leaf osmotic potential (Ψs) was sharply enhanced from 2% in control plants to 49% in plants subjected to 400 mM NaCl. However, the contribution of K+ to Ψs showed a significant decrease from 34% (control) to 9% under 400 mM NaCl. Interestingly, concentrations of betaine and free proline showed significant increase in the leaves of A. canescens seedlings, these compatible solutes presented up to 12% of contribution to Ψs under high salinity. These findings suggest that, under saline environments, A. canescens is able to enhance photosynthetic capacity, increase Na+ accumulation in tissues and salt bladders, maintain relative K+ homeostasis in leaves, and use inorganic ions and compatible solutes for osmotic adjustment which may contribute to the

  13. Influence of Soil Solution Salinity on Molybdenum Adsorption by Soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Molybdenum (Mo) adsorption on five arid-zone soils from California was investigated as a function of equilibrium solution Mo concentration (0-30 mg L-1), solution pH (4-8), and electrical conductivity (EC = 0.3 or 8 dS m-1). Molybdenum adsorption decreased with increasing pH. An adsorption maximum...

  14. Bilingualism modulates infants' selective attention to the mouth of a talking face.

    PubMed

    Pons, Ferran; Bosch, Laura; Lewkowicz, David J

    2015-04-01

    Infants growing up in bilingual environments succeed at learning two languages. What adaptive processes enable them to master the more complex nature of bilingual input? One possibility is that bilingual infants take greater advantage of the redundancy of the audiovisual speech that they usually experience during social interactions. Thus, we investigated whether bilingual infants' need to keep languages apart increases their attention to the mouth as a source of redundant and reliable speech cues. We measured selective attention to talking faces in 4-, 8-, and 12-month-old Catalan and Spanish monolingual and bilingual infants. Monolinguals looked more at the eyes than the mouth at 4 months and more at the mouth than the eyes at 8 months in response to both native and nonnative speech, but they looked more at the mouth than the eyes at 12 months only in response to nonnative speech. In contrast, bilinguals looked equally at the eyes and mouth at 4 months, more at the mouth than the eyes at 8 months, and more at the mouth than the eyes at 12 months, and these patterns of responses were found for both native and nonnative speech at all ages. Thus, to support their dual-language acquisition processes, bilingual infants exploit the greater perceptual salience of redundant audiovisual speech cues at an earlier age and for a longer time than monolingual infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Balanced Crystalloids versus Saline in the Intensive Care Unit. The SALT Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Semler, Matthew W; Wanderer, Jonathan P; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Stollings, Joanna L; Self, Wesley H; Siew, Edward D; Wang, Li; Byrne, Daniel W; Shaw, Andrew D; Bernard, Gordon R; Rice, Todd W

    2017-05-15

    Saline is the intravenous fluid most commonly administered to critically ill adults, but it may be associated with acute kidney injury and death. Whether use of balanced crystalloids rather than saline affects patient outcomes remains unknown. To pilot a cluster-randomized, multiple-crossover trial using software tools within the electronic health record to compare saline to balanced crystalloids. This was a cluster-randomized, multiple-crossover trial among 974 adults admitted to a tertiary medical intensive care unit from February 3, 2015 to May 31, 2015. The intravenous crystalloid used in the unit alternated monthly between saline (0.9% sodium chloride) and balanced crystalloids (lactated Ringer's solution or Plasma-Lyte A). Enrollment, fluid delivery, and data collection were performed using software tools within the electronic health record. The primary outcome was the difference between study groups in the proportion of isotonic crystalloid administered that was saline. The secondary outcome was major adverse kidney events within 30 days (MAKE30), a composite of death, dialysis, or persistent renal dysfunction. Patients assigned to saline (n = 454) and balanced crystalloids (n = 520) were similar at baseline and received similar volumes of crystalloid by 30 days (median [interquartile range]: 1,424 ml [500-3,377] vs. 1,617 ml [500-3,628]; P = 0.40). Saline made up a larger proportion of the isotonic crystalloid given in the saline group than in the balanced crystalloid group (91% vs. 21%; P < 0.001). MAKE30 did not differ between groups (24.7% vs. 24.6%; P = 0.98). An electronic health record-embedded, cluster-randomized, multiple-crossover trial comparing saline with balanced crystalloids can produce well-balanced study groups and separation in crystalloid receipt. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 02345486).

  16. Groundwater flow and solute transport at the Mourquong saline-water disposal basin, Murray Basin, southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Craig; Narayan, Kumar; Woods, Juliette; Herczeg, Andrew

    2002-03-01

    Saline groundwater and drainage effluent from irrigation are commonly stored in some 200 natural and artificial saline-water disposal basins throughout the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia. Their impact on underlying aquifers and the River Murray, one of Australia's major water supplies, is of serious concern. In one such scheme, saline groundwater is pumped into Lake Mourquong, a natural groundwater discharge complex. The disposal basin is hydrodynamically restricted by low-permeability lacustrine clays, but there are vulnerable areas in the southeast where the clay is apparently missing. The extent of vertical and lateral leakage of basin brines and the processes controlling their migration are examined using (1) analyses of chloride and stable isotopes of water (2H/1H and 18O/16O) to infer mixing between regional groundwater and lake water, and (2) the variable-density groundwater flow and solute-transport code SUTRA. Hydrochemical results indicate that evaporated disposal water has moved at least 100 m in an easterly direction and that there is negligible movement of brines in a southerly direction towards the River Murray. The model is used to consider various management scenarios. Salt-load movement to the River Murray was highest in a "worst-case" scenario with irrigation employed between the basin and the River Murray. Present-day operating conditions lead to little, if any, direct movement of brine from the basin into the river. Résumé. Les eaux souterraines salées et les effluents de drainage de l'irrigation sont stockés dans environ 200 bassins naturels ou artificiels destinés à retenir les eaux salines dans tout le bassin de Murray-Darling, en Australie. Leur impact sur les aquifères sous-jacents et sur la rivière Murray, l'une des principales ressources en eau d'Australie, constitue un problème grave. Dans une telle situation, les eaux souterraines salines sont pompées dans le lac Mourquong, complexe dans lequel les nappes se d

  17. Gender discrimination of eyes and mouths by individuals with autism.

    PubMed

    Best, Catherine A; Minshew, Nancy J; Strauss, Mark S

    2010-04-01

    Evidence remains mixed about whether individuals with autism look less to eyes and whether they look more at mouths. Few studies have examined how spontaneous attention to facial features relates to face processing abilities. This study tested the ability to discriminate gender from facial features, namely eyes and mouths, by comparing accuracy scores of 17 children with autism and 15 adults with autism to 17 typically developing children and 15 typically developing adults. Results indicated that all participants regardless of diagnosis discriminated gender more accurately from eyes than from mouths. However, results indicated that compared to adults without autism, adults with autism were significantly worse at discriminating gender from eyes.

  18. Leaf water relations and net gas exchange responses of salinized Carrizo citrange seedlings during drought stress and recovery.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, J G; Syvertsen, J P; Botía, P; García-Sánchez, F

    2007-08-01

    Since salinity and drought stress can occur together, an assessment was made of their interacting effects on leaf water relations, osmotic adjustment and net gas exchange in seedlings of the relatively chloride-sensitive Carrizo citrange, Citrus sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata. Plants were fertilized with nutrient solution with or without additional 100 mm NaCl (salt and no-salt treatments). After 7 d, half of the plants were drought stressed by withholding irrigation water for 10 d. Thus, there were four treatments: salinized and non-salinized plants under drought-stress or well-watered conditions. After the drought period, plants from all stressed treatments were re-watered with nutrient solution without salt for 8 d to study recovery. Leaf water relations, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence, proline, quaternary ammonium compounds and leaf and root concentrations of Cl(-) and Na(+) were measured. Salinity increased leaf Cl(-) and Na(+) concentrations and decreased osmotic potential (Psi(pi)) such that leaf relative water content (RWC) was maintained during drought stress. However, in non-salinized drought-stressed plants, osmotic adjustment did not occur and RWC decreased. The salinity-induced osmotic adjustment was not related to any accumulation of proline, quaternary ammonium compounds or soluble sugars. Net CO(2) assimilation rate (A(CO2)) was reduced in leaves from all stressed treatments but the mechanisms were different. In non-salinized drought-stressed plants, lower A(CO2) was related to low RWC, whereas in salinized plants decreased A(CO2) was related to high levels of leaf Cl(-) and Na(+). A(CO2) recovered after irrigation in all the treatments except in previously salinized drought-stressed leaves which had lower RWC and less chlorophyll but maintained high levels of Cl(-), Na(+) and quaternary ammonium compounds after recovery. High leaf levels of Cl(-) and Na(+) after recovery apparently came from the roots. Plants preconditioned by

  19. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) oral rinse reduces capsaicin-induced burning mouth pain sensation: An experimental quantitative sensory testing study in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Wang, K; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Cairns, B E

    2018-02-01

    In burning mouth patients, analgesia after oral administration of clonazepam may result from modulation of peripheral γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. The effect of oral administration of test solutions (water, 0.5 mol/L or 0.05 mol/L GABA, 1% lidocaine) was investigated for the amelioration of pain and sensitivity induced by application of capsaicin (1%, 2 min) to the tongue of thirty healthy male and female subjects in this four-session, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over study. Intra-oral quantitative sensory testing was used to assess cold (CDT), warm (WDT) and mechanical (MDT) detection thresholds as well as mechanical (MPT) and heat (HPT) pain thresholds. Capsaicin-induced pain intensity was continuously rated on a 0-10 electronic visual analogue scale (VAS). The area under the VAS curve (VASAUC) after rinsing was calculated for each solution. Capsaicin application on the tongue evoked burning pain with a peak of 4.8/10, and significantly increased CDT and MDT while significantly decreasing WDT, HPT, and MPT. The VASAUC was significantly smaller after oral rinse with 0.05 mol/L GABA, 0.5 mol/L GABA, and 1% lidocaine than after oral rinse with water. Rinse with 0.5 mol/L or 0.05 mol/L GABA were similarly effective in decreasing VASAUC. Rinsing with either 1% lidocaine, 0.5 mol/L or 0.05 mol/L GABA also significantly attenuated the effects of capsaicin on WDT and HPT in a treatment independent manner. There were no sex-related differences in these effects of GABA. Capsaicin-induced burning tongue pain and decreases in WDT and HPT can be ameliorated by rinsing the mouth with lidocaine and GABA solutions. Rinsing the mouth with an oral GABA containing solution ameliorated burning pain and increased heat sensitivity produced by application of capsaicin to the tongue. This finding suggests that GABA can act as a local analgesic agent in the oral cavity. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  20. Research of Daily Conversation Transmitting System Based on Mouth Part Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Mutsumi; Nishi, Natsuko

    The authors are developing a vision-based intension transfer technique by recognizing user’s face expressions and movements, to help free and convenient communications with aged or disabled persons who find difficulties in talking, discriminating small character prints and operating keyboards by hands and fingers. In this paper we report a prototype system, where layered daily conversations are successively selected by recognizing the transition in shape of user’s mouth parts using camera image sequences settled in front of the user. Four mouth part patterns are used in the system. A method that automatically recognizes these patterns by analyzing the intensity histogram data around the mouth region is newly developed. The confirmation of a selection on the way is executed by detecting the open and shut movements of mouth through the temporal change in intensity histogram data. The method has been installed in a desktop PC by VC++ programs. Experimental results of mouth shape pattern recognition by twenty-five persons have shown the effectiveness of the method.

  1. Relaxed open mouth as a playful signal in wild ring-tailed lemurs.

    PubMed

    Palagi, Elisabetta; Norscia, Ivan; Spada, Giulia

    2014-11-01

    Play signals are commonly used by animals to communicate their playful motivation and to limit the risk that rough acts are misunderstood by playmates. The relaxed open mouth is the most common facial expression performed during play in many mammals and represents the ritualized version of the movement anticipating a play bite. The signaling nature of this expression has been proven in many haplorrhine species but never demonstrated in strepsirrhines. Our purpose was assessing whether, also in strepsirrhines, the relaxed open mouth has an actual communicative function. We studied wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), characterized by highly social habits including intense playful interactions. They largely use playful signals, mostly performed with the black and white tail. The signaling function of the tail (tail play) has been widely demonstrated. We analyzed both tail play and the relaxed open mouth to verify how their distribution is affected by different play variables (e.g., play session symmetry, number of play mates, previous use of the same pattern). Indeed, ring-tailed lemurs use the relaxed open mouth as a communicative signal during play. Relaxed open mouth was more frequent during unbalanced interactions showing the highest asymmetry in the patterns performed by the two players (offensive/neutral). Compared to tail play, relaxed open mouth was more frequent during dyadic than polyadic interactions and, as a highly directional signal, it was more frequently replicated by the play mate. Therefore, the relaxed open mouth needs to be performed face-to-face so that signal detection can be optimized. Similar to previous findings in monkeys and apes, the relaxed open mouth in lemurs seems to be a ritualized signal used to engage and, perhaps, sustain playful interaction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. This disease has affected most areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible...

  3. Practical salinity management for leachate irrigation to poplar trees.

    PubMed

    Smesrud, Jason K; Duvendack, George D; Obereiner, James M; Jordahl, James L; Madison, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    fifteen year record of monitoring and operational data are presented that can be used by others in managing irrigation of saline water to poplar trees. When salinity is carefully managed, tree systems can help to provide sustainable leachate management solutions for landfills.

  4. Burning Mouth Syndrome and Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder. PMID:23411996

  5. Omeprazole and dry mouth.

    PubMed

    Teare, J P; Spedding, C; Whitehead, M W; Greenfield, S M; Challacombe, S J; Thompson, R P

    1995-03-01

    Omeprazole causes irreversible inhibition of the hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase enzyme, leading to a marked reduction in both acid secretion and volume of gastric juice. Reported side-effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, constipation, and headache. We report the development of dry mouth during omeprazole therapy. We have identified six patients taking omeprazole for more than 6 weeks who complained of a dry mouth. Salivary production was measured as whole salivary flow produced over a 10-min period spat into a collecting vessel and as 5% citric acid-stimulated parotid salivary flow collected with a Lashley cup device placed over the parotid duct. Flow rates were evaluated both during and after cessation of treatment. Saliva produced was then cultured for microbes. Four of the six had subnormal parotid or whole salivary flow rates on treatment that recovered after stopping treatment. The increase after treatment was marked in four. Significant amounts of Candida albicans grew from the saliva of the three patients with the lowest salivary flows; one saliva also grew Staphylococcus aureus. Salivary flow is reduced in some patients treated with omeprazole, returning to normal after cessation of treatment. This reduction may predispose to opportunistic infection, particularly in the edentulous.

  6. Seasonal induced changes in spinach rhizosphere microbial community structure with varying salinity and drought.

    PubMed

    Mark Ibekwe, A; Ors, Selda; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Liu, Xuan; Suarez, Donald L

    2017-02-01

    Salinity is a common problem under irrigated agriculture, especially in low rainfall and high evaporative demand areas of southwestern United States and other semi-arid regions around the world. However, studies on salinity effects on soil microbial communities are relatively few while the effects of irrigation-induced salinity on soil chemical and physical properties and plant growth are well documented. In this study, we examined the effects of salinity, temperature, and temporal variability on soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in sand tanks irrigated with prepared solutions designed to simulate saline wastewater. Three sets of experiments with spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Racoon) were conducted under saline water during different time periods (early winter, late spring, and early summer). Bacterial 16S V4 rDNA region was amplified utilizing fusion primers designed against the surrounding conserved regions using MiSeq® Illumina sequencing platform. Across the two sample types, bacteria were relatively dominant among three phyla-the Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes-accounted for 77.1% of taxa detected in the rhizosphere, while Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria accounted for 55.1% of taxa detected in soil. The results were analyzed using UniFrac coupled with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) to compare diversity, abundance, community structure, and specific bacterial groups in soil and rhizosphere samples. Permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) analysis showed that soil temperature (P=0.001), rhizosphere temperature (P=0.001), rhizosphere salinity (P=0.032), and evapotranspiration (P=0.002) significantly affected beta diversity of soil and rhizosphere microbial communities. Furthermore, salinity had marginal effects (P=0.078) on soil beta diversity. However, temporal variability differentially affected rhizosphere microbial communities irrigated with saline wastewater. Therefore, microbial communities in

  7. Hydrogen isotope response to changing salinity and rainfall in Australian mangroves.

    PubMed

    Ladd, S Nemiah; Sachs, Julian P

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios ((2) H/(1) H, δ(2) H) of leaf waxes covary with those in precipitation and are therefore a useful paleohydrologic proxy. Mangroves are an exception to this relationship because their δ(2) H values are also influenced by salinity. The mechanisms underlying this response were investigated by measuring leaf lipid δ(2) H and leaf and xylem water δ(2) H and δ(18) O values from three mangrove species over 9.5 months in a subtropical Australian estuary. Net (2) H/(1) H fractionation between surface water and leaf lipids decreased by 0.5-1.0‰ ppt(-1) for n-alkanes and 0.4-0.8‰ ppt(-1) for isoprenoids. Xylem water was (2) H depleted relative to surface water, reflecting (2) H discrimination of 4-10‰ during water uptake at all salinities and opportunistic uptake of freshwater at high salinity. However, leaf water (2) H enrichment relative to estuary water was insensitive to salinity and identical for all species. Therefore, variations in leaf and xylem water δ(2) H values cannot explain the salinity-dependent (2) H depletion in leaf lipids, nor the 30‰ range in leaf lipid δ(2) H values among species. Biochemical changes in direct response to salt stress, such as increased compatible solute production or preferential use of stored carbohydrates, and/or the timing of lipid production and subsequent turnover rates, are more likely causes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Early Childhood Dental Caries, Mouth Pain, and Malnutrition in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region

    PubMed Central

    So, Marvin; Ellenikiotis, Yianni A.; Husby, Hannah M.; Paz, Cecilia Leonor; Seymour, Brittany; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition and dental caries in early childhood remain persistent and intertwined global health challenges, particularly for indigenous and geographically-remote populations. To examine the prevalence and associations between early childhood dental caries, parent-reported mouth pain and malnutrition in the Amazonian region of Ecuador, we conducted a cross-sectional study of the oral health and nutrition status of 1407 children from birth through age 6 in the “Alli Kiru” program (2011–2013). We used multivariate regression analysis to examine relationships between severe caries, parent-reported mouth pain measures, and nutritional status. The prevalence of dental caries was 65.4%, with 44.7% of children having deep or severe caries, and 33.8% reporting mouth pain. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) increased dramatically with age. Malnutrition was prevalent, with 35.9% of children stunted, 1.1% wasted, 7.4% underweight, and 6.8% overweight. As mouth pain increased in frequency, odds for severe caries increased. For each unit increase in mouth pain frequency interfering with sleeping, children had increased odds for being underweight (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02–1.54) and decreased odds for being overweight (AOR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58–0.97). This relationship was most pronounced among 3–6 year-olds. Early childhood caries, mouth pain and malnutrition were prevalent in this sample of young children. Parent-reported mouth pain was associated with severe caries, and mouth pain interfering with sleeping was predictive of poor nutritional status. We demonstrate the utility of a parsimonious parent-reported measure of mouth pain to predict young children’s risk for severe early childhood caries and malnutrition, which has implications for community health interventions. PMID:28531148

  9. Early Childhood Dental Caries, Mouth Pain, and Malnutrition in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    So, Marvin; Ellenikiotis, Yianni A; Husby, Hannah M; Paz, Cecilia Leonor; Seymour, Brittany; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen

    2017-05-22

    Malnutrition and dental caries in early childhood remain persistent and intertwined global health challenges, particularly for indigenous and geographically-remote populations. To examine the prevalence and associations between early childhood dental caries, parent-reported mouth pain and malnutrition in the Amazonian region of Ecuador, we conducted a cross-sectional study of the oral health and nutrition status of 1407 children from birth through age 6 in the "Alli Kiru" program (2011-2013). We used multivariate regression analysis to examine relationships between severe caries, parent-reported mouth pain measures, and nutritional status. The prevalence of dental caries was 65.4%, with 44.7% of children having deep or severe caries, and 33.8% reporting mouth pain. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) increased dramatically with age. Malnutrition was prevalent, with 35.9% of children stunted, 1.1% wasted, 7.4% underweight, and 6.8% overweight. As mouth pain increased in frequency, odds for severe caries increased. For each unit increase in mouth pain frequency interfering with sleeping, children had increased odds for being underweight (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02-1.54) and decreased odds for being overweight (AOR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.97). This relationship was most pronounced among 3-6 year-olds. Early childhood caries, mouth pain and malnutrition were prevalent in this sample of young children. Parent-reported mouth pain was associated with severe caries, and mouth pain interfering with sleeping was predictive of poor nutritional status. We demonstrate the utility of a parsimonious parent-reported measure of mouth pain to predict young children's risk for severe early childhood caries and malnutrition, which has implications for community health interventions.

  10. Salinity stress inhibits bean leaf expansion by reducing turgor, not wall extensibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, P. M.; Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings with low levels of salinity (50 or 100 millimolar NaCl) decreased the rate of light-induced leaf cell expansion in the primary leaves over a 3 day period. This decrease could be due to a reduction in one or both of the primary cellular growth parameters: wall extensibility and cell turgor. Wall extensibility was assessed by the Instron technique. Salinity did not decrease extensibility and caused small increases relative to the controls after 72 hours. On the other hand, 50 millimolar NaCl caused a significant reduction in leaf bulk turgor at 24 hours; adaptive decreases in leaf osmotic potential (osmotic adjustment) were more than compensated by parallel decreases in xylem tension potential and the leaf apoplastic solute potential, resulting in a decreased leaf water potential. It is concluded that in bean seedlings, mild salinity initially affects leaf growth rate by a decrease in turgor rather than by a reduction in wall extensibility. Moreover, long-term salinization (10 days) resulted in an apparent mechanical adjustment, i.e. an increase in wall extensibility, which may help counteract reductions in turgor and maintain leaf growth rates.

  11. Sediment characteristics and water quality in the two hyper-saline lagoons along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasul, Najeeb; Al-Farawati, Radwan; Al-Harbi, Omer; Naser Qutub, Abdul

    2013-04-01

    The two hyper-saline Shoaiba lagoons, Khawr ash Shaibah al Masdudah (northern lagoon) and Khawr ash Shaibah al Maftuhah (southern lagoon) have a unique environmental set-up because no rivers or wadis flow into the lagoons and therefore detrital material to the lagoons is lacking and most of the sediments are indigenous carbonates. The biogenic material is mostly derived from coral debris, coralline algae and molluscs abundant in gravel and sand size fractions. The evaporite deposits from the adjoining sabkhas are transported to the lagoon during tidal cycles. Carbonate is abundant in the form of aragonite and High Mg-calcite indicating carbonate to be recent and formed under shallow water conditions. In general, the sediments are the result of the mechanical breakdown of molluscs and coral reefs by either human activity or by coral boring marine organisms and physical processes such as tidal and wind generated currents. Strong currents dominate only the deeper part at the entrance of the lagoons that causes the winnowing of the finer sediments, and its transportation during flooding and ebbing. Shallow depths averaging 3 m, wind and tidal stirring are the main forces preventing the lagoons from developing stratification resulting in a well-mixed body of water. The shallow depth of the lagoons keep the turbidity levels higher, whereas salinity as high as 52 ‰ and water temperature as high as 38 °C helps in the formation of halite at the periphery. The cyclical inundation of sabkhas by a thin sheet of water during tidal cycles is important in understanding the ecological consequence. Mangrove stands in the lagoons act as a source of nutrients to the flora and fauna inhabiting the lagoons. The configurations of the mouth of the lagoons influence the tidal currents, including the sediment and water movement. The tidal current is enhanced as it enters the lagoons, in response to the funneling effect caused by the narrow channel. The current diffuses as the entrance

  12. The transcriptional regulator, CosR, controls compatible solute biosynthesis and transport, motility and biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Shikuma, Nicholas J; Davis, Kimberly R; Fong, Jiunn N C; Yildiz, Fitnat H

    2013-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae inhabits aquatic environments and colonizes the human digestive tract to cause the disease cholera. In these environments, V. cholerae copes with fluctuations in salinity and osmolarity by producing and transporting small, organic, highly soluble molecules called compatible solutes, which counteract extracellular osmotic pressure. Currently, it is unclear how V. cholerae regulates the expression of genes important for the biosynthesis or transport of compatible solutes in response to changing salinity or osmolarity conditions. Through a genome-wide transcriptional analysis of the salinity response of V. cholerae, we identified a transcriptional regulator we name CosR for compatible solute regulator. The expression of cosR is regulated by ionic strength and not osmolarity. A transcriptome analysis of a ΔcosR mutant revealed that CosR represses genes involved in ectoine biosynthesis and compatible solute transport in a salinity-dependent manner. When grown in salinities similar to estuarine environments, CosR activates biofilm formation and represses motility independently of its function as an ectoine regulator. This is the first study to characterize a compatible solute regulator in V. cholerae and couples the regulation of osmotic tolerance with biofilm formation and motility. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Psychological profile in burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al Quran, Firas A M

    2004-03-01

    Thirty-two patients with burning mouth syndrome and 32 matched control subjects were evaluated for their personality profile using a comprehensive, reliable, and validated inventory. All subjects were requested to complete the Neo PI-R questionnaire that measures the 5 dimensions of personality and their facets. A t-test and univariate correlations (Pearson's correlation coefficient) were used to compare the 2 groups. Results show high significant differences in some personality factors. Neuroticism and all its facets, which include anxiety, angry hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness and vulnerability, were significant at P<.001. Other domains like extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness showed significant differences also (P<.05). Many personality characteristics differentiate burning mouth syndrome patients from controllers according to the Neo PI-R and this should affect the treatment plan according to the identified characteristics.

  14. Dry Eyes and Mouth? You May Have Sjögren's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Special Issues Subscribe March 2012 Print this issue Dry Eyes and Mouth? You May Have Sjögren’s Syndrome Send us your comments If your eyes and mouth feel as dry as a desert, there are many possible causes, ...

  15. Mantle wedge infiltrated with saline fluids from dehydration and decarbonation of subducting slab

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Tatsuhiko; Yoshikawa, Masako; Kumagai, Yoshitaka; Mirabueno, Ma. Hannah T.; Okuno, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Slab-derived fluids play an important role in heat and material transfer in subduction zones. Dehydration and decarbonation reactions of minerals in the subducting slab have been investigated using phase equilibria and modeling of fluid flow. Nevertheless, direct observations of the fluid chemistry and pressure–temperature conditions of fluids are few. This report describes CO2-bearing saline fluid inclusions in spinel-harzburgite xenoliths collected from the 1991 Pinatubo pumice deposits. The fluid inclusions are filled with saline solutions with 5.1 ± 1.0% (wt) NaCl-equivalent magnesite crystals, CO2-bearing vapor bubbles, and a talc and/or chrysotile layer on the walls. The xenoliths contain tremolite amphibole, which is stable in temperatures lower than 830 °C at the uppermost mantle. The Pinatubo volcano is located at the volcanic front of the Luzon arc associated with subduction of warm oceanic plate. The present observation suggests hydration of forearc mantle and the uppermost mantle by slab-derived CO2-bearing saline fluids. Dehydration and decarbonation take place, and seawater-like saline fluids migrate from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge. The presence of saline fluids is important because they can dissolve more metals than pure H2O and affect the chemical evolution of the mantle wedge. PMID:23716664

  16. Mantle wedge infiltrated with saline fluids from dehydration and decarbonation of subducting slab.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Tatsuhiko; Yoshikawa, Masako; Kumagai, Yoshitaka; Mirabueno, Ma Hannah T; Okuno, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2013-06-11

    Slab-derived fluids play an important role in heat and material transfer in subduction zones. Dehydration and decarbonation reactions of minerals in the subducting slab have been investigated using phase equilibria and modeling of fluid flow. Nevertheless, direct observations of the fluid chemistry and pressure-temperature conditions of fluids are few. This report describes CO2-bearing saline fluid inclusions in spinel-harzburgite xenoliths collected from the 1991 Pinatubo pumice deposits. The fluid inclusions are filled with saline solutions with 5.1 ± 1.0% (wt) NaCl-equivalent magnesite crystals, CO2-bearing vapor bubbles, and a talc and/or chrysotile layer on the walls. The xenoliths contain tremolite amphibole, which is stable in temperatures lower than 830 °C at the uppermost mantle. The Pinatubo volcano is located at the volcanic front of the Luzon arc associated with subduction of warm oceanic plate. The present observation suggests hydration of forearc mantle and the uppermost mantle by slab-derived CO2-bearing saline fluids. Dehydration and decarbonation take place, and seawater-like saline fluids migrate from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge. The presence of saline fluids is important because they can dissolve more metals than pure H2O and affect the chemical evolution of the mantle wedge.

  17. The low salinity effect at high temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Quan; Brady, Patrick V.; Pooryousefy, Ehsan; ...

    2017-04-05

    The mechanism(s) of low salinity water flooding (LSWF) must be better understood at high temperatures and pressures if the method is to be applied in high T/P kaolinite-bearing sandstone reservoirs. We measured contact angles between a sandstone and an oil (acid number, AN = 3.98 mg KOH/g, base number, BN = 1.3 mg KOH/g) from a reservoir in the Tarim Field in western China in the presence of various water chemistries. We examined the effect of aqueous ionic solutions (formation brine, 100X diluted formation brine, and softened water), temperature (60, 100 and 140 °C) and pressure (20, 30, 40, andmore » 50 MPa) on the contact angle. We also measured the zeta potential of the oil/water and water/rock interfaces to calculate oil/brine/rock disjoining pressures. A surface complexation model was developed to interpret contact angle measurements and compared with DLVO theory predictions. Contact angles were greatest in formation water, followed by the softened water, and low salinity water at the same pressure and temperature. Contact angles increased slightly with temperature, whereas pressure had little effect. DLVO and surface complexation modelling predicted similar wettability trends and allow reasonably accurate interpretation of core-flood results. Water chemistry has a much larger impact on LSWF than reservoir temperature and pressure. As a result, low salinity water flooding should work in high temperature and high pressure kaolinite-bearing sandstone reservoirs.« less

  18. The low salinity effect at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Quan; Brady, Patrick V.; Pooryousefy, Ehsan

    The mechanism(s) of low salinity water flooding (LSWF) must be better understood at high temperatures and pressures if the method is to be applied in high T/P kaolinite-bearing sandstone reservoirs. We measured contact angles between a sandstone and an oil (acid number, AN = 3.98 mg KOH/g, base number, BN = 1.3 mg KOH/g) from a reservoir in the Tarim Field in western China in the presence of various water chemistries. We examined the effect of aqueous ionic solutions (formation brine, 100X diluted formation brine, and softened water), temperature (60, 100 and 140 °C) and pressure (20, 30, 40, andmore » 50 MPa) on the contact angle. We also measured the zeta potential of the oil/water and water/rock interfaces to calculate oil/brine/rock disjoining pressures. A surface complexation model was developed to interpret contact angle measurements and compared with DLVO theory predictions. Contact angles were greatest in formation water, followed by the softened water, and low salinity water at the same pressure and temperature. Contact angles increased slightly with temperature, whereas pressure had little effect. DLVO and surface complexation modelling predicted similar wettability trends and allow reasonably accurate interpretation of core-flood results. Water chemistry has a much larger impact on LSWF than reservoir temperature and pressure. As a result, low salinity water flooding should work in high temperature and high pressure kaolinite-bearing sandstone reservoirs.« less

  19. The effect of mouth leak and humidification during nasal non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Tuggey, Justin M; Delmastro, Monica; Elliott, Mark W

    2007-09-01

    Poor mask fit and mouth leak are associated with nasal symptoms and poor sleep quality in patients receiving domiciliary non-invasive ventilation (NIV) through a nasal mask. Normal subjects receiving continuous positive airways pressure demonstrate increased nasal resistance following periods of mouth leak. This study explores the effect of mouth leak during pressure-targeted nasal NIV, and whether this results in increased nasal resistance and consequently a reduction in effective ventilatory support. A randomised crossover study of 16 normal subjects was performed on separate days. Comparison was made of the effect of 5 min of mouth leak during daytime nasal NIV with and without heated humidification. Expired tidal volume (V(T)), nasal resistance (R(N)), and patient comfort were measured. Mean change (Delta) in V(T) and R(N) were significantly less following mouth leak with heated humidification compared to the without (DeltaV(T) -36+/-65 ml vs. -88+/-50 ml, p<0.001; DeltaR(N) +0.9+/-0.4 vs. +2.0+/-0.7 cm H(2)O l s(-1), p<0.001). Baseline comfort was worse without humidification (5.3+/-0.4 vs. 6.2+/-0.4, p<0.01), and only deteriorated following mouth leak without humidification. In normal subjects, heated humidification during nasal NIV attenuates the adverse effects of mouth leak on effective tidal volume, nasal resistance and improves overall comfort. Heated humidification should be considered as part of an approach to patients who are troubled with nasal symptoms, once leak has been minimised.

  20. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov . Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a common viral illness that usually affects infants and children younger than 5 years old. ...

  1. Remote sensing of salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomann, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    The complex dielectric constant of sea water is a function of salinity at 21 cm wavelength, and sea water salinity can be determined by a measurement of emissivity at 21 cm along with a measurement of thermodynamic temperature. Three aircraft and one helicopter experiments using two different 21 cm radiometers were conducted under different salinity and temperature conditions. Single or multiple ground truth measurements were used to calibrate the data in each experiment. It is inferred from these experiments that accuracies of 1 to 2%/OO are possible with a single surface calibration point necessary only every two hours if the following conditions are met--water temperatures above 20 C, salinities above 10%/OO, and level plane flight. More frequent calibration, constraint of the aircraft's orientation to the same as it was during calibration, and two point calibration (at a high and low salinity level) rather than single point calibration may give even better accuracies in some instances.

  2. Acclimation of CO2 Assimilation in Cotton Leaves to Water Stress and Salinity 1

    PubMed Central

    Plaut, Zvi; Federman, Evelyn

    1991-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Acala SJ2) plants were exposed to three levels of osmotic or matric potentials. The first was obtained by salt and the latter by withholding irrigation water. Plants were acclimated to the two stress types by reducing the rate of stress development by a factor of 4 to 7. CO2 assimilation was then determined on acclimated and nonacclimated plants. The decrease of CO2 assimilation in salinity-exposed plants was significantly less in acclimated as compared with nonacclimated plants. Such a difference was not found under water stress at ambient CO2 partial pressure. The slopes of net CO2 assimilation versus intercellular CO2 partial pressure, for the initial linear portion of this relationship, were increased in plants acclimated to salinity of −0.3 and −0.6 megapascal but not in nonacclimated plants. In plants acclimated to water stress, this change in slopes was not significant. Leaf osmotic potential was reduced much more in acclimated than in nonacclimated plants, resulting in turgor maintenance even at −0.9 megapascal. In nonacclimated plants, turgor pressure reached zero at approximately −0.5 megapascal. The accumulation of Cl− and Na+ in the salinity-acclimated plants fully accounted for the decrease in leaf osmotic potential. The rise in concentration of organic solutes comprised only 5% of the total increase in solutes in salinity-acclimated and 10 to 20% in water-stress-acclimated plants. This acclimation was interpreted in light of the higher protein content per unit leaf area and the enhanced ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. At saturating CO2 partial pressure, the declined inhibition in CO2 assimilation of stress-acclimated plants was found for both salinity and water stress. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:16668429

  3. The occurrence and behavior of radium in saline formation water of the U.S. Gulf Coast region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraemer, T.F.; Reid, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Radium has been measured in deep saline formation waters produced from a variety of U.S. Gulf Coast subsurface environments, including oil reservoirs, gas reservoirs and water-producing geopressured aquifers. A strong positive correlation has been found between formation-water salinity and Ra activity, resulting from the interaction of formation water with aquifer matrix. Ra isotopes enter the fluid phase after being produced by the decay of parent elements U and Th, which are located at sites on and within the solid matrix. Processes that are belived to be primarily responsible for transferring Ra from matrix to formation water are chemical leaching and alpha-particle recoil. Factors controlling the observed salinity-Ra relationship may be one or a combination of the following factors: (a) ion exchange; (b) increased solubility of matrix silica surrounding Ra atoms, coupled with a salinity-controlled rate of reequilibration of silica between solution and quartz grains; and (c) the equilibration of Ra in solution with detrial barite within the aquifer. No difference was found in the brine-Ra relation in water produced from oil or gas wells and water produced from wells penetrating only water-bearing aquifers, although the relation was more highly correlated for water-bearing aquifers than hydrocarbon-containing reservoirs. ?? 1984.

  4. Detection and variability of the Congo River plume from satellite derived sea surface temperature, salinity, ocean colour and sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Jo; Lucas, Marc; Dufau, Claire; Sutton, Marion; Lauret, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    The Congo River in Africa has the world's second highest annual mean daily freshwater discharge and is the second largest exporter of terrestrial organic carbon into the oceans. It annually discharges an average of 1,250 × 109 m3 of freshwater into the southeast Atlantic producing a vast fresh water plume, whose signature can be traced hundreds of kilometres from the river mouth. Large river plumes such as this play important roles in the ocean carbon cycle, often functioning as carbon sinks. An understanding of their extent and seasonality is therefore essential if they are to be realistically accounted for in global assessments of the carbon cycle. Despite its size, the variability and dynamics of the Congo plume are minimally documented. In this paper we analyse satellite derived sea surface temperature, salinity, ocean colour and sea level anomaly to describe and quantify the extent, strength and variability of the far-field plume and to explain its behaviour in relation to winds, ocean currents and fresh water discharge. Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis reveals strong seasonal and coastal upwelling signals, potential bimodal seasonality of the Angola Current and responses to fresh water discharge peaks in all data sets. The strongest plume-like signatures however were found in the salinity and ocean colour where the dominant sources of variability come from the Congo River itself, rather than from the wider atmosphere and ocean. These two data sets are then analysed using a statistically based water mass detection technique to isolate the behaviour of the plume. The Congo's close proximity to the equator means that the influence of the earth's rotation on the fresh water inflow is relatively small and the plume tends not to form a distinct coastal current. Instead, its behaviour is determined by wind and surface circulation patterns. The main axis of the plume between November and February, following peak river discharge, is oriented northwest, driven

  5. Postural disorders in mouth breathing children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Patricia Dayrell; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; Mendes, Polyana Leite; Zabjek, Karl; Becker, Helena Gonçalves; Mathur, Sunita

    Mouth breathing syndrome can cause sleep disturbances that compromise the performance of children in school. It might also cause postural abnormalities involving the head and cervical spine; however, the association between postural abnormalities and mouth breathing in children is unclear. To assess the methodological quality of studies and determine if there is an association between mouth breathing and postural disorders in children. Databases comprised MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro, LILACS, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Registrar of Controlled Trials. Searches were until March 2016 and included studies that evaluated postural disorders in children diagnosed with mouth breathing. The Downs and Black checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the evidences. Ten studies were included totaling 417 children from 5 to 14 years. Two studies used the New York State Postural Rating Scale, seven used photography and one used motion capture to measure posture. The methods used to analyze the data included the Postural Analysis Software (SAPO), Fisiometer, ALCimagem and routines in MATLAB program. Quality assessment resulted in low scores (<14) for all the studies. The main areas of weakness were a clear description of the participants, of the methods used to access posture, of the principal confounders and lack of power analysis. External and internal validity were also threatened by the lack of a representative sample and blinding of the participants and assessors, respectively. The review provides low evidence that mouth-breathing pattern in children between the ages 5-14 years is associated with postural deviations. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Polyelectrolyte-coated carbons used in the generation of blue energy from salinity differences.

    PubMed

    Ahualli, S; Jiménez, M L; Fernández, M M; Iglesias, G; Brogioli, D; Delgado, A V

    2014-12-14

    In this work we present a method for the production of clean, renewable electrical energy from the exchange of solutions with different salinities. Activated carbon films are coated with negatively or positively charged polyelectrolytes using well-established adsorption methods. When two oppositely charged coated films are placed in contact with an ionic solution, the potential difference between them will be equal to the difference between their Donnan potentials, and hence, energy can be extracted by building an electrochemical cell with such electrodes. A model is elaborated on the operation of the cell, based on the electrokinetic theory of soft particles. All the features of the model are experimentally reproduced, although a small quantitative difference concerning the maximum open-circuit voltage is found, suggesting that the coating is the key point to improve the efficiency. In the experimental conditions used, we obtain a power of 12.1 mW m(-2). Overall, the method proves to be a fruitful and simple approach to salinity-gradient energy production.

  7. Limited mouth opening after primary therapy of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Weber, Clemens; Dommerich, Steffen; Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Kramp, Burkhard

    2010-09-01

    Patients after surgery and radiation/chemoradiation for treatment of head and neck cancer often suffer from oral complications. These problems may be caused by surgery and radiation. Patients complain, for example, of swallowing problems and limited mouth opening (trismus). The maximal interincisal mouth opening (MIO) was measured in patients treated with surgery and radiation/chemoradiation for head and neck cancer at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology at the University of Rostock. These patients also completed a 20-item questionnaire concerning nutritional, sensual, and speech disorders and pain. One hundred one patients (16 female and 85 male) returned the questionnaire and were included in the study. About 50% of the patients had a limited mouth opening (<36 mm); patients with oropharyngeal cancer had a significant higher risk for trismus (p = .024) than patients with other head and neck cancers, especially compared to patients with laryngeal cancer (p = .013). The questionnaire showed that especially patients with oral cancer report about problems with opening the mouth (73%), eating (65%), drinking (73%), xerostomia (92%), speech disorders (68%), and voice (62%). Patients with laryngeal cancer only reported about problems with xerostomia (62%), speech (83%), and voice (90%), similar to patients with pharyngeal cancer. About half of the patients who underwent primary treatment for oral and oropharyngeal cancer developed trismus and reported about problems with opening the mouth, eating, drinking, dry mouth, voice, and speech. Trismus has a negative impact on quality of life and should be a focus in the postoperative management of patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer, and, if diagnosed, special treatment should be initialized.

  8. Anomalous Near-Surface Low-Salinity Pulses off the Central Oregon Coast

    PubMed Central

    Mazzini, Piero L. F.; Risien, Craig M.; Barth, John A.; Pierce, Stephen D.; Erofeev, Anatoli; Dever, Edward P.; Kosro, P. Michael; Levine, Murray D.; Shearman, R. Kipp; Vardaro, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    From mid-May to August 2011, extreme runoff in the Columbia River ranged from 14,000 to over 17,000 m3/s, more than two standard deviations above the mean for this period. The extreme runoff was the direct result of both melting of anomalously high snowpack and rainfall associated with the 2010–2011 La Niña. The effects of this increased freshwater discharge were observed off Newport, Oregon, 180 km south of the Columbia River mouth. Salinity values as low as 22, nine standard deviations below the climatological value for this period, were registered at the mid-shelf. Using a network of ocean observing sensors and platforms, it was possible to capture the onshore advection of the Columbia River plume from the mid-shelf, 20 km offshore, to the coast and eventually into Yaquina Bay (Newport) during a sustained wind reversal event. Increased freshwater delivery can influence coastal ocean ecosystems and delivery of offshore, river-influenced water may influence estuarine biogeochemistry. PMID:26607750

  9. Early Childhood Caries, Mouth Pain, and Nutritional Threats in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Khanh, Linh Ngo; Ivey, Susan L; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Barkan, Howard; Ngo, Kimberly M; Hoang, Hung T; Vuong, Ivy; Thai, Nam

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the relationships among early childhood caries (ECC), mouth pain, and nutritional status in children aged 1 to 6 years in Southern and Central Vietnam. A total of 593 parent-child pairs were recruited from 5 kindergartens or preschools in Ho-Chi Minh City and Da Nang. Parents completed surveys about dietary habits, oral health practices, and children's mouth pain experience; children received anthropometric assessment and dental examinations. There was a high prevalence of dental caries (74.4%), mostly untreated, and mouth pain (47.1%). Moderate correlations were found between parents' and children's consumption of soda (ρ = 0.361; P < .001) and salty snacks (ρ = 0.292; P < .001). Severity of ECC was associated with decreased weight- and body mass index-for-age z-scores. Presence of pulp-involved caries was associated with strikingly lower height-for-age (mean difference = 0.66; P = .001), weight-for-age (mean difference = 1.17; P < .001), and body mass index-for-age (mean difference = 1.18; P < .001) z-scores. Mouth pain was associated with lower body mass index-for-age z-scores (mean difference = 0.29; P = .013). ECC might negatively affect children's nutritional status, which might be mediated by the depth of decay, chronic inflammation, and mouth pain. Family-based and prevention-oriented nutrition and oral health programs are needed and should start during pregnancy and infancy.

  10. Assessment on Experimental Bacterial Biofilms and in Clinical Practice of the Efficacy of Sampling Solutions for Microbiological Testing of Endoscopes

    PubMed Central

    Aumeran, C.; Thibert, E.; Chapelle, F. A.; Hennequin, C.; Lesens, O.

    2012-01-01

    Opinions differ on the value of microbiological testing of endoscopes, which varies according to the technique used. We compared the efficacy on bacterial biofilms of sampling solutions used for the surveillance of the contamination of endoscope channels. To compare efficacy, we used an experimental model of a 48-h Pseudomonas biofilm grown on endoscope internal tubing. Sampling of this experimental biofilm was performed with a Tween 80-lecithin-based solution, saline, and sterile water. We also performed a randomized prospective study during routine clinical practice in our hospital sampling randomly with two different solutions the endoscopes after reprocessing. Biofilm recovery expressed as a logarithmic ratio of bacteria recovered on bacteria initially present in biofilm was significantly more effective with the Tween 80-lecithin-based solution than with saline solution (P = 0.002) and sterile water (P = 0.002). There was no significant difference between saline and sterile water. In the randomized clinical study, the rates of endoscopes that were contaminated with the Tween 80-lecithin-based sampling solution and the saline were 8/25 and 1/25, respectively (P = 0.02), and the mean numbers of bacteria recovered were 281 and 19 CFU/100 ml (P = 0.001), respectively. In conclusion, the efficiency and therefore the value of the monitoring of endoscope reprocessing by microbiological cultures is dependent on the sampling solutions used. A sampling solution with a tensioactive action is more efficient than saline in detecting biofilm contamination of endoscopes. PMID:22170930

  11. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thoppay, Jaisri R; De Rossi, Scott S; Ciarrocca, Katharine N

    2013-07-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition that is characterized by burning symptoms of the oral mucosa without obvious clinical examination findings. This syndrome has complex characteristics, but its cause remains largely enigmatic, making treatment and management of patients with BMS difficult. Despite not being accompanied by evident organic changes, BMS can significantly reduce the quality of life for such patients. Therefore, it is incumbent on dental professionals to diagnose and manage patients with BMS as a part of comprehensive care. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Rodrigo L.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Moraes, Fernando C.; Brasileiro, Poliana S.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Bastos, Alex C.; Almeida, Marcelo G.; Silva, Jomar M.; Araujo, Beatriz F.; Brito, Frederico P.; Rangel, Thiago P.; Oliveira, Braulio C. V.; Bahia, Ricardo G.; Paranhos, Rodolfo P.; Dias, Rodolfo J. S.; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G.; Pereira, Renato C.; Leal, Camille V.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S.; Moreira, Ana P. B.; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C.; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L.; Teixeira, João B.; Valle, Rogerio A. B.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2016-01-01

    Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 106–km2 plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume’s eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km2) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth–ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes. PMID:27152336

  13. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth.

    PubMed

    Moura, Rodrigo L; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Moraes, Fernando C; Brasileiro, Poliana S; Salomon, Paulo S; Mahiques, Michel M; Bastos, Alex C; Almeida, Marcelo G; Silva, Jomar M; Araujo, Beatriz F; Brito, Frederico P; Rangel, Thiago P; Oliveira, Braulio C V; Bahia, Ricardo G; Paranhos, Rodolfo P; Dias, Rodolfo J S; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G; Pereira, Renato C; Leal, Camille V; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S; Moreira, Ana P B; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L; Teixeira, João B; Valle, Rogerio A B; Thompson, Cristiane C; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2016-04-01

    Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 10(6)-km(2) plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume's eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km(2)) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth-ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes.

  14. Pain Part 8: Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Beneng, Kiran; Renton, Tara

    2016-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a rare but impactful condition affecting mainly post-menopausal women resulting in constant pain and significant difficulty with eating, drinking and daily function. The aetiology of BMS remains an enigma. Recent evidence suggests it likely to be neuropathic in origin, the cause of which remains unknown. There is no cure for this condition and the unfortunate patients remain managed on a variety of neuropathic pain medication, salivary substitutes and other non-medical interventions that help the patient 'get through the day'. Some simple strategies can assist both clinician and patient to manage this debilitating condition. CPD/Clinical Relevance: The dental team will recognize patients presenting with burning mouth syndrome. They are difficult patients to manage and are often referred to secondary care and, ultimately, depend on their general medical practitioners for pain management.

  15. Salinity of the Delaware Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Bernard; McCarthy, Leo T.

    1962-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to obtain data on and study the factors affecting the salinity of the Delaware River from Philadelphia, Pa., to the Appoquinimink River, Del. The general chemical quality of water in the estuary is described, including changes in salinity in the river cross section and profile, diurnal and seasonal changes, and the effects of rainfall, sea level, and winds on salinity. Relationships are established of the concentrations of chloride and dissolved solids to specific conductance. In addition to chloride profiles and isochlor plots, time series are plotted for salinity or some quantity representing salinity, fresh-water discharge, mean river level, and mean sea level. The two major variables which appear to have the greatest effect on the salinity of the estuary are the fresh-water flow of the river and sea level. The most favorable combination of these variables for salt-water encroachment occurs from August to early October and the least favorable combination occurs between December and May.

  16. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    In 1974, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act was passed into law. This law was enacted to address concerns regarding the salinity content of the Colorado River. The law authorized various construction projects in selected areas or 'units' of the Colorado River Basin intended to reduce the salinity load in the Colorado River. One such area was the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit in western Colorado. The U. S. Geological Survey has done extensive studies and research in the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit that provide information to aid the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Natural Resources Conservation Service in determining where salinity-control work may provide the best results, and to what extent salinity-control work was effective in reducing salinity concentrations and loads in the Colorado River. Previous studies have indicated that salinity concentrations and loads have been decreasing downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, and that the decreases are likely the result of salinity control work in these areas. Several of these reports; however, also document decreasing salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. This finding was important because only a small amount of salinity-control work was being done in areas upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit at the time the findings were reported (late 1990?s). As a result of those previous findings, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate salinity trends in selected areas bracketing the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit and regions upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. The results of the study indicate that salinity loads were decreasing upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit from 1986 through 2003, but the rates of decrease have slowed during the last 10 years. The average rate of decrease in salinity load upstream from the Grand Valley

  17. Measuring Salinity by Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapworth, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines procedures for constructing an instrument which uses an electrode and calibration methods to measure the salinity of waters in environments close to and affected by a saline estuary. (Author/DC)

  18. A broadband helical saline water liquid antenna for wearable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaosheng; Huang, Yi; Gao, Gui; Yang, Cheng; Lu, Zhonghao; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A broadband helical liquid antenna made of saline water is proposed. A transparent hollow support is employed to fabricate the antenna. The rotation structure is fabricated with a thin flexible tube. The saline water with a concentration of 3.5% can be injected into or be extracted out from the tube to change the quantity of the solution. Thus, the tunability of the radiation pattern could be realised by applying the fluidity of the liquid. The radiation feature of the liquid antenna is compared with that of a metal one, and fairly good agreement has been achieved. Furthermore, three statements of the radiation performance corresponding to the ratio of the diameter to the wavelength of the helical saline water antenna have been proposed. It has been found that the resonance frequency increases when the length of the feeding probe or the radius of the vertical part of the liquid decreases. The fractional bandwidth can reach over 20% with a total height of 185 mm at 1.80 GHz. The measured results indicate reasonable approximation to the simulated. The characteristics of the liquid antenna make it a good candidate for various wireless applications, especially the wearable systems.

  19. Development and validation of a scale for mouth handicap in systemic sclerosis: the Mouth Handicap in Systemic Sclerosis scale

    PubMed Central

    Mouthon, L; Rannou, F; Bérezné, A; Pagnoux, C; Arène, J‐P; Foïs, E; Cabane, J; Guillevin, L; Revel, M; Fermanian, J; Poiraudeau, S

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop and assess the reliability and construct validity of a scale assessing disability involving the mouth in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods We generated a 34‐item provisional scale from mailed responses of patients (n = 74), expert consensus (n = 10) and literature analysis. A total of 71 other SSc patients were recruited. The test–retest reliability was assessed using the intraclass coefficient correlation and divergent validity using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Factor analysis followed by varimax rotation was performed to assess the factorial structure of the scale. Results The item reduction process retained 12 items with 5 levels of answers (total score range 0–48). The mean total score of the scale was 20.3 (SD 9.7). The test–retest reliability was 0.96. Divergent validity was confirmed for global disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), r = 0.33), hand function (Cochin Hand Function Scale, r = 0.37), inter‐incisor distance (r = −0.34), handicap (McMaster‐Toronto Arthritis questionnaire (MACTAR), r = 0.24), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD); HADd, r = 0.26) and anxiety (HADa, r = 0.17). Factor analysis extracted 3 factors with eigenvalues of 4.26, 1.76 and 1.47, explaining 63% of the variance. These 3 factors could be clinically characterised. The first factor (5 items) represents handicap induced by the reduction in mouth opening, the second (5 items) handicap induced by sicca syndrome and the third (2 items) aesthetic concerns. Conclusion We propose a new scale, the Mouth Handicap in Systemic Sclerosis (MHISS) scale, which has excellent reliability and good construct validity, and assesses specifically disability involving the mouth in patients with SSc. PMID:17502364

  20. Fluid resuscitation with lactated Ringer’s solution vs normal saline in acute pancreatitis: A triple-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Marante, Iván; González-Camacho, Verónica; Bonjoch, Laia; Quesada-Vázquez, Noé; Almenta-Saavedra, Isabel; Miralles-Maciá, Cayetano; Acevedo-Piedra, Nelly G; Roger-Ibáñez, Manuela; Sánchez-Marin, Claudia; Osuna-Ligero, Rosa; Gracia, Ángel; Llorens, Pere; Zapater, Pedro; Singh, Vikesh K; Moreu-Martín, Rocío; Closa, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the optimal type of fluid resuscitation in acute pancreatitis (AP). Objective The objective of this article was to compare the effect of lactated Ringer’s solution (LR) vs normal saline (NS) in the inflammatory response in AP. Methods We conducted a triple-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Patients ≥ 18 admitted with AP were eligible. Patients were randomized to receive LR or NS. Primary outcome variables were number of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria at 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours and blood C-reactive protein (CRP) levels at 48 hours and 72 hours. In vitro complementary experiments were performed to further explore the interaction between pH, lactate and inflammation. Results Nineteen patients receiving LR and 21 receiving NS were analyzed. The median (p25–p75) number of SIRS criteria at 48 hours were 1 (1–2) for NS vs 1 (0–1) for LR, p = 0.060. CRP levels (mg/l) were as follows: at 48 hours NS 166 (78–281) vs LR 28 (3–124), p = 0.037; at 72 hours NS 217 (59–323) vs LR 25 (3–169), p = 0.043. In vitro, LR inhibited the induction of inflammatory phenotype of macrophages and NF-κB activation. This effect was not observed when using Ringer’s solution without lactate, suggesting a direct anti-inflammatory effect of lactate. Conclusions Lactated Ringer’s is associated with an anti-inflammatory effect in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:29435315

  1. Management of burning mouth syndrome taking into consideration various etiologic factors.

    PubMed

    Kenchadze, R L; Ivereli, M B; Geladze, N M; Khachapuridze, N S; Bakhtadze, S Z

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the research was to detect the stomatologic, endocrine and psycho-neurologic status in patients with burning mouth syndrome, elaborate different diagnostic criteria and effective therapy for the patients with burning mouth syndrome. 92 patients with burning mouth syndrome were studied. Patients ranged in age from 28 to 72 years. The conducted studies gave the possibility to make conclusions, the most important of which are: burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is not only stomatologic problem; this psychosomatic syndrome belongs to gerontologic disease and tendency of its "rejuvenation" was revealed as well (in the current study --2 women (28 and 32 year old, and 38 year old man); degree of revelation of the symptoms of depression, anxiety, obsession and somatization is closely related with duration of the diseases. These symptoms are progressing together with aging and reach the peak at 60-70 years old. Individual scheme of therapy was developed on the background of clinico-paraclinical study.

  2. Full-Mouth Intraoral Radiographic Survey in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Adriana; Legendre, Loïc

    2017-09-01

    Dental pathologies are highly prevalent in pet rabbit populations, making oral radiography an essential tool in the evaluation of lagomorph dentitions. The unique anatomy of the rabbit's mouth limits the examination of the conscious animal to the rostral portion of it's mouth. In addition, the oral examination of an aradicular hypsodont tooth is restricted to the short coronal fraction of its crown. Erstwhile images obtained by the extraoral technique were once considered the most practical and informative tool in rabbit dentistry; however, limited visualization of the key structures of individual teeth became the major drawback of this technique. As new imaging technologies are becoming widely available and affordable for veterinarians, intraoral radiography offers the ability to prevent, diagnose, and treat oral pathologies in lagomorphs. This article describes a step-by-step procedure to obtain a full-mouth radiographic survey in rabbits. For this technique, a standard dental X-ray generator and intraoral storage phosphor plates are used while applying the bisecting angle technique. Among the advantages of this technique are detailed visualization of internal and external dental structures, identification of early lesions, and detection of occult pathologies. Furthermore, intraoral images offer superior resolution and higher diagnostic quality with minimal radiation exposure, making this method safer for the veterinarian, staff members, and their patients.

  3. Analysis of the Dielectric constant of saline-alkali soils and the effect on radar backscattering coefficient: a case study of soda alkaline saline soils in Western Jilin Province using RADARSAT-2 data.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-yang; Zhao, Kai; Ren, Jian-hua; Ding, Yan-ling; Wu, Li-li

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is a global problem, especially in developing countries, which affects the environment and productivity of agriculture areas. Salt has a significant effect on the complex dielectric constant of wet soil. However, there is no suitable model to describe the variation in the backscattering coefficient due to changes in soil salinity content. The purpose of this paper is to use backscattering models to understand behaviors of the backscattering coefficient in saline soils based on the analysis of its dielectric constant. The effects of moisture and salinity on the dielectric constant by combined Dobson mixing model and seawater dielectric constant model are analyzed, and the backscattering coefficient is then simulated using the AIEM. Simultaneously, laboratory measurements were performed on ground samples. The frequency effect of the laboratory results was not the same as the simulated results. The frequency dependence of the ionic conductivity of an electrolyte solution is influenced by the ion's components. Finally, the simulated backscattering coefficients measured from the dielectric constant with the AIEM were analyzed using the extracted backscattering coefficient from the RADARSAT-2 image. The results show that RADARSAT-2 is potentially able to measure soil salinity; however, the mixed pixel problem needs to be more thoroughly considered.

  4. The human mouth: oral functions in a social complexity perspective.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Harald M; Dimitrov, Vladimir

    2003-06-01

    In the dental and medical literature, the mouth and oral functions are usually presented in a biomedical context. However, there may be a need for a broader perspective if we are to appreciate the importance of the human mouth as an organ with diverse functions. The paradigm of complexity appears to be of relevance in our understanding the social and psychological characteristics of the human mouth in addition to its biological functions. Examples such as the pleasures of taste, social aspects of eating, the importance of linguistics and communication are illustrations of some of the social and psychological aspects of oral functions. Professional knowledge related to such issues is important in our understanding the patient's priorities and in performing the relevant diagnosis and treatment planning.

  5. [Investigation and canonical correspondence analysis of salinity contents in secondary salinization greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb].

    PubMed

    Tang, Dong; Mao, Liang; Zhi, Yue-e; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Zhou, Pei; Chai, Xiao-Tong

    2014-12-01

    The salinity characteristics of greenhouse soils with cropping obstacles in Shanghai suburb were investigated and analyzed. The salinity contents of the salinization greenhouse soils showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increasing cropping duration. The salinized soils mainly included slightly salted, mildly salted and salted soils, which accounted for 17.39%, 56.52% and 13.04%, respectively. Among them, the degree of salinity in greenhouse soil planted with asparagus in Chongming County was the highest. Among the salt ions in greenhouse soils, the cations were mainly Ca2+ and Na+, while the anions were mainly NO3- and SO4(2-). The degree of salinity was mainly influenced by fertilization mode, cropping duration, crop type and management level, which led to the great variation in the salinity contents and salt ions. Canonical correspondence analysis found that the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NO3- in greenhouse soils were greatly affected by cropping duration, and the degree of salinity would be enhanced and attenuated with long-term application of single fertilizer and mixed application of chemical fertilizer and organic manure, respectively. The greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb could be classified as four patterns influenced by the relationship between salinity ions and samples, and the most soils were influenced by Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3- and Cl-, which required to be primarily controlled.

  6. Classification of mouth movements using 7 T fMRI.

    PubMed

    Bleichner, M G; Jansma, J M; Salari, E; Freudenburg, Z V; Raemaekers, M; Ramsey, N F

    2015-12-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is an interface that uses signals from the brain to control a computer. BCIs will likely become important tools for severely paralyzed patients to restore interaction with the environment. The sensorimotor cortex is a promising target brain region for a BCI due to the detailed topography and minimal functional interference with other important brain processes. Previous studies have shown that attempted movements in paralyzed people generate neural activity that strongly resembles actual movements. Hence decodability for BCI applications can be studied in able-bodied volunteers with actual movements. In this study we tested whether mouth movements provide adequate signals in the sensorimotor cortex for a BCI. The study was executed using fMRI at 7 T to ensure relevance for BCI with cortical electrodes, as 7 T measurements have been shown to correlate well with electrocortical measurements. Twelve healthy volunteers executed four mouth movements (lip protrusion, tongue movement, teeth clenching, and the production of a larynx activating sound) while in the scanner. Subjects performed a training and a test run. Single trials were classified based on the Pearson correlation values between the activation patterns per trial type in the training run and single trials in the test run in a 'winner-takes-all' design. Single trial mouth movements could be classified with 90% accuracy. The classification was based on an area with a volume of about 0.5 cc, located on the sensorimotor cortex. If voxels were limited to the surface, which is accessible for electrode grids, classification accuracy was still very high (82%). Voxels located on the precentral cortex performed better (87%) than the postcentral cortex (72%). The high reliability of decoding mouth movements suggests that attempted mouth movements are a promising candidate for BCI in paralyzed people.

  7. River mouth morphodynamics - Examples from small, mountainous rivers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrick, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Small, high-sediment yield rivers are known to discharge massive amounts of sediment to the world's oceans. Because of these high rates of sediment discharge, many of these small rivers provide important sources of sediment to littoral cells, such as those along the west coasts of North and South America. Sediment discharge from these small watersheds is commonly ephemeral and dominated by infrequent high flow. Thus, the morphodynamic states of these river mouths will vary with time, often being 'wave dominated' for the majority of the year and then changing to 'river dominated' during river sediment discharge events. Here I will provide a summary of recent observations of the morphodynamics of river mouths along California that reveal that sediment dispersal and deposition patterns vary owing to the sediment transport processes at the river mouths, which are influenced by the buoyancy of the river discharge. During low rates of sediment discharge and low river sediment concentrations, sediment dispersal will occur in hypopycnal (positively buoyant) plumes and sand deposition will be close to the river mouth. These conditions commonly result in transfer of sand from the river delta to the littoral cell during the first 1-2 years following the river discharge event. During high rates of sediment discharge and high river sediment concentrations, river discharge may form hyperpycnal (negatively buoyant) plumes and disperse sand to deeper portions of the continental shelf, where transfer back to the littoral cell may take decades or may not occur. High-resolution bathymetry from southern California provides several examples of sand dispersal by hyperpycnal plumes to regions of the inner and middle continental shelf. Thus, sediment dispersal from river mouths influences coastal morphodynamics, morphology, and the rates and timing of sediment supply to littoral cells.

  8. Solution stability of Captisol-stabilized melphalan (Evomela) versus Propylene glycol-based melphalan hydrochloride injection.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ramsharan; Chen, Jin; Miller, Teresa; Bergren, Michael; Mallik, Rangan

    2016-12-14

    The objective of this study was to compare the stability of recently approved Captisol-stabilized propylene glycol-free melphalan injection (Evomela™) against currently marketed propylene glycol-based melphalan injection. The products were compared as reconstituted solutions in vials as well as admixture solutions prepared from normal saline in infusion bags. Evomela and propylene glycol-based melphalan injection were reconstituted in normal saline and organic custom diluent, respectively, according to their package insert instructions. The reconstituted solutions were diluted in normal saline to obtain drug admixture solutions at specific drug concentrations. Stability of the solutions was studied at room temperature by assay of melphalan and determination of melphalan-related impurities. Results show that based on the increase in total impurities in propylene glycol-based melphalan injection at 0.45 mg/mL, Evomela admixture solutions are about 5, 9, 15 and 29 times more stable at concentrations of 0.45, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 mg/mL, respectively. Results confirmed that reconstituted Evomela solution can be stored in the vial for up to 1 h at RT or for up to 24 h at refrigerated temperature (2-8 °C) with no significant degradation. After storage in the vial, it remains stable for an additional 3-29 h after preparation of admixture solution in infusion bags at concentrations of 0.25-5.0 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, Evomela solution in saline, at concentration of 5.0 mg/mL melphalan was bacteriostatic through 72 h storage at 2-8 °C. Formulation of melphalan with Captisol technology significantly improved stability compared to melphalan hydrochloride reconstituted with propylene-glycol based diluents.

  9. Development of fetal yawn compared with non-yawn mouth openings from 24-36 weeks gestation.

    PubMed

    Reissland, Nadja; Francis, Brian; Mason, James

    2012-01-01

    Although some research suggests that fetuses yawn, others disagree arguing that is it simple mouth opening. Furthermore there is no developmental account of fetal yawning compared with simple mouth opening. The aim of the present study was to establish in a repeated measures design the development of fetal yawning compared with simple mouth opening. Video recordings were made of the fetal face and upper torso visualized by means of 4D full frontal or facial profile ultrasound recordings. Fifteen healthy fetuses were scanned four times at 24, 28, 32 and 36 weeks gestation. Yawning was distinguished from non-yawning in terms of the length of time it took to reach the apex of the mouth stretch, with yawns being defined as more than 50% of the total time observed. To assess changes in frequency, a Poisson mixed effects model was fitted to the count of number of yawn and simple mouth opening events with age and gender as fixed effects, and person as a random effect. For both yawns and simple mouth openings a smooth varying age effect was significant. The number of yawns observed declined with age from 28 weeks gestation, whereas simple mouth openings were less frequent and the decline was observed from 24 weeks. Gender was not significant either for yawn and simple mouth openings. Yawning can be reliably distinguished from other forms of mouth opening with the potential of using yawning as an index of fetal healthy development.

  10. Mapping Spatial Variability of Soil Salinity in a Coastal Paddy Field Based on Electromagnetic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan; Huang, Jingyi; Shi, Zhou; Li, Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    In coastal China, there is an urgent need to increase land area for agricultural production and urban development, where there is a rapid growing population. One solution is land reclamation from coastal tidelands, but soil salinization is problematic. As such, it is very important to characterize and map the within-field variability of soil salinity in space and time. Conventional methods are often time-consuming, expensive, labor-intensive, and unpractical. Fortunately, proximal sensing has become an important technology in characterizing within-field spatial variability. In this study, we employed the EM38 to study spatial variability of soil salinity in a coastal paddy field. Significant correlation relationship between ECa and EC1:5 (i.e. r >0.9) allowed us to use EM38 data to characterize the spatial variability of soil salinity. Geostatistical methods were used to determine the horizontal spatio-temporal variability of soil salinity over three consecutive years. The study found that the distribution of salinity was heterogeneous and the leaching of salts was more significant in the edges of the study field. By inverting the EM38 data using a Quasi-3D inversion algorithm, the vertical spatio-temporal variability of soil salinity was determined and the leaching of salts over time was easily identified. The methodology of this study can be used as guidance for researchers interested in understanding soil salinity development as well as land managers aiming for effective soil salinity monitoring and management practices. In order to better characterize the variations in soil salinity to a deeper soil profile, the deeper mode of EM38 (i.e., EM38v) as well as other EMI instruments (e.g. DUALEM-421) can be incorporated to conduct Quasi-3D inversions for deeper soil profiles. PMID:26020969

  11. Mapping spatial variability of soil salinity in a coastal paddy field based on electromagnetic sensors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan; Huang, Jingyi; Shi, Zhou; Li, Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    In coastal China, there is an urgent need to increase land area for agricultural production and urban development, where there is a rapid growing population. One solution is land reclamation from coastal tidelands, but soil salinization is problematic. As such, it is very important to characterize and map the within-field variability of soil salinity in space and time. Conventional methods are often time-consuming, expensive, labor-intensive, and unpractical. Fortunately, proximal sensing has become an important technology in characterizing within-field spatial variability. In this study, we employed the EM38 to study spatial variability of soil salinity in a coastal paddy field. Significant correlation relationship between ECa and EC1:5 (i.e. r >0.9) allowed us to use EM38 data to characterize the spatial variability of soil salinity. Geostatistical methods were used to determine the horizontal spatio-temporal variability of soil salinity over three consecutive years. The study found that the distribution of salinity was heterogeneous and the leaching of salts was more significant in the edges of the study field. By inverting the EM38 data using a Quasi-3D inversion algorithm, the vertical spatio-temporal variability of soil salinity was determined and the leaching of salts over time was easily identified. The methodology of this study can be used as guidance for researchers interested in understanding soil salinity development as well as land managers aiming for effective soil salinity monitoring and management practices. In order to better characterize the variations in soil salinity to a deeper soil profile, the deeper mode of EM38 (i.e., EM38v) as well as other EMI instruments (e.g. DUALEM-421) can be incorporated to conduct Quasi-3D inversions for deeper soil profiles.

  12. Platelet rich fibrin combined with decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft for the treatment of human intrabony periodontal defects: a randomized split mouth clinical trail.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashish; Gupta, Narinder Dev; Jain, Avikal

    2016-01-01

    Polypeptide growth factors of platelet rich fibrin (PRF) have the potential to regenerate periodontal tissues. Osteoinductive property of demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) has been successfully utilized in periodontal regeneration. The aim of the present randomized, split mouth, clinical trial was to determine the additive effects of PRF with a DFDBA in the treatment of human intrabony periodontal defects. Sixty interproximal infrabony defects in 30 healthy, non-smoker patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to PRF/DFDBA group or the DFDBA/saline. Clinical [pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and gingival recession (REC)] and radiographic (bone fill, defect resolution and alveolar crest resorption) measurements were made at baseline and at a 12-month evaluation. Compared with baseline, 12-month results indicated that both treatment modalities resulted in significant changes in all clinical and radiographic parameters. However, the PRP/DFDBA group exhibited statistically significantly greater changes compared with the DFDBA/saline group in PD (4.15 ± 0.84 vs 3.60 ± 0.51 mm), CAL (3.73 ± 0.74 vs 2.61 ± 0.68 mm), REC (0.47 ± 0.56 vs 1.00 ± 0.61 mm), bone fill (3.50 ± 0.67 vs 2.49 ± 0.64 mm) and defect resolution (3.73 ± 0.63 vs 2.75 ± 0.57 mm). Observations indicate that a combination of PRF and DFDBA is more effective than DFDBA with saline for the treatment of infrabony periodontal defects.

  13. Selective attention to the mouth is associated with expressive language skills in monolingual and bilingual infants.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tawny; Atagi, Natsuki; Johnson, Scott P

    2018-05-01

    Infants increasingly attend to the mouths of others during the latter half of the first postnatal year, and individual differences in selective attention to talking mouths during infancy predict verbal skills during toddlerhood. There is some evidence suggesting that trajectories in mouth-looking vary by early language environment, in particular monolingual or bilingual language exposure, which may have differential consequences in developing sensitivity to the communicative and social affordances of the face. Here, we evaluated whether 6- to 12-month-olds' mouth-looking is related to skills associated with concurrent social communicative development-including early language functioning and emotion discriminability. We found that attention to the mouth of a talking face increased with age but that mouth-looking was more strongly associated with concurrent expressive language skills than chronological age for both monolingual and bilingual infants. Mouth-looking was not related to emotion discrimination. These data suggest that selective attention to a talking mouth may be one important mechanism by which infants learn language regardless of home language environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Selective attention to the mouth is associated with expressive language skills in monolingual and bilingual infants

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Tawny; Atagi, Natsuki; Johnson, Scott P.

    2018-01-01

    Infants increasingly attend to the mouths of others during the latter half of the first postnatal year, and individual differences in selective attention to talking mouths during infancy predict verbal skills during toddlerhood. There is some evidence suggesting that trajectories in mouth-looking vary by early language environment, in particular monolingual or bilingual language exposure, which may have differential consequences in developing sensitivity to the communicative and social affordances of the face. Here, we evaluated whether 6- to 12-month-olds’ mouth-looking is related to skills associated with concurrent social communicative development—including early language functioning and emotion discriminability. We found that attention to the mouth of a talking face increased with age but that mouth-looking was more strongly associated with concurrent expressive language skills than chronological age for both monolingual and bilingual infants. Mouth-looking was not related to emotion discrimination. These data suggest that selective attention to a talking mouth may be one important mechanism by which infants learn language regardless of home language environment. PMID:29406126

  15. Acoustic rhinometry in mouth breathing patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Melo, Ana Carolina Cardoso de; Gomes, Adriana de Oliveira de Camargo; Cavalcanti, Arlene Santos; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    2015-01-01

    When there is a change in the physiological pattern of nasal breathing, mouth breathing may already be present. The diagnosis of mouth breathing is related to nasal patency. One way to access nasal patency is by acoustic rhinometry. To systematically review the effectiveness of acoustic rhinometry for the diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing. Electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE via PubMed and Bireme, SciELO, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Science Direct, from August to December 2013, were consulted. 11,439 articles were found: 30 from LILACS, 54 from MEDLINE via Bireme, 5558 from MEDLINE via PubMed, 11 from SciELO, 2056 from Web of Science, 1734 from Scopus, 13 from PsycInfo, 1108 from CINAHL, and 875 from Science Direct. Of these, two articles were selected. The heterogeneity in the use of equipment and materials for the assessment of respiratory mode in these studies reveals that there is not yet consensus in the assessment and diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing. According to the articles, acoustic rhinometry has been used for almost twenty years, but controlled studies attesting to the efficacy of measuring the geometry of nasal cavities for complementary diagnosis of respiratory mode are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal degree of mouth opening for laryngeal mask airway function during oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Sanuki, Takuro; Sugioka, Shingo; Hirokane, Motoko; Son, Hiroki; Uda, Rumiko; Akatsuka, Masafumi; Kotani, Junichiro

    2011-04-01

    This study was performed to determine the optimal degree of mouth opening in anesthetized patients requiring laryngeal mask airway (LMA) during oral surgery. A single, experienced LMA user inserted the LMA in 15 patients who were scheduled for elective oral surgery. Oropharyngeal leak pressure, intracuff pressure, and fiberoptic assessment of the LMA position were sequentially documented in 5 mouth conditions-opening of 1.4 (neutral position), 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm-and any resulting ventilatory difficulties were recorded. Oropharyngeal leak pressure with the mouth open 4 cm (21.8 ± 3.2 cm H(2)O, P = .025) and 5 cm (27.3 ± 7.2 cm H(2)O, P < .001) was significantly higher than in the neutral position (18.1 ± 1.5 cm H(2)O), as was intracuff pressure (neutral position, 60.0 ± 0 cm H(2)O; 4 cm, 72.6 ± 5.1 cm H(2)O [P < .001]; and 5 cm, 86.9 ± 14.4 cm H(2)O [P < .001]). LMA position, observed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy, was unchanged by mouth opening, being similar in the 5 mouth conditions (P = .999). In addition, ventilation difficulties (abnormal capnograph curves or inadequate tidal volume) occurred in 2 of 15 patients (13%) and 7 of 15 patients (53%) (P < .001) with the mouth opening of 4 and 5 cm, respectively. This study showed that a mouth opening over 4 cm led to substantial increases in oropharyngeal leak pressure and intracuff pressure of the LMA, warranting caution, because gastric insufflation, sore throat, and ventilation difficulties may occur. A mouth opening of 3 cm achieves acceptable airway conditions for anesthetized patients requiring LMA. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tapping the grapevine: a closer look at word-of-mouth as a recruitment source.

    PubMed

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lievens, Filip

    2009-03-01

    To advance knowledge of word-of-mouth as a company-independent recruitment source, this study draws on conceptualizations of word-of-mouth in the marketing literature. The sample consisted of 612 potential applicants targeted by the Belgian Defense. Consistent with the recipient-source framework, time spent receiving positive word-of-mouth was determined by the traits of the recipient (extraversion and conscientiousness), the characteristics of the source (perceived expertise), and their mutual relationship (tie strength). Only conscientiousness and source expertise were determinants of receiving negative word-of-mouth. In line with the accessibility-diagnosticity model, receiving positive employment information through word-of-mouth early in the recruitment process was positively associated with perceptual (organizational attractiveness) and behavioral outcomes (actual application decisions), beyond potential applicants' exposure to other recruitment sources. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Interventions for the management of dry mouth: non-pharmacological interventions.

    PubMed

    Furness, Susan; Bryan, Gemma; McMillan, Roddy; Worthington, Helen V

    2013-08-30

    Xerostomia is the subjective sensation of dry mouth. Common causes of xerostomia include adverse effects of many commonly prescribed medications, disease (e.g. Sjogren's Syndrome) and radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancers. Non-pharmacological techniques such as acupuncture or mild electrostimulation may be used to improve symptoms. To assess the effects of non-pharmacological interventions administered to stimulate saliva production for the relief of dry mouth. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 16th April 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3), MEDLINE via OVID (1948 to 16th April 2013), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 16th April 2013), AMED via OVID (1985 to 16th April 2013), CINAHL via EBSCO (1981 to 16th April 2013), and CANCERLIT via PubMed (1950 to 16th April 2013). The metaRegister of Controlled Clinical Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) and ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) were also searched to identify ongoing and completed trials. References lists of included studies and relevant reviews were also searched. There were no restrictions on the language of publication or publication status. We included parallel group randomised controlled trials of non-pharmacological interventions to treat dry mouth, where participants had dry mouth symptoms at baseline. At least two review authors assessed each of the included studies to confirm eligibility, assess risk of bias and extract data using a piloted data extraction form. We calculated mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for continuous outcomes or where different scales were used to assess an outcome, we calculated standardised mean differences (SMD) together with 95% CIs. We attempted to extract data on adverse effects of interventions. Where data were missing or unclear we attempted to contact study authors to obtain further information. There were nine studies (total 366

  19. Interventions for the management of dry mouth: non-pharmacological interventions.

    PubMed

    Furness, Susan; Bryan, Gemma; McMillan, Roddy; Birchenough, Sarah; Worthington, Helen V

    2013-09-05

    Xerostomia is the subjective sensation of dry mouth. Common causes of xerostomia include adverse effects of many commonly prescribed medications, disease (e.g. Sjogren's Syndrome) and radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancers. Non-pharmacological techniques such as acupuncture or mild electrostimulation may be used to improve symptoms. To assess the effects of non-pharmacological interventions administered to stimulate saliva production for the relief of dry mouth. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 16th April 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3), MEDLINE via OVID (1948 to 16th April 2013), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 16th April 2013), AMED via OVID (1985 to 16th April 2013), CINAHL via EBSCO (1981 to 16th April 2013), and CANCERLIT via PubMed (1950 to 16th April 2013). The metaRegister of Controlled Clinical Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) and ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) were also searched to identify ongoing and completed trials. References lists of included studies and relevant reviews were also searched. There were no restrictions on the language of publication or publication status. We included parallel group randomised controlled trials of non-pharmacological interventions to treat dry mouth, where participants had dry mouth symptoms at baseline. At least two review authors assessed each of the included studies to confirm eligibility, assess risk of bias and extract data using a piloted data extraction form. We calculated mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for continuous outcomes or where different scales were used to assess an outcome, we calculated standardised mean differences (SMD) together with 95% CIs. We attempted to extract data on adverse effects of interventions. Where data were missing or unclear we attempted to contact study authors to obtain further information. There were nine studies (total 366

  20. Foot-and-mouth disease virus receptors: multiple gateways to initiate infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since its discovery over 100 years ago as the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), research has been directed at understanding the biology of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) so as to be able to control this devastating and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed livestock. Giv...

  1. A case-control evaluation of fungiform papillae density in burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naud, Jason M; Benca, Laura; Drangsholt, Mark T; LeResche, Linda; Coldwell, Susan E

    2018-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that high fungiform papillae density may be a risk factor for developing the taste and pain alterations characteristic of burning mouth syndrome. Evaluate whether fungiform papillae density, taste sensitivity, and mechanical pain sensitivity differ between burning mouth syndrome cases and controls. This case-control study compared cases diagnosed with primary burning mouth syndrome with pain-free controls. Participants (17 female cases and 23 female controls) rated the intensity of sucrose, sodium chloride, citric acid, and quinine applied separately to each side of the anterior tongue and sampled whole mouth. Mechanical pain sensitivity was assessed separately for each side of the tongue using weighted pins. Digital photographs of participants' tongues were used to count fungiform papillae. Burning mouth syndrome cases had increased whole mouth taste intensity. Cases also had increased sensitivity to quinine on the anterior tongue, as well as increased mechanical pain sensitivity on the anterior tongue. Fungiform papillae density did not differ significantly between cases and controls. Fungiform papillae density on the left and right sides of the tongue were correlated in controls; however, there was no left/right side correlation in cases. Cases had increased pain and taste perception on the anterior tongue. The lack of correlation between left and right fungiform papillae density in cases may be an indication of asymmetrical lingual innervation in these patients. 3b. Laryngoscope, 128:841-846, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Metabolic Fingerprinting to Assess the Impact of Salinity on Carotenoid Content in Developing Tomato Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Van Meulebroek, Lieven; Hanssens, Jochen; Steppe, Kathy; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    As the presence of health-promoting substances has become a significant aspect of tomato fruit appreciation, this study investigated nutrient solution salinity as a tool to enhance carotenoid accumulation in cherry tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Juanita). Hereby, a key objective was to uncover the underlying mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism, moving away from typical black box research strategies. To this end, a greenhouse experiment with five salinity treatments (ranging from 2.0 to 5.0 decisiemens (dS) m−1) was carried out and a metabolomic fingerprinting approach was applied to obtain valuable insights on the complicated interactions between salinity treatments, environmental conditions, and the plant’s genetic background. Hereby, several hundreds of metabolites were attributed a role in the plant’s salinity response (at the fruit level), whereby the overall impact turned out to be highly depending on the developmental stage. In addition, 46 of these metabolites embraced a dual significance as they were ascribed a prominent role in carotenoid metabolism as well. Based on the specific mediating actions of the retained metabolites, it could be determined that altered salinity had only marginal potential to enhance carotenoid accumulation in the concerned tomato fruit cultivar. This study invigorates the usefulness of metabolomics in modern agriculture, for instance in modeling tomato fruit quality. Moreover, the metabolome changes that were caused by the different salinity levels may enclose valuable information towards other salinity-related plant processes as well. PMID:27240343

  3. Comparison of the effects of a balanced crystalloid-based and a saline-based tetrastarch solution on canine whole blood coagulation and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Reuteler, Annina; Axiak-Flammer, Shannon; Howard, Judith; Adamik, Katja-Nicole

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of a 6% hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.42) solution in either a buffered, electrolyte-balanced (HES-BAL), or a saline (HES-SAL) carrier solution on canine platelet function and whole blood coagulation. Prospective, randomized study. University teaching hospital. Thirty-seven client-owned dogs undergoing general anesthesia for arthroscopy or imaging studies. Dogs received a 15 mL/kg intravenous bolus of HES-SAL (n = 13), HES-BAL (n = 14), or a modified Ringer's solution (n = 10) over 30-40 minutes. Coagulation was analyzed using a Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (closure time [Ct PFA ]), and whole blood thromboelastometry (ROTEM) with extrinsically (ex-tem and fib-tem) and intrinsically (in-tem) activated assays, which assessed clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), maximal clot firmness (MCF), and lysis index (LI). Coagulation samples were assayed prior to fluid administration (T0), and 5 minutes (T1), and 3 hours (T2) following fluid bolus administration, respectively. Both HES solutions resulted in impaired platelet function as indicated by a significant prolongation of Ct PFA at T1 as compared to T0, but which resolved by T2. An IV bolus of Ringer's solution did not alter platelet function. In both HES groups, whole blood coagulation was significantly impaired at T1 as indicated by a significant increase in in-tem CFT, and a significant decrease in ex-tem, in-tem, and fib-tem MCF compared to T0. Furthermore, a significant increase in ex-tem CFT at T1 compared to T0 was found in the HES-SAL group. With the exception of in-tem MCF after HES-BAL, these effects were not present at T2. No significant differences were found in Ct PFA or any ROTEM variable at any time point between HES-SAL and HES-BAL. Administration of a single bolus of 15 mL/kg 6% HES 130/0.42 results in significant but short-lived impairment of canine platelet function and whole blood coagulation, regardless of carrier solution. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care

  4. Social media: the word of mouth revolution.

    PubMed

    Garven, Joseph J

    2010-01-01

    Many dental practices today find themselves uncertain about the new social media universe, and in particular with how to relate to younger patients. The power of social networking is its immediate access to the word of mouth exchange of information, and the word of mouth avenue itself is recognized as the single most effective form of advertising. To tap into that phenomenon, begin by investing a small amount of time and effort to understand the basics of social networking. Sign up for Facebook and Twitter. First-hand experience interacting in a social network is the vital first step. The bottom line is simply this: To begin to understand this new arena of communication, you first have to join the conversation.

  5. Word-of-Mouth amongst Students at a New Zealand Tertiary Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warring, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this case study was to investigate the extent of word-of-mouth influence amongst international students at a New Zealand tertiary institution and to review the literature for a valid and reliable conceptualisation and measurement of word-of-mouth. Design/methodology/approach: Literature suggests that opinion-leading and seeking…

  6. On the Balancing of the SMOS Ocean Salinity Retrieval Cost Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabia, R.; Camps, A.; Portabella, M.; Talone, M.; Ballabrera, J.; Gourrion, J.; Gabarró, C.; Aretxabaleta, A. L.; Font, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission will be launched in mid 2009 to provide synoptic sea surface salinity (SSS) measurements with good temporal resolution [1]. To obtain a proper estimation of the SSS fields derived from the multi-angular brightness temperatures (TB) measured by the Microwave Interferometric Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) sensor, a comprehensive inversion procedure has been defined [2]. Nevertheless, several salinity retrieval issues remain critical, namely: 1) Scene-dependent bias in the simulated TBs, 2) L-band forward geophysical model function definition, 3) Auxiliary data uncertainties, 4) Constraints in the cost function (inversion), especially in salinity term, and 5) Adequate spatio-temporal averaging. These issues will have to be properly addressed in order to meet the proposed accuracy requirement of the mission: a demanding 0.1 psu (practical salinity units) after averaging in a 30-day and 2°x2° spatio-temporal boxes. The salinity retrieval cost function minimizes the difference between the multi-angular measured SMOS TBs (yet simulated, so far) and the modeled TBs, weighted by the corresponding radiometric noise of the measurements. Furthermore, due to the fact that the minimization problem is both non-linear and ill-posed, background reference terms are needed to nudge the solution and ensuring convergence at the same time [3]. Constraining terms in SSS, sea surface temperature (SST) and wind speed are considered with their respective uncertainties. Moreover, whether SSS constraints have to be included or not as part of the retrieval procedure is still a matter of debate. On one hand, neglecting background reference information on SSS might prevent from retrieving salinity with the prescribed accuracy or at least within reasonable error. Conversely, including constraints in SSS, relying for instance on the climatology, may force the retrieved value to be too close to the reference prior values, thus

  7. Impact of dry mouth conditions on oral health-related quality of life in older people.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, Elisabeth Wärnberg; Einarson, Susanne; Jonsson, Margareta; Aronsson, Kerstin; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of dry mouth conditions on oral health-related quality of life in frail old people, residents at community care centers. Further, reliability and validity of a visual analogue scale (VAS) for dry mouth symptoms were determined within the study cohort. In old people functional, social and psychological impacts of oral conditions are associated with an overall sense of well being and general health. Subjective dry mouth and reduced saliva flow are common disorders in old people caused by disease and medication. Thus, dry mouth conditions may be determinants for compromised oral health-related quality of life in old people. In total, 50 old people living at service homes for the old people were asked to answer questionnaires on subjective dry mouth (VAS) and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP14) for oral health-related quality of life. Saliva flow was estimated by absorbing saliva into a pre-weighed cotton roll. The final study cohort comprised 41 old people (aged 83-91 years). Significant associations were identified between both objective and subjective dry mouth and overall or specific aspects of oral health-related quality of life. Dry mouth (objective and subjective) is significantly associated with oral health-related quality of life strengthening the value of monitoring dry mouth conditions in the care of frail old people.

  8. Simulated effects of irrigation on salinity in the Arkansas River Valley in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, K.; Lewis, M.E.; Person, M.A.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    1998-01-01

    Agricultural irrigation has a substantial impact on water quantity and quality in the lower Arkansas River valley of southeastern Colorado. A two-dimensional flow and solute transport model was used to evaluate the potential effects of changes in irrigation on the quantity and quality of water in the alluvial aquifer and in the Arkansas River along an 17.7 km reach of the fiver. The model was calibrated to aquifer water level and dissolved solids concentration data collected throughout the 24 year study period (197195). Two categories of irrigation management were simulated with the calibrated model: (1) a decrease in ground water withdrawals for irrigation; and (2) cessation of all irrigation from ground water and surface water sources. In the modeled category of decreased irrigation from ground water pumping, there was a resulting 6.9% decrease in the average monthly ground water salinity, a 0.6% decrease in average monthly river salinity, and an 11.1% increase in ground water return flows to the river. In the modeled category of the cessation of all irrigation, average monthly ground water salinity decreased by 25%; average monthly river salinity decreased by 4.4%; and ground water return flows to the river decreased by an average of 64%. In all scenarios, simulated ground water salinity decreased relative to historical conditions for about 12 years before reaching a new dynamic equilibrium condition. Aquifer water levels were not sensitive to any of the modeled scenarios. These potential changes in salinity could result in improved water quality for irrigation purposes downstream from the affected area.

  9. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klasser, Gary D; Grushka, Miriam; Su, Nan

    2016-08-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an enigmatic, misunderstood, and under-recognized painful condition. Symptoms associated with BMS can be varied, thereby providing a challenge for practitioners and having a negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for patients. Management also remains a challenge for practitioners because it is currently only targeted for symptom relief without a definitive cure. There is an urgent need for further investigations to determine the efficacy of different therapies because this is the only way viable therapeutic options can be established for patients with this chronic and painful syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 30. VERTICAL AERIAL VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF THE FEDERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VERTICAL AERIAL VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL, SCALE 1:14,400. TO THE SOUTH OF THE CHANNEL ARE THE RUNWAYS OF THE FORMER ALAMEDA NAVAL AIR STATION; TO THE NORTH ARE THE BERTHS AND BUILDINGS OF THE FORMER NAVAL SUPPLY CENTER, OAKLAND. Date and time of photography '12-9-98 10:51." - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide ... Expert Search Search AAAAI Breadcrumb navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe Share | Saline Sinus ...

  12. Durum wheat seedlings in saline conditions: Salt spray versus root-zone salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, Carmelina; Bottega, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    Salinity is an increasingly serious problem with a strong negative impact on plant productivity. Though many studies have been made on salt stress induced by high NaCl concentrations in the root-zone, few data concern the response of plants to saline aerosol, one of the main constraints in coastal areas. In order to study more in depth wheat salinity tolerance and to evaluate damage and antioxidant response induced by various modes of salt application, seedlings of Triticum turgidum ssp. durum, cv. Cappelli were treated for 2 and 7 days with salt in the root-zone (0, 50 and 200 mM NaCl) or with salt spray (400 mM NaCl + 0 or 200 mM NaCl in the root-zone). Seedlings accumulated Na+ in their leaves and therefore part of their ability to tolerate high salinity seems to be due to Na+ leaf tissue tolerance. Durum wheat, confirmed as a partially tolerant plant, shows a higher damage under airborne salinity, when both an increase in TBA-reactive material (indicative of lipid peroxidation) and a decrease in root growth were recorded. A different antioxidant response was activated, depending on the type of salt supply. Salt treatment induced a depletion of the reducing power of both ascorbate and glutathione while the highest contents of proline were detected under salt spray conditions. In the short term catalase and ascorbate peroxidase co-operated with glutathione peroxidase in the scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, in particular in salt spray-treated plants. From our data, the durum wheat cultivar Cappelli seems to be sensitive to airborne salinity.

  13. Validation of a coupled wave-flow model in a high-energy setting: the mouth of the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Edwin P.L.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; van der Westhuysen, André J.

    2012-01-01

     A monthlong time series of wave, current, salinity, and suspended-sediment measurements was made at five sites on a transect across the Mouth of Columbia River (MCR). These data were used to calibrate and evaluate the performance of a coupled hydrodynamic and wave model for the MCR based on the Delft3D modeling system. The MCR is a dynamic estuary inlet in which tidal currents, river discharge, and wave-driven currents are all important. Model tuning consisted primarily of spatial adjustments to bottom drag coefficients. In combination with (near-) default parameter settings, the MCR model application is able to simulate the dominant features in the tidal flow, salinity and wavefields observed in field measurements. The wave-orbital averaged method for representing the current velocity profile in the wave model is considered the most realistic for the MCR. The hydrodynamic model is particularly effective in reproducing the observed vertical residual and temporal variations in current structure. Density gradients introduce the observed and modeled reversal of the mean flow at the bed and augment mean and peak flow in the upper half of the water column. This implies that sediment transport during calmer summer conditions is controlled by density stratification and is likely net landward due to the reversal of flow near the bed. The correspondence between observed and modeled hydrodynamics makes this application a tool to investigate hydrodynamics and associated sediment transport.

  14. Validation of a coupled wave-flow model in a high-energy setting: The mouth of the Columbia River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Edwin P. L.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Van der Westhuysen, André J.

    2012-09-01

    A monthlong time series of wave, current, salinity, and suspended-sediment measurements was made at five sites on a transect across the Mouth of Columbia River (MCR). These data were used to calibrate and evaluate the performance of a coupled hydrodynamic and wave model for the MCR based on the Delft3D modeling system. The MCR is a dynamic estuary inlet in which tidal currents, river discharge, and wave-driven currents are all important. Model tuning consisted primarily of spatial adjustments to bottom drag coefficients. In combination with (near-) default parameter settings, the MCR model application is able to simulate the dominant features in the tidal flow, salinity and wavefields observed in field measurements. The wave-orbital averaged method for representing the current velocity profile in the wave model is considered the most realistic for the MCR. The hydrodynamic model is particularly effective in reproducing the observed vertical residual and temporal variations in current structure. Density gradients introduce the observed and modeled reversal of the mean flow at the bed and augment mean and peak flow in the upper half of the water column. This implies that sediment transport during calmer summer conditions is controlled by density stratification and is likely net landward due to the reversal of flow near the bed. The correspondence between observed and modeled hydrodynamics makes this application a tool to investigate hydrodynamics and associated sediment transport.

  15. Differential Gaze Patterns on Eyes and Mouth During Audiovisual Speech Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Lusk, Laina G.; Mitchel, Aaron D.

    2016-01-01

    Speech is inextricably multisensory: both auditory and visual components provide critical information for all aspects of speech processing, including speech segmentation, the visual components of which have been the target of a growing number of studies. In particular, a recent study (Mitchel and Weiss, 2014) established that adults can utilize facial cues (i.e., visual prosody) to identify word boundaries in fluent speech. The current study expanded upon these results, using an eye tracker to identify highly attended facial features of the audiovisual display used in Mitchel and Weiss (2014). Subjects spent the most time watching the eyes and mouth. A significant trend in gaze durations was found with the longest gaze duration on the mouth, followed by the eyes and then the nose. In addition, eye-gaze patterns changed across familiarization as subjects learned the word boundaries, showing decreased attention to the mouth in later blocks while attention on other facial features remained consistent. These findings highlight the importance of the visual component of speech processing and suggest that the mouth may play a critical role in visual speech segmentation. PMID:26869959

  16. Pb’s high sedimentation inside the bay mouth of Jiaozhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongfang; Miao, Zhenqing; Huang, Xinmin; Wei, Linzhen; Feng, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Sedimentation is one of the key environmental behaviors of pollutants in the ocean. This paper analyzed the seasonal and temporal variations of Pb’s sedimentation process in Jiaozhou Bay in 1987. Results showed that Pb contents in bottom waters in Jiaozhou Bay in May, July and November 1987 were 1.87-2.60 μg L-1, 15.11-19.68 μg L-1 and 11.08-15.18 μg L-1, and the pollution levels of Pb in May, July and November 1987 were slight, heavy and heavy, respectively. In May 1987, there was low sedimentation process in waters in the outside of the bay mouth, yet were high sedimentation process in waters in the middle and inside of the bay mouth. In July and November 1987, there was low sedimentation process in waters in the outside of the bay mouth, yet were high sedimentation process in waters in the inside of the bay mouth. The seasonal-temporal variation of sedimentation processes of Pb were determined by the variations of sources input and the vertical water’s effect.

  17. [Glossodynia or burning mouth syndrome: equivalence or difference].

    PubMed

    Redinova, T L; Redinov, I S; Val'kov, V A; Zlobina, O A; Kozhevnikov, S V

    2014-01-01

    The term "Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS)" is being used much more often than "Glossodynia", complicating diagnostic and treatment tactic choice. The aim of the study was to determine the difference between "Glossodynia" and "BMS" considering absence or presence of intraoral metal prosthetic devices and burning sensation in the mouth. To establish the frequency of glossodynia and BMS 2355 patient records were analyzed admitting consultation for oral diseases for the last 10 years. Clinically we examined 408 patients aged 40 to 70. The research results showed that 17% of patients complained of "burning mouth": 10.2% of them had these symptoms due to oral mucosa diseases; 58.0% had glossodynia, 27.4% had discomfort because of intolerance to metal prosthodontic materials and 4.4% had combined pathology. Glossodynia and intolerance to metal prosthodontic materials had much in common in terms of clinical features, but the last one may be specified by changes in saliva composition. BMS thus proved to be the common definition corresponding to various diseases of oral mucosa and intolerance to intraoral metal appliances, while glossoldynia is a distinct neurogenic disease which is difficult to treat and requires comprehensive approach involving neurologist and physician.

  18. The effects of social anxiety on emotional face discrimination and its modulation by mouth salience.

    PubMed

    du Rocher, Andrew R; Pickering, Alan D

    2018-05-21

    People high in social anxiety experience fear of social situations due to the likelihood of social evaluation. Whereas happy faces are generally processed very quickly, this effect is impaired by high social anxiety. Mouth regions are implicated during emotional face processing, therefore differences in mouth salience might affect how social anxiety relates to emotional face discrimination. We designed an emotional facial expression recognition task to reveal how varying levels of sub-clinical social anxiety (measured by questionnaire) related to the discrimination of happy and fearful faces, and of happy and angry faces. We also categorised the facial expressions by the salience of the mouth region (i.e. high [open mouth] vs. low [closed mouth]). In a sample of 90 participants higher social anxiety (relative to lower social anxiety) was associated with a reduced happy face reaction time advantage. However, this effect was mainly driven by the faces with less salient closed mouths. Our results are consistent with theories of anxiety that incorporate an oversensitive valence evaluation system.

  19. The Role of Eyes and Mouth in the Memory of a Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvie, Stuart J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relative importance that the eyes and mouth play in the representation in memory of a human face. Systematically applies two kinds of transformation--masking the eyes or the mouths on photographs of faces--and observes the effects on recognition. (Author/RK)

  20. Impact of Variable-Density Flow on the Value-of-Information from Pressure and Concentration Data for Saline Aquifer Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Williams, J. R.; Juanes, R.; Kang, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is becoming an important solution for ensuring sustainable water resources and mitigating saline water intrusion in coastal aquifers. Accurate estimates of hydrogeological parameters in subsurface flow and solute transport models are critical for making predictions and managing aquifer systems. In the presence of a density difference between the injected freshwater and ambient saline groundwater, the pressure field is coupled to the spatial distribution of salinity distribution, and therefore experiences transient changes. The variable-density effects can be quantified by a mixed convection ratio between two characteristic types of convection: free convection due to density contrast, and forced convection due to a hydraulic gradient. We analyze the variable-density effects on the value-of-information of pressure and concentration data for saline aquifer characterization. An ensemble Kalman filter is used to estimate permeability fields by assimilating the data, and the performance of the estimation is analyzed in terms of the accuracy and the uncertainty of estimated permeability fields and the predictability of arrival times of breakthrough curves in a realistic push-pull setting. This study demonstrates that: 1. Injecting fluids with the velocity that balances the two characteristic convections maximizes the value of data for saline aquifer characterization; 2. The variable-density effects on the value of data for the inverse estimation decrease as the permeability heterogeneity increases; 3. The advantage of joint inversion of pressure and concentration data decreases as the coupling effects between flow and transport increase.

  1. Word-of-mouth dynamics with information seeking: Information is not (only) epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiriot, Samuel

    2018-02-01

    Word-of-mouth is known to determine the success or failure of innovations (Rogers, 2003) and facilitate the diffusion of products (Katz and Lazarsfeld, 1955). Word-of-mouth is made of both individuals seeking out information and/or pro-actively spreading information (Gilly et al., 1998; Rogers, 2003). Information seeking is considered as a step mandatory for individuals to retrieve the expert knowledge necessary for them to understand the benefits of an innovation or decide to buy a product (Arndt, 1967; Rogers, 2003). Yet the role of information seeking in the word-of-mouth dynamics was not investigated in computational models. Here we study in which conditions word-of-mouth enables the population to retrieve the initial expertise scattered in the population. We design a computational model in which awareness and expert knowledge are both represented, and study the joint dynamics of information seeking and proactive transmission of information. Simulation experiments highlight the apparition of cascades of awareness, cascades of expertise and chains of information retrieval. We find that different strategies should be used depending on the initial proportion of expertise (disruptive innovations, incremental innovations or products belonging to well-known categories). Surprisingly, when there is too much expertise in the population prior the advertisement campaign, word-of-mouth is less efficient in the retrieval of this expertise than when less expertise is initially present. Our results suggest that information seeking plays a key role in the dynamics of word-of-mouth, which can therefore not be reduced solely to the epidemic aspect.

  2. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Barker, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).

  3. Effect of salinity on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) during seed germination stage.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jogendra; Sastry, E V Divakar; Singh, Vijayata

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted using ten genetically diverse genotypes along with their 45F1 (generated by diallel mating) under normal and salt stress conditions. Although, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is moderately sensitive to salinity but more attention to salinity is yet to be required in the production of tomato. In present study, germination rate, speed of germination, dry weight ratio and Na(+)/K(+) ratio in root and shoot, were the parameters assayed on three salinity levels; control, 1.0 % NaCl and 3.0 % NaCl with Hoagland's solution. Increasing salt stress negatively affected growth and development of tomato. When salt concentration increased, germination of tomato seed was reduced and the time needed to complete germination lengthened, root/shoot dry weight ratio was higher and Na(+) content increased but K(+) content decreased. Among the varieties, Sel-7 followed by Arka Vikas and crosses involving them as a parent were found to be the more tolerant genotypes in the present study on the basis of studied parameters.

  4. Comparison of irrigation solutions and devices in a contaminated musculoskeletal wound survival model.

    PubMed

    Owens, Brett D; White, Daniel W; Wenke, Joseph C

    2009-01-01

    There is much to learn about the effectiveness of different methods currently used for the irrigation of open wounds. The purpose of this study was to compare various approaches in a survival animal model. We used an established goat model involving the creation of a reproducible complex musculoskeletal wound followed by inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (lux) bacteria. This genetically altered luminescent bacterium provides the ability for quantitative analysis with a photon-counting camera system. For Study 1, wound irrigation was performed six hours after the injury and inoculation; the goats were assigned to four treatment groups: normal saline solution, bacitracin solution, castile soap, and benzalkonium chloride. All wounds received sharp débridement and irrigation with use of a pulsatile lavage device (19 psi). Images and photon counts were obtained prior to irrigation, after irrigation, and forty-eight hours after injury and inoculation. For Study 2, we used the same animal model and compared bulb syringe and pulsatile lavage irrigation with saline solution. In Study 1, the irrigation treatment lowered the bacterial counts in all treatment groups. The greatest reduction was seen with castile soap, which lowered the photon count to 13% of the pretreatment level. This was followed by benzalkonium chloride, bacitracin, and saline solution at 18%, 22%, and 29%, respectively. At forty-eight hours, imaging showed a rebound in bacterial counts in every group. The highest rebound was measured in the castile soap group, which rebounded to 120% of the pretreatment level. The benzalkonium chloride group experienced a rebound to 94% of the pretreatment level. These were followed by bacitracin solution (89%) and normal saline solution (68%). In Study 2, both treatment methods were effective in removing 75% of the bacteria initially. At forty-eight hours, the bacterial levels in the pulsed lavage group rebounded to 94% of the original levels (compared with 48% in

  5. Changes in oral microflora after full-mouth tooth extraction: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    de Waal, Yvonne C M; Winkel, Edwin G; Raangs, Gerwin C; van der Vusse, Marleen L; Rossen, John W A; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of full-mouth tooth extraction on the oral microflora, with emphasis on the presence and load of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Adult patients (n = 30), with moderate to advanced periodontitis and scheduled for full-mouth tooth extraction, were consecutively selected. Prior to and 1 and 3 months after full-mouth tooth extraction saliva, tongue, buccal and gingival mucosa and subgingival plaque/prosthesis samples were obtained. Aerobic and anaerobic culture techniques and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were employed for the detection of oral pathogens. Full-mouth tooth extraction resulted in reduction below detection level of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis in 15 of 16 and 8 of 16 previously positive patients using culture techniques and qPCR, respectively. Those patients remaining qPCR positive showed a significant reduction in load of these bacteria. Full-mouth tooth extraction significantly changes the oral microflora. These changes include reduction of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, frequently to levels below detection threshold. In some patients, A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis can persist in the edentulous oral cavity up to 3 months after full-mouth tooth extraction. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Open-mouthed hybrid microcapsules with elevated enzyme loading and enhanced catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiafu; Zhang, Shaohua; Wang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2014-10-25

    Open-mouthed hybrid microcapsules (HMCs) are synthesized through a hard-templating method. When utilized for enzyme immobilization and enzymatic catalysis, the open-mouthed HMCs show high enzyme loading capability, enhanced catalytic activity and desirable recycling stability, due to their fully exposed outer and inner surfaces.

  7. Reinforcement of spinal anesthesia by epidural injection of saline: a comparison of hyperbaric and isobaric tetracaine.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Y; Mimura, M; Hazama, K; Namiki, A

    2000-04-25

    An epidural injection of saline was reported to extend spinal anesthesia because of a volume effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the baricity of spinal local anesthetics upon the extension of spinal anesthesia by epidural injection of saline. Forty patients undergoing elective lower-limb surgery were randomly allocated to four groups of 10 patients each. Group A received no epidural injection after the spinal administration of hyperbaric tetracaine (dissolved in 10% glucose). Group B received an epidural injection of 8 ml of physiological saline 20 min after spinal hyperbaric tetracaine. Group C received no epidural injection after spinal isobaric tetracaine (dissolved in physiological saline). Group D received an epidural injection of 8 ml of saline 20 min after spinal isobaric tetracaine. The level of analgesia was examined by the pinprick method at 5-min intervals. The levels of analgesia 20 min after spinal anesthesia were significantly higher in hyperbaric groups than in isobaric groups [T5 (T2-L2) vs. T7 (T3-12)]. After epidural injection of saline, the levels of analgesia in groups B and D were significantly higher than in groups A and C. The segmental increases after epidural saline injection were 2 (0-3) in group B and 2 (1-7) in group D. Sensation in the sacral area remained 20 min after spinal block in one patient in group D; however, it disappeared after epidural saline injection. In this study, 8 ml of epidural saline extended spinal analgesia. However, there was no difference between the augmenting effect in isobaric and hyperbaric spinal anesthesia. We conclude that the reinforcement of spinal anesthesia by epidural injection of saline is not affected by the baricity of the spinal anesthetic solution used.

  8. Saline-water resources of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winslow, Allen George; Kister, Lester Ray

    1956-01-01

    Most of the aquifers in Texas contain saline water in some parts, and a few are capable of producing large quantities of saline water. Of the early Paleozoic formations, the Hickory sandstone member of the Riley formation of Cambrian age and the Ellenburger group of Ordovician age are potential sources of small to moderate supplies of saline water in parts of central and west-central Texas.

  9. Coastal hazards and groundwater salinization on low coral islands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, James P.; Chui, T. F. May

    2016-04-01

    Remote oceanic communities living on low-lying coral islands (atolls) without surface water rely for their survival on the continuing viability of fragile groundwater resources. These exist in the form of fresh groundwater lenses (FGLs) that develop naturally within the porous coral sand and gravel substrate. Coastal hazards such as inundation by high-energy waves driven by storms and continuing sea-level rise (SLR) are among many possible threats to viable FGL size and quality on atolls. Yet, not much is known about the combined effects of wave washover during powerful storms and SLR on different sizes of coral island, nor conversely how island size influences lens resilience against damage. This study investigates FGL damage by salinization (and resilience) caused by such coastal hazards using a modelling approach. Numerical modelling is carried out to generate steady-state FGL configurations at three chosen island sizes (400, 600 and 800 m widths). Steady-state solutions reveal how FGL dimensions are related in a non-linear manner to coral island size, such that smaller islands develop much more restricted lenses than larger islands. A 40 cm SLR scenario is then imposed. This is followed by transient simulations to examine storm-induced wave washover and subsequent FGL responses to saline damage over a 1 year period. Smaller FGLs display greater potential for disturbance by SLR, while larger and more robust FGLs tend to show more resilience. Further results produce a somewhat counterintuitive finding: in the post-SLR condition, FGL vulnerability to washover salinization may actually be reduced, owing to the thinner layer of unsaturated substrate lying above the water table into which saline water can infiltrate during a storm event. Nonetheless, combined washover and SLR impacts imply overall that advancing groundwater salinization may lead to some coral islands becoming uninhabitable long before they are completely submerged by sea-level rise, thereby calling

  10. Effect of weakly ionized plasma on osmotic pressure on cell membranes in a saline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneider, M. N.; Pekker, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, attention is drawn to the importance of accounting for osmotic pressure when analyzing physiological effects on cellular structures in plasma medicine. Interaction of a weakly ionized plasma jet with a saline solution leads to detectable changes in the saline's ion-molecular composition and hence changes in the osmotic pressure. This, in turn, leads to a stretching or compression of the membrane, depending on the difference of total external and internal pressures. The selective effect of plasma on cells, observed in experiments, is associated with the change in the mechanical properties of membranes (and thereby, a weakening of their protective properties). Corresponding estimates are given in the article.

  11. Structure, age and origin of the bay-mouth shoal deposits, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Berquist, C.R.; Hobbs, C. H.

    1988-01-01

    The mouth of Chesapeake Bay contains a distinctive shoal complex and related deposits that result from the complex interaction of three different processes: (1) progradation of a barrier spit at the southern end of the Delmarva Peninsula, (2) strong, reversing tidal currents that transport and rework sediment brought to the bay mouth from the north, and (3) landward (bayward) net non-tidal circulation and sediment transport. Together, these processes play a major role in changing the configuration of the estuary and filling it with sediment. The deposits at the mouth of the bay hold keys both to the evolution of the bay during the Holocene transgression and to the history of previous generations of the bay. The deposit associated with the shoals at the mouth of the bay, the bay-mouth sand, is a distinct stratigraphic unit composed mostly of uniform, gray, fine sand. The position and internal structure of the unit shows that it is related to near-present sea level, and thus is less than a few thousand years old. The processes affecting the upper surface of the deposit and the patterns of erosion and deposition at this surface are complex, but the geometry and structure of the deposit indicate that it is a coherent unit that is prograding bayward and tending to fill the estuary. The source of the bay-mouth sand is primarily outside the bay in the nearshore zone of the Delmarva Peninsula and on the inner continental shelf. The internal structure of the deposit, its surface morphology, its heavy-mineral composition, bottom-current studies, comparative bathymetry, and sediment budgets all suggest that sand is brought to the bay mouth by southerly longshore drift along the Delmarva Peninsula and then swept into the bay. In addition to building the southward- and bayward-prograding bay-mouth sand, these processes result in sand deposition tens of kilometers into the bay. ?? 1988.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of salinity responsiveness in contrasting genotypes of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) through RNA-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Hifzur; Jagadeeshselvam, N; Valarmathi, R; Sachin, B; Sasikala, R; Senthil, N; Sudhakar, D; Robin, S; Muthurajan, Raveendran

    2014-07-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) is a hardy cereal known for its superior level of tolerance against drought, salinity, diseases and its nutritional properties. In this study, attempts were made to unravel the physiological and molecular basis of salinity tolerance in two contrasting finger millet genotypes viz., CO 12 and Trichy 1. Physiological studies revealed that the tolerant genotype Trichy 1 had lower Na(+) to K(+) ratio in leaves and shoots, higher growth rate (osmotic tolerance) and ability to accumulate higher amount of total soluble sugar in leaves under salinity stress. We sequenced the salinity responsive leaf transcriptome of contrasting finger millet genotypes using IonProton platform and generated 27.91 million reads. Mapping and annotation of finger millet transcripts against rice gene models led to the identification of salinity responsive genes and genotype specific responses. Several functional groups of genes like transporters, transcription factors, genes involved in cell signaling, osmotic homeostasis and biosynthesis of compatible solutes were found to be highly up-regulated in the tolerant Trichy 1. Salinity stress inhibited photosynthetic capacity and photosynthesis related genes in the susceptible genotype CO 12. Several genes involved in cell growth and differentiation were found to be up-regulated in both the genotypes but more specifically in tolerant genotype. Genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were found to be down-regulated specifically in the salinity tolerant Trichy 1. This study provides a genome-wide transcriptional analysis of two finger millet genotypes differing in their level of salinity tolerance during a gradually progressing salinity stress under greenhouse conditions.

  13. Zwitterionic Antifouling Coatings for the Purification of High-Salinity Shale Gas Produced Water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong; Goktekin, Esma; Gleason, Karen K

    2015-11-03

    Fouling refers to the undesirable attachment of organic molecules and microorganisms to submerged surfaces. It is an obstacle to the purification of shale gas produced water and is currently without an effective solution due to the highly contaminated nature of produced water. Here, we demonstrate the direct vapor application of a robust zwitterionic coating to a variety of substrates. The coating remains unprecedentedly hydrophilic, smooth, and effectively antifouling in extremely high salinity solutions (with salt concentration of 200,000 ppm). The fouling resistance is assessed rapidly and quantitatively with a molecular force spectroscopy-based method and corroborated using quartz crystal microbalance system with dissipation monitoring. Grazing angle attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared is used in combination with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscope, and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry to lend insight into the underlying mechanism for the exceptional stability and effectiveness of the zwitterionic coating under high-salinity conditions. A unique coating architecture, where the surface is concentrated with mobile zwitterionic moieties while the bulk is cross-linked to enhance coating durability, was discovered to be the origin of its stable fouling resistance under high salinity. Combined with previously reported exceptional stability in highly oxidative environments and strong fouling resistance to oil and grease, the zwitterionic surface here has the potential to enable low-cost, membrane-based techniques for the purification of produced water and to eventually balance the favorable economics and the concerning environmental impacts of the hydraulic fracturing industry.

  14. Precision attachments for the partially dentate mouth

    PubMed Central

    Preiskel, H W

    1974-01-01

    Some uses of precision attachments in restoring the partially dentate mouth are considered. These devices are indicated where neither the clasp-retained denture nor the fixed bridge is entirely suitable. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:4614689

  15. Speech-language pathology findings in patients with mouth breathing: multidisciplinary diagnosis according to etiology.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Patrícia; Marchesan, Irene Queiroz; de Oliveira, Luciana Regina; Ciccone, Emílio; Haddad, Leonardo; Rizzo, Maria Cândida

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the results of the findings from speech-language pathology evaluations for orofacial function including tongue and lip rest postures, tonus, articulation and speech, voice and language, chewing, and deglutition in children who had a history of mouth breathing. The diagnoses for mouth breathing included: allergic rhinitis, adenoidal hypertrophy, allergic rhinitis with adenoidal hypertrophy; and/or functional mouth breathing. This study was conducted with on 414 subjects of both genders, from 2 to 16-years old. A team consisting of 3 speech-language pathologists, 1 pediatrician, 1 allergist, and 1 otolaryngologist, evaluated the patients. Multidisciplinary clinical examinations were carried out (complete blood counting, X-rays, nasofibroscopy, audiometry). The two most commonly found etiologies were allergic rhinitis, followed by functional mouth breathing. Of the 414 patients in the study, 346 received a speech-language pathology evaluation. The most prevalent finding in this group of 346 subjects was the presence of orofacial myofunctional disorders. The most frequently orofacial myofunctional disorder identified in these subjects who also presented mouth breathing included: habitual open lips rest posture, low and forward tongue rest posture and lack of adequate muscle tone. There were also no statistically significant relationships identified between etiology and speech-language diagnosis. Therefore, the specific type of etiology of mouth breathing does not appear to contribute to the presence, type, or number of speech-language findings which may result from mouth breathing behavior.

  16. 75 FR 65431 - Change in Disease Status of Japan Because of Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    .... APHIS-2010-0077] Change in Disease Status of Japan Because of Foot-and-Mouth Disease AGENCY: Animal and... removing Japan from the list of regions considered to be free of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and also from.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a severe and highly contagious viral...

  17. Zoology: A New Mouth for Amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Vladimir; Kozmik, Zbynek

    2016-05-09

    Deuterostomes - a key subdivision of animals - are characterized by the mouth developing anteriorly as a rupture between the outer epithelium and the foregut wall. A new study of amphioxus challenges this view and proposes separate evolutionary origins of deuterostome oral openings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Silicon decreases chloride transport in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Wang, Yichao; Flowers, Timothy J; Gong, Haijun

    2013-06-15

    Silicon can alleviate salt damage to plants, although the mechanism(s) still remains to be elucidated. In this paper, we report the effect of silicon on chloride transport in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings in saline conditions. In the absence of salinity, silicon enhanced the growth of shoots, but not roots in three cultivars (cv. GR4, IR36, and CSR10). Salinity reduced the growth of both shoots and roots in all three genotypes. In saline conditions, addition of silicon to the culture solution again improved the growth of shoots, but not of roots. Under these saline conditions, the concentrations of chloride in the shoot were markedly decreased by adding silicon and the ratio of K(+)/Cl(-) was significantly increased, while the concentration of chloride in the roots was unchanged. The decrease in chloride concentration in the shoot was correlated with the decrease in transpirational bypass flow in rice, as shown by the transport of the apoplastic tracer trisodium-8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic acid (PTS). Addition of silicon increased the net photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, and transpiration of salt-stressed plants in cv. IR36, indicating that the reduction of chloride (and sodium) uptake by silicon was not through a reduction in transpiration rate. Silicon addition also increased the instantaneous water use efficiency of salt-stressed plants, while it did not change the relative growth rate of shoots. The results suggest that silicon addition decreased transpirational bypass flow in the roots, and therefore decreased the transport of chloride to the shoot. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Process Development for the Design and Manufacturing of Personalizable Mouth Sticks.

    PubMed

    Berger, Veronika M; Pölzer, Stephan; Nussbaum, Gerhard; Ernst, Waltraud; Major, Zoltan

    2017-01-01

    To increase the independence of people with reduced hand/arm functionality, a process to generate personalizable mouth sticks was developed based on the participatory design principle. In a web tool, anybody can choose the geometry and the materials of their mouth piece, stick and tip. Manufacturing techniques (e.g. 3D printing) and materials used in the process are discussed and evaluated.

  20. Comparison of intervention effects in split-mouth and parallel-arm randomized controlled trials: a meta-epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Split-mouth randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are popular in oral health research. Meta-analyses frequently include trials of both split-mouth and parallel-arm designs to derive combined intervention effects. However, carry-over effects may induce bias in split- mouth RCTs. We aimed to assess whether intervention effect estimates differ between split- mouth and parallel-arm RCTs investigating the same questions. Methods We performed a meta-epidemiological study. We systematically reviewed meta- analyses including both split-mouth and parallel-arm RCTs with binary or continuous outcomes published up to February 2013. Two independent authors selected studies and extracted data. We used a two-step approach to quantify the differences between split-mouth and parallel-arm RCTs: for each meta-analysis. First, we derived ratios of odds ratios (ROR) for dichotomous data and differences in standardized mean differences (∆SMD) for continuous data; second, we pooled RORs or ∆SMDs across meta-analyses by random-effects meta-analysis models. Results We selected 18 systematic reviews, for 15 meta-analyses with binary outcomes (28 split-mouth and 28 parallel-arm RCTs) and 19 meta-analyses with continuous outcomes (28 split-mouth and 28 parallel-arm RCTs). Effect estimates did not differ between split-mouth and parallel-arm RCTs (mean ROR, 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.52–1.80; mean ∆SMD, 0.08, -0.14–0.30). Conclusions Our study did not provide sufficient evidence for a difference in intervention effect estimates derived from split-mouth and parallel-arm RCTs. Authors should consider including split-mouth RCTs in their meta-analyses with suitable and appropriate analysis. PMID:24886043

  1. Meth mouth severity in response to drug-use patterns and dental access in methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ronni E; Morisky, Donald E; Silverstein, Steven J

    2013-06-01

    Meth mouth is the rapid development of tooth decay in methamphetamine users. Our study questioned whether drug-use patterns and dental care access are risk factors affecting the severity of meth mouth. Participants received dental examinations, and the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) were counted and used to measure meth mouth severity.

  2. Guidelines proposal for clinical recognition of mouth breathing children.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Maria Christina Thomé; Casagrande, Camila Ferreira; Teixeira, Lícia Pacheco; Finck, Nathalia Silveira; de Araújo, Maria Teresa Martins

    2015-01-01

    Mouth breathing (MB) is an etiological factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) during childhood. The habit of breathing through the mouth may be perpetuated even after airway clearance. Both habit and obstruction may cause facial muscle imbalance and craniofacial changes. The aim of this paper is to propose and test guidelines for clinical recognition of MB and some predisposing factors for SDB in children. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 110 orthodontists regarding their procedures for clinical evaluation of MB and their knowledge about SDB during childhood. Thereafter, based on their answers, guidelines were developed and tested in 687 children aged between 6 and 12 years old and attending elementary schools. There was no standardization for clinical recognition of MB among orthodontists. The most common procedures performed were inefficient to recognize differences between MB by habit or obstruction. The guidelines proposed herein facilitate clinical recognition of MB, help clinicians to differentiate between habit and obstruction, suggest the most appropriate treatment for each case, and avoid maintenance of mouth breathing patterns during adulthood.

  3. From Human to Artificial Mouth, From Basics to Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielle, Patrick; Tarrega, Amparo; Gorria, Patrick; Liodenot, Jean Jacques; Liaboeuf, Joël; Andrejewski, Jean-Luc; Salles, Christian

    2009-05-01

    Sensory perception of the flavor release during the eating of a food piece is highly dependent upon mouth parameters. Major limitations have been reported during in-vivo flavor release studies, such as marked intra- and inter-individual variability. To overcome these limitations, a chewing simulator has been developed to mimic the human mastication of food samples. The device faithfully reproduces most of the functions of the human mouth. The active cell comprises several mobile parts that can accurately reproduce shear and compression strengths and tongue functions in real-time, according to data previously collected in-vivo. The mechanical functionalities of the system were validated using peanuts, with a fair agreement with the human data. Flavor release can be monitored on-line using either API-MS or chemical sensors, or off-line using HPLC for non-volatile compounds. Couplings with API-MS detectors have shown differences in the kinetics of flavour release, as a function of the cheeses composition. Data were also collected for the analysis of taste compounds released during the human chewing but are not available yet for the Artificial Mouth.

  4. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jimson, Sudha; Rajesh, E.; Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Kasthuri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms. PMID:26015707

  5. The Arabidopsis thaliana HAK5 K+ transporter is required for plant growth and K+ acquisition from low K+ solutions under saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Nieves-Cordones, Manuel; Alemán, Fernando; Martínez, Vicente; Rubio, Francisco

    2010-03-01

    K(+) uptake in the high-affinity range of concentrations and its components have been widely studied. In Arabidposis thaliana, the AtHAK5 transporter and the AtAKT1 channel have been shown to be the main transport proteins involved in this process. Here, we study the role of these two systems under two important stress conditions: low K(+) supply or the presence of salinity. T-DNA insertion lines disrupting AtHAK5 and AtAKT1 are employed for long-term experiments that allow physiological characterization of the mutant lines. We found that AtHAK5 is required for K(+) absorption necessary to sustain plant growth at low K(+) in the absence as well as in the presence of salinity. Salinity greatly reduced AtHAK5 transcript levels and promoted AtAKT1-mediated K(+) efflux, resulting in an important impairment of K(+) nutrition. Although having a limited capacity, AtHAK5 plays a major role for K(+) acquisition from low K(+) concentrations in the presence of salinity.

  6. Estuarine Salinity Mapping From Airborne Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. P.; Gao, Y.; Cook, P. L. M.; Ye, N.

    2016-12-01

    Estuaries are critical ecosystems providing both ecological habitat and human amenity including boating and recreational fishing. Salinity gradients, caused by the mixing of fresh and salt water, exert an overwhelming control on estuarine ecology and biogeochemistry as well as being a key tracer for model calibration. At present, salinity monitoring within estuaries typically uses point measurements or underway boat-based methods, which makes sensing of localised phenomena such as upwelling of saline bottom water difficult. This study has pioneered the use of airborne radiometry (passive microwave) sensing as a new method to remotely quantify estuarine salinity, allowing rapid production of high resolution surface salinity maps. The airborne radiometry mapping was conducted for the Gippsland Lakes, the largest estuary in Australia, in February, July, October and November of 2015, using the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR). Salinity was retrieved from the brightness temperature collected by PLMR with results validated against boat sampling conducted concurrently with each flight. Results showed that the retrieval accuracy of the radiative transfer model was better than 5 ppt for most flights. The spatial, temporal and seasonal variations of salinity observed in this study are also analysed and discussed.

  7. Development of Fetal Yawn Compared with Non-Yawn Mouth Openings from 24–36 Weeks Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Reissland, Nadja; Francis, Brian; Mason, James

    2012-01-01

    Background Although some research suggests that fetuses yawn, others disagree arguing that is it simple mouth opening. Furthermore there is no developmental account of fetal yawning compared with simple mouth opening. The aim of the present study was to establish in a repeated measures design the development of fetal yawning compared with simple mouth opening. Methodology/Findings Video recordings were made of the fetal face and upper torso visualized by means of 4D full frontal or facial profile ultrasound recordings. Fifteen healthy fetuses were scanned four times at 24, 28, 32 and 36 weeks gestation. Yawning was distinguished from non-yawning in terms of the length of time it took to reach the apex of the mouth stretch, with yawns being defined as more than 50% of the total time observed. To assess changes in frequency, a Poisson mixed effects model was fitted to the count of number of yawn and simple mouth opening events with age and gender as fixed effects, and person as a random effect. For both yawns and simple mouth openings a smooth varying age effect was significant. The number of yawns observed declined with age from 28 weeks gestation, whereas simple mouth openings were less frequent and the decline was observed from 24 weeks. Gender was not significant either for yawn and simple mouth openings. Conclusions/Significance Yawning can be reliably distinguished from other forms of mouth opening with the potential of using yawning as an index of fetal healthy development. PMID:23185638

  8. Coupling Effects of Unsteady River Discharges and Wave Conditions on Mouth Bar Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, W.; Shao, D.; Zheng Bing, W.; Yang, W.; Sun, T.; Cui, B.

    2017-12-01

    As a key morphological unit at delta front, the evolution of mouth bar is of critical importance to channel bifurcation and the formation of deltaic distributaries, and therefore have received wide attention, primarily using numerical modelling approaches. Notably, the existing numerical modelling studies were mostly carried out under the assumption that most of the sediments are delivered to the ocean during bankfull discharge stages, so is the most significant deltaic morphological evolution, and hence periods of relatively low river discharge were `safely' neglected, leaving out the effects of unsteadiness of river discharge on the relevant morphodynamic processes altogether. However, the above assumption is worth reviewing in the context of combined fluvial and marine forcing as the relative wave strength has been repeatedly proved to be a critical parameter in estuarine-deltaic morphodynamics. In natural deltas, the period of high river discharge may or may not coincide with the occurrence of maximum wave strength, which further complicates their coupling effects. To assess the coupling effects of unsteady river discharges and wave conditions on mouth bar formation, numerical experiments using Delft3D-SWAN were conducted in this study. A host of combined high-and-low river discharges coupled with varying wave strengths were assumed to mimic the natural variability. Numerical simulation results suggest the existence of three regimes for mouth bar formation, namely, nonexistence of mouth bar (G1), formation of ephemeral mouth bar (G2) and formation of stable mouth bar (G3), which were dictated by the relative wave strength during both onset and reworking stages as well as the reworking time. Implications of the mouth bar formation regimes on delta distributary networks were also discussed. The findings have implications for coastal management at estuaries and deltas such as erosion prevention and mitigation, water and sediment regulation scheme, etc.

  9. Usefulness of new wetness tester for diagnosis of dry mouth in disabled patients.

    PubMed

    Kakinoki, Yasuaki; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Arita, Masahiro; Shibuya, Koji; Ishikawa, Masao

    2004-12-01

    The condition of dry mouth is an influential factor in the incidence of caries, periodontal disease, fungal infections, masticatory dysfunctions and denture function. Bedridden elderly and disabled persons often suffer from oral dryness and the aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring the amount of moisture in the oral mucosa for clinical diagnosis of dry mouth in this group. The subjects were 20 elderly bedridden individuals, age range 65-89 years old, living in a nursing home and six healthy laboratory researchers, aged 20-46 years old, used as controls. Tongue dorsum moisture measurements were performed using a newly developed wetness tester (L-SALIVO), in which the wet portion was measured after 10 s. Further, clinical diagnosis of dry mouth was carried out using a clinical classification scale of the tongue mucosa (grade range, 0-3). It was possible to measure tongue dorsum moisture in all subjects with the wetness tester. The average moisture value was 0.1+/-0.2 mm in elderly subjects with a dry mouth grade of 2 (n = 8) or 3 (n = 12), while the average moisture value in the control subjects was 3.67+/-1.75 mm with a dry mouth grade of 0 (n = 4) or 1 (n = 2). Tester values and cliniical classification showed a positive co-relationship (r = 0.31, p < 0.05). Our results show that this new tester could be useful for evaluating oral dryness and diagnosing dry mouth.

  10. Hypertonic Saline Suppresses NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation and Promotes Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Nadesalingam, Ajantha; Chen, Jacky H K; Farahvash, Armin; Khan, Meraj A

    2018-01-01

    solutions do not suppress NOX2-independent NETosis. Although hypertonic saline partially suppresses ionomycin-induced NETosis, it enhances A23187-induced NETosis, and it does not alter S. aureus -induced NETosis. Overall, this study determined that hypertonic saline suppresses NOX2-dependent NETosis induced by several agonists; in contrast, it has variable effects on neutrophil death induced by NOX2-independent NETosis agonists. These findings are important in understanding the regulation of NETosis and apoptosis in neutrophils.

  11. Salinity Management in Agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Existing guidelines and standards for reclamation of saline soils and management to control salinity exist but have not been updated for over 25 years. In the past few years a looming water scarcity has resulted in questioning of the long term future of irrigation projects in arid and semi arid regi...

  12. Chloride and sulfate salinity effects on selenium accumulation by tall fescue. [Festuca arundinacea Schreb

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Wu; Zhang-Zhi Huang

    The discovery of high levels of Se in soil and water samples from the San Joaquin Valley, California, and of its responsibility for deformity and death of wildlife at Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge have renewed interest in the bioaccumulation of this element. Greenhouse nutrient solution culture and field experiments were conducted to examine the effects of Cl and SO{sub 4} salt on growth and Se accumulation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivars Alta, Falcon, and Olympic. Sulfate salt substantially reduced growth inhibition and Se accumulation. Tall fescue from the field irrigated with water low in salinity had higher tissuemore » Se concentration than plants from the field irrigated with water high in salinity. No difference in tissue Se concentration was found among the three tall fescue cultivars; however, forage-type Alta produced the most shoot biomass and accumulated the most total Se. The soil irrigated with water high in salinity had 10 times higher Se concentration than soil irrigated with water low in salinity. The highest soil Se concentration was found in the top 15 cm of soil. Growing fescue for one year reduced soil Se by 50%. Selenium concentrations below 15-cm depth were lower and similar between the bare soil and the soil under tall fescue. Both the high and low salinity water irrigations did not cause high levels of Se accumulation by the tall fescue cultivars unless there was continual addition of Se into the system. This study generated important information for Se bioaccumulation management in soils with elevated salinity and Se levels.« less

  13. In vitro analysis of the physical properties of contact lens blister pack solutions.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Kara L; Jones, Lyndon

    2011-04-01

    Since the initial development of silicone hydrogels, many modifications to the bulk and surface properties of the lenses have been undertaken to improve the wettability and comfort of the lenses. Recently, manufacturers have incorporated various "wetting agents" or surface-active agents into the blister packaging solutions (BPSs) of the lenses to improve initial comfort of the lens on eye. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the pH, surface tension (ST), viscosity, and osmolality of BPSs for a variety of silicone hydrogel and polyHEMA-based hydrogel lenses. In addition, two saline solutions were tested for comparison purposes. The pH, osmolality, ST, and viscosity were measured for the BPSs for lotrafilcon B and lotrafilcon A and lotrafilcon B with a "modified BPS" (m-lotrafilcon A, m-lotrafilcon B) (CIBA Vision, Duluth, GA); balafilcon A (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY); galyfilcon A, senofilcon A, and narafilcon A (Johnson & Johnson, Jacksonville, FL); and comfilcon A and enfilcon A (CooperVision, Pleasanton, CA) and BPSs from two conventional polyHEMA-based materials-etafilcon A (Johnson & Johnson) and omafilcon A (CooperVision). The two saline solutions tested were Unisol (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) and Softwear Saline (CIBA Vision). The pH results for the two saline solutions and all BPSs remained in the pH range of tears (6.6-7.8). The ST of the modified BPS was significantly lower (p < 0.01) than the original non-modified BPS. Viscosity measurements ranged between 0.90 and 1.00 cP for all BPSs and saline solutions, except for the modified BPS, which had significantly higher viscosities (p < 0.001). Osmolality measurements were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between BPSs made by the same manufacturer but were significantly different compared with BPSs made by different manufacturers (p < 0.05). The incorporation of wetting agents and surfactants into BPSs does alter the physical properties of the BPSs, which may have clinical implications

  14. Idiopathic burning mouth syndrome: a common treatment-refractory somatoform condition responsive to ECT.

    PubMed

    McGirr, Alexander; Davis, Lindsay; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel

    2014-04-30

    Somatic symptom disorders are common causes of disability and suffering, and can pose significant management challenges. Idiopathic burning mouth syndrome is a challenging somatic symptom disorder with relatively high prevalence, particularly among post-menopausal women. Here, we present the case of a woman with severe treatment refractory idiopathic burning mouth syndrome and comorbid major depressive disorder, who was successfully treated with bitemporal electroconvulsive therapy. This case highlights the potential effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy in idiopathic burning mouth syndrome when other treatment options have been exhausted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dry mouth: Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Frydrych, Agnieszka M

    2016-07-01

    Mouth dryness may present as salivary gland hypofunction (SGH), xerostomia or both. It is considered one of the most underappreciated, underdiagnosed and undermanaged oral health conditions. Despite its common presentation and adverse impact on life quality, it is also generally poorly understood. Increased awareness of the condition is important in addressing these problems. This article discusses SGH and xerostomia, and the associated intra-oral and extra-oral implications. It also summarises currently available management approaches and the evidence behind them. SGH and xerostomia are complex problems. None of the currently available management approaches are entirely satisfactory. Addressing the causative or contributing factors is therefore paramount. While oral health complaints are generally left up to the dental professional to manage, the nature of mouth dryness necessitates increased dialogue between the dental and 
medical professions to ensure optimal patient care.

  16. Burning mouth syndrome: Clinical description, pathophysiological approach, and a new therapeutic option.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo Fonfría, A; Gómez-Vicente, L; Pedraza, M I; Cuadrado-Pérez, M L; Guerrero Peral, A L; Porta-Etessam, J

    2017-05-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is defined as scorching sensation in the mouth in the absence of any local lesions or systemic disease that would explain that complaint. The condition responds poorly to commonly used treatments and it may become very disabling. We prospectively analysed the clinical and demographic characteristics and response to treatment in 6 cases of burning mouth syndrome, diagnosed at 2 tertiary hospital headache units. Six female patients between the ages of 34 and 82 years reported symptoms compatible with burning mouth syndrome. In 5 of them, burning worsened at the end of the day; 4 reported symptom relief with tongue movements. Neurological examinations and laboratory findings were normal in all patients and their dental examinations revealed no buccal lesions. Each patient had previously received conventional treatments without amelioration. Pramipexol was initiated in doses between 0.36mg and 1.05mg per day, resulting in clear improvement of symptoms in all cases, a situation which continues after a 4-year follow up period. Burning mouth syndrome is a condition of unknown aetiology that shares certain clinical patterns and treatment responses with restless leg syndrome. Dopamine agonists should be regarded as first line treatment for this entity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Soil transport parameters of potassium under a tropical saline soil condition using STANMOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzanye da Silva Santos, Rafaelly; Honorio de Miranda, Jarbas; Previatello da Silva, Livia

    2015-04-01

    Environmental responsibility and concerning about the final destination of solutes in soil, so more studies allow a better understanding about the solutes behaviour in soil. Potassium is a macronutrient that is required in high concentrations, been an extremely important nutrient for all agricultural crops. It plays essential roles in physiological processes vital for plant growth, from protein synthesis to maintenance of plant water balance, and is available to plants dissolved in soil water while exchangeable K is loosely held on the exchange sites on the surface of clay particles. K will tend to be adsorbed onto the surface of negatively charged soil particles. Potassium uptake is vital for plant growth but in saline soils sodium competes with potassium for uptake across the plasma membrane of plant cells. This can result in high Na+:K+ ratios that reduce plant growth and eventually become toxic. This study aimed to obtain soil transport parameters of potassium in saline soil, such as: pore water velocity in soil (v), retardation factor (R), dispersivity (λ) and dispersion coefficient (D), in a disturbed sandy soil with different concentrations of potassium chlorate solution (KCl), which is one of the most common form of potassium fertilizer. The experiment was carried out using soil samples collected in a depth of 0 to 20 cm, applying potassium chlorate solution containing 28.6, 100, 200 and 500 mg L-1 of K. To obtain transport parameters, the data were adjusted with the software STANMOD. At low concentrations, interaction between potassium and soil occur more efficiently. It was observed that only the breakthrough curve prepared with solution of 500 mg L-1 reached the applied concentration, and the solution of 28.6 mg L-1 overestimated the parameters values. The STANMOD proved to be efficient in obtaining potassium transport parameters; KCl solution to be applied should be greater than 500 mg L-1; solutions with low concentrations tend to overestimate

  18. Effects of salinity on baldcypress seedlings: Physiological responses and their relation to salinity tolerance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Chambers, J.L.; Pezeshki, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    Growth and physiological responses of 15 open-pollinated families of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum var. distichum) subjected to flooding with saline water were evaluated in this study. Ten of the families were from coastal sites in Louisiana and Alabama, USA that have elevated levels of soil-water salinity. The other five families were from inland, freshwater sites in Louisiana. Seedlings from all families tolerated flooding with water of low (2 g l-1) salinity. Differences in biomass among families became most apparent at the highest salinity levels (6 and 8 g l-1). Overall, increasing salinity reduced leaf biomass more than root biomass, which in turn was reduced more than stem biomass. A subset of seedlings from the main greenhouse experiment was periodically placed indoors under artificial light, and measurements were made of gas exchange and leaf water potential. Also, tissue concentrations of Cl-, Na+, K+, and Ca2+ were determined at the end of the greenhouse experiment. Significant intraspecific variation was found for nearly all the physiological parameters evaluated, but only leaf concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were correlated with an index of family-level differences in salt tolerance.

  19. Physiological and biochemical perspectives of non-salt tolerant plants during bacterial interaction against soil salinity.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Baek, Kwang Hyun

    2017-07-01

    Climatic changes on earth affect the soil quality of agricultural lands, especially by increasing salt deposition in soil, which results in soil salinity. Soil salinity is a major challenge to growth and reproduction among glycophytes (including all crop plants). Soil bacteria present in the rhizosphere and/or roots naturally protect plants from the adverse effects of soil salinity by reprogramming the stress-induced physiological changes in plants. Bacteria can enrich the soil with major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) in a form easily available to plants and prevent the transport of excess sodium to roots (exopolysaccharides secreted by bacteria bind with sodium ions) for maintaining ionic balance and water potential in cells. Salinity also affects plant growth regulators and suppresses seed germination and root and shoot growth. Bacterial secretion of indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellins compensates for the salt-induced hormonal decrease in plants, and bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase synthesis decreases ethylene production to stimulate plant growth. Furthermore, bacteria modulate the redox state of salinity-affected plants by enhancing antioxidants and polyamines, which leads to increased photosynthetic efficiency. Bacteria-induced accumulation of compatible solutes in stressed plants regulates plant cellular activities and prevents salt stress damage. Plant-bacterial interaction reprograms the expression of salt stress-responsive genes and proteins in salinity-affected plants, resulting in a precise stress mitigation metabolism as a defense mechanism. Soil bacteria increase the fertility of soil and regulate the plant functions to prevent the salinity effects in glycophytes. This review explains the current understanding about the physiological changes induced in glycophytes during bacterial interaction to alleviate the adverse effects of soil salinity stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  20. Optimal control solutions to sodic soil reclamation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mau, Yair; Porporato, Amilcare

    2016-05-01

    We study the reclamation process of a sodic soil by irrigation with water amended with calcium cations. In order to explore the entire range of time-dependent strategies, this task is framed as an optimal control problem, where the amendment rate is the control and the total rehabilitation time is the quantity to be minimized. We use a minimalist model of vertically averaged soil salinity and sodicity, in which the main feedback controlling the dynamics is the nonlinear coupling of soil water and exchange complex, given by the Gapon equation. We show that the optimal solution is a bang-bang control strategy, where the amendment rate is discontinuously switched along the process from a maximum value to zero. The solution enables a reduction in remediation time of about 50%, compared with the continuous use of good-quality irrigation water. Because of its general structure, the bang-bang solution is also shown to work for the reclamation of other soil conditions, such as saline-sodic soils. The novelty in our modeling approach is the capability of searching the entire "strategy space" for optimal time-dependent protocols. The optimal solutions found for the minimalist model can be then fine-tuned by experiments and numerical simulations, applicable to realistic conditions that include spatial variability and heterogeneities.

  1. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. New steady-state models for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation waters: Analytical solutions and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mod...

  3. New steady-state models for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation waters: Analytical solutions and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mode...

  4. The extent of variation in salinity tolerance of the minicore collection of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Lakshmanan; Upadhyaya, Hari Deo; Purushothaman, Ramamoorthy; Gowda, Cholenahalli Lakkegowda Laxmipathi; Kashiwagi, Junichi; Dwivedi, Sangam Lal; Singh, Sube; Vadez, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) ranks third in production among the dry land cereals. It is widely cultivated in Africa and South Asia where soil salinization is a major production constraint. It is a potential crop for salt affected soils. To identify salt tolerant germplasm, the minicore finger millet germplasm (n=80) was screened for grain yield performance in a soil saturated with NaCl solution of 100 or 125mM. Genotype effect was significant for most traits, while salinity×genotype interaction was significant only in one year. Salinity delayed phenology, marginally reduced shoot biomass and grain yield. There was a large range of genotypic variation in grain yield under salinity and other traits. The yield loss was higher in accessions with prolific growth and yield potential was associated with saline yields. Based on saline yields, accessions were grouped in to four groups and the top tolerant group had 22 accessions with IE 4797 remaining at the top. Salinity had no adverse impact on grain yield of five accessions. Root anatomy in selected genotype of pearl and finger millet showed presence of porous cortex and well fortified endodermis in finger millet that can exclude Na(+) and enhance N absorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors associated with mouth breathing in children with -developmental -disabilities.

    PubMed

    de Castilho, Lia Silva; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; de Oliveira, Renata Batista; Souza E Silva, Maria Elisa; Resende, Vera Lúcia Silva

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and factors associated with mouth breathing among patients with developmental disabilities of a dental service. We analyzed 408 dental records. Mouth breathing was reported by the patients' parents and from direct observation. Other variables were as -follows: history of asthma, bronchitis, palate shape, pacifier use, thumb -sucking, nail biting, use of medications, gastroesophageal reflux, bruxism, gender, age, and diagnosis of the patient. Statistical analysis included descriptive analysis with ratio calculation and multiple logistic regression. Variables with p < 0.25 were included in the model to estimate the adjusted OR (95% CI), calculated by the forward stepwise method. Variables with p ​​< 0.05 were kept in the model. Being male (p = 0.016) and use of centrally acting drugs (p = 0.001) were the variables that remained in the model. Among patients with -developmental disabilities, boys and psychotropic drug users had a greater chance of being mouth breathers. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Surgical Procedure of Buccal Mucosal Carcinoma - Reconstruction of Mouth Angle].

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Aya; Kanno, Takahiro; Karino, Masaaki; Iwahashi, Teruaki; Sekine, Joji

    2018-03-01

    Surgical resection of the buccal mucosal carcinoma often induces soft tissue defect. The treatment plan should be considered to preserve oro-facial function and morpho-esthetics. This retrospective study reports the surgical reconstruction procedures in buccal mucosal carcinoma patients. We evaluated 4 cases(2 men, 2 women, mean age: 81.8 year-old)treated in Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shimane University Hospital between June 2007 and January 2017. The average size of primary tumor was 4.9 cm2. And the average size of facial skin defect in the mouth angle was 3.1 cm2. The facial local skin flaps and/or other pedicled flap were used for the reconstruction of the mouth angle. Severe contraction of the scar was manifested in 2 cases. Though reconstruction using the local pedicled flaps for full thickness skin defect in the mouth angle would be feasible, special attention is considered regarding the postoperative contraction of the scar.

  7. Cognitive changes after saline or plasmalyte infusion in healthy volunteers: a multiple blinded, randomized, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Story, David A; Lees, Lucy; Weinberg, Laurence; Teoh, Soon-Yee; Lee, Katherine J; Velissaris, Sarah; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Wilson, Sarah J

    2013-09-01

    In an incidental finding, during a study of plasma chemistry after crystalloid infusion, participants reported subjective cognitive changes, particularly slower thinking, after saline but not Hartmann's (Ringer's lactate) solution. The authors tested the hypothesis that saline infusion would produce greater adverse cognitive changes than Plasmalyte infusion. The authors conducted a randomized, cross-over, multiple blinded study of healthy adult volunteers. On separate days, participants received 30 ml/kg over 1 h of either 0.9% saline or Plasmalyte with the order randomly allocated. Plasma chemistry was tested on venous samples. As part of a battery of cognitive tests our primary endpoint was the reaction time index after infusion. The authors studied 25 participants. Plasma chloride was greater after saline than after Plasmalyte: mean difference 5.4 mM (95% CI, 4.1-6.6 mM; P < 0.001). Saline was also associated with greater metabolic acidosis: base-excess 2.5 mM more negative (95% CI, 1.9-3.0 mM more negative; P < 0.001). There was no evidence of a difference in the reaction time index between the two interventions: mean reaction time index 394 ms (SD, 72) after saline versus 385 ms (SD, 55) after Plasmalyte. Difference: saline 9 ms slower (95% CI, 30 ms slower to 12 ms faster; P = 0.39). There were minimal differences in the other cognitive and mood tests. Despite expected differences in plasma chemistry, the authors found that measures of cognition did not differ after infusions of Plasmalyte or saline.

  8. Preliminary study on the dynamics of heavy metals in saline wastewater treated in constructed wetland mesocosms or microcosms filled with porous slag.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yinxiu; Zhu, Hui; Bañuelos, Gary; Xu, Yingying; Yan, Baixing; Cheng, Xianwei

    2018-06-07

    This study aims to evaluate the practical potential of using constructed wetlands (CWs) for treating saline wastewater containing various heavy metals. The results demonstrated that CWs growing Canna indica with porous slag as substrate could efficiently remove heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) from saline wastewater at an electrical conductivity (EC) of 7 mS/cm, especially under low influent load. Salts with salinity level (characterized as EC) of 30 mS/cm suppressed the removal of some heavy metals, dependent on heavy metal species and their influent concentrations. The presence of salts in CWs can improve the accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Pb in plant tissues as compared to control treatment, irrespective of metal concentrations in solution. The influence of salts on Cd accumulation depended on both salinity levels and Cd concentrations in solution. Although more heavy metals were accumulated in roots than in shoots, the harvesting of aboveground plant materials is still efficient addition for heavy metal removal due to the greater biomass and growth rate of aboveground plant material. Furthermore, replacing all plants instead of preserving roots from harvested plants in CWs over a period of time is essential for heavy metal removal, because the continued accumulation by roots can be inhibited by the increasing accumulated heavy metals from saline wastewater.

  9. Water and mineral relations of Atriplex canescens and A. cuneata on saline processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    Growth, mineral uptake and water relations of Atriplex canescens and A. cuneata, both native to the arid oil shale region of northeastern Utah, were studied in the greenhouse and laboratory as affected by various salinity levels and specific ions in processed oil shale. Salinity of the shale was manipulated by moistening leached processed oil shale to near field capacity (20% H/sub 2/O by weight) with solutions of shale leachate, sodium sulfate, magnesium sulfate or sodium chloride at equiosmotic concentrations ranging from 0 to -30 bars. Although shale salinity did not affect osmotic adjustment, zero turgor points of A. canescens becamemore » more negative with reductions in shale moisture percentage. Differences in plant growth due to differet ions in the soil solution could not be explained by effects on osmotic adjustment. However, greater growth of A. canescens in Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ treated than MgSO/sub 4/ treated leached shale was associated with greater leaf succulence, greater lamina lengths and lamina widths and lower diffusive leaf resistances. Potassium added to leached and unleached processed oil shale increased shoot and root biomass production, shoot/root ratio, leaf K content, and water use efficiency of a sodium-excluding Atriplex canescens biotype but did not increase growth of a sodium-accumulating biotype.« less

  10. Intraoral pH and temperature during sleep with and without mouth breathing.

    PubMed

    Choi, J E; Waddell, J N; Lyons, K M; Kieser, J A

    2016-05-01

    To measure and compare the intraoral pH and temperature of individuals during sleep with and without mouth breathing. Ten healthy participants [mean age = 25·8 (± 4·3)] wore a custom-made appliance fitted with a pH probe and thermocouple for two sets of 48 h. Continuous pH and temperature measurements were taken from the palatal aspect of the upper central incisors. To simulate mouth breathing during sleep, participants wore a nose clip for two nights of the four, with the first group (n = 5) wearing the nose clip during the first night and the rest (n = 5) wearing the nose clip during the second night of sleep to balance any potential bias from the wearing sequence. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted. The mean intraoral pH during daytime was 7·3 (± 0·4) and during sleep was 7·0 (± 0·5). The mean intraoral pH during sleep with mouth breathing was 6·6 (± 0·5), which was statistically significant compared with the normal sleep condition (P < 0·01). The intraoral pH decreased slowly over the hours of sleep in all participants. When sleeping with forced mouth breathing, intraoral pH showed a greater fall over a longer period of time. The mean intraoral temperature was 33·1 °C (± 5·2) during daytime and 33·3 °C (± 6·1) during sleep, with no statistical significance between sleep with and without mouth breathing (P > 0·05). The results suggest that mouth breathing during sleep is related to a decrease in intraoral pH compared with normal breathing during sleep, and this has been proposed as a causal factor for dental erosion and caries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Treatment of burning mouth syndrome with a low-level energy diode laser.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Wen; Huang, Yu-Feng

    2011-02-01

    To test the therapeutic efficacy of low-level energy diode laser on burning mouth syndrome. Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by burning and painful sensations in the mouth, especially the tongue, in the absence of significant mucosal abnormalities. Although burning mouth syndrome is relatively common, little is known regarding its etiology and pathophysiology. As a result, no treatment is effective in all patients. Low-level energy diode laser therapy has been used in a variety of chronic and acute pain conditions, including neck, back and myofascial pain, degenerative osteoarthritis, and headache. A total of 17 patients who had been diagnosed with burning mouth syndrome were treated with an 800-nm wavelength diode laser. A straight handpiece was used with an end of 1-cm diameter with the fiber end standing 4 cm away from the end of handpiece. When the laser was applied, the handpiece directly contacted or was immediately above the symptomatic lingual surface. The output used was 3 W, 50 msec intermittent pulsing, and a frequency of 10 Hz, which was equivalent to an average power of 1.5 W/cm(2) (3 W × 0.05 msec × 10 Hz = 1.5 W/cm(2)). Depending on the involved area, laser was applied to a 1-cm(2) area for 70 sec until all involved area was covered. Overall pain and discomfort were analyzed with a 10-cm visual analogue scale. All patients received diode laser therapy between one and seven times. The average pain score before the treatment was 6.7 (ranging from 2.9 to 9.8). The results showed an average reduction in pain of 47.6% (ranging from 9.3% to 91.8%). The burning sensation remained unchanged for up to 12 months. Low-level energy diode laser may be an effective treatment for burning mouth syndrome.

  12. Spatial variability of soil salinity in coastal saline soil at different scales in the Yellow River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuoran; Zhao, Gengxing; Gao, Mingxiu; Chang, Chunyan

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the spatial variability of soil salinity in coastal saline soil at macro, meso and micro scales in the Yellow River delta, China. Soil electrical conductivities (ECs) were measured at 0-15, 15-30, 30-45 and 45-60 cm soil depths at 49 sampling sites during November 9 to 11, 2013. Soil salinity was converted from soil ECs based on laboratory analyses. Our results indicated that at the macro scale, soil salinity was high with strong variability in each soil layer, and the content increased and the variability weakened with increasing soil depth. From east to west in the region, the farther away from the sea, the lower the soil salinity was. The degrees of soil salinization in three deeper soil layers are 1.14, 1.24 and 1.40 times higher than that in the surface soil. At the meso scale, the sequence of soil salinity in different topographies, soil texture and vegetation decreased, respectively, as follows: depression >flatland >hillock >batture; sandy loam >light loam >medium loam >heavy loam >clay; bare land >suaeda salsa >reed >cogongrass >cotton >paddy >winter wheat. At the micro scale, soil salinity changed with elevation in natural micro-topography and with anthropogenic activities in cultivated land. As the study area narrowed down to different scales, the spatial variability of soil salinity weakened gradually in cultivated land and salt wasteland except the bare land.

  13. Correlations between health status and OralChroma™-determined volatile sulfide levels in mouth air of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Awano, Shuji; Takata, Yutaka; Soh, Inho; Yoshida, Akihiro; Hamasaki, Tomoko; Sonoki, Kazuo; Ohsumi, Tomoko; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2011-12-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a volatile sulfur compound (VSC) found in mouth air, is thought to be associated with systemic diseases; this in contrast to the two other VSCs found in mouth air: hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan (MM). This study aimed to validate the relationship between DMS in mouth air and oral and systemic factors. The subjects were 393 elderly Japanese volunteers participating in an oral and systemic health survey. They were surveyed for the concentration of VSC components in their mouth air and for their oral and systemic health status. Using logistic regression models, the prevalence of DMS in mouth air above the organoleptic threshold level (OTL) was found to be significantly associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, medical history of colon polyps and asthma, being female, and the presence of MM in mouth air above the OTL. Our data suggest that systemic factors, such as a high serum HDL cholesterol level and a medical history of asthma and colon polyps, might be more prominent in subjects with elevated DMS. The differences, although statistically significant, are quite small. They also indicate that an oral factor, such as a high MM mouth-air level also influences the DMS mouth-air level in addition to systemic factors.

  14. Bacterial responses to fluctuations and extremes in temperature and brine salinity at the surface of Arctic winter sea ice.

    PubMed

    Ewert, Marcela; Deming, Jody W

    2014-08-01

    Wintertime measurements near Barrow, Alaska, showed that bacteria near the surface of first-year sea ice and in overlying saline snow experience more extreme temperatures and salinities, and wider fluctuations in both parameters, than bacteria deeper in the ice. To examine impacts of such conditions on bacterial survival, two Arctic isolates with different environmental tolerances were subjected to winter-freezing conditions, with and without the presence of organic solutes involved in osmoprotection: proline, choline, or glycine betaine. Obligate psychrophile Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H suffered cell losses under all treatments, with maximal loss after 15-day exposure to temperatures fluctuating between -7 and -25 °C. Osmoprotectants significantly reduced the losses, implying that salinity rather than temperature extremes presents the greater stress for this organism. In contrast, psychrotolerant Psychrobacter sp. strain 7E underwent miniaturization and fragmentation under both fluctuating and stable-freezing conditions, with cell numbers increasing in most cases, implying a different survival strategy that may include enhanced dispersal. Thus, the composition and abundance of the bacterial community that survives in winter sea ice may depend on the extent to which overlying snow buffers against extreme temperature and salinity conditions and on the availability of solutes that mitigate osmotic shock, especially during melting. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Influence of Electronic Word-of-Mouth on College Search and Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Whitney

    2017-01-01

    This study used an online questionnaire to survey first-time, non-transfer undergraduate freshmen students at the University of Miami to determine the perceived influence of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) on their college search and choice compared to that of traditional word-of-mouth (WOM). In addition, eWOM's influence was examined during the…

  16. High-performance ionic diode membrane for salinity gradient power generation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Guo, Wei; Feng, Dan; Wang, Huanting; Zhao, Dongyuan; Jiang, Lei

    2014-09-03

    Salinity difference between seawater and river water is a sustainable energy resource that catches eyes of the public and the investors in the background of energy crisis. To capture this energy, interdisciplinary efforts from chemistry, materials science, environmental science, and nanotechnology have been made to create efficient and economically viable energy conversion methods and materials. Beyond conventional membrane-based processes, technological breakthroughs in harvesting salinity gradient power from natural waters are expected to emerge from the novel fluidic transport phenomena on the nanoscale. A major challenge toward real-world applications is to extrapolate existing single-channel devices to macroscopic materials. Here, we report a membrane-scale nanofluidic device with asymmetric structure, chemical composition, and surface charge polarity, termed ionic diode membrane (IDM), for harvesting electric power from salinity gradient. The IDM comprises heterojunctions between mesoporous carbon (pore size ∼7 nm, negatively charged) and macroporous alumina (pore size ∼80 nm, positively charged). The meso-/macroporous membrane rectifies the ionic current with distinctly high ratio of ca. 450 and keeps on rectifying in high-concentration electrolytes, even in saturated solution. The selective and rectified ion transport furthermore sheds light on salinity-gradient power generation. By mixing artificial seawater and river water through the IDM, substantially high power density of up to 3.46 W/m(2) is discovered, which largely outperforms some commercial ion-exchange membranes. A theoretical model based on coupled Poisson and Nernst-Planck equations is established to quantitatively explain the experimental observations and get insights into the underlying mechanism. The macroscopic and asymmetric nanofluidic structure anticipates wide potentials for sustainable power generation, water purification, and desalination.

  17. Influence of immediate post-extraction socket irrigation on development of alveolar osteitis after mandibular third molar removal: a prospective split-mouth study, preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Tolstunov, L

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this prospective comparative split-mouth study was to evaluate the role of socket irrigation with a normal saline solution routinely used at the end of extraction on the development of alveolar osteitis (AO) after removal of impacted mandibular third molars (MTMs). Thirty-five patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria were involved in the study and underwent extraction of four third-molars. To be included in the study, the mandibular third molars had to be impacted (partial or full bone) and require an osteotomy for extraction with use of a motorised drill. All surgeries were done under local anaesthesia or IV sedation. This was a prospective split-mouth study. The patient's left (assistant) side was a control side; it had a standard extraction technique of an impacted mandibular third molar that required a buccal full-thickness flap, buccal trough (osteotomy) and extraction of the tooth (with or without splitting the tooth into segments), followed by a traditional end-of-surgery debridement protocol consisting of a gentle curettage, bone filing of the socket walls, socket irrigation with approximately 5 ml of sterile normal saline solution and socket suctioning. The patient's right (operator) side was an experimental side; it also had a standard extraction technique of an impacted mandibular third molar at the beginning with a flap and osteotomy, but it was followed by a modified end-of-surgery protocol. It consisted of gentle curettage but the socket was not irrigated and not suctioned. It was simply left to bleed. The gauze was placed on top of the socket for haemostasis on both sides and the patient was asked to bite. On both sides, the buccal flap was positioned back without the suture. All patients were seen for a follow-up appointment four to seven days after the surgery to assess healing and check for symptoms and signs of alveolar osteitis, if present, on both irrigated and non-irrigated sides. This study followed the ethical guidelines of

  18. Electrocapillary Phenomena at Edible Oil/Saline Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Ohzono, Takuya; Shoji, Kohei; Yagihara, Shin; Hayashi, Masafumi; Tanaka, Hisao

    2017-03-01

    Interfacial tension between edible oil and saline was measured under applied electric fields to understand the electrocapillary phenomena at the edible oil/saline interfaces. The electric responses of saline droplets in edible oil were also observed microscopically to examine the relationship between the electrocapillary phenomena and interfacial polarization. When sodium oleate (SO) was added to edible oil (SO-oil), the interfacial tension between SO-oil and saline decreased. However, no decrease was observed for additive-free oil or oleic acid (OA)-added oil (OA-oil). Microscopic observations suggested that the magnitude of interfacial polarization increased in the order of additive-free oil < OA-oil < SO-oil. The difference in electrocapillary phenomena between OA- and SO-oils was closely related to the polarization magnitude. In the case of SO-oil, the decrease in interfacial tension was remarkably larger for saline (pH 5.4~5.6) than that for phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2~7.4). However, no difference was observed between the electric responses of PBS and saline droplets in SO-oil. The difference in electrocapillary phenomena for PBS and saline could not be simply explained in terms of polarization magnitude. The ratio of ionized and non-ionized OA at the interfaces changed with the saline pH, possibly leading to the above difference.

  19. YouTube as a source of information on mouth (oral) cancer.

    PubMed

    Hassona, Y; Taimeh, D; Marahleh, A; Scully, C

    2016-04-01

    We examined the content of YouTube(™) videos on mouth (oral) cancer and evaluated their usefulness in promoting early detection of oral cancer. A systematic search of YouTube(™) for videos containing information on mouth cancer was conducted using the keywords 'mouth cancer' and 'oral cancer'. Demographics of videos, including type, source, length, and viewers' interaction, were evaluated, and three researchers independently assessed the videos for usefulness in promoting early detection of oral cancer. A total of 188 YouTube(™) videos (152 patient-oriented educational videos and 36 testimonial videos) were analyzed. The overall usefulness score ranged from 0 to 10 (mean = 3.56 ± 2.44). The most useful videos ranked late on the viewing list, and there was no significant correlation between video usefulness and viewing rate, viewers' interaction, and video length. Videos uploaded by individual users were less useful compared with videos uploaded by professional organizations or by healthcare professionals. Healthcare professionals, academic institutions, and professional organizations have a responsibility for improving the content of YouTube(™) about mouth cancer by uploading useful videos, and directing patients to reliable information sources. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Children's exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through mouthing toys.

    PubMed

    Ionas, Alin C; Ulevicus, Jocelyn; Gómez, Ana Ballesteros; Brandsma, Sicco H; Leonards, Pim E G; van de Bor, Margot; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have previously been detected in children toys, yet the risk of child exposure to these chemicals through the mouthing of toys or other items is still unknown. We aimed to expand on the current knowledge by investigating the impact of infants' mouthing activities on exposure to PBDEs present in toys. This was established by a leaching model for determining the amount PBDEs that can leach from toys into saliva in simulated conditions. The PBDE migration rate was at its highest for the 15 min low-exposure scenario incubations (198 pg/cm(2) × min) with the ERM EC-591 certified reference material (CRM) (0.17% w/w PBDEs). The leaching process was congener-dependent, since the percentage of lower brominated PBDE congeners that leached out was up to 4.5 times higher than for the heavier PBDEs. To study the scenario in which a child would mouth on a toy flame retarded with BDE 209 alone, a plastic item containing 7% BDE 209 (w/w) was also tested. The BDE 209 amounts leached out in only 15 min were higher than the amounts leached from the CRM after the 16 h incubation. For the Belgian population, the exposure scenario from mouthing on toys containing PBDEs in amounts similar to the REACH threshold was found to be lower than the exposure from mother's milk, but higher than the exposure through diet or even dust. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Viewing speech modulates activity in the left SI mouth cortex.

    PubMed

    Möttönen, Riikka; Järveläinen, Juha; Sams, Mikko; Hari, Riitta

    2005-02-01

    The ability to internally simulate other persons' actions is important for social interaction. In monkeys, neurons in the premotor cortex are activated both when the monkey performs mouth or hand actions and when it views or listens to actions made by others. Neuronal circuits with similar "mirror-neuron" properties probably exist in the human Broca's area and primary motor cortex. Viewing other person's hand actions also modulates activity in the primary somatosensory cortex SI, suggesting that the SI cortex is related to the human mirror-neuron system. To study the selectivity of the SI activation during action viewing, we stimulated the lower lip (with tactile pulses) and the median nerves (with electric pulses) in eight subjects to activate their SI mouth and hand cortices while the subjects either rested, listened to other person's speech, viewed her articulatory gestures, or executed mouth movements. The 55-ms SI responses to lip stimuli were enhanced by 16% (P<0.01) in the left hemisphere during speech viewing whereas listening to speech did not modulate these responses. The 35-ms responses to median-nerve stimulation remained stable during speech viewing and listening. Own mouth movements suppressed responses to lip stimuli bilaterally by 74% (P<0.001), without any effect on responses to median-nerve stimuli. Our findings show that viewing another person's articulatory gestures activates the left SI cortex in a somatotopic manner. The results provide further evidence for the view that SI is involved in "mirroring" of other persons' actions.

  2. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  3. The importance of mouth care in preventing infection.

    PubMed

    Xavier, G

    Most patients can benefit from nurses taking an active interest in their oral hygiene. Gladys Xavier describes how effective mouth care can improve a patient's quality of life and prevent serious infections.

  4. Juvenile salmonid migratory behavior at the mouth of the Columbia River and within the plume

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; O'Toole, Amanda C.; Harnish, Ryan A.

    A total of 8,159 acoustic-tagged salmonid smolts were detected at the mouth of the Columbia River. Of the fish detected at the mouth, 14% of yearling Chinook salmon, 9% of steelhead, and 22% of subyearling Chinook salmon were detected on a sparse array deployed in the Columbia River plume. Chinook salmon smolts decreased travel rate as they left the river and entered the plume, while steelhead increased travel rate. Chinook salmon also spent more time in the transitional area between the river mouth and plume as compared to steelhead. In early spring, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead predominately migrated pastmore » the plume array towards the edge of the shelf and to the south. Later in the season, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts tended to migrate out of the river mouth in a northerly direction. Subyearling Chinook salmon migrated predominately past the portion of the plume array to the north of the river mouth.« less

  5. Study on improving viscosity of polymer solution based on complex reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, G.; Li, D.; Zhang, D.; Xu, T. H.

    2018-05-01

    The current status of polymer flooding Technology on high salinity oil reservoir is not ideal. A method for increasing the viscosity of polymer solutions is urgently needed. This paper systematically studied the effect of ions with different mass concentrations on the viscosity of polymer solutions. Based on the theory of complex reaction, a countermeasure of increasing viscosity of polymer solution under conditions of high salinity reservoir was proposed. The results show that Ca2+ and Mg2+ have greater influence on the solution viscosity than K+ and Na+. When the concentration of divalent ions increases from 0 mg/L to 80 mg/L, the viscosity of the polymer solution decreases from 210 mPa·s to 38.6 mPa·s. The viscosity of the polymer solution prepared from the sewage treated with the Na2C2O4 increased by 25.3%. Atomic force microscopy test results show that Na2C2O4 can effectively shield the divalent metal ions, so that the polymer molecules in the solution stretch more, thereby increasing the solution viscosity. Atomic force microscopy test results show that Na2C2O4 can effectively shield the divalent metal ions, so that the polymer molecules in the solution stretch more, thereby increasing the solution viscosity.

  6. The destination defines the journey: an examination of the kinematics of hand-to-mouth movements

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.

    2016-01-01

    Long-train electrical stimulation of the motor and premotor cortices of nonhuman primates can produce either hand-to-mouth or grasp-to-inspect movements, depending on the precise location of stimulation. Furthermore, single-neuron recording studies identify discrete neuronal populations in the inferior parietal and ventral premotor cortices that respond uniquely to either grasp-to-eat or grasp-to-place movements, despite their identical mechanistic requirements. These studies demonstrate that the macaque motor cortex is organized around producing functional, goal-oriented movements, rather than simply fulfilling muscular prerequisites of action. In humans, right-handed hand-to-mouth movements have a unique kinematic signature; smaller maximum grip apertures are produced when grasping to eat than when grasping to place identical targets. This is evidence that the motor cortex in humans is also organized around producing functional movements. However, in both macaques and humans, grasp-to-eat/hand-to-mouth movements have always been elicited using edible targets and have (necessarily) been paired with mouth movement. It is therefore unknown whether the kinematic distinction is a natural result of grasping food and/or is simply attributable to concurrent opening of the mouth while grasping. In experiment 1, we used goal-differentiated grasping tasks, directed toward edible and inedible targets, to show that the unique kinematic signature is present even with inedible targets. In experiment 2, we used the same goal-differentiated grasping tasks, either coupled with or divorced from an open-mouth movement, to show that the signature is not attributable merely to a planned opening of the mouth during the grasp. These results are discussed in relation to the role of hand-to-mouth movements in human development, independently of grasp-to-eat behavior. PMID:27512020

  7. Language familiarity modulates relative attention to the eyes and mouth of a talker.

    PubMed

    Barenholtz, Elan; Mavica, Lauren; Lewkowicz, David J

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether the audiovisual speech cues available in a talker's mouth elicit greater attention when adults have to process speech in an unfamiliar language vs. a familiar language. Participants performed a speech-encoding task while watching and listening to videos of a talker in a familiar language (English) or an unfamiliar language (Spanish or Icelandic). Attention to the mouth increased in monolingual subjects in response to an unfamiliar language condition but did not in bilingual subjects when the task required speech processing. In the absence of an explicit speech-processing task, subjects attended equally to the eyes and mouth in response to both familiar and unfamiliar languages. Overall, these results demonstrate that language familiarity modulates selective attention to the redundant audiovisual speech cues in a talker's mouth in adults. When our findings are considered together with similar findings from infants, they suggest that this attentional strategy emerges very early in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    PubMed Central

    Negrão, S.; Schmöckel, S. M.; Tester, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making it difficult to study in toto. Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant’s response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. Scope and conclusions We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components. We also suggest some guidelines to assist with the selection of appropriate experimental systems, imposition of salinity stress, and obtaining and analysing relevant physiological data using appropriate indices. We illustrate how these indices can be used to identify relationships amongst the proposed traits to identify which traits are the most important contributors to salinity tolerance. Salinity tolerance is complex and involves many genes, but progress has been made in studying the mechanisms underlying a plant’s response to salinity. Nevertheless, several previous studies on salinity tolerance could have benefited from improved experimental design. We hope that this paper will provide pertinent information to researchers on performing proficient assays and interpreting results from salinity tolerance experiments. PMID:27707746

  9. Salinity control in a clay soil beneath an orchard irrigated with treated waste water in the presence of a high water table: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, David; Laufer, Asher; Bardhan, Gopali; Levy, Guy J.

    2015-12-01

    A citrus orchard planted on a structured, clay soil associated with a high water table, irrigated by drip irrigation system using treated waste water (TWW) and local well water (LWW) was considered here. The scope of the present study was to analyze transport of mixed-ion, interacting salts in a combined vadose zone-groundwater flow system focusing on the following issues: (i) long-term effects of irrigation with TWW on the response of the flow system, identifying the main factors (e.g., soil salinity, soil sodicity) that control these effects, and (ii) salinity control aiming at improving both crop productivity and groundwater quality. To pursue this two-fold goal, 3-D numerical simulations of field-scale flow and transport were performed for an extended period of time, considering realistic features of the soil, water table, crop, weather and irrigation, and the coupling between the flow and the transport through the dependence of the soil hydraulic functions, K(ψ) and θ(ψ), on soil solution concentration C, and sodium adsorption ratio, SAR. Results of the analyses suggest that in the case studied, the long-term effect of irrigation with TWW on the response of the flow system is attributed to the enhanced salinity of the TWW, and not to the increase in soil sodicity. The latter findings are attributed to: (i) the negative effect of soil salinity on water uptake, and the tradeoff between water uptake and drainage flux, and, concurrently, solute discharge below the root zone; and, (ii) the tradeoff between the effects of C and SAR on K(ψ) and θ(ψ). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that a data-driven protocol for soil salinity control, based on alternating irrigation water quality between TWW and desalinized water, guided by the soil solution salinity at the centroid of the soil volume active in water uptake, may lead to a substantial increase in crop yield, and to a substantial decrease in the salinity load in the groundwater.

  10. Salinity Gradient Energy from Expansion and Contraction of Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bui, Tri Quang; Cao, Vinh Duy; Do, Nu Bich Duyen; Christoffersen, Trine Eker; Wang, Wei; Kjøniksen, Anna-Lena

    2018-06-22

    Salinity gradients exhibit a great potential for production of renewable energy. Several techniques such as pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis have been employed to extract this energy. Unfortunately, these techniques are restricted by the high costs of membranes and problems with membrane fouling. However, the expansion and contraction of hydrogels can be a new and cheaper way to harvest energy from salinity gradients since the hydrogels swell in freshwater and shrink in saltwater. We have examined the effect of cross-linker concentration and different external loads on the energy recovered for this type of energy-producing systems. Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) hydrogels were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to produce hydrogels with excellent expansion and contraction properties. Increasing the cross-linker concentration markedly improved the energy that could be recovered from the hydrogels, especially at high external loads. A swollen hydrogel of 60 g could recover more than 1800 mJ when utilizing a high cross-linker concentration, and the maximum amount of energy produced per gram of polymer was 3.4 J/g. Although more energy is recovered at high cross-linking densities, the maximum amount of energy produced per gram of polymer is highest at an intermediate cross-linking concentration. Energy recovery was reduced when the salt concentration was increased for the low-concentration saline solution. The results illustrate that hydrogels are promising for salinity gradient energy recovery, and that optimizing the systems significantly increases the amount of energy that can be recovered.

  11. The Effects of Athletic Mouth Protectors upon Work of Breathing during Exercise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    in this investigation. Participants were issued each of the following types of commonly-available...ahead of other types of injuries in college football during the 1950 football season.(44) In 1952, Cathcart published the results of a joint survey...pressure and deformation were measired without a mouth protector in place, and with each of two types of mouth protectors in place. The researcher.

  12. Effects of salinity on establishment of Populus fremontii (cottonwood) and Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) in southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Ischinger, Lee S.

    1995-01-01

    The exotic shrub Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) has replaced the native Populus fremontii(cottonwood) along many streams in southwestern United States. We used a controlled outdoor experiment to examine the influence of river salinity on germination and first year survival of P. fremontii var. wislizenii (Rio Grande cottonwood) and T. ramosissima on freshly deposited alluvial bars. We grew both species from seed in planters of sand subjected to a declining water table and solutions containing 0, 1, 3, and 5 times the concentrations of major ions in the Rio Grande at San Marcia, NM (1.2, 10.0, 25.7 and 37.4 meq 1-1; 0.11, 0.97, 2.37, and 3.45 dS m-1). Germination of P. fremontii declined by 35% with increasing salinity (P = .008). Germination of T. ramosissima was not affected. There were no significant effects of salinity on morality or above- and belowground growth of either species. In laboratory tests the same salinities had no effect onP. fremontii germination. P. fremontii germination is more sensitive to salinity outdoors than in covered petri dishes, probably because water scarcity resulting from eavaportion intensifies the low soil water potential associated with high salinity. River salinity appears to play only a minor role in determining relative numbers of P. fremontii and T. ramosissima seedlings on freshly deposited sandbars. However, over many years salt becomes concentrated on floodplains as a result of evaporation and salt extrusion from saltcedar leaves. T. ramosissima is known to be more tolerant of the resulting extreme salinities than P. fremontii. Therefore, increases in river salinities could indirectly contribute to decline of P. fremontii forests by exacerbating salt accumulation on floodplains.

  13. Oral health assessment and mouth care for children and young people receiving palliative care. Part two.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, S; Chamley, C

    2013-04-01

    This is the second part of a two-part article on oral health assessment and mouth care for children and young people receiving palliative care. This article covers basic oral hygiene and management of oral health problems: oral candidiasis, coated tongue/dirty mouth, dry mouth, hypersalivation, ulceration, painful mouth, stomatitis and mucositis. The article also covers treating patients who are immunocompromised and the need to educate families and carers in the basic principles of oral care, including the importance of preventing cross-infection. Part one outlined oral assessment and discussed the adaptation of the Nottingham Oral Health Assessment Tool (Freer 2000).

  14. Effect of hypersaline cooling canals on aquifer salinization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, Joseph D.; Langevin, Christian D.; Brakefield-Goswami, Linzy

    2010-01-01

    The combined effect of salinity and temperature on density-driven convection was evaluated in this study for a large (28 km2) cooling canal system (CCS) at a thermoelectric power plant in south Florida, USA. A two-dimensional cross-section model was used to evaluate the effects of hydraulic heterogeneities, cooling canal salinity, heat transport, and cooling canal geometry on aquifer salinization and movement of the freshwater/saltwater interface. Four different hydraulic conductivity configurations, with values ranging over several orders of magnitude, were evaluated with the model. For all of the conditions evaluated, aquifer salinization was initiated by the formation of dense, hypersaline fingers that descended downward to the bottom of the 30-m thick aquifer. Saline fingers reached the aquifer bottom in times ranging from a few days to approximately 5 years for the lowest hydraulic conductivity case. Aquifer salinization continued after saline fingers reached the aquifer bottom and coalesced by lateral movement away from the site. Model results showed that aquifer salinization was most sensitive to aquifer heterogeneity, but was also sensitive to CCS salinity, temperature, and configuration.

  15. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kibae; Hassan, Arshad; Lee, Chong Hyun; Bae, Jinho

    2017-12-18

    In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS), and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under -20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of -35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF) tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  16. Response of Stream Biodiversity to Increasing Salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, C. P.; Vander Laan, J. J.; Olson, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We used a large data set of macroinvertebrate samples collected from streams in both reference-quality (n = 68) and degraded (n = 401) watersheds in the state of Nevada, USA to assess relationships between stream biodiversity and salinity. We used specific electrical conductance (EC)(μS/cm) as a measure of salinity, and applied a previously developed EC model to estimate natural, baseflow salinity at each stream. We used the difference between observed and predicted salinity (EC-Diff) as a measure of salinization associated with watershed degradation. Observed levels of EC varied between 22 and 994 μS/cm across reference sites and 22 to 3,256 uS/cm across non-reference sites. EC-Diff was as high as 2,743 μS/cm. We used a measure of local biodiversity completeness (ratio of observed to expected number of taxa) to assess ecological response to salinity. This O/E index decreased nearly linearly up to about 25% biodiversity loss, which occurred at