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Sample records for salinity geothermal brines

  1. Corrosion of materials and scaling in low-salinity East Mesa geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    McCawley, F.X.; Cramer, S.D.; Riley, W.D.; Carter, J.P.; Needham, P.B. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Field corrosion studies were conducted at the East Mesa Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) in the Imperial Valley, Calif., to determine the optimum materials of construction for use in geothermal mineral energy resource recovery plants. These studies included characterization of geothermal environments and in situ corrosion testing. The corrosion resistance of 10 alloys exposed to 5 brine and steam process environments was evaluated using the low-salinity, high-temperature brine from geothermal well Mesa 6-1. Of these alloys, Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy S, Inconel 625, titanium-2 nickel, and 316 L stainless steel had excellent resistance to corrosion in all of the process environments; E-Brite 26-1 and 430 stainless steel had fair resistance. Although general corrosion rates for 4130 steel and 1020 carbon steel were substantially higher than those of the other iron-base alloys, these two alloys could prove useful in low-salinity process environments because of their low cost. Aluminum alloy 5005 was the least corrosion resistant alloys and pitted severely. Scales formed on all of the alloys in every process environment. Calcite, aragonite, and an amorphous silicate were the major components of the scales.

  2. Corrosion of materials and scaling in low-salinity East Mesa geothermal brines. Report of investigations/1981

    SciTech Connect

    McCawley, F.X.; Cramer, S.D.; Riley, W.D.; Carter, J.P.; Needham, P.B. Jr

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines, in pursuing its goal of extending the life span of strategic materials, conducted field corrosion studies at the East Mesa Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) in the Imperial Valley, Calif., to determine the optimum materials of construction for use in geothermal mineral energy resource recovery plants. These studies included characterization of geothermal environments and in situ corrosion testing. The corrosion resistance of 10 alloys exposed to 5 brine and steam process environments was evaluated using the low-salinity, high-temperature brine from geothermal well Mesa 6-1.

  3. Evaluation of materials for systems using cooled, treated geothermal or high-saline brines

    SciTech Connect

    Suciu, D.F.; Wikoff, P.M.

    1982-09-01

    Lack of adequate quantities of clean surface water for use in wet (evaporative) cooling systems indicates the use of high-salinity waste waters, or cooled geothermal brines, for makeup purposes. High-chloride, aerated water represents an extremely corrosive environment. In order to determine metals suitable for use in such an environment, metal coupons were exposed to aerated, treated geothermal brine salted to a chloride concentration of 10,000 and 50,000 ppM (mg/L) for periods of up to 30 days. The exposed coupons were evaluated to determine the general, pitting, and crevice corrosion characteristics of the metals. The metals exhibiting corrosion resistance at 50,000 ppM chloride were then evaluated at 100,000 and 200,000 ppM chloride. Since these were screening tests to select materials for components to be used in a cooling system, with primary emphasis on condenser tubing, several materials were exposed for 4 to 10 months in pilot cooling tower test units with heat transfer for further corrosion evaluation. The results of the screening tests indicate that ferritic stainless steels (29-4-2 and SEA-CURE) exhibit excellent corrosion resistance at all levels of chloride concentration. Copper-nickel alloys (70/30 and Monel 400) exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the high-saline water. The 70/30 copper-nickel alloy, which showed excellent resistance to general corrosion, exhibited mild pitting in the 30-day tests. This pitting was not apparent, however, after 6 months of exposure in the pilot cooling tower tests. The nickel-base alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance, but their high cost prevents their use unless no other material is found feasible. Other materials tested, although unsuitable for condenser tubing material, would be suitable as tube sheet material.

  4. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR GEOTHERMAL BRINE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    PREMUZIC,E.T.; LIN,M.S.; BOHENEK,M.; JOSHI-TOPE,G.; ZHOU,W.; SHELENKOVA,L.; WILKE,R.

    1998-09-20

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL's Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  5. Biochemical processes for geothermal brine treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Zhou, W.; Shelenkova, L.; Wilke, R.

    1998-08-01

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL`s Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines, (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  6. Treatment of geothermal brine

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.L.; Featherstone, J.L.

    1992-03-24

    This patent describes a method of precipitating at least one metal from a brine containing the same. It comprises contacting a brine containing at least one metal selected from the group consisting of iron, zinc, manganese, copper, silver and lead, and at least one scale forming species selected from the group consisting of silica and calcium compounds, with a condensate of steam, derived from the brine, in an amount to provide a mixture having a volume ratio of brine to condensate in the range of about 1:2 to 1:10 for a time sufficient to precipitate at least one of the metals and only a minor amount of the scale forming species.

  7. Geothermal brines and sludges: a new resource

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Lian, H.; Miltenberger, R.P.

    1996-10-01

    Development of cost efficient biochemical processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges is the main thrust of a major R&D effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This effort has led to the design of an environmentally acceptable, technically and economically feasible new technology which converts geothermal wastes into products with significant commercial potential. These include valuable metals recovery with a metal extraction and recovery efficiency of better then 80% over short periods of time (5-25 hours). The new technology also yields valuable salts, such as potassium chloride and generates high quality pigment free silica. The basic technology is versatile and can, with slight modifications, be used in the treatment of hypersaline as well as low salinity brines and sludges. Concurrently traces of toxic metals, including radium are removed to levels which are within regulatory limits. The current status of the new biochemical technology will be discussed in this paper.

  8. The origin of the Cerro Prieto geothermal brine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Thompson, J.M.; Coplen, T.B.; Nehring, N.L.; Janik, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal brine may have originated from mixing of Colorado River water with seawater evaporated to about six times its normal salinity. This mixture circulated deeply and was heated by magmatic processes. During deep circulation, Li, K, Ca, B, SiO2 and rare alkalis were transferred from rock minerals to the water, and Mg, SO4, and a minor quantity of Na were transferred to the rock. Similar alteration of seawater salt chemistry has been observed in coastal geothermal systems and produced in laboratory experiments. After heating and alteration the brine was further diluted to its present range of composition. Oxygen isotopes in the fluid are in equilibrium with reservoir calcite and have been affected by exploitation-induced boiling and dilution. ?? 1981.

  9. Geothermal brine well: Mile-deep drill hole may tap ore-bearing magmatic water and rocks Undergoing Metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.E.; Anderson, E.T.; Grubbs, D.K.

    1963-01-01

    A deep geothermal well in California has tapped a very saline brine extraordinarily high in heavy metals and other rare elements; copper and silver are precipitated during brine production. Preliminary evidence suggests that the brine may be pure magmatic water and an active ore-forming solution. Metamorphism of relatively young rocks may also be occurring within accessible depths.

  10. Geothermal Brine Well: Mile-Deep Drill Hole May Tap Ore-Bearing Magmatic Water and Rocks Undergoing Metamorphism.

    PubMed

    White, D E; Anderson, E T; Grubbs, D K

    1963-03-08

    A deep geothermal well in California has tapped a very saline brine extraordinarily high in heavy metals and other rare elements; copper and silver are precipitated during brine production. Preliminary evidence suggests that the brine may be pure magmatic water and an active ore-forming solution. Metamorphism of relatively young rocks may also be occurring within accessible depths.

  11. Models of Geothermal Brine Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Moller Weare; John H. Weare

    2002-03-29

    Many significant expenses encountered by the geothermal energy industry are related to chemical effects. When the composition, temperature of pressure of the fluids in the geological formation are changed, during reservoir evolution, well production, energy extraction or injection processes, the fluids that were originally at equilibrium with the formation minerals come to a new equilibrium composition, temperature and pressure. As a result, solid material can be precipitated, dissolved gases released and/or heat lost. Most geothermal energy operations experience these phenomena. For some resources, they create only minor problems. For others, they can have serious results, such as major scaling or corrosion of wells and plant equipment, reservoir permeability losses and toxic gas emission, that can significantly increase the costs of energy production and sometimes lead to site abandonment. In future operations that exploit deep heat sources and low permeability reservoirs, new chemical problems involving very high T, P rock/water interactions and unknown injection effects will arise.

  12. Selective Recovery of Metals from Geothermal Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Ventura, Susanna; Bhamidi, Srinivas; Hornbostel, Marc; Nagar, Anoop; Perea, Elisabeth

    2016-12-16

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of developing a new generation of highly selective low-cost ion-exchange resins based on metal-ion imprinted polymers for the separation of metals from geothermal fluids. Expansion of geothermal energy production over the entire U.S. will involve exploitation of low-to-medium temperature thermal waters. Creating value streams from the recovery of critical and near-critical metals from these thermal waters will encourage geothermal expansion. Selective extraction of metals from geothermal fluids is needed to design a cost-effective process for the recovery of lithium and manganese-two near-critical metals with well-known application in the growing lithium battery industry. We have prepared new lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymers in the form of beads by crosslinking polymerization of a metal polymerizable chelate, where the metal acts as a template. Upon leaching out the metal template, the crosslinked polymer is expected to leave cavities defined by the ligand functional group with enhanced selectivity for binding the template metal. We have demonstrated that lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymer beads can be used as selective solid sorbents for the extraction of lithium and manganese from brines. The polymers were tested both in batch extractions and packed bed lab-scale columns at temperatures of 45-100°C. Lithium-imprinted polymers were found to have Li+ adsorption capacity as high as 2.8 mg Li+/g polymer at 45°C. Manganese-imprinted polymers were found to have a Mn2+ adsorption capacity of more than 23 mg Mn2+/g polymer at 75°C. The Li+ extraction efficiency of the Li-imprinted polymer was found to be more that 95% when a brine containing 390 ppm Li+, 410 ppm Na+, and 390 ppm K+ was passed through a packed bed of the polymer in a lab-scale column at 45°C. In brines containing 360 ppm Li

  13. Localized corrosion of steels in geothermal steam/brine mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    McCright, R.D.; Frey, W.F.; Tardiff, G.E.

    1980-05-29

    Coupons of eight different carbon and chrome-moly alloy steels were exposed to high temperature, high salinity wellhead brine flow at a geothermal well in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field for periods of up to six months. The corrosion rate and corrosion attack morphology of each coupon was determined. Exposure time was a test variable and ranged from one month to six months. Test results indicate that carbon steels generally suffer high corrosion rates and are susceptible to severe localized attack which shows a mesa-canyon pattern. Chrome-moly alloy steels corrode at much lower rates and show an attack pattern of small shallow pits. With time, these pits grow mostly in the lateral direction. These results suggest that chrome-moly alloy steels offer significant improvement over carbon steels and that the disk-shaped pits are not likely to lead to rapid perforation.

  14. Chemical analyses of geothermal waters and Strategic Petroleum Reserve brines for metals of economic importance

    SciTech Connect

    Harrar, J.E.; Raber, E.

    1984-01-01

    Waters from seven hydrothermal-geothermal, one geopressured-geothermal, and six Strategic Petroleum Reserve wells have been surveyed for 12 metals of economic importance using trace chemical analysis techniques. The elements sought were Cr, Co, Mn, Ta, Sn, V, Nb, Li, Sr, Pt, Au and Ag. Platinum was found at a concentration of approx. 50 ppb in a brine from the Salton Sea geothermal area. Brine from this region, as has been known from previous studies, is also rich in Li, Sr and Mn. Higher concentrations (approx. 900 ppm) of Sr are found in the high-salinity geopressured brines. None of the fluids contained interesting concentrations of the other metals. Good recovery of precious metals at sub-ppm concentrations from synthetic high salinity brines was achieved using Amborane reductive resin, but similar recovery in the laboratory using real brines could not be demonstrated. Several analytical techniques were compared in sensitivity for the determination of the precious metals; neutron activation analysis with carrier separation is the best for gold and platinum in geothermal brines. 26 references, 7 tables.

  15. Chemical Analyses of Geothermal Waters and Strategic Petroleum Reserve Brines for Strategic and Precious Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Harrar, Jackson E.; Raber, Ellen

    1983-06-01

    Water form seven hydrothermal-geothermal, one geopressured-geothermal, and six Strategic Petroleum Reserve wells have been surveyed for twelve metals of special strategic and economic importance using trace chemical analysis techniques. The elements sought were Cr, Co, Mn, Ta, Sn, V, Nb, Li, Sr, Pt, Au, and Ag. Platinum was found at a concentration of ~50 ppb in a brine from the Salton Sea geothermal area. Brine from this region, as has been known from previous studies, is also rich in Li, Sr, and Mn. Higher concentrations (~900) of Sr are found in the high-salinity geopressured brines. None of the fluids contained interesting concentrations of the other metals. Good recovery of precious metals at sub-ppm concentrations from synthetic high salinity brines was achieved using Amborane resin, but similar recovery in the laboratory using real brines could not be demonstrated. Several analytical techniques were compared in sensitivity for the determination of the precious metals; neutron activation analysis with carrier separation is the best for gold and platinum in geothermal brines. (DJE-2005)

  16. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Electrodeposition of minerals in geothermal brine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    Objective was to study the materials electrodeposited from geothermal brine, from the HGP-A well in Puna, Hawaii. Due to limitations, only one good set of electrodeposited material was obtained; crystallography indicates that vaterite forms first, followed by calcite and then perhaps aragonite as current density is increased. While the cost to weight ratio is reasonable, the deposition rate is very slow. More research is needed, such as reducing the brittleness. The electrodeposited material possibly could be used as building blocks, tables, benches, etc. 49 figs, 4 tabs, 7 refs.

  17. Effects of plant downtime on the microbial community composition in the highly saline brine of a geothermal plant in the North German Basin.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Anke; Lerm, Stephanie; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-04-01

    The microbial biocenosis in highly saline fluids produced from the cold well of a deep geothermal heat store located in the North German Basin was characterized during regular plant operation and immediately after plant downtime phases. Genetic fingerprinting revealed the dominance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and fermentative Halanaerobiaceae during regular plant operation, whereas after shutdown phases, sequences of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) were also detected. The detection of SOB indicated oxygen ingress into the well during the downtime phase. High 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and dsrA gene copy numbers at the beginning of the restart process showed an enrichment of bacteria, SRB, and SOB during stagnant conditions consistent with higher concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sulfate, and hydrogen sulfide in the produced fluids. The interaction of SRB and SOB during plant downtimes might have enhanced the corrosion processes occurring in the well. It was shown that scale content of fluids was significantly increased after stagnant phases. Moreover, the sulfur isotopic signature of the mineral scales indicated microbial influence on scale formation.

  18. Corrosion behavior of materials exposed to hypersaline geothermal brine

    SciTech Connect

    McCright, R.D.

    1980-11-20

    The corrosion rate and corrosion attack characteristics were determined for thirteen commercially available materials exposed in a geothermal production well for three months. The materials included carbon steels, Cr-Mo alloy steels, martensitic and ferritic stainless steels, high-nickel alloys, and titanium. The environment at the 1800 ft (600 m) depth of exposure was a single phase high salinity brine. The prevailing temperature was 260{sup 0}C and the prevailing pressure was 630 psi (4.0 MPa) during the exposure period. Results indicated that the carbon steels suffered intense generalized and localized corrosion. Addition of Cr and Mo to steels imparted significant improvement in the corrosion performance in this aggressive environment. Of the stainless steels tested, the most resistant were those containing a few percent molybdenum.

  19. Improved Rare Earth Element Sorption from Simulated Geothermal Brines: Effect of Gassed versus Degassed Brines

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dean Stull

    2016-05-24

    A study exploring sorption and stripping characteristics of sorption media when simulated geothermal brines are degassed or not degassed. Experiments were done at 70°C. The brines used in this study were formulated by Tusaar. The two brines used/simulated are labeled 1M and 1CF. The data consists of a Word file explaining the results and an Excel file of the data.

  20. Brine treatment test for reinjection on Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Hurtado, R.; Mercado, S.; Gamino, H. )

    1989-01-01

    Reinjection of disposal brine from the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant System is attractive mainly because, on top of solving the brine disposal problem, it may significantly contribute to extend the reservoir useful lifetime, through thermal and hydraulic recharge. Because the high concentration of colloidal silica in the disposal brine, laboratory and pilot plant tests were conducted in order to develop the brine treatment process. Addition of 20-40 mg/1 lime to flashed and aged brine for 10-20 minutes yields a clarified brine relatively low in suspended solids (10-30 mg/1) when the over flow rate is 38.5 1/min-m/sup 2/. 1.1 mills/kWh was the estimated cost for treatment of 800 kg/s of separated brine from the Cerro Prieto I power station.

  1. Prospects of the complex development of highly parameter geothermal brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    The high efficiency of complex processing of high-temperature hydrothermal brines with utilization of heat energy in a binary geothermal power plant and subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds is shown. Promising technological schemes are given, where electric power, which is generated in the binary geothermal power plant, is used in a block to recover chemistry components. The technology for integrated processing of geothermal brines of the chloride-sodium-calcium type is developed, which provides the manufacture not only of marketable products but also of practically overall reagents of processed water that are necessary to realize the technology. Priority areas for development are indicated, and the preliminary estimates for a Berikey geothermal deposit are given. It is shown that only established resources of thermal brines of the Berikey deposit make it possible to produce more than 2000 t of lithium carbonate and, thereby, to completely provide Russian industry requirements for it.

  2. Numerical analysis of seawater circulation in carbonate platforms: II. The dynamic interaction between geothermal and brine reflux circulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, G.D.; Whitaker, F.F.; Smart, P.L.; Sanford, W.E.

    2004-01-01

    Density-driven seawater circulation may occur in carbonate platforms due to geothermal heating and / or reflux of water of elevated salinity. In geothermal circulation lateral contrasts in temperature between seawater and platform groundwaters warmed by the geothermal heat flux result in upward convective flow, with colder seawater drawn into the platform at depth. With reflux circulation, platform-top waters concentrated by evaporation flow downward, displacing less dense underlying groundwaters. We have used a variable density groundwater flow model to examine the pattern, magnitude and interaction of these two different circulation mechanisms, for mesosaline platform-top waters (50???) and brines concentrated up to saturation with respect to gypsum (150???) and halite (246???). Geothermal circulation, most active around the platform margin, becomes restricted and eventually shut-off by reflux of brines from the platform interior towards the margin. The persistence of geothermal circulation is dependent on the rate of brine reflux, which is proportional to the concentration of platform-top brines and also critically dependent on the magnitude and distribution of permeability. Low permeability evaporites can severely restrict reflux whereas high permeability units in hydraulic continuity enhance brine transport. Reduction in permeability with depth and anisotropy of permeability (kv < < kh) focuses flow laterally in the shallow subsurface (<1 km), resulting in a horizontally elongated brine plume. Aquifer porosity and dispersivity are relatively minor controls on reflux. Platform brines can entrain surficial seawater when brine generating conditions cease but the platform-top remains submerged, a variant of reflux we term "latent reflux". Brines concentrated up to gypsum saturation have relatively long residence times of at least 100 times the duration of the reflux event. They thus represent a long-term control on post-reflux groundwater circulation, and

  3. Cementation process for minerals recovery from Salton Sea geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Maimoni, A.

    1982-01-26

    The potential for minerals recovery from a 1000-MWe combined geothermal power and minerals recovery plant in the Salton Sea is examined. While the possible value of minerals recovered would substantially exceed the revenue from power production, information is insufficient to carry out a detailed economic analysis. The recovery of precious metals - silver, gold, and platinum - is the most important factor in determining the economics of a minerals recovery plant; however, the precious metals content of the brines is not certain. Such a power plant could recover 14 to 31% of the US demand for manganese and substantial amounts of zinc and lead. Previous work on minerals extraction from Salton Sea brines is also reviewed and a new process, based on a fluidized-bed cementation reaction with metallic iron, is proposed. This process would recover the precious metals, lead, and tin present in the brines.

  4. Combined cycle power unit with a binary system based on waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Nikol'skii, A. I.; Semenov, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    The Russian geothermal power systems developed in the last few decades outperform their counterparts around the world in many respects. However, all Russian geothermal power stations employ steam as the geothermal fluid and discard the accompanying geothermal brine. In reality, the power of the existing Russian geothermal power stations may be increased without drilling more wells, if the waste brine is employed in combined cycle systems with steam and binary turbine units. For the example of the 50 MW Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal combined cycle power unit based on the waste geothermal brine is considered. It is of great interest to determine how the thermodynamic parameters of the secondary steam in the expansion unit and the pressure in the condenser affect the performance of the equipment in the combined cycle power unit at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant. For the utilization of the waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal air temperature in the condensers of the combined cycle power unit is +5°C. The use of secondary steam obtained by flashing of the geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant 1 at a pressure of 0.2 MPa permits the generation of up to 8 MW of electric power in steam turbines and additional power of 5 MW in the turbines of the binary cycle.

  5. Corrosion in geothermal brines of the Salton Sea Known Geothermal Resource Area

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.D.; Carter, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion research is being conducted by the Bureau of Mines to determine suitable construction materialls for geothermal resource recovery plants. High chromium-molybdenum iron-base alloys, nickel- and titanium-base alloys, and titanium-zirconium-molybdenum alloy exhibited good resistance to general, crevice, pitting, and weld corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in laboratory tests in deaerated brines of the Salton Sea Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) type at 232/sup 0/C and in brine containing dissolved carbon dioxide and methane. Only titanium-base alloys were resistant to corrosion in oxygenated Salton Sea KGRA-type brine. Copper adversely affected the resistance to general corrosion of low-alloy steels in deaerated brine, whereas chromium, nickel, silicon, and titanium improved it. Carbon steel, type 4130 steel, and types 410 and 430 stainless steels exhibited poor corrosion resistance in field tests in five brine and steam process streams produced from geothermal well Magmamax 1. These alloys were highly susceptible to pitting and crevice corrosion. General corrosion rates were high for carbon and type 4130 steels.

  6. Corrosion in geothermal brines of the Salton Sea Known Geothermal Resource Area

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.D.; Carter, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion research is being conducted by the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, to determine suitable construction materials for geothermal resource recovery plants. High chromium-molybdenum iron-base alloys, nickel-base and titanium-base alloys, and a titanium-zirconium-molybdenum alloy (TZM) exhibited good resistance to general, crevice, pitting, and weld corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in laboratory tests in deaerated brines of the Salton Sea known geothermal resource area (KGRA) type at 232 /degree/C and in brine containing dissolved carbon dioxide and methane. Only titanium-base alloys were resistant to corrosion in oxygenated Salton Sea KGRA-type brine. Copper adversely affected the resistance to general corrosion of low-alloy steels in deaerated brine, whereas chromium, nickel, silicon, and titanium improved it. Carbon steel, Type 4130 steel, and Types 410 and 430 stainless steels exhibited poor corrosion resistance in field tests in five brine and steam process streams produced from geothermal well Magmamax No. 1. These alloys were highly susceptible to pitting and crevice corrosion. General corrosion rates were high for the carbon and Type 4130 steels. 24 refs.

  7. 40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of salines from...

  8. 40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of salines from...

  9. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  10. Application of linear polarization techniques to the measurement of corrosion rates in simulated geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, M.J.

    1980-12-01

    The linear polarization of polarization resistance (PR) technique was investigated in high- and low-salinity geothermal brines at 150 and 250/sup 0/C on a low carbon steel (A53B) and a ferritic stainless steel (E-brite 26-1) with and without the presence of oxygen in the brine. There was good agreement between weight loss data and the results from linear polarization data. Oxygen generally accelerated the corrosion rate, and in the presence of oxygen the usual form of the PR equation must be replaced by the mass transfer equation to predict corrosion rates correctly. Results of the study were compared with the corrosion rate output of commercial PR instrumentation, and it was concluded that this instrumentation is adequate for field investigations in which oxygen is absent. However, when oxygen is present, commercial instruments may underestimate actual corrosion rates considerably.

  11. 40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of...

  12. Kinetics of silica deposition from simulated geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlmann, E.G.; Mesmer, R.E.; Berlinski, P.

    1980-03-01

    Supersaturated brines were passed through columns packed with several forms of silica (crystalline ..cap alpha.. quartz, polycrystalline ..cap alpha.. quartz, and porous Vycor). Also, silica deposition on ThO/sub 2/ microspheres and titanium powder was studied under controlled conditions of supersaturation, pH, temperature, and salinity. The residence time was varied by adjustments of flow rate and column length. The silica contents of the input and effluent solutions were determined colorimetrically by a molybdate method which does not include polymers without special pretreatment. Essentially identical deposition behavior was observed once the substrate was thoroughly coated with amorphous silica and the BET surface area of the coated particles was taken into account. The reaction rate is not diffusion limited in the columns. The silica deposition is a function of the monomeric Si(OH)/sub 4/ concentration in the brine. The deposition on all surfaces examined was spontaneously nucleated. The dependence on the supersaturation concentration, hydroxide ion concentration, surface area, temperature and salinity were examined. Fluoride was shown to have no effect at pH 5.94 and low salinity. The empirical rate law which describes the data in 1 m NaCl in the pH range 5-7 and temperatures from 60 to 120/sup 0/C is given.

  13. Chemical-equilibrium calculations for aqueous geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1981-05-01

    Results from four chemical-equilibrium computer programs, REDEQL.EPAK, GEOCHEM, WATEQF, and SENECA2, have been compared with experimental solubility data for some simple systems of interest with geothermal brines. Seven test cases involving solubilities of CaCO/sub 3/, amorphous SiO/sub 2/, CaSO/sub 4/, and BaSO/sub 4/ at various temperatures from 25 to 300/sup 0/C and in NaCl or HCl solutions of 0 to 4 molal have been examined. Significant differences between calculated results and experimental data occurred in some cases. These differences were traced to inaccuracies in free-energy or equilibrium-constant data and in activity coefficients used by the programs. Although currently available chemical-equilibrium programs can give reasonable results for these calculations, considerable care must be taken in the selection of free-energy data and methods of calculating activity coefficients.

  14. Developing a Process for Commercial Silica Production from Geothermal Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W; Martin, S; Viani, B; Bruton, C

    2001-04-11

    Useful mineral by-products can be produced from geothermal brines. Although silica has many commercial uses, problems remain in producing a marketable product. We are conducting laboratory and modeling studies aimed at optimizing for rubber additive use, the properties of silica precipitates from Salton Sea and Coso-like geothermal fluids, Our goal is to develop a robust technique for producing silicas that have desirable physical and chemical properties for commercial use, while developing a generic understanding of silica precipitation that will allow extraction to be extended to additional fluid types, and to be easily modified to produce new types of marketable silica. Our experiments start with an acidified geothermal fluid similar to those treated by pH modification technology. Silica precipitation is induced by adding base and/or adding Mg or Ca salts to affect the nature of the precipitate. For the analog Salton Sea fluids, adding base alone caused silica to precipitate fairly rapidly. To date, we have characterized precipitates from experiments in which the final pH varied from 4 to 8, where NaOH and Na{sub 2}C0{sub 3} were added as bases, and CaCl{sub 2} and MgCl{sub 2} were added as salts. SEM photos of the silica precipitates from the Salton Sea and Cos0 fluids show that the silica particles are clusters of smaller silica particles down to the resolution of the SEM (about 80-100 nm in diameter). The particle sizes and surface areas of silicas from the Salton Sea and Coso analog brines are similar to the properties of the Degussa silica commonly used as a rubber additive. An evaluation of the strength of the silica-organic bond as tested by dispersion in oil (polybutadiene) was inconclusive. Neither the Degussa materials nor our laboratory precipitates dispersed readily in nor dispersed down to the fundamental particle size. Preliminary NMR data indicates that the Degussa silica has a smaller degree of silica polymerization (a slightly smaller average

  15. Measurement of the Streaming Potential Coupling Coefficient in Sandstones Saturated with High Salinity Natural and Artificial Brines at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, J.; Jackson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Streaming potentials are generated by the flow of water through porous rock, and measurements of the streaming potential component of the self-potential (SP) have been proposed to monitor subsurface flow in a number of settings. Interpretation of SP measurements is made easier by an understanding of the coupling between the fluid flow and associated SP current sources, typically characterised using either the streaming potential coupling coefficient (C, in VPa-1) or the excess charge transported by the flow (Q, in Cm-3). Numerous studies report laboratory measurements of the streaming potential coupling coefficient in intact rock samples of various lithology and mineralogy at laboratory temperature. However, in many subsurface settings, such as deep saline aquifers, geothermal fields, and hydrocarbon reservoirs, temperatures are considerably higher. Yet published measurements of streaming potential at elevated temperature are sparse, and the temperature dependence of the streaming potential coupling coefficient and associated zeta potential exhibits contradictory and inconsistent behaviour. Moreover, the measurements were obtained using simple NaCl or KCl electrolytes at relatively low concentration (typically up to one tenth of seawater salinity) but natural brines are often significantly more saline and contain a wide variety of ionic species. We report measurements of the streaming potential on intact sandstone core samples saturated with high salinity natural and artificial brines at elevated temperatures. We measure streaming potential using an experimental set-up that incorporates in-situ measurements of saturated rock conductivity, brine temperature, pressure difference and voltage at temperatures up to 160oC. At temperatures below 100oC we also measure the brine pH and electrical conductivity. Using constant rate pumping we obtain the streaming potential coupling coefficient from the gradient of a linear relationship between pressure and voltage difference

  16. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines FY 1998 annual operating plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    As part of the overall Geothermal Energy Research which is aimed at the development of economical geothermal resources production systems, the aim of the Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) effort is the development of economic and environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of geothermal wastes and conversion of by-products to useful forms. Methods are being developed for dissolution, separation and immobilization of geothermal wastes suitable for disposal, usable in inert construction materials, suitable for reinjection into the reservoir formation, or used for recovery of valuable metals.

  17. The influence of closed brine pockets and permeable brine channels on the thermo-elastic properties of saline ice.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Aleksey; Lishman, Ben

    2017-02-13

    A model of the thermo-elastic behaviour of saline ice is formulated, and model solutions describing thermo-elastic waves (TEW) propagating into a half-space of the ice are investigated. The model is based on a proposal that saline ice is a matrix, which encompasses both closed brine pockets and permeable channels filled with brine. Experiments on the thermal expansion of saline ice samples, and on TEW in saline ice, have been performed in the cold laboratories of the University Centre in Svalbard and in University College London. The experimental data are compared with theoretical conclusions. The experimental data support our hypothesis that the brine in saline ice is divided between closed pockets and open, permeable channels.This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'.

  18. The influence of closed brine pockets and permeable brine channels on the thermo-elastic properties of saline ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, Aleksey; Lishman, Ben

    2017-02-01

    A model of the thermo-elastic behaviour of saline ice is formulated, and model solutions describing thermo-elastic waves (TEW) propagating into a half-space of the ice are investigated. The model is based on a proposal that saline ice is a matrix, which encompasses both closed brine pockets and permeable channels filled with brine. Experiments on the thermal expansion of saline ice samples, and on TEW in saline ice, have been performed in the cold laboratories of the University Centre in Svalbard and in University College London. The experimental data are compared with theoretical conclusions. The experimental data support our hypothesis that the brine in saline ice is divided between closed pockets and open, permeable channels. This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'.

  19. Uranium-thorium series radionuclides in brines and reservoir rocks from two deep geothermal boreholes in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, southeastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zukin, Jeffrey G.; Hammond, Douglas E.; Teh-Lung, Ku; Elders, Wilfred A.

    1987-10-01

    Naturally occurring U and Th series radionuclides have been analyzed in high temperature brines (~300°C, 25 wt% dissolved solids) and associated rocks from two deep geothermal wells located on the northeastern margin of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). These data are part of a study of the SSGF as a natural analog of possible radionuclide behavior near a nuclear waste repository constructed in salt beds, and permit evaluation of some characteristics of water-rock interaction in the SSGF. Rock/Brine concentration ratios ( Rc = (dpm/ g) rock/(dpm/ g) brine) were found to vary from near unity for isotopes of Ra, Pb and Rn to about 5 × 10 5 for 232Th. The high sorptivity of 232Th is closely followed by that of 238U and 234U ( Rc ~ 5 × 10 4), suggesting that U is retained in the +4 oxidation state by the reducing conditions in the brines. The relatively high solubility of 210Pb and 212Pb is attributed to formation of chloride complexes, while the high Ra solubility is attributed to chloride complexing, a lack of suitable adsorption sites due to the high brine salinity and temperature, and the reducing conditions that prevent MnO 2 and RaSO 4 from forming. The 228Ra /226Ra ratios in the brines are approximately equal to those of their parents ( 232Th /230Th ) in associated rocks, indicating that Ra equilibration in the brine-rock system is achieved within the mean life of 228Ra (8.3 years). The 224Ra /228Ra ratios in these brines are about 0.7, indicating that either (1) brine composition is not homogeneous and 224Ra decays in fracture zones deficient in Ra and Th as the brine travels to the wellhead or (2) Ra equilibration in the brine-host rock system is not complete within the mean life of 224Ra (5.2 days) because the desorption of 224Ra from the solid phase is impeded. The 228Ac /228Ra activity ratio in the SSGF brines studied is <0.1, and from this ratio the residence time of 228Ac in the brine before sorption onto solid surfaces is estimated to be <70

  20. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

  1. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  2. Corrosion of selected metals and a high-temperature thermoplastic in hypersaline geothermal brine. Report of investigations/1983

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, R.K.; Carter, J.P.; Cramer, S.D.

    1983-09-01

    The Bureau of Mines conducted corrosion research to determine suitable construction materials for geothermal resource recovery plants. Weight loss, pitting and crevice corrosion, U-bend stress corrosion, and electrochemical polarization measurements were made on selected metals in brine and steam process environments produced from high-enthalpy hypersaline brine from geothermal well Magmamax No. 1 at the Salton Sea Known Geothermal Resources Area, Imperial Valley, Calif.

  3. Boiling and condensation of saline geothermal fluids above magmatic intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Samuel; Driesner, Thomas; Weis, Philipp

    2017-02-01

    Numerical simulation of subaerial, magma-driven, saline hydrothermal systems reveals that fluid phase separation near the intrusion is a first-order control on the dynamics and efficiency of heat and mass transfer. Above shallow intrusions emplaced at <2.5 km depth, phase separation through boiling of saline liquid leads to accumulation of low-mobility hypersaline brines and halite precipitation, thereby reducing the efficiency of heat and mass transfer. Above deeper intrusions (>4 km), where fluid pressure is >30 MPa, phase separation occurs by condensation of hypersaline brine from a saline intermediate-density fluid. The fraction of brine remains small, and advective, vapor-dominated mass and heat fluxes are maximized. We thus hypothesize that, in contrast to pure water systems, for which shallow intrusions make better targets for supercritical resource exploitation, the optimal targets in saline systems are located above deeper intrusions.

  4. Method to Recover Media Ligand Losses During Sorption of Rare Earth Elements from Simulated Geothermal Brines

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dean Stull

    2016-05-24

    This document describes the method and results of an in-situ experiment used to confirm that ligand bleed from a sorptive media can be contained. The experiment focused on maintaining the media's sorption of rare earth elements (REE) obtained from a simulated geothermal brine doped with known mineral concentrations.

  5. Multicomponent CO2-Brine Simulations of Fluid and Heat Transfer in Sedimentary-Basin Geothermal Systems: Expanding Geothermal Energy Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, M. O.; Randolph, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    In a carbon dioxide plume geothermal (CPG) system, carbon dioxide (CO2) is pumped into existing high-permeability geologic formations that are overlain by a low-permeability caprock. The resulting CO2 plume largely displaces native formation fluid and is heated by the natural in-situ heat and background geothermal heat flux. A portion of the heated CO2 is piped to the surface to produce power and/or to provide heat for direct use before being returned to the geologic reservoir. Non-recoverable CO2 in the subsurface is geologically sequestered, serving as a CO2 sink. As such, this approach results in a geothermal power plant with a negative carbon footprint. We present results of calculations concerning geothermal power plant efficiencies and energy production rates in both traditional reservoir-based systems and engineered geothermal systems (EGS) when CO2, rather than water, is used as the subsurface working fluid. While our previous studies have examined geologic systems with established CO2 plumes, we focus here on multicomponent (CO2 + brine) systems. Numerical simulations (e.g., Randolph and Saar, Geophysical Research Letters, 2011) indicate that CPG systems provide several times the heat energy recovery of similar water-based systems. Furthermore, the CPG method results in higher geothermal heat extraction efficiencies than both water- and CO2-based EGS. Therefore, CPG should further extend the applicability of geothermal energy utilization to regions with subsurface temperatures and heat flow rates that are even lower than those that may be added due to switching from water- to CO2-based EGS. Finally, simulations at present suggest that multicomponent effects - e.g., buoyant flow as CO2 rises over denser brine - may enhance heat extraction in CPG systems compared to traditional water-based geothermal approaches.

  6. Field stress corrosion tests in brine environments of the Salton Sea known geothermal resource area

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.P.; Cramer, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion research is being conducted to determine suitable construction materials for geothermal resource recovery plants. As part of this research, a 30-day stress corrosion test was conducted at the Salton Sea Known Geothermal Resource Area on seven iron- and nickel-base alloys in four brine and steam process streams using wellhead brine from geothermal well Magmamax 1. The tests showed transgranular cracking of AISI 316L stainless steel and intergranular and transgranular cracking of AISI 430 stainless steel in all four process streams. E-Brite 26-1 exhibited intergranular and transgranular cracking in three of the four process streams. Carbon steel, Inconel 625 and Hastelloys G and C-276 show no evidence of stress corrosion cracking.

  7. Metamorphosed Plio-Pleistocene evaporites and the origins of hypersaline brines in the Salton Sea geothermal system, California: Fluid inclusion evidence

    SciTech Connect

    McKibben, M.A.; Williams, A.E.; Okubo, Susumu )

    1988-05-01

    The Salton Sea geothermal system (SSGS) occurs in Plio-Pleistocene deltaic-lacustrine-evaporite sediments deposited in the Salton Trough, an active continental rift zone. Temperatures up to 365{degree}C and hypersaline brines with up to 26 wt.% TDS are encountered at 1-3 km depth in the sediments, which are undergoing active greenschist facies hydrothermal metamorphism. Previous models for the origins of the Na-Ca-K-Cl brines have assumed that the high salinities were derived mainly from the downward percolation of cold, dense brines formed by low-temperature dissolution of shallow non-marine evaporites. New drillcores from the central part of the geothermal field contain metamorphosed, bedded evaporites at 1 km depth consisting largely of hornfelsic anhydrite interbedded with anhydrite-cemented solution-collapse shale breccias. Fluid inclusions trapped within the bedded and breccia-cementing anhydrite homogenize at 300{degree}C and contain saline Na-Ca-K-Cl brines. Some of the inclusions contain up to 50 vol.% halite, sylvite and carbonate crystals at room temperature, and some halite crystals persist to above 300{degree}C upon laboratory heating. The data are consistent with the trapping of halite-saturated Na-Ca-K-Cl fluids during hydrothermal metamorphism of the evaporites and accompanying solution collapse of interbedded shales. The authors conclude that many of the slat crystals in inclusions are the residuum of bedded evaporitic salt that was dissolved during metamorphism by heated connate fluids.

  8. Treatment of high salinity brines by direct contact membrane distillation: Effect of membrane characteristics and salinity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Guan, Yunshan; Cheng, Fangqin; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) is one of the attractive technologies for high salinity brine treatment. In this study, four polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were examined in treating highly concentrated salt solutions. Results showed that non-supported membranes generally have a higher overall mass transfer coefficient but porosity seems to be the most important parameter controlling membrane flux and thermal efficiency. Supported membranes with large thickness had relatively higher thermal efficiency than small thickness. This can be attributed to their reduced heat loss through heat condition. In addition, KCl, NaCl and MgCl2 solutions showed distinct trends over flux decline at high salt concentrations (⩾2.0M). The difference in flux was largely due to the discrepancy in water activities of these solutions (KCl>NaCl>MgCl2). However, the effect of viscosity on permeate flux could not be neglected for MgCl2 at high salt concentrations as the suddenly increased viscosity could lead to serious temperature polarization. This study indicates that membrane distillation is a promising technology for high salinity brine treatment.

  9. Saline groundwaters and brines in the Canadian Shield: Geochemical and isotopic evidence for a residual evaporite brine component

    SciTech Connect

    Bottomley, D.J. ); Gregoire, D.C. ); Raven, K.G. )

    1994-03-01

    Saline Ca-Na/Cl type groundwaters and brines sampled in deep mines over an extensive area of the Canadian Precambrian Shield have elevated Br/Cl ratios which may indicate that the chlorinity of these waters was derived from the infiltration of residual evaporitic brines, remnants of the great marine incursion of the Paleozoic era. Boron concentrations in these waters are generally low (i.e., < [approximately] 2 mg/L) relative to seawater or Alberta Basin Devonian formation waters. However, the [sup 11]B/[sup 10]B ratios of these waters are significantly greater than the average value for continental crustal rocks with the highest values ([approximately]4.19) approaching that of present-day seawater (4.20). Moreover, the boron isotopic ratios generally trend to higher values with increasing chlorinity which supports the conclusion from the Br-Cl relationship that most of the chloride in shield brines is of marine origin, rather than a product of water/rock interactions. If this is correct, crystalline rocks must then be sufficiently permeable on a regional scale to have allowed the brine to infiltrate to depths of several kilometers where it now resides. The presence of saline groundwaters in crystalline has important implications for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, which proposes disposal of waste fuel in a repository constructed at a depth of 500-1000 m in plutonic rock.

  10. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J.; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes. PMID:27545955

  11. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J.; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-08-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes.

  12. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-08-22

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes.

  13. Kinetics of radioisotope exchange between brine and rock in a geothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, D.E.; Zukin, J.G.; Teh-Lung Ku

    1988-11-10

    A wide range of isotopes in the /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 232/Th decay chains was measured in geothermal brines collected from two production zones at 1898 and 3220 m in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project well. High concentrations of radium, radon, and lead isotopes are generated and maintained by the input of these isotopes from solid phases into brine by both recoil and leaching processes, by the high chloride content of the brine which complexes radium and lead, and by the apparent absence of suitable unoccupied adsorption sites. In contrast, uranium, thorium, actinium, bismuth, and polonium isotopes all have low concentrations due to their efficient sorption from brine to rock. Measurements of short-lived isotopes in these decay series yield insights regarding the mechanisms controlling radioisotope exchange, and they permit estimation of rates of brine-rock interaction. For example, the /sup 228/Ac//sup 228/Ra activity ratio of 0.2 in brines indicates that the mean residence time of actinium in solution before sorption onto solid surfaces is less than 2.5 hours.

  14. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    DOEpatents

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  15. How PNNL Extracts Rare Earth Elements from Geothermal Brine

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-12

    By looking at a problem at a nanoscale level, PNNL researchers are developing an economic way to extract valuable rare earth elements from geothermal fluids. This novel approach may help meet the high demand for rare earth elements that are used in many clean energy technologies.

  16. Experimental Parameters Affecting Stripping of Rare Earth Elements from Loaded Sorptive Media in Simulated Geothermal Brines

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dean Stull

    2016-05-24

    Experimental results from several studies exploring the impact of pH and acid volume on the stripping of rare earth elements (REEs) loaded onto ligand-based media via an active column. The REEs in this experiment were loaded onto the media through exposure to a simulated geothermal brine with known mineral concentrations. The data include the experiment results, rare earth element concentrations, and the experimental parameters varied.

  17. Electric power generation using geothermal brine resources for a proof of concept facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankin, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    An exploratory systems study of a geothermal proof-of-concept facility is being conducted. This study is the initial phase (Phase 0) of a project to establish the technical and economic feasibility of using hot brine resources for electric power production and other industrial applications. Phase 0 includes the conceptual design of an experimental test-bed facility and a 10-MWe power generating facility.

  18. Salinity fluctuation of the brine discharge affects growth and survival of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa.

    PubMed

    Garrote-Moreno, A; Fernández-Torquemada, Y; Sánchez-Lizaso, J L

    2014-04-15

    The increase of seawater desalination plants may affect seagrasses as a result of its hypersaline effluents. There are some studies on the salinity tolerance of seagrasses under controlled laboratory conditions, but few have been done in situ. To this end, Cymodocea nodosa shoots were placed during one month at four localities: two close to a brine discharge; and the other two not affected by the discharge, and this experiment was repeated four times. The results obtained showed a decrease in growth and an increased mortality at the localities affected by the brine discharge. An increase was detected in the percentage of horizontal shoots in respect to vertical shoots at the impacted localities. It is probably that not only the average salinity, but also the constant salinity fluctuations and slightly higher temperatures associated with the brine that may have caused physiological stress thus reducing C. nodosa growth and survival.

  19. Dependence of CO2-Brine Interfacial Tension on Aquifer Pressure, Temperature and Water Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachu, S.; Bennion, B.

    2007-12-01

    Carbon dioxide storage in deep saline aquifers is a climate-change mitigation strategy that has significant potential in the short-to-medium term. The displacement of formation water by CO2 (drainage) and of CO2 by invading aquifer brine (imbibition) depend on the interfacial tension (IFT) of the CO2-brine system. To provide needed data, an extensive laboratory program was conducted for the measurement of the interfacial tension between CO2 and water or brine covering the ranges of 2 to 27 MPa pressure, 20°C to 125°C temperature, and 0 to 334,000 mg/l water salinity. The laboratory experiments were conducted using the pendant drop method combined with the Laplace solution for the profile of the brine drop in the CO2-rich environment. The analysis of the resulting set of 294 IFT measurements reveals that: 1) for conditions of constant temperature and water salinity, IFT decreases steeply with increasing pressure in the range PPc, with an asymptotic trend towards a constant value for high pressures; 2) for the same conditions of constant pressure and temperature, IFT increases with increasing water salinity, reflecting decreasing CO2 solubility in brine as salinity increases; 3) the dependence of IFT on temperature is more complex, depending on the CO2 phase. For TTc, with an asymptotic trend towards a constant value for high temperatures. These results indicate that, in the case of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers, the formation water displacement by injected CO2 during the injection phase of CO2 storage and the CO2 displacement by invading brine during the CO2 migration phase depend on the in-situ conditions of pressure, temperature and water salinity through the effects that these primary variables have on the IFT between CO2 and aquifer brine. Since the IFT of

  20. Review: Approaches to research on CO2/brine two-phase migration in saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dayong; Dong, Bo; Breen, Stephen; Zhao, Minglong; Qiao, Juan; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Song, Yongchen

    2014-08-01

    Understanding CO2/brine multiphase migration processes is critical for effectively evaluating potential storage capacity, ensuring storage security, and predicting the long-term fate of CO2 storage in saline aquifers. Success depends on the development and application of appropriate research methods. This paper accordingly reviews the progress made in research methods on CO2/brine two-phase migration. Due to intrinsic linkage between CO2 migration and trapping in saline aquifers, prediction of CO2/brine migration processes requires an accurate understanding of CO2 trapping mechanisms. Six recognized physical or geochemical mechanisms, including structural and stratigraphic trapping, residual gas trapping, hydrodynamic trapping, solubility trapping, local capillary trapping and mineral trapping, can impede or prevent CO2 migration according to different dominating variables, and consequently immobilize CO2 in brine formations at varying time and spatial scales. Laboratory experiments, field-scale monitoring and computational modeling are the main approaches in studies on CO2/brine multiphase migration. Different techniques have been designed and developed within each of these methods in terms of physical conditions and spatial scales of multiphase migration phenomena. Due to multi-scale characteristics of CO2/brine multiphase migration processes and complementary relationships among these methods and techniques, different research methods and techniques are often used in combination. Based on a systematic analysis of limitations and weaknesses, improvements are recommended which could potentially increase the accuracy, reliability and applicability of the approaches.

  1. Review: Approaches to research on CO2/brine two-phase migration in saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dayong; Dong, Bo; Breen, Stephen; Zhao, Minglong; Qiao, Juan; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Song, Yongchen

    2015-02-01

    Understanding CO2/brine multiphase migration processes is critical for effectively evaluating potential storage capacity, ensuring storage security, and predicting the long-term fate of CO2 storage in saline aquifers. Success depends on the development and application of appropriate research methods. This paper accordingly reviews the progress made in research methods on CO2/brine two-phase migration. Due to intrinsic linkage between CO2 migration and trapping in saline aquifers, prediction of CO2/brine migration processes requires an accurate understanding of CO2 trapping mechanisms. Six recognized physical or geochemical mechanisms, including structural and stratigraphic trapping, residual gas trapping, hydrodynamic trapping, solubility trapping, local capillary trapping and mineral trapping, can impede or prevent CO2 migration according to different dominating variables, and consequently immobilize CO2 in brine formations at varying time and spatial scales. Laboratory experiments, field-scale monitoring and computational modeling are the main approaches in studies on CO2/brine multiphase migration. Different techniques have been designed and developed within each of these methods in terms of physical conditions and spatial scales of multiphase migration phenomena. Due to multi-scale characteristics of CO2/brine multiphase migration processes and complementary relationships among these methods and techniques, different research methods and techniques are often used in combination. Based on a systematic analysis of limitations and weaknesses, improvements are recommended which could potentially increase the accuracy, reliability and applicability of the approaches.

  2. On the viscosity of natural hyper-saline solutions and its importance: The Dead Sea brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbrod, Noam; Yechieli, Yoseph; Shandalov, Semion; Lensky, Nadav

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the density, temperature and viscosity of hypersaline solutions, both natural and synthetic, is explored. An empirical equation of the density-viscosity relationship as a function of temperature was developed for the Dead Sea brine and its dilutions. The viscosity levels of the Dead Sea brine (density of 1.24 ṡ 103 kg/m3; viscosity of 3.6 mPa s at 20 °C) and of the more extremely saline natural brine (density of 1.37 ṡ 103 kg/m3) were found to be ∼3 and ∼10 times greater than that of fresh water, respectively. The combined effect of the above changes in viscosity and density on the hydraulic conductivity is reduction by a factor of 3-7. The chemical composition significantly affects the viscosity of brines with similar densities, whereby solutions with a higher Mg/Na ratio have higher viscosity. This explains the extremely high viscosity of the Dead Sea and related Mg-rich brines in comparison with the much lower values of NaCl and KCl brines with similar density. Possible impacts of the results include reduced settling velocity of grains in hypersaline viscous brines and changing hydraulic dynamics at the freshwater-saltwater and the vicinity of sinkholes.

  3. Effects of high salinity from desalination brine on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and osmolyte concentrations of seagrass Posidonia australis.

    PubMed

    Cambridge, M L; Zavala-Perez, A; Cawthray, G R; Mondon, J; Kendrick, G A

    2017-02-15

    Highly saline brines from desalination plants expose seagrass communities to salt stress. We examined effects of raised salinity (46 and 54psu) compared with seawater controls (37psu) over 6weeks on the seagrass, Posidonia australis, growing in tanks with the aim of separating effects of salinity from other potentially deleterious components of brine and determining appropriate bioindicators. Plants survived exposures of 2-4weeks at 54psu, the maximum salinity of brine released from a nearby desalination plant. Salinity significantly reduced maximum quantum yield of PSII (chlorophyll a fluorescence emissions). Leaf water potential (Ψw) and osmotic potential (Ψπ) were more negative at increased salinity, while turgor pressure (Ψp) was unaffected. Leaf concentrations of K(+) and Ca(2+) decreased, whereas concentrations of sugars (mainly sucrose) and amino acids increased. We recommend leaf osmolarity, ion, sugar and amino acid concentrations as bioindicators for salinity effects, associated with brine released in desalination plant outfalls.

  4. Operation of a mineral recovery unit on brine from the Salton Sea Known Geothermal Resource Area. Report of investigations/1982

    SciTech Connect

    Schultze, L.E.; Bauer, D.J.

    1982-07-01

    The Bureau of Mines operated a mineral recovery unit to recover metal values from post-flash geothermal brines from the Salton Sea known geothermal resource area as part of its research into the use of plentiful resources. The brine was available for metals recovery after its heat content had been used to generate electricity. The brine source was treated with lime to precipitate the contained iron, manganese, lead, and zinc before injection of the heat-depleted brine into the underground reservoir. Data are presented on the effects of process variables, such as rate and method of lime addition and air oxidation versus air exclusion. Variations in precipitation of metal values, composition of precipitates, effectiveness of slurry thickeners, and methods of treating the precipitates to recover metal values are discussed.

  5. Operation of a mineral-recovery unit on brine from the Salton Sea known geothermal resource area

    SciTech Connect

    Schultze, L.E.; Bauer, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines operated a mineral recovery unit to recover metal values from post-flash geothermal brines from the Salton Sea known geothermal resource area as part of its research into the use of plentiful resources. The brine was available for metals recovery after its heat content had been used to generate electricity. The brine source was treated with lime to precipitate the contained iron, manganese, lead, and zinc before injection of the heat-depleted brine into the underground reservoir. Data are presented on the effects of process variables, such as rate and method of lime addition and air oxidation versus air exclusion. Variations in precipitation of metal values, composition of precipitates, effectiveness of slurry thickeners, and methods of treating the precipitates to recover metal values are discussed.

  6. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines: Annual operating plan, FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1995-02-01

    An R and D program to identify methods for the utilization and/or low cost of environmentally acceptable disposal of toxic geothermal residues has been established at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Laboratory work has shown that a biochemical process developed at BNL, would meet regulatory costs and environmental requirements. In this work, microorganisms which can convert insoluble species of toxic metals, including radionuclides, into soluble species, have been identified. These organisms serve as models in the development of a biochemical process in which toxic metals present in geothermal residual sludges are converted into water soluble species. The produced solution can be reinjected or processed further to concentrate and recover commercially valuable metals. After the biochemical detoxification of geothermal residual sludges, the end-products are non-toxic and meet regulatory requirements. The overall process is a technically and environmentally acceptable cost-efficient process. It is anticipated that the new biotechnology will reduce the cost of surface disposal of sludges derived from geothermal brines by 25% or better.

  7. The Kinetics of Radioisotope Exchange Between Brine and Rock in a Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Douglas E.; Zukin, Jeffrey G.; Ku, Teh-Lung

    1988-11-01

    A wide range of isotopes in the 238U, 235U, and 232Th decay chains was measured in geothermal brines collected from two production zones at 1898 and 3220 m in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project well. High concentrations of radium, radon, and lead isotopes are generated and maintained by the input of these isotopes from solid phases into brine by both recoil and leaching processes, by the high chloride content of the brine which complexes radium and lead, and by the apparent absence of suitable unoccupied adsorption sites. In contrast, uranium, thorium, actinium, bismuth, and polonium isotopes all have low concentrations due to their efficient sorption from brine to rock. Measurements of short-lived isotopes in these decay series yield insights regarding the mechanisms controlling radioisotope exchange, and they permit estimation of rates of brine-rock interaction. For example, the 228Ac/228Ra activity ratio of 0.2 in brines indicates that the mean residence time of actinium in solution before sorption onto solid surfaces is less than 2.5 hours. If molecular diffusion to fracture walls limits the rate of actinium sorption, the maximum width of the larger fractures in which sampled brine resides is 1-2 cm. However, the mean width of fractures must be only 1-2 µm, in order to account for the recoil input of 223Ra. The ratios of radium isotopes in the brine provide information about the mechanisms of recoil and leaching in transferring radium from rock to brine. Brine/rock concentration ratios [(dpm/g)b/(dpm/g)r] of radium isotopes increase with increasing half-life, so that 223Ra (11 days) = 0.05-0.09, 228Ra (5.8 years) = 0.26-0.40, 226Ra (1600 years) = 0.45-0.97. Two mechanisms could explain this dependence on half-life: (1) input of radium by the alpha recoil process occurs in microfractures and pore spaces, but the rate of diffusion down microfractures is so slow that it diminishes the effect of recoil input of the shorter-lived isotopes to the larger

  8. Microbial Life in Brines, Evaporites and Saline Sediments: The Search for Life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    When water on a planet begins to evaporate the dissolved minerals become more concentrated, form a brine, eventually precipitating out of solution and forming evaporite deposits. The brines and evaporites form a highly saline environment that is hostile to most life forms, but provides an ideal habitat for organisms that are osmophilic, or halophilic. Halophiles are salt "loving" organisms that inhabit environments with salt concentrations ranging from 15 % to saturation. On Earth, representatives of halophiles occur in all three domains of life, the Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya.

  9. Evaluation of capillary electrophoresis for determining the concentration of dissolved silica in geothermal brines.

    PubMed

    Santoyo, E; García, R; Aparicio, A; Verma, Surendra P; Verma, M P

    2005-04-15

    The determination of silica concentrations in geothermal brines is widely recognized as a difficult analytical task due to its complex chemical polymerization kinetics that occurs during sample collection and chemical analysis. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been evaluated as a new reliable analytical method to measure silica (as silicates) in geothermal brines. Synthetic and geothermal brine samples were used to evaluate CE methodology. A capillary electrophoresis instrument, Quanta 4000 (Waters-Millipore) coupled with a Waters 820 workstation was used to carry out the experimental work. The separation of silicates was completed in approximately 5.5 min using a conventional fused-silica capillary (75 microm i.d. x 375 microm o.d. x 60 cm total length). A hydrostatic injection (10 cm for 20 s at 25 degrees C) was employed for introducing the samples. The carrier electrolyte consisted of 10 mM sodium chromate, 3 mM tetradecyltrimethyl-ammonium hydroxide (TTAOH), 2 mM sodium carbonate, and 1 mM sodium hydroxide, adjusted to a pH 11.0 +/- 0.1. Silicates were determined using an indirect UV detection at a wavelength of 254 nm with a mercury lamp and with a negative power supply (-15 kV). A good reproducibility in the migration times (%R.S.D. approximately 1.6%) based on six non-consecutive injections of synthetic brine solutions was obtained. A linear response between silica concentration and corrected peak area was observed. Ordinary (OLR) and weighted (WLR) linear regression models were used for calculating silica concentrations in all samples using the corresponding fitted calibration curves. The analytical results of CE were finally compared with the most probable values of synthetic reference standards of silica using the Student's t-test. No significant differences were found between them at P = 0.01. Similarly, the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) results were also compared with the most probable concentrations of the same reference standards, finding

  10. The implications of UIC and NPDES regulations on selection of disposal options for spent geothermal brine

    SciTech Connect

    1982-07-01

    This document reviews and evaluates the various options for the disposal of geothermal wastewater with respect to the promulgated regulations for the protection of surface and groundwaters. The Clean Water Act of 1977 and the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments are especially important when designing disposal systems for geothermal fluids. The former promulgates regulations concerning the discharge of wastewater into surface waters, while the latter is concerned with the protection of ground water aquifers through the establishment of underground injection control (UIC) programs. There is a specific category for geothermal fluid discharge if injection is to be used as a method of disposal. Prior to February 1982, the UIC regulations required geothermal power plant to use Class III wells and direct use plants to use Class V wells. More stringent regulatory requirements, including construction specification and monitoring, are imposed on the Class III wells. On February 3, 1982, the classification of geothermal injection wells was changed from a Class III to Class V on the basis that geothermal wells do not inject for the extraction of minerals or energy, but rather they are used to inject brines, from which heat has been extracted, into formations from which they were originally taken. This reclassification implies that a substantial cost reduction will be realized for geothermal fluid injection primarily because well monitoring is no longer mandatory. The Clean Water Act of 1977 provides the legal basis for regulating the discharge of liquid effluent into the nation's surface waters, through a permitting system called the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge quantities, rates, concentrations and temperatures are regulated by the NPDES permits. These permits systems are based upon effluent guidelines developed by EPA on an industry by industry basis. For geothermal energy industry, effluent guidelines have not been formulated and are not

  11. Jarosite dissolution rates and maximum lifetimes in high salinity brines: Implications for Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchett, B. N.; Elwood Madden, M. E.; Madden, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Jarosite is a ferric sulfate salt ((K, H, Na)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6) that forms in acidic, oxidizing environments on Earth and has also been observed in outcrops on Mars. High chloride concentrations within the outcrops at Meridiani Planum suggest that jarosite likely interacted with high salinity brines. This study examines jarosite dissolution in H2O-CaCl2, and H2O-NaCl brines (activity of water, aH2O=0.35 and 0.75 respectively) to determine the effects of high salinity brines and aH2O on jarosite dissolution rates. Within brines with aH2O=0.75 and 0.35, initial K-jarosite dissolution rates at 298 K decrease from log r=-9.9 to -11.6 mol m-2 s-1, and Na-jarosite rates decrease from log r=-10.6 to -11.2 mol m-2 s-1, respectively. In addition, K-jarosite dissolution in NaCl brine at 263 K yielded an average dissolution rate of log r=-11.6 mol m-2 s-1. Applying a shrinking sphere model to determine 1 mm jarosite particle lifetimes extends the maximum duration of fluid alteration from lifetimes of <500 years calculated for dilute solutions up to 30,000+ years in cold, high salinity conditions. While reduced activity of water in high salinity systems decreases the initial rate of jarosite dissolution, increased activity of chloride ions and water in solution due to sulfate precipitation effectively increased the jarosite dissolution rate over days to weeks. This suggests that jarosite dissolution rates increase with time within eutectic brines, perhaps due to Cl- attack on residual Fe3+ left on the surface of jarosite grains. If brines on Mars became highly concentrated in chlorine ions through sulfate precipitation, the dissolution rate of jarosite, and perhaps other minerals as well, could accelerate with time, shortening particle lifetimes and the inferred duration of aqueous diagenesis significantly.

  12. Dolomite from reflux of moderate salinity brine, Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    Dolomite from the Eocene of Enewetak Atoll provides a model for prediction of dolomite reservoirs. Others have noted dolomite below about 1200 meters at the base of permeable slope strata, and that dolomite postdates compaction, formed from fluids with {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr higher than the host strata, and that dolomite stable isotope values argue for precipitation from cool seawater or warm evaporated seawater. Dolomite contains cloudy cores, rich in primary fluid inclusions. Fluid inclusion ice melting ranges from -2.4 to -4.4{degrees}C (higher salinity than seawater; 44 to 85 ppt). Ratios of clear rim/cloudy core compared to new {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and stable isotope data yield no correlation indicative of differences between clear rims and cloudy cores. Dolomite {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr are 0.70750 to 0.70873, but fluid inclusion {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr are 0.70957 to 0.71198, indicating inclusions best preserve end-member compositions for the dolomitizing fluid. Thus, dolomite precipitated from a young fluid that, surprisingly, may have interacted with some unknown source of radiogenic Sr. For fluid inclusions, Na/K is similar to seawater indicating components were derived from seawater evaporation and not from dissolution of an evaporate, Na/Sr and Ca/Mg are similar to seawater modified by rock/water interaction, and Cl/SO{sub 4} suggests removal of SO{sub 4} from pore fluids. The only viable explanation for the Enewetak dolomite is that young fluids evaporated to salinities slightly above seawater in Enewetak lagoon. The density contrast allowed for reflux deep into the atoll, discharging through permeable slope strata. This model could predict distributions of dolomite in any platform with slight restriction and appropriate climate.

  13. Dolomite from reflux of moderate salinity brine, Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.H. )

    1996-01-01

    Dolomite from the Eocene of Enewetak Atoll provides a model for prediction of dolomite reservoirs. Others have noted dolomite below about 1200 meters at the base of permeable slope strata, and that dolomite postdates compaction, formed from fluids with [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr higher than the host strata, and that dolomite stable isotope values argue for precipitation from cool seawater or warm evaporated seawater. Dolomite contains cloudy cores, rich in primary fluid inclusions. Fluid inclusion ice melting ranges from -2.4 to -4.4[degrees]C (higher salinity than seawater; 44 to 85 ppt). Ratios of clear rim/cloudy core compared to new [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr and stable isotope data yield no correlation indicative of differences between clear rims and cloudy cores. Dolomite [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr are 0.70750 to 0.70873, but fluid inclusion [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr are 0.70957 to 0.71198, indicating inclusions best preserve end-member compositions for the dolomitizing fluid. Thus, dolomite precipitated from a young fluid that, surprisingly, may have interacted with some unknown source of radiogenic Sr. For fluid inclusions, Na/K is similar to seawater indicating components were derived from seawater evaporation and not from dissolution of an evaporate, Na/Sr and Ca/Mg are similar to seawater modified by rock/water interaction, and Cl/SO[sub 4] suggests removal of SO[sub 4] from pore fluids. The only viable explanation for the Enewetak dolomite is that young fluids evaporated to salinities slightly above seawater in Enewetak lagoon. The density contrast allowed for reflux deep into the atoll, discharging through permeable slope strata. This model could predict distributions of dolomite in any platform with slight restriction and appropriate climate.

  14. Potential salinization mechanisms of drinking water due to large-scale flow of brines across faults in the Tiberias Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Fabien; Inbar, Nimrod; Guttman, Joseph; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Yellin-Dror, Annat; Kühn, Michael; Möller, Peter; Siebert, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The Lake Tiberias (LT) located in the Kinneret basin is one of the most important freshwater resources for the area. Several hydrothermal springs discharging along the shoreline of LT are the main sources of salinity and thermal pollution of the lake. The pressure and geothermal regime controlling the upward movement of brines along the faults are still debated. Furthermore, the discovery of the buried salt structure of Zemah (e.g. Inbar 2012), located south of LT, raised additional questions as to whether the observed salinities could also be the result of density-driven flow in the vicinity of deep-seated salt bodies. In this respect, faults play an important role as they determine the structural features of the basin and can be either permeable or impermeable to fluid flow. Over the regional scales considered here, rock properties (e.g. porosity, permeability, and diffusivity), fluid properties (i.e. density and viscosity) as well as temperature and solute concentration may vary strongly. Therefore, within the same system, several forces interact and drive groundwater flow. The resulting hydrologic regime can display complex dynamical behavior such as convective cells. In this presentation, numerical models of heat and brine flow are carried out to study the outflow of deep fluids that endanger the LT. The observed thermal springs within the basin are caused by several hydrologic regimes, controlled by faults and hydraulic permeability distribution. Different scenarios are presented. The results indicate that faults enhance upward migration of hot fluids which mix with recharge flow of colder freshwater. These findings are supported by hydrochemical analyses and temperature data used as dataset to calibrate the numerical calculations and to constrain possible fluid migration. The presented study provides an example of the conjoint use of numerical and hydrochemical methods as well as geological and structural studies to infer the mechanisms that link basin

  15. UCSD Geothermal Chemical Modeling Project: DOE Advanced Brine Chemistry Program. [University of California at San Diego (UCSD)

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, N.; Weare, J.H.

    1992-04-01

    DOE funding to the UCSD Chemical Modeling Group supports research to provide computer models which will reliably characterize the equilibrium chemistry of geothermal brines (solution, solid and gas phases) under variable thermodynamic conditions. With this technology, it will be possible to rapidly and inexpensively predict the chemical behavior of geothermal brines during various resource recovery stages; exploration, production, plant energy extraction and rejection as well as in ancillary programs such as mineral recovery. Our modeling technology is based on recent progress in the physical chemistry of concentrated aqueous solutions. The behavior of these fluids has not been predicted from first principle theories. However, because of the importance of concentrated brines to many industrial and natural processes, there have been numerous efforts to develop accurate phenomenological expressions for predicting the chemical behavior of these brines. One of the most successful of these efforts is that of Pitzer and coworkers. Incorporating the semiempirical equations of Pitzer, we have shown at UCSD that we can create highly accurate models of brine-solid-gas chemistry.

  16. Mobility of elements during K-metasomatism of volcanic rocks by alkaline, saline brines

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, C.E. )

    1992-01-01

    Silicic ignimbrites and interbedded mafic lavas of Oligocene age were altered by alkaline, saline brines in the Popotosa basin of the Rio Grande rift near Socorro, New Mexico. Alteration was toward a fine-grained assemblage of adularia + hematite [+-] quartz irrespective of initial rock composition. Elevated [delta][sup 18]O and the occurrence of zeolites, gypsum, and salt casts in overlying play a deposits indicates that the altering fluids were basin brines. Preliminary analysis of secondary inclusions in fractured quartz phenocrysts indicates temperatures near 100 C and salinities near 20 wt. % NaCl equivalent. To test element mobility, pairs of fresh and altered samples from each of 7 ignimbrite units plus 4 samples of interbedded mafic lavas were analyzed by XRF, INAA, and AA. The elements showing the greatest mobility during alteration of ignimbrites are listed below along with their enrichment factors (altered rock/fresh rock). Ignimbrites: enriched--K[sub 2]O 1.99, Rb 1.89, Ba 1.43, As 12.14, Sb 18.30, Pb 1.23; depleted--Na[sub 2]O 0.25, MgO 0.57, CaO 0.27, MnO 0.50, P[sub 2]O[sub 5] 0.75, Sr 0.54, Li 0.57, U 0.78, Br 0.67, Cu 0.90, Zn 0.69. The dramatic enrichment of As and Sb in both ignimbrites and mafic lavas indicates that these elements are highly mobile in oxidizing basin brine systems. K-metasomatism is a common type of alteration in rift basins, detachment terranes, aquifers through which brines have migrated.

  17. Chemical and isotopic constrains on the origin of brine and saline groundwater in Hetao plain, Inner Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Zongyu; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Yilong; Li, Zhenghong; Xu, Jiaming; Peng, Yurong

    2016-08-01

    The origin and evolution of brine and saline groundwater have always been a challenged work for geochemists and hydrogeologists. Chemical and isotopic data of brine and saline waters were used to trace the sources of salinity and therefore to understand the transport mechanisms of groundwater in Xishanzui, Inner Mongolia. Both Cl/Br (molar) versus Na/Br (molar) and Cl (meq/L) versus Na (meq/L) indicated that salinity was from halite dissolution or at least a significant impact by halite dissolution. The logarithmic plot of the concentration trends of Cl (mg/L) versus Br (mg/L) for the evaporation of seawater and the Qinghai Salt Lake showed that the terrestrial halite dissolution was the dominated contribution for the salinity of this brine. The stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen suggested that the origin of brine was from paleorecharge water which experienced mixing of modern water in shallow aquifer. δ(37)Cl values ranged from -0.02 to 3.43 ‰ (SMOC), and reflecting mixing of different sources. The Cl isotopic compositions suggest that the dissolution of halite by paleometeoric water had a great contribution to the salinity of brine, and the contributions of the residual seawater and the dissolution of halite by the Yellow River water could be excluded.

  18. Mineral formation during production of highly saline geothermal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regenspurg, S.; Naumann, R.; Feldbusch, E.; Wagner, S.; Saadat, A.

    2012-04-01

    Geothermal solutions produced from deep wells are often highly saline and of complex composition impeding exact predictions of fluid-mineral interactions. At constant (high) temperature and flow conditions during plant operation, only little precipitation would be expected. However, during the initial phase of the operation of a geothermal plant, the testing of equipment components such as pumps and valves prevents these constant fluid flow conditions. Moreover, fluid temperatures are still relatively low and vary strongly at this stage. These inhomogeneous conditions result in the precipitation of a wide range of minerals. The analysis of solutions composition as well as of the mineral precipitates during this initial testing phase represents a unique in-situ experiment allowing understanding the mineral formation from complex solutions under a wide range of temperatures. This experiment was possible at the geothermal in-situ laboratory in Groß Schönebeck (North German Basin). At this site, hot fluid (150 °C at 4400 m depth) is pumped out of a production well to the surface where it passes the above ground installation (e.g. 1 µm filter bags) before it would be re-injected into a second (injection) well. The temperature of the produced fluid varied between 10 and 100°C due to numerous turning on and shutdown phases. Fluid and filter residues have been analyzed during several cycles. In the solid phase, almost no minerals of the reservoir sandstone have been identified. Instead, several compunds have been found which precipitated directly from the solution. One group, dominated mainly by barite (BaSO4), formed as consequence of the cooling effect, which affects strongly the solubility product and results in mineral precipitation. The other group of minerals (such as magnetite or several lead minerals) form due to changes in redox conditions. These changes occur possibly in the region close to the production pump, where a strong magnetic field and highly

  19. Effect of Reservoir-Caprock Interface Dip and Circulation of Produced Fluid on CO2-Based Geothermal Heat Extraction from Saline Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garapati, N.; Randolph, J.; Saar, M. O.

    2014-12-01

    CO2-Plume Geothermal (CPG) energy utilization involves injection of CO2 as a working fluid to extract heat from naturally high permeability geologic units. The injected CO2 forms a large subsurface CO2 plume that absorbs heat from the geothermal reservoir and eventually buoyantly rises to the surface. The CO2 plume can be "tapped" for thermal and/or electric power production in a geothermal power system. In actual systems, the CO2 plume would likely be skewed opposite any likely dip direction of the reservoir-caprock interface. Here, we numerically analyze the characteristics of CO2 plume formation and geothermal heat extraction from geothermal reservoirs with dip. We find that the heat extraction rate and the total amount of heat extracted over time is the same for symmetric and skewed CO2 plume systems when the circular, horizontal production well is arranged according to the CO2 plume distribution around the injection well. We also conduct simulations of CO2 plume formation within a pre-existing groundwater flow field and find that groundwater flow is not capable of skewing the CO2 plume. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of reinjecting small amounts of brine that are produced with the CO2. Brine has a smaller mobility than supercritical CO2 at a given temperature and thus accumulates near the injection well. Such brine accumulation reduces the relative permeability for the CO2 phase, which in turn increases the pore-fluid pressure around the injection well. For this reason, and as injection of two fluid phases is problematic, we recommend removal of any brine from the produced fluid before the cooled CO2 is reinjected into the reservoir. Separated brine may be reinjected into the formation away from the CO2 plume, providing an additional means of controlling and directing the CO2 plume pressure field and flow direction and avoiding the need to treat and dispose of the CO2 near the land surface. In summary, we show that the geothermal heat extraction

  20. Numerical Simulation for Natural State of Two-Phase Liquid Dominated Geothermal Reservoir with Steam Cap Underlying Brine Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratama, Heru Berian; Miryani Saptadji, Nenny

    2016-09-01

    Hydrothermal reservoir which liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoir is a type of geothermal reservoir that most widely used for power plant. The exploitation of mass and heat from the geothermal fluid will decrease the pressure in the reservoir over time. Therefore the pressure drop in the reservoir will have an impact on the formation of boiling zones or boiling will increase. The impacts are an increase in the fraction of steam, dryness, in the reservoir and with good vertical permeability will form a steam cap underlying the brine reservoir. The two- phase liquid dominated reservoir is sensitive to the porosity and difficult to assign average properties of the entire reservoir when there is boiling zone in some area of the reservoir. These paper showed successful development of two-phase liquid dominated geothermal reservoir and discussed the formation of steam cap above brine reservoir through numerical simulation for state natural conditions. The natural state modeling in steam cap shows a match with the conceptual model of the vapor-dominated developed. These paper also proofed the presence of transition zone, boiling zone, between steam cap and brine reservoir.

  1. Biochemical processing of geothermal brines and sludges: Adaptability to multiple industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Jin, J.Z.

    1994-07-01

    Extensive Research and Development effort leading to the identification of low cost environmentally acceptable disposal of geothermal brines and sludges has shown that biochemical processing of the waste streams meets these requirements. Further exploration of the process variables has also indicated that biochemical treatment of waste streams is a versatile technology, adaptable to several applications beyond that of rendering hazardous and/or mixed wastes to nonhazardous byproducts which meet regulatory requirements. Such advanced biochemical technologies may be used for solubilization and recovery of a few metals such as arsenic and mercury to the isolation of many metals, including radionuclides. Spin-offs from this technology have also applications in the treatment of crude oils, oil wastes and the recovery of valuable metals and salts. In the metal recovery mode the aqueous phase can be reinjected or treated further so that the end products meet the environmental drinking water standards. In this paper, recent studies dealing with the multiple industrial applications potential of biochemical processes will be discussed.

  2. Assessment of desalination technologies for treatment of a highly saline brine from a potential CO2 storage site

    DOE PAGES

    Kaplan, Ruth; Mamrosh, Darryl; Salih, Hafiz H.; ...

    2016-11-12

    Brine extraction is a promising strategy for the management of increased reservoir pressure, resulting from carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in deep saline reservoirs. The extracted brines usually have high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and various contaminants, and require proper disposal or treatment. In this article, first by conducting a critical review, we evaluate the applicability, limits, and advantages or challenges of various commercially available and emerging desalination technologies that can potentially be employed to treat the highly saline brine (with TDS values >70.000 ppm) and those that are applicable to a ~200,000 ppm TDS brine extracted from themore » Mt. Simon Sandstone, a potential CO2 storage site in Illinois, USA. Based on the side-by-side comparison of technologies, evaporators are selected as the most suitable existing technology for treating Mt. Simon brine. Process simulations are then conducted for a conceptual design for desalination of 454 m3/h (2000 gpm) pretreated brine for near-zero liquid discharge by multi-effect evaporators. In conclusion, the thermal energy demand is estimated at 246kWh perm3 of recoveredwater, ofwhich 212kWh/m3 is required for multiple-effect evaporation and the remainder for salt drying. The process also requires additional electrical power of ~2 kWh/m3.« less

  3. Development of a Rapid, Nondestructive Method to Measure Aqueous Carbonate in High Salinity Brines Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, L.; Phillips-Lander, C. M.; Elwood Madden, A. S.; Parnell, S.; Elwood Madden, M.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional methods of quantitative analysis are often ill-suited to determining the bulk chemistry of high salinity brines due to their corrosive and clogging properties. Such methods are also often difficult to apply remotely in planetary environments. However, Raman spectroscopy can be used remotely without physical contact with the fluid and is not affected by many ionic brines. Developing methods to study aqueous carbonates is vital to future study of brines on Mars and other planetary bodies, as they can reveal important information about modern and ancient near-surface aqueous processes. Both sodium carbonate standards and unknown samples from carbonate mineral dissolution experiments in high salinity brines were analyzed using a 532 nm laser coupled to an inVia Renishaw spectrometer to collect carbonate spectra from near-saturated sodium chloride and sodium sulfate brines. A calibration curve was determined by collecting spectra from solutions of known carbonate concentrations mixed with a pH 13 buffer and a near-saturated NaCl or Na2SO4 brine matrix. The spectra were processed and curve fitted to determine the height ratio of the carbonate peak at 1066 cm-1 to the 1640 cm-1 water peak. The calibration curve determined using the standards was then applied to the experimental data after accounting for dilutions. Concentrations determined based on Raman spectra were compared against traditional acid titration measurements. We found that the two techniques vary by less than one order of magnitude. Further work is ongoing to verify the method and apply similar techniques to measure aqueous carbonate concentrations in other high salinity brines.Traditional methods of quantitative analysis are often ill-suited to determining the bulk chemistry of high salinity brines due to their corrosive and clogging properties. Such methods are also often difficult to apply remotely in planetary environments. However, Raman spectroscopy can be used remotely without physical

  4. Electrical conductivity of brine-bearing quartzite at 1 GPa: implications for fluid content and salinity of the crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimojuku, Akira; Yoshino, Takashi; Yamazaki, Daisuke

    2014-12-01

    The electrical conductivity of brine-bearing quartzite with fluid fractions of 0.19 to 0.30 and salinity of 3 to 17 wt.% was measured at 800 to 1,100 K and 1 GPa. The conductivity of the brine-bearing quartzite increases with salinity and fluid fraction, but is almost independent of temperature. Our results suggest that regions of high conductivity (10-3 to 10-2 S/m) in the crust could be explained by the presence of quartzite with fluids of salinity similar to that of seawater. To account for those regions with the highest conductivity of 10-1 S/m, quartzite with fluid of high salinity (>10 wt.%) is required.

  5. Diatom quantification and their distribution with salinity brines in coastal sediments of Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Baldi, Franco; Facca, Chiara; Marchetto, Davide; Nguyen, Thi Nhu Mai; Spurio, Roberto

    2011-05-01

    Benthic diatoms represent an important element of global nutritional productivity; to raise attention on their role, which is often neglected due to analytical difficulties, surface (1 cm top layer) coastal sediments from Gerlache inlet to Penguin Bay at Terra Nova Bay were collected and stored at -20 °C. DNA amplification by real-time PCR, based on diatom-specific oligonucleotide primers designed on small-subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA), was performed in addition to diatom conventional cell counting and spectrophotometric determination of photo-pigments. Moreover, cations and anions were determined in sediments with the aim to identify factors involved in the control of diatom abundance. Diatom distribution was found quite heterogeneous displaying significant differences from site to site. The salinity in sediments ranged from 45.1 at Gerlache inlet to 76.2 at Penguin Bay and it was correlated with cell abundance, biodiversity, amount of pigments and amplified DNA. The dominant species, Fragilariopsis curta, was associated to sediment salinity brines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Deep, saline and isolated crystalline brines: looking for a parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunta, T.; Sica, C. S.; Sutcliffe, C. N.; Warr, O.; McDermott, J. M.; Ballentine, C. J.; Sherwood Lollar, B.

    2016-12-01

    Crystalline rocks from the continental crust are home to a largely unknown reservoir of water. While the exact volume and origin of this water is still under investigation, similar waters in Precambrian crystalline rocks worldwide are among the most saline groundwaters on Earth, are strongly Ca-enriched and Na-depleted, and are often associated with high amounts of abiogenic[1] reduced gases (H2, CH4, C2H6…). Typically they exhibit δ18O and δD values falling above the Global Meteoric Water Line, one of the few categories of the hydrosphere to do so.At Kidd Creek mine, a 2.6Ga old VMS deposit from the Canadian Shield, we observe a δ18O depletion trend that correlates with increasing depth and salinity. Noble gas mean residence times of 1.1 to 1.6 Ga for these fluids, with evidence from Ne and Xe for remnants of the original formation fluids, attest to the isolation of these fluids over long geologic timescales [2]. The presence of primary noble gas components leads us to explore the possibility that these present day fluids are related in part to syn-depositional fluids. As the original composition of regional metamorphic fluids was 6-8‰ (estimated from fracture-mineral in-situ δ18O analyses), we show that the large 18O depletion seen in present day fluids can be produced by slow 18O-16O exchange in a silicate-brine system under low temperature and low water-rock ratios.Considering the age and the water-rock interactions experienced by these brines, the identification of a parent fluid remains very challenging. However, based on Cl/Br ratios and conservative δ37Cl and δ81Br, we speculate that they must be dominated by Proterozoic seawaters that have evaporated, possibly up to halite saturation. A better identification of the processes controlling salinity and chemistry of these fluids is key to understanding long-term exchange between this reservoir and the continental crust and/or the other compartment of the hydrosphere, as well as the relationship

  7. Potential for by-product recovery in geothermal energy operations issue paper

    SciTech Connect

    1982-07-01

    This document identifies and discusses the significant issues raised by the idea of recovering useful by-products from wastes (primarily spent brine) generated during geothermal power production. The physical availability of numerous valuable materials in geothermal brines has captured the interest of geothermal resource developers and other parties ever since their presence was known. The prospects for utilizing huge volumes of highly-saline geothermal brines for electricity generation in the Imperial Valley of California have served to maintain this interest in both private sector and government circles.

  8. Active CO2 Reservoir Management: A Strategy for Controlling Pressure, CO2 and Brine Migration in Saline-Formation CCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscheck, T. A.; Sun, Y.; Hao, Y.; Court, B.; Celia, M. A.; Wolery, T.; Tompson, A. F.; Aines, R. D.; Friedmann, J.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) in deep geological formations is regarded as a promising means of lowering the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere and thereby mitigate global warming. The most promising systems for CCS are depleted oil reservoirs, particularly those suited to CO2-based Enhanced Oil Recovery (CCS-EOR), and deep saline formations, both of which are well separated from the atmosphere. For conventional, industrial-scale, saline-formation CCS, pressure buildup can have a limiting effect on CO2 storage capacity. To address this concern, we analyze Active CO2 Reservoir Management (ACRM), which combines brine extraction and residual-brine reinjection with CO2 injection, comparing it with conventional saline-formation CCS. We investigate the influence of brine extraction on pressure response and CO2 and brine migration using the NUFT code. By extracting brine from the lower portion of the storage formation, from locations progressively further from the center of injection, we can counteract buoyancy that drives CO2 to the top of the formation, which is useful in dipping formations. Using “push-pull” manipulation of the CO2 plume, we expose less of the caprock seal to CO2 and more of the storage formation to CO2, with more of the formation utilized for trapping mechanisms. Plume manipulation can also counteract the influence of heterogeneity. We consider the impact of extraction ratio, defined as net extracted brine volume (extraction minus reinjection) divided by injected CO2 volume. Pressure buildup is reduced with increasing extraction ratio, which reduces CO2 and brine migration, increases CO2 storage capacity, and reduces other risks, such as leakage up abandoned wells, caprock fracturing, fault activation, and induced seismicity. For a 100-yr injection period, a 10-yr delay in brine extraction does not diminish the magnitude of pressure reduction. Moreover, it is possible to achieve pressure management with just a few brine-extraction wells

  9. Brine treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.L.; Doty, H.W.; Wong, M.M.; Wong, C.F.; Featherstone, J.L.; Messer, P.H.

    1993-08-31

    A method is described for treating a corrosive feed geothermal brine containing suspended and dissolved scale forming constituents at least some of which comprise silicon-containing components and some of which comprise at least one recoverable metal selected from the group consisting of copper and metals below copper in the electromotive series said method comprising passing the brine through a conduit packed with at least one metal as high or higher in the electromotive series than copper for a time sufficient for a substantial portion of the recoverable metal to precipitate onto the packing in said conduit, to reduce the corrosivity of the brine, and to stabilize the scale forming constituents of the brine; and discharging from said conduit a treated brine less corrosive than the feed brine and having a substantially reduced scale forming potential.

  10. Early warning of freshwater salinization due to upward brine displacement by species transport simulations combined with a hydrochemical genesis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Maria; Kühn, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Shallow groundwater resources could be possibly affected by intruding brines, which are displaced along hydraulically conductive faults as result of subsurface activities like CO2 injection. To avoid salinization of potable freshwater aquifers an early detection of intruding saline water is necessary, especially in regions where an initial geogenic salinization already exists. Our study is based on work of Tillner et al. [1] and Langer et al. [2] who investigated the influence of permeable fault systems on brine displacement for the prospective storage site Beeskow-Birkholz in the Northeast German Basin. With a 3D regional scale model considering the deep groundwater system, they demonstrated that the existence of hydraulically conductive faults is not necessarily an exclusion criterion for potential injection sites, because salinization of shallower aquifers strongly depends on the effective damage zone volume, the initial salinity distribution and overlying reservoirs [2], while permeability of fault zones does not influence salinization of shallower aquifers significantly [1]. Here we extracted a 2D cross section regarding the upper 220 m of the study area mainly represented by shallow freshwater aquifers, but also considering an initial geogenic salinization [3]. We took flow rates of the intruding brines from the previous studies [2] and implemented species transport simulations with the program code SHEMAT [4]. Results are investigated and interpreted with the hydrochemical genesis model GEBAH [5] which has been already applied as early warning of saltwater intrusions into freshwater aquifers and surface water [6]. GEBAH allows a categorization of groundwater by the ion ratios of the dissolved components and offers a first indicative determination for an existence and the intensity of saline water intrusion in shallow groundwater aquifer, independent of the concentration of the solution. With our model we investigated the migration of saline water through a

  11. Distinguishing seawater from geologic brine in saline coastal groundwater using radium-226; an example from the Sabkha of the UAE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraemer, Thomas F.; Wood, Warren W.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2014-01-01

    Sabkhat (Salt flats) are common geographic features of low-lying marine coastal areas that develop under hyper-arid climatic conditions. They are characterized by the presence of highly concentrated saline solutions and evaporitic minerals, and have been cited in the geologic literature as present-day representations of hyper-arid regional paleohydrogeology, paleoclimatology, coastal processes, and sedimentation in the geologic record. It is therefore important that a correct understanding of the origin and development of these features be achieved. Knowledge of the source of solutes is an important first step in understanding these features. Historically, two theories have been advanced as to the main source of solutes in sabkha brines: an early concept entailing seawater as the obvious source, and a more recent and dynamic theory involving ascending geologic brine forced upward into the base of the sabkha by a regional hydraulic gradient in the underlying formations. Ra-226 could uniquely distinguish between these sources under certain circumstances, as it is typically present at elevated activity of hundreds to thousands of Bq/m3 (Becquerels per cubic meter) in subsurface formation brines; at exceedingly low activities in open ocean and coastal water; and not significantly supplied to water from recently formed marine sedimentary framework material. The coastal marine sabkha of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi was used to test this hypothesis. The distribution of Ra-226 in 70 samples of sabkha brine (mean: 700 Bq/m3), 7 samples of underlying deeper formation brine (mean: 3416 Bq/m3), the estimated value of seawater (< 16 Bq/m3) and an estimate of supply from sabkha sedimentary framework grains (<~6 Bq/m3) provide the first direct evidence that ascending geologic brine contributes significantly to the solutes of this sabkha system.

  12. Role of the Capillary Transition Zone on the Dissolution of CO2 into Brine in Saline Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M. J.; Hesse, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Geologic carbon storage in deep saline reservoirs is a promising technology for reducing anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere. Dissolution of injected CO2 into resident brines is one of the primary trapping mechanisms generally considered necessary to provide long-term storage security. Given that diffusion of CO2 in brine is woefully slow, convective dissolution, driven by a small increase in brine density with CO2 saturation, is considered to be the primary mechanism of dissolution trapping. Previous studies of convective dissolution have typically only considered the convective process in the single phase region below the gas-water contact (GWC) and have ignored the over-lying two-phase region where dissolution actually takes place. Our objective is to improve estimates of the long-term dissolution rate of CO2 into brine by including the two-phase region above the gas-water contact in model simulations. In the two-phase model, there is a capillary transition zone above the GWC over which the brine saturation decreases with increasing elevation. Our simulations show that when the capillary fringe height is small, which corresponds to very low entry pressure, assuming CO2-saturated brine in the two-phase region is well-motivated, as has been assumed in analyses of dissolution without the capillary transition. For typical finite entry pressures, the fringe thickness is finite and upwelling convection currents of fresh, un-carbonated brine must extend above the GWC to saturate the brine with CO2. Our results show the long-term dissolution rate can be enhanced by greater than 3 times the dissolution rates derived from ignoring the capillary transition zone. The single-phase, closed-top dissolution rate is recovered in the limit of vanishing entry pressure. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science

  13. Modeling brine-rock interactions in an enhanced geothermal systemdeep fractured reservoir at Soultz-Sous-Forets (France): a joint approachusing two geochemical codes: frachem and toughreact

    SciTech Connect

    Andre, Laurent; Spycher, Nicolas; Xu, Tianfu; Vuataz,Francois-D.; Pruess, Karsten.

    2006-12-31

    The modeling of coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in geothermal systems is complicated by reservoir conditions such as high temperatures, elevated pressures and sometimes the high salinity of the formation fluid. Coupled THC models have been developed and applied to the study of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) to forecast the long-term evolution of reservoir properties and to determine how fluid circulation within a fractured reservoir can modify its rock properties. In this study, two simulators, FRACHEM and TOUGHREACT, specifically developed to investigate EGS, were applied to model the same geothermal reservoir and to forecast reservoir evolution using their respective thermodynamic and kinetic input data. First, we report the specifics of each of these two codes regarding the calculation of activity coefficients, equilibrium constants and mineral reaction rates. Comparisons of simulation results are then made for a Soultz-type geothermal fluid (ionic strength {approx}1.8 molal), with a recent (unreleased) version of TOUGHREACT using either an extended Debye-Hueckel or Pitzer model for calculating activity coefficients, and FRACHEM using the Pitzer model as well. Despite somewhat different calculation approaches and methodologies, we observe a reasonably good agreement for most of the investigated factors. Differences in the calculation schemes typically produce less difference in model outputs than differences in input thermodynamic and kinetic data, with model results being particularly sensitive to differences in ion-interaction parameters for activity coefficient models. Differences in input thermodynamic equilibrium constants, activity coefficients, and kinetics data yield differences in calculated pH and in predicted mineral precipitation behavior and reservoir-porosity evolution. When numerically cooling a Soultz-type geothermal fluid from 200 C (initially equilibrated with calcite at pH 4.9) to 20 C and suppressing mineral

  14. A sulfate conundrum: Dissolved sulfates of deep-saline brines and carbonate-associated sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.

    2016-10-01

    Sulfates in deeply circulating brines and carbonate-associated sulfates (CAS) within sedimentary units of the Cambrian strata in the Illinois Basin record a complex history. Dissolved sulfate within the Mt. Simon Sandstone brines exhibits average δ34SSO4 values of 35.4‰ and δ18OSO4 values of 14.6‰ and appears to be related to Cambrian seawater sulfate, either original seawater or sourced from evaporite deposits such as those in the Michigan Basin. Theoretical and empirical relationships based on stable oxygen isotope fractionation suggest that sulfate within the lower depths of the Mt. Simon brines has experienced a long period of isolation, possibly several tens of millions of years. Comparison with brines from other stratigraphic units shows the Mt. Simon brines are geochemically unique. Dissolved sulfate from brines within the Ironton-Galesville Sandstone averages 22.7‰ for δ34SSO4 values and 13.0‰ for δ18OSO4 values. The Ironton-Galesville brine has mixed with younger groundwater, possibly of Ordovician to Devonian age and younger. The Eau Claire Formation lies between the Mt. Simon and Ironton-Galesville Sandstones. The carbonate units of the Eau Claire and stratigraphically equivalent Bonneterre Formation contain CAS that appears isotopically related to the Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian Mississippi Valley-type ore pulses that deposited large sulfide minerals in the Viburnum Trend/Old Lead Belt ore districts. The δ34SCAS values range from 21.3‰ to 9.3‰, and δ18OCAS values range from +1.4‰ to -2.6‰ and show a strong covariance (R2 = 0.94). The largely wholesale replacement of Cambrian seawater sulfate signatures in these dolomites does not appear to have affected the sulfate signatures in the Mt. Simon brines even though these sulfide deposits are found in the stratigraphically equivalent Lamotte Sandstone to the southwest. On the basis of this and previous studies, greater fluid densities of the Mt. Simon brines may have prevented the

  15. Shaker Table Experiments with Rare Earth Elements Sorption from Geothermal Brine

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gary Garland

    2015-07-21

    This dataset described shaker table experiments ran with sieved -50 +100 mesh media #1 in brine #1 that have 2ppm each of the 7 REE metals at different starting pH's of 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. The experimental conditions are 2g media to 150mL of REE solution, at 70C.

  16. (Sulfide-oxide-silicate phase equilibria and associated fluid inclusion properties in the Salton Sea geothermal system, California)

    SciTech Connect

    McKibben, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    Our studies involved petrographic, fluid inclusion, geochemical and stable isotopic studies of drillcores and fluids from the Salton Sea geothermal system. Our initial studies revealed the presence of previously-unrecognized evaporitic anhydrite at depth throughout the geothermal system. The high salinity of the Salton Sea geothermal brines previously had been attributed to low-temperature dissolution of surficial evaporitic deposits by meteoric waters. Our microthermometric studies of halite--containing fluid inclusions in the meta-evaporites indicated that the high salinity of the geothermal brines is derived in part from the hydrothermal metamorphism of relatively deeply-buried salt and evaporites. In addition, our research concentrated on mineralized fractures in drillcores.

  17. Experimental multi-phase CO2-brine-rock interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: Implications for CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, R.J.; Koksalan, T.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term CO2 saturated brine-rock experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of multiphase H2O-CO2 fluids on mineral equilibria and the potential for CO2 sequestration mineral phases within deep-saline aquifers. Experimental results were consistent with theoretical thermodynamic calculations when CO2-saturated brines were reacted with limestone rocks. The CO2-saturated brine-limestone reactions were characterized by compositional and mineralogical-changes in the aquifer fluid and formation rocks that were dependent on initial brine composition as were the changes in formation porosity, especially dissolved sulfate. The solubility of CO2 was enhanced in brines in the presence of both limestone and sandstone rocks relative to brines alone. Reactions between CO2 saturated brines and arkosic sandstones were characterized by desiccation of the brine and changes in the chemical composition of the brine suggesting fixation of CO2 in mineral phases. These reactions occured on a measurable but kinetically slow time scale at 120??C.

  18. Improved methylene blue two-phase titration method for determining cationic surfactant concentration in high-salinity brine.

    PubMed

    Cui, Leyu; Puerto, Maura; López-Salinas, José L; Biswal, Sibani L; Hirasaki, George J

    2014-11-18

    The methylene blue (MB) two-phase titration method is a rapid and efficient method for determining the concentrations of anionic surfactants. The point at which the aqueous and chloroform phases appear equally blue is called Epton's end point. However, many inorganic anions, e.g., Cl(-), NO3(-), Br(-), and I(-), can form ion pairs with MB(+) and interfere with Epton's end point, resulting in the failure of the MB two-phase titration in high-salinity brine. Here we present a method to extend the MB two-phase titration method for determining the concentration of various cationic surfactants in both deionized water and high-salinity brine (22% total dissolved solid). A colorless end point, at which the blue color is completely transferred from the aqueous phase to the chloroform phase, is proposed as titration end point. Light absorbance at the characteristic wavelength of MB is measured using a spectrophotometer. When the absorbance falls below a threshold value of 0.04, the aqueous phase is considered colorless, indicating that the end point has been reached. By using this improved method, the overall error for the titration of a permanent cationic surfactant, e.g., dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, in deionized (DI) water and high-salinity brine is 1.274% and 1.322% with limits of detection (LOD) of 0.149 and 0.215 mM, respectively. Compared to the traditional acid-base titration method, the error of this improved method for a switchable cationic surfactant, e.g., tertiary amine surfactant (Ethomeen C12), is 2.22% in DI water and 0.106% with LOD of 0.369 and 0.439 mM, respectively.

  19. Simulating the impact of brine from desalination plants on the salinity of the Persian/Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltahir, E. A. B.; Ibrahim, H. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Middle East has an arid climate and very little freshwater from river runoff, which has forced a rapid expansion of desalination plants in the region in order to meet current and future freshwater demand due to rising population. The Gulf is the source of feedwater and sink of concentrated discharge (brine) for plants producing more than half of the world's desalination capacity. Moreover, the Gulf is one of the most saline water bodies in the world due to large evaporation that far exceeds the input of freshwater from precipitation and river runoff. An increase in salinity at the regional scale due to brine discharge may reduce the quality of feedwater to plants and efficiency of desalination, and at the basin scale, a rise in salinity may change the dynamics of water circulation and adversely impact the marine biota. Here we present modeling results from simulating the impact of desalination on the natural Gulf environment using a coupled Gulf-atmosphere regional model (GARM). GARM is the first two-way coupled model developed for the Gulf system. The hydrodynamic component of GARM is the unstructured grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) and the atmosphere component of GARM is the MIT regional climate model (MRCM), both of which have been widely used in simulating regional ocean and atmospheric dynamics. Desalination activity is incorporated into GARM as a boundary condition and the Gulf system is simulated for a ten-year time period in order to quantify the impact of brine discharge both at regional and basin scales. These results will be useful for desalination plant design and planning for current and future water security in the region.

  20. Salt resistance genes revealed by functional metagenomics from brines and moderate-salinity rhizosphere within a hypersaline environment

    PubMed Central

    Mirete, Salvador; Mora-Ruiz, Merit R.; Lamprecht-Grandío, María; de Figueras, Carolina G.; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; González-Pastor, José E.

    2015-01-01

    Hypersaline environments are considered one of the most extreme habitats on earth and microorganisms have developed diverse molecular mechanisms of adaptation to withstand these conditions. The present study was aimed at identifying novel genes from the microbial communities of a moderate-salinity rhizosphere and brine from the Es Trenc saltern (Mallorca, Spain), which could confer increased salt resistance to Escherichia coli. The microbial diversity assessed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed the presence of communities that are typical in such environments and the remarkable presence of three bacterial groups never revealed as major components of salt brines. Metagenomic libraries from brine and rhizosphere samples, were transferred to the osmosensitive strain E. coli MKH13, and screened for salt resistance. Eleven genes that conferred salt resistance were identified, some encoding for well-known proteins previously related to osmoadaptation such as a glycerol transporter and a proton pump, whereas others encoded proteins not previously related to this function in microorganisms such as DNA/RNA helicases, an endonuclease III (Nth) and hypothetical proteins of unknown function. Furthermore, four of the retrieved genes were cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis and they also conferred salt resistance to this bacterium, broadening the spectrum of bacterial species in which these genes can function. This is the first report of salt resistance genes recovered from metagenomes of a hypersaline environment. PMID:26528268

  1. Salt resistance genes revealed by functional metagenomics from brines and moderate-salinity rhizosphere within a hypersaline environment.

    PubMed

    Mirete, Salvador; Mora-Ruiz, Merit R; Lamprecht-Grandío, María; de Figueras, Carolina G; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; González-Pastor, José E

    2015-01-01

    Hypersaline environments are considered one of the most extreme habitats on earth and microorganisms have developed diverse molecular mechanisms of adaptation to withstand these conditions. The present study was aimed at identifying novel genes from the microbial communities of a moderate-salinity rhizosphere and brine from the Es Trenc saltern (Mallorca, Spain), which could confer increased salt resistance to Escherichia coli. The microbial diversity assessed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed the presence of communities that are typical in such environments and the remarkable presence of three bacterial groups never revealed as major components of salt brines. Metagenomic libraries from brine and rhizosphere samples, were transferred to the osmosensitive strain E. coli MKH13, and screened for salt resistance. Eleven genes that conferred salt resistance were identified, some encoding for well-known proteins previously related to osmoadaptation such as a glycerol transporter and a proton pump, whereas others encoded proteins not previously related to this function in microorganisms such as DNA/RNA helicases, an endonuclease III (Nth) and hypothetical proteins of unknown function. Furthermore, four of the retrieved genes were cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis and they also conferred salt resistance to this bacterium, broadening the spectrum of bacterial species in which these genes can function. This is the first report of salt resistance genes recovered from metagenomes of a hypersaline environment.

  2. Vapor pressure lowering effects due to salinity and suction pressure in the depletion of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Battistelli, A.; Calore, C.; Pruess, K.

    1995-03-01

    The equation-of-state module able to handle saline brines with non-condensible gas, developed for the TOUGH2 simulator, has been improved to include vapor pressure lowering (VPL) due to suction pressure as represented by Kelvin`s equation. In this equation the effects of salt are considered whereas those of non-condensible gas have currently been neglected. Numerical simulations of fluid production from tight matrix blocks have been performed to evaluate the impact of VPL effects due to salinity and suction pressure on the depletion behaviour of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. Previous studies performed neglected VPL due to suction pressure showed that for initial NaCl mass fractions above threshold values, {open_quotes}sealing{close_quotes} of the block occurs and large amounts of liquid fluid may not be recovered. On the other hand, below the threshold value the matrix block dries out due to fluid production. The inclusion of VPL due to suction pressure does not allow complete vaporization of the liquid phase. As a result, the threshold NaCl concentration above which sealing of the matrix block occurs is increased. Above the {open_quotes}critical{close_quotes} NaCl concentration, block depletion behaviour with and without the VPL due to suction pressure is almost identical, as liquid phase saturation remains high even after long production times. As the VPL due to suction pressure depends mainly on capillary pressure, the shape of capillary pressure functions used in numerical simulations is important in determining VPL effects on block depletion.

  3. Results of investigations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala: Well logging and brine geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, A.; Dennis, B.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Goff, F.; Lawton, R.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Archuleta, J. ); Medina, V. . Unidad de Desarollo Geotermico)

    1991-07-01

    The well logging team from Los Alamos and its counterpart from Central America were tasked to investigate the condition of four producing geothermal wells in the Zunil Geothermal Field. The information obtained would be used to help evaluate the Zunil geothermal reservoir in terms of possible additional drilling and future power plant design. The field activities focused on downhole measurements in four production wells (ZCQ-3, ZCQ-4, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6). The teams took measurements of the wells in both static (shut-in) and flowing conditions, using the high-temperature well logging tools developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two well logging missions were conducted in the Zunil field. In October 1988 measurements were made in well ZCQ-3, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6. In December 1989 the second field operation logged ZCQ-4 and repeated logs in ZCQ-3. Both field operations included not only well logging but the collecting of numerous fluid samples from both thermal and nonthermal waters. 18 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Analysis of the heat transfer to hydrocarbon mixtures from geothermal brines using a sieve tray column

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, H.R.; Eden, T.J.; Mines, G.L.; Demuth, O.J.

    1987-01-01

    In order to design geothermal direct contact binary cycle power plants it is necessary to develop design tools to size the direct contactor. Of particular importance is the design of the working fluid preheater. For sieve tray columns a method is presented which has been successfully used when the working fluid is a pure fluid. It is shown here to be equally successful when applied to fluid mixtures. Further, it is shown that when changing the working fluid mixture that column internals must be changed to meet the demands of the new conditions.

  5. R and D, fabrication and testing of pH and CO/sub 2/ sensors for geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, R.D.; Clack, P.J.; Phelan, D.M.; Taylor, R.M.

    1987-03-01

    Reduction or elimination of scaling is a mandatory requirement for the operation of geothermal power plants. The use of downhole sampling and subsequent analysis for solution chemistry has many disadvantages. These disadvantages include composition change with cooling, risk of sample contamination, and non real-time indication. The use of in-line sensing of solution chemistry avoids these drawbacks but requires sensors which can survive the extremely harsh environment of brine at high temperatures and elevated pressures. Leeds and Northrup had previously undertaken a contract to develop sensors for pH and pCO/sub 2/ which would withstand these harsh environments. A number of sensors were tested at a field site under actual operating conditions. Field test results indicated that certain facets of the design were inadequate to give accurate long term measurement. The primary areas addressed here are replacement of polymeric seals with anodic bonding where possible, improved methods of lead attachment, improved sealing of the pCO/sub 2/ reference feed-through, H/sub 2/S getter optimization and improved passivation of the sensing head. Each of these areas is addressed in detail in the report along with laboratory test results pertaining to the particular phase.

  6. Assessment of desalination technologies for treatment of a highly saline brine from a potential CO2 storage site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Ruth; Mamrosh, Darryl; Salih, Hafiz H.; Dastgheib, Seyed A.

    2016-11-12

    Brine extraction is a promising strategy for the management of increased reservoir pressure, resulting from carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in deep saline reservoirs. The extracted brines usually have high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and various contaminants, and require proper disposal or treatment. In this article, first by conducting a critical review, we evaluate the applicability, limits, and advantages or challenges of various commercially available and emerging desalination technologies that can potentially be employed to treat the highly saline brine (with TDS values >70.000 ppm) and those that are applicable to a ~200,000 ppm TDS brine extracted from the Mt. Simon Sandstone, a potential CO2 storage site in Illinois, USA. Based on the side-by-side comparison of technologies, evaporators are selected as the most suitable existing technology for treating Mt. Simon brine. Process simulations are then conducted for a conceptual design for desalination of 454 m3/h (2000 gpm) pretreated brine for near-zero liquid discharge by multi-effect evaporators. In conclusion, the thermal energy demand is estimated at 246kWh perm3 of recoveredwater, ofwhich 212kWh/m3 is required for multiple-effect evaporation and the remainder for salt drying. The process also requires additional electrical power of ~2 kWh/m3.

  7. The total flow concept for geothermal energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    A geothermal development project has been initiated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) to emphasize development of methods for recovery and conversion of the energy in geothermal deposits of hot brines. Temperatures of these waters vary from 150 C to more than 300 C with dissolved solids content ranging from less than 0.1% to over 25% by weight. Of particular interest are the deposits of high-temperature/high-salinity brines, as well as less saline brines, known to occur in the Salton Trough of California. Development of this resource will depend on resolution of the technical problems of brine handling, scale and precipitation control, and corrosion/erosion resistant systems for efficient conversion of thermal to electrical energy. Research experience to date has shown these problems to be severe. Hence, the LLL program emphasizes development of an entirely different approach called the Total Flow concept.

  8. Experimental multi-phase H2O-CO2 brine interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: Implications for CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, R.; Koksalan, T.

    2004-01-01

    The burning of fossil fuel and other anthropogenic activities have caused a continuous and dramatic 30% increase of atmospheric CO2 over the past 150 yr. CO2 sequestration is increasingly being viewed as a tool for managing these anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. CO2-saturated brine-rock experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of multiphase H2O-CO2 fluids on mineral equilibria and the potential for CO2 sequestration in mineral phases within deep-saline aquifers. Experimental results were generally consistent with theoretical thermodynamic calculations. The solubility of CO2 was enhanced in brines in the presence of both limestone and sandstone relative to brines alone. Reactions between CO2 saturated brines and arkosic sandstones were characterized by desiccation of the brine and changes in the chemical composition of the brine suggesting fixation of CO2 in mineral phases. These reactions were occurring on a measurable but kinetically slow time scale at 120??C.

  9. Salinity-Dependent Contact Angle Alteration in Oil/Brine/Silicate Systems: the Critical Role of Divalent Cations.

    PubMed

    Haagh, M E J; Siretanu, I; Duits, M H G; Mugele, F

    2017-04-11

    The effectiveness of water flooding oil recovery depends to an important extent on the competitive wetting of oil and water on the solid rock matrix. Here, we use macroscopic contact angle goniometry in highly idealized model systems to evaluate how brine salinity affects the balance of wetting forces and to infer the microscopic origin of the resultant contact angle alteration. We focus, in particular, on two competing mechanisms debated in the literature, namely, double-layer expansion and divalent cation bridging. Our experiments involve aqueous droplets with a variable content of chloride salts of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+), wetting surfaces of muscovite and amorphous silica, and an environment of ambient decane containing small amounts of fatty acids to represent polar oil components. By diluting the salt content in various manners, we demonstrate that the water contact angle on muscovite, not on silica, decreases by up to 25° as the divalent cation concentration is reduced from typical concentrations in seawater to zero. Decreasing the ionic strength at a constant divalent ion concentration, however, has a negligible effect on the contact angle. We discuss the consequences for the interpretation of core flooding experiments and the identification of a microscopic mechanism of low salinity water flooding, an increasingly popular, inexpensive, and environment-friendly technique for enhanced oil recovery.

  10. Salinity-Dependent Contact Angle Alteration in Oil/Brine/Silicate Systems: the Critical Role of Divalent Cations

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of water flooding oil recovery depends to an important extent on the competitive wetting of oil and water on the solid rock matrix. Here, we use macroscopic contact angle goniometry in highly idealized model systems to evaluate how brine salinity affects the balance of wetting forces and to infer the microscopic origin of the resultant contact angle alteration. We focus, in particular, on two competing mechanisms debated in the literature, namely, double-layer expansion and divalent cation bridging. Our experiments involve aqueous droplets with a variable content of chloride salts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+, wetting surfaces of muscovite and amorphous silica, and an environment of ambient decane containing small amounts of fatty acids to represent polar oil components. By diluting the salt content in various manners, we demonstrate that the water contact angle on muscovite, not on silica, decreases by up to 25° as the divalent cation concentration is reduced from typical concentrations in seawater to zero. Decreasing the ionic strength at a constant divalent ion concentration, however, has a negligible effect on the contact angle. We discuss the consequences for the interpretation of core flooding experiments and the identification of a microscopic mechanism of low salinity water flooding, an increasingly popular, inexpensive, and environment-friendly technique for enhanced oil recovery. PMID:28332396

  11. Life cycle assessment of treatment and handling options for a highly saline brine extracted from a potential CO2 storage site.

    PubMed

    Salih, Hafiz H; Li, Jiaxing; Kaplan, Ruth; Dastgheib, Seyed A

    2017-10-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in deep saline aquifers is a promising option for CO2 geological sequestration. However, brine extraction may be necessary to control the anticipated increase in reservoir pressure resulting from CO2 injection. The extracted brines usually have elevated concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and other contaminants and require proper handling or treatment. Different options for the handling or treatment of a high-TDS brine extracted from a potential CO2 sequestration site (Mt. Simon Sandstone, Illinois, USA) are evaluated here through a life cycle assessment (LCA) study. The objective of this LCA study is to evaluate the environmental impact (EI) of various treatment or disposal options, namely, deep well disposal (Case 1); near-zero liquid discharge (ZLD) treatment followed by disposal of salt and brine by-products (Case 2); and near-ZLD treatment assuming beneficial use of the treatment by-products (Case 3). Results indicate that energy use is the dominant factor determining the overall EI. Because of the high energy consumption, desalination of the pretreated brine (Cases 2 and 3) results in the highest EI. Consequently, the overall EI of desalination cases falls mainly into two EI categories: global warming potential and resources-fossil fuels. Deep well disposal has the least EI when the EI of brine injection into deep formations is not included. The overall freshwater consumption associated with different life cycle stages of the selected disposal or treatment options is 0.6-1.8 m(3) of freshwater for every 1.0 m(3) of brine input. The freshwater consumption balance is 0.6 m(3) for every 1.0 m(3) of brine input for Case 3 when desalination by-products are utilized for beneficial uses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental investigation of CO2-brine-rock interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: Implications for CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, R.J.; Koksalan, T.; Palandri, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Deep-saline aquifers are potential repositories for excess CO2, currently being emitted to the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities, but the reactivity of supercritical CO2 with host aquifer fluids and formation minerals needs to be understood. Experiments reacting supercritical CO2 with natural and synthetic brines in the presence and absence of limestone and plagioclase-rich arkosic sandstone showed that the reaction of CO2-saturated brine with limestone results in compositional, mineralogical, and porosity changes in the aquifer fluid and rock that are dependent on initial brine composition, especially dissolved calcium and sulfate. Experiments reacting CO2-saturated, low-sulfate brine with limestone dissolved 10% of the original calcite and increased rock porosity by 2.6%. Experiments reacting high-sulfate brine with limestone, both in the presence and absence of supercritical CO2, were characterized by the precipitation of anhydrite, dolomitization of the limestone, and a final decrease in porosity of 4.5%. However, based on favorable initial porosity changes of about 15% due to the dissolution of calcite, the combination of CO2 co-injection with other mitigation strategies might help alleviate some of the well-bore scale and formation-plugging problems near the injection zone of a brine disposal well in Paradox Valley, Colorado, as well as provide a repository for CO2. Experiments showed that the solubility of CO2 is enhanced in brine in the presence of limestone by 9% at 25 ??C and 6% at 120 ??C and 200 bar relative to the brine itself. The solubility of CO2 is enhanced also in brine in the presence of arkosic sandstone by 5% at 120 ??C and 300 bar. The storage of CO 2 in limestone aquifers is limited to only ionic and hydraulic trapping. However, brine reacted with supercritical CO2 and arkose yielded fixation and sequestration of CO2 in carbonate mineral phases. Brine desiccation was observed in all experiments containing a discrete CO2 phase

  13. Comparing FRACHEM and TOUGHREACT for reactive transport modelingof brine-rock interactions in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS)

    SciTech Connect

    Andre, L.; Spycher, N.; Xu, T.; Pruess, K.; Vuataz, F.-D.

    2005-11-15

    Coupled modelling of fluid flow and reactive transport ingeothermal systems is challenging because of reservoir conditions such ashigh temperatures, elevated pressures and sometimes high salinities ofthe formation fluids. Thermal hydrological-chemical (THC) codes, such asFRACHEM and TOUGHREACT, have been developed to evaluate the long-termhydrothermal and chemical evolution of exploited reservoirs. In thisstudy, the two codes were applied to model the same geothermal reservoir,to forecast reservoir evolution using respective thermodynamic andkinetic input data. A recent (unreleased) TOUGHREACT version allows theuse of either an extended Debye-Hu?ckel or Pitzer activity model forcalculating activity coefficients, while FRACHEM was designed to use thePitzer formalism. Comparison of models results indicate that differencesin thermodynamic equilibrium constants, activity coefficients andkinetics models can result in significant differences in predictedmineral precipitation behaviour and reservoir-porosity evolution.Differences in the calculation schemes typically produce less differencein model outputs than differences in input thermodynamic and kineticdata, with model results being particularly sensitive to differences inion-interaction parameters for highsalinity systems.

  14. Studies of brine chemistry and scaling at the Salton Sea geothermal field, 1977-1979. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrar, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Summarized are the results of investigations of brine chemistry, the effects of brine acidification and organic additives on the rate of scale formation and scale composition, and the use of other additives for scale control. A bibliography of reports describing these studies is included. Recommendations are given for techniques and approaches for further testing of additives for silica scale control.

  15. Chlorine isotopic compositions of deep saline fluids in Ibusuki coastal geothermal region, Japan: using B-Cl isotopes to interpret fluid sources.

    PubMed

    Musashi, Masaaki; Oi, Takao; Kreulen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    We report chlorine stable isotopic compositions (δ(37)Cl, expressed in ‰ relative to the standard mean ocean chloride) as well as δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of deep saline fluids taken at eight drill-holes reaching from 73 to 780 m below sea level in the Ibusuki coastal geothermal region, Japan. Analytical results show that the δ(37)Cl values narrowly range between -0.26 and +0.21 ‰ with an analytical precision of ±0.06 ‰. Except for one sample, the samples examined are negative in δ(37)Cl value with varying Cl/B molar ratios from 117 to 1265. A correlation study between the Cl/B molar ratio and the δ(37)Cl/δ(11)B ratio indicates a hyperbola-type mixing of at least two Cl sources in the Ibusuki region. One of them depletes in (37)Cl with a higher value of Cl/B molar ratio; and the other one enriches in (37)Cl with a lower Cl/B molar ratio. The former is chemically identical to that of the deep brine, which is altered seawater through the seawater-hot rock interaction. The latter is chemically similar to gas condensate derived from the high-temperature (890 °C) vent of an island-arc volcano near the Ibusuki region.

  16. Modeling upward brine migration through faults as a result of CO2 storage in the Northeast German Basin shows negligible salinization in shallow aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, M.; Tillner, E.; Kempka, T.; Nakaten, B.

    2012-12-01

    The geological storage of CO2 in deep saline formations may cause salinization of shallower freshwater resources by upward flow of displaced brine from the storage formation into potable groundwater. In this regard, permeable faults or fractures can serve as potential leakage pathways for upward brine migration. The present study uses a regional-scale 3D model based on real structural data of a prospective CO2 storage site in Northeastern Germany to determine the impact of compartmentalization and fault permeability on upward brine migration as a result of pressure elevation by CO2 injection. To evaluate the degree of salinization in the shallower aquifers, different fault leakage scenarios were carried out using a newly developed workflow in which the model grid from the software package Petrel applied for pre-processing is transferred to the reservoir simulator TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N. A discrete fault description is achieved by using virtual elements. A static 3D geological model of the CO2 storage site with an a real size of 40 km x 40 km and a thickness of 766 m was implemented. Subsequently, large-scale numerical multi-phase multi-component (CO2, NaCl, H2O) flow simulations were carried out on a high performance computing system. The prospective storage site, located in the Northeast German Basin is part of an anticline structure characterized by a saline multi-layer aquifer system. The NE and SW boundaries of the study area are confined by the Fuerstenwalde Gubener and the Lausitzer Abbruch fault zones represented by four discrete faults in the model. Two formations of the Middle Bunter were chosen to assess brine migration through faults triggered by an annual injection rate of 1.7 Mt CO2 into the lowermost formation over a time span of 20 years. In addition to varying fault permeabilities, different boundary conditions were applied to evaluate the effects of reservoir compartmentalization. Simulation results show that the highest pressurization within the storage

  17. On-line tests of organic additives for the inhibition of the precipitation of silica from hypersaline geothermal brine IV. Final tests of candidate additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrar, J.E.; Locke, F.E.; Otto, C.H. Jr.; Lorensen, L.E.; Frey, W.P.; Snell, E.O.

    1980-02-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Brine Treatment Test System at Niland, Imperial Valley, California, has been used to evaluate a number of cationic polymers and surfactants as scale control agents. An initial group of compounds was narrowed to four on the basis of their activity as silica precipitation inhibitors. Three of these and certain combinations of compounds were then given a 40-h test to determine their effectiveness in retarding scales formed at 220, 125, and 90/sup 0/C. The best single compound was Corcat P-18 (Cordova Chemical Co. polyethylene imine, M.W. approx. = 1800). It had no effect on the scale at 220/sup 0/C, but it reduced the scales at 125 and 90/sup 0/C by factors of 4 and 18, respectively, and it also has activity as a corrosion inhibitor. Other promising compounds are PAE HCl (Dynapol poly(aminoethylene, HCl salt)), which also somewhat reduces the 220/sup 0/C scale; Ethoquad 18/25 (Armak methyl polyoxyethylene(15) octadecylammonium chloride); and Mirapol A-15 (a Miranol Chemical polydiquaternary compound). The best additive formulation for the brines of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field appears to be a mixture of one of these silica precipitation inhibitors with a small amount of hydrochloric acid and a phosphonate crystalline deposit inhibitor. Speculations are presented as to the mechanism of inhibition of silica precipitation and recommendations for further testing of these additives.

  18. Steam and Brine Zone Prediction around Geothermal Reservoir Derived from Delay Time Seismic Tomography and Anisotropy Case Study: “PR” Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrawan Palgunadi, Kadek; Nugraha, A. D.; Sule, R.; Meidiana, T.

    2017-04-01

    Development of geothermal production can be conducted in several ways, one of them analyses the fracture or crack and structure within the reservoir. Due to low permeability and porosity value within the reservoir in geothermal field. This crack or fracture provide porosity for fluid storage and permeability for fluid movement and play a major role in production from this kind of reservoir. Structure and polarization direction can be derived from anisotropy parameter and seismic velocity parameter in geothermal field. In this study, we used micro-earthquake data of 1,067 events that were recorded by the average of 15 stations during almost 1-year measurement. We used anisotropy parameter using 3-D shear-wave splitting (SWS) tomography method to represent the distribution of anisotropy medium around the geothermal field. Two parameters produced from the S-wave analysis, which is polarization direction and delay time between fast S-wave and slow S-wave. To determine SWS parameters, we used a rotation of horizontal seismogram including N-S component and E-W component. Furthermore, we used short-time fourier transform (STFT) to calculate lag time and time window based on wave periods. Two horizontal components have been rotated from azimuth 0° to 180° with an increment of 1°. Cross-correlation coefficient used every azimuth of two horizontal components based on delay time with predetermined time window obtained by STFT. When cross-correlation coefficient is high, the corresponding value of delay time and azimuth are chosen as the polarization direction and delay time of SWS. Normalized time different divided by total ray length was used to determine the distribution of crack density. Through correlation of seismic velocity model, crack density, and 3-D anisotropy tomography, we can delineate a geothermal reservoir model. Our results show, high degree of anisotropy and crack density occur in the northern and eastern part of “PR” geothermal field for further

  19. Potential environmental issues of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers: geochemical results from the Frio-I brine pilot test, Texas, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Kharaka, Dr. Yousif; Thordsen, Dr. James; Hovorka, Dr. Susan; Nance, Dr. H Seay; Cole, David R; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Knauss, Dr. Kevin; Chialvo, Ariel A

    2009-01-01

    Sedimentary basins in general and deep saline aquifers in particular, are being investigated as possible repositories for large volumes of anthropogenic CO2 that must be sequestered to mitigate global warming and related climate changes. To investigate the potential for the long-term storage of CO2 in such saline aquifers, 1600 t of CO2 were injected at 1500 m depth into a 24-m-thick C sandstone section of the Frio Formation, a regional aquifer in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained before CO2 injection from the injection well and an observation well 30 m up dip showed a Na-Ca-Cl type brine with ~93,000 mg/L TDS at saturation with CH4 at reservoir conditions; gas analyses show CH4 comprised ~95% of dissolved gas, but CO2 was low at 0.3%. Following CO2 breakthrough, 51 h after injection, samples showed sharp drops in pH (6.5 to 5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100 to 3000 mg/L as HCO3) and in Fe (30 to 1100 mg/L), a slug of very high DOC values, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O, DIC, and CH4. These data coupled with geochemical modeling indicate rapid dissolution of minerals, especially calcite and iron oxyhydroxides caused by lowered pH (initially ~3.0 at subsurface conditions) of the brine in contact with supercritical CO2.

  20. Manual for the thermal and hdyraulic design of direct contract spray columns for use in extracting heat from geothermal brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, H. R.

    1985-06-01

    This report outlines the current methods being used in the thermal and hydraulic design of spray column type, direct contact heat exchangers. It provides appropriate referenced equations for both preliminary design and detailed performance. The design methods are primarily empirical and are applicable for use in the design of such units for geothermal application and for application with solar ponds. Methods for design, for both preheater and boiler sections of the primary heat exchangers, for direct contact binary powers plants are included.

  1. How metalliferous brines line Mexican epithermal veins with silver

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Jamie J.; Simmons, Stuart F.; Stoffell, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We determined the composition of ~30-m.y.-old solutions extracted from fluid inclusions in one of the world's largest and richest silver ore deposits at Fresnillo, Mexico. Silver concentrations average 14 ppm and have a maximum of 27 ppm. The highest silver, lead and zinc concentrations correlate with salinity, consistent with transport by chloro-complexes and confirming the importance of brines in ore formation. The temporal distribution of these fluids within the veins suggests mineralization occurred episodically when they were injected into a fracture system dominated by low salinity, metal-poor fluids. Mass balance shows that a modest volume of brine, most likely of magmatic origin, is sufficient to supply the metal found in large Mexican silver deposits. The results suggest that ancient epithermal ore-forming events may involve fluid packets not captured in modern geothermal sampling and that giant ore deposits can form rapidly from small volumes of metal-rich fluid. PMID:23792776

  2. Some aspects of the response of geothermal reservoirs to brine reinjection with application to the Cerro Prieto Field

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, C.F.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Rivera, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary results of two reinjection studies will be described: (1) Initial investigation of several possible reinjection patterns for the Cerro Prieto geothermal field have been made based on a method developed by Gringarten and Sauty (1975). The resulting data show what may be expected from different reinjection schemes and may provide useful guidelines for the eventual choice of an optimal well arrangement. A numerical model was used to study the injection pressure expected when colder water is injected into a hot reservoir. 3 refs.

  3. Water and gas chemistry from HGP-A geothermal well: January 1980 flow test

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.M.

    1980-09-01

    A two-week production test was conducted on the geothermal well HGP-A. Brine chemistry indicates that approximately six percent of the well fluids are presently derived from seawater and that this fraction will probably increase during continued production. Reservoir production is indicated to be from two chemically distinct aquifers: one having relatively high salinity and low production and the other having lower salinity and producing the bulk of the discharge.

  4. Controls on Transition Metal Concentrations in Crustal Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yardley, B. W.

    2004-12-01

    Experimental studies of mineral solubilities have systematically explored the effects of pH and other parameters on metal concentrations over relatively narrow temperature ranges. This study has compiled a data base of brine analyses, ranging from low temperature shield and formation brines to magmatic brines, including geothermal and metamorphic brine analyses. The data includes both analyses of samples from drilling, and fluid inclusion analyses, and there is a span of over an order of magnitude in chloride concentration. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb vary systematically across the entire data set, and the principal controls on their concentrations are salinity and temperature. In each suite of analyses in the data set, metal concentrations increase linearly with Cl over the entire salinity range, with a slope of between 1 and 1.5 in log mol units. For Fe and Mn in all the data sets, Me/Cl remains nearly constant over a wide range of salinities at constant temperature, but there is almost 6 orders of magnitude variation in Me/Cl between low-T formation brines and magmatic brines. Larger scatter in the Fe data may be attributed to variations in redox, and correlates with Mn/Fe. The slope of the data array on a Zn-Cl plot may be somewhat higher for formation waters than for magmatic fluids, indicating a possible change in complexing with temperature, but at no temperature is there evidence for a change in complexing with Cl concentration. Pb data is sparse but shows similar trends, though with less dependence on temperature. The continuity in crustal brine chemistry from sedimentary to metamorphic and magmatic fluids demonstrates the importance of wall rock buffering for the control of crustal fluid composition, and shows that the variation in pH, fS2 and redox environment between different lithologies is not sufficiently large for variation in these parameters to dominate the variation in metal contents of fluids. In contrast, temperature and salinity emerge

  5. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, P.M.

    1979-12-27

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carryover through the turbine causing corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  6. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, Pascal M.

    1982-01-01

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  7. Quantification of sub-resolution porosity in carbonate rocks by applying high-salinity contrast brine using X-ray microtomography differential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qingyang; Al-Khulaifi, Yousef; Blunt, Martin J.; Bijeljic, Branko

    2016-10-01

    Characterisation of the pore space in carbonate reservoirs and aquifers is of utmost importance in a number of applications such as enhanced oil recovery, geological carbon storage and contaminant transport. We present a new experimental methodology that uses high-salinity contrast brine and differential imaging acquired by X-ray tomography to non-invasively obtain three-dimensional spatially resolved information on porosity and connectivity of two rock samples, Portland and Estaillades limestones, including sub-resolution micro-porosity. We demonstrate that by injecting 30 wt% KI brine solution, a sufficiently high phase contrast can be achieved allowing accurate three-phase segmentation based on differential imaging. This results in spatially resolved maps of the solid grain phase, sub-resolution micro-pores within the grains, and macro-pores. The total porosity values from the three-phase segmentation for two carbonate rock samples are shown to be in good agreement with Helium porosity measurements. Furthermore, our flow-based method allows for an accurate estimate of pore connectivity and a distribution of porosity within the sub-resolution pores.

  8. Chemistry and isotopes of deep geothermal saline fluids in the Upper Rhine Graben: Origin of compounds and water-rock interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauwels, Hélène; Fouillac, Christian; Fouillac, Anne-Marie

    1993-06-01

    Deep boreholes (⩽870 m) in the Upper Rhine Graben produce medium-temperature (120-150°C) saline fluids that circulate through the granitic basement and/or the overlying sedimentary rocks. The salinity of these deep fluids, sampled from both the granite and the sedimentary rock, can be explained by a three-step model: (1) evaporation of seawater which produces a primary brine; li(2) mixing between a dilute fluid and the primary brine; and (3) dissolution of halite by the later fluid. The thermal waters sampled at shallower depths are the result of mixing of the deep saline fluid and surface water. Geothermometer calculations indicate that some of the deep fluids did reach high temperatures (up to 220-260°C). During cooliug, reactions between fluid and rock took place, but the fluids did not have enough time to reach complete equilibrium with the surrounding rock.

  9. Molecular analysis and its expression of a pou homeobox protein gene during development and in response to salinity stress from brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Qing; Hou, Lin; Yi, Nan; Zhang, Riu-Feng; Zou, Xiang-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Brine shrimps of the genus Artemia are aquatic species of economic importance because of their important significance to aquaculture and are used as a model species in physiology and developmental biology. Research on Artemia POU homeobox gene function will enhance our understanding of the physiological and developmental processes of POU homeobox gene in animals. Herein, a full-length cDNA encoding an Artemia POU homeobox protein gene 1 (APH-1) from Artemia sinica (designated as As-APH-1) was cloned and characterized by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. The As-APH-1 gene encoded a protein of 388 amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 42.85kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.90 and the protein belongs to the POU III family. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that A. sinica As-APH-1 protein sequence shared a conserved POU homeobox domain with other species. The early and persistent expression of As-APH-1 in the naupliar stages by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and whole-mount embryonic immunohistochemistry suggest that As-APH-1 functions very early in the salt gland and may be required continuously in this organ. Later in development, expression of As-APH-1 begins to dramatically decrease and disappear in salt gland of the sub-adult Artemia. In addition, we also discovered that As-APH-1 increased obviously as the salinity increased, indicating that As-APH-1 might be used as a good indicator of salinity stress. In summary, we are the first to identify the As-APH-1 gene and to determine its gene expression patterns in early embryogenesis stages and in different salinity stress in brine shrimp, A. sinica. The result of expression of As-APH-1 affected by salinity changes will provide us further understanding of the underlying mechanisms of osmoregulation in Artemia early embryonic development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Numerical modelling of geothermal and reflux circulation in Enewetak Atoll: Implications for dolomitization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, G.; Whitaker, F.; Smart, P.; Sanford, W.

    2000-01-01

    Two types of regional-scale seawater circulation have been proposed to explain the formation of Enewetak Atoll dolomites: geothermal and reflux circulation. We have used a finite element groundwater flow model to examine the pattern, magnitude and dynamic interaction of these two different circulation mechanisms in Enewetak Atoll. Geothermal circulation is concentrated around the atoll-margin whereas refluxing mesosaline brines flow from the atoll interior towards the margin to restrict and eventually shut off geothermal circulation. Refluxing brines of 36-80??? can account for the salinity signature recorded in dolomite fluid inclusions. Distributions of fluid flux and Mg mass-balance calculations suggest that both geothermal and reflux circulation mechanisms could account for the observed distribution of dolomite in Enewetak Atoll. Furthermore, the atoll interior may be extensively dolomitized as observed in other atolls. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.Two types of regional-scale seawater circulation have been proposed to explain the formation of Enewetak Atoll dolomites: geothermal and reflux circulation. We have used a finite element groundwater flow model to examine the pattern, magnitude and dynamic interaction of these two different circulation mechanisms in Enewetak Atoll. Geothermal circulation is concentrated around the atoll-margin whereas refluxing mesosaline brines flow from the atoll interior towards the margin to restrict and eventually shut off geothermal circulation. Refluxing brines of 36-80 per mil can account for the salinity signature recorded in dolomite fluid inclusions. Distributions of fluid flux and Mg mass-balance calculations suggest that both geothermal and reflux circulation mechanisms could account for the observed distribution of dolomite in Enewetak Atoll. Furthermore, the atoll interior may be extensively dolomitized as observed in other atolls.

  11. Two-Stage, Integrated, Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs: An Approach for Sustainable Energy Production, CO2-Sequestration Security, and Reduced Environmental Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, T A; Chen, M; Sun, Y; Hao, Y; Elliot, T R

    2012-02-02

    We introduce a hybrid two-stage energy-recovery approach to sequester CO{sub 2} and produce geothermal energy at low environmental risk and low cost by integrating geothermal production with CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) in saline, sedimentary formations. Our approach combines the benefits of the approach proposed by Buscheck et al. (2011b), which uses brine as the working fluid, with those of the approach first suggested by Brown (2000) and analyzed by Pruess (2006), using CO{sub 2} as the working fluid, and then extended to saline-formation CCS by Randolph and Saar (2011a). During stage one of our hybrid approach, formation brine, which is extracted to provide pressure relief for CO{sub 2} injection, is the working fluid for energy recovery. Produced brine is applied to a consumptive beneficial use: feedstock for fresh water production through desalination, saline cooling water, or make-up water to be injected into a neighboring reservoir operation, such as in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), where there is often a shortage of a working fluid. For stage one, it is important to find economically feasible disposition options to reduce the volume of brine requiring reinjection in the integrated geothermal-CCS reservoir (Buscheck et al. 2012a). During stage two, which begins as CO{sub 2} reaches the production wells; coproduced brine and CO{sub 2} are the working fluids. We present preliminary reservoir engineering analyses of this approach, using a simple conceptual model of a homogeneous, permeable CO{sub 2} storage formation/geothermal reservoir, bounded by relatively impermeable sealing units. We assess both the CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity and geothermal energy production potential as a function of well spacing between CO{sub 2} injectors and brine/CO{sub 2} producers for various well patterns and for a range of subsurface conditions.

  12. Bacterial responses to fluctuations and extremes in temperature and brine salinity at the surface of Arctic winter sea ice.

    PubMed

    Ewert, Marcela; Deming, Jody W

    2014-08-01

    Wintertime measurements near Barrow, Alaska, showed that bacteria near the surface of first-year sea ice and in overlying saline snow experience more extreme temperatures and salinities, and wider fluctuations in both parameters, than bacteria deeper in the ice. To examine impacts of such conditions on bacterial survival, two Arctic isolates with different environmental tolerances were subjected to winter-freezing conditions, with and without the presence of organic solutes involved in osmoprotection: proline, choline, or glycine betaine. Obligate psychrophile Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H suffered cell losses under all treatments, with maximal loss after 15-day exposure to temperatures fluctuating between -7 and -25 °C. Osmoprotectants significantly reduced the losses, implying that salinity rather than temperature extremes presents the greater stress for this organism. In contrast, psychrotolerant Psychrobacter sp. strain 7E underwent miniaturization and fragmentation under both fluctuating and stable-freezing conditions, with cell numbers increasing in most cases, implying a different survival strategy that may include enhanced dispersal. Thus, the composition and abundance of the bacterial community that survives in winter sea ice may depend on the extent to which overlying snow buffers against extreme temperature and salinity conditions and on the availability of solutes that mitigate osmotic shock, especially during melting.

  13. Buoyancy effects on upward brine displacement caused by CO2 injection

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Rinaldi, A.

    2010-01-15

    Upward displacement of brine from deep reservoirs driven by pressure increases resulting from CO{sub 2} injection for geologic carbon sequestration may occur through improperly sealed abandoned wells, through permeable faults, or through permeable channels between pinch-outs of shale formations. The concern about upward brine flow is that, upon intrusion into aquifers containing groundwater resources, the brine may degrade groundwater. Because both salinity and temperature increase with depth in sedimentary basins, upward displacement of brine involves lifting fluid that is saline but also warm into shallower regions that contain fresher, cooler water. We have carried out dynamic simulations using TOUGH2/EOS7 of upward displacement of warm, salty water into cooler, fresher aquifers in a highly idealized two-dimensional model consisting of a vertical conduit (representing a well or permeable fault) connecting a deep and a shallow reservoir. Our simulations show that for small pressure increases and/or high-salinity-gradient cases, brine is pushed up the conduit to a new static steady-state equilibrium. On the other hand, if the pressure rise is large enough that brine is pushed up the conduit and into the overlying upper aquifer, flow may be sustained if the dense brine is allowed to spread laterally. In this scenario, dense brine only contacts the lower-most region of the upper aquifer. In a hypothetical case in which strong cooling of the dense brine occurs in the upper reservoir, the brine becomes sufficiently dense that it flows back down into the deeper reservoir from where it came. The brine then heats again in the lower aquifer and moves back up the conduit to repeat the cycle. Parameter studies delineate steady-state (static) and oscillatory solutions and reveal the character and period of oscillatory solutions. Such oscillatory solutions are mostly a curiosity rather than an expected natural phenomenon because in nature the geothermal gradient prevents the

  14. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  15. Cloning and expression of retinoblastoma-binding protein 4 gene in embryo diapause termination and in response to salinity stress from brine shrimp Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolu; Yao, Feng; Liang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zheng, Ren; Jia, Baolin; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2016-10-15

    Retinoblastoma binding protein 4 (RBBP4) is a nuclear protein with four WD-repeat sequences and thus belongs to a highly conserved subfamily of proteins with such domains. This retinoblastoma-binding protein plays an important role in nucleosome assembly and histone modification, which influences gene transcription and regulates cell cycle and proliferation. Artemia sinica (brine shrimp) undergoes an unusual diapause process under stress conditions of high salinity and low temperature. However, the role of RBBP4 in diapause termination of embryo development in A. sinica remains unknown. Here, the full-length cDNA of the As-rbbp4 gene was obtained from A. sinica and found to contain 1411 nucleotides, including a 1281 bp open reading frame (ORF), 63 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 67-bp 3'-UTR, which encodes a 427 amino acid (48 kDa) protein. Bioinformatic analysis indicated As-RBBP4 to be mainly located in the nucleus, with a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.79. Protein sequence domain analysis showed that As-RBBP4 is a conserved protein, especially in the WD40 domain. No specificity in expression of this gene was observed in tissues or organs by in situ hybridization. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses of As-RBBP4 gene and protein expression, respectively, showed notably high levels at 10 h and a subsequent downward trend. Obvious trends in upregulation of As-RBBP4 were observed under conditions of low temperature and high salinity stress. As-E2F1 and As-CyclinE also presented similar trends as that of As-RBBP4 in Western blots. Analysis of the RBBP4 expression in early embryonic development of A. sinica indicated that this protein plays an important role in diapause termination and cell cycle regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Geothermal Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-15

    intervals of 30 km. Reykjanes , Krysuvik, and Hengill . > have base temperatures of 280.220 and 260^ respectively. Hengill, the largest, has an area of 70...and 32 MW of electric power is planned. Reykjanes has had seven holes drilled to a maximum depth of 1,750 m. These wells vield brine with...0.001-0. 01 < 4 Cu 0. 00 0.001-0. 01 Zn 0. 00 0.005 Pb 0. 00 0.004 Fig. 28, The composition of the geothermal brine at Reykjanes compared with

  17. Geothermal energy program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology and the steps necessary to place it into service are reviewed. Specific topics covered are: four types of geothermal resources; putting the resource to work; power generation; FY 1989 accomplishments; hard rock penetration; conversion technology; and geopressured brine research.

  18. Geothermal energy program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This document reviews Geothermal Energy Technology and the steps necessary to place it into service. Specific topics covered are: four types of geothermal resources; putting the resource to work; power generation; FY 1989 accomplishments; hard rock penetration; conversion technology; and geopressured brine research. 16 figs. (FSD)

  19. Potential environmental issues of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers: Geochemical results from the Frio-I Brine Pilot test, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Thordsen, James J.; Hovorka, Susan D.; Nance, H. Seay; Cole, David R.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2009-01-01

    Sedimentary basins in general, and deep saline aquifers in particular, are being investigated as possible repositories for large volumes of anthropogenic CO2 that must be sequestered to mitigate global warming and related climate changes. To investigate the potential for the long-term storage of CO2 in such aquifers, 1600 t of CO2 were injected at 1500 m depth into a 24-m-thick "C" sandstone unit of the Frio Formation, a regional aquifer in the US Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained before CO2 injection from the injection well and an observation well 30 m updip showed a Na–Ca–Cl type brine with ∼93,000 mg/L TDS at saturation with CH4 at reservoir conditions; gas analyses showed that CH4 comprised ∼95% of dissolved gas, but CO2 was low at 0.3%. Following CO2 breakthrough, 51 h after injection, samples showed sharp drops in pH (6.5–5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100–3000 mg/L as HCO3) and in Fe (30–1100 mg/L), a slug of very high DOC values, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O, DIC, and CH4. These data, coupled with geochemical modeling, indicate corrosion of pipe and well casing as well as rapid dissolution of minerals, especially calcite and iron oxyhydroxides, both caused by lowered pH (initially ∼3.0 at subsurface conditions) of the brine in contact with supercritical CO2.These geochemical parameters, together with perfluorocarbon tracer gases (PFTs), were used to monitor migration of the injected CO2 into the overlying Frio “B”, composed of a 4-m-thick sandstone and separated from the “C” by ∼15 m of shale and siltstone beds. Results obtained from the Frio “B” 6 months after injection gave chemical and isotopic markers that show significant CO2 (2.9% compared with 0.3% CO2 in dissolved gas) migration into the “B” sandstone. Results of samples collected 15 months after injection, however, are ambiguous, and can be interpreted to show no additional injected CO2 in the “B” sandstone

  20. EOS7Cm: An improved TOUGH2 module for simulating non-isothermal multiphase and multicomponent flow in CO2-H2S-CH4-brine systems with high pressure, temperature and salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Hongwu; Li, Jun; Li, Xiaochun; Jiang, Zhenjiao

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the non-isothermal multiphase and multicomponent flow in a CO2-H2S-CH4-brine system is of critical importance in projects such as CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers, natural gas extraction using CO2 as the displacement fluid, and heat extraction from hot dry rocks using CO2 as the working fluid. Numerical simulation is a necessary tool to evaluate the chemical evolution in these systems. However, an accurate thermodynamic model for CO2-H2S-CH4-brine systems appropriate for high pressure, temperature, and salinity is still lacking. This study establishes the mutual solubility model for CO2-H2S-CH4-brine systems based on the fugacity-activity method for phase equilibrium. The model can predict mutual solubilities for pressure up to 1000 bar for CO2 and CH4, and 200 bar for H2S, for temperature up to 200 °C, and for salinity up to 6 mol/kg water. We incorporated the new model into TOUGH2/EOS7C, forming a new improved module we call EOS7Cm. Compared to the original EOS7C, EOS7Cm considers the effects of H2S and covers a larger range of temperature and salinity. EOS7Cm is employed in five examples, including CO2 injection with and without impurities (CH4 and/or H2S) into deep aquifers, CH4 extraction from aquifers by CO2 injection, and heat extraction from hot dry rock. The results are compared to those from TOUGH2/ECO2N, EOS7C and CMG, agreement among which serves to verify EOS7Cm.

  1. Laboratory corrosion studies in low- and high-salinity geobrines of the Imperial Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.D.; Carter, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion research is being conducted by the Federal Bureau of Mines to determine suitable construction materials for geothermal resource recovery plants. As part of this research, the corrosion resistance of 31 iron-, nickel-, aluminum-, copper-, titanium-, and molybdenum-base alloys was characterized and evaluated in laboratory corrosion studies in low- and high-salinity geobrines representative of those found in the Imperial Valley, California. General, crevice, pitting, weld, and stress corrosion were measured at 105/sup 0/ and 232/sup 0/C in deaerated brines and brines containing dissolved O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, and CH/sub 4/.

  2. Simulation and resistivity modeling of a geothermal reservoir with waters of different salinity

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Wilt, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Goldstein, N.E.

    1982-10-01

    Apparent resistivities measured by means of repetitive dipole-dipole surveys show significant changes within the Cerro Prieto reservoir. The changes are attributed to production and natural recharge. To better understand the observed geophysical phenomena a simple reservoir simulation study combined with the appropriate DC resistivity calculations to determine the expected magnitude of apparent resistivity change. We consider production from a liquid-dominated reservoir with dimensions and parameters of the Cerro Prieto A reservoir and assume lateral and vertical recharge of colder and less saline waters. Based on rather schematic one- and two-dimensional reservoir simulations, we calculate changes in formation resistivity which we then transform into changes in apparent resistivity that would be observed at the surface. Simulated changes in apparent resistivities over the production zone show increases of 10 to 20% over a 3 year period at the current rate of fluid extraction. Changes of this magnitude are not only within our ability to discern using proper field techniques, but are consistent in magnitude with some of the observed effects. However, the patterns of apparent resistivity changes in the simulated dipole-dipole pseudosection only partially resemble the observed field data. This is explained by the fact that the actual fluid recharge into the A reservoir is more complicated than assumed in our simple, schematic recharge models.

  3. Ore transport and deposition in the Red Sea geothermal system: a geochemical model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanks, Wayne C.; Bischoff, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculation of distribution of dissolved aqueous species in the Red Sea geothermal brine provides a model of ore transport and deposition in good agreement with observed accumulations of base metal sulfides, anhydrite, and barite. The Red Sea brine is recirculated seawater that acquires high salinity by low-temperature interaction with Miocene evaporites and is subsequently heated to temperatures in excess of 200??C by interaction with recent rift zone intrusive rocks. At temperatures up to 250??C, NaSO-4 and MgSO04 are the dominant sulfur-bearing species. H2S forms by inorganic sulfate reduction at the higher temperatures but is maintained at a uniform concentration of about 2 ppm by the strength of the sulfate complexes. Chloride complexes solubilize metals at the higher temperatures, and thus sulfide and metals are carried together into the Atlantis II Deep. Below 150??C, the brine becomes supersaturated with respect to chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, and iron monosulfide due to chloride-complex dissociation. Sulfide precipitation rates, based on the rate of brine influx, are in good agreement with measured sedimentation rates. Anhydrite precipitates as crystalline fissure infillings from high-temperature inflowing brine. Barite forms from partial oxidation of sulfides at the interface between the lower hot brine and the transitional brine layer. ?? 1977.

  4. Future Technologies to Enhance Geothermal Energy Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J J; Kaahaaina, N; Aines, R; Zucca, J; Foxall, B; Atkins-Duffin, C

    2008-07-25

    Geothermal power is a renewable, low-carbon option for producing base-load (i.e., low-intermittency) electricity. Improved technologies have the potential to access untapped geothermal energy sources, which experts estimate to be greater than 100,000 MWe. However, many technical challenges in areas such as exploration, drilling, reservoir engineering, and energy conversion must be addressed if the United States is to unlock the full potential of Earth's geothermal energy and displace fossil fuels. (For example, see Tester et al., 2006; Green and Nix, 2006; and Western Governors Association, 2006.) Achieving next-generation geothermal power requires both basic science and applied technology to identify prospective resources and effective extraction strategies. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a long history of research and development work in support of geothermal power. Key technologies include advances in scaling and brine chemistry, economic and resource assessment, direct use, exploration, geophysics, and geochemistry. For example, a high temperature, multi-spacing, multi-frequency downhole EM induction logging tool (GeoBILT) was developed jointly by LLNL and EMI to enable the detection and orientation of fractures and conductive zones within the reservoir (Figure 1). Livermore researchers also conducted studies to determine how best to stave off increased salinity in the Salton Sea, an important aquatic ecosystem in California. Since 1995, funding for LLNL's geothermal research has decreased, but the program continues to make important contributions to sustain the nation's energy future. The current efforts, which are highlighted in this report, focus on developing an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) and on improving technologies for exploration, monitoring, characterization, and geochemistry. Future research will also focus on these areas.

  5. Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: near-surface CaCl(2)-brine feeding Earth's most saline lake and implications for Mars.

    PubMed

    Dickson, James L; Head, James W; Levy, Joseph S; Marchant, David R

    2013-01-01

    The discovery on Mars of recurring slope lineae (RSL), thought to represent seasonal brines, has sparked interest in analogous environments on Earth. We report on new studies of Don Juan Pond (DJP), which exists at the upper limit of ephemeral water in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica, and is adjacent to several steep-sloped water tracks, the closest analog for RSL. The source of DJP has been interpreted to be deep groundwater. We present time-lapse data and meteorological measurements that confirm deliquescence within the DJP watershed and show that this, together with small amounts of meltwater, are capable of generating brines that control summertime water levels. Groundwater input was not observed. In addition to providing an analog for RSL formation, CaCl(2) brines and chloride deposits in basins may provide clues to the origin of ancient chloride deposits on Mars dating from the transition period from "warm/wet" to "cold/dry" climates.

  6. Using TOUGH2/ECO2H for modeling high-pressure and high-temperature CO2-enhanced geothermal energy extraction from saline systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgia, A.; Pruess, K.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Oldenburg, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Conventional geothermal energy uses water as the fluid to transport heat to the surface. This has a number of drawbacks principally related to strong water-rock chemical reactions, but also in terms of environmental impacts through overdraft of shallow aquifers with valuable water resources. Various authors have proposed the use of CO2 instead of water to transfer heat because such use may result in better rate of heat extraction, less fluid-rock reactivity, and less demand for scarce ground or surface water resources. TOUGH2/ECO2H was developed to study the behavior of high-pressure high-temperature H2O-CO2-NaCl geothermal systems. To demonstrate and test the code, we have modeled an idealized fractured geothermal system. Based on a five-spot well pattern and its inherent symmetry, we use a model grid of 1/8 of a square with sides of 1 km. In the model, CO2 is injected at the four corner-wells at 20 °C and constant pressure of 2.1*10^7 Pa into a variable salinity reservoir which is initially at 200 °C. The center well produces fluid at a constant pressure of 1.9*10^7 Pa. Initially, H2O + NaCl are produced, followed by a mixture of H2O + CO2 + NaCl and, finally only CO2. As soon as the injected CO2 reaches the production well, usually less than 2 months after injection begins, there is a drastic drop in heat production. This decrease occurs because of a reduced flow rate induced by reduction in effective permeability associated with two-phase flow (liquid + gas) in the reservoir. As the liquid phase dries out, the CO2 flow rate increases slowly over about 2-3 years and the heat production reaches a maximum rate that is about 40% larger than the initial rate of production with just water. Our modeling suggests that this same behavior occurs for highly saline geothermal reservoirs, even though the absolute rate of heat production is about 30% lower than the non-saline models. The decrease in production for saline systems is due to a marked reduction in permeability

  7. Chemistry of Silica in Cerro Prieto Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, Oleh; Iglesias, Eduardo; Tsao, Leon

    1980-04-01

    The precipitation of amorphous silica from synthetic geothermal, brines which resemble the flashed brine at Cerro Prieto has been studied. It was found that part of the dissolved silica quickly polymerizes to form suspended colloidal silica. The colloidal silica flocculates and settles slowly at unmodified brine pH values near 7.35. Raising the pH of the brine to about 7.8 by adding base and stirring for a few minutes causes rapid and complete flocculation and settling. these results have been confirmed in the field using actual Cerro Prieto brine. Both in the laboratory and in the field quaternary amines were found to be effective with some brine compositions but not with others. Polyacrylamides do not work at all. These results suggest the following simple preinjection brine treatment process: age the brine for 10-20 minutes in a covered holding tank, add 20-30 ppm lime (CaO), stir for 5 minutes, and separate the flocculated silica from the brine using a conventional clarifier. The brine coming out of such a process will be almost completely free of suspended solids. The pilot plant tests needed to reduce this conceptual process to practice are discussed. The rate of deposition of silica scale from synthetic brines was separately studied. It was found that a modest decrease in pH could significantly reduce the scaling rate at a reasonable cost. The equilibrium chemistry of Cerro Prieto brine was studied theoretically. These calculations indicate that increasing the brine pH to remove silica might cause some precipitation of carbonate minerals, but also that this problem could easily be eliminated at a reasonable cost if it did arise.

  8. Geothermal program overview: Fiscal years 1993--1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The DOE Geothermal Energy Program is involved in three main areas of research: finding and tapping the resource; power generation; and direct use of geothermal energy. This publication summarizes research accomplishments for FY 1993 and 1994 for the following: geophysical and geochemical technologies; slimhole drilling for exploration; resource assessment; lost circulation control; rock penetration mechanics; instrumentation; Geothermal Drilling Organization; reservoir analysis; brine injection; hot dry rock; The Geysers; Geothermal Technology Organization; heat cycle research; advanced heat rejection; materials development; and advanced brine chemistry.

  9. Changes in the water quality and bacterial community composition of an alkaline and saline oxbow lake used for temporary reservoir of geothermal waters.

    PubMed

    Borsodi, Andrea K; Szirányi, Barbara; Krett, Gergely; Márialigeti, Károly; Janurik, Endre; Pekár, Ferenc

    2016-09-01

    Geothermal waters exploited in the southeastern region of Hungary are alkali-hydrogen-carbonate type, and beside the high amount of dissolved salt, they contain a variety of aromatic, heteroaromatic, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The majority of these geothermal waters used for heating are directed into surface waters following a temporary storage in reservoir lakes. The aim of this study was to gain information about the temporal and spatial changes of the water quality as well as the bacterial community composition of an alkaline and saline oxbow lake operated as reservoir of used geothermal water. On the basis of the water physical and chemical measurements as well as the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns of the bacterial communities, temporal changes were more pronounced than spatial differences. During the storage periods, the inflow, reservoir water, and sediment samples were characterized with different bacterial community structures in both studied years. The 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences of the bacterial strains and molecular clones confirmed the differences among the studied habitats. Thermophilic bacteria were most abundant in the geothermal inflow, whereas the water of the reservoir was dominated by cyanobacteria and various anoxygenic phototrophic prokaryotes. In addition, members of several facultative anaerobic denitrifying, obligate anaerobic sulfate-reducing and syntrophic bacterial species capable of decomposition of different organic compounds including phenols were revealed from the water and sediment of the reservoir. Most of these alkaliphilic and/or halophilic species may participate in the local nitrogen and sulfur cycles and contribute to the bloom of phototrophs manifesting in a characteristic pink-reddish discoloration of the water of the reservoir.

  10. Backgrounder: Geothermal resource production, steam gathering, and power generation at Salton Sea Unit 3, Calipatria, California

    SciTech Connect

    1989-04-01

    The 10,000-kilowatt Salton Sea Unit 1 power plant was designed to demonstrate that electrical power generation, using the highly saline brines from the Salton Sea geothermal reservoir, was technically and economically feasible. Unit 1, owned by Earth Energy, a Unocal subsidiary, began operating in 1982, initiating an intensive testing program which established the design criteria necessary to construct the larger 47,500-kilowatt Unit 3 power plant, unit 3 contains many of the proprietary or patented technological innovations developed during this program. Design, construction and start-up of the Unit 3 power generating facility began in December, 1986, and was completed in 26 months. By the end of 1988, the brine handling system was in full operation, and the turbine had been tested at design speed. Desert Power Company, a Unocal subsidiary, owns the power generating facility. Unocal owns the brine resource production facility. Power is transmitted by the Imperial Irrigation District to Southern California Edison Company.

  11. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, J.H.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  12. Bioprecipitation of Calcium Carbonate Crystals by Bacteria Isolated from Saline Environments Grown in Culture Media Amended with Seawater and Real Brine

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Castro, G. A.; Uad, I.; Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Rivadeneyra, A.; Gonzalez-Lopez, J.; Rivadeneyra, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The precipitation of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate by isolated bacteria from seawater and real brine obtained in a desalination plant growth in culture media containing seawater and brine as mineral sources has been studied. However, only bioprecipitation was detected when the bacteria were grown in media with added organic matter. Biomineralization process started rapidly, crystal formation taking place in the beginning a few days after inoculation of media; roughly 90% of total cultivated bacteria showed. Six major colonies with carbonate precipitation capacity dominated bacterial community structure cultivated in heterotrophic platable bacteria medium. Taxonomic identification of these six strains through partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed their affiliation with Gram-positive Bacillus and Virgibacillus genera. These strains were able to form calcium carbonate minerals, which precipitated as calcite and aragonite crystals and showed bacterial fingerprints or bacteria calcification. Also, carbonic anhydrase activity was observed in three of these isolated bacteria. The results of this research suggest that microbiota isolated from sea water and brine is capable of precipitation of carbonate biominerals, which can occur in situ with mediation of organic matter concentrations. Moreover, calcium carbonate precipitation ability of this microbiota could be of importance in bioremediation of CO2 and calcium in certain environments. PMID:26273646

  13. Bioprecipitation of Calcium Carbonate Crystals by Bacteria Isolated from Saline Environments Grown in Culture Media Amended with Seawater and Real Brine.

    PubMed

    Silva-Castro, G A; Uad, I; Gonzalez-Martinez, A; Rivadeneyra, A; Gonzalez-Lopez, J; Rivadeneyra, M A

    2015-01-01

    The precipitation of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate by isolated bacteria from seawater and real brine obtained in a desalination plant growth in culture media containing seawater and brine as mineral sources has been studied. However, only bioprecipitation was detected when the bacteria were grown in media with added organic matter. Biomineralization process started rapidly, crystal formation taking place in the beginning a few days after inoculation of media; roughly 90% of total cultivated bacteria showed. Six major colonies with carbonate precipitation capacity dominated bacterial community structure cultivated in heterotrophic platable bacteria medium. Taxonomic identification of these six strains through partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed their affiliation with Gram-positive Bacillus and Virgibacillus genera. These strains were able to form calcium carbonate minerals, which precipitated as calcite and aragonite crystals and showed bacterial fingerprints or bacteria calcification. Also, carbonic anhydrase activity was observed in three of these isolated bacteria. The results of this research suggest that microbiota isolated from sea water and brine is capable of precipitation of carbonate biominerals, which can occur in situ with mediation of organic matter concentrations. Moreover, calcium carbonate precipitation ability of this microbiota could be of importance in bioremediation of CO2 and calcium in certain environments.

  14. Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: Near-surface CaCl2-brine feeding Earth's most saline lake and implications for Mars

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, James L.; Head, James W.; Levy, Joseph S.; Marchant, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery on Mars of recurring slope lineae (RSL), thought to represent seasonal brines, has sparked interest in analogous environments on Earth. We report on new studies of Don Juan Pond (DJP), which exists at the upper limit of ephemeral water in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica, and is adjacent to several steep-sloped water tracks, the closest analog for RSL. The source of DJP has been interpreted to be deep groundwater. We present time-lapse data and meteorological measurements that confirm deliquescence within the DJP watershed and show that this, together with small amounts of meltwater, are capable of generating brines that control summertime water levels. Groundwater input was not observed. In addition to providing an analog for RSL formation, CaCl2 brines and chloride deposits in basins may provide clues to the origin of ancient chloride deposits on Mars dating from the transition period from “warm/wet” to “cold/dry” climates. PMID:23378901

  15. Geothermal Developments at San Diego Gas & Electric

    SciTech Connect

    Anastas, George; Hoaglin, Gregory J.

    1980-12-01

    In 1972, the first well flow tests were conducted by NARCO and Magma Power to determine reservoir characteristics such as mass flow, temperature, stability, and mineral content of geothermal brine from the exploration wells. The results of these tests were encouraging. Brine temperatures were relatively hot, and salinity was less than previously experienced. Results were sufficient to justify further testing of the process design to determine an appropriate energy conversion cycle for a power plant. Both the flash cycle and binary cycle were considered. In the binary cycle, geothermal heat is transferred from hot brine to a secondary working fluid by means of heat exchangers. The heated secondary fluid expands to drive a turbine-generator. The flash cycle was rejected because the high measured noncondensible gas content of the brines seriously reduced the cycle efficiency. The reduced salinity was expected to result in reduced scaling characteristics. For these reasons the binary cycle was selected for initial design and field testing. In 1973, a series of field tests was conducted to support the design of the binary conversion cycle. Unfortunately, a rapid decline in heat exchanger performance resulting from scaling demonstrated a need to reevaluate the cycle design. A flash/binary process was chosen as the basis for facility design modifications and additional field testing. Design modifications were to use as much of the original design as possible in order to minimize cost. In March of 1974, SDG&E resumed field testing at Niland using reduced size models of the new flash/binary design. The 1974 test program confirmed the decision to modify the design, construction, and operation of the GLEF in a four-stage, flash/binary cycle configuration. In May of 1975, the design was completed and construction of the GLEF began. Startup operations were initiated and in June 1976 the facility was dedicated. In the fall of 1976 while debugging and initial operation was being

  16. Geopressured-Geothermal Research Program: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Fortuna, Raymond; Jelacic, Allan

    1989-04-01

    The geopressured-geothermal resource consists of deeply buried reservoirs of hot brine, under abnormally high pressures, that contain dissolved methane. Geopressured brine reservoirs with pressures approaching the lithostatic load are known to occur both onshore and offshore beneath the Gulf of Mexico coast, along the Pacific west coast, in Appalachia, as well as in deep sedimentary basins elsewhere in the United States. The Department of Energy (DOE) has concentrated its research on the northern Gulf of Mexico sedimentary basin (Figure 1) which consists largely of Tertiary interbedded sandstones and shales deposited in alternating deltaic, fluvial, and marine environments. Thorsen (1964) and Norwood and Holland (1974) describe three generalized depositional facies in sedimentary beds of the Gulf Coast Geosyncline (Figure 2 ): (1) a massive sandstone facies in which sandstone constitutes 50 percent o r more of the sedimentary volume; (2) an alternating sandstone and shale facies in which sandstone constitutes 15 to 35 percent of the sedimentary volume. (3) a massive shale facies in which sandstone constitutes 15 percent or less of the sedimentary volume. In general, at any given location the volume of sandstone decreases with increasing depth. The datum of higher-than-normal fluid pressures is associated with the alternating sandstone and shale facies and the massive shale facies. Faulting and salt tectonics have complicated the depositional patterns and influenced the distribution of geopressured reservoirs (Wallace et a1 1978). The sandstones in the alternating sandstone and shale facies have the greatest potential for geopressured-geothermal energy development. Due to the insulating effect of surrounding shales, temperatures of the geopressured-geothermal brines typically range from 250 F to over 350 F, and under prevailing temperature, pressure, and salinity conditions, the brine contains 20 or more cubic feet of methane per barrel. Wallace et al (1978

  17. Environmental impact of geopressure - geothermal cogeneration facility on wetland resources and socioeconomic characteristics in Louisiana Gulf Coast region. Final report, October 10, 1983-September 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, A.M.; Saleh, F.M.S.; Fontenot, M.

    1984-08-01

    Baseline data relevant to air quality are presented. The following are also included: geology and resource assessment, design well prospects in southwestern Louisiana, water quality monitoring, chemical analysis subsidence, microseismicity, geopressure-geothermal subsidence modeling, models of compaction and subsidence, sampling handling and preparation, brine chemistry, wetland resources, socioeconomic characteristics, impacts on wetlands, salinity, toxic metals, non-metal toxicants, temperature, subsidence, and socioeconomic impacts. (MHR)

  18. Integrating CO₂ storage with geothermal resources for dispatchable renewable electricity

    DOE PAGES

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Mingjie; ...

    2014-12-31

    We present an approach that uses the huge fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface, together with geologic CO₂ storage, to harvest, store, and dispatch energy from subsurface (geothermal) and surface (solar, nuclear, fossil) thermal resources, as well as energy from electrical grids. Captured CO₂ is injected into saline aquifers to store pressure, generate artesian flow of brine, and provide an additional working fluid for efficient heat extraction and power conversion. Concentric rings of injection and production wells are used to create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO₂, and thermal energy. Such storage can take excess power frommore » the grid and excess/waste thermal energy, and dispatch that energy when it is demanded, enabling increased penetration of variable renewables. Stored CO₂ functions as a cushion gas to provide enormous pressure-storage capacity and displaces large quantities of brine, which can be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.« less

  19. Integrating CO₂ storage with geothermal resources for dispatchable renewable electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Edmunds, Thomas A.; Saar, Martin O.; Randolph, Jimmy B.

    2014-12-31

    We present an approach that uses the huge fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface, together with geologic CO₂ storage, to harvest, store, and dispatch energy from subsurface (geothermal) and surface (solar, nuclear, fossil) thermal resources, as well as energy from electrical grids. Captured CO₂ is injected into saline aquifers to store pressure, generate artesian flow of brine, and provide an additional working fluid for efficient heat extraction and power conversion. Concentric rings of injection and production wells are used to create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO₂, and thermal energy. Such storage can take excess power from the grid and excess/waste thermal energy, and dispatch that energy when it is demanded, enabling increased penetration of variable renewables. Stored CO₂ functions as a cushion gas to provide enormous pressure-storage capacity and displaces large quantities of brine, which can be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.

  20. Unconventional gas sources. Volume IV. Geopressured brines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The following topics are covered: study objectives, regional geology and prospect evaluation, reservoir engineering, drilling and well costs, production and water disposal facilities, pressure maintenance, geothermal and hydraulic energy assessment, operating expense, economic evaluation, environmental considerations, legal considerations, and risks analysis. The study addresses only sandstone brine reservoirs in the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast onshore areas. (MHR)

  1. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Breunig, Hanna M.; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Borgia, Andrea; Price, Phillip N.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2013-06-13

    reluctant to invest in capital intensive, high risk GCS projects; early technical, economic, and environmental assessments of brine management are extremely valuable for determining the potential role of GCS in the US. We performed a first order feasibility and economic assessment, at three different locations in the US, of twelve GCS extracted-­water management options, including: geothermal energy extraction, desalination, salt and mineral harvesting, rare-­earth element harvesting, aquaculture, algae biodiesel production, road de-­icing, enhanced geothermal system (EGS) recharge, underground reinjection, landfill disposal, ocean disposal, and evaporation pond disposal. Three saline aquifers from different regions of the US were selected as hypothetical GCS project sites to encompass variation in parameters that are relevant to the feasibility and economics of brine disposal. The three aquifers are the southern Mt. Simon Sandstone Formation in the Illinois Basin, IL; the Vedder Formation in the southern San Joaquin Basin, CA; and the Jasper Interval in the eastern Texas Gulf Basin, TX. These aquifers are candidates for GCS due to their physical characteristics and their close proximity to large CO2 emission sources. Feasibility and impacts were calculated using one mt-­CO2 injected as the functional unit of brine management. Scenarios were performed for typical 1000MW coal-­fired power plants (CFPP) that incurred an assumed 24 percent carbon capture energy penalty (EP), injected 90 percent of CO2 emissions (~9 million mt-­ CO2 injected annually), and treated extracted water onsite. Net present value (NPV), land requirements, laws and regulations, and technological limits were determined for each stage of disposal, and used to estimate feasibility. The boundary of the assessment began once extracted water was brought to the surface, and ended once the water evaporated, was injected underground, or was discharged into

  2. Phase relations and adiabats in boiling seafloor geothermal systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of large salinity variations and vent temperatures in the range of 380-400??C suggest that boiling or two-phase separation may be occurring in some seafloor geothermal systems. Consideration of flow rates and the relatively small differences in density between vapors and liquids at the supercritical pressures at depth in these systems suggests that boiling is occurring under closed-system conditions. Salinity and temperature of boiling vents can be used to estimate the pressure-temperature point in the subsurface at which liquid seawater first reached the two-phase boundary. Data are reviewed to construct phase diagrams of coexisting brines and vapors in the two-phase region at pressures corresponding to those of the seafloor geothermal systems. A method is developed for calculating the enthalpy and entropy of the coexisting mixtures, and results are used to construct adiabats from the seafloor to the P-T two-phase boundary. Results for seafloor vents discharging at 2300 m below sea level indicate that a 385??C vent is composed of a brine (7% NaCl equivalent) in equilibrium with a vapor (0.1% NaCl). Brine constitutes 45% by weight of the mixture, and the fluid first boiled at approximately 1 km below the seafloor at 415??C, 330 bar. A 400??C vent is primarily vapor (88 wt.%, 0.044% NaCl) with a small amount of brine (26% NaCl) and first boiled at 2.9 km below the seafloor at 500??C, 520 bar. These results show that adiabatic decompression in the two-phase region results in dramatic cooling of the fluid mixture when there is a large fraction of vapor. ?? 1985.

  3. ADVANCED CEMENTS FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the conventional well cements consisting of the calcium silicate hydrates (CaO-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) and calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) for the integrity of geothermal wells, the serious concern confronting the cementing industries was their poor performance in mechanically supporting the metallic well casing pipes and in mitigating the pipe's corrosion in very harsh geothermal reservoirs. These difficulties are particularly acute in two geological regions: One is the deep hot downhole area ({approx} 1700 m depth at temperatures of {approx} 320 C) that contains hyper saline water with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (> 40,000 ppm) in conjunction with {approx} 100 ppm H{sub 2}S at a mild acid of pH {approx} 5.0; the other is the upper well region between the well's surface and {approx} 1000 m depth at temperatures up to 200 C. The specific environment of the latter region is characterized by highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH < 1.5) brine containing at least 5000 ppm CO{sub 2}. When these conventional cements are emplaced in these harsh environments, their major shortcoming is their susceptibility to reactions with hot CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO4, thereby causing their deterioration brought about by CO{sub 2}-catalyzed carbonation and acid-initiated erosion. Such degradation not only reduced rapidly the strength of cements, lowering the mechanical support of casing pipes, but also increased the extent of permeability of the brine through the cement layer, promoting the rate of the pipe's corrosion. Severely carbonated and acid eroded cements often impaired the integrity of a well in less than one year; in the worst cases, casings have collapsed within three months, leading to the need for costly and time-consuming repairs or redrilling operations. These were the reasons why the geothermal well drilling and cementing industries were concerned about using conventional well cements, and further

  4. Use of data obtained from core tests in the design and operation of spent brine injection wells in geopressured or geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jorda, R.M.

    1980-03-01

    The effects of formation characteristics on injection well performance are reviewed. Use of data acquired from cores taken from injection horizons to predict injectivity is described. And methods for utilizing data from bench scale testing of brine and core samples to optimize injection well design are presented. Currently available methods and equipment provide data which enable the optimum design of injection wells through analysis of cores taken from injection zones. These methods also provide a means of identifying and correcting well injection problems. Methods described in this report are: bulk density measurement; porosity measurement; pore size distribution analysis; permeability measurement; formation grain size distribution analysis; core description (lithology) and composition; amount, type and distribution of clays and shales; connate water analysis; consolidatability of friable reservoir rocks; grain and pore characterization by scanning electron microscopy; grain and pore characterization by thin section analysis; permeability damage and enhancement tests; distribution of water-borne particles in porous media; and reservoir matrix acidizing effectiveness. The precise methods of obtaining this information are described, and their use in the engineering of injection wells is illustrated by examples, where applicable. (MHR)

  5. Thermal effects on microbial composition and microbiologically induced corrosion and mineral precipitation affecting operation of a geothermal plant in a deep saline aquifer.

    PubMed

    Lerm, Stephanie; Westphal, Anke; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Alawi, Mashal; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke

    2013-03-01

    The microbial diversity of a deep saline aquifer used for geothermal heat storage in the North German Basin was investigated. Genetic fingerprinting analyses revealed distinct microbial communities in fluids produced from the cold and warm side of the aquifer. Direct cell counting and quantification of 16S rRNA genes and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes by real-time PCR proved different population sizes in fluids, showing higher abundance of bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in cold fluids compared with warm fluids. The operation-dependent temperature increase at the warm well probably enhanced organic matter availability, favoring the growth of fermentative bacteria and SRB in the topside facility after the reduction of fluid temperature. In the cold well, SRB predominated and probably accounted for corrosion damage to the submersible well pump and iron sulfide precipitates in the near wellbore area and topside facility filters. This corresponded to lower sulfate content in fluids produced from the cold well as well as higher content of hydrogen gas that was probably released from corrosion, and maybe favored growth of hydrogenotrophic SRB. This study reflects the high influence of microbial populations for geothermal plant operation, because microbiologically induced precipitative and corrosive processes adversely affect plant reliability.

  6. Geothermal energy program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained within the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost-effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy - the heat of the Earth - is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40 percent of the total U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma (the four types of geothermal energy), still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program.

  7. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    for geothermal resources have been hindered. To increase the effective regional implementation of geothermal resources as an energy source for power production requires meeting several objectives. These include: 1) Expand (oil and gas as well as geothermal) industry awareness of an untapped source of geothermal energy within deep permeable strata of sedimentary basins; 2) Identify and target specific geographic areas within sedimentary basins where deeper heat sources can be developed; 3) Increase future geothermal field size from 10 km2 to many 100’s km2 or greater; and 4) Increase the productive depth range for economic geothermal energy extraction below the current 4 km limit by converting deep depleted and abandoned gas wells and fields into geothermal energy extraction wells. The first year of the proposed 3-year resource assessment covered an eight county region within the Delaware and Val Verde Basins of West Texas. This project has developed databases in Excel spreadsheet form that list over 8,000 temperature-depth recordings. These recordings come from header information listed on electric well logs recordings from various shallow to deep wells that were drilled for oil and gas exploration and production. The temperature-depth data is uncorrected and thus provides the lower temperature that is be expected to be encountered within the formation associated with the temperature-depth recording. Numerous graphs were developed from the data, all of which suggest that a log-normal solution for the thermal gradient is more descriptive of the data than a linear solution. A discussion of these plots and equations are presented within the narrative. Data was acquired that enable the determination of brine salinity versus brine density with the Permian Basin. A discussion on possible limestone and dolostone thermal conductivity parameters is presented with the purpose of assisting in determining heat flow and reservoir heat content for energy extraction. Subsurface

  8. Layered Thermohaline Convection in Hypersaline GeothermalSystems

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Pruess, Karsten

    1997-01-05

    Thermohaline convection occurs in hypersaline geothermal systems due to thermal and salinity effects on liquid density. Because of its importance in oceanography, thermohaline convection in viscous liquids has received more attention than thermohaline convection in porous media. The fingered and layered convection patterns observed in viscous liquid thermohaline convection have been hypothesized to occur also in porous media. However, the extension of convective dynamics from viscous liquid systems to porous media systems is complicated by the presence of the solid matrix in porous media. The solid grains cause thermal retardation, hydrodynamic dispersion, and permeability effects. We present simulations of thermohaline convection in model systems based on the Salton Sea Geothermal System, California, that serve to point out the general dynamics of porous media thermohaline convection in the diffusive regime, and the effects of porosity and permeability, in particular. We use the TOUGH2 simulator with residual formulation and fully coupled solution technique for solving the strongly coupled equations governing thermohaline convection in porous media. We incorporate a model for brine density that takes into account the effects of NaCl and CaCl2. Simulations show that in forced convection, the increased pore velocity and thermal retardation in low-porosity regions enhances brine transport relative to heat transport. In thermohaline convection, the heat and brine transport are strongly coupled and enhanced transport of brine over heat cannot occur because buoyancy caused by heat and brine together drive the flow. Random permeability heterogeneity has a limited effect if the scale of flow is much larger than the scale of permeability heterogeneity. For the system studied here, layered thermohaline convection persists for more than one million years for a variety of initial conditions. Our simulations suggest that layered thermohaline convection is possible in

  9. Predator–prey interactions between native brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica and the alien boatman Trichocorixa verticalis: influence of salinity, predator sex, and size, abundance and parasitic status of prey

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Marta I.

    2017-01-01

    Trichocorixa verticalis (T. verticalis), native to North America and the Caribbean islands, is an invasive waterboatman species (Corixidae) in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Previous studies in the native range have suggested that predation by T. verticalis can regulate the abundance of Anostracan and Cladoceran zooplankton in saline ecosystems, causing increases in phytoplankton through a trophic cascade. In this experimental study, we tested the predator–prey relationship between the native brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica, and T. verticalis from the Odiel salt ponds in SW Spain. In three experiments, we investigated (1) the effects of Artemia life stage (metanauplii, juveniles, and adults), (2) abundance (three, six, and 12 adult Artemia) and (3) parasitic status (Artemia infected with avian cestodes or uninfected) on predation rates by T. verticalis. We also considered how predation rates in all three experiments were influenced by the sex of T. verticalis and by different salinities (25 and 55 g l−1). Experiment 1 showed that predation rates were highest for metanauplii, possibly because their photophilic behavior makes them more prone to predation. In Experiment 2, we found that predation rate was higher for female T. verticalis and the higher salinity, although the strength of the sex effect varied between treatments. Experiment 3 showed that T. verticalis selectively predated adult Artemia infected with cestodes (red in color), as previously reported for predation by avian final hosts. Collectively, these results indicate that T. verticalis are important predators in their introduced range, and are likely to reduce the abundance of Artemia in more salt ponds as they expand their range, thus increasing phytoplankton abundance through trophic cascades. PMID:28713654

  10. Microbial composition in a deep saline aquifer in the North German Basin -microbiologically induced corrosion and mineral precipitation affecting geothermal plant operation and the effects of plant downtime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerm, Stephanie; Westphal, Anke; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Alawi, Mashal; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke

    2013-04-01

    The microbial composition in fluids of a deep saline geothermal used aquifer in the North German Basin was characterized over a period of five years. The genetic fingerprinting techniques PCR-SSCP and PCR-DGGE revealed distinct microbial communities in fluids produced from the cold and warm side of the aquifer. Direct cell counting and quantification of 16S rRNA genes and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes by real-time PCR proved different population sizes in fluids, showing higher abundance of Bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in cold fluids compared to warm fluids. Predominating SRB in the cold well probably accounted for corrosion damage to the submersible well pump, and iron sulfide precipitates in the near wellbore area and topside facility filters. This corresponded to a lower sulfate content in fluids produced from the cold well as well as higher content of hydrogen gas that was probably released from corrosion, and maybe favoured growth of hydrogenotrophic SRB. Plant downtime significantly influenced the microbial biocenosis in fluids. Samples taken after plant restart gave indications about the processes occurring downhole during those phases. High DNA concentrations in fluids at the beginning of the restart process with a decreasing trend over time indicated a higher abundance of microbes during plant downtime compared to regular plant operation. It is likely that a gradual drop in temperature as well as stagnant conditions favoured the growth of microbes and maturation of biofilms at the casing and in pores of the reservoir rock in the near wellbore area. Furthermore, it became obvious that the microorganisms were more associated to particles then free-living. This study reflects the high influence of microbial populations for geothermal plant operation, because microbiologically induced precipitative and corrosive processes adversely affect plant reliability. Those processes may favourably occur during plant downtime due to enhanced

  11. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  12. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  13. Salinity variations in submarine hydrothermal systems by layered double-diffusive convection

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the salinity variations in vent fluids of sea floor geothermal systems. New experiments reacting diabase and evolved seawater were carried out to reproduce earlier published observations of Cl depletions attributed to formation of an ephemeral Cl-bearing mineral. The absence of any Cl depletions in the present study suggests that the formation of Cl-bearing minerals is not sufficiently widespread to account for the observed salinity variations in the vent fluids. A re-evaluation of both field and laboratory evidence has led to a new model for subseafloor circulation that accounts for salinity variations as well as other chemical and mineralogic observations. In place of a simple single-pass convection system, the authors propose that the sea floor systems consist of two vertically nested convection cells in which a brine layer at depth heats and drives an overlying seawater cell. Such layering of salinities, a process known in fluid mechanics as double-diffusive convection, is an expected result when convection is induced in saline fluids. The process provides for stable high-temperature heat transfer upward from the cracking front adjacent to the magma, and for limited chemical exchange of the brine with the overlying seawater to explain salinity variations and high metal contents in the vent fluids. The brine also provides an effective medium to produce the secondary mineral assemblages observed in rocks from the mid-ocean ridges and ophiolites unsuccessfully produced in laboratory studies using seawater. The brine originates from the two-phase separation of seawater during magmatic/tectonic events and accumulates and remains relatively stable in the region immediately above the magma chamber.

  14. Low Temperature Geothermal Resource Assessment for Membrane Distillation Desalination in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Akar, Sertac; Turchi, Craig

    2016-10-01

    Substantial drought and declines in potable groundwater in the United States over the last decade has increased the demand for fresh water. Desalination of saline water such as brackish surface or groundwater, seawater, brines co-produced from oil and gas operations, industrial wastewater, blow-down water from power plant cooling towers, and agriculture drainage water can reduce the volume of water that requires disposal while providing a source of high-quality fresh water for industrial or commercial use. Membrane distillation (MD) is a developing technology that uses low-temperature thermal energy for desalination. Geothermal heat can be an ideal thermal-energy source for MD desalination technology, with a target range of $1/m3 to $2/m3 for desalinated water depending on the cost of heat. Three different cases were analyzed to estimate levelized cost of heat (LCOH) for integration of MD desalination technology with low-grade geothermal heat: (1) residual heat from injection brine at a geothermal power plant, (2) heat from existing underutilized low-temperature wells, and (3) drilling new wells for low-temperature resources. The Central and Western United States have important low-temperature (<90 degrees C) geothermal resource potential with wide geographic distribution, but these resources are highly underutilized because they are inefficient for power production. According to the USGS, there are 1,075 identified low temperature hydrothermal systems, 55 low temperature sedimentary systems and 248 identified medium to high temperature geothermal systems in the United States. The estimated total beneficial heat potential from identified low temperature hydrothermal geothermal systems and residual beneficial heat from medium to high temperature systems is estimated as 36,300 MWth, which could theoretically produce 1.4 to 7 million m3/day of potable water, depending on desalination efficiency.

  15. Studies of quaternary saline lakes-II. Isotopic and compositional changes during desiccation of the brines in Owens Lake, California, 1969-1971

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Smith, G.I.; Hardcastle, Kenneth G.

    1976-01-01

    Owens Lake is an alkaline salt lake in a closed basin in southeast California. It is normally nearly dry, but in early 1969, an abnormal runoff from the Sierra Nevada flooded it to a maximum depth of 2??4 m. By late summer of 1971, the lake was again nearly dry and the dissolved salts recrystallized. Changes in the chemistry, pH, and deuterium content were monitored during desiccation. During flooding, salts (mostly trona, halite, and burkeite) dissolved slowly from the lake floor. Their concentration in the lake waters increased as evaporation removed water and salts again crystallized, but winter temperatures caused precipitation of some salts and the following summer warming caused their solution, resulting in seasonal variations in the concentration patterns of some ions. The pH values (9??4-10??4) changed with time but showed no detectable diurnal pattern. The deuterium concentration increased during evaporation and appeared to be in equilibrium with vapor leaving the lake according to the Rayleigh equation. The effective ??(D/H in liquid/D/H in vapor) decreased as salinity increased; the earliest measured value was 1??069 [as total dissolved solids (TDS) of lake waters changed from 136,200 to 250,400 mg/1]and the last value (calc.) was 1??025 (as TDS changed from 450,000 to 470,300 mg/1). Deuterium exchange with the atmosphere was apparently small except during late desiccation stages when the isotopic contrast became great. Eventually, atmospheric exchange, combined with decreasing ?? and lake size and increasing salinity, stopped further deuterium concentration in the lake. The maximum contrast between atmospheric vapor and lake deuterium contents was about 110%. ?? 1976.

  16. The Role of Low Salinity Fluids in Metal Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yardley, B.

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades the importance of brines for ore-formation has been demonstrated for a wide range of deposit types and geological settings. Chloride can reach high concentrations in fluids of diverse origins and it complexes many metals in solution. Nevertheless, there are elements which are preferentially complexed by other ligands and are transported and concentrated in low-Cl fluids. Magmatic fluids normally have Cl as the dominant cation and may be very saline. Transition metal levels in magmatic brines from arc settings in particular are often very high, reflecting strong chloride complexing and associated mineralization is often dominated by metals such as Fe which reach high concentrations in brines. Not all magmatic hydrothermal fluids are brines however, and where Cl is less abundant the composition of the dissolved load can be very different. Because of "salting out" effects, highly saline fluids are relatively low in dissolved gases, whereas low salinity fluids can carry significant loads of CO2, H2S and other volatile species, including B, As, Sb and Hg. Of the volatile species with the potential to complex specific metals only H2S has been investigated in any detail. Arsenic is particularly abundant in some low-salinity fluids, however the possible role of As-complexing in transport of Au or other metals is not known. There is little evidence for enhancement of metal solubility by CO2 under upper crustal conditions, except through lowering of pH, but there is some evidence that CO2-saturated brines may mobilize Ni more effectively than brines alone. Sulfate is an important anion in a range of magmatic and hydrothermal fluids and may be primary or arise from oxidation of magmatic H2S in geothermal systems. Notably, sulfate preferentially forms aqueous complexes with the HREE, and may play a role in HREE-enrichment. Fluids in which Cl does not dominate the dissolved load have potential to cause enrichment in a diverse range of elements, but this is

  17. Brine migration resulting from pressure increases in a layered subsurface system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Nordbeck, Johannes; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Brine originating from the deep subsurface impairs parts of the freshwater resources in the North German Basin. Some of the deep porous formations (esp. Trias and Jurassic) exhibit considerable storage capacities for waste fluids (CO2, brine from oil production or cavern leaching), raising concerns among water providers that this type of deep subsurface utilization might impair drinking water supplies. On the one hand, overpressures induced by fluid injections and the geothermal gradient support brine migration from deep into shallow formations. On the other hand, the rising brine is denser than the surrounding less-saline formation waters and, therefore, tends to settle down. Aim of this work is to investigate the conditions under which pressurized formation brine from deep formations can reach shallow freshwater resources. Especially, the role of intermediate porous formations between the storage formation and the groundwater is studied. For this, complex thermohaline simulations using a coupled numerical process model are necessary and performed in this study, in which fluid density depends on fluid pressure, temperature and salt content and the governing partial differential equations are coupled. The model setup is 2D and contains a hypothetic series of aquifers and barriers, each with a thickness of 200 m. Formation pressure is increased at depths of about 2000 m in proximity to a salt wall and a permeable fault. The domain size reaches up to tens of kilometers horizontally to the salt wall. The fault connects the injection formation and the freshwater aquifer such that conditions can be considered as extremely favorable for induced brine migration (worst case scenarios). Brine, heat, and salt fluxes are quantified with reference to hydraulic permeabilities, storage capacities (in terms of domain size), initial salt and heat distribution, and operation pressures. The simulations reveal the development of a stagnation point in the fault region in each

  18. Harnessing Geothermal Energy from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, M. O.; Randolph, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Recent geotechnical research shows that geothermal heat can be efficiently mined by circulating CO2 through naturally permeable, porous rock formations. This method, called CO2 Plume Geothermal (CPG), targets the same geologic reservoirs that are suitable for deep saline aquifer CO2 sequestration or enhanced oil recovery (EOR). While previous investigations have focused on CO2-based heat mining from saline aquifers, here we present new research that is primarily concerned with EOR reservoirs, specifically those using a CO2 flood. EOR operations provide excellent opportunities for economically-favorable geothermal energy recovery, assuming subsurface temperatures are sufficient, because the majority of costly infrastructure (i.e., wells) is in place. Moreover, the subsurface characteristics that make a site suitable for hydrocarbon recovery -- at least moderate reservoir permeability and porosity, and a low-permeability capping feature -- help ensure that fluid can be circulated for heat extraction and that CO2 will be contained. However, heat extraction from the CO2 + water/brine + hydrocarbon EOR production stream is challenging, requiring fluid separation and multiple binary and/or direct power systems (depending on site-specific fluid composition and conditions). We discuss several scenarios, encompassing multiple power system configurations, for harnessing geothermal energy from CO2 EOR operations. In addition, we present preliminary numerical modeling results for net power production from such EOR operations -- accounting for wide variation in produced fluid temperature, pressure, and composition -- and consider the economic implications of power sales for EOR sites.

  19. Fluid inclusions in minerals from the geothermal fields of Tuscany, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, H.; de Vivo, B.; Gianelli, G.; Lattanzi, P.

    1985-01-01

    A reconnaissance study on fluid inclusions from the geothermal fields of Tuscany indicates that the hydrothermal minerals were formed by fluids which were, at least in part, boiling. Four types of aqueous inclusions were recognized: (A) two-phase (liquid + vapor) liquid rich, (B) two-phase (vapor + liquid) vapor rich, (C) polyphase hypersaline liquid rich and (D) three phase-H2O liquid + CO2 liquid + CO2-rich vapor. Freezing and heating microthermometric determinations are reported for 230 inclusions from samples from six wells. It is suggested that boiling of an originally homogeneous, moderately saline, CO2-bearing liquid phase produced a residual hypersaline brine and a CO2-rich vapor phase. There are indications of a temperature decrease in the geothermal field of Larderello, especially in its peripheral zones. ?? 1985.

  20. Geothermal waste treatment biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1991-05-01

    Technical feasibility of a biotechnology based on biochemical reactions for detoxification of geothermal brines has been demonstrated. Laboratory-scale studies have shown that the emerging biotechnology is versatile and is applicable to a variety of geothermal sludges and materials with similar geochemical properties. Materials suitable for treatment are those which may contain few or many metals in concentrations exceeding those allowed by regulatory agencies. Comparison of several possible types of bioreactors and processes have led to the conclusion that a number of variables have to be considered in the design and development of a biochemical plant for the detoxification of geothermal type sludges. These include reactor size, effects of agitation, mixed cultures, state of the biomass, pH and dissolved oxygen, concentration of residual sludge, residence time, and temperature. Under optimum conditions, high rates of metal removal can be achieved. Some recent studies, dealing with the process variables and their optimization, will be discussed. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Salinity-induced hydrate dissociation: A mechanism for recent CH4 release on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, Megan Elwood; Ulrich, Shannon M; Onstott, Tullis; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2007-01-01

    Recent observations of CH4 in the Martian atmosphere suggest that CH4 has been added relatively recently. Several mechanisms for recent CH4 release have been proposed including subsurface biological methanogenesis, abiogenic hydrothermal and/or volcanic activity, dissociation of CH4 hydrates, atmospheric photolysis, or addition of organics via bolide impact. This study examines the effects of increasing salinity on gas hydrate stability and compares estimates of the Martian geothermal gradient to CH4 and CO2 hydrate stability fields in the presence of high salinity brines. The results demonstrate that salinity increases alone result in a significant decrease in the predicted hydrate stability zone within the Martian subsurface and may be a driving force in CH4 hydrate destabilization. Active thermal and/or pressure fluctuations are not required in order for CH4 hydrates to be the source of atmospheric CH4.

  2. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  3. Geothermal and heavy-oil resources in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J.; Walter, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    In a five-county area of South Texas, geopressured-geothermal reservoirs in the Paleocene-Eocene Wilcox Group lie below medium- to heavy-oil reservoirs in the Eocene Jackson Group. This fortuitous association suggests the use of geothermal fluids for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). Geothermal fairways are formed where thick deltaic sandstones are compartmentalized by growth faults. Wilcox geothermal reservoirs in South Texas are present at depths of 11,000 to 15,000 ft (3,350 to 4,570 m) in laterally continuous sandstones 100 to 200 ft (30 to 60 m) thick. Permeability is generally low (typically 1 md), porosity ranges from 12 to 24 percent, and temperature exceeds 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C). Reservoirs containing medium (20{degrees} to 25{degrees} API gravity) to heavy (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) oil are concentrated along the Texas Coastal Plain in the Jackson-Yegua Barrier/Strandplain (Mirando Trend), Cap Rock, and Piercement Salt Dome plays and in the East Texas Basin in Woodbine Fluvial/Deltaic Strandplain and Paluxy Fault Line plays. Injection of hot, moderately fresh to saline brines will improve oil recovery by lowering viscosity and decreasing residual oil saturation. Smectite clay matrix could swell and clog pore throats if injected waters have low salinity. The high temperature of injected fluids will collapse some of the interlayer clays, thus increasing porosity and permeability. Reservoir heterogeneity resulting from facies variation and diagenesis must be considered when siting production and injection wells within the heavy-oil reservoir. The ability of abandoned gas wells to produce sufficient volumes of hot water over the long term will also affect the economics of TEOR.

  4. Sea-ice thermodynamics and brine drainage.

    PubMed

    Worster, M Grae; Rees Jones, David W

    2015-07-13

    Significant changes in the state of the Arctic ice cover are occurring. As the summertime extent of sea ice diminishes, the Arctic is increasingly characterized by first-year rather than multi-year ice. It is during the early stages of ice growth that most brine is injected into the oceans, contributing to the buoyancy flux that mediates the thermo-haline circulation. Current operational sea-ice components of climate models often treat brine rejection between sea ice and the ocean similarly to a thermodynamic segregation process, assigning a fixed salinity to the sea ice, typical of multi-year ice. However, brine rejection is a dynamical, buoyancy-driven process and the salinity of sea ice varies significantly during the first growth season. As a result, current operational models may over predict the early brine fluxes from newly formed sea ice, which may have consequences for coupled simulations of the polar oceans. Improvements both in computational power and our understanding of the processes involved have led to the emergence of a new class of sea-ice models that treat brine rejection dynamically and should enhance predictions of the buoyancy forcing of the oceans.

  5. WETTING BEHAVIOR OF SELECTED CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    G.Q. Tang; N.R. Morrow

    1997-04-01

    The effect of aging and displacement temperatures, and brine and oil composition on wettability and the recovery of crude oil by spontaneous imbibition and waterflooding has been investigated. This study is based on displacement tests in Berea Sandstone using three distinctly different crude oils and three reservoir brines. Brine concentration was varied by changing the concentration of total dissolved solids of the synthetic brine in proportion to give brine of twice, one tenth, and one hundredth of the reservoir brine concentration. Aging and displacement temperatures were varied independently. For all crude oils, water-wetness and oil recovery increased with increase in displacement temperature. Tests on the effect of brine concentration showed that salinity of the connate and invading brines can have a major influence on wettability and oil recovery at reservoir temperature. Oil recovery increased over that for the reservoir brine with dilution of both the initial (connate) and invading brine or dilution of either. Removal of light components from the crude oil resulted in increased water-wetness. Addition of alkanes to the crude oil reduced the water-wetness, and increased oil recovery. Relationships between waterflood recovery and wettability are summarized.

  6. Integrated CO 2 Storage and Brine Extraction

    DOE PAGES

    Hunter, Kelsey; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Middleton, Richard; ...

    2017-08-18

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) can reduce CO2 emissions from fossil fuel power plants by injecting CO2 into deep saline aquifers for storage. CCUS typically increases reservoir pressure which increases costs, because less CO2 can be injected, and risks such as induced seismicity. Extracting brine with enhanced water recovery (EWR) from the CO2 storage reservoir can manage and reduce pressure in the formation, decrease the risks linked to reservoir overpressure (e.g., induced seismicity), increase CO2 storage capacity, and enable CO2 plume management. We modeled scenarios of CO2 injection with EWR into the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU) formationmore » in southwest Wyoming. The Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer Code (FEHM) was used to model CO2 injection with brine extraction and the corresponding increase in pressure within the RSU. We analyzed the model for pressure management, CO2 storage, CO2 saturation, and brine extraction due to the quantity and location of brine extraction wells. The model limited CO2 injection to a constant pressure increase of two MPa at the injection well with and without extracting brine at hydrostatic pressure. Finally, we found that brine extraction can be used as a technical and cost-effective pressure management strategy to limit reservoir pressure buildup and increase CO2 storage associated with a single injection well.« less

  7. Constraining Effects of Brine Leakage from Carbon Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunsch, A.; Navarre-Sitchler, A. K.; McCray, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Research has shown that pressure build up associated with injection of CO2 into a deep saline aquifer has the potential to promote brine leakage into overlying formations. In order to understand and quantify chemical changes in an underground source of drinking water (USDW) invaded by deep saline brines, we analyzed over 90,000 brine geochemical data entries from the NETL NATCARB brine database to identify potential brine constituents of concern. Using a variety of statistical methods and EPA regulatory levels or standards (RLS) we narrowed the list of brine constituents of potential concern to USDWs to TDS, thallium, chloride, sulfate and arsenic. Somewhat surprisingly, the distribution of reported pH had a fairly narrow distribution around a median value of 7.4, with over 78% of values complying with EPA recommended secondary standard for drinking water acidity. The pH distribution implies that unlike pure CO2 leakage, far-field brine leakage (i.e., brine not in contact with CO2) is not expected to bear a low-pH signature, thus suggesting use of other means of geochemical monitoring for brine leakage, such as electrical conductivity. Geochemical mixing models of brine and dilute water were used to constrain mixing ratios where RLS values are exceeded for the TDS, thallium and chloride. TDS and chloride exceed the EPA secondary standards at a brine/USDW mixing ratio of 0.012 and 0.459, respectively. The thallium maximum contaminant level (MCL) is exceeded at a brine/USDW mixing ratio of 0.3753, smaller than the chloride mixing ratio. However, sorption and/or desorption processes may alter thallium concentrations along a leakage pathway resulting in lower concentrations in the aquifer than predicted by simple mixing models. While leakage into USDWs has received considerable attention, brine contamination of groundwater used for irrigation of agricultural crops is also an important area of research. Our calculations suggest that almost all crops grown in the United

  8. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    An introduction to geothermal energy is provided in this discussion of: (1) how a geothermal reservoir works; (2) how to find geothermal energy; (3) where it is located; (4) electric power generation using geothermal energy; (5) use of geothermal energy as a direct source of heat; (6) geopressured reservoirs; (7) environmental effects; (8)…

  9. Biomass production from inland brines

    SciTech Connect

    Reach, C.D. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing inland saline waters to produce biomass through the application of marine aquaculture was investigated. From available data, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the crustacea Artemia salina were selected as the experimental marine organisms. The proposed diatom served to establish primary productivity and concurrently provide a food source for the herbivorus crustacea. The objective of the first phase research was to investigate the ability of P. tricornutum and A. salina to survive in the inland saline environment. Clarified activated sludge and anaerobic digester effluents were evaluated as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Experimental results indicated that diatom and crustacea growth in the inland brine was equivalent to control cultures utilizing seawater. Wastewater effluents were successful as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Bioassay experiments conducted with petroleum related brines yielded mixed results respect to the survival and growth of the P. tricornutum and A. salina organisms. A second series of experiments involved cholornaphthalene, chlorophenanthene, and chlorophenanthrene, and chloroanthracene as the experimental hydrocarbons. Results of the diatom studies show chloroanthracene to induce toxic effects at a concentration of 500 ug/L. Artemia studies showed no acutely toxic effects relative to the test hydrocarbons at 50 and 100 ug/L.

  10. Hydrogeology of the Owego-Apalachin Elementary School Geothermal Fields, Tioga County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.; Kappel, William M.

    2015-12-22

    The specific conductance of the saline water from the shallower fractured zone in the southwest field was about 16,000 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (μS/cm at 25°C), and that from the fractured zone in the northeast field was about 65,000 μS/cm at 25°C. The saline waters were characterized by a chemical composition similar to that of deep formation brines collected from oil and gas wells in the Appalachian Basin. About 40 percent of the geothermal wells discharged methane gas to land surface during and (or) following drilling. Sandstone beds at depths of 348 to 378 ft bls are the likely source of the methane gas, which was determined to be early thermogenic in origin.

  11. Geothermal pump dual cycle system

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, H.B.

    1982-05-11

    Geothermal deep well energy extraction apparatus is provided of the general kind in which solute-bearing hot water is pumped to the earth's surface from a subterranean location by utilizing thermal energy extracted from the hot water for operating a primary turbine-motor for driving a primary electrical generator at the earth's surface, the solute-bearing water being returned by a reinjection well. A surface-located auxiliary turbine-pump combination with both turbine and brine pump elements acting in series with down-well counterparts to furnish the pressure necessary for reinjection of the brine.

  12. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of high salinity fluids: how to analyze radionuclides of the thorium decay chain far from radioactive equilibrium?

    PubMed

    Degering, Detlev; Köhler, Matthias

    2011-11-01

    Highly saline brines from a geothermal plant in Neustadt-Glewe, Germany, were investigated with respect to their radionuclide concentrations. The natural decay series in these fluids are far from radioactive equilibrium with main activity contributions from the radium isotopes (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (224)Ra. A general mathematical formulation for the coupled radionuclide activities within one decay chain is applied on the system (228)Ra…(212)Pb and tested on real samples in order to evaluate several radionuclide concentrations at the moment of sampling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Results for the Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) Brine Processing Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Howard, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The recent Brine Processing Test compared the NASA Forward Osmosis Brine Dewatering (FOBD), Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB). This paper reports the results of the BEB. The BEB was operated at 70 deg C and a base pressure of 12 torr. The BEB was operated in a batch mode, and processed 0.4L of brine per batch. Two different brine feeds were tested, a chromic acid-urine brine and a chromic acid-urine-hygiene mix brine. The chromic acid-urine brine, known as the ISS Alternate Pretreatment Brine, had an average processing rate of 95 mL/hr with a specific power of 5kWhr/L. The complete results of these tests will be reported within this paper.

  14. Calcium chloride brines: The vital component in the hydrothermal brine-hydrothermal ore deposit-evaporite-basinal brine cycle in continental rift basins

    SciTech Connect

    Hardie, L. . Dept. of Earth and Planetary Science)

    1992-01-01

    Nonmarine evaporites are forming today in chloride-rich saline lakes in a number of arid continental rift and strike-slip basins that are characterized by upwelling of subsurface CaCl[sub 2]-bearing brines driven by forced convection of cool basinal brines or by free convection of hydrothermal brines which reach the surface as brine springs. The compositions of these upwelling brines are distinctively different from that of seawater or typical continental waters due primarily to their high proportion of Ca and low proportion of SO[sub 4]. The most viable explanation for the CaCl[sub 2] composition of these upwelling brines is the interaction between hot convecting groundwaters and bedrock at or above zeolite facies temperatures, as for example occurs in the modern Salton Sea basin. Such upwelling CaCl[sub 2] brines in extensional fault basins can explain the puzzling chemical composition of MgSO[sub 4]-poor potash evaporites, the least understood of all ancient salt deposits. In this regard it is suggested that the following cyclic succession of processes occurs in active continental rift basins during a magmatically-driven thermal event: (1) hydrothermal convection of the ambient porewaters in the rift sediments, (2) dissolution of buried evaporites and hydrothermal metamorphism of the rift sediments, (3) hydrothermal ore deposition in fault-related fractures and within the rift sediments, (4) upwelling brine springs add CaCl[sub 2] and KCl components to the surface lake waters, which on evaporation produce MgSO[sub 4]-poor potash evaporites, (5) decay of the thermal event leads to cool down of the hot brines, which now migrate gravitationally to the deeper parts of the basin to become static Na-Ca-Cl basinal brines.

  15. Lithium isotope geochemistry and origin of Canadian shield brines.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, D J; Chan, L H; Katz, A; Starinsky, A; Clark, I D

    2003-01-01

    Hypersaline calcium/chloride shield brines are ubiquitous in Canada and areas of northern Europe. The major questions relating to these fluids are the origin of the solutes and the concentration mechanism that led to their extreme salinity. Many chemical and isotopic tracers are used to solve these questions. For example, lithium isotope systematics have been used recently to support a marine origin for the Yellowknife shield brine (Northwest Territories). While having important chemical similarities to the Yellowknife brine, shield brines from the Sudbury/Elliot Lake (Ontario) and Thompson/Snow Lake (Manitoba) regions, which are the focus of this study, exhibit contrasting lithium behavior. Brine from the Sudbury Victor mine has lithium concentrations that closely follow the sea water lithium-bromine concentration trajectory, as well as delta6Li values of approximately -28/1000. This indicates that the lithium in this brine is predominantly marine in origin with a relatively minor component of crustal lithium leached from the host rocks. In contrast, the Thompson/Snow Lake brine has anomalously low lithium concentrations, indicating that it has largely been removed from solution by alteration minerals. Furthermore, brine and nonbrine mine waters at the Thompson mine have large delta6Li variations of approximately 30/1000, which primarily reflects mixing between deep brine with delta6Li of -35 +/- 2/1000 and near surface mine water that has derived higher delta6Li values through interactions with their host rocks. The contrary behavior of lithium in these two brines shows that, in systems where it has behaved conservatively, lithium isotopes can distinguish brines derived from marine sources.

  16. Multifluid geo-energy systems: Using geologic CO2 storage for geothermal energy production and grid-scale energy storage in sedimentary basins

    DOE PAGES

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Edmunds, Thomas A.; ...

    2016-05-05

    We present an approach that uses the huge fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface, together with geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, to harvest, store, and dispatch energy from subsurface (geothermal) and surface (solar, nuclear, fossil) thermal resources, as well as excess energy on electric grids. Captured CO2 is injected into saline aquifers to store pressure, generate artesian flow of brine, and provide a supplemental working fluid for efficient heat extraction and power conversion. Concentric rings of injection and production wells create a hydraulic mound to store pressure, CO2, and thermal energy. This energy storage can take excess powermore » from the grid and excess/waste thermal energy, and dispatch that energy when it is demanded and thus enable higher penetration of variable renewable energy technologies (e.g., wind, solar). CO2 stored in the subsurface functions as a cushion gas to provide enormous pressure-storage capacity and displace large quantities of brine, some of which can be treated for a variety of beneficial uses. Geothermal power and energy-storage applications may generate enough revenues to compensate for CO2 capture costs. While our approach can use nitrogen (N2), in addition to CO2, as a supplemental fluid, and store thermal energy, this study focuses using CO2 for geothermal energy production and grid-scale energy storage. We conduct a techno-economic assessment to determine the levelized cost of electricity of using this approach to generate geothermal power. We present a reservoir pressure-management strategy that diverts a small portion of the produced brine for beneficial consumptive use to reduce the pumping cost of fluid recirculation, while reducing the risk of seismicity, caprock fracture, and CO2 leakage.« less

  17. Multifluid geo-energy systems: Using geologic CO2 storage for geothermal energy production and grid-scale energy storage in sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Edmunds, Thomas A.; Hao, Yue; Sun, Yunwei; Randolph, Jimmy B.; Saar, Martin O.

    2016-05-05

    We present an approach that uses the huge fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface, together with geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, to harvest, store, and dispatch energy from subsurface (geothermal) and surface (solar, nuclear, fossil) thermal resources, as well as excess energy on electric grids. Captured CO2 is injected into saline aquifers to store pressure, generate artesian flow of brine, and provide a supplemental working fluid for efficient heat extraction and power conversion. Concentric rings of injection and production wells create a hydraulic mound to store pressure, CO2, and thermal energy. This energy storage can take excess power from the grid and excess/waste thermal energy, and dispatch that energy when it is demanded and thus enable higher penetration of variable renewable energy technologies (e.g., wind, solar). CO2 stored in the subsurface functions as a cushion gas to provide enormous pressure-storage capacity and displace large quantities of brine, some of which can be treated for a variety of beneficial uses. Geothermal power and energy-storage applications may generate enough revenues to compensate for CO2 capture costs. While our approach can use nitrogen (N2), in addition to CO2, as a supplemental fluid, and store thermal energy, this study focuses using CO2 for geothermal energy production and grid-scale energy storage. We conduct a techno-economic assessment to determine the levelized cost of electricity of using this approach to generate geothermal power. We present a reservoir pressure-management strategy that diverts a small portion of the produced brine for beneficial consumptive use to reduce the pumping cost of fluid recirculation, while reducing the risk of seismicity, caprock fracture, and CO2 leakage.

  18. The Campi Flegrei caldera-hosted high-temperature and high-saline geothermal system in the Southern Italy: the implication of the geothermal resource as derived by the present state of the knowledge through 70 years of volcanological, structural, petrolog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piochi, M.; Di Vito, M. A.; Mormone, A.; De Natale, G.; Tramelli, A.; Troise, C.; Carlino, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) hosts a geothermal system characterized by: i) high thermal gradient (temperature up to 420°C at 3050 m b.s.l.), ii) high temperature (up to ~90-150°C at very shallow depth) fumaroles, iii) multiple meteoric to brine (TDS up to 33 g•l-1; temperature up to 95 °C) aquifers and iv) at least 1500 tonnes per day of CO2 emissions. This area is highly urbanized despite the repeated occurrence of ground deformation phenomena accompanied by seismicity with volcano-tectonic and long-period micro-earthquakes. The caldera has been widely studied by geologist and geophysicists. In particular, since '40s, the caldera has drawn scientific interest for its geothermal capability inducing the companies AGIP (Azienda Geologica Italiana Petroli) and SAFEN (Società Anonima Forze Endogene Napoletane) to drill more than one hundred 80-to-3100 m deep wells. However this experience did not reach the exploitation phase due to technological and communication problems. The geothermal potential (thermal and electric) is evaluated of about 6 GWy. The recent Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project [De Natale and Troise, 2011], sponsored by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, foresees the realization of medium-to-deep wells in the caldera with the ambition of stimulating interest in geothermal energy exploitation and technology development and, in addition of installing downhole monitoring systems. The geological knowledge of the area is the benchmark for the drilling sites selection. We reconstructed a multi-disciplinary conceptual model updated on the basis of the most recent scientific results and findings. In particular, the constrains (the most important are listed in brackets) comes from: i) boreholes (litho-stratigraphy, aquifer location, depth-related temperature), ii) fieldwork (stratigraphy, location of structural fractures and eruption vents), iii) petrology and melt inclusions (pressure and temperature of magma with

  19. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Geothermal Pipeline is a progress and development update from the Geothermal Progress Monitor and includes brief descriptions of various geothermal projects around the world. The following topics are covered: The retirement of Geo-Heat Center Director Paul Lienau, announcement of two upcoming geothermal meetings, and a proposed geothermal power plant project in the Medicine Lake/Glass Mountain area of California. Also included is an article about the Bonneville Power Administration`s settlements with two California companies who had agreed to build geothermal power plants on the federal agency`s behalf, geothermal space heating projects and use of geothermal energy for raising red crayfish in Oregon, and some updates on geothermal projects in Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and China.

  20. Origin and geochemical evolution of the Michigan basin brine

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic data were collected on 126 oil field brine samples and were used to investigate the origin and geochemical evolution of water in 8 geologic formations in the Michigan basin. Two groups of brine are found in the basin, the Na-Ca-Cl brine in the upper Devonian formations, and Ca-Na-Cl brine from the lower Devonian and Silurian aged formations. Water in the upper Devonian Berea, Traverse, and Dundee formations originated from seawater concentrated into halite facies. This brine evolved by halite precipitation, dolomitization, aluminosilicate reactions, and the removal of SO{sub 4} by bacterial action or by CaSO{sub 4} precipitation. The stable isotopic composition (D, O) is thought to represent dilution of evapo-concentrated seawater by meteoric water. Water in the lower Devonian Richfield, Detroit River Group, and Niagara-Salina formations is very saline Ca-Na-Cl brine. Cl/Br suggest it originated from seawater concentrated through the halite and into the MgSO{sub 4} salt facies, with an origin linked to the Silurian and Devonian salt deposits. Dolomitization and halite precipitation increased the Ca/Na, aluminosilicate reactions removed K, and bacterial action or CaSO{sub 4} precipitation removed SO{sub 4} from this brine. Water chemistry in the Ordovician Trenton-Black River formations indicates dilution of evapo-concentrated seawater by fresh or seawater. Possible saline end-members include Ordovician seawater, present-day upper Devonian brine, or Ca-Cl brine from the deeper areas in the basin.

  1. A PACIFIC-WIDE GEOTHERMAL RESEARCH LABORATORY: THE PUNA GEOTHERMAL RESEARCH FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, P.; Seki, A.; Chen, B.

    1985-01-22

    The Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP-A) well, located in the Kilauea volcano east rift zone, was drilled to a depth of 6450 feet in 1976. It is considered to be one of the hot-test producing geothermal wells in the world. This single well provides 52,800 pounds per hour of 371 F and 160 pounds per square inch-absolute (psia) steam to a 3-megawatt power plant, while the separated brine is discharged in percolating ponds. About 50,000 pounds per hour of 368 F and 155 psia brine is discharged. Geothermal energy development has increased steadily in Hawaii since the completion of HGP-A in 1976: (1) a 3 megawatt power plant at HGP-A was completed and has been operating since 1981; (2) Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) has requested that their next increment in power production be from geothermal steam; (3) three development consortia are actively, or in the process of, drilling geothermal exploration wells on the Big Island; and (4) engineering work on the development of a 400 megawatt undersea cable for energy transmission is continuing, with exploratory discussions being initiated on other alternatives such as hydrogen. The purpose for establishing the Puna Geothermal Research Facility (PGRF) is multifold. PGRF provides a facility in Puna for high technology research, development, and demonstration in geothermal and related activities; initiate an industrial park development; and examine multi-purpose dehydration and biomass applications related to geothermal energy utilization.

  2. Brines and evaporites: analogs for Martian life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; Fahlen, T. F.; Landheim, R.; Klovstad, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    Data from recent Mars missions suggest that Mars almost certainly had abundant liquid water on its surface at some time in the past. As a result, Mars has emerged as a key solar system target that could have harbored some form of life in the past, and which could perhaps still possess remnants of life in brine-containing permafrost. As Mars lost its atmosphere it became cold and dry. Any remaining water on the surface may have formed saline brine pockets within the permafrost. These brine pockets may either be an "oasis" for an extant Martian biota, or the last refuge of an extinct Martian biota. Eventually, these brine pockets would have dried to form evaporites. Evaporites are deposits that result from the evaporation of saline water, which on earth represent primarily halite (NaCl), gypsum, (CaSO 42H 2O), and anhydrite (CaSO 4). Evaporites that contain bacterial and algal assemblages exist on earth today and are well known in the fossil record. The most likely organism type to survive in a brine or evaporite on earth is a halophile. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of microbes to survive in frozen evaporites. Washed mid-log phase and stationary phase cultures of Haloarcula-G (a species isolated by us during a previous study) and Halobacterium salinarum were either suspended in brine (25% NaCl solution), dried, and then exposed to -20 or -80 °C. For comparison, cultures of Deinococcus radiodurans, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas fluorescens were treated similarly, except they were resuspended in 0.5% NaCl solution. Also, to mimic a brine pocket samples of washed mid-log phase cells of each organism were placed in an aqueous solution of 25% NaCl, or in their respective nutrient medium containing 25% NaCl. Periodically, samples of the cells were removed and tested for survival. Data from these experiments suggest that halophiles survive better than non-halophiles under low temperature conditions. These observations would suggest that

  3. Transient heat conduction through a substrate of brine-spongy ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, S. R.; Naterer, G. F.; Muzychka, Y. S.

    2017-03-01

    An analytical model for heat conduction through brine-spongy ice is developed. This model fills a gap in knowledge related to transient heat conduction to a two-phase substrate which is crucial for modeling transient icing and deicing of cold surfaces in contact with salt water. The core of the model is based on the phase change of pure ice and brine pockets trapped in the structure of spongy ice. Freezing of brine pockets causes the release of the latent heat of fusion that is considered as the source of heat generation distributed throughout the brine-spongy ice. A nonlinear partial differential equation and a number of equations of state for ice, brine, and brine-spongy ice create governing equations of heat transfer through brine-spongy ice. A standard numerical scheme solves the set of equations in various initial conditions. The variation of temperature, volume fraction of brine and salinity of brine pockets are calculated numerically. Experimental samples of brine-spongy ice are examined under transient conditions and their surface temperatures are captured using an infrared thermal camera. The numerical results, which are for various overall salinities, are closely aligned with the measured surface temperatures.

  4. Transient heat conduction through a substrate of brine-spongy ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, S. R.; Naterer, G. F.; Muzychka, Y. S.

    2017-08-01

    An analytical model for heat conduction through brine-spongy ice is developed. This model fills a gap in knowledge related to transient heat conduction to a two-phase substrate which is crucial for modeling transient icing and deicing of cold surfaces in contact with salt water. The core of the model is based on the phase change of pure ice and brine pockets trapped in the structure of spongy ice. Freezing of brine pockets causes the release of the latent heat of fusion that is considered as the source of heat generation distributed throughout the brine-spongy ice. A nonlinear partial differential equation and a number of equations of state for ice, brine, and brine-spongy ice create governing equations of heat transfer through brine-spongy ice. A standard numerical scheme solves the set of equations in various initial conditions. The variation of temperature, volume fraction of brine and salinity of brine pockets are calculated numerically. Experimental samples of brine-spongy ice are examined under transient conditions and their surface temperatures are captured using an infrared thermal camera. The numerical results, which are for various overall salinities, are closely aligned with the measured surface temperatures.

  5. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Marshall J.

    1979-01-01

    During 1978, exploration for geothermal energy continued at the same moderately low level of the past few years in most countries. The U.S. is the only country where the development of geothermal energy depends on private industry. (BB)

  6. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Marshall J.

    1979-01-01

    During 1978, exploration for geothermal energy continued at the same moderately low level of the past few years in most countries. The U.S. is the only country where the development of geothermal energy depends on private industry. (BB)

  7. Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.C.; Harman, G.; Pitsenbarger, J.

    1996-02-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production.

  8. Geothermal vegetable dehydration at Brady`s Hot Springs, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    This article describes the utilization of the Brady`s Springs geothermal resource for heat generation used in the food dehydration process. This geothermal system is located in the Forty-Mile Desert area of Nevada. Geothermal Food Processors, Inc. of Reno, Nevada started construction of the geothermal vegetable dehydration plant in 1978, and the plant started operations in 1979. The industrial process of vegetable dehydration at the plant is described. In July of 1992, the Brady`s Springs geothermal system began being used for power generation by the Brady`s Hot Springs geothermal power plant, operated by Oxbow Power Services, Inc. As a result, the water levels in the food processing plant wells have dropped below usable levels and the geothermal brine is now being supplied by the Oxbow power plant.

  9. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  10. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  11. Idaho Geothermal Commercialization Program. Idaho geothermal handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, G.D.; Esposito, L.; Montgomery, M.

    1980-03-01

    The following topics are covered: geothermal resources in Idaho, market assessment, community needs assessment, geothermal leasing procedures for private lands, Idaho state geothermal leasing procedures - state lands, federal geothermal leasing procedures - federal lands, environmental and regulatory processes, local government regulations, geothermal exploration, geothermal drilling, government funding, private funding, state and federal government assistance programs, and geothermal legislation. (MHR)

  12. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bufe, Charles Glenn

    1983-01-01

    Major activities, programs, and conferences in geothermal energy during 1982 are highlighted. These include first comprehensive national assessment of U.S. low-temperature geothermal resources (conducted by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Energy), map production by U.S. Geological Survey, geothermal plant production, and others. (JN)

  13. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bufe, Charles Glenn

    1983-01-01

    Major activities, programs, and conferences in geothermal energy during 1982 are highlighted. These include first comprehensive national assessment of U.S. low-temperature geothermal resources (conducted by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Energy), map production by U.S. Geological Survey, geothermal plant production, and others. (JN)

  14. Natural Oxidation of Bromide to Bromine in Evaporated Dead Sea Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrieli, Ittai; Golan, Rotem; Lazar, Boaz; Baer, Gidi; Zakon, Yevgeni; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2016-04-01

    Highly evaporated Dead Sea brines are found in isolated sinkholes along the Dead Sea. Many of these brines reach densities of over 1.3 kg/L and pH<5 and are the product of evaporation of Dead Sea brine that drain into the sinkholes. The low pH and the reddish to brownish hue of these brines were an enigma until recently. Despite the rather high total alkalinity (TA) of the Dead Sea (3.826 mmol/kg) the pH of the Dead Sea brine is known to be slightly acidic with a value of ~6.3. In comparison, seawater with the same alkalinity would have a pH value well above 8.3, meaning that H+ activity is 100 fold lower than that of Dead Sea brine. In the present work we assess the apparent dissociation constant value of boric acid (K`B) for the Dead Sea brine and use it to explain the brine's low pH value. We then show that pH decreases further as the brine evaporates and salinity increases. Finally we explain the reddish hue of the hypersaline brines in the sinkholes as due to the presence of dissolved bromine. The latter is the product of oxidation of dissolved bromide, a process that is enabled by the low pH of the hypersaline brines and their high bromide concentration.

  15. Silica in alkaline brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  16. Auxiliary Heating of Geothermally Preheated Water or CO2 - A Potential Solution for Low- to Moderate-Temperature Geothermal Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, X.; Garapati, N.; Adams, B. M.; Randolph, J.; Kuehn, T. H.; Saar, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Typically, low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resources are more effectively used for direct heat energy applications. However, due to high thermal losses during transport, direct use requires that the heat resource is located near the user. Alternatively, we show here that if such a low-temperature geothermal resource is combined with an additional or secondary energy resource, the power production is increased compared to the sum from two separate (geothermal and secondary fuel) power plants (DiPippo et al. 1978) and the thermal losses are minimized because the thermal energy is utilized where it is produced. Since Adams et al. (2015) found that using CO2 as a subsurface working fluid produces more net power than brine at low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource conditions, we compare over a range of parameters the net power and efficiencies of hybrid geothermal power plants that use brine or CO2 as the subsurface working fluid, that are then heated further with a secondary energy source that is unspecified here. Parameters varied include the subsurface working fluid (brine vs. CO2), geothermal reservoir depth (2.5-4.5 km), and turbine inlet temperature (200-600°C) after auxiliary heating. The hybrid power plant is numerically modeled using an iterative coupling approach of TOUGH2-ECO2N/ECO2H (Pruess, 2004) for simulation of the subsurface reservoir and Engineering Equation Solver for well bore fluid flow and surface power plant performance. We find that hybrid power plants that are CO2-based (subsurface) systems have higher thermal efficiencies than the brine based systems at low turbine inlet temperatures. Specifically, our results indicate that geothermal hybrid plants that are CO2-based are more efficient than brine-based systems when the contribution of the geothermal resource energy is higher than 48%.

  17. The effects of brine disposal on a subtidal meiofauna community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Tuya, Fernando; Sacramento, Alicia; Ramos, Eva; Rodríguez, Myriam; Monterroso, Óscar

    2011-07-01

    Desalination plants generate notable (>1,000 s m 3) quantities of hypersaline brine which potentially affect the biological communities in the receiving area. We assessed whether proximity to a brine discharge point located off Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic) altered patterns in the abundance and assemblage structure of subtidal, soft-bottom, meiofauna. Samples were collected twice (May 2008 and January 2009) at 0, 15 and 30 m away from the brine discharge point, corresponding to a change in salinity from 45 to 36. Proximity to the brine discharge point affected overall meiofaunal abundances: lowest abundances were observed at 0 m (64.55 ± 39.86 ind 10 cm -2, mean ± SD) than at 15 (210.49 ± 121.01 ind 10 cm -2) and 30 m (361.88 ± 102.64 ind 10 cm -2) away from the brine discharge point. This pattern was particularly notable for the most conspicuous meiofaunal groups: nematodes and copepods, and meiofaunal assemblage structure also differed with varying proximity to the brine discharge point. Although multivariate techniques identified changes in salinity as a relevant driver of patterns in meiofaunal assemblage structure with varying proximity to the brine outfall, a shift in particle size composition between May 2008 and January 2009 also contributed to explain differences in meiofaunal abundances and assemblage structure with varying proximity to the brine discharge point. Hence, meiofauna can be considered a suitable tool to monitor environmental impacts derived from the discharge of hypersaline effluents on subtidal, soft-bottom, assemblages if potential confounding drivers, i.e. here temporal changes in particle size composition, are accounted for to avoid possible confusing interpretations.

  18. Neptunium migration in salt brine aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Bidoglio, G.; DePlano, A.

    1986-09-01

    Investigation of reactions between neptunium and soil samples representative of the saline area around the Gorleben salt dome (Federal Republic of Germany) was conducted to obtain an understanding of the transport mechanism of neptunium in saturated brine aquifers. Leaching of /sup 237/ Np-doped glasses with brine under oxic conditions resulted in the release of soluble species of Np(V). Adsorption parameters obtained from the application of nonlinear sorption isotherms to static experiments were used to interpret the migration of neptunium through soil columns. The existence of two different adsorption sites reacting with neptunium at different rates was postulated. Retardation factors under oxic and anoxic conditions were measured. In anoxic environments such as those found in undisturbed repository horizons, more neptunium activity was fixed by the soil.

  19. Formation of brine channels in sea ice.

    PubMed

    Morawetz, Klaus; Thoms, Silke; Kutschan, Bernd

    2017-03-01

    Liquid salty micro-channels (brine) between growing ice platelets in sea ice are an important habitat for CO2-binding microalgaea with great impact on polar ecosystems. The structure formation of ice platelets is microscopically described and a phase field model is developed. The pattern formation during solidification of the two-dimensional interstitial liquid is considered by two coupled order parameters, the tetrahedricity as structure of ice and the salinity. The coupling and time evolution of these order parameters are described by a consistent set of three model parameters. They determine the velocity of the freezing process and the structure formation, the phase diagram, the super-cooling and super-heating region, and the specific heat. The model is used to calculate the short-time frozen micro-structures. The obtained morphological structure is compared with the vertical brine pore space obtained from X-ray computed tomography.

  20. Experimental confirmation of liquid brines on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E.; Renno, N. O.; Martinez, G.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of water ice and perchlorates in the shallow subsurface of Mars [1,2] is interesting because they could produce aqueous liquid solutions under Mars' present-day environmental conditions. We used the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber [3] to simulate the pressure, temperature and relative humidity during the full diurnal cycle of sol 19 at the Phoenix landing site. Sol 19 was chosen because on this sol ice found in a shallow trench (Dodo-Goldilocks) at a depth of ~5 cm was removed with little effort [4], suggesting that it was a frozen brine (softer than freshwater ice), and because oblate spheroids found on a strut of the lander, possibly a saline mud, were observed to grow and darken (suggesting liquefaction) [4]. The results of our simulations show that early in the mission the frozen brine likely found in the Dodo-Goldilocks trench could melt in the morning, temporarily forming aqueous liquid solutions when the temperature in the trench was above the eutectic temperature of the Ca(ClO4)2 salt (~199 K). In addition, the results of our simulations indicate that the spheroids observed on a strut of the Phoenix lander were most likely droplets of liquid brines. Since halophilic terrestrial bacteria thrive in brines [5], our results suggest that Mars' polar region could potentially be a habitat for microorganisms. In addition, it has been suggested that frost could form on fine-grained terrains at Gale crater during the winter [6]. If this frost gets in contact with perchlorate salts, it could melt temporarily forming liquid brines.

  1. Saline fluid flow and hydrocarbon migration and maturation as related to geopressure, Frio Formation, Brazoria County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, N.; Light, M.P.R.; Ewing, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Pleasant Bayou geopressured-geothermal test wells in Brazoria County, Texas, display a prominent thermal-maturity anomaly in the Oligocene Anahuac and Frio Formations. Highly geopressured, more-mature shales are interbedded with hydropressured to moderately geopressured sandstones in the upper Frio and Anahuac. In contrast, shales and sandstones in the lower Frio, including the Andrau geopressured-geothermal production zone, are highly geopressured but exhibit lower thermal maturities. Vitrinite-reflectance data, supported by hydrocarbon-maturation data and anomalous concentrations of C/sub 5/ to C/sub 7/ hydrocarbons at Pleasant Bayou, indicate that the upper Frio was subjected to an extended period of hot, extremely saline, basinal fluid flow which caused the above thermal anomaly. Regional salinity studies (Morton and others, 1983) suggest that regional growth faults were the conduits for vertical basinal brine movement at depth. At shallower levels the upwelling waters migrated laterally through permeable sandstone-rich sections such as the upper Frio. Anomalously mature gasoline-range (C/sub 5/-C/sub 7/) hydrocarbons were introduced into the upper Frio by this process. Fluid influx in the lower Frio was probably limited by high geopressure, consequently maturity in the deep Frio section (greater than 14,000 ft) remained consistent with the regional geothermal gradient.

  2. The geothermal area of El Pilar-Casanay, State of Sucre, Venezuela: Geochemical exploration and model

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amore, F.; Gianelli, G.; Corazza, E. . Istituto Internazionale Ricerche Geotermiche)

    1994-06-01

    A geochemical survey was carried out in the El Pilar-Casanay area, State of Sucre, Venezuela, in order to ascertain its geothermoelectric potential. The area is characterized by many natural manifestations with temperatures in the range 80--100 C. The area investigated seems capable of producing high-enthalpy geothermal fluids; a deep reservoir is inferred, composed of a medium salinity (< 5,000 ppm) and neutral brine, with computed temperatures between 250 and 300 C, and with a high CO[sub 2] partial pressure. Second shallower reservoir is assumed to exist, with a temperature of the order of 200--220 C. The deep reservoir is shown to be liquid-dominated, while water and steam occupy the shallow one. The piezometric level (elevation 150 m) regulates the areal distribution of water springs and fumaroles. A partial self-sealing (mineral alteration) along outflows allows accumulation of hot fluids, while recharge is from local meteoric water.

  3. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  4. Mirabilite solubility in equilibrium sea ice brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Benjamin Miles; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Santoro, Anna; Kennedy, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    The sea ice microstructure is permeated by brine channels and pockets that contain concentrated seawater-derived brine. Cooling the sea ice results in further formation of pure ice within these pockets as thermal equilibrium is attained, resulting in a smaller volume of increasingly concentrated residual brine. The coupled changes in temperature and ionic composition result in supersaturation of the brine with respect to mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) at temperatures below -6.38 °C, which consequently precipitates within the sea ice microstructure. Here, mirabilite solubility in natural and synthetic seawater derived brines, representative of sea ice at thermal equilibrium, has been measured in laboratory experiments between 0.2 and -20.6 °C, and hence we present a detailed examination of mirabilite dynamics within the sea ice system. Below -6.38 °C mirabilite displays particularly large changes in solubility as the temperature decreases, and by -20.6 °C its precipitation results in 12.90% and 91.97% reductions in the total dissolved Na+ and SO42- concentrations respectively, compared to that of conservative seawater concentration. Such large non-conservative changes in brine composition could potentially impact upon the measurement of sea ice brine salinity and pH, whilst the altered osmotic conditions may create additional challenges for the sympagic organisms that inhabit the sea ice system. At temperatures above -6.38 °C, mirabilite again displays large changes in solubility that likely aid in impeding its identification in field samples of sea ice. Our solubility measurements display excellent agreement with that of the FREZCHEM model, which was therefore used to supplement our measurements to colder temperatures. Measured and modelled solubility data were incorporated into a 1D model for the growth of first-year Arctic sea ice. Model results ultimately suggest that mirabilite has a near ubiquitous presence in much of the sea ice on Earth, and illustrate the

  5. Deuterium in the Dead Sea: Remeasurement and implications for the isotopic activity correction in brines

    SciTech Connect

    Juske Horita Tokyo Institute of Technology ); Gat, J.R. )

    1989-01-01

    Remeasurement of {delta}D in Dead Sea waters, using improved analytical techniques for handling concentrated brines, removed most of the scatter in previous data and showed close parallelism in the enrichment of both {sup 18}O and deuterium as a function of salinity. The {delta}D values for a brine whose salinity is {sigma}{sub 25} = 232{per thousand} is close to +9{per thousand} relative to SMOW. It was further established that the concentration to activity correction (for deuterium) for the above mentioned Dead Sea brine was 17.8{per thousand}.

  6. Brine stability study

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Garland

    2015-04-15

    This is a study of the brine formulations that we were using in our testing were stable over time. The data includes charts, as well as, all of the original data from the ICP-MS runs to complete this study.

  7. Investigating Brine Shrimp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Lena Ballone

    2003-01-01

    Presents a brine shrimp activity designed for students in grades 5-12 to foster authentic scientific inquiry in addition to providing an engaging and exciting avenue for student exploration. Emphasizes that inquiry should be a critical component in the science classroom. (KHR)

  8. Investigating Brine Shrimp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Lena Ballone

    2003-01-01

    Presents a brine shrimp activity designed for students in grades 5-12 to foster authentic scientific inquiry in addition to providing an engaging and exciting avenue for student exploration. Emphasizes that inquiry should be a critical component in the science classroom. (KHR)

  9. Halophilic Archaea determined from geothermal steam vent aerosols.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Dean G; Bizzoco, Richard W; Kelley, Scott T

    2008-06-01

    Hydrothermal vents, known as 'fumaroles', are ubiquitous features of geothermal areas. Although their geology has been extensively characterized, little is known about the subsurface microbial ecology of fumaroles largely because of the difficulty in collecting sufficient numbers of cells from boiling steam water for DNA extraction and culture isolation. Here we describe the first collection, molecular analysis and isolation of microbes from fumarole steam waters in Russia (Kamchatka) and the USA (Hawaii, New Mexico, California and Wyoming). Surprisingly, the steam vent waters from all the fumaroles contained halophilic Archaea closely related to the Haloarcula spp. found in non-geothermal salt mats, saline soils, brine pools and salt lakes around the world. Microscopic cell counting estimated the cell dispersal rate at approximately 1.6 x 10(9) cells year(-1) from a single fumarole. We also managed to enrich microbes in high-salt media from every vent sample, and to isolate Haloarcula from a Yellowstone vent in a 20% salt medium after a month-long incubation, demonstrating both salt tolerance and viability of cells collected from high-temperature steam. Laboratory tests determined that microbes enriched in salt media survived temperatures greater than 75 degrees C for between 5 and 30 min during the collection process. Hawaiian fumaroles proved to contain the greatest diversity of halophilic Archaea with four new lineages that may belong to uncultured haloarchaeal genera. This high diversity may have resulted from the leaching of salts and minerals through the highly porous volcanic rock, creating a chemically complex saline subsurface.

  10. Systems and methods for multi-fluid geothermal energy systems

    DOEpatents

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2017-09-19

    A method for extracting geothermal energy from a geothermal reservoir formation. A production well is used to extract brine from the reservoir formation. At least one of nitrogen (N.sub.2) and carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) may be used to form a supplemental working fluid which may be injected into a supplemental working fluid injection well. The supplemental working fluid may be used to augment a pressure of the reservoir formation, to thus drive a flow of the brine out from the reservoir formation.

  11. Characterization of brines and evaporites of Lake Katwe, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasedde, Hillary; Kirabira, John Baptist; Bäbler, Matthäus U.; Tilliander, Anders; Jonsson, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Lake Katwe brines and evaporites were investigated to determine their chemical, mineralogical and morphological composition. 30 brine samples and 3 solid salt samples (evaporites) were collected from different locations of the lake deposit. Several analytical techniques were used to determine the chemical composition of the samples including Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Sector Field Mass Spectrometry (ICP-SFMS), ion chromatography, and potentiometric titration. The mineralogical composition and morphology of the evaporites was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Physical parameters of the lake brines such as density, electrical conductivity, pH, and salinity were also studied. The results show that the lake brines are highly alkaline and rich in Na+, Cl-, CO32-, SO42-, and HCO3- with lesser amounts of K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Br-, and F- ions. The brines show an intermediate transition between Na-Cl and Na-HCO3 water types. Among the trace metals, the lake brines were found to be enriched in B, I, Sr, Fe, Mo, Ba, and Mn. The solid salts are composed of halite mixed with other salts such as hanksite, burkeite and trona. It was also observed that the composition of the salts varies considerably even within the same grades.

  12. Geothermal Research and Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-25

    Results are reported on adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks, physics of injection of water into vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs, earth-tide effects on downhole pressures, injection optimization at the Geysers, effects of salinity in adsorption experiments, interpreting multiwell pressure data from Ohaaki, and estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments.

  13. Geochemistry of Aluminum in High Temperature Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    1999-05-18

    The objective ofthis research is to provide quantitative data on the equilibrium and thermodynamic properties of aluminum minerals required to model changes in permeability and brine chemistry associated with fluid/rock interactions in the recharge, reservoir, and discharge zones of active geothermal systems. This requires a precise knowledge of the thermodynamics and speciation of aluminum in aqueous brines, spanning the temperature and fluid composition rangesencountered in active systems. The empirical and semi-empirical treatments of the solubility/hydrolysis experimental results on single aluminum mineral phases form the basis for the ultimate investigation of the behavior of complex aluminosilicate minerals. The principal objective in FY 1998 was to complete the solubility measurements on boehmite (AIOOH) inNaC1 media( 1 .O and 5.0 molal ionic strength, IOO-250°C). However, additional measurements were also made on boehmite solubility in pure NaOH solutions in order to bolster the database for fitting in-house isopiestic data on this system. Preliminary kinetic Measurements of the dissolution/precipitation of boehmite was also carried out, although these were also not planned in the earlier objective. The 1999 objectives are to incorporate these treatments into existing codes used by the geothermal industry to predict the chemistry ofthe reservoirs; these calculations will be tested for reliability against our laboratory results and field observations. Moreover, based on the success of the experimental methods developed in this program, we intend to use our unique high temperature pH easurement capabilities to make kinetic and equilibrium studies of pH-dependent aluminosilicate transformation reactions and other pH-dependent heterogeneous reactions.

  14. Silica recovery and control in Hawaiian geothermal fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate methods of controlling silica in waste geothermal brines produced at the HGP-A Generator Facility. Laboratory testing has shown that the rate of polymerization of silica in the geothermal fluids is highly pH dependent. At brine pH values in excess of 8.5 the suspension of silica polymers flocculated and rapidly precipitated a gelatinous silica mass. Optimum flocculation and precipitation rates were achieved at pH values in the range of 10.5 to 11.5. The addition of transition metal salts to the geothermal fluids similarly increased the rate of polymerization as well as the degree of precipitation of the silica polymer from suspension. A series of experiments performed on the recovered silica solids demonstrated that methanol extraction of the water in the gels followed by critical point drying yielded surface areas in excess of 300 M{sup 2}/g and that treatment of the dried solids with 2 N HCl removed most of the adsorbed impurities in the recovered product. A series of experiments tested the response of the waste brines to mixing with steam condensate and non-condensable gases.The results demonstrated that the addition of condensate and NCG greatly increased the stability of the silica in the geothermal brines. They also indicated that the process could reduce the potential for plugging of reinjection wells receiving waste geothermal fluids from commercial geothermal facilities in Hawaii. Conceptual designs were proposed to apply the gas re-combination approach to the disposal of geothermal waste fluids having a range of chemical compositions. Finally, these designs were applied to the geothermal fluid compositions found at Cerro Prieto, Ahuachapan, and Salton Sea.

  15. Silica recovery and control in Hawaiian geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate methods of controlling silica in waste geothermal brines produced at the HGP-A Generator Facility. Laboratory testing has shown that the rate of polymerization of silica in the geothermal fluids is highly pH dependent. At brine pH values in excess of 8.5 the suspension of silica polymers flocculated and rapidly precipitated a gelatinous silica mass. Optimum flocculation and precipitation rates were achieved at pH values in the range of 10.5 to 11.5. The addition of transition metal salts to the geothermal fluids similarly increased the rate of polymerization as well as the degree of precipitation of the silica polymer from suspension. A series of experiments performed on the recovered silica solids demonstrated that methanol extraction of the water in the gels followed by critical point drying yielded surface areas in excess of 300 M{sup 2}/g and that treatment of the dried solids with 2 N HCl removed most of the adsorbed impurities in the recovered product. A series of experiments tested the response of the waste brines to mixing with steam condensate and non-condensable gases.The results demonstrated that the addition of condensate and NCG greatly increased the stability of the silica in the geothermal brines. They also indicated that the process could reduce the potential for plugging of reinjection wells receiving waste geothermal fluids from commercial geothermal facilities in Hawaii. Conceptual designs were proposed to apply the gas re-combination approach to the disposal of geothermal waste fluids having a range of chemical compositions. Finally, these designs were applied to the geothermal fluid compositions found at Cerro Prieto, Ahuachapan, and Salton Sea.

  16. Geothermal innovative technologies catalog

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, D.

    1988-09-01

    The technology items in this report were selected on the basis of technological readiness and applicability to current technology transfer thrusts. The items include technologies that are considered to be within 2 to 3 years of being transferred. While the catalog does not profess to be entirely complete, it does represent an initial attempt at archiving innovative geothermal technologies with ample room for additions as they occur. The catalog itself is divided into five major functional areas: Exploration; Drilling, Well Completion, and Reservoir Production; Materials and Brine Chemistry; Direct Use; and Economics. Within these major divisions are sub-categories identifying specific types of technological advances: Hardware; Software; Data Base; Process/Procedure; Test Facility; and Handbook.

  17. Elastomer compatibility with brine, isobutane and oil

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, G.J.

    1981-10-01

    The objective of this program is to determine the best elastomers for use in medium temperature geothermal wells - with emphasis on binary plants in which isobutane is the working fluid. Fifteen companies submitted thirty-four high temperature elastomer compounds for test. Tensile specimens were immersed in 375F brine, isobutane and four types of oil for 120 hours. Eight compounds were selected based upon the least change in weight, volume, ultimate tensile, hardness and elasticity. These eight were tested as static O-ring seals in brine, isobutane and ASTM No. 1 oil. Test temperatures were 375F, 450F and 510F. The tests lasted 46 hours with a 3000 psi pressure differential across the seal. The major conclusion was that the EPDM O-rings (L'Garde Y267 and Parker E692-75) are superior to the others tested in each of the three fluids. The EPDM compounds surprisingly withstood ASTM No. 1 oil - a conclusion that would not be reached using immersion test results.

  18. Entropy production and optimization of geothermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelides, Efstathios E.

    2012-09-01

    Geothermal power plants are currently producing reliable and low-cost, base load electricity. Three basic types of geothermal power plants are currently in operation: single-flashing, dual-flashing, and binary power plants. Typically, the single-flashing and dual-flashing geothermal power plants utilize geothermal water (brine) at temperatures in the range of 550-430 K. Binary units utilize geothermal resources at lower temperatures, typically 450-380 K. The entropy production in the various components of the three types of geothermal power plants determines the efficiency of the plants. It is axiomatic that a lower entropy production would improve significantly the energy utilization factor of the corresponding power plant. For this reason, the entropy production in the major components of the three types of geothermal power plants has been calculated. It was observed that binary power plants generate the lowest amount of entropy and, thus, convert the highest rate of geothermal energy into mechanical energy. The single-flashing units generate the highest amount of entropy, primarily because they re-inject fluid at relatively high temperature. The calculations for entropy production provide information on the equipment where the highest irreversibilities occur, and may be used to optimize the design of geothermal processes in future geothermal power plants and thermal cycles used for the harnessing of geothermal energy.

  19. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Bottom heating system using geothermal power for propagation. Final report, Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to develop and study a bottom-heating system in a greenhouse utilizing geothermal energy to aid germination and speed growth of palms. Source of heat was geothermal brine from HGP-A well. The project was successful; the heat made a dramatic difference with certain varieties, such as Areca catechu (betelnut) with 82% germination with heat, zero without. For other varieties, germination rates were much closer. Quality of seed is important. Tabs, figs.

  20. Mars brine formation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of water-soluble cations and anions in the Martian regolith has been the subject of speculation for some time. Viking lander data provided evidence for salt-cemented crusts on the Martian surface. If the crusts observed at the two Viking landing sites are, in fact, cemented by salts, and these crusts are globally widespread, as IRTM-derived thermal inertia studies of the Martian surface seem to suggest, then evaporite deposits, probably at least in part derived from brines, are a major component of the Martian regolith. The composition of liquid brines in the subsurface, which not only may be major agents of physical weathering but may also presently constitute a major deep subsurface liquid reservoir, is currently unconstrained by experimental work. A knowledge of the chemical identity and rate of production of Martian brines is a critical first-order step toward understanding the nature of both these fluids and their precipitated evaporites. Laboratory experiments are being conducted to determine the identity and production rate of water-soluble ions that form in initially pure liquid water in contact with Mars-mixture gases and unaltered Mars-analog minerals.

  1. Corrosion tests in Hawaiian geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen-Basse, J.; Lam, Kam-Fai

    1984-01-01

    Exposure tests were conductd in binary geothermal brine on the island of Hawaii. The steam which flashes from the high pressure, high temperature water as it is brought to ambient pressure contains substantial amounts of H{sub 2}S. In the absence of oxygen this steam is only moderately aggressive but in the aerated state it is highly aggressive to carbon steels and copper alloys. The liquid after flasing is intermediately aggressive. The Hawaiian fluid is unique in chemistry and corrosion behavior; its corrosiveness is relatively mild for a geothermal fluid falling close to the Iceland-type resources. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Puna Geothermal Research Facility technology transfer program. Final report, August 23, 1985--August 23, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, P.

    1989-12-31

    The funds were used in a series of small grants to entrepreneurs demonstrating the direct use of geothermal heat supplied by Hawaii`s HGP-A well; this effort was known as the Community Geothermal Technology Program. Summaries are presented of the nine completed projects: fruit dehydration, greenhouse bottom heating, lumber kiln, glass making, cloth dyeing, aquaculture (incomplete), nursery growing media pasteurization, bronze casting, and electrodeposition from geothermal brine.

  3. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The significant accomplishments of this program included (1) identification of the geopressured-geothermal onshore fairways in Louisiana and Texas, (2) determination that high brine flow rates of 20,000--40,000 barrels a day can be obtained for long periods of time, (3) brine, after gas extraction can be successfully reinjected into shallow aquifers without affecting the surface waters or the fresh water aquifers, (4) no observable subsidence or microseismic activity was induced due to the subsurface injection of brine, and no detrimental environmental effects attributable to geopressured-geothermal well testing were noticed, (5) sanding can be controlled by reducing flow rates, (6) corrosion controlled with inhibitors, (7) scaling controlled by phosphonate scale inhibitors, (8) demonstrated that production of gas from saturated brine under pressure was viable and (9) a hybrid power system can be successfully used for conversion of the thermal and chemical energy contained in the geopressured-geothermal resource for generation of electricity.

  4. Magnetic Nanofluid Rare Earth Element Extraction Process Report, Techno Economic Analysis, and Results for Geothermal Fluids

    DOE Data Explorer

    Pete McGrail

    2016-03-14

    This GDR submission is an interim technical report and raw data files from the first year of testing on functionalized nanoparticles for rare earth element extraction from geothermal fluids. The report contains Rare Earth Element uptake results (percent removal, mg Rare Earth Element/gram of sorbent, distribution coefficient) for the elements of Neodymium, Europium, Yttrium, Dysprosium, and Cesium. A detailed techno economic analysis is also presented in the report for a scaled up geothermal rare earth element extraction process. All rare earth element uptake testing was done on simulated geothermal brines with one rare earth element in each brine. The rare earth element uptake testing was conducted at room temperature.

  5. Thermodynamics of geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P.S.Z.

    1981-03-01

    A model to predict the thermodynamic properties of geothermal brines, based on a minimum amount of experimental data on a few key systems, is tested. Volumetric properties of aqueous sodium chloride, taken from the literature, are represented by a parametric equation over the range 0 to 300{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 1 kbar. Density measurements at 20 bar needed to complete the volumetric description also are presented. The pressure dependence of activity and thermal properties, derived from the volumetric equation, can be used to complete an equation of state for sodium chloride solutions. A flow calorimeter, used to obtain heat capacity data at high temperatures and pressures, is described. Heat capacity measurements, from 30 to 200{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 200 bar, are used to derive values for the activity coefficient and other thermodynamic properties of sodium sulfate solutions as a function of temperature. Literature data on the solubility of gypsum in mixed electrolyte solutions have been used to evaluate model parameters for calculating gypsum solubility in seawater and natural brines. Predictions of strontium and barium sulfate solubility in seawater also are given.

  6. 7 CFR 58.422 - Brine tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brine tank. 58.422 Section 58.422 Agriculture....422 Brine tank. The brine tank shall be constructed of suitable non-toxic material and should be resistant to corrosion, pitting or flaking. The brine tank shall be operated so as to assure the brine...

  7. Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.C.; Pichiarella, L.S.; Kane, L.S.; Henline, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months.

  8. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemzer, Marilyn; Page, Deborah

    This curriculum unit describes geothermal energy in the context of the world's energy needs. It addresses renewable and nonrenewable energy sources with an in-depth study of geothermal energy--its geology, its history, and its many uses. Included are integrated activities involving science, as well as math, social studies, and language arts.…

  9. Preliminary investigation of scale formation and fluid chemistry at the Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bruton, C.J.; Counce, D.; Bergfeld, D.; Goff, F.; Johnson, S.D.; Moore, J.N.; Nimz, G.

    1997-06-27

    The chemistry of geothermal, production, and injection fluids at the Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada, was characterized to address an ongoing scaling problem and to evaluate the effects of reinjection into the reservoir. Fluids generally followed mixing-dilution trends. Recharge to the Dixie Valley system apparently originates from local sources. The low-pressure brine and injection waters were saturated with respect to amorphous silica, which correlated with the ongoing scaling problem. Local shallow ground water contains about 15% geothermal brine mixed with regional recharge. The elevated Ca, Mg, and HCO{sub 3} content of this water suggests that carbonate precipitation may occur if shallow groundwater is reinjected. Downhole reservoir fluids are close to equilibrium with the latest vein mineral assemblage of wairakite-epidote-quartz-calcite. Reinjection of spent geothermal brine is predicted to affect the region near the wellbore differently than it does the region farther away.

  10. Choice of optimal working fluid for binary power plants at extremely low temperature brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    The geothermal energy development problems based on using binary power plants utilizing lowpotential geothermal resources are considered. It is shown that one of the possible ways of increasing the efficiency of heat utilization of geothermal brine in a wide temperature range is the use of multistage power systems with series-connected binary power plants based on incremental primary energy conversion. Some practically significant results of design-analytical investigations of physicochemical properties of various organic substances and their influence on the main parameters of the flowsheet and the technical and operational characteristics of heat-mechanical and heat-exchange equipment for binary power plant operating on extremely-low temperature geothermal brine (70°C) are presented. The calculation results of geothermal brine specific flow rate, capacity (net), and other operation characteristics of binary power plants with the capacity of 2.5 MW at using various organic substances are a practical interest. It is shown that the working fluid selection significantly influences on the parameters of the flowsheet and the operational characteristics of the binary power plant, and the problem of selection of working fluid is in the search for compromise based on the priorities in the field of efficiency, safety, and ecology criteria of a binary power plant. It is proposed in the investigations on the working fluid selection of the binary plant to use the plotting method of multiaxis complex diagrams of relative parameters and characteristic of binary power plants. Some examples of plotting and analyzing these diagrams intended to choose the working fluid provided that the efficiency of geothermal brine is taken as main priority.

  11. Amedee geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1988-12-01

    In September 1988, the power plant began generating electricity in Northern California, near Honey Lake. The plant generates 2 megawatts, net, of electricity in the winter, and from 20 to 30% less in the summer, depending on the temperature. Geothermal fluids from two wells are used to operate the plant, and surface discharge is used to dispose of the spent fluids. This is possible because the geothermal fluids have a very low salinity and a composition the same as area hot spring waters. The binary power plant has a Standard Offer No. 4 contract for 5 megawatts with pacific Gas and Electric Company. Sometime in the near future, they will expand the project to add another 3 megawatts of electrical generation.

  12. Hydrogeologic processes in saline systems: Playas, sabkhas, and saline lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yechieli, Y.; Wood, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Pans, playas, sabkhas, salinas, saline lakes, and salt flats are hydrologically similar, varying only in their boundary conditions. Thus, in evaluating geochemical processes in these systems, a generic water and solute mass-balance approach can be utilized. A conceptual model of a coastal sabkha near the Arabian Gulf is used as an example to illustrate the various water and solute fluxes. Analysis of this model suggests that upward flux of ground water from underlying formations could be a major source of solutes in the sabkha, but contribute only a small volume of the water. Local rainfall is the main source of water in the modeled sabkha system with a surprisingly large recharge-to-rainfall ratio of more than 50%. The contribution of seawater to the solute budget depends on the ratio of the width of the supratidal zone to the total width and is generally confined to a narrow zone near the shoreline of a typical coastal sabkha. Because of a short residence time of water, steady-state flow is expected within a short time (50,000 years). The solute composition of the brine in a closed saline system depends largely on the original composition of the input water. The high total ion content in the brine limits the efficiency of water-rock interaction and absorption. Because most natural systems are hydrologically open, the chemistry of the brines and the associated evaporite deposits may be significantly different than that predicted for hydrologically closed systems. Seasonal changes in temperature of the unsaturated zone cause precipitation of minerals in saline systems undergoing evaporation. Thus, during the hot dry season months, minerals exhibit retrograde solubility so that gypsum, anhydrite and calcite precipitate. Evaporation near the surface is also a major process that causes mineral precipitation in the upper portion of the unsaturated zone (e.g. halite and carnallite), provided that the relative humidity of the atmosphere is less than the activity of water

  13. Experimental biological effects assessment associated with on-shore brine discharge from the creation of gas storage caverns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintino, Victor; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Freitas, Rosa; Ré, Ana

    2008-09-01

    Most of the studies on biological and ecological effects associated with brine discharge into the marine environment are related to the operation of desalination plants, for the production of freshwater. In this study we analysed the biological effects of a brine effluent from a completely different source, produced from the lixiviation of rock salt caves, for the creation of natural gas storage caverns. Lethal and sub-lethal endpoints following exposure to the brine were studied in a range of macrofauna species characteristic of the soft and hard bottom habitats in the vicinity of the discharge area, namely the isopod Eurydice pulchra, the annelids Sabellaria alveolata and Ophelia radiata, the sea-urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. In a first series of experiments, brine, with salinity above 300, was diluted in distilled water to a salinity value close to that of the seawater in the discharge area (salinity 36) and, surprisingly, none of the exposed species was able to survive or develop into viable larvae. A second series of experiments exposed the species to brine diluted with seawater, simulating more realistic discharge circumstances. All the tested species at all the measured endpoints (adult survival, larval abnormal development, sperm fertilization success) showed negative biological effects in brine solutes always at a lower salinity than that of a salinity control obtained with concentrated seawater. The sub-lethal experiments with larval development of P. lividus, S. alveolata and M. galloprovincialis, and the fertilization success of P. lividus gave EC 50 values for the brine solute with salinity in the range of 40.9-43.5, whereas the EC 50 values for the concentrated seawater were in the range of salinity 44.2-49.0. It is hypothesised that differences in the ionic composition of the brine cause the inability of the species to tolerate the exposure to brine.

  14. Properties of Geopressured Brines and Wells in the Gulf Coast and Opportunities for Industrial/Research Participation

    SciTech Connect

    Wys, J. Nequs- de

    1989-03-21

    Geopressured reservoirs exhibit pressure gradients in excess of the normal hydrostatic gradient. In the Gulf Coast area the normal gradient is 0.465 psi/ft. Pressures may approach lithostatic pressure and have been measured as high as 1.05 psi/ft in the Gulf Coast area. Geopressured basins exist worldwide and in a number of U.S. locations, east, west, north and south. The Gulf Coast area has been studied extensively and is the subject of the DOE geopressured-geothermal research at present. The assumed ranges in resource characteristics include: depth from -12,000 to > -20,000 feet, brine flow rate from 20,000 to 40,000 bpd, temperature from 300 to 400 F, bottomhole pressure from 12,000 to 18,500 psi; salinity from 20,000 to 200,000 mg/L, gas-water ratio from 40 to 80 scf/bbl., and condensate from a trace to production. Energy in the geopressured resource includes gas, thermal, and hydraulic energy. It has been estimated that there are 6,000 quads of methane and 11,000 quads of thermal energy in the Gulf Coast area geopressured-geothermal reservoirs. Estimates run as high as 50,000 quad for the thermal energy (Wallace et al, 1978). Present industrial interest in the Pleasant Bayou and Hulin wells includes: desalination plants, an economic study by a power company for regional use, use of generated electricity by a coalition of towns, aquaculture (catfish farming) research program, and an unsolicited proposal for enhanced oil recovery of heavy oil. Direct uses of the hot brine cover dozens of industries and processes. An example of multiple uses in the USSR is shown. Outside agency interest includes the U.S.G.S., N.S.F., G.R.I., and possibly other areas within DOE. A research spin-off: a sensitive in-line benzene monitor has been designed by USL and will be tested in the near future. An in-line pH monitor is also under development for the harsh conditions of the geopressured-geothermal wells.

  15. Geothermal Program Review XI: proceedings. Geothermal Energy - The Environmental Responsible Energy Technology for the Nineties

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    These proceedings contain papers pertaining to current research and development of geothermal energy in the USA. The seven sections of the document are: Overview, The Geysers, Exploration and Reservoir Characterization, Drilling, Energy Conversion, Advanced Systems, and Potpourri. The Overview presents current DOE energy policy and industry perspectives. Reservoir studies, injection, and seismic monitoring are reported for the geysers geothermal field. Aspects of geology, geochemistry and models of geothermal exploration are described. The Drilling section contains information on lost circulation, memory logging tools, and slim-hole drilling. Topics considered in energy conversion are efforts at NREL, condensation on turbines and geothermal materials. Advanced Systems include hot dry rock studies and Fenton Hill flow testing. The Potpourri section concludes the proceedings with reports on low-temperature resources, market analysis, brines, waste treatment biotechnology, and Bonneville Power Administration activities. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Geochemical model update of the Los Azufres, Mexico, geothermal reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Hinojosa, E.T.

    1997-12-31

    Chemical and isotopic analyses of fluids produced by wells the Los Azuftes, Michoacan, geothermal field, have been studied to establish a geochemical model of the field. Water produced by the wells has a sodium-chloride composition characteristic of geothermal brine. This to be in equilibrium with the host rock at temperatures which vary from 280{degrees}C to 340{degrees}C. Based on steam data, the wells are producing from a liquid dominanted zone. The isotopic composition of the wells presents a shift with respect to meteoric line of {delta}{sup 18}O typical to fluids of geothermal origin which have equilibrated with rock at high temperatures.

  17. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-04-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development.

  18. Hydrographic changes during 20 years in the brine-filled basins of the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anschutz, Pierre; Blanc, Gérard; Chatin, Fabienne; Geiller, Magali; Pierret, Marie-Claire

    1999-10-01

    Many of the deep basins filled by hot brines in the Red Sea have not been investigated since their discovery in the early 1970s. Twenty years later, in September 1992, six of these deeps were revisited. The temperature and salinity of the Suakin, Port Sudan, Chain B, and Nereus deeps ranged from 23.25 to 44.60°C and from 144 to 270‰. These values were approximately the same in 1972, indicating that the budget of heat and salt was quite balanced. We measured strong gradients of properties in the transition zone between brines and overlying seawater. The contribution of salinity to the density gradient was more than one order of magnitude higher than the opposite contribution of temperature across the seawater-brine interface. Therefore the interface was extemely stable, and the transfer of properties across it was considered to be controlled mostly by molecular diffusion. We calculate that the diffusional transport of salt from the brines to seawater cannot affect significantly the salinity of the brines over a 20 year period, which agrees with the observations. The brine pools can persist for centuries with no salt input. Therefore, the persisence of brines does not correspond to a steady balance between diffusional loss and continuous input of hydrothermal solutions. Deeps that experience only episodical hydrothermal brine supplies may persist for a long time with salt inherited from past inputs. The theoretical loss of heat by diffusion from the brine to seawater was higher than the observed decrease in temperature of the brine pool during the 20 year period of observation. We calculated that the heat flux out of the pools into the overlying seawater was compensated by a heat flux into the pools of about 250-600 mW/m 2. This range of values corresponds to bottom heat flow values that have been reported earlier for the axial zone of the Red Sea. In contrast to the other brine pools, the temperature and salinity of the Valdivia Deep brine increased by 4.1°C and

  19. Thermoelectric Materials Development for Low Temperature Geothermal Power Generation

    DOE Data Explorer

    Tim Hansen

    2016-01-29

    Data includes characterization results for novel thermoelectric materials developed specifically for power generation from low temperature geothermal brines. Materials characterization data includes material density, thickness, resistance, Seebeck coefficient. This research was carried out by Novus Energy Partners in Cooperation with Southern Research Institute for a Department of Energy Sponsored Project.

  20. Corrosion tests in the Marchwood geothermal borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P. F.

    1982-03-01

    Corrosion tests in the high salinity brine produced during a production test at the Marchwood borehole. These tests were intended to obtain preliminary information on the corrosion of a range of metals and alloys most likely to be used for downhole service, heat exchangers and associated equipment, if hot water from this aquifer is used to provide a long-term energy source. Specimens of appropriate candidate materials were exposed to flowing brine in the surface pipework and also downhole at a depth of 663 m. The brine was pumped to the surface by a multi-stage electric submersible pump. The downhole specimens, which were installed with the pump, were exposed for a period of 83 days. The surface specimens were exposed during the well production test for 33.3 days. The product brine was around three times sea water concentration, at a temperature of 72 C and pH 6.2.

  1. Effect of iron cation on geochemical trapping of CO2 in brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi; Maroto-Valer, Mercedes

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration using brines has emerged as a promising technology to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change due to its large storage capacity and favorable chemistries. However, the permanent storage (mineral trapping) of CO2 in brines takes significantly long periods of time as the formation and precipitation of carbonates is very slow .[1]. The main parameters reported to effect on mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines are brine composition, brine pH, system temperature and pressure.[2, 3]. It is suggested that the precipitation of mineral carbonates is mostly dependent on brine pH. Previous studies by the authors concluded that iron in natural brines causes pH instability, but it was not ascertained whether ferric iron or ferrous iron caused pH instability .[4]. Accordingly, the aim of this project is to study synthetic brines mimicking the major ions found in natural brines and including different concentrations of ferric and ferrous iron. Three brines were prepared, as follows: Brine 1 was prepared with ferric Fe3+ iron, Brine 2 prepared with ferrous Fe2+ iron and Brine 3 prepared with no iron. A series of pH stability studies and carbonation reactions were conducted using the above three brines. It is concluded that the ferrous iron causes pH instability, while ferric iron might promote carbonate precipitation. .1. Garcia, S., et al., Sequestration of non-pure carbon dioxide streams in iron oxyhydroxide-containing saline repositories. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2012. 7: p. 89-97. 2. Liu, Q. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Investigation of the pH effect of a typical host rock and buffer solution on CO< sub> 2 sequestration in synthetic brines. Fuel Processing Technology, 2010. 91(10): p. 1321-1329. 3. Liu, Q. and M.M. MarotoValer, Parameters affecting mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, 2011. 1(3): p. 211-222. 4. Druckenmiller, M.L. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Carbon

  2. ELVIS: Multi-Electrolyte Aqueous Activity Model for Geothermal Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingerl, F. F.; Wagner, T.; Driesner, T.; Kulik, D. A.; Kosakowski, G.

    2011-12-01

    High temperature, pressure, and fluid salinities render geochemical modeling of fluid-rock interactions in Enhanced Geothermal Systems a demanding task. Accurate prediction of fluid-mineral equilibria strongly depends on the availability of thermodynamic data and activity models. Typically, the Pitzer activity model is applied for geothermal fluids. A drawback of this model is the large number of parameters required to account for temperature and pressure dependencies, which significantly reduces computational efficiency of reactive transport simulations. In addition, most available parameterizations are valid only at vapor-saturated conditions. As an alternative we implemented the EUNIQUAC local composition model [2] that needs substantially fewer fitting parameters. However, the current EUNIQUAC model design does not include provision for high temperature (>150°C) applications and lacks a formulation for pressure dependence. Therefore, its application to geothermal conditions requires a re-formulation and re-fitting of the model. We developed a new tool termed GEMSFIT that allows generic fitting of activity models (for aqueous electrolyte and non-electrolyte solutions) and equations of state implemented in our geochemical equilibrium solver GEM-Selektor (http://gems.web.psi.ch). GEMSFIT combines a PostgreSQL database for storing and managing the datasets of experimental measurements and interaction parameters, the parallelized genetic algorithm toolbox of MATLAB° for the parameter fitting, and an interface to the numerical kernel of GEM-Selektor to access activity models and perform chemical equilibrium calculations. Benchmarking of the partly re-parameterized EUNIQUAC model against Pitzer revealed that the former is less accurate, which can result in incorrect predictions of mineral precipitation/dissolution. Consequently, we modified the EUNIQUAC model and concurrently introduced a pressure dependence to be able to fit experimental data over wide ranges of

  3. Impact of the brine from a desalination plant on a shallow seagrass ( Posidonia oceanica) meadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gacia, Esperança; Invers, Olga; Manzanera, Marta; Ballesteros, Enric; Romero, Javier

    2007-05-01

    Although seawater desalination has increased significantly over recent decades, little attention has been paid to the impact of the main by-product (hypersaline water: brine) on ecosystems. In the Mediterranean, potentially the most affected ecosystems are meadows of the endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica. We studied the effect of brine on a shallow P. oceanica meadow exposed to reverse osmosis brine discharge for more than 6 years. P. oceanica proved to be very sensitive to both eutrophication and high salinities derived from the brine discharge. Affected plants showed high epiphyte load and nitrogen content in the leaves, high frequencies of necrosis marks, low total non-structural carbohydrates and low glutamine synthetase activity, compared to control plants. However, there was no indication of extensive decline of the affected meadow. This is probably due to its very shallow situation, which results in high incident radiation as well as fast dilution and dispersion of the brine plume.

  4. Stability of polyvinyl alcohol-coated biochar nanoparticles in brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Christopher; Daigle, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the dispersion stability of 150 nm polyvinyl alcohol coated biochar nanoparticles in brine water. Biochar is a renewable, carbon based material that is of significant interest for enhanced oil recovery operations primarily due to its wide ranging surface properties, low cost of synthesis, and low environmental toxicity. Nanoparticles used as stabilizing agents for foams (and emulsions) or in nanofluids have emerged as potential alternatives to surfactants for subsurface applications due to their improved stability at reservoir conditions. If, however, the particles are not properly designed, they are susceptible to aggregation because of the high salinity brines typical of oil and gas reservoirs. Attachment of polymers to the nanoparticle surface, through covalent bonds, provides steric stabilization, and is a necessary step. Our results show that as the graft density of polyvinyl alcohol increases, so too does the stability of nanoparticles in brine solutions. A maximum of 34 wt% of 50,000 Da polyvinyl alcohol was grafted to the particle surface, and the size of the particles was reduced from 3500 nm (no coating) to 350 nm in brine. After 24 h, the particles had a size of 500 nm, and after 48 h completely aggregated. 100,000 Da PVA coated at 24 wt% on the biochar particles were stable in brine for over 1 month with no change in mean particle size of 330 nm.

  5. Geothermal fracture stimulation technology. Volume IV. Proppant analysis at geothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Crushing and degradation mechanisms of proppants are examined to characterize proppants and assess their usability in geothermal wells. Short-term tests can tell the physical strength of a proppant, but long-term tests are required to ascertain any interrelated chemical effects. Degradation of proppants is measured as a loss in permeability and can be correlated to temperature, time, and closure stress. Sand is a common proppant which is strongly affected by higher temperature and closure stress. Even at low stress levels, sand degrades in brine or hot water with long-term exposure. Most geothermal waters and their pH levels can also be detrimental to sand. There are some proppants with desirable properties at geothermal conditions. These are resistant to the crushing loads or closure stress in geothermal wells and will not react or dissolve in high temperature brines. While there are limits to these proppants, an unqualified list of possible geothermal proppants is given: aluminum oxide, garnet, resin-coated proppants, and sintered bauxite.

  6. Ion association in natural brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Jones, B.F.

    1969-01-01

    Natural brines, both surface and subsurface, are highly associated aqueous solutions. Ion complexes in brines may be ion pairs in which the cation remains fully hydrated and the bond between the ions is essentially electrostatic, or coordination complexes in which one or more of the hydration water molecules are replaced by covalent bonds to the anion. Except for Cl-, the major simple ions in natural brines form ion pairs; trace and minor metals in brines form mainly coordination complexes. Limitations of the Debye-Hu??ckel relations for activity coefficients and lack of data on definition and stability of all associated species in concentrated solutions tend to produce underestimates of the degree of ion association, except where the brines contain a very high proportion of Cl-. Data and calculations on closed basin brines of highly varied composition have been coupled with electrode measurements of single-ion activities in an attempt to quantify the degree of ion association. Such data emphasize the role of magnesium complexes. Trace metal contents of closed basin brines are related to complexes formed with major anions. Alkaline sulfo- or chlorocarbonate brines (western Great Basin) carry significant trace metal contents apparently as hydroxides or hydroxy polyions. Neutral high chloride brines (Bonneville Basin) are generally deficient in trace metals. With a knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of a natural water, many possible reactions with other phases (solids, gases, other liquids) may be predicted. A knowledge of these reactions is particularly important in the study of natural brines which may be saturated with many solid phases (silicates, carbonates, sulfates, etc.), which may have a high pH and bring about dissolution of other phases (silica, amphoteric hydroxides, CO2, etc.), and which because of their high density may form relatively stable interfaces with dilute waters. ?? 1969.

  7. Geothermal heating

    SciTech Connect

    Aureille, M.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate the viability of geothermal heating projects in energy and economic terms and to provide nomograms from which an initial estimate may be made without having to use data-processing facilities. The effect of flow rate and temperature of the geothermal water on drilling and on the network, and the effect of climate on the type of housing are considered.

  8. Geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  9. Examination of brine contamination risk to aquatic resources from petroleum development in the Williston Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleason, Robert A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Chesley-Preston, Tara; Preston, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey scientists and cooperating partners are examining the potential risk to aquatic resources (for example, wetlands, streams) by contamination from saline waters (brine) produced by petroleum development in the Williston Basin of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. The primary goals of this study are to provide a science-based approach to assess potential risk of brine contamination to aquatic systems and to help focus limited monitoring and mitigation resources on the areas of greatest need. These goals will be accomplished through field investigations that quantify brine movement and risk assessments using remotely-sensed and other spatial datasets.

  10. Geophysical imaging reveals brine system beneath an ice-sealed Antarctic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, H.; Doran, P. T.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Mikucki, J.; Arcone, S. A.; Auken, E.; Schamper, C.; Virginia, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The habitability of polar desert environments on Earth, and other neighboring planets, is dependent on the availability of liquid water. In areas where the surface is frozen, lenses of water present in the subsurface may act as microbial refugia. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, the presence of highly saline brine in valley lakes raises the potential for the existence of a deep groundwater network. We report on a geophysical study that shows Lake Vida, in Victoria Valley, is nearly frozen, and the remaining brine is confined beneath thick ice. Near surface, bathymetric mapping of grounded lake ice was accomplished from a series of ground penetrating radar surveys. Radar penetration was limited to 20 m. An airborne transient electromagnetic survey (AEM) revealed a low resistivity zone at 30-100 m depth beneath the surface of the lake. Based on previous knowledge of brine chemistry and local geology, this zone is interpreted as brine saturated unconsolidated sediments with a porosity of 23-42%. Brine volume is calculated at 15 to 32 million cubic meters, which is of similar magnitude to the brine volume in nearby saline lakes. The AEM survey provided a means of quantifying the spatial extent of deep subsurface brine in this remote environment, and has provided a new perspective on the potential for subsurface habitats in areas often considered devoid of life.

  11. The Geopressured-Geothermal Resource, research and use

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-de Wys, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Geopressured-Geothermal Resource has an estimated accessible resource base of 5700 quads of gas and 11,000 quads of thermal energy in the onshore Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast area alone. After 15 years the program is now beginning a transition to commercialization. The program presently has three geopressured- geothermal wells in Texas and Louisiana. Supporting research in the Geopressured Program includes research on rock mechanics, logging, geologic studies, reservoir modeling, and co-location of brine and heavy oil, environmental monitoring, geologic studies, hydrocarbons associated with the geopressured brines and development of a pH monitor for harsh environments, research support in prediction of reservoir behavior, thermal enhanced oil recovery, direct use, hydraulic and thermal conversion, and use of supercritical processes and pyrolysis in detoxification. The on-going research and well operations are preparing the way to commercialization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource is covered in this report. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Refractive-index measurements in freezing sea-ice and sodium chloride brines.

    PubMed

    Maykut, G A; Light, B

    1995-02-20

    Sea ice contains numerous pockets of brine and precipitated salts whose size and number distributions change dramatically with temperature. Theoretical treatment of scattering produced by these inclusions requires information on refractive-index differences among the brine, salts, and surrounding ice. Lacking specific data on refractive-index variations in the brine, we carried out laboratory measurements in freezing-equilibrium solutions between -2 and -32 °C. Index values at 589 nm increased from 1.341 to 1.397 over this temperature range, corresponding to salinities of 35 and 240 parts per thousand (ppt). Spectral data were also taken at 50-nm intervals between 400 and 700 nm in nonequilibrium solutions with salinities ranging up to 300 ppt. Spectral gradients increased slightly with salinity but showed no measurable dependence on temperature between +12 and -16 °C. The Lorentz-Lorenz equation, combined with data on density, molar refractivities, and brine composition, yielded temperature-dependent index predictions in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Similar index and density measurements in freezing sodium chloride brines yielded values nearly identical to those in the sea-ice brines. The absence of mirabilite crystals in sodium chloride ice, however, will cause it to have higher transmissivity and lower reflectivity than sea ice above -22 °C.

  13. Salinization and Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  14. Brine Pockets in the Icy Shell on Europa: Distribution, Chemistry, and Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolotov, M. Yu; Shock, E. L.; Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    On Earth, sea ice is rich in brine, salt, and gas inclusions that form through capturing of seawater during ice formation. Cooling of the ice over time leads to sequential freezing of captured sea-water, precipitation of salts, exsolution of gases, and formation of brine channels and pockets. Distribution and composition of brines in sea ice depend on the rate of ice formation, vertical temperature gradient, and the age of the ice. With aging, the abundance of brine pockets decreases through downward migration. De- spite low temperatures and elevated salinities, brines in sea ice provide a habitat for photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms. On Europa, brine pockets and channels could exist in the icy shell that may be from a few km to a few tens of km thick and is probably underlain by a water ocean. If the icy shell is relatively thick, convection could develop, affecting the temperature pattern in the ice. To predict the distribution and chemistry of brine pockets in the icy shell we have combined numerical models of the temperature distribution within a convecting shell, a model for oceanic chemistry, and a model for freezing of Europan oceanic water. Possible effects of brine and gas inclusions on ice rheology and tectonics are discussed.

  15. Brine Pockets in the Icy Shell on Europa: Distribution, Chemistry, and Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolotov, M. Yu; Shock, E. L.; Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    On Earth, sea ice is rich in brine, salt, and gas inclusions that form through capturing of seawater during ice formation. Cooling of the ice over time leads to sequential freezing of captured sea-water, precipitation of salts, exsolution of gases, and formation of brine channels and pockets. Distribution and composition of brines in sea ice depend on the rate of ice formation, vertical temperature gradient, and the age of the ice. With aging, the abundance of brine pockets decreases through downward migration. De- spite low temperatures and elevated salinities, brines in sea ice provide a habitat for photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms. On Europa, brine pockets and channels could exist in the icy shell that may be from a few km to a few tens of km thick and is probably underlain by a water ocean. If the icy shell is relatively thick, convection could develop, affecting the temperature pattern in the ice. To predict the distribution and chemistry of brine pockets in the icy shell we have combined numerical models of the temperature distribution within a convecting shell, a model for oceanic chemistry, and a model for freezing of Europan oceanic water. Possible effects of brine and gas inclusions on ice rheology and tectonics are discussed.

  16. Modelled and measured dynamics of viruses in Arctic winter sea-ice brines.

    PubMed

    Wells, Llyd E; Deming, Jody W

    2006-06-01

    We describe a model based on diffusion theory and the temperature-dependent mechanism of brine concentration in sea ice to argue that, if viruses partition with bacteria into sea-ice brine inclusions, contact rates between the two can be higher in winter sea ice than in seawater, increasing the probability of infection and possible virus production. To examine this hypothesis, we determined viral and bacterial concentrations in select winter sea-ice horizons using epifluorescence microscopy. Viral concentrations ranged from 1.6 to 82 x 10(6) ml(-1) of brine volume of the ice, with highest values in brines from coldest (-24 to -31 degrees C) ice horizons. Calculated virus-bacteria contact rates in underlying -1 degrees C seawater were similar to those in brines of -11 degrees C ice but up to 600 times lower than those in ice brines at or below -24 degrees C. We then incubated native bacterial and viral assemblages from winter sea ice for 8 days in brine at a temperature (-12 degrees C) and salinity ( approximately 160 psu) near expected in situ values, monitoring their concentrations microscopically. While different cores yielded different results, consistent with known spatial heterogeneity in sea ice, these experiments provided unambiguous evidence for viral persistence and production, as well as for bacterial growth, in -12 degrees C brine.

  17. Microbiological monitoring in geothermal plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Vetter, A.; Vieth, A.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2009-12-01

    In times of increasing relevance of alternative energy resources the utilization of geothermal energy and subsurface energy storage gains importance and arouses increasing interest of scientists. The research project “AquiScreen” investigates the operational reliability of geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. Microbiological analyses based on fluid and solid phases of geothermal systems are conducted to evaluate the impact of microbial populations on these systems. The presentation focuses on first results obtained from microbiological monitoring of geothermal plants located in two different regions of Germany: the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin in the southern part characterized by different salinities and temperatures. Fluid and filter samples taken during regular plant operation were investigated using genetic fingerprinting based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes to characterize the microbial biocenosis of the geothermal aquifer. Sequencing of dominant bands of the fingerprints and the subsequent comparison to 16S rRNA genes from public databases enables a correlation to metabolic classes and provides information about the biochemical processes in the deep biosphere. The genetic profiles revealed significant differences in microbiological community structures of geothermal aquifers investigated. Phylogenetic analyses indicate broad metabolical diversity adapted to the specific conditions in the aquifers. Additionally a high amount of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected indicating very specific indigenous biocenosis. However, in all geothermal plants bacteria were detected despite of fluid temperatures from 45° to 120°C. The identified microorganisms are closely related to thermophilic and hyperthermophilic species detectable in hot wells and hot springs, like Thermus scotoductus and Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, respectively. Halophilic species were detected in

  18. Geothermal materials survey : Arkansas Power and Light Development and Demonstration Project. 100kW power system using direct contact heat exchangers, El Dorado, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F. II

    1980-07-22

    The 100 kW plant is a direct contact boiling/direct contact condensing binary system using isopentane as the working fluid. Treated waste geothermal brine from the Great Lakes Chemical Co. (GLC) bromine recovery operation is the heat source. Brine is taken from the GLC Treated Brine Line at 205 to 210/sup 0/F and supplied to the pilot plant via the APL Brine Inlet Line. The brine enters the direct contact boiler (DCB) and vaporizes isopentane. The cooled brine is discharged into the reinjection pond at 135 to 155/sup 0/F. The brine flow rate is 45,655 to 87,030 lb(m)/hr (pounds mass per hour). The chemistry of the brine is discussed. The objectives here are to: (1) evaluate present pilot plant materials selections, (2) identify potential materials problems, and (3) recommend alternate materials for use in future systems. (MHR)

  19. Geothermal handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1976-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management offered over 400,000 hectares (one million acres) for geothermal exploration and development in 1975, and figure is expected to double this year. The Energy Research and Development Administration hopes for 10-15,000 megawatts of geothermal energy by 1985, which would require, leasing over 16.3 million hectares (37 million acres) of land, at least half of which is federal land. Since there is an 8 to 8-1/2 year time laf between initial exploration and full field development, there would have to be a ten-fold increase in the amount of federal land leased within the next three years. Seventy percent of geothermal potential, 22.3 million hectares (55 million acres), is on federal lands in the west. The implication for the Service are enormous and the problems immediate. Geothermal resource are so widespread they are found to some extent in most biomes and ecosystems in the western United States. In most cases exploitation and production of geothermal resources can be made compatible with fish and wildlife management without damage, if probable impacts are clearly understood and provided for before damage has unwittingly been allowed to occur. Planning for site suitability and concern with specific operating techniques are crucial factors. There will be opportunities for enhancement: during exploration and testing many shallow groundwater bodies may be penetrated which might be developed for wildlife use. Construction equipment and materials needed for enhancement projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote by land managers. A comprehensive knowledge of geothermal development is necessary to avoid dangers and seize opportunities. This handbook is intended to serve as a working tool in the field. It anticipated where geothermal resource development will occur in the western United States in the near future. A set of environmental assessment procedures are

  20. Geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.

    2015-08-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  1. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    A number of new ideas for geothermal power development and use have been proposed or initiated. British engineers have proposed using North Sea oil rigs as geothermal power stations. These stations would use the low temperature heat from the water that now occupies the former oil reservoirs to generate electricity. NASA recently retrofitted its engine test facility to enable it to use warm water from an underground aquifer as source water in a heat pump. A major policy guideline regarding electricity is issued by the California Energy Commission (CEC) every two years. This year, CEC appears to be revising its method for determining the total societal cost of various electricity supply options. The change may impact geothermal energy usage in a positive way. Virtually untapped geothermal resources in Preston, Idaho will be utilized for warm water catfish farming. Stockton State College in New Jersey will be the site of one of the nation's largest geothermal projects when it is completed in 1993. It is designed to satisfy the college's energy requirements at an estimated cost savings of $300,000 per year. Aquaculture projects using thermal springs are under consideration in Utah and Washington State. Utah may be the site of an alligator farm and Washington State is being considered for raising golden tilapia, a food fish.

  2. Analysis of Geologic Parameters on the Performance of CO2-Plume Geothermal (CPG) Systems in a Multi-Layered Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garapati, N.; Randolph, J.; Saar, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    CO2-Plume Geothermal (CPG) involves injection of CO2 as a working fluid to extract heat from naturally high permeable sedimentary basins. The injected CO2 forms a large subsurface CO2 plume that absorbs heat from the geothermal reservoir and eventually buoyantly rises to the surface. The heat density of sedimentary basins is typically relatively low.However, this drawback is likely counteracted by the large accessible volume of natural reservoirs compared to artificial, hydrofractured, and thus small-scale, reservoirs. Furthermore, supercritical CO2has a large mobility (inverse kinematic viscosity) and expansibility compared to water resulting in the formation of a strong thermosiphon which eliminates the need for parasitic pumping power requirements and significantly increasing electricity production efficiency. Simultaneously, the life span of the geothermal power plant can be increased by operating the CPG system such that it depletes the geothermal reservoir heat slowly. Because the produced CO2 is reinjected into the ground with the main CO2 sequestration stream coming from a CO2 emitter, all of the CO2 is ultimately geologically sequestered resulting in a CO2 sequestering geothermal power plant with a negative carbon footprint. Conventional geothermal process requires pumping of huge amount of water for the propagation of the fractures in the reservoir, but CPG process eliminates this requirement and conserves water resources. Here, we present results for performance of a CPG system as a function of various geologic properties of multilayered systemsincludingpermeability anisotropy, rock thermal conductivity, geothermal gradient, reservoir depth and initial native brine salinity as well as spacing between the injection and production wells. The model consists of a 50 m thick, radially symmetric grid with a semi-analytic heat exchange and no fluid flow at the top and bottom boundaries and no fluid and heat flow at the lateral boundaries. We design Plackett

  3. Mineral deposits in the Rotokawa geothermal pipelines, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, A. G.; Trompetter, W. J.; Britten, K.; Searle, J.

    2003-01-01

    At the point of flashing, at 224°C and 25 bar absolute, black silica scales enriched in Cu (5.6%), Ag (4.0%), Te (3.0%) Zn (1.5%), Pb (0.6%) and Au (0.2%) form in the wellhead of production well RK-9. Silver, Pb, Cu and Au are deposited as tellurides; Cu, Pb and Zn as sulfides; and Au as a native element. These elements decrease rapidly downstream of the wellhead to other parts of the surface geothermal pipeline. Mercury, B, As, Se, Sb and reduced S are partially transported in the gas phase and largely deposited at a distance from the wellhead. Total S and B occur primarily in the steam line where B is stabilised by silica deposited from carry-over brine and S by sulfide mineralisation. Arsenic and Se are mainly found in scales from the steam and mixing/reinjection lines; Hg in the condensate and mixing/reinjection lines; and Sb in the mixing/reinjection line where 80-105°C low-salinity condensate mixes with 140-170°C brine. A decrease in the solubility of minerals in solution is the primary cause for deposition of opal-A and increased concentrations of base and precious metal concentrations in scales. Scale deposition is thus induced by flashing at the wellhead of the production wells attached to the ORMAT binary plant, phase separation, dilution, cooling and mixing of cooled brine and condensate. The reaction of steel with circulating solutions and gases results in a corrosion mineral assemblage reflecting local oxidation potentials and variations in H 2S partial pressures along the pipeline. Corrosion of steel introduces and augments trace elements such as P, Cr, Mn, Ni and Mo in the pipeline solutions. Selective incorporation or sorption of elements, onto opal-A and opal-CT or corrosion products such as goethite and pyrite, may increase concentrations of Li, B, Cl and P in opal; Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mo in goethite and Cu, Zn, As, Hg, Sb and Se in pyrite. Wherever water circulates in the pipeline system, silica precipitates initially from solution as a gel

  4. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  5. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  6. Cost-effective bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine through deliberate bicarbonate incorporation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Huang, Bin; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2015-05-15

    Bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine is desired to minimize its environmental impacts, but faces common challenges, i.e., enriching sufficient salt-tolerant denitrifying bacteria and stabilizing brine salinity and alkalinity for stable brine biotreatment and economically removing undesired organics derived in biotreatment. Incorporation of 0.25 M bicarbonate in 0.5 M chloride brine little affected resin regeneration but created a benign alkaline condition to favor bio-based brine regeneration. The first-quarter sulfate-mainly enriched spent brine (SB) was acidified with carbon source acetic acid for using CaCl2 at an efficiency >80% to remove sulfate. Residual Ca(2+) was limited below 2 mM by re-mixing the first-quarter and remained SB to favor denitrification. Under [Formula: see text] system buffered pH condition (8.3-8.8), nitrate was removed at 0.90 gN/L/d by hematite-enriched well-settled activated sludge (SVI 8.5 ml/g) and the biogenic alkalinity was retained as bicarbonate. The biogenic alkalinity met the need of alkalinity in removing residual Ca(2+) after sulfate removal and in CaCl2-induced CaCO3 flocculation to remove 63% of soluble organic carbon (SOC) in biotreated brine. Carbon-limited denitrification was also operated after activated sludge acclimation with sulfide to cut SOC formation during denitrification. Overall, this bicarbonate-incorporation approach, stabilizing the brine salinity and alkalinity for stable denitrification and economical removal of undesired SOC, suits long-term cost-effective brine bioregeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hawaiian direct-heat grants encourage geothermal creativity

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, A.G. )

    1988-12-01

    The Hawaiian Community Geothermal Technology Program is unique. Under its auspices, heat and other by-products of Hawaii's high-temperature HGP-A geothermal well and power plant are not wasted. Instead, they form the backbone of a direct-heat grant program that reaches into the local community and encourages community members to develop creative uses for geothermal energy. A by-product of this approach is a broadened local base of support for geothermal energy development. With the experimental and precommercial work completed, most of the original grantees are looking for ways to continue their projects on a commercial scale by studying the economics of using geothermal heat in a full-scale business and researching potential markets. A geothermal mini-park may be built near the research center. In 1988, a second round of projects was funded under the program. The five new projects are: Geothermal Aquaculture Project - an experiment with low-cost propagation of catfish species in geothermally heated tanks with a biofilter; Media Steam Sterilization and Drying - an application of raw geothermal steam to shredded, locally-available materials such as coconut husks, which would be used as certified nursery growing media; Bottom-Heating System Using Geothermal Power for Propagation - a continuation of Leilani Foliage's project from the first round of grants, focusing on new species of ornamental palms; Silica Bronze - the use of geothermal silica as a refractory material in casting bronze artwork; and Electro-deposition of Minerals in Geothermal Brine - the nature and possible utility of minerals deposited from the hot fluid.

  8. Geothermal Produced Fluids: Characteristics, Treatment Technologies, and Management Options

    SciTech Connect

    Finster, Molly; Clark, Corrie; Schroeder, Jenna; Martino, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Geothermal power plants use geothermal fluids as a resource and create waste residuals as part of the power generation process. Both the geofluid resource and the waste stream are considered produced fluids. The chemical and physical nature of produced fluids can have a major impact on the geothermal power industry and can influence the feasibility of geothermal power development, exploration approaches, power plant design, operating practices, and the reuse or disposal of residuals. In general, produced fluids include anything that comes out of a geothermal field and that subsequently must be managed on the surface. These fluids vary greatly depending on the geothermal reservoir being harnessed, power plant design, and the life cycle stage in which the fluid exists, but generally include water and fluids used to drill geothermal wells, fluids used to stimulate wells in enhanced geothermal systems, and makeup and/or cooling water used during operation of a geothermal power plant. Additional geothermal-related produced fluids include many substances that are similar to waste streams from the oil and gas industry, such as scale, flash tank solids, precipitated solids from brine treatment, hydrogen sulfide, and cooling-tower-related waste. This review paper aims to provide baseline knowledge on specific technologies and technology areas associated with geothermal power production. Specifically, this research focused on the management techniques related to fluids produced and used during the operational stage of a geothermal power plant; the vast majority of which are employed in the generation of electricity. The general characteristics of produced fluids are discussed. Constituents of interest that tend to drive the selection of treatment technologies are described, including total dissolved solids, noncondensable gases, scale and corrosion, silicon dioxide, metal sulfides, calcium carbonate, corrosion, metals, and naturally occurring radioactive material. Management

  9. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    cycle. Results of this study indicate that dual flash type plants are preferred at resources with temperatures above 400 F. Closed loop (binary type) plants are preferred at resources with temperatures below 400 F. A rotary separator turbine upstream of a dual flash plant can be beneficial at Salton Sea, the hottest resource, or at high temperature resources where there is a significant variance in wellhead pressures from well to well. Full scale demonstration is required to verify cost and performance. Hot water turbines that recover energy from the spent brine in a dual flash cycle improve that cycle's brine efficiency. Prototype field tests of this technology have established its technical feasibility. If natural gas prices remain low, a combustion turbine/binary hybrid is an economic option for the lowest temperature sites. The use of mixed fluids appear to be an attractive low risk option. The synchronous turbine option as prepared by Barber-Nichols is attractive but requires a pilot test to prove cost and performance. Dual flash binary bottoming cycles appear promising provided that scaling of the brine/working fluid exchangers is controllable. Metastable expansion, reheater, Subatmospheric flash, dual flash backpressure turbine, and hot dry rock concepts do not seem to offer any cost advantage over the baseline technologies. If implemented, the next generation geothermal power plant concept may improve brine utilization but is unlikely to reduce the cost of power generation by much more than 10%. Colder resources will benefit more from the development of a next generation geothermal power plant than will hotter resources. All values presented in this study for plant cost and for busbar cost of power are relative numbers intended to allow an objective and meaningful comparison of technologies. The goal of this study is to assess various technologies on an common basis and, secondarily, to give an approximate idea of the current costs of the technologies at actual

  10. Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.

  11. Protistan community patterns within the brine and halocline of deep hypersaline anoxic basins in the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Edgcomb, Virginia; Orsi, William; Leslin, Chesley; Epstein, Slava S; Bunge, John; Jeon, Sunok; Yakimov, Michail M; Behnke, Anke; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    Environmental factors restrict the distribution of microbial eukaryotes but the exact boundaries for eukaryotic life are not known. Here, we examine protistan communities at the extremes of salinity and osmotic pressure, and report rich assemblages inhabiting Bannock and Discovery, two deep-sea superhaline anoxic basins in the Mediterranean. Using a rRNA-based approach, we detected 1,538 protistan rRNA gene sequences from water samples with total salinity ranging from 39 to 280 g/Kg, and obtained evidence that this DNA was endogenous to the extreme habitat sampled. Statistical analyses indicate that the discovered phylotypes represent only a fraction of species actually inhabiting both the brine and the brine-seawater interface, with as much as 82% of the actual richness missed by our survey. Jaccard indices (e.g., for a comparison of community membership) suggest that the brine/interface protistan communities are unique to Bannock and Discovery basins, and share little (0.8-2.8%) in species composition with overlying waters with typical marine salinity and oxygen tension. The protistan communities from the basins' brine and brine/seawater interface appear to be particularly enriched with dinoflagellates, ciliates and other alveolates, as well as fungi, and are conspicuously poor in stramenopiles. The uniqueness and diversity of brine and brine-interface protistan communities make them promising targets for protistan discovery.

  12. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are the origin and nature of geothermal energy. Included is the history of its development as an energy source, technological considerations affecting its development as an energy source, its environmental effects, economic considerations, and future prospects of development in this field. Basic system diagrams of the operation of a…

  13. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are the origin and nature of geothermal energy. Included is the history of its development as an energy source, technological considerations affecting its development as an energy source, its environmental effects, economic considerations, and future prospects of development in this field. Basic system diagrams of the operation of a…

  14. The sulfur system in anoxic subsurface brines and its implication in brine evolutionary pathways: the Ca-chloride brines in the Dead Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrieli, Ittai; Yechieli, Yoseph; Halicz, Ludwik; Spiro, Baruch; Bein, Amos; Efron, Dov

    2001-03-01

    Important elements in the evolutionary history of saline groundwater might be overlooked when they involve both sulfate removal through reduction and input of sulfate via dissolution. These two simultaneous and apparently contrasting processes can result in a negligible net effect on the sulfate concentration. Isotopic composition of sulfur in sulfate and sulfide can be applied to identify the bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) though the extent of the process is difficult to quantify. Saturation with respect to gypsum may suggest that gypsum dissolution also occurs. However, a more definite identification of these processes and their quantification can be achieved through the use of ammonium concentration in the anoxic brines. This approach assumes that the ammonium is derived only from the oxidation of organic matter through BSR and it requires that the C:N ratio in the oxidized organic matter be known. A minimum estimate for the sulfate reduction can be obtained when the Redfield C:N ratio (106:16) is assumed. Several calculation methods are presented to identify the extent of sulfate reduction prior to, concomitant with, or following gypsum dissolution that are based on combining sulfur isotopic compositions, Rayleigh distillation equation, and calculated gypsum saturation indices. The required assumptions are presented and their validation is discussed. The subsurface hypersaline Ca-chloride brines in the vicinity of the Dead Sea are taken as a case study. Here sulfur isotope compositions of sulfate and sulfide, and high ammonium concentrations indicate BSR occurs in the subsurface. The sulfur isotopic composition of the sulfate makes it possible to distinguish between two major groups of brine and their recent evolutionary histories: (1) the Qedem-Shalem thermal brines (δ 34S SO4=21-24‰) which emerge as springs along the shores and are slightly undersaturated with respect to gypsum; (2) DSIF-Tappuah brines (δ 34S SO4=30-60‰) which are found in shallow

  15. Assessing Radium Activity in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The high volumes and salinity associated with shale gas produced water can make finding suitable storage or disposal options a challenge, especially when deep well brine disposal or recycling for additional well completions is not an option. In such cases, recovery of commodity salts from the high total dissolved solids (TDS) of the brine wastewater may be desirable, yet the elevated concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides such as Ra-226 and Ra-228 in produced waters (sometimes substantially greater than the EPA limit of 5 pCi/L) may concentrate during these steps and limit salt recovery options. Therefore, assessing the potential presence of these Ra radionuclides in produced water from shale gas reservoir properties is desirable. In this study, we seek to link U and Th content within a given shale reservoir to the expected Ra content of produced brine by accounting for secular equilibrium within the rock and subsequent release to Ra to native brines. Produced brine from a series of Antrim shale wells and flowback from a single Utica-Collingwood shale well in Michigan were sampled and analyzed via ICP-MS to measure Ra content. Gamma spectroscopy was used to verify the robustness of this new Ra analytical method. Ra concentrations were observed to be up to an order of magnitude higher in the Antrim flowback water samples compared to those collected from the Utica-Collingwood well. The higher Ra content in Antrim produced brines correlates well with higher U content in the Antrim (19 ppm) relative to the Utica-Collingwood (3.5 ppm). We also observed an increase in Ra activity with increasing TDS in the Antrim samples. This Ra-TDS relationship demonstrates the influence of competing divalent cations in controlling Ra mobility in these clay-rich reservoirs. In addition, we will present a survey of geochemical data from other shale gas plays in the U.S. correlating shale U, Th content with produced brine Ra content. A goal of this study is to develop a

  16. New fluorocarbon elastomers for seals for geothermal and other aggressive environments

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitru, Earl T.; Lagow, R.J.; Kukacka L.E.

    1982-10-08

    Geothermal brines at 600 F which contain metallic salts, H{sub 2}S, and hydrocarbons quickly degrade conventional hydrocarbon elastomers, and hydrolyse crosslinks. Carbon-carbon and carbon-fluorine bonds are expected to be superior, but no such elastomer is now commercially available. We have prepared crosslinked, perfluorocarbon elastomers by radiation crosslinking VDFHFP and TFEP (alternating) copolymers in film and sheet form, and then converting C-H bonds to C-F bonds with elemental Fluorine gas. EPLM elastomers became brittle on fluorination. The best products exceeded 100 days survival at 300 C in simulated geothermal brine. Tensile, elongation, solvent swelling, and TCA methods were used to study the products.

  17. Geothermal Technologies Program: Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-06-01

    Geothermal Technologies Program Utah fact sheet describes the geothermal areas and use in Utah, focusing on power generation as well as direct use, including geothermally heated greenhouses, swimming pools, and therapeutic baths.

  18. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  19. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orren, L. H.; Ziman, G. M.; Jones, S. C.; Lee, T. K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-01-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model was used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents was analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance were examined.

  20. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orren, L. H.; Ziman, G. M.; Jones, S. C.; Lee, T. K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model was used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents was analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance were examined.

  1. Viruses-to-mobile genetic elements skew in the deep Atlantis II brine pool sediments

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Mustafa; Elbehery, Ali H. A.; Aziz, Sherry K.; Aziz, Ramy K.; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Siam, Rania

    2016-01-01

    The central rift of the Red Sea has 25 brine pools with different physical and geochemical characteristics. Atlantis II (ATIID), Discovery Deeps (DD) and Chain Deep (CD) are characterized by high salinity, temperature and metal content. Several studies reported microbial communities in these brine pools, but few studies addressed the brine pool sediments. Therefore, sediment cores were collected from ATIID, DD, CD brine pools and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Sixteen different lithologic sediment sections were subjected to shotgun DNA pyrosequencing to generate 1.47 billion base pairs (1.47 × 109 bp). We generated sediment-specific reads and attempted to annotate all reads. We report the phylogenetic and biochemical uniqueness of the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. In contrary to all other sediment sections, bacteria dominate the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. This decrease in virus-to-bacteria ratio in selected sections and depth coincided with an overrepresentation of mobile genetic elements. Skewing in the composition of viruses-to-mobile genetic elements may uniquely contribute to the distinct microbial consortium in sediments in proximity to hydrothermally active vents of the Red Sea and possibly in their surroundings, through differential horizontal gene transfer. PMID:27596223

  2. Capillarity and wetting of carbon dioxide and brine during drainage in Berea sandstone at reservoir conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    The wettability of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of carbon sequestration in subsurface geological formations. Recent contact angle measurement studies have reported sensitivity in wetting behavior of this system to pressure, temperature, and brine salinity. We report observations of the impact of reservoir conditions on the capillary pressure characteristic curve and relative permeability of a single Berea sandstone during drainage—CO2 displacing brine—through effects on the wetting state. Eight reservoir condition drainage capillary pressure characteristic curves were measured using CO2 and brine in a single fired Berea sandstone at pressures (5-20 MPa), temperatures (25-50°C), and ionic strengths (0-5 mol kg-1 NaCl). A ninth measurement using a N2-water system provided a benchmark for capillarity with a strongly water wet system. The capillary pressure curves from each of the tests were found to be similar to the N2-water curve when scaled by the interfacial tension. Reservoir conditions were not found to have a significant impact on the capillary strength of the CO2-brine system during drainage through a variation in the wetting state. Two steady-state relative permeability measurements with CO2 and brine and one with N2 and brine similarly show little variation between conditions, consistent with the observation that the CO2-brine-sandstone system is water wetting and multiphase flow properties invariant across a wide range of reservoir conditions.

  3. Viruses-to-mobile genetic elements skew in the deep Atlantis II brine pool sediments.

    PubMed

    Adel, Mustafa; Elbehery, Ali H A; Aziz, Sherry K; Aziz, Ramy K; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Siam, Rania

    2016-09-06

    The central rift of the Red Sea has 25 brine pools with different physical and geochemical characteristics. Atlantis II (ATIID), Discovery Deeps (DD) and Chain Deep (CD) are characterized by high salinity, temperature and metal content. Several studies reported microbial communities in these brine pools, but few studies addressed the brine pool sediments. Therefore, sediment cores were collected from ATIID, DD, CD brine pools and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Sixteen different lithologic sediment sections were subjected to shotgun DNA pyrosequencing to generate 1.47 billion base pairs (1.47 × 10(9) bp). We generated sediment-specific reads and attempted to annotate all reads. We report the phylogenetic and biochemical uniqueness of the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. In contrary to all other sediment sections, bacteria dominate the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. This decrease in virus-to-bacteria ratio in selected sections and depth coincided with an overrepresentation of mobile genetic elements. Skewing in the composition of viruses-to-mobile genetic elements may uniquely contribute to the distinct microbial consortium in sediments in proximity to hydrothermally active vents of the Red Sea and possibly in their surroundings, through differential horizontal gene transfer.

  4. Impact of pressure and temperature on CO2-brine-mica contact angles and CO2-brine interfacial tension: Implications for carbon geo-sequestration.

    PubMed

    Arif, Muhammad; Al-Yaseri, Ahmed Z; Barifcani, Ahmed; Lebedev, Maxim; Iglauer, Stefan

    2016-01-15

    Precise characterization of wettability of CO2-brine-rock system and CO2-brine interfacial tension at reservoir conditions is essential as they influence capillary sealing efficiency of caprocks, which in turn, impacts the structural and residual trapping during CO2 geo-sequestration. In this context, we have experimentally measured advancing and receding contact angles for brine-CO2-mica system (surface roughness ∼12nm) at different pressures (0.1MPa, 5MPa, 7MPa, 10MPa, 15MPa, 20MPa), temperatures (308K, 323K, and 343K), and salinities (0wt%, 5wt%, 10wt%, 20wt% and 30wt% NaCl). For the same experimental matrix, CO2-brine interfacial tensions have also been measured using the pendant drop technique. The results indicate that both advancing and receding contact angles increase with pressure and salinity, but decrease with temperature. On the contrary, CO2-brine interfacial tension decrease with pressure and increase with temperature. At 20MPa and 308K, the advancing angle is measured to be ∼110°, indicating CO2-wetting. The results have been compared with various published literature data and probable factors responsible for deviations have been highlighted. Finally we demonstrate the implications of measured data by evaluating CO2 storage heights under various operating conditions. We conclude that for a given storage depth, reservoirs with lower pressures and high temperatures can store larger volumes and thus exhibit better sealing efficiency.

  5. Study of the geothermal production potential in the Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Min H.

    1991-09-10

    Preliminary studies of geothermal production potential for the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin have been carried out. Reservoir data such as formation depth, subsurface temperatures, and water quality were reviewed for geothermal brine production predictions. This study, in addition, provides important information about net pay thickness, porosity, volume of geothermal water available, and productivity index for future geothermal direct-use development. Preliminary results show that the Inyan Kara Formation of the Dakota Group is the most favorable geothermal resource in terms of water quality and productivity. The Madison, Duperow, and Red River Formations are deeper formations but because of their low permeability and great depth, the potential flow rates from these three formations are considerably less than those of the Inyan Kara Formation. Also, poor water quality and low porosity will make those formations less favorable for geothermal direct-use development.

  6. Marine monitoring at seawater desalination brine discharge sites: The challenge of doing it right

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, N.; Shoham-Frider, E.

    2016-02-01

    Seawater desalination produces freshwater and brine that is discharged into the marine environment along with chemicals used in the process. Usually, planning of a desalination plant includes modeling the brine's dispersion and a baseline survey of the local marine environment. Regular long-term environmental monitoring starts once the plant becomes operational. In here we try to show, using actual monitoring data, the challenges of an effective program set up to pinpoint environmental impact of brine discharge. Monitoring shows, not surprisingly, excess salinity at the outfall's vicinity. However, the dispersion of the brine differs from modelling results and among surveys, depending on hydrographic conditions and plant production. Moreover, hypersalinity affected sea grasses and changed benthic community structure in some areas while no effects were detected in others. Basic monitoring of the water column (oxygen, turbidity, nutrients, chlorophyll-a, others) were rarely affected by the brine. Co-discharge of brine with cooling waters of power stations, and additional stressors often confounded the results. To improve the effectiveness of the monitoring programs we suggest the stations to be dynamically set up based on the conditions during each survey, with excess salinity connecting among them. At regions with significant brine discharge, permanent, continuous data collection stations are recommended. Conflicting benthic responses to brine may be overcome by focusing on specific key species, and if not feasible, by long-term monitoring with suitable references to account for natural variability. Novel chemical and biological measurements, identified in laboratory research, should be incorporated into monitoring. Continuous communication with plant operators is strongly advised, since production, identity and quantity of the chemicals discharged and marine work, are frequently changing. Those may lead to erroneous conclusions of the monitoring results.

  7. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent.

    PubMed

    Elbehery, Ali H A; Aziz, Ramy K; Siam, Rania

    2017-03-01

    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world's largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  8. Geothermal down well pumping system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, H. B.; Mcbee, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    A key technical problem in the exploitation of hot water geothermal energy resources is down-well pumping to inhibit mineral precipitation, improve thermal efficiency, and enhance flow. A novel approach to this problem involves the use of a small fraction of the thermal energy of the well water to boil and super-heat a clean feedwater flow in a down-hole exchanger adjacent to the pump. This steam powers a high-speed turbine-driven pump. The exhaust steam is brought to the surface through an exhaust pipe, condensed, and recirculated. A small fraction of the high-pressure clean feedwater is diverted to lubricate the turbine pump bearings and prevent leakage of brine into the turbine-pump unit. A project demonstrating the feasibility of this approach by means of both laboratory and down-well tests is discussed.

  9. Modeling brine and nutrient dynamics in Antarctic sea ice: the case of dissolved silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vancoppenolle, M.; Goosse, H.; de Montety, A.; Fichefet, T.; Tremblay, B.; Tison, J.

    2009-12-01

    Sea ice ecosystems are characterized by micro-algae living in brine inclusions. The growth rate of ice algae depends on light and nutrient supply. Here, the interactions between nutrients and brine dynamics under the influence of algae are investigated using a one-dimensional model. The model includes snow and ice thermodynamics with brine physics and an idealized sea ice biological component, characterized by one nutrient, namely dissolved silica (DSi). In the model, DSi follows brine motion and is consumed by ice algae. Depending on physical ice characteristics, the brine flow is either advective, diffusive or turbulent. The vertical profiles of ice salinity and DSi concentration are solutions of advection-diffusion equations. The model is configured to simulate the typical thermodynamic regimes of first-year Antarctic pack ice. The simulated vertical profiles of salinity and DSi qualitatively reproduce observations. Analysis of results highlights the role of convection in the lowermost 5-10 cm of ice. Convection mixes saline, nutrient-poor brine with comparatively fresh, nutrient-rich seawater. This implies a rejection of salt to the ocean and a flux of DSi to the ice. In presence of growing algae, the simulated ocean-to-ice DSi flux increases by 0-115% compared to an abiotic situation. In turn, primary production and brine convection act in synergy to form a nutrient pump. The other important processes are the flooding of the surface by seawater and the percolation of meltwater. The former refills nutrients near the ice surface in spring. The latter, if present, tends to expell nutrients from the ice in summer. Sketch of salt (left) and nutrient (right) exchanges at the ice-ocean interface proposed in this paper.

  10. A hybrid geothermal energy conversion technology: Auxiliary heating of geothermally preheated water or CO2 - a potential solution for low-temperature resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, Martin; Garapati, Nagasree; Adams, Benjamin; Randolph, Jimmy; Kuehn, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Safe, sustainable, and economic development of deep geothermal resources, particularly in less favourable regions, often requires employment of unconventional geothermal energy extraction and utilization methods. Often "unconventional geothermal methods" is synonymously and solely used as meaning enhanced geothermal systems, where the permeability of hot, dry rock with naturally low permeability at greater depths (4-6 km), is enhanced. Here we present an alternative unconventional geothermal energy utilization approach that uses low-temperature regions that are shallower, thereby drastically reducing drilling costs. While not a pure geothermal energy system, this hybrid approach may enable utilization of geothermal energy in many regions worldwide that can otherwise not be used for geothermal electricity generation, thereby increasing the global geothermal resource base. Moreover, in some realizations of this hybrid approach that generate carbon dioxide (CO2), the technology may be combined with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) and CO2-based geothermal energy utilization, resulting in a high-efficiency (hybrid) geothermal power plant with a negative carbon footprint. Typically, low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resources are more effectively used for direct heat energy applications. However, due to high thermal losses during transport, direct use requires that the heat resource is located near the user. Alternatively, we show here that if such a low-temperature geothermal resource is combined with an additional or secondary energy resource, the power production is increased compared to the sum from two separate (geothermal and secondary fuel) power plants (DiPippo et al. 1978) and the thermal losses are minimized because the thermal energy is utilized where it is produced. Since Adams et al. (2015) found that using CO2 as a subsurface working fluid produces more net power than brine at low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource conditions, we

  11. Impacts of blending on dilution of negatively buoyant brine discharge in a shallow tidal sea.

    PubMed

    Kämpf, Jochen

    2009-07-01

    A fine-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic model is applied to study the dilution of desalination brine discharged into a tidal sea. Based on given inflow rate and salinity excess of discharge brine, this study explores variations in mid-field dilutions when other low-salinity wastewater is added to the discharge. Findings reveal that this blending leads to a decrease in dilution in the mixing zone and therefore to higher levels of pollutants in this zone, while, on the other hand, the mixing zone occupies a smaller area. The reason is that the discharge of brine creates a density-driven flow that operates to partially remove effluent from the discharge location. This removal is less efficient for the decrease in density excess of the discharge. Hence, in an ambient sea of moderate mixing, blending can be expected to increase the risk of marine pollution in the mixing zone.

  12. 7 CFR 58.422 - Brine tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....422 Brine tank. The brine tank shall be constructed of suitable non-toxic material and should be... clean, well circulated, and of the proper strength and temperature for the variety of cheese being made. ...

  13. Advanced materials and biochemical processes for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.; van Rooyen, D.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1987-04-01

    Two Geothermal Technology Division (GTD)-sponsored programs: (1) Geothermal Materials Development, and (2) Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines, are described. In the former, work in the following tasks is in progress: (1) high temperature elastomeric materials for dynamic sealing applications, (2) advanced high temperature (300/sup 0/C) lightweight (1.1 g/cc) well cementing materials, (3) thermally conductive composites for heat exchanger tubing, (4) corrosion rates for metals in brine-contaminated binary plant working fluids, and (5) elastomeric liners for well casing. Methods for the utilization and/or the low cost environmentally acceptable disposal of toxic geothermal residues are being developed in the second program. This work is performed in two tasks. In one, microorganisms that can interact with toxic metals found in geothermal residues to convert them into soluble species for subsequent reinjection back into the reservoir or to concentrate them for removal by conventional processes are being identified. In the second task, process conditions are being defined for the encapsulation of untreated or partially biochemically treated residues in Portland cement-based formulations and the subsequent utilization of the waste fractions in building materials. Both processing methods yield materials which appear to meet disposal criteria for non-toxic solid waste, and their technical and economic feasibilities have been established.

  14. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J.; Belski, D.S.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  15. 7 CFR 58.320 - Brine tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brine tanks. 58.320 Section 58.320 Agriculture....320 Brine tanks. Brine tanks used for the treating of parchment liners shall be constructed of... liners. The tank should also be provided with a satisfactory drainage outlet....

  16. Deep well injection of brine from Paradox Valley, Colorado: Potential major precipitation problems remediated by nanofiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Ambats, Gil; Thordsen, James J.; Davis, Roy A.

    1997-05-01

    Groundwater brine seepage into the Dolores River in Paradox Valley, Colorado, increases the dissolved solids load of the Colorado River annually by ˜2.0 × 108 kg. To abate this natural contamination, the Bureau of Reclamation plans to pump ˜3540 m3/d of brine from 12 shallow wells located along the Dolores River. The brine, with a salinity of 250,000 mg/L, will be piped to the deepest (4.9 km) disposal well in the world and injected mainly into the Mississippian Leadville Limestone. Geochemical modeling indicates, and water-rock experiments confirm, that a huge mass of anhydrite (˜1.0 × 104 kg/d) likely will precipitate from the injected brine at downhole conditions of 120°C and 500 bars. Anhydrite precipitation could increase by up to 3 times if the injected brine is allowed to mix with the highly incompatible formation water of the Leadville Limestone and if the Mg in this brine dolomitizes the calcite of the aquifer. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that nanofiltration membranes, which are selective to divalent anions, provide a new technology that remediates the precipitation problem by removing ˜98% of dissolved SO4 from the hypersaline brine. The fluid pressure used (50 bars) is much lower than would be required for traditional reverse osmosis membranes because nanofiltration membranes have a low rejection efficiency (5-10%) for monovalent anions. Our results indicate that the proportion of treatable brine increases from ˜60% to >85% with the addition of trace concentrations of a precipitation inhibitor and by blending the raw brine with the effluent stream.

  17. Deep well injection of brine from Paradox Valley, Colorado: Potential major precipitation problems remediated by nanofiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Ambats, G.; Thordsen, J.J.; Davis, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Groundwater brine seepage into the Dolores River in Paradox Valley, Colorado, increases the dissolved solids load of the Colorado River annually by ~2.0 x 108 kg. To abate this natural contamination, the Bureau of Reclamation plans to pump ~3540 m3/d of brine from 12 shallow wells located along the Dolores River. The brine, with a salinity of 250,000 mg/L, will be piped to the deepest (4.9 km) disposal well in the world and injected mainly into the Mississippian Leadville Limestone. Geochemical modeling indicates, and water-rock experiments confirm, that a huge mass of anhydrite (~1.0 x 104 kg/d) likely will precipitate from the injected brine at downhole conditions of 120??C and 500 bars. Anhydrite precipitation could increase by up to 3 times if the injected brine is allowed to mix with the highly incompatible formation water of the Leadville Limestone and if the Mg in this brine dolomitizes the calcite of the aquifer. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that nanofiltration membranes, which are selective to divalent anions, provide a new technology that remediates the precipitation problem by removing ~98% of dissolved SO4 from the hypersaline brine. The fluid pressure used (50 bars) is much lower than would be required for traditional reverse osmosis membranes because nanofiltration membranes have a low rejection efficiency (5-10%) for monovalent anions. Our results indicate that the proportion of treatable brine increases from ~60% to >85% with the addition of trace concentrations of a precipitation inhibitor and by blending the raw brine with the effluent stream.

  18. Gold and Copper Partitioning Between Vapor and Brine at 800° C and 100 MPa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Candela, P.; Piccoli, P.; Pettke, T.; Heinrich, C.

    2002-05-01

    Recent studies of fluid inclusions from porphyry-type ore deposits indicate that, although a magmatic brine may have been responsible for the generation of these deposits, high-concentrations of Au and Cu may exist in low-salinity vapor-bearing fluid inclusions as well (Ulrich et al., 1999, Nature, 399, 676). Experimental studies of Au (Frank et al., 2001, 11th Goldschmidt Conf., #3773) and Cu (Williams et al., 1995, CMP, v. 121, 388) have indicated that those elements will partition into a high-salinity brine relative to a low-salinity vapor in a sulfur-poor environment. To this point, the conditions under which Au and Cu will partition into a vapor relative to a brine have not been reproduced experimentally. Therefore, the question we wish to address is: Under what conditions will Au and Cu partition preferentially into a vapor relative to a brine? In an attempt to answer this, we performed experiments in the brine-vapor-haplogranitic melt-intermediate solid solution-pyrrhotite-quartz system at 800° C, 100 MPa and oxygen fugacity buffered by Ni-NiO. The coexisting brine ( ~68wt.% NaCl equivalent) and vapor ( ~3wt.% NaCl equivalent) were composed of NaCl+KCl+HCl+H2O, with starting HCl set to either ~160 or ~1600 ppm in the aqueous mixture. Vapor and brine bearing fluid inclusions were trapped in quartz during the experiment. Select fluid inclusions were drilled out of polished quartz samples using an ArF Excimer laser (output energy of 220 mJ at 30 kV) and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ELAN 6000). Counts of Au, Cu, Fe, and K were related to those of Na (internal standard) to calculate concentrations of those elements in the fluid inclusions. Analyses revealed that at ~160 ppm HCl in the aqueous mixture, Au and Cu partitioned preferentially into the brine with partition coefficients of ~14 and ~7, respectively. Au and Cu partition coefficients were ~2 and ~8 at ~1600 ppm HCl in the aqueous mixture. These data indicate that Au and Cu

  19. Geothermal resources in the northwestern border

    SciTech Connect

    Eibenschutz, J.

    1982-10-01

    The Valley of Mexicali, located in one of the rifting zones of the world, has been assessed to contain a potential of between 850 and 1700 MW of electric capacity with present technology. Cerro Prieto, one of the areas in the valley, has a present operating capacity of 180 MW. Two more plants with a capacity of 220 MW each are being built for operation in 1983 and 1984 respectively. Aside from the electricity producing application of geothermal fluids, a process has been developed for the production of potassium chloride by evaporating the brine in a solar pond and further crystallizing the residues. Some processes are also being developed to use the hot water in hydroponics, aqua culture, etc. Collaboration with bordering bodies involved in geothermal energy has been very fruitful for the exchange of technical information. Agreements have been signed with San Diego Gas and Electric Company and Southern California Edison for the export of a total capacity of 275 MW.

  20. Developing a process for commercial silica production from Salton Sea brines

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W; McCutcheon, M; Leif, R; Bruton, C

    2000-09-25

    The goal of this joint LLNL-CalEnergy project is to develop a method for precipitating marketable silica from spent Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) brines. Many markets for silica exist. We have initially targeted production of silica as a rubber additive. Silica reinforced rubber gives tires less rolling resistance, greater tear strength, and better adhesion to steel belts. Previous silica precipitates produced by CalEnergy from Salton Sea brines were not suitable as rubber additives. They did not to disperse well in the rubber precursors and produced inferior rubber. CalEnergy currently minimizes silica scaling in some of their production facilities by acidifying the brine pH. The rate of silica precipitation slows down as the pH is lowered, so that energy extraction and brine reinfection are possible without unacceptable amounts of scaling even with more than 700 ppm SiO{sub 2} in solution. We are adding a step in which a small amount of base is added to the acidified brine to precipitate silica before reinfection. By carefully controlling the type, rate, and amount of base addition, we can optimize the properties of the precipitate to approach those of an ideal rubber additive.

  1. NICE3: Textile Brine Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate the significant energy and waste savings that can be realized by using nanofiltration technology to reuse textile dyebath brines. Read this new fact sheet to learn how this new membrane technology can benefit your business.

  2. Decolorization of calcium bromide brines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, W. B.

    1985-10-29

    A process for removing or decreasing the amount of color in a solution such as an oil well brine by adding hydroxylamine or hydrazine. The hydroxylamine or hydrazine may be added in any form such as the pure compound, a salt, the hydrate or the like.

  3. An investigation of mineral dynamics in frozen seawater brines by direct measurement with synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Benjamin Miles; Kennedy, Hilary

    2015-08-01

    Frozen seawater is a composite material with a sponge-like structure. The framework of the structure is composed of pure ice, and within the pores exists a concentrated seawater brine. When the temperature is reduced, the volume of this residual brine decreases, while its salinity increases. As a result of the paired changes to temperature and salinity, the brine eventually becomes supersaturated with respect to a mineral, resulting in the precipitation of microscopic crystals throughout the ice structure. Due to experimental constraints, the current understanding about the formation of these minerals relies on the analysis of the residual brine, rather than the mineral phase. Here synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction was used to assess the dynamics that occur between ice, brine, and mineral phases within frozen seawater brines that were subjected to cooling and warming at subzero temperatures. The method was able to detect crystalline phases of ice, mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O), and hydrohalite (NaCl·2H2O). Results illustrate a highly dynamic geochemical environment where ice-brine-mineral interactions tend toward an equilibrium crystallization process, which supports the process of seawater freezing that is described by the Gitterman Pathway and FREZCHEM model. This study highlights the power of synchrotron techniques in observing the mineralogical dynamics of inaccessible environmental systems.

  4. Prospects of development of highly mineralized high-temperature resources of the Tarumovskoye geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The promising nature of integrated processing of high-temperature geothermal brines of the Tarumovskoye geothermal field is shown. Thermal energy of a geothermal brine can be converted to the electric power at a binary geothermal power plant (GPP) based on low-boiling working substance. The thermodynamic Rankine cycles are considered which are implemented in the GPP secondary loop at different evaporation temperatures of the working substance―isobutane. Among them, the most efficient cycle from the standpoint of attaining a maximum power is the supercritical one which is close to the so-called triangular cycle with an evaporation pressure of p e = 5.0 MPa. The used low-temperature brine is supplied from the GPP to a chemical plant, where main chemical components (lithium carbonate, burnt magnesia, calcium carbonate, and sodium chloride) are extracted from it according to the developed technology of comprehensive utilization of geothermal brines of chloride-sodium type. The waste water is delivered to the geotechnological complex and other consumers. For producing valuable inorganic materials, the electric power generated at the GPP is used. Owing to this, the total self-sufficiency of production and independence from external conditions is achieved. The advantages of the proposed geotechnological complex are the full utilization of the heat potential and the extraction of main chemical components of multiparameter geothermal resources. In this case, there is no need for reverse pumping, which eliminates the significant capital costs for building injection wells and a pumping station and the operating costs for their service. A characteristic of the modern state of the field and estimated figures of the integrated processing of high-temperature brines of well no. 6 are given, from which it follows that the proposed technology has a high efficiency. The comprehensive development of the field resources will make it possible to improve the economic structure of the

  5. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  6. Chemical composition of selected Kansas brines as an aid to interpreting change in water chemistry with depth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingman, R.J.; Angino, E.E.

    1969-01-01

    Chemical analyses of approximately 1,881 samples of water from selected Kansas brines define the variations of water chemistry with depth and aquifer age. The most concentrated brines are found in the Permian rocks which occupy the intermediate section of the geologic column of this area. Salinity decreases below the Permian until the Ordovician (Arbuckle) horizon is reached and then increases until the Precambrian basement rocks are reached. Chemically, the petroleum brines studied in this small area fit the generally accepted pattern of an increase in calcium, sodium and chloride content with increasing salinity. They do not fit the often-predicted trend of increases in the calcium to chloride ratio, calcium content and salinity with depth and geologic age. The calcium to chloride ratio tends to be asymptotic to about 0.2 with increasing chloride content. Sulfate tends to decrease with increasing calcium content. Bicarbonate content is relatively constant with depth. If many of the hypotheses concerning the chemistry of petroleum brines are valid, then the brines studied are anomolous. An alternative lies in accepting the thesis that exceptions to these hypotheses are rapidly becoming the rule and that indeed we still do not have a valid and general hypothesis to explain the origin and chemistry of petroleum brines. ?? 1969.

  7. TOUGHREACT Testing in High Ionic Strength Brine Sandstone Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2008-09-01

    Deep saline formations and oil and gas reservoirs often contain concentrated brine solutions of ionic strength greater than 1 (I > 1 M). Geochemical modeling, involving high ionic strength brines, is a challenge. In the original TOUGHREACT code (Xu et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2006), activity coefficients of charged aqueous species are computed using an extended Debye-Huckel (DH) equation and parameters derived by Helgeson et al. (1981). The DH model can deal with ionic strengths from dilute to moderately saline water (up to 6 molal for an NaCl-dominant solution). The equations implemented for the DH model are presented in Appendix A. During the course of the Yucca Mountain project, a Pitzer ion-interaction model was implemented into TOUGHREACT. This allows the application of this simulator to problems involving much more concentrated aqueous solutions, such as those involving geochemical processes in and around high-level nuclear waste repositories where fluid evaporation and/or boiling is expected to occur (Zhang et al., 2007). The Pitzer ion-interaction model, which we refer to as the Pitzer virial approach, and associated ion-interaction parameters have been applied successfully to study non-ideal concentrated aqueous solutions. The formulation of the Pitzer model is presented in Appendix B; detailed information can be founded in Zhang et al. (2007). For CO{sub 2} geological sequestration, the Pitzer ion-interaction model for highly concentrated brines was incorporated into TOUGHREACT/ECO2N, then was tested and compared with a previously implemented extended Debye-Hueckel (DH) ion activity model. The comparison was made through a batch geochemical system using a Gulf Coast sandstone saline formation.

  8. Technologies for the exploration of highly mineralized geothermal resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    The prospects of the integrated processing of the high-parameter geothermal resources of the East Ciscaucasia of artesian basin (ECAB) with the conversion of their heat energy into electric energy at a binary geoPP and the subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds from thermal waters are evaluated. The most promising areas for the exploration such resources are overviewed. The integrated exploration of hightemperature hydrogeothermal brines is a new trend in geothermal power engineering, which can make it possible to significantly increase the production volume of hydrogeothermal resources and develop the geothermal field at a higher level with the realization of the energy-efficient advanced technologies. The large-scale exploration of brines can solve the regional problems of energy supply and import substitution and fulfill the need of Russia in food and technical salt and rare elements. The necessity of the primary integrated exploration of the oil-field highly mineralized brines of the South Sukhokumskii group of gas-oil wells of Northern Dagestan was shown in view of the exacerbated environmental problems. Currently, the oil-field brines with the radioactive background exceeding the allowable levels are discharged at disposal fields. The technological solutions for their deactivation and integrated exploration are proposed. The realization of the proposed technological solutions provides 300 t of lithium carbonate, 1650 t of caustic magnesite powder, 27300 t of chemically precipitated chalk, 116100 t of food salt, and up to 1.4 mln m3 of desalinated water from oil-field brines yearly. Desalinated water at the output of a geotechnological complex can be used for different economic needs, which is important for the arid North Caucasus region, where the fresh water deficiency is acute, especially in its plain part within the ECAB.

  9. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M.; Belski, D.S.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  10. Indicators: Salinity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Salinity is the dissolved salt content of a body of water. Excess salinity, due to evaporation, water withdrawal, wastewater discharge, and other sources, is a chemical sterssor that can be toxic for aquatic environments.

  11. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    In the scope of the research projects “AquiScreen” and “MiProTherm” we investigated geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. On one side an enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is mandatory to optimize plant reliability and economy, on the other side this study provides insights into the microbiology of terrestrial thermal systems. Geothermal systems located in the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin were analyzed by sampling of fluids and solid phases. The investigated sites were characterized by different temperatures, salinities and potential microbial substrates. The microbial population was monitored by the use of genetic fingerprinting techniques and PCR-cloning based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes. DNA-sequences of fingerprints and cloned PCR-products were compared to public databases and correlated with metabolic classes to provide information about the biogeochemical processes. In all investigated geothermal plants, covering a temperature range from 5° to 120°C, microorganisms were found. Phylogenetic gene analyses indicate a broad diversity of microorganisms adapted to the specific conditions in the engineered system. Beside characterized bacteria like Thermus scotoductus, Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus and the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus a high number of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected. As it is known that - in addition to abiotic factors - microbes like sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the processes of corrosion and scaling in plant components, we identified SRB by specific analyses of DSR genes. The SRB detected are closely related to thermotolerant and thermophilic species of Desulfotomaculum, Thermodesulfovibrio, Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfobacterium, respectively. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and the

  12. Interfacial tension between CO 2 and brine (NaCl + CaCl 2) at elevated pressures and temperatures: The additive effect of different salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggelopoulos, C. A.; Robin, M.; Vizika, O.

    2011-04-01

    An extensive laboratory study was conducted to measure the interfacial tension (IFT) between CO 2 and brine consisting in equal molal concentrations of NaCl and CaCl 2. The experiments were repeated at various pressures, temperatures and salinities that are representative of conditions prevailing during CO 2 storage in deep saline aquifers. The dependence of CO 2/brine IFT on pressure and temperature is similar to that previously reported for the systems: CO 2/NaCl solution and CO 2/CaCl 2 solution. CO 2/brine IFT increases linearly with water salinity and the magnitude of this increase was found equal to the sum of the individual CO 2/NaCl solution and CO 2/CaCl 2 solution IFT increments, indicating a strong additive effect on IFT when the brine is composed of various salts.

  13. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

    1984-09-01

    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  14. Use of a Geothermal-Solar Hybrid Power Plant to Mitigate Declines in Geothermal Resource Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2014-09-01

    Many, if not all, geothermal resources are subject to decreasing productivity manifested in the form of decreasing brine temperature, flow rate, or both during the life span of the associated power generation project. The impacts of resource productivity decline on power plant performance can be significant; a reduction in heat input to a power plant not only decreases the thermal energy available for conversion to electrical power, but also adversely impacts the power plant conversion efficiency. The reduction in power generation is directly correlated to a reduction in revenues from power sales. Further, projects with Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) contracts in place may be subject to significant economic penalties if power generation falls below the default level specified. A potential solution to restoring the performance of a power plant operating from a declining productivity geothermal resource involves the use of solar thermal energy to restore the thermal input to the geothermal power plant. There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant in which the two heat sources share a common power block. The geo-solar hybrid plant could provide a better match to typical electrical power demand profiles than a stand-alone geothermal plant. The hybrid plant could also eliminate the stand-alone concentrated solar power plant thermal storage requirement for operation during times of low or no solar insolation. This paper identifies hybrid plant configurations and economic conditions for which solar thermal retrofit of a geothermal power plant could improve project economics. The net present value of the concentrated solar thermal retrofit of an air-cooled binary geothermal plant is presented as functions of both solar collector array cost and electricity sales price.

  15. MR imaging of heterogeneity in partially frozen brine and their effect on ultrasonic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, O.; Matsushima, J.; Suzuki, M.

    2012-12-01

    Methane hydrate bearing sediment possesses unique seismic wave propagation properties. Both high seismic wave velocity and high wave attenuation are observed in methane hydrate bearing sediment. We used brine with salinity 2% in analogous to methane hydrate for conducting laboratory waveform measurement and characterization by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. When brine undergoes freezing, only pure water freezes into ice and salt remains in solution with successively increasing salinity and decreasing freezing point of the solution. Unfrozen brine is enclosed inside micro pores in ice, with exhibiting solid-liquid coexisting system. We used conventional pulse transmission technique to measure compressional wave velocity in partially frozen brine when brine is subjected cooling down to -12oC. Waveform measurement shows sudden increase in compressional wave velocity at temperature -3oC. Below -3oC, velocity increases slightly. Largest wave attenuation is observed at around -3oC. We conducted MRI experiment by using instrument Varian Unity Inova 4.7T. T1 weighted and diffusion weighted (DW) MR images were prepared by applying magnetic field gradient of 0.3 gauss/cm. We observe the spatial distribution of pores, microstructures and heterogeneity in partially frozen brine sample slices. Two dimensional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps are prepared from DW images with b-values 0 and 81 s/mm2 respectively. We estimate porosity quantitatively from each MR slices at temperature -3, -5, -7 and -12oC by using image analysis technique. Gassmann equation is applied to calculate compressional wave velocity from the porosity data and compared with the measured velocity obtained by waveform analysis technique. The NMR results show the existence of high and low mobility unfrozen brine in the pore space. MR imaging shows the heterogeneously distributed porosity values within a single slice with low porosity and high

  16. Toxicity of Desalination Brine of Varying Ionic Compositions on Embryonic Development of Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupsco, A.; Schlenk, D.; Sikder, R.

    2016-02-01

    Desalination of seawater and brackish groundwater is a promising sustainable solution to meet growing water needs of California and throughout the US. However, the environmental impacts of brine disposal need to be evaluated. Brine disposal into freshwater embayments is often less dilute than disposal to coastal marine environments, resulting in a large increase in salinity. Fish embryos and larvae are especially sensitive to changes in salinity. Furthermore, different ionic compositions of different brine may vary in developmental toxicity. Limited research has been performed on the impacts of hypersalinity on chronic embryonic vertebrate development, particularly on sublethal adverse effects. To investigate these effects, embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), an euryhaline, model organism, were treated at fertilization with five treatments: 1. Freshwater; 2. Artificial seawater (17, 35, 42, 56, and 70 parts per thousand (ppth)); 3. Brine from a desalination facility at Monterey Bay Aquarium, CA, diluted 75%, 50%, and 25% with 35ppth artificial seawater to simulate mixing (39, 42, 46 and 50ppth); 4. River water modeled after the San Joaquin Valley, CA, and prepared in the lab (13, 17, 21 and 26ppth); and 5. Artificial San Joaquin River water diluted 75%, 50%, and 25% with artificial seawater to simulate mixing (13, 19, 24, and 30ppth). Survival, hatch, day to hatch and deformities were recorded. No significant difference was observed between artificial seawater and Monterey Bay aquarium brine and the EC50 values varied between 45-55ppth. These values suggest that under approprioate mixing conditions brine disposal into the open ocean would not be toxic to Japanese Medaka development. However, San Joaquin River water (primarily sulfate, sodium and calcium) decreased survival post hatch in comparison to artificial seawater and desalination brine suggesting that these ions may be more larval toxic.

  17. Cryogenic formation of brine and sedimentary mirabilite in submergent coastal lake basins, Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasby, Stephen E.; Rod Smith, I.; Bell, Trevor; Forbes, Donald L.

    2013-06-01

    Two informally named basins (Mirabilite Basins 1 and 2) along a submergent coastline on Banks Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, host up to 1 m-thick accumulations of mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) underlying stratified water bodies with basal anoxic brines. Unlike isostatically uplifting coastlines that trap seawater in coastal basins, these basins formed from freshwater lakes that were transgressed by seawater. The depth of the sill that separates the basins from the sea is shallow (1.15 m), such that seasonal sea ice formation down to 1.6 m isolates the basins from open water exchange through the winter. Freezing of seawater excludes salts, generating dense brines that sink to the basin bottom. Progressive freezing increases salinity of residual brines to the point of mirabilite saturation, and as a result sedimentary deposits of mirabilite accumulate on the basin floors. Brine formation also leads to density stratification and bottom water anoxia. We propose a model whereby summer melt of the ice cover forms a temporary freshwater lens, and rather than mixing with the underlying brines, it is exchanged with seawater once the ice plug that separates the basins from the open sea melts. This permits progressive brine development and density stratification within the basins.

  18. Reconnaissance investigation of evaporites and brines of the Eastern Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    In the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from south of Al Hasa oasis (about lat 25? N., long 50? E.) north to near the southern border of the neutral zone between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait (about lat 28? N., long 48? E.), sabkhah-associated brines form either by solar evaporation of near-surface ground water or by dissolution of previously precipitated saline minerals in the subsurface. Most sabkhah-associated brines have evolved from fresher ground water by the process of solar evaporation. One of the major controls of sulfate, calcium, and bicarbonate concentrations in brines is equilibrium reactions of these ions with authigenic minerals in sabkhah sediments. Although equilibrium reactions also provide some control of concentrations of magnesium, potassium, sodium, and chlorine, the concentrations of these elements in brines are controlled primarily by the degree to which the solutions have evaporated. Salt for industrial use in the Eastern Province is currently supplied from the Ra's al Qurayyah and Aba al Hamam bedded salt deposits, both of which are naturally exposed. At Jayb Uwayyid, a bedded salt deposit approximately 3.5 m below the sabkhah surface is not currently exploited. Except on a small scale, brines in the Eastern Province are not being utilized, either directly or for the production of salt. The Jayb Uwayyid deposit has some potential for industrial utilization of brine and salt, and further exploration for this type of salt deposit is probably warranted.

  19. SImbol Materials Lithium Extraction Operating Data From Elmore and Featherstone Geothermal Plants

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stephen Harrison

    2015-07-08

    The data provided in this upload is summary data from its Demonstration Plant operation at the geothermal power production plants in the Imperial Valley. The data provided is averaged data for the Elmore Plant and the Featherstone Plant. Included is both temperature and analytical data (ICP_OES). Provide is the feed to the Simbol Process, post brine treatment and post lithium extraction.

  20. Chemical Characterization of Brines from Selected Oil Fields, Tabasco, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Ortiz, B.; Carrillo-Chavez, A.; Tritlla, J.; Levresse, G.; Gonzalez-Partida, E.; Oviedo-Perez, A.; Martinez-Kepm, H.; Gonzalez-Posadas, F.; Clara-Valdes, L.

    2004-12-01

    Thirteen brine samples were recovered from nine oil-producing wells in the Agave (Cretaceous) and Saramako (Cretaceous and Tertiary) oil fields. These samples were analyzed for major and trace elements as well as O and D isotopic compositions. The goal of this study was to compare the possible links between oil-related brines enclosed within Cretaceous and Tertiary productive horizons that were thought to have similar origin oils. The salinity of the Saramako Cretaceous and Tertiary horizons is very constant, around 30000 ppm, one to six times lower than the salinities found in the Agave Cretaceous Field (from 45000 to 170000 ppm). Major ion chemistry suggests that brines are in equilibrium with the host rock. One of the main difference, besides Mg, resides in the S concentrations, were Agave samples present lower concentrations, probably related to the presence of abundant sulfides in the aquifer's rock. Halogen (Br, Cl) systematics indicates a different origin for the Saramako and Agave brines. The Saramako samples halogen composition plot near normal seawater both in the Na/Cl vs Cl/Br (molar ratios) and the Cl vs Br (ppm) plots. The Agave halogen data scatter near and underneath the seawater evaporation line in the Na/Cl vs Cl/Br (molar ratios), suggesting that these fluids could represent seawater evolved past the point of halite precipitation. The Cl vs Br (ppm) plot indicates that these fluids undergone some degree of mixing with low-salinity fluids, probably seawater. The presence of two different groups of data suggests the compartment of the aquifer. The \\deltaD and \\delta18O data show strong differences between the Saramako and Agave brines. The Saramako brine \\delta18O and \\deltaD isotopic compositions are +2.1% (VSMOW) and -13.8% respectively. The Agave samples have a \\delta18O composition from +4.3% to +6.0% and \\deltaD isotopic composition from -20.0% to -12.6%. Differences in \\delta18O compositions between Saramako and Agave brines indicate

  1. Materials for Geothermal Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, Lawrence E.

    1992-03-24

    Advances in the development of new materials continue to be made in the Geothermal Materials Project. Many successes have already been accrued and the results used commercially. In FY 1991, work was focused on reducing well drilling, fluid transport and energy conversion costs. Specific activities performed included lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant well cements, thermally conductive and scale resistant protective liner systems, chemical systems for lost circulation control, corrosion mitigation in process components at The Geysers, and elastomer-metal bonding systems. Efforts to transfer the technologies developed in these efforts to other energy-related sectors of the economy continued and considerable success was achieved. Laboratory testing of BNL-developed phosphate modified calcium aluminate cements confirmed their hydrolytic stability in 300 C brine and their resistance to chemical attack by CO{sub 2}. Specimens were found to be >20 times more resistant to carbonation than Class H cement and twice as resistant as unmodified calcium aluminate cements. Testing of thermally conductive polymer cements as potential corrosion resistant liner materials for use in heat exchanger applications was continued. Field test were conducted in flowing hypersaline brine and the results indicated scale deposition rates lower than those on a high alloy steel. Additional tests for bottoming cycle heat exchange use are planned for FY 1992. Progress was also made with chemical systems for lost circulation control. If materials placement is to be performed by pumping through an open drillpipe or through a drillable straddle packer, a bentonite-ammonium polyphosphate-borax-magnesium oxide formulation, containing fibers or particulates when large fissures are encountered, can be used. This system was ready for demonstration in FY 1991, but a suitable test site did not become available. Optimization of this and three other formulations for use with other Sandia National Laboratories

  2. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Detailed completion prognosis for geopressured-geothermal well of opportunity, prospect #2

    SciTech Connect

    1981-03-01

    A geopressured-geothermal test of Martin Exploration Company's Crown Zellerbach Well No. 2 will be conducted in the Tuscaloosa Trend. The Crown Zellerbach Well No. 1 will be converted to a saltwater disposal well for disposal of produced brine. The well is located in the Satsuma Area, Livingston parish, Louisiana. Eaton proposes to test the Tuscaloosa by perforating the 7 inch casing from 16,718 feet to 16,754 feet. The reservoir pressure at an intermediate formation depth of 16,736 feet is anticipated to be 12,010 psi and the temperature is anticipated to be 297 F. Calculated water salinity is 16,000 ppm. The well is expected to produce a maximum of 16,000 barrels of water a day with a gas content of 51 SCF/bbl. Eaton will re-enter the test well, clean out to 17,000 feet, run production casing and complete the well. The disposal well will be re-entered and completed in the 9-5/8 inch casing for disposal of produced brine. Testing will be conducted similar to previous Eaton annular flow WOO tests. An optional test from 16,462 feet to 16,490 feet may be performed after the original test and will require a workover with a rig on location to perform the plugback. The surface production equipment utilized on previous tests will be utilized on this test. The equipment has worked satisfactorily and all parties involved in the testing are familiar with its operation. Weatherly Engineering will operate the test equipment. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) and Mr. Don Clark will handle sampling, testing and reservoir engineering evaluation, respectively. wireline work required will be awarded on basis of bid evaluation. At the conclusion of the test period, the D.O.E. owned test equipment will be removed from the test site, the test and disposal wells plugged and abandoned and the sites restored to the satisfaction of all parties.

  3. Parameterization of and Brine Storage in MOR Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, J.; Lowell, R. P.; Cummings, K. B.

    2009-12-01

    Single-pass parameterized models of high-temperature hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers use observational constraints such as vent temperature, heat output, vent field area, and the area of heat extraction from the sub-axial magma chamber to deduce fundamental hydrothermal parameters such as total mass flux Q, bulk permeability k, and the thickness of the conductive boundary layer at the base of the system, δ. Of the more than 300 known systems, constraining data are available for less than 10%. Here we use the single pass model to estimate Q, k, and δ for all the seafloor hydrothermal systems for which the constraining data are available. Mean values of Q, k, and δ are 170 kg/s, 5.0x10-13 m2, and 20 m, respectively; which is similar to results obtained from the generic model. There is no apparent correlation with spreading rate. Using observed vent field lifetimes, the rate of magma replenishment can also be calculated. Essentially all high-temperature hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers undergo phase separation, yielding a low chlorinity vapor and a high salinity brine. Some systems such as the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the 9°50’N sites on the East Pacific Rise vent low chlorinity vapor for many years, while the high density brine remains sequestered beneath the seafloor. In an attempt to further understand the brine storage at the EPR, we used the mass flux Q determined above, time series of vent salinity and temperature, and the depth of the magma chamber to determine the rate of brine production at depth. We found thicknesses ranging from 0.32 meters to ~57 meters over a 1 km2 area from 1994-2002. These calculations suggest that brine maybe being stored within the conductive boundary layer without a need for lateral transport or removal by other means. We plan to use the numerical code FISHES to further test this idea.

  4. Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in brines affect supercritical CO2-brine-biotite interactions: ion exchange, biotite dissolution, and illite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yandi; Ray, Jessica R; Jun, Young-Shin

    2013-01-02

    For sustainable geologic CO(2) sequestration (GCS), a better understanding of the effects of brine cation compositions on mica dissolution, surface morphological change, and secondary mineral precipitation under saline hydrothermal conditions is needed. Batch dissolution experiments were conducted with biotite under conditions relevant to GCS sites (55-95 °C and 102 atm CO(2)). One molar NaCl, 0.4 M MgCl(2), or 0.4 M CaCl(2) solutions were used to mimic different brine compositions, and deionized water was used for comparison. Faster ion exchange reactions (Na(+)-K(+), Mg(2+)-K(+), and Ca(2+)-K(+)) occurred in these salt solutions than in water (H(+)-K(+)). The ion exchange reactions affected bump, bulge, and crack formation on the biotite basal plane, as well as the release of biotite framework ions. In these salt solutions, numerous illite fibers precipitated after reaction for only 3 h at 95 °C. Interestingly, in slow illite precipitation processes, oriented aggregation of hexagonal nanoparticles forming the fibrous illite was observed. These results provide new information for understanding scCO(2)-brine-mica interactions in saline aquifers with different brine cation compositions, which can be useful for GCS as well as other subsurface projects.

  5. Impact of Brine Extraction and Well Placement Optimization on Geologic Carbon Storage Capacity Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganjdanesh, R.; Hosseini, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Capacity of carbon dioxide storage aquifers depends on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational designs. The injection well numbers, well spacing and location, open versus closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without extraction of brine are of the parameters that impact the capacity of a storage site. Brine extraction from storage formations has been introduced as an effective strategy for enhancing the storage capacity and mitigating the risk of rapid pressure buildup. It is proposed that extracted brine can be disposed within an overlying formation or will be desalinated at surface facilities. Optimal well placement and rate of CO2 injection/brine extraction control achieving a predefined pressure constraint at the end of a specific period of storage operation. Reservoir simulation study is required to solve the two-phase flow of gas/brine and pressure buildup in the aquifer. Numerical simulation of geological storage using multiple injectors and extractors is costly and time consuming. Instead, analytical simulation can provide the results with a very good accuracy in a fraction of time compared to the numerical simulation. In this study, an analytical solution was implemented for pressure buildup calculation. The analytical model includes the effects of two-phase relative permeability, CO2 dissolution into reservoir brine and formation of a dry-out zone around the wellbore. Through the optimization algorithm coupled with analytical model, the optimal rates and locations of CO2 injectors and brine extractors were estimated, while simultaneously satisfying the pressure constraint to avoid fracture pressure in all injectors. The optimized results of analytical model was verified with a numerical simulator for several reservoir conditions, well configurations and operating constraints. The comparison of the results shows that the analytical model is a reliable tool for preliminary capacity estimation of saline aquifers and

  6. Origin and Evolution of Li-rich Brines at Clayton Valley, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munk, L. A.; Bradley, D. C.; Hynek, S. A.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is the key component in Li-ion batteries which are the primary energy storage for electric/hybrid cars and most electronics. Lithium is also an element of major importance on a global scale because of interest in increasing reliance on alternative energy sources. Lithium brines and pegmatites are the primary and secondary sources, respectively of all produced Li. The only Li-brine in the USA that is currently in production exists in Clayton Valley, NV. The groundwater brines at Clayton Valley are located in a closed basin with an average evaporation rate of 142 cm/yr. The brines are pumped from six aquifer units that are composed of varying amounts of volcanic ash, gravel, salt, tufa, and fine-grained sediments. Samples collected include spring water, fresh groundwater, groundwater brine, and meteoric water (snow). The brines are classified as Na-Cl waters and the springs and fresh groundwater have a mixed composition and are more dilute than the brines. The Li content of the waters in Clayton Valley ranges from less than 1 μg/L (snow) up to 406.9 mg/L in the lower ash aquifer system (one of six aquifers in the basin). The cold springs surrounding Clayton Valley have Li concentrations of about 1 mg/L. A hot spring located just east of Clayton Valley contains 1.6 mg/L Li. The Li concentration of the fresh groundwater is less than 1 mg/L. Hot groundwater collected in the basin contain 30-40 mg/L Li. Water collected from a geothermal drilling north of Silver Peak, NV, had water with 4.9 mg/L Li at a depth of >1000m. The δD and δ18O isotopic signatures of fresh groundwater and brine form an evaporation path that extends from the global meteoric water line toward the brine from the salt aquifer system (the most isotopically enriched brine with ave. δD = -3.5, ave. δ18O = -67.0). This suggests that mixing of inflow water with the salt aquifer brine could have played an important role in the evolution of the brines. Along with mixing, evaporation appears to

  7. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  8. East Mesa geothermal pump test facility (EMPTF). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olander, R.G.; Roberts, G.K.

    1984-11-28

    Barber-Nichols has completed the design, fabrication and installation of a geothermal pump test facility at the DOE geothermal site at East Mesa, California which is capable of testing 70 to 750 horsepower downwell pumps in a controlled geothermal environment. The facility consists of a skid-mounted brine control module, a 160 foot below ground test well section, a hydraulic turbine for power recovery, a gantry-mounted hoist for pump handling and a 3-phase, 480 VAC, 1200 amp power supply to handle pump electric requirements. Geothermal brine is supplied to the EMPTF from one of the facility wells at East Mesa. The EMPTF is designed with a great amount of flexibility to attract the largest number of potential users. The 20-inch diameter test well can accommodate a wide variety of pumps. The controls are interactive and can be adjusted to obtain a full complement of pump operation data, or set to maintain constant conditions to allow long-term testing with a minimum of operator support. The hydraulic turbine allows the EMPTF user to recover approximately 46% of the input pump power to help defray the operating cost of the unit. The hoist is provided for material handling and pump servicing and reduces the equipment that the user must supply for pump installation, inspection and removal.

  9. East Mesa geothermal pump test facility (EMPTF). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olander, R.G.; Roberts, G.K.

    1984-11-28

    The design, fabrication and installation of a geothermal pump test facility (EMPFT) at the DOE geothermal site at East Mesa, California which is capable of testing 70 to 750 horsepower downwell pumps in a controlled geothermal environment were completed. The facility consists of a skid-mounted brine control module, a 160 foot below test well section, a hydraulic turbine for power recovery, a gantry-mounted hoist for pump handling and a 3-phase, 480 VAC, 1200 amp power supply to handle pump electric requirements. Geothermal brine is supplied to the EMPTF from one of the facility wells at East Mesa. The EMPTF is designed with a great amount of flexibility. The 20-inch diameter test well can accommodate a wide variety of pumps. The controls are interactive and can be adjusted to obtain a full complement of pump operation data, or set to maintain constant conditions to allow long-term testing with a minimum of operator support. The hydraulic turbine allows the EMPTF user to recover approximately 46% of the input pump power to help defray the operating cost of the unit. The hoist is provided for material handling and pump servicing and reduces the equipment that the user must supply for pump installation, inspection and removal.

  10. Gold enrichment in active geothermal systems by accumulating colloidal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannington, Mark; Harðardóttir, Vigdis; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Brown, Kevin L.

    2016-04-01

    The origins of high-grade hydrothermal ore deposits are debated, but active geothermal systems provide important clues to their formation. The highest concentrations of gold are found in geothermal systems with direct links to island arc magmatism. Yet, similar concentrations have also been found in the absence of any input from arc magmas, for example, in the Reykjanes geothermal field, Iceland. Here we analyse brine samples taken from deep wells at Reykjanes and find that gold concentrations in the reservoir zone have increased over the past seven years from an average of 3 ppb to 14 ppb. The metal concentrations greatly exceed the maximum solubility of gold in the reservoir under saturated conditions and are now nearly two orders of magnitude higher than in mid-ocean ridge black smoker fluids--the direct analogues of Reykjanes deep liquids. We suggest that ongoing extraction of brine, the resulting pressure drop, and increased boiling have caused gold to drop out of solution and become trapped in the reservoir as a colloidal suspension. This process may explain how the stock of metal in the reservoirs of fossil geothermal systems could have increased over time and thus become available for the formation of gold-rich ore deposits.

  11. Nonmonotonic Elasticity of the Crude Oil-Brine Interface in Relation to Improved Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Miyauchi, Tomás E; Firoozabadi, Abbas; Fuller, Gerald G

    2016-03-08

    Injection of optimized chemistry water in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has gained much interest in the past few years. Crude oil-water interfaces can have a viscoelastic character affected by the adsorption of amphiphilic molecules. The brine concentration as well as surfactants may strongly affect the fluid-fluid interfacial viscoelasticity. In this work we investigate interfacial viscoelasticity of two different oils in terms of brine concentration and a nonionic surfactant. We correlate these measurements with oil recovery in a glass-etched flow microchannel. Interfacial viscoelasticity develops relatively fast in both oils, stabilizing at about 48 h. The interfaces are found to be more elastic than viscous. The interfacial elastic (G') and viscous (G″) moduli increase as the salt concentration decreases until a maximum in viscoelasticity is observed around 0.01 wt % of salt. Monovalent (Na(+)) and divalent (Mg(2+)) cations are used to investigate the effect of ion type; no difference is observed at low salinity. The introduction of a small amount of a surfactant (100 ppm) increases the elasticity of the crude oil-water interface at high salt concentration. Aqueous solutions that give the maximum interface viscoelasticity and high salinity brines are used to displace oil in a glass-etched "porous media" micromodel. Pressure fluctuations after breakthrough are observed in systems with high salt concentration while at low salt concentration there are no appreciable pressure fluctuations. Oil recovery increases by 5-10% in low salinity brines. By using a small amount of a nonionic surfactant with high salinity brine, oil recovery is enhanced 10% with no pressure fluctuations. Interface elasticity reduces the snap-off of the oil phase, leading to reduced pressure fluctuations. This study sheds light on significance of interface viscoelasticity in oil recovery by change in salt concentration and by addition of a small amount of a nonionic surfactant.

  12. Kinetics of gypsum nucleation and crystal growth from Dead Sea brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznik, Itay J.; Gavrieli, Ittai; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2009-10-01

    The Dead Sea brine is supersaturated with respect to gypsum ( Ω = 1.42). Laboratory experiments and evaluation of historical data show that gypsum nucleation and crystal growth kinetics from Dead Sea brine are both slower in comparison with solutions at a similar degree of supersaturation. The slow kinetics of gypsum precipitation in the Dead Sea brine is mainly attributed to the low solubility of gypsum which is due to the high Ca 2+/SO 42- molar ratio (115), high salinity (˜280 g/kg) and to Na + inhibition. Experiments with various clay minerals (montmorillonite, kaolinite) indicate that these minerals do not serve as crystallization seeds. In contrast, calcite and aragonite which contain traces of gypsum impurities do prompt precipitation of gypsum but at a considerable slower rate than with pure gypsum. This implies that transportation inflow of clay minerals, calcite and local crystallization of minerals in the Dead Sea does not prompt significant heterogeneous precipitation of gypsum. Based on historical analyses of the Dead Sea, it is shown that over the last decades, as inflows to the lake decreased and its salinity increased, gypsum continuously precipitated from the brine. The increasing salinity and Ca 2+/SO 42- ratio, which results from the precipitation of gypsum, lead to even slower kinetics of nucleation and crystal growth, which resulted in an increasing degree of supersaturation with respect to gypsum. Therefore, we predict that as the salinity of the Dead Sea brine continues to increase (accompanied by Dead Sea water level decline), although gypsum will continuously precipitate, the degree of supersaturation will increase furthermore due to progressively slower kinetics.

  13. Overview of Geopressured-Geothermal

    SciTech Connect

    Jelacic, Allan

    1992-03-24

    Dr. Mock began the session by paying tribute to Dr. Myron Dorfman, Professor of Petroleum Engineering at the University of Texas, who had just passed away after a protracted illness. Dr. Dorfman, more than other any individual, was responsible for bringing the geopressured-geothermal state-of-the-art to its present technological readiness for commercialization by industry. Allan Jelacic, Geosciences Team Leader, Geothermal Division, chaired the formal session and gave a historic overview of the conference that defined research needs and economic potential of the resource. First the Nevada Field Office and later the Idaho Field Office took the lead in setting research directions and managing the program. The major research activity was to flow-test ten Wells of Opportunity, provided by industry, as well as the Design Wells, of which four were drilled. Initial problems with calcium carbonate scale deposition and the safe handling and disposition of up to 30,000 barrels of geopressured brine per day were solved. A series of seminal conferences followed so that by the mid-eighties, the resource's extent and productivity were understood, and DOE's Geothermal Division was proceeding with technology transfer to industry. Allan Jelacic pointed out that currently the program is phasing down, with only three active wells remaining: Hulin, Pleasant Bayou, and Gladys McCall. Nevertheless, environmental monitoring, which to date has yielded no significant water quality or seismicity problems, will continue for several more years. The $190 million spent on the program yielded a number of major accomplishments, not the least of which was confirming USGS's initial estimate of the resource, which turned out to be the largest source of natural gas in the US. The economics of power production, however, are not attractive at this time, given the relatively low brine temperatures and current economic conditions in the energy sector. The next speaker, Ben Eaton, of Eaton Operating

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Permeability in Wellbore Cements under Elevated Temperatue, Pressure and Salinity Using a Liquid Pressure-Pulse Decay Permeameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello, K.; Radonjic, M.

    2013-12-01

    Kolawole Bello (kbello1@tigers.lsu.edu) and Mileva Radonjic (mileva@lsu.edu), Craft and Hawkins Department of Petroleum Engineering, 2131 Patrick F. Taylor Hall, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 Geopressured reservoirs in the northern Gulf of Mexico basin along the coast of Louisiana have been determined to be viable source of geothermal energy and also for carbon sequestration. These reservoirs are made of unconsolidated sandstone capped by shale layers and possess temperatures as high as 140°C. In addition, high salinities of 100 g/L are associated with these reservoirs due to the dissolution of surrounding salt domes. In production of geothermal reservoir, cementing cost accounts for 50% of total costs unlike in oil and gas wells where cementing cost is approximately 15%. This difference in cost is caused by the difference in fluid chemistry. In this project, we propose in-situ harvesting of heat energy resulting in differential temperature across the cement. As a result of thermal loading, hydrated cement fractures. In addition, leaching occurs in wellbore cements when exposed to pH less than 13 causing an increase in permeability. This consequently leads to lack of zonal isolation and compromises the mechanical integrity of the cement. This study provides ways of evaluating wellbore cements under conditions experienced in geopressured reservoirs. For the first time, we have state of the art equipment capable of measuring brine permeability of cement using Liquid Pressure-pulse Decay Permeameter (PDPL). Under in-situ confining pressure, brine permeability is more accurate than gas permeability due to the decrease in pore throat diameter. PDPL provides an efficient and accurate way of measuring brine permeability in low permeability materials at reservoir temperature and pressure. This permeability is function of pressure decay over time. Permeability measurements were taken before and after cyclic thermal loading of cement cores at

  15. Overview of Reclamation's geothermal program in Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulcher, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is presently involved in a unique Geothermal Resource Development Program in Imperial Valley, California. The main purpose of the investigations is to determine the feasibility of providing a source of fresh water through desalting geothermal fluids stored in the aquifers underlying the valley. Significant progress in this research and development stage to date includes extensive geophysical investigations and the drilling of five geothermal wells on the Mesa anomaly. Four of the wells are for production and monitoring the anomaly, and one will be used for reinjection of waste brines from the desalting units. Two desalting units, a multistage flash unit and a vertical tube evaporator unit, have been erected at the East Mesa test site. The units have been operated on shakedown and continuous runs and have produced substantial quantities of high-quality water.

  16. Geophysical, geochemical, and geological investigations of the Dunes geothermal system, Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elders, W. A.; Combs, J.; Coplen, T. B.; Kolesar, P.; Bird, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    The Dunes anomaly is a water-dominated geothermal system in the alluvium of the Salton Trough, lacking any surface expression. It was discovered by shallow-temperature gradient measurements. A 612-meter-deep test well encountered several temperature-gradient reversals, with a maximum of 105 C at 114 meters. The program involves surface geophysics, including electrical, gravity, and seismic methods, down-hole geophysics and petrophysics of core samples, isotopic and chemical studies of water samples, and petrological and geochemical studies of the cores and cuttings. The aim is (1) to determine the source and temperature history of the brines, (2) to understand the interaction between the brines and rocks, and (3) to determine the areal extent, nature, origin, and history of the geothermal system. These studies are designed to provide better definition of exploration targets for hidden geothermal anomalies and to contribute to improved techniques of exploration and resource assessment.

  17. Comparison of geothermal power conversion cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    Geothermal power conversion cycles are compared with respect to recovery of the available wellhead power. The cycles compared are flash steam, in which steam turbines are driven by steam separated from one or more flash stages; binary, in which heat is transferred from the brine to an organic turbine cycle; flash binary, in which heat is transferred from flashed steam to an organic turbine cycle; and dual steam, in which two-phase expanders are driven by the flashing steam-brine mixture and steam turbines by the separated steam. Expander efficiencies assumed are 0.7 for steam turbines, 0.8 for organic turbines, and 0.6 for two-phase expanders. The fraction of available wellhead power delivered by each cycle is found to be about the same at all brine temperatures: 0.65 with one stage and 0.7 with four stages for dual stream; 0.4 with one stage and 0.6 with four stages for flash steam; 0.5 for binary; and 0.3 with one stage and 0.5 with four stages for flash binary.

  18. Comparison of geothermal power conversion cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    Geothermal power conversion cycles are compared with respect to recovery of the available wellhead power. The cycles compared are flash steam, in which steam turbines are driven by steam separated from one or more flash stages; binary, in which heat is transferred from the brine to an organic turbine cycle; flash binary, in which heat is transferred from flashed steam to an organic turbine cycle; and dual steam, in which two-phase expanders are driven by the flashing steam-brine mixture and steam turbines by the separated steam. Expander efficiencies assumed are 0.7 for steam turbines, 0.8 for organic turbines, and 0.6 for two-phase expanders. The fraction of available wellhead power delivered by each cycle is found to be about the same at all brine temperatures: 0.65 with one stage and 0.7 with four stages for dual stream; 0.4 with one stage and 0.6 with four stages for flash steam; 0.5 for binary; and 0.3 with one stage and 0.5 with four stages for flash binary.

  19. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations: Data used in Geosphere Journal Article

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thomas A. Buscheck

    2015-06-01

    This data submission is for Phase 2 of Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations, which focuses on multi-fluid (CO2 and brine) geothermal energy production and diurnal bulk energy storage in geologic settings that are suitable for geologic CO2 storage. This data submission includes all data used in the Geosphere Journal article by Buscheck et al (2016). All assumptions are discussed in that article.

  20. Distillation Brine Purification for Resource Recovery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater processing systems for space generate residual brine that contains water and salts that could be recovered to life support consumables. The project assessed the use of ion-exchange resins to selectively remove salts from wastewater treatment brines. The resins were then regenerated for additional use. The intention would be to generate a Na/K and CI rich or purified brine that would then be processed into high value chemicals, such as acids, bases, and/or bleach.

  1. Observations of Brine Pool Surface Characteristics and Internal Structure Through Remote Acoustic and Structured Light Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, C.; Roman, C.; Michel, A.; Wankel, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Observations and analysis of the surface characteristics and internal structure of deep-sea brine pools are currently limited to discrete in-situ observations. Complementary acoustic and structured light imaging sensors mounted on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) have demonstrated the ability systematically detect variations in surface characteristics of a brine pool, reveal internal stratification and detect areas of active hydrocarbon activity. The presented visual and acoustic sensors combined with a stereo camera pair are mounted on the 4000m rated ROV Hercules (Ocean Exploration Trust). These three independent sensors operate simultaneously from a typical 3m altitude resulting in visual and bathymetric maps with sub-centimeter resolution. Applying this imaging technology to 2014 and 2015 brine pool surveys in the Gulf of Mexico revealed acoustic and visual anomalies due to the density changes inherent in the brine. Such distinct changes in acoustic impedance allowed the high frequency 1350KHz multibeam sonar to detect multiple interfaces. For instance, distinct acoustic reflections were observed at 3m and 5.5m below the vehicle. Subsequent verification using a CDT and lead line indicated the acoustic return from the brine surface was the signal at 3m, while a thicker muddy and more saline interface occurred at 5.5m, the bottom of the brine pool was not located but is assumed to be deeper than 15m. The multibeam is also capable of remotely detecting emitted gas bubbles within the brine pool, indicative of active hydrocarbon seeps. Bubbles associated with these seeps were not consistently visible above the brine while using the HD camera on the ROV. Additionally, while imaging the surface of brine pool the structured light sheet laser became diffuse, refracting across the main interface. Analysis of this refraction combined with varying acoustic returns allow for systematic and remote detection of the density, stratification and activity levels within and

  2. Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Research at the Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility was successfully concluded in September 1979. In 13,000 hours of operation over a three and one half year period, the nominal 10 megawatt electrical equivalent GLEF provided the opportunity to identify problems in working with highly saline geothermal fluids and to develop solutions that could be applied to a commercial geothermal power plant producing electricity. A seven and one half year period beginning in April 1972, with early well flow testing and ending in September 1979, with the completion of extensive facility and reservoir operations is covered. During this period, the facility was designed, constructed and operated in several configurations. A comprehensive reference document, addressing or referencing documentation of all the key areas investigated is presented.

  3. Heavy metal contamination from geothermal sources.

    PubMed

    Sabadell, J E; Axtmann, R C

    1975-12-01

    Liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs, which contain saline fluids at high temperatures and pressures, have a significant potential for contamination of the environment by heavy metals. The design of the power conversion cycle in a liquid-dominated geothermal plant is a key factor in determining the impact of the installation. Reinjection of the fluid into the reservoir minimizes heavy metal effluents but is routinely practiced at few installations. Binary power cycles with reinjection would provide even cleaner systems but are not yet ready for commercial application. Vapor-dominated systems, which contain superheated steam, have less potential for contamination but are relatively uncommon. Field data on heavy metal effluents from geothermal plants are sparse and confounded by contributions from "natural" sources such as geysers and hot springs which often exist nearby. Insofar as geothermal power supplies are destined to multiply, much work is required on their environmental effects including those caused by heavy metals.

  4. Heavy metal contamination from geothermal sources.

    PubMed Central

    Sabadell, J E; Axtmann, R C

    1975-01-01

    Liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs, which contain saline fluids at high temperatures and pressures, have a significant potential for contamination of the environment by heavy metals. The design of the power conversion cycle in a liquid-dominated geothermal plant is a key factor in determining the impact of the installation. Reinjection of the fluid into the reservoir minimizes heavy metal effluents but is routinely practiced at few installations. Binary power cycles with reinjection would provide even cleaner systems but are not yet ready for commercial application. Vapor-dominated systems, which contain superheated steam, have less potential for contamination but are relatively uncommon. Field data on heavy metal effluents from geothermal plants are sparse and confounded by contributions from "natural" sources such as geysers and hot springs which often exist nearby. Insofar as geothermal power supplies are destined to multiply, much work is required on their environmental effects including those caused by heavy metals. PMID:1227849

  5. Special function instruments for binary cycle geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robertus, R.J.; Shannon, D.W.; Sullivan, R.G.

    1984-04-01

    Three special instruments have been designed to support plant operations at the Heber geothermal power plant in Heber, California. All are aids to give operating information which no commercial instruments can provide. The first is a package for determining CO/sub 2/ breakout conditions for a particular brine. Brine is sampled continuously at either the wellhead or the plant inlet. A temperature-pressure curve is generated which will span all possible operating combinations. That information tells designers or operators what pump pressures must be used to keep the CO/sub 2/ in solution. A second package unit will detect the presence of ppM levels of isobutane in either brine or water streams. It samples actual flowing brine streams continuously. The function is to alert operators when leaks are occurring in heat exchangers. A final unit senses water in flowing hydrocarbon streams. The sampled streams can be either liquid or vapor. Sensitivity is close to actual solubility limit for water in isobutane. This device warns operators when their hydrocarbon has been contaminated with brine (or cooling water).

  6. Microbial life at -13 °C in the brine of an ice-sealed Antarctic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Alison E.; Kenig, Fabien; Fritsen, Christian H.; McKay, Christopher P.; Cawley, Kaelin M.; Edwards, Ross; Kuhn, Emanuele; McKnight, Diane M.; Ostrom, Nathaniel E.; Peng, Vivian; Ponce, Adrian; Priscu, John C.; Samarkin, Vladimir; Townsend, Ashley T.; Wagh, Protima; Young, Seth A.; Yung, Pung To; Doran, Peter T.

    2012-12-01

    The permanent ice cover of Lake Vida (Antarctica) encapsulates an extreme cryogenic brine ecosystem (-13 °C; salinity, 200). This aphotic ecosystem is anoxic and consists of a slightly acidic (pH 6.2) sodium chloride-dominated brine. Expeditions in 2005 and 2010 were conducted to investigate the biogeochemistry of Lake Vida's brine system. A phylogenetically diverse and metabolically active Bacteria dominated microbial assemblage was observed in the brine. These bacteria live under very high levels of reduced metals, ammonia, molecular hydrogen (H2), and dissolved organic carbon, as well as high concentrations of oxidized species of nitrogen (i.e., supersaturated nitrous oxide and ∼1 mmolṡL-1 nitrate) and sulfur (as sulfate). The existence of this system, with active biota, and a suite of reduced as well as oxidized compounds, is unusual given the millennial scale of its isolation from external sources of energy. The geochemistry of the brine suggests that abiotic brine-rock reactions may occur in this system and that the rich sources of dissolved electron acceptors prevent sulfate reduction and methanogenesis from being energetically favorable. The discovery of this ecosystem and the in situ biotic and abiotic processes occurring at low temperature provides a tractable system to study habitability of isolated terrestrial cryoenvironments (e.g., permafrost cryopegs and subglacial ecosystems), and is a potential analog for habitats on other icy worlds where water-rock reactions may cooccur with saline deposits and subsurface oceans.

  7. Microbial life at −13 °C in the brine of an ice-sealed Antarctic lake

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Alison E.; Kenig, Fabien; Fritsen, Christian H.; McKay, Christopher P.; Cawley, Kaelin M.; Edwards, Ross; Kuhn, Emanuele; McKnight, Diane M.; Ostrom, Nathaniel E.; Peng, Vivian; Ponce, Adrian; Priscu, John C.; Samarkin, Vladimir; Townsend, Ashley T.; Wagh, Protima; Young, Seth A.; Yung, Pung To; Doran, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    The permanent ice cover of Lake Vida (Antarctica) encapsulates an extreme cryogenic brine ecosystem (−13 °C; salinity, 200). This aphotic ecosystem is anoxic and consists of a slightly acidic (pH 6.2) sodium chloride-dominated brine. Expeditions in 2005 and 2010 were conducted to investigate the biogeochemistry of Lake Vida’s brine system. A phylogenetically diverse and metabolically active Bacteria dominated microbial assemblage was observed in the brine. These bacteria live under very high levels of reduced metals, ammonia, molecular hydrogen (H2), and dissolved organic carbon, as well as high concentrations of oxidized species of nitrogen (i.e., supersaturated nitrous oxide and ∼1 mmol⋅L−1 nitrate) and sulfur (as sulfate). The existence of this system, with active biota, and a suite of reduced as well as oxidized compounds, is unusual given the millennial scale of its isolation from external sources of energy. The geochemistry of the brine suggests that abiotic brine-rock reactions may occur in this system and that the rich sources of dissolved electron acceptors prevent sulfate reduction and methanogenesis from being energetically favorable. The discovery of this ecosystem and the in situ biotic and abiotic processes occurring at low temperature provides a tractable system to study habitability of isolated terrestrial cryoenvironments (e.g., permafrost cryopegs and subglacial ecosystems), and is a potential analog for habitats on other icy worlds where water-rock reactions may cooccur with saline deposits and subsurface oceans. PMID:23185006

  8. Microbial life at -13 °C in the brine of an ice-sealed Antarctic lake.

    PubMed

    Murray, Alison E; Kenig, Fabien; Fritsen, Christian H; McKay, Christopher P; Cawley, Kaelin M; Edwards, Ross; Kuhn, Emanuele; McKnight, Diane M; Ostrom, Nathaniel E; Peng, Vivian; Ponce, Adrian; Priscu, John C; Samarkin, Vladimir; Townsend, Ashley T; Wagh, Protima; Young, Seth A; Yung, Pung To; Doran, Peter T

    2012-12-11

    The permanent ice cover of Lake Vida (Antarctica) encapsulates an extreme cryogenic brine ecosystem (-13 °C; salinity, 200). This aphotic ecosystem is anoxic and consists of a slightly acidic (pH 6.2) sodium chloride-dominated brine. Expeditions in 2005 and 2010 were conducted to investigate the biogeochemistry of Lake Vida's brine system. A phylogenetically diverse and metabolically active Bacteria dominated microbial assemblage was observed in the brine. These bacteria live under very high levels of reduced metals, ammonia, molecular hydrogen (H(2)), and dissolved organic carbon, as well as high concentrations of oxidized species of nitrogen (i.e., supersaturated nitrous oxide and ∼1 mmol⋅L(-1) nitrate) and sulfur (as sulfate). The existence of this system, with active biota, and a suite of reduced as well as oxidized compounds, is unusual given the millennial scale of its isolation from external sources of energy. The geochemistry of the brine suggests that abiotic brine-rock reactions may occur in this system and that the rich sources of dissolved electron acceptors prevent sulfate reduction and methanogenesis from being energetically favorable. The discovery of this ecosystem and the in situ biotic and abiotic processes occurring at low temperature provides a tractable system to study habitability of isolated terrestrial cryoenvironments (e.g., permafrost cryopegs and subglacial ecosystems), and is a potential analog for habitats on other icy worlds where water-rock reactions may cooccur with saline deposits and subsurface oceans.

  9. The accelerated testing of cements in brines

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    Cementitious materials may be employed in settings where they face prolonged exposure to Mg-rich brines. This study evaluated the possibility of using high temperatures to accelerate brine-cement reaction rates. Class-H cement coupons were tested in Mg-K-Na-C1- SO{sub 4} brines to 100{degrees}C. MgC1{sub 2}-NaC1 solutions were also employed in a test sequence that extended to 200{degrees}C. It was found that accelerated testing could be used successfully to evaluate the compatability of cementitious materials with such brines.

  10. Scaling minerals from deep-seated granitic geothermal reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Norio

    2016-04-01

    To promote geothermal energy use and sustainable production, the information of scaling situation from deep-seated geothermal reservoir is important. In Japan, at the Kakkonda geothermal field, Iwate prefecture, north-eastern of Japan, there is 80MW geothermal power plant using about 300 degree C fluid from the reservoir at the boundary between Quaternary Kakkonda granite and Pre-Tertiary formations about 3km depth and more deep-seated reservoir survey was carried out by NEDO. Then, to understand the mechanism of deep-seated reservoir, we survey the metal sulphide minerals deposited at production wellhead and pipeline and compare with the brine And the brine of WD-1a at 3.7km depth, into Quaternary Kakkonda granite rock. In Kakkonda geothermal system, the scales are classified into two types based on sulphide mineralogy, which are Pb-Zn rich type and Cu rich type. Pb-Zn rich scales, for example galena (PbS) and Sphalerite (ZnS), are found in Well-19 located at the marginal part of the Kakkonda granite And Cu-rich scales, for example chalcocite (Cu2S), loellingite (FeAs2) and native antimony (Sb), are found in Well-13, located at the central part of the Kakkonda granite. And the brine of WD-1a at 3.7km depth about 500 degree C, into Quaternary Kakkonda granite rock near Well-19 is rich in Pb and Zn and similar composition as the Well-19 scale. Therefore, deep reservoir of Kakkonda field evolves with mixing the fluid of shallow reservoir and the brine of occurred in the Quaternary Kakkonda granite. Then, the existence of both Pb-Zn rich scale and Cu rich scale is a characteristic feature of Kakkonda geothermal and this fact suggest to have similar zoning as found in Porphyry Copper Zoning. On progress of production the fluids from deep reservoir continue to be suffered by the fluid of shallow reservoir and meteoritic water. With temperature of production well decreasing and chemical composition changed, silica precipitation decreased and the metal sulfide mineral

  11. Geothermal Technologies Program: Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-02-01

    This fact sheets provides a summary of geothermal potential, issues, and current development in Washington State. This fact sheet was developed as part of DOE's GeoPowering the West initiative, part of the Geothermal Technologies Program.

  12. GEOTHERM Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer

    DeAngelo, Jacob

    1983-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  13. Geothermal exploration in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Radja, V.T.

    1984-03-01

    Indonesia is blessed with geothermal resources. This fortunate aspect is directly related to the fact that the archipelago is an island arc created by a subduction zone. Evidence of geothermal activity is common throughout the Islands. Among the islands' many active volcanos are numerous geothermal phenomena. Almost half of the volcanic centers in Indonesia (88 out of 177 centers) contain fumarole and sulfatare features. A brief history of the exploration for geothermal energy in Indonesia is presented.

  14. Geothermal district G1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

  15. South Dakota geothermal handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are described. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resource are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized. (MHR)

  16. Geochemistry and hydrodynamics of deep formation brines in the Palo Duro and Dalhart basins, Texas, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, R. L.; Bentley, M. E.

    1982-11-01

    Geological characterization of evaporite deposits as potential host rocks for radioactive waste burial must include hydrogeological investigations on both local and regional scales. The Palo Duro and Dalhart basins of Texas contain candidate salt deposits which are underlain by shelf carbonates and fan-delta sandstones. These basins are ancient intracratonic elements exhibiting regional eastward flow in the deep brine aquifers. Pressures in these aquifers are "subnormal"; however, the major component of flow appears to be parallel to bedding owing to the low permeability of the overlying evaporite strata in the central part of the basin. Salinities computed from geophysical logs or obtained from chemical analyses indicate only small aberrations in the regional salinity profile for brines in carbonate rocks and sandstones of Late Pennsylvanian—Early permian age. Brines reflect reactivity with the host rock deriving salinity primarily from evaporite facies and at present, apparently follow the anhydrite and calcite phase boundaries. Substantial outgassing of CO 2 and oxidation of ferrous iron appear to have occurred during collection of the samples during wildcat drilling by industry. Mass-transfer computer programs have been used to determine the most probable in situ brine composition. Additional support for the computed equilibrium state is the correlation between computed PCO 2 in the brines and observed PCO 2 in adjacent natural gas reservoirs.

  17. Geothermal energy in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The nature of goethermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of utilizing geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and State programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. The names, addresses, and phone numbers of various organizations actively involved in research, regulation, and the development of geothermal energy are included. (MHR)

  18. Disposal/recovery options for brine waters from oil and gas production in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, M.R.; Atkinson, J.F.; Bunn, M.D.; Hodge, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    Produced water from oil and gas operations, or brine as it is typically referred, may be characterized as being highly saline, with total dissolved solids greater than 100 g/L. If these bribes are disposed improperly there may be severe adverse environmental effects. Thus, it is important that brine be disposed using environmentally sound methods. Unfortunately, costs for the disposal of brine water are a significant burden to oil and gas producers in New York State. These costs and the relatively low market price of oil and natural gas have contributed to the decline in gas and oil production in New York State during the past 10 years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate new and existing options for brine disposal in New York State, examine the technical and economic merits of these options, and assess environmental impacts associated with each option. Two new disposal options investigated for New York State oil and gas producers included construction of a regional brine treatment facility to treat brine prior to discharge into a receiving water and a salt production facility that utilizes produced water as a feed stock. Both options are technically feasible; however, their economic viability depends on facility size and volume of brine treated.

  19. Density and distribution of water boatmen and brine shrimp at a major shorebird wintering area in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tripp, K.J.; Collazo, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Cabo Rojo salt flats are an important wintering area for migratory shorebirds. Their quality is intimately related to prey availability, as prey are needed to meet energetic requirements. Understanding prey dynamics is, therefore, a key element of shorebird conservation plans. To this end, we monitored the density and distribution of water-boatmen (Trichocorixa spp.) and brine shrimp (Artemia spp.) in relation to water salinity from September to November of 1994 and 1995. Salinity ranged from 4 to 292 ppt, and gradients were related to hydrological alterations (e.g., salt extraction) and connection to the ocean. Brine shrimp were restricted to areas of highest salinity (??? 106 ppt), whereas water-boatmen to areas of lowest salinity ( 100 ppt. Lowering water salinity did not result in osmolal related mortality. Results underscored the sensitivity of water boatmen to high salinity, particularly when the difference in salinity between the 'source' and 'destination' localities widened. Water boatmen density increased in one lagoon as salinity decreased from 65 to 47 ppt. On the basis of our experiments, local adult survivorship improved and immigration and subsequent survival of adults, if any, was not hindered. The density of nymphs also suggested that hatching occurred concurrently. The foraging value of the salt flats can be enhanced by maintaining salinity at < 65 ppt in selected management units and minimizing differences in salinity concentrations among them.

  20. Stability of the Orca Basin Brine Interface Determined Using Radium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R. N.; Peterson, L.; Montoya, J. P.; Joye, S. B.

    2016-02-01

    The Orca Basin is an intraslope basin in the northern continental slope of the Gulf of Mexico, and contains a deep (up to 220 m) anoxic, hypersaline brine lake. The brine interface extends from ocean salinity (at a water depth of 2125 m) to a constant salinity of 215 psu below a depth of 2250 m. This interface is considered to be among the most stable interfaces on the planet, and contains distinct zones of macrofaunal and microbial assemblages. The brine lake is supported by continued dissolution of exposed rock salt at an estimated rate of 0.5 million t/yr. Such dissolution of salt should serve as a source of radium isotopes, and given their range of half-lives, these isotopes can serve as unique proxies to the location and rate of salt dissolution into this basin. We have collected a series of radon and radium isotope profiles through this brine lake over the past 4 years, which allow us to assess the spatial and temporal stability of this interface. Throughout the brine lake, we observe strong enrichments in unsupported Ra-224, Rn-222, and Ra-226 in a 10 m thick zone near the base of the brine interface, between 2232 m and 2242 m. The strong enrichment in unsupported Ra-224 in this layer must be supported by a continuous source, presumably the dissolution of exposed salt rock. Various degrees of isotopic enrichment throughout the lake provide an assessment of the rates of lateral and vertical dispersion of salt and associated chemical constituents.

  1. Kinetics of ikaite precipitation and dissolution in seawater-derived brines at sub-zero temperatures to 265 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Stathys; Kennedy, Hilary; Kennedy, Paul; Thomas, David N.

    2014-09-01

    The kinetics of calcium carbonate hexahydrate (ikaite) precipitation and dissolution were investigated in seawater and seawater-derived brines at sub-zero temperatures using the constant addition experimental technique. The steady state rate of these two processes was found to be a function of the deviation of the solution from equilibrium with respect to ikaite and conformed to the same empirical rate law as the anhydrous CaCO3 polymorphs, calcite and aragonite. In addition to the saturation state of the brine with respect to ikaite, the salinity of the brine and the temperature of the reaction evidently exerted some control on the ikaite precipitation kinetics, while the dissolution kinetics of the polymorph were not noticeably influenced by these two parameters. The experimental salinity and temperature conditions were equivalent to those at thermal equilibrium between brine and ice in the sea ice cover of polar seas. Simple modelling of the CO2 system by extrapolation of the oceanic equivalent to sea ice brines showed that the physical concentration of seawater ions and the changes in ikaite solubility as a function of salinity and temperature, both inherent in the sea ice system, would be insufficient to drive the emergent brines to ikaite supersaturation and precipitation in sea ice down to -8 °C. The loss of dissolved inorganic carbon to the gas phase of sea ice and to sympagic autotrophs are two independent mechanisms which, in nature, could prompt the brine CO2 system towards ikaite supersaturation and precipitation. Under these conditions, the steady state precipitation rate of ikaite was found to be fast enough for rapid formation within short time scales (days to weeks) in sea ice. The observed ikaite dissolution kinetics were also found conducive to short turn-over time scales of a few hours to a few days in corrosive solutions, such as surface seawater.

  2. Geothermal energy program summary: Volume 1: Overview Fiscal Year 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-02-01

    Geothermal energy is a here-and-now technology for use with dry steam resources and high-quality hydrothermal liquids. These resources are supplying about 6 percent of all electricity used in California. However, the competitiveness of power generation using lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma still depends on the technology improvements sought by the DOE Geothermal Energy R and D Program. The successful outcome of the R and D initiatives will serve to benefit the U.S. public in a number of ways. First, if a substantial portion of our geothermal resources can be used economically, they will add a very large source of secure, indigenous energy to the nation's energy supply. In addition, geothermal plants can be brought on line quickly in case of a national energy emergency. Geothermal energy is also a highly reliable resource, with very high plant availability. For example, new dry steam plants at The Geysers are operable over 99 percent of the time, and the small flash plant in Hawaii, only the second in the United States, has an availability factor of 98 percent. Geothermal plants also offer a viable baseload alternative to fossil and nuclear plants -- they are on line 24 hours a day, unaffected by diurnal or seasonal variations. The hydrothermal power plants with modern emission control technology have proved to have minimal environmental impact. The results to date with geopressured and hot dry rock resources suggest that they, too, can be operated so as to reduce environmental effects to well within the limits of acceptability. Preliminary studies on magma are also encouraging. In summary, the character and potential of geothermal energy, together with the accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal R and D Program, ensure that this huge energy resource will play a major role in future U.S. energy markets.

  3. Geothermal energy program summary: Volume 1: Overview Fiscal Year 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    Geothermal energy is a here-and-now technology for use with dry steam resources and high-quality hydrothermal liquids. These resources are supplying about 6% of all electricity used in California. However, the competitiveness of power generation using lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma still depends on the technology improvements sought by the DOE Geothermal Energy R and D Program. The successful outcome of the R and D initiatives will serve to benefit the US public in a number of ways. First, if a substantial portion of our geothermal resources can be used economically, they will add a very large source of secure, indigenous energy to the nation's energy supply. In addition, geothermal plants can be brought on line quickly in case of a national energy emergency. Geothermal energy is also a highly reliable resource, with very high plant availability. For example, new dry steam plants at The Geysers are operable over 99% of the time, and the small flash plant in Hawaii, only the second in the United States, has an availability factor of 98%. Geothermal plants also offer a viable baseload alternative to fossil and nuclear plants -- they are on line 24 hours a day, unaffected by diurnal or seasonal variations. The hydrothermal power plants with modern emission control technology have proved to have minimal environmental impact. The results to date with geopressured and hot dry rock resources suggest that they, too, can be operated so as to reduce environmental effects to well within the limits of acceptability. Preliminary studies on magma are also encouraging. In summary, the character and potential of geothermal energy, together with the accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal R and D Program, ensure that this huge energy resource will play a major role in future US energy markets. 7 figs.

  4. The low salinity effect at high temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Quan; Brady, Patrick V.; Pooryousefy, Ehsan; ...

    2017-04-05

    The mechanism(s) of low salinity water flooding (LSWF) must be better understood at high temperatures and pressures if the method is to be applied in high T/P kaolinite-bearing sandstone reservoirs. We measured contact angles between a sandstone and an oil (acid number, AN = 3.98 mg KOH/g, base number, BN = 1.3 mg KOH/g) from a reservoir in the Tarim Field in western China in the presence of various water chemistries. We examined the effect of aqueous ionic solutions (formation brine, 100X diluted formation brine, and softened water), temperature (60, 100 and 140 °C) and pressure (20, 30, 40, andmore » 50 MPa) on the contact angle. We also measured the zeta potential of the oil/water and water/rock interfaces to calculate oil/brine/rock disjoining pressures. A surface complexation model was developed to interpret contact angle measurements and compared with DLVO theory predictions. Contact angles were greatest in formation water, followed by the softened water, and low salinity water at the same pressure and temperature. Contact angles increased slightly with temperature, whereas pressure had little effect. DLVO and surface complexation modelling predicted similar wettability trends and allow reasonably accurate interpretation of core-flood results. Water chemistry has a much larger impact on LSWF than reservoir temperature and pressure. As a result, low salinity water flooding should work in high temperature and high pressure kaolinite-bearing sandstone reservoirs.« less

  5. Hawaii geothermal project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamins, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii's Geothermal Project is investigating the occurrence of geothermal resources in the archipelago, initially on the Island of Hawaii. The state's interest in geothermal development is keen, since it is almost totally dependent on imported oil for energy. Geothermal development in Hawaii may require greater participation by the public sector than has been true in California. The initial exploration has been financed by the national, state, and county governments. Maximization of net benefits may call for multiple use of geothermal resources; the extraction of by-products and the application of treated effluents to agricultural and aquacultural uses.

  6. Mono County geothermal activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Three geothermal projects have been proposed or are underway in Mono County, California. The Mammoth/Chance geothermal development project plans to construct a 10-MW geothermal binary power plant which will include 8 production and 3 injection wells. Pacific Lighting Energy Systems is also planning a 10-MW binary power plant consisting of 5 geothermal wells and up to 4 injection wells. A geothermal research project near Mammoth Lakes has spudded a well to provide a way to periodically measure temperature gradient, pressure, and chemistry of the thermal waters and to investigate the space-heating potential of the area in the vicinity of Mammoth Lakes. All three projects are briefly described.

  7. Geothermal monitor report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor Report No. 6 presents a state-by-state summary of the status of geothermal leasing, exploration, and development in major physiographic regions where geothermal resource potential has been identified. Recent state-specific activities are reported at the end of each state status report, while recent activities of a more general nature are summarized briefly in Part 2 of the report. A list of recent publications of potential interest to the geothermal community and a directory of contributors to the geothermal progress monitoring system are also included.

  8. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Organic Amines and Amino Acids in Saline and Acidic Samples Using the Mars Organic Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, A. M.; Chiesl, T. N.; Lowenstein, T. K.; Amashukeli, X.; Grunthaner, F.; Mathies, R. A.

    2010-04-01

    Optimized analytical protocols increase robustness of the Mars Organic Analyzer, allowing for successful analyses of samples high in salt, acidity, and metal ions, including Saline Valley brine and a subcritical water extract of a Rio Tinto sediment.

  9. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    PubMed Central

    Bougouffa, S.; Yang, J. K.; Lee, O. O.; Wang, Y.; Batang, Z.; Al-Suwailem, A.

    2013-01-01

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools. PMID:23542623

  10. The Effect of Synthetic Brine Constituents on the Rate of Arsenic Release from Arsenopyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, H.; Dzombak, D. A.; Karamalidis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Geologic carbon dioxide storage (GCS) in deep saline sedimentary formations is a potential method for mitigating increased levels of atmospheric CO2. Injection of CO2 in those formations may induce dissolution of reservoir minerals. Leakage of CO2-saturated brines and native brines could impact overlying drinking water aquifers by contaminating them with toxic constituents. Of particular concern is the effect of CO2 on the rates of dissolution of arsenic and other toxic metals from reservoir minerals. The most common pure phase arsenic mineral in sedimentary geologic formations is arsenopyrite (FeAsS). Natural brines have high salinities (up to 7M), with high concentrations of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+. The focus of this study is to examine the effect of brine components on the dissolution rate of arsenic from arsenopyrite. A small-scale flow-through column system was constructed for this purpose and is being used to measure arsenic release rates from arsenopyrite. Influent solutions of NaCl, CaCl2, and MgCl2 at equal ionic strengths were used to examine the effect of the cationic species. A cleaning procedure to remove prior surface oxidation on the surface of the arsenopyrite particles was also developed. Preliminary results with NaCl and CaCl2 at an ionic strength of 0.011M indicate that the rate of dissolution of arsenic is dependent on the cationic species but independent of ionic strength.

  11. Hydrothermal fluid migration and brine pool formation in the Red Sea: the Atlantis II Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schardt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Numerical heat and fluid flow simulations of the Atlantis II Deep in the Red Sea were conducted to investigate the development, migration, and discharge of hydrothermal fluids into a submarine depression and determine the conditions necessary to form a brine pool. High-salinity fluids are predicted to form by leaching Miocene evaporates, migrate and convect within young oceanic crust, and discharge onto the seafloor. Predicted fluid discharge temperatures ( T max, 301 °C), discharge fluid velocities ( V max, 0.09 m/s), and salinities ( S max, 21 wt%) increase over time and reach values comparable to modern seafloor observations. Established convection patterns and discharge behavior are robust and are not greatly affected by geometry of rock property changes. Modeling results were used to calculate the minimum conditions for hydrothermal fluids from a developing hydrothermal system to mix with seawater, reverse buoyancy, and begin to form a brine pool in a submarine depression. Under conditions encountered on the seafloor ( T, 25-300 °C; S, 5-25 wt%), fluid mixtures predicted to pond on the seafloor range from late in the mixing process (99 %) at low temperatures ( T, 26 °C) to much earlier (36 % mixing) at higher temperatures ( T, 94 °C). A model of brine pool evolution is proposed that describes the processes and conditions necessary to initiate brine pool formation and compares formation conditions with accumulated ore material in the Atlantis II Deep and other locations.

  12. Brine Flow Up a Borehole Caused by Pressure Perturbation From CO2 Storage: Static and Dynamic Evaluations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Industrial-scale storage of CO2 in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO2 plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards al...

  13. Brine Flow Up a Borehole Caused by Pressure Perturbation From CO2 Storage: Static and Dynamic Evaluations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Industrial-scale storage of CO2 in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO2 plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards al...

  14. Kinetics of nitrate and perchlorate reduction in ion exchange brine using the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several sources of bacterial inocula were tested for their ability to reduce nitrate and perchlorate in synthetic ion-exchange spent brine (3-4.5% salinity) using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). Nitrate and perchlorate removal fluxes reached as high as 5.4 g N ...

  15. Kinetics of nitrate and perchlorate reduction in ion exchange brine using the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several sources of bacterial inocula were tested for their ability to reduce nitrate and perchlorate in synthetic ion-exchange spent brine (3-4.5% salinity) using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). Nitrate and perchlorate removal fluxes reached as high as 5.4 g N ...

  16. Corrosion tests in brine and steam from the Salton Sea KGRA

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.P.; McCawley, F.X.

    1982-03-01

    The Bureau of Mines tested 13 alloys for resistance to general corrosion, pitting corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking in the brine and steam environments produced from geothermal well Magmamax 1 in the Salton Sea Known Geothermal Resources Area in California. The tests provided seven process environments. The alloys most resistant to corrosion in all environments were Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276, and stainless steel alloy 29-4. Hastelloys G and S were highly resistant to all types of corrosion decreases with time. The stainless steel alloys 430, E-Brite 26-1, and 6X had good resistance to general corrosion but were susceptible to pitting. Unstressed type 316 L stainless steel exhibited severe cracking. The 1020 carbon and 4130 alloy steels were the least resistant.

  17. FIELD IMPLEMENTATION PLAN FOR A WILLISTON BASIN BRINE EXTRACTION AND STORAGE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Hamling, John; Klapperich, Ryan; Stepan, Daniel; Sorensen, James; Pekot, Lawrence; Peck, Wesley; Jacobson, Lonny; Bosshart, Nicholas; Hurley, John; Wilson, William; Kurz, Marc; Burnison, Shaughn; Salako, Olarinre; Musich, Mark; Botnen, Barry; Kalenze, Nicholas; Ayash, Scott; Ge, Jun; Jiang, Tao; Dalkhaa, Chantsalmaa; Oster, Benjamin; Peterson, Kyle; Feole, Ian; Gorecki, Charles; Steadman, Edward

    2016-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) successfully completed all technical work of Phase I, including development of a field implementation plan (FIP) for a brine extraction and storage test (BEST) in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin. This implementation plan was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as a proxy for managing formation pressure plumes and measuring/monitoring the movement of differential pressure and CO2 plumes in the subsurface for future saline CO2 storage projects. BEST comprises the demonstration and validation of active reservoir management (ARM) strategies and extracted brine treatment technologies. Two prospective commercial brine injection sites were evaluated for BEST to satisfy DOE’s goals. Ultimately, an active saltwater disposal (SWD) site, Johnsons Corner, was selected because it possesses an ideal combination of key factors making it uniquely suited to host BEST. This site is located in western North Dakota and operated by Nuverra Environmental Solutions (Nuverra), a national leader in brine handling, treatment, and injection. An integrated management approach was used to incorporate local and regional geologic characterization activities with geologic and simulation models, inform a monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) plan, and to conduct a risk assessment. This approach was used to design a FIP for an ARM schema and an extracted brine treatment technology test bed facility. The FIP leverages an existing pressure plume generated by two commercial SWD wells. These wells, in conjunction with a new brine extraction well, will be used to conduct the ARM schema. Results of these tests will be quantified based on their impact on the performance of the existing SWD wells and the surrounding reservoir system. Extracted brine will be injected into an underlying deep saline formation through a new injection well. The locations of proposed

  18. Using brine extraction to isolate the pressure responses from CO2 injection operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandilla, K.; Court, B.; Celia, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    used to effectively isolate injection operations and provide much more control on the hydrodynamics of the overall system. We also observe that the brine production wells need to be located several kilometers from the injection wells to avoid CO2 breakthrough in the brine production wells. Therefore, the impact of brine production on the CO2 plume is negligible (for example, any attempts at "plume steering" turn out to be ineffective). Creative uses of the extracted fluid (e.g., desalination, geothermal energy, ...) could provide additional incentives to consider this broader "active management" strategy for CO2 injection operations.

  19. Gulf Coast Geopressured-Geothermal Program Summary Report Compilation. Volume I, Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chacko, J. John; Maciasz, Gina; Harder, Brian J.

    1998-06-01

    The significant accomplishments of this program included (1) identification of the geopressured-geothermal onshore fairways in Louisiana and Texas, (2) determination that high brine flow rates of 20,000--40,000 barrels a day can be obtained for long periods of time, (3) brine, after gas extraction can be successfully reinjected into shallow aquifers without affecting the surface waters or the fresh water aquifers, (4) no observable subsidence or microseismic activity was induced due to the subsurface injection of brine, and no detrimental environmental effects attributable to geopressured--geothermal well testing were noticed, (5) sanding can be controlled by reducing flow rates, (6) corrosion controlled with inhibitors, (7) scaling controlled by phosphonate scale inhibitors, (8) demonstrated that production of gas from saturated brine under pressure was viable and (9) a hybrid power system can be successfully used for conversion of the thermal and chemical energy contained in the geopressured-geothermal resource for generation of electricity. The U. S. Department of Energy's geopressured-geothermal research program in the Gulf Coast achieved many significant findings and disproved and clarified many historical perceptions that had previously limited industry's interest in developing this resource. Though in today's economic market it may not be commercially profitable to exploit this resource, the rapid advance of technology in all its different aspects could potentially make this resource attractive in the not too distant future. The ideal situation would involve the development of a total energy system in which all three associated forms of energy--chemical, thermal and mechanical are utilized. The extraction of gas from brine combined with the large number of potential direct and indirect uses of this resource will add to its economic profitability. This U.S. DOE's visionary research program has essentially laid the foundations for characterization of this

  20. Salinity Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

  1. Salinity Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

  2. Reference book on geothermal direct use

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Lund, J.W.; Rafferty, K.; Culver, G.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Topics discussed include: low-temperature geothermal energy resources; energy reserves; geothermal heat pumps; geothermal energy for residential buildings; and geothermal energy for industrial usage.

  3. Geochemical Evidence for Possible Natural Migration of Marcellus Formation Brine to Shallow Aquifers in Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, N. R.; Darrah, T. H.; Jackson, R. B.; Osborn, S.; Down, A.; Vengosh, A.

    2012-12-01

    The acceleration in production of natural gas from shale formations through horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has altered the landscape of domestic energy production in the USA. Yet shale gas exploration has generated an increased awareness of risks to drinking water quality amid concerns for the possible migration of stray gas or hydraulic fracturing fluid and/or flowback brine to shallow drinking water aquifers. The degree to which shallow drinking water is at risk from hydraulic fracturing could depend upon the hydraulic connectivity between the shale gas formations and the surface. In this study, we analyzed the geochemistry of over 400 water samples located across six counties of northeastern Pennsylvania in the three principle aquifers, two Upper Devonian Age bedrock aquifers (Catskill and Lock Haven) and one Quaternary Age (Alluvium) that overlie the Marcellus Formation. Based on a detailed analysis of major (Br, Cl, Na, Mg, Ba, and Sr) and trace (Li) element geochemistry, coupled with utilization of a specific spectrum of isotopic tracers (87Sr/86Sr, 228Ra/ 226Ra, 2H/H, 18O/16O), we identify a salinized (Cl> 20 mg/L) shallow groundwater type which suggests conservative mixing relationships between fresh shallow groundwater and an underlying brine. Identification of the brine source is complicated as many of the brines in the northern Appalachian Basin likely share a common origin as the expelled remnants of the formation of the Silurian Salina evaporate deposits. To determine the ultimate source of the diluted brine we compared the observed geochemistry to over 80 brines produced from northern Appalachian Basin formations. The shallow salinized groundwater most closely resembles diluted produced water from the Middle Devonian Marcellus Formation. The 18O/16O and 2H/H of the salinized groundwater indicate that the brine is likely diluted with post-glacial (<10,000 ybp) meteoric water. Combined, these data indicate that hydraulic connections

  4. Development of polymer concrete liners and coatings for use in geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, R.P.; Reams, W.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1993-09-01

    The results of a research and field testing program conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy to develop polymer concrete (PC) liners and coatings for use in geothermal applications are presented. Whenever possible, carbon steel is used in geothermal facilities for components such as piping, well casings, and containment vessels. However carbon steel is subject to severe corrosion when exposed to some geothermal fluids and brines, leading to the use, in some cases, of very expensive high alloy steels. Results of laboratory tests done in simulated geothermal environments (pH 2 hydrochloric acid steam at 200{degree}C) have shown that PC materials can be used as liners and coatings to protect carbon steel surfaces from corrosion. In situ field testing of 8-in. (203-mm) inside diameter (ID) by 12-in. (305-mm) long spool sections and 12in. ID (305-mm) wellhead tee sections in operational geothermal facilities is currently being done to verify the laboratory test data. Economic studies have shown that the capital cost of the vessels and piping in a typical geothermal facility can be significantly reduced through the use of protective PC linings and coatings. As a result PC lined components are currently being used commercially at two geothermal sites.

  5. Extended Jarosite Lifetimes in High Salinity Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwood Madden, M. E.; Madden, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    Particle lifetime calculations utilizing olivine (Olsen and Rimstidt, 2007; Stopar et al., 2006) and jarosite (Elwood Madden et al. 2008) dissolution rates have been used to constrain the duration of aqueous environments on the surface of Mars. Previous rate experiments have shown that jarosite dissolves relatively quickly in dilute aqueous solutions leading to short particle lifetimes. However, mineralogy and bulk chemistry of outcrops containing jarosite at Meridiani Planum suggest high salinity fluids were active in the region. The goal of this study is to determine the effects of high salinity (low activity of water) on jarosite dissolution rates. K-jarosite was synthesized using the methods of Baron and Palmer (1996) and characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, BET surface area analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microcopy. Dissolution experiments were conducted by adding 0.5 g K- jarosite to 500 g ultrapure water at 293K. Samples were collected from the continuously-stirred batch reaction at predetermined intervals and filtered using 0.2 micron filters. K+ concentrations in the resulting supernatants were measured using atomic adsorption spectroscopy to determine the rate of jarosite dissolution. Jarosite dissolution experiments in halite saturated brine result in dissolution rates over one order of magnitude slower than similar experiments conducted in dilute solutions. Dissolution in ultrapure water proceeds at log k= -8.5. Jarosite dissolution in halite saturated brine is significantly slower: log k = -10. Using a shrinking sphere model to calculate particle lifetimes, the lifetime of a 10 micron diameter jarosite particle is extended from 1-2 years in dilute solutions to 100 years in high salinity brine. This suggests that while jarosite is an ephemeral phase in dilute solutions, it may persist for significantly longer time periods in high salinity waters, such as those interpreted at Meridiani Planum based on bulk chemistry

  6. Assessment of an enhanced geothermal system targeting the Prairie Evaporite Formation of the Williston Basin in SW Manitoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holländer, Hartmut; Niloofar, Firoozy

    2017-04-01

    hydraulic fracturing is required to allow flow. However, saline formations are also highly soluble so that the heat transport fluid has to be saturated brine. A numerical model was built using FEFLOW 6.2 to predict the fluid and heat transfer within each well. Next, considering a brine injection at 15°C, the fluid's temperature surfaced at each well was determined. For the Tilston and the generic site, this was found to be at 43°C and 105°C respectively. Furthermore, to assess the impact of the halite formation with respect to the reservoir's thermal conductivity, different scenarios were investigated to identify the energy gain due to the high thermal conductivity of the Prairie Evaporite. The halite increases the available energy by 2% compared to other rocks consisting other minerals. It can be concluded that the generic site with a reservoir at 3 km deep can be a suitable candidate for an electricity production plant utilizing the geothermal technology since the temperature of its surfaced fluid exceeds the minimum required temperature of 80°C.

  7. An Evaluation of Geopressured Brine Injectability

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.; Blair, C.K.; Harrar, J.E.; Netherton, R.

    1980-12-16

    We-have developed an apparatus with a capability for evaluating geopressured brine injectability at elevated pressures and temperatures. The apparatus utilizes membrane filters as injection zone reservoir analogs and permits injectability tests to be performed in accordance with Barkman and Davidson Methdology. A field evaluation of geopressured brine injectability was completed during September 22-25, 1980 at the DOE, Brazoria test site in Texas. Membrane filters, with pore sizes of 0.4-{micro}m and 10.0-{micro}m, were used as the basis for obtaining suspended solids data and for developing performance-life estimates of typical spent brine injection wells. Field measurements were made at 130{degree}C and line pressures up to 3800 psig. Scale inhibited (phosphonate-polyacrylate threshold-type, carbonate scale inhibitor), prefiltered-scale-inhibited, and raw (untreated) brine were evaluated. Test results indicated raw brine was highly injectable, while scale-inhibited brine had extremely low quality. The poor injectability of scale-inhibited brine resulted from partial precipitation of the scale inhibitor.

  8. Hydrogeochemical characterization and groundwater quality assessment in intruded coastal brine aquifers (Laizhou Bay, China).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Miao, Jinjie; Hu, Bill X; Liu, Hongwei; Zhang, Hanxiong; Ma, Zhen

    2017-07-20

    The aquifer in the coastal area of the Laizhou Bay is affected by salinization processes related to intense groundwater exploitation for brine resource and for agriculture irrigation during the last three decades. As a result, the dynamic balances among freshwater, brine, and seawater have been disturbed and the quality of groundwater has deteriorated. To fully understand the groundwater chemical distribution and evolution in the regional aquifers, hydrogeochemical and isotopic studies have been conducted based on the water samples from 102 observation wells. Groundwater levels and salinities in four monitoring wells are as well measured to inspect the general groundwater flow and chemical patterns and seasonal variations. Chemical components such as Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Sr(2+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), HCO3(-), NO3(-), F(-), and TDS during the same period are analyzed to explore geochemical evolution, water-rock interactions, sources of salt, nitrate, and fluoride pollution in fresh, brackish, saline, and brine waters. The decreased water levels without typical seasonal variation in the southeast of the study area confirm an over-exploitation of groundwater. The hydrogeochemical characteristics indicate fresh-saline-brine-saline transition pattern from inland to coast where evaporation is a vital factor to control the chemical evolution. The cation exchange processes are occurred at fresh-saline interfaces of mixtures along the hydraulic gradient. Meanwhile, isotopic data indicate that the brine in aquifers was either originated from older meteoric water with mineral dissolution and evaporation or repeatedly evaporation of retained seawater with fresher water recharge and mixing in geological time. Groundwater suitability for drinking is further evaluated according to water quality standard of China. Results reveal high risks of nitrate and fluoride contamination. The elevated nitrate concentration of 560 mg/L, which as high as 28 times of the standard content in

  9. Session 19: Geothermal Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    van Rooyen, Daniel

    1983-12-01

    Among the most pressing problems constraining the development of geothermal energy is the lack of satisfactory component and system reliability. This is due to the unavailability, on a commercial scale, of cost-effective materials that can function in a wide range of geothermal environments and to the unavailability of a comprehensive body of directly related test data or materials selection experience. In 1976, the GHTD started the Geothermal Materials Program to address materials-related problems, and since 1978 Brookhaven National Laboratory has provided technical and managerial assistance in the implementation of the effort. Major successes have been attained in the development of elastomers for high-temperature applications and in the use of polymer concrete liners for corrosion protection. Both technologies have been successfully transferred to industry. Current efforts in metallic and nonmetallic materials development and corrosion protection will be summarized. In the metals area, testing of a series of experimental stainless steels has led to compositions which show a very remarkable resistance to pitting corrosion in hot chloride electrolytes. Combinations of molybdenum and nitrogen are very beneficial. Alternate materials for line shaft pump bearings have been identified through tests in simulated hot brine. Cermets and carbides show promise of extending pump life. A series of drill bit steels has been examined for fatigue and hot fracture toughness. The work has indicated alloys with properties that exceed those of materials now in use. A major finding in the nonmetallic materials area has been the development of fluorinated elastomers for use in statis seals at temperatures greater than 300 C. Field testing has just commenced, but based upon laboratory results, the work is very promising. Commercialization of this material is underway. Technology transfer of a 240 C EPDM was completed earlier. Field testing of polymer concrete-lined pipe has been

  10. RealGasBrine v1.0 option of TOUGH+ v1.5

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George

    2015-02-27

    RealGasBrine v1.0 is a numerical code that for the simulation of the behavior of gas-bearing porous and/fractured geologic media. It is an option of TOUGH+ v1.5 [Moridis, 2014], a successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1999; 2012] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase ?uid and heat ?ow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. RealGasBrine v1.0 needs the TOUGH+ v1.5 core code in order to compile and execute. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available. RealGasBrine v1.0 describes the non-isothermal two- (for pure water) or three-phase (for brine) flow of an aqueous phase and a real gas mixture in a gas-bearing medium, with a particular focus in ultra-tight (such as tight-sand and shale gas) systems. Up to 12 individual real gases can be tracked, and salt can precipitate as solid halite. The capabilities of the code include coupled flow and thermal effects, real gas behavior, Darcy and non-Darcy flow, several isotherm options of gas sorption onto the grains of the porous media, complex fracture descriptions, gas solubility into water, and geomechanical effects on flow properties. RealGasBrine v1.0 allows the study of flow and transport of fluids and heat over a wide range of time frames and spatial scales not only in gas reservoirs, but also in any problem involving the flow of gases in geologic media, including the geologic storage of greenhouse gas mixtures, the behavior of geothermal reservoirs with multi-component condensable (H2O and CO2) and non-condensable gas mixtures, the transport of water and released H2 in nuclear waste storage applications, etc.

  11. Magnesium Oxide Carbonation Rate Law in Saturated Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemer, M. B.; Allen, C.; Deng, H.

    2008-12-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) is the only engineered barrier certified by the EPA for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a U.S. Department of Energy repository for transuranic waste in southeast New Mexico. MgO reduces actinide solubility by sequestering CO2 generated by the biodegradation of cellulosic, plastic, and rubber materials. Demonstration of the effectiveness of MgO is essential for WIPP recertification. In order to be an effective barrier, the rate of CO2 sequestration should be fast compared to the rate CO2 production, over the entire 10,000 year regulatory period. While much research has been conducted on the kinetics of magnesium oxide carbonation in waters with salinity up to that of sea water, we are not aware of any work on determining the carbonation rate law in saturated brines at low partial pressures of CO2 (PCO2 as low as 10-5.5 atm), which is important for performing safety assessments of bedded salt waste repositories. Using a Varian ion-trap gas- chromatograph/mass-spectrometer (GC/MS) we experimentally followed the CO2 sequestration kinetics of magnesium oxide in salt-saturated brines down to a PCO2 as low as 10-5.5 atm. This was performed in a closed reactor with a known initial PCO2. The results of this study show that carbonation is approximately first order in PCO2, in saturated brines. We believe that this method will benefit the study of the detailed kinetics of other similar processes.

  12. α- and γ-Hexachlorocyclohexane measurements in the brine fraction of sea ice in the Canadian High Arctic using a sump-hole technique.

    PubMed

    Pućko, M; Stern, G A; Macdonald, R W; Barber, D G

    2010-12-15

    We used holes augered partially into first-year sea ice (sumps) to determine α- and γ-HCH concentrations in sea-ice brine. The overwintering of the CCGS Amundsen in the Canadian western Arctic, as part of the Circumpolar Flaw Lead (CFL) System Study, provided the circumstances to allow brine to accumulate in sumps sufficiently to test the methodology. We show, for the first time, that as much as 50% of total HCHs in seawater can become entrapped within the ice crystal matrix. On average, in the winter first-year sea ice HCH brine concentrations reached 4.013 ± 0.307 ng/L and 0.423 ± 0.013 ng/L for the α- and γ-isomer, respectively. In the spring, HCHs decreased gradually with time, with increasing brine volume fraction and decreasing brine salinity. These decreasing concentrations could be accounted for by both the dilution with the ice crystal matrix and under-ice seawater. We propose that the former process plays a more significant role considering brine volume fractions calculated in this study were below 20%. Levels of HCHs in the brine exceed under-ice water concentrations by approximately a factor of 3, a circumstance suggesting that the brine ecosystem has been, and continues to be, the most exposed to HCHs.

  13. Origin of halite brine in the Onondaga Trough near Syracuse, New York State, USA: Modeling geochemistry and variable-density flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, R.M.; Kappel, W.M.; Plummer, L.N.

    2007-01-01

    Halite brine (saturation ranging from 45 to 80%) lies within glacial sediments that fill the Onondaga Trough, a bedrock valley deepened by Pleistocene glaciation near Syracuse, New York State, USA. The most concentrated brine occupies the northern end of the trough, about 10 km downgradient of the northern limit of halite beds in the Silurian Salina Group, the assumed source of salt. The chemical composition of the brine and its radiocarbon age suggest that the brine originally formed about 16,700 years ago through dissolution of halite by glacial melt water and later mixed with saline bedrock water. Two hypotheses regarding the formation of the brine pool were tested through variable-density flow simulations using SEAWAT. Simulation results supported the first hypothesis that the brine pool was derived from a source in the glacial sediments and then migrated to its current position, where it has persisted for over 16,000 years. A second hypothesis that the brine pool formed through steady accumulation of brine from upward flow of a source in the underlying bedrock was not supported by simulation results, because the simulated age distribution was much younger than the age estimated from geochemical modeling. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  14. Environmentally Friendly Economical Sequestration of Rare Earth Metals from Geothermal Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, Dean P.

    2016-05-26

    The purpose of this work was to complete a proof of concept study to apply and validate a novel method developed by Tusaar for the capture and recovery of rare earth elements (known as REEs) and other critical and valuable elements from geothermal waters produced from deep within the earth. Geothermal water provides heat for power production at many geothermal power plants in the western United States. The target elements, the REEs, are vital to modern day electronics, batteries, motors, automobiles and many other consumer favorites and necessities. Currently there are no domestic sources of REEs while domestic and international demand for the products they are used in continues to rise. Many of the REEs are considered “strategically” important. A secure supply of REEs in the USA would benefit consumers and the country at large. A new method to recover these REEs from geothermal waters used at existing geothermal power plants around the country is a high priority and would benefit consumers and the USA. The result of this project was the successful development and demonstration of an integrated process for removal and recovery of the REEs from synthetic geothermal brines on a small laboratory scale. The work included preparation of model geothermal brines to test, selection of the most effective proprietary sorbent media to capture the REEs and testing of the media under a variety of potential operating conditions. Geothermal brines are generally very high in salt content and contain a wide range of elements and anions associated with the rock layers from which they are produced. Processing the geothermal water is difficult because it is corrosive and the dissolved minerals in the water precipitate easily once the temperature and pressure change. No commercial technologies have been shown to be effective or robust enough under these geothermal brine conditions to be commercially viable for removal of REEs. Technologies including ion exchange, traditional

  15. The geothermal power organization

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  16. Formation and Persistence of Brine on Mars: Experimental Simulations throughout the Diurnal Cycle at the Phoenix Landing Site.

    PubMed

    Fischer, E; Martínez, G M; Rennó, N O

    2016-12-01

    In the last few years, water ice and salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid saline water (brine) have been detected on Mars. Moreover, indirect evidence for brine has been found in multiple areas of the planet. Here, we simulate full diurnal cycles of temperature and atmospheric water vapor content at the Phoenix landing site for the first time and show experimentally that, in spite of the low Mars-like chamber temperature, brine forms minutes after the ground temperature exceeds the eutectic temperature of salts in contact with water ice. Moreover, we show that the brine stays liquid for most of the diurnal cycle when enough water ice is available to compensate for evaporation. This is predicted to occur seasonally in areas of the polar region where the temperature exceeds the eutectic value and frost or snow is deposited on saline soils, or where water ice and salts coexist in the shallow subsurface. This is important because the existence of liquid water is a key requirement for habitability. Key Words: Mars-Ice-Perchlorates-Brine-Water-Raman spectroscopy. Astrobiology 16, 937-948.

  17. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization.

  18. Fate and impact of organics in an immersed membrane bioreactor applied to brine denitrification and ion exchange regeneration.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Ewan J; Pawlett, Mark; Judd, Simon J

    2010-01-01

    The application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) to brine denitrification for ion exchange regeneration has been studied. The developed culture was capable of complete brine denitrification at 50 gNaCl.l(-1). Denitrification reduced to c.60% and c.70% when salinity was respectively increased to 75 and 100g.l(-1), presumed to be due to reduced growth rate and the low imposed solids retention time (10 days). Polysaccharide secretion was not induced by stressed cells following salt shocking, implying that cell lysis did not occur. Fouling propensity, monitored by critical flux, was steady at 12-15l.m(-2).h(-1) during salinity shocking and after brine recirculation, indicating that the system was stable following perturbation. Low molecular weight polysaccharide physically adsorbed onto the nitrate selective anion exchange resin during regeneration reducing exchange capacity by c.6.5% when operating up to complete exhaustion. However, based on a breakthrough threshold of 10 mgNO(3)(-)-N.l(-1) the exchange capacity was comparative to that determined when using freshly produced brine for regeneration. It was concluded that a denitrification MBR was an appropriate technology for IEX spent brine recovery and reuse.

  19. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization. PMID:27390732

  20. Regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection - Part 1: The participatory modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Dirk; Konrad, Wilfried; Class, Holger; Kissinger, Alexander; Knopf, Stefan; Noack, Vera

    2017-06-01

    Saltwater intrusion into potential drinking water aquifers due to the injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the potential hazards associated with the geological storage of CO2. Thus, in a site selection process, models for predicting the fate of the displaced brine are required, for example, for a risk assessment or the optimization of pressure management concepts. From the very beginning, this research on brine migration aimed at involving expert and stakeholder knowledge and assessment in simulating the impacts of injecting CO2 into deep saline aquifers by means of a participatory modeling process. The involvement exercise made use of two approaches. First, guideline-based interviews were carried out, aiming at eliciting expert and stakeholder knowledge and assessments of geological structures and mechanisms affecting CO2-induced brine migration. Second, a stakeholder workshop including the World Café format yielded evaluations and judgments of the numerical modeling approach, scenario selection, and preliminary simulation results. The participatory modeling approach gained several results covering brine migration in general, the geological model sketch, scenario development, and the review of the preliminary simulation results. These results were included in revised versions of both the geological model and the numerical model, helping to improve the analysis of regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection.

  1. Chemical composition and distribution of lithium-rich brines in salar de Uyuni and nearby salars in southwestern Bolivia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, G.E.; Vine, J.D.; Raul, Ballon A.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary investigations at Salar de Uyuni and the nearby salars (salt pans) of Coipasa and Empexa in the southern part of the Bolivian Altiplano show the presence of widespread lithium-rich brines. Widely scattered brine samples from Salar de Uyuni, which has an area of about 9000 km2 and is the largest salt pan on earth, show lithium values ranging from 80 to 1500 ppm. High values of 300-700 ppm are most prevalent in an area of about 2500 km2 in the east-central and southeastern part of the salar. A few brine samples in small areas in Coipasa and Empexa Salars have values ranging from 170 to 580 ppm Li. All the brines are essentially saturated with halite and are moderately high in sulfate (5000-15,000 ppm SO4) but low in carbonate (<500 ppm HCO3). Potassium and magnesium values are relatively high, chiefly in the range of 2000-20,000 ppm, and the K Mg ratio is about 1:1. The Li K and Li Mg ratios are relatively constant at about 1:20. The crystalline saline material and brines in these salars are residual from a former large lake, Lago Minchin, that occupied much of the southern Bolivian Altiplano during late Pleistocene time, augmented by saline material carried to the salars by streams since final drying of this lake. Thermal springs associated with rhyolitic volcanic rocks of Quaternary age may have been a major source of the lithium. ?? 1978.

  2. Downwell pump reliability: Geothermal experience update: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Geothermal resources with temperatures between 250/sup 0/ and 360/sup 0/F (121/sup 0/C and 182/sup 0/C) are prime candidates for binary-cycle power generation, and constitute about 80% of the power-capable resources in the United States. The successful exploitation of these resources requires reliable high-capacity downwell brine production pumps, but earlier experience showed that high-capacity, high-temperature geothermal production pumps had many problems which resulted in a mean time-to-failure (MTTF) of less than 1000 h. However, steady progress has been made since 1981, and a large body of experience has been acquired by three geothermal binary plants. This survey of high-temperature geothermal downwell pump users and manufacturers updates a prior survey (AP-3572) completed in early 1983. This survey traces the development of lineshaft pump technology from the late 1970s to the present (mid-1987), detailing the advances in design, materials selection, and operating practices. Case histories of 72 lineshaft pumps installed at three geothermal binary plants since late 1981 are documented, including some detailed cause of failure reports. In the recent past, pump lives in excess of 7000 h have become common, but a high continuing rate of premature failures resulted in a mean time-to-failure (MTTF) of about 5000 h. Based on recent advances which appear likely to eliminate most premature failures, the estimated near-term MTTF will be on the order of 8000 h. The survey found almost no development of high-temperature geothermal electric submersible pumps (ESP's) or close-coupled downwell hydraulic turbopumps, and concluded that considerable development and demonstration will be needed before these technologies are able to compete with existing high-temperature geothermal lineshaft pump technology. 36 refs., 10 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. Modeling of geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    During the last decade the use of numerical modeling for geothermal resource evaluation has grown significantly, and new modeling approaches have been developed. In this paper we present a summary of the present status in numerical modeling of geothermal systems, emphasizing recent developments. Different modeling approaches are described and their applicability discussed. The various modeling tasks, including natural-state, exploitation, injection, multi-component and subsidence modeling, are illustrated with geothermal field examples. 99 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Geothermal Today - 2001

    SciTech Connect

    2001-08-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Energy Program Highlights Partnering with Industry A New Power Source for Nevada Drilling Research Finding Geothermal Resources Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plants The Heat Beneath Your Feet R&D 100 Award Program in Review Milestones January 2000 The U.S. Department of Energy GeoPowering the West initiative was launched. February 2000 Grants totaling $4.8 million were awarded in six western states, primarily for development of reservoir exploration, character

  5. Geothermal Today - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-05-01

    U.S. Department of Energy 1999 Geothermal Energy Program Highlights The Hot Facts Getting into Hot Water Turning Waste water into Clean Energy Producing Even Cleaner Power Drilling Faster and Cheaper Program in Review 1999: The Year in Review JanuaryCal Energy announced sale of Coso geothermal power plants at China Lake, California, to Caithness Energy, for $277 million. U.S. Export-Import Bank completed a $50 million refinancing of the Leyte Geothermal Optimization Project in the Philippines. F

  6. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA): A New Approach to Recovering Water from Wastewater Brines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pensinger, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Brine water recovery represents a current technology gap in water recycling for human spaceflight. The role of a brine processor is to take the concentrated discharge from a primary wastewater processor, called brine, and recover most of the remaining water from it. The current state-of-the-art primary processor is the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) that currently achieves 70% water recovery. Recent advancements in chemical pretreatments are expected to increase this to 85% in the near future. This is a welcome improvement, yet is still not high enough for deep space transit. Mission architecture studies indicate that at least 95% is necessary for a Mars mission, as an example. Brine water recovery is the technology that bridges the gap between 85% and 95%, and moves life support systems one step closer to full closure of the water loop. Several brine water recovery systems have been proposed for human spaceflight, most of them focused on solving two major problems: operation in a weightless environment, and management and containment of brine residual. Brine residual is the leftover byproduct of the brine recovery process, and is often a viscous, sticky paste, laden with crystallized solid particles. Due to the chemical pretreatments added to wastewater prior to distillation in a primary processor, these residuals are typically toxic, which further complicates matters. Isolation of crewmembers from these hazardous materials is paramount. The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) is a recently developed concept from the Johnson Space Center that offers solutions to these challenges. CoBRA is centered on a softgoods evaporator that enables a passive fill with brine, and regeneration by discharging liquid brine residual to a collection bag. This evaporator is meant to be lightweight, which allows it to be discarded along with the accumulated brine solids contained within it. This paper discusses design and development of a first CoBRA prototype, and reports

  7. Conceptual design of the Truscott brine lake solar-pond system, volume 1: Utility-independent scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    A conceptual design was performed for a series of solar pond systems to provide pumping power for chloride control in the Red River Basin. In the chloride control project, briny waters are diverted so as not to pollute portable water. The diverted brine is stored in a dammed natural basin where, with the aid of natural evaporation, the brine is concentrated to the salinities required for the solar ponds. The brine is transferred to the ponds and injected at the proper levels to establish the gradients and storage layers. The solar ponds are to be located within the Truscott, Texas brine impoundment lake. Heat will be extracted from the ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle turbine generators. The electricity produced will serve the pumping needs of the chloride control project, pump brine from the natural source to the evaporation ponds, pump concentrated brine from the evaporation ponds to the solar ponds, maintain the solar ponds, and supply all system parasitic loads. It was found that five solar ponds with eight organic Rankine-cycle turbine-generators would serve both the average and peaking power requirements of the pumping stations in the Truscott area as they come on-line.

  8. Valles Caldera geothermal systems, New Mexico, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Fraser; Grigsby, Charles O.

    1982-03-01

    Valles Caldera is part of a Quaternary silicic volcano in northern New Mexico that possesses enormous geothermal potential. The caldera has formed at the intersection of the volcanically active Jemez lineament and the tectonically active Rio Grande rift. Volcanic rocks of the Jemez Mountains overlie Paleozoic—Mesozoic sediments, and Precambrian granitic basement. Although the regional heat flow along the Rio Grande rift is ~2.7 HFU , convective heat flow within the caldera exceeds 10 HFU. A moderately saline hotwater geothermal system ( T > 260° C, Cl ⋍ 3000 mg/ l) has been tapped in fractured caldera-fill ignimbrites at depths of 1800 m. Surface geothermal phenomena include central fumaroles and acid-sulfate springs surrounded by dilute thermal meteoric hot springs. Derivative hot springs from the deep geothermal reservoir issue along the Jemez fault zone, 10 km southwest of the caldera. Present geothermal projects are: (1) proposed construction of an initial 50-MW el power plant utilizing the known geothermal reservoir; (2) research and development of the prototype hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal system that circulates surface water through deep Precambrian basement (˜5MW th); (3) exploration for deep hot fluids in adjacent basin-fill sediments of the Rio Grande rift; and (4) shallow exploration drilling for hot fluids along the Jemez fault zone. 1 HFU (heat flow unit) = 1 μcal. s -2 cm -2 = 41.67 mW m -2.

  9. Geothermal development attitudes surveyed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The State of Hawaii has conducted several surveys on public opinion towards the development of geothermal energy. The latest poll was designed to: measure public opinion in the County of Hawaii relevant to geothermal development for electrical power supplied to Island of Hawaii residents only; measure public opinion in the County of Hawaii relevant to geothermal development of electricity to be exported for use on Oahu; and identify barriers to, and opportunities for energy conservation programs, including geothermal development. In general, the residents of the County of Hawaii favor some form of geothermal development. Issues on geothermal development of concern to the public were similar to those mentioned in the 1982 study. Basically, the issues amount to a trade-off between the economic advantages and the environmental problems of geothermal development. The strong points in favor of development include a perceived need for more energy, a strong preference for alternate energy forms over petroleum, perceived benefits for the local economy and the employment rates, and the possibility that development may reduce or contain utility bills. On the other hand, it appears that geothermal development will cause health problems for those who live near the wells, be hazardous to flora and fauna in the Puna area, and create noise and odor above tolerable levels. These are oversimplified statements of the reasons behind both support and opposition for geothermal development.

  10. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  11. GEOTHERM user guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, James R.

    1977-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a computerized geothermal resources file developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The file contains data on geothermal fields, wells, and chemical analyses from the United states and international sources. The General Information Processing System (GIPSY) in the IBM 370/155 computer is used to store and retrieve data. The GIPSY retrieval program contains simple commands which can be used to search the file, select a narrowly defined subset, sort the records, and output the data in a variety of forms. Eight commands are listed and explained so that the GEOTHERM file can be accessed directly by geologists. No programming experience is necessary to retrieve data from the file.

  12. Optimal convective brine drainage from sea ice and optimal brine channel spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, A. J.; Wettlaufer, J. S.; Orszag, S.

    2010-12-01

    The state of the polar climate is intricately linked to the structure and evolution of sea ice. While it is well known that the drainage of brine from sea ice influences its structural properties, the exchange of heat and chemicals between ice and ocean, and forcing of the ocean thermohaline circulation, models often rely on ad hoc parameterizations in the absence of theoretical justification. We develop a theoretical model of the physical processes responsible for brine drainage driven by gravity. Sea ice consists of a porous array of ice crystals bathed in dense salty brine; a reactive porous medium. The buoyancy driven flow of brine leads to local dissolution of ice and the formation of brine channels: ice free conduits through which brine drains. It is observed that the spacing of brine channels and structure of the ice matrix evolve as sea ice grows. We consider nonlinear convection in a reactive porous medium undergoing steady state growth, applying a numerical model to investigate the mechanism controlling the spatial distribution of brine channels. The theory predicts a brine flux scaling law that is consistent with previous experiments, and the resulting dynamics yields insight into variations in sea ice microstructure and fluid transport through the ice.

  13. Research on geothermal chemistry and advanced instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertus, R. J.; Shannon, D. W.; Sullivan, R. G.; Kindle, C. H.; Pool, K. H.

    1985-09-01

    Research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) focuses on long-term geothermal power plant reliability. Past work concentrated on development of continuous high-temperature probes for monitoring process variables. PNL also completed a comprehensive handbook of brine treatment processes as they relate to injection well longevity. A recently completed study analyzed corrosion in the hydrocarbon system of a binary cycle plant. Over the two-year monitoring period, corrosion rates were less than 1 MPY in any part of the hydrocarbon system. The system was kept completely dry so the rates seem reasonable. Present projects include: (1) determination of gas breakout conditions at the Herber Binary Demonstration Plant operated by San Diego Gas and Electric Company; (2) generation of water mixing solubility data; (3) installation of prototype leak detectors at the Herber Plant; and (4) evaluation of state-of-the-art particle counters.

  14. Clay-based geothermal drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Lee, L.J.; Bernhard, R.P.

    1982-11-01

    The rheological properties of fluids based on fibrous clays such as sepiolite and attapulgite have been systematically examined under conditions similar to those of geothermal wells, i.e. at elevated temperatures and pressures in environments with concentrated brines. Attapulgite- and sepiolite-based fluids have been autoclaved at temperatures in the range from 70 to 800/sup 0/F with the addition of chlorides and hydroxides of Na, K, Ca, and Mg. The rheological properties (apparent and plastic viscosity, fluid loss, gel strength, yield point, and cake thickness) of the autoclaved fluids have been studied and correlated with the chemical and physical changes that occur in the clay minerals during the autoclaving process.

  15. Geochemical studies of the geothermal systems in Kenya: II. The Majimoto geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tole, Mwakio P.

    1992-04-01

    The Majimoto geothermal field discharges at the boundary between metamorphic schists and gneisses of Precambrian age, and Pleistocene volcanic ashes. The waters are near neutral, low salinity waters. Calculated reservoir temperatures are about 90°C. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes indicate that the thermal waters are meteoric in origin. The field is suitable for development for uses in spa therapy, crop drying, milk pasteurisation, leather processing and house warming.

  16. Effects of irrigation on crops and soils with Raft River geothermal water

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, N.E.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Raft River Irrigation Experiment investigated the suitability of using energy-expended geothermal water for irrigation of selected field-grown crops. Crop and soil behavior on plots sprinkled or surface irrigated with geothermal water was compared to crop and soil behavior on plots receiving water from shallow irrigation wells and the Raft River. In addition, selected crops were produced, using both geothermal irrigation water and special management techniques. Crops irrigated with geothermal water exhibited growth rates, yields, and nutritional values similar to comparison crops. Cereal grains and surface-irrigated forage crops did not exhibit elevated fluoride levels or accumulations of heavy metals. However, forage crops sprinkled with geothermal water did accumulate fluorides, and leaching experiments indicate that new soils receiving geothermal water may experience increased salinity, exchangeable sodium, and decreased permeability. Soil productivity may be maintained by leaching irrigations.

  17. Leachate generated by an oil-and-gas brine pond site in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, E.C.; Kehew, A.E.; Groenewold, G.H.; Beal, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two unlined ponds were used for holding and evaporation of brines produced with oil and gas at a well site in north-central North Dakota. The brine-evaporation ponds were in use from 1959 up to the late 1970s when they were backfilled and leveled. Continued salt-water migration at this site since closure has decreased crop yields in surrounding fields and has killed trees in a shelterbelt within an area of approximately 10 acres. An apparent resistivity survey delineated a 360,000-ha area of extremely low resistivity. Isoconcentration maps indicate that a highly saline leachate plume extends laterally in a 500-foot radius around the ponds and vertically to a depth of 70 feet below the surface. Ground-water recharge at this site is low because of the semiarid climate and the low hydraulic conductivity of the near-surface sediments and, as a result, very little flushing of the brine from the sediment beneath the ponds has occurred. Pore water within the unsaturated zone beneath the reclaimed ponds contain essentially the same ionic concentrations as that of brine impounded in these pits 10 to 25 years ago. Based upon the results of this research, we estimate that brine leachate will continue to migrate at slow rates from this site for tens and possibly hundreds of years if no action is taken. The construction of a mound over the site and/or an infiltration gallery around the perimeter would minimize the spread of brine and make it possible to return this land to production in the foreseeable future.

  18. Laboratory flow experiments for visualizing carbon dioxide-induced, density-driven brine convection

    SciTech Connect

    Kneafsey, T.; Pruess, K.

    2009-09-01

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into saline aquifers confined by low-permeability cap rock will result in a layer of CO{sub 2} overlying the brine. Dissolution of CO{sub 2} into the brine increases the brine density, resulting in an unstable situation in which more-dense brine overlies less-dense brine. This gravitational instability could give rise to density-driven convection of the fluid, which is a favorable process of practical interest for CO{sub 2} storage security because it accelerates the transfer of buoyant CO{sub 2} into the aqueous phase, where it is no longer subject to an upward buoyant drive. Laboratory flow visualization tests in transparent Hele-Shaw cells have been performed to elucidate the processes and rates of this CO{sub 2} solute-driven convection (CSC). Upon introduction of CO{sub 2} into the system, a layer of CO{sub 2}-laden brine forms at the CO{sub 2}-water interface. Subsequently, small convective fingers form, which coalesce, broaden, and penetrate into the test cell. Images and time-series data of finger lengths and wavelengths are presented. Observed CO{sub 2} uptake of the convection system indicates that the CO{sub 2} dissolution rate is approximately constant for each test and is far greater than expected for a diffusion-only scenario. Numerical simulations of our system show good agreement with the experiments for onset time of convection and advancement of convective fingers. There are differences as well, the most prominent being the absence of cell-scale convection in the numerical simulations. This cell-scale convection observed in the experiments is probably initiated by a small temperature gradient induced by the cell illumination.

  19. Widespread legacy brine contamination from oil production reduces survival of chorus frog larvae.

    PubMed

    Hossack, Blake R; Puglis, Holly J; Battaglin, William A; Anderson, Chauncey W; Honeycutt, R Ken; Smalling, Kelly L

    2017-08-29

    Advances in drilling techniques have facilitated a rapid increase in hydrocarbon extraction from energy shales, including the Williston Basin in central North America. This area overlaps with the Prairie Pothole Region, a region densely populated with wetlands that provide numerous ecosystem services. Historical (legacy) disposal practices often released saline co-produced waters (brines) with high chloride concentrations, affecting wetland water quality directly or persisting in sediments. Despite the potential threat of brine contamination to aquatic habitats, there has been little research into its ecological effects. We capitalized on a gradient of legacy brine-contaminated wetlands in northeast Montana to conduct laboratory experiments to assess variation in survival of larval Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata) reared on sediments from 3 local wetlands and a control source. To help provide environmental context for the experiment, we also measured chloride concentrations in 6 brine-contaminated wetlands in our study area, including the 2 contaminated sites used for sediment exposures. Survival of frog larvae during 46- and 55-day experiments differed by up to 88% among sediment sources (Site Model) and was negatively correlated with potential chloride exposure (Chloride Model). Five of the 6 contaminated wetlands exceeded the U.S. EPA acute benchmark for chloride in freshwater (860 mg/L) and all exceeded the chronic benchmark (230 mg/L). However, the Wetland Site model explained more variation in survival than the Chloride Model, suggesting that chloride concentration alone does not fully reflect the threat of contamination to aquatic species. Because the profiles of brine-contaminated sediments are complex, further surveys and experiments are needed across a broad range of conditions, especially where restoration or remediation actions have reduced brine-contamination. Information provided by this study can help quantify potential ecological threats

  20. Brine Organisms and the Question of Habitat Specific Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, Thomas; Waber, Jack; Stoecker, Roy

    1984-12-01

    Among the well-known ultrasaline terrestrial habitats, the Dead Sea in the Jordan Rift Valley and Don Juan Pond in the Upper Wright Valley represent two of the most extreme. The former is a saturated sodium chloride-magnesium sulfate brine in a hot desert, the latter a saturated calcium chloride brine in an Antarctic desert. Both Dead Sea and Don Juan water bodies themselves are limited in microflora, but the saline Don Juan algal mat and muds contain abundant nutrients and a rich and varied microbiota, including Oscillatoria, Gleocapsa, Chlorella, diatoms, Penicillium and bacteria. In such environments, the existence of an array of specific adaptations is a common, and highly reasonable, presumption, at least with respect to habitat-obligate forms. Nevertheless, many years of ongoing study in our laboratory have demonstrated that lichens (e.g. Cladonia), algae (e.g. Nostoc) and fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus) from the humid tropics can sustain metabolism down to -40°C and growth down to -10°C in simulated Dead Sea or Don Juan (or similar) media without benefit of selection or gradual acclimation. Non-selection is suggested in fungi by higher growth rates from vegetative inocula than spores. The importance of nutrient parameters was also evident in responses to potassium and reduced nitrogen compounds. In view of the saline performance of tropical Nostoc, and its presence in the Antarctic dry valley soils, its complete absence in our Don Juan mat samples was and remains a puzzle. We suggest that adaptive capability is already resident in many terrestrial life forms not currently in extreme habitats, a possible reflection of evolutionary selection for wide spectrum environmental adaptability.

  1. The Mediterranean salinity crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, K.J.

    1988-08-01

    That the Mediterranean Sea underwent a salinity crisis during the Miocene (Messinian) is proven by the 1970 JOIDES deep sea drilling expedition. Subsequent work by ocean drilling and by studies on land have recorded the history of this crisis. Based upon the deep desiccated-basin model, the use of event-stratigraphy, calibrated by strontium-isotope dating and magnetostratigraphy, has enabled them to decipher the following events between 6.0 and 5.1 Ma: (1) deposition of marine diatom-rich sediments in a partially restricted basin, (2) first desiccation of the Mediterranean when Calcare di base was deposited at a time of isolation from the Atlantic because of a glacial eustatic drop of sea level, (3) influx of marine waters through southern Spanish basins to furnish brines for the deposition of the main salt, (4) Intra-Messinian desiccation, as evidenced by the erosional unconformity above the lower evaporite, (5) Intra-Messinian denudation, when reefs grew on Cyprus and marine sediments were deposited in basins, (6) frequency isolations due to oscillating sea level, when the upper evaporite was deposited, (7) Lago mare, formation of freshwater and brackish lakes due to influx of Paratethys water, (8) opening of the Gibraltar and Pliocene inundation of the Mediterranean.

  2. Hydrocarbon content of geopressured brines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Osif, T.L.

    1985-08-01

    Design Well data (bottomhole pressure minus wellhead pressure, GWR, and hydrocarbon composition) is presented as a function of producing conditions. These are examined in conjunction with the following models to attempt to deduce the reservoir brine saturation level: (1) reservoir contains gas dispersed in the pores and the gas saturation is greater than critical; (2) reservoir brine is gas-saturated; (3) bubble point below hydrostatic pressure; and (4) bubble point between hydrostatic pressure and reservoir pressure. 24 figs., 10 tabs. (ACR)

  3. Integrated process for coalbed brine disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, H. |; Bourcier, W.L.; Jackson, K.J.

    1994-03-01

    A brine disposal process is described that converts the brine stream of a coalbed gas producing site into clean water for agricultural use, combustion products and water vapor that can be released into the atmosphere and dry solids that can be recycled for industrial consumption. The process uses a reverse osmosis unit, a submerged combustion evaporator and a pulse combustion dryer. Pretreatment of the brine feedstream is necessary to prevent fouling of the membranes of the reverse osmosis unit and to separate from the brine stream hazardous metal and other constituents that may make the permeate from the reverse osmosis unit unsuitable for agricultural or other use. A chemical modeling code is used to calculate the saturation states of solids that may precipitate and foul the reverse osmosis membranes. Sodium carbonate is added to the brine to precipitate carbonates of Ba, Ca, Mg and Sr prior to filtration, acidification, and passage into the reverse osmosis unit. Optimization of the process in terms of types and amounts of additives is possible with analysis using the modeling code. The minimum amounts of additives to prevent scaling are calculated. In a typical operation, a brine feedstream of 1,000 m{sup 3}/day (6,290 bpd) that may have a total dissolved salt concentration (TDS) of 7,000 ppm will be separated into a permeate stream of 750 m{sup 3}/day (4,718 bpd) with a TDS of 400 ppm and a concentrated brine stream of 250 m{sup 3}/day (1,573 bpd) with a TDS of 26,800 ppm. The submerged combustion evaporator will concentrate this latter stream to a concentration of 268,000 ppm and reduce the volume to 25 m{sup 3}/day (158 bpd). The pulse combustion dryer can dry the concentrated brine mixture to a low moisture salt. Energy costs to operate the reverse osmosis unit are primarily the pumping costs.

  4. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  5. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 3: Applied and direct uses, resource feasibility, economics

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Geopressured-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant: design, testing, and operation summary; Feasibility of hydraulic energy recovery from geopressured-geothermal resources: economic analysis of the Pelton turbine; Brine production as an exploration tool for water drive gas reservoirs; Study of supercritical Rankine cycles; Application of the geopressured-geothermal resource to pyrolytic conversion or decomposition/detoxification processes; Conclusions on wet air oxidation, pyrolytic conversion, decomposition/detoxification process; Co-location of medium to heavy oil reservoirs with geopressured-geothermal resources and the feasibility of oil recovery using geopressured-geothermal fluids; Economic analysis; Application of geopressured-geothermal resources to direct uses; Industrial consortium for the utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resource; Power generation; Industrial desalination, gas use and sales, pollutant removal, thermal EOR, sulfur frasching, oil and natural gas pipelining, coal desulfurization and preparation, lumber and concrete products kilning; Agriculture and aquaculture applications; Paper and cane sugar industries; Chemical processing; Environmental considerations for geopressured-geothermal development. 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  6. Geopressured geothermal resource of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast: a technology characterization and environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Usibelli, A.; Deibler, P.; Sathaye, J.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal resource: (1) the technological requirements for well drilling, completion, and energy conversion, and, (2) the environmental impacts of resource exploitation are examined. The information comes from the literature on geopressured geothermal research and from interviews and discussions with experts. The technology characterization section emphasizes those areas in which uncertainty exists and in which further research and development is needed. The environmental assessment section discusses all anticipated environmental impacts and focuses on the two largest potential problems: (a) subsidence and (b) brine disposal.

  7. Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to shallow aquifers in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Warner, Nathaniel R; Jackson, Robert B; Darrah, Thomas H; Osborn, Stephen G; Down, Adrian; Zhao, Kaiguang; White, Alissa; Vengosh, Avner

    2012-07-24

    The debate surrounding the safety of shale gas development in the Appalachian Basin has generated increased awareness of drinking water quality in rural communities. Concerns include the potential for migration of stray gas, metal-rich formation brines, and hydraulic fracturing and/or flowback fluids to drinking water aquifers. A critical question common to these environmental risks is the hydraulic connectivity between the shale gas formations and the overlying shallow drinking water aquifers. We present geochemical evidence from northeastern Pennsylvania showing that pathways, unrelated to recent drilling activities, exist in some locations between deep underlying formations and shallow drinking water aquifers. Integration of chemical data (Br, Cl, Na, Ba, Sr, and Li) and isotopic ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr, (2)H/H, (18)O/(16)O, and (228)Ra/(226)Ra) from this and previous studies in 426 shallow groundwater samples and 83 northern Appalachian brine samples suggest that mixing relationships between shallow ground water and a deep formation brine causes groundwater salinization in some locations. The strong geochemical fingerprint in the salinized (Cl > 20 mg/L) groundwater sampled from the Alluvium, Catskill, and Lock Haven aquifers suggests possible migration of Marcellus brine through naturally occurring pathways. The occurrences of saline water do not correlate with the location of shale-gas wells and are consistent with reported data before rapid shale-gas development in the region; however, the presence of these fluids suggests conductive pathways and specific geostructural and/or hydrodynamic regimes in northeastern Pennsylvania that are at increased risk for contamination of shallow drinking water resources, particularly by fugitive gases, because of natural hydraulic connections to deeper formations.

  8. Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to shallow aquifers in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Nathaniel R.; Jackson, Robert B.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Osborn, Stephen G.; Down, Adrian; Zhao, Kaiguang; White, Alissa; Vengosh, Avner

    2012-01-01

    The debate surrounding the safety of shale gas development in the Appalachian Basin has generated increased awareness of drinking water quality in rural communities. Concerns include the potential for migration of stray gas, metal-rich formation brines, and hydraulic fracturing and/or flowback fluids to drinking water aquifers. A critical question common to these environmental risks is the hydraulic connectivity between the shale gas formations and the overlying shallow drinking water aquifers. We present geochemical evidence from northeastern Pennsylvania showing that pathways, unrelated to recent drilling activities, exist in some locations between deep underlying formations and shallow drinking water aquifers. Integration of chemical data (Br, Cl, Na, Ba, Sr, and Li) and isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr, 2H/H, 18O/16O, and 228Ra/226Ra) from this and previous studies in 426 shallow groundwater samples and 83 northern Appalachian brine samples suggest that mixing relationships between shallow ground water and a deep formation brine causes groundwater salinization in some locations. The strong geochemical fingerprint in the salinized (Cl > 20 mg/L) groundwater sampled from the Alluvium, Catskill, and Lock Haven aquifers suggests possible migration of Marcellus brine through naturally occurring pathways. The occurrences of saline water do not correlate with the location of shale-gas wells and are consistent with reported data before rapid shale-gas development in the region; however, the presence of these fluids suggests conductive pathways and specific geostructural and/or hydrodynamic regimes in northeastern Pennsylvania that are at increased risk for contamination of shallow drinking water resources, particularly by fugitive gases, because of natural hydraulic connections to deeper formations. PMID:22778445

  9. Detailed conceptual design of a high temperature glass pH electrode for geothermal applications. Final report. Task II

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.M.; Phelan, D.M.

    1980-09-01

    The performance of a pH sensor for use in hot geothermal brine was determined by laboratory tests simulating the expected conditions of use. Tests were conducted at temperatures from 21/sup 0/C to 260/sup 0/C and pressures from atmospheric to 5000 psi. Probes were constructed according to the design recommended. Deficiencies were found in the areas of seal, stem glass integrity and glass stability in hot simulated brine. Modifications of the design were made and tested, the improved versions overcoming the seal and stem glass cracking problems. A different pH glass formulation was used which improved sensor performance. Test results of the final design show that the sensor survived hot brine exposure at temperatures up to and including 200/sup 0/C, retaining its low temperature pH measuring capability. Exposure to 250/sup 0/C brine resulted in irreversible probe changes which caused sensor deterioration and failure. Comparative results are shown.

  10. Production and mitigation of acid chlorides in geothermal steam

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.

    1995-06-01

    Measurements of the equilibrium distribution of relatively nonvolatile solutes between aqueous liquid and vapor phases have been made at temperatures to 350{degrees}C for HCl(aq) and chloride salts. These data are directly applicable to problems of corrosive-steam production in geothermal steam systems. Compositions of high-temperature brines which could produce steam having given concentrations of chlorides may be estimated at various boiling temperatures. Effects of mitigation methods (e.g., desuperheating) can be calculated based on liquid-vapor equilibrium constants and solute mass balances under vapor-saturation conditions.

  11. Geothermal pump down-hole energy regeneration system

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, H.B.

    1982-08-03

    Geothermal deep well energy extraction apparatus is provided of the general kind in which solute-bearing hot water is pumped to the earth's surface from a subterranean location by utilizing thermal energy extracted from the hot water for operating a turbine motor for driving an electrical power generator at the earth 3 S surface, the solute bearing water being returned into the earth by a reinjection well. Efficiency of operation of the total system is increased by an arrangement of coaxial conduits for greatly reducing the flow of heat from the rising brine into the rising exhaust of the down-well turbine motor.

  12. Geothermal pump down-hole energy regeneration system

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Hugh B.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal deep well energy extraction apparatus is provided of the general kind in which solute-bearing hot water is pumped to the earth's surface from a subterranean location by utilizing thermal energy extracted from the hot water for operating a turbine motor for driving an electrical power generator at the earth 3 s surface, the solute bearing water being returned into the earth by a reinjection well. Efficiency of operation of the total system is increased by an arrangement of coaxial conduits for greatly reducing the flow of heat from the rising brine into the rising exhaust of the down-well turbine motor.

  13. Dispersive Tidal Plume Modeling of Brine Discharge from Reverse Osmosis (RO) Desalination System, Coral Bay, St. John, USVI using Finite Segment Steady-state Response Matrix (SSRM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J.; Shahvari, A.

    2011-12-01

    This characterization and modeling study of dispersive tidal plume of brine discharge from reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system is a part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) for a new reverse osmosis system in the Coral Bay, St. John, USVI (US Virgin Island). Main foci are on developing the tidal longitudinal (perpendicular to the shoreline) and lateral (parallel to the shoreline) dispersion coefficients and subsequently characterize dispersion and mixing characterization of the negatively buoyant brine discharge plume from the proposed reverse osmosis plant to evaluate the level of salinity variations in the nearshore mixing plume in regard to existing coral reef ecosystem. An in situ dye study was conducted by a marine biologist for this purpose to estimate brine discharge plume dispersion coefficients under oscillatory tidal transport and fate flux for current and proposed plant configuration. Additional tidal and surface runoff hydrologic data, bathymetric data and brine discharge characteristics in the vicinity of the brine discharge location are reflected in this study. With estimated dispersion coefficients, eighteen brine discharge scenarios were evaluated to model anticipated dispersive characteristics under varying operational conditions and ambient tidal current conditions for average measured salinity of 33.27 PSU in loco as well as a standard 35 PSU for typical nearshore water salinity variations. Modeling results indicated that the dispersive tidal plume of design brine discharge from reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system at a discharge of 150,000 gpd would raise salinity no higher than 0.0123 PSU in receiving nearshore estuarine water (Maximum concentration at the segment 3 = 33.2822 PSU at Δt = 12 hrs and 24 hrs in diurnal tidal cycle under when the brine discharge with Base+25% concentration, 81.25 PSU at brine discharge rate of 0.0066 m3/sec, and with a minimum direct overland flow efflux at 0.003 m3/sec - this is a "worst-case" operating

  14. Geothermal energy for greenhouses

    Treesearch

    Jacky Friedman

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy is heat (thermal) derived from the earth (geo). The heat flows along a geothermal gradient from the center of the earth to the surface. Most of the heat arrives at the surface of the earth at temperatures too low for much use. However, plate tectonics ensure that some of the heat is concentrated at temperatures and depths favorable for its commercial...

  15. Benefits of Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    One of the principal benefits of geothermal power plants is that they provide baseload power. Baseload power plants provide power all or most of the time and contrast with peaker plants which turn on or off as demand rises, or peaks, throughout the day. Geothermal plants contrast with other renewable energy resources like wind and solar energy that generate power intermittently.

  16. Geothermal Financing Workbook

    SciTech Connect

    Battocletti, E.C.

    1998-02-01

    This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

  17. Volcanology and geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wohletz, K.; Heiken, G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this book is to demonstrate how volcanological concepts can be applied to the evaluation and exploration of geothermal energy resources. In regard to the geothermal content of the book, some of the information comes from the first-hand experience gained during the authors' exploration work in Middle America and with the Los Alamos Hot Dry Rock program. Other cases discussed come from classic geothermal systems in many regions and settings. The book begins with a summary of recent practical advances in volcanology, and then moves on to describe the considerable importance of pyroclastic rocks as a took to evaluate geothermal systems, including an in-depth treatment of hydrovolcanism. Following chapters deal with surface manifestations of geothermal systems, and systems associated with calderas, silicic lava domes, and basaltic volcanoes. The last chapter is on geothermal systems in maturing composite volcanoes. The Appendices include a broad overview of field methods in volcanic regions, volcanic rock classifications and properties, thermodynamic properties of water vapor (steam tables), and the use of cuttings in geothermal well logs. A two-dimensional heat flow code used for estimating geothermal resources is also given. The book makes two significant contributions: first, in its treatment of eruption dynamics, focusing on quantitative and theoretical analysis of volcanic processes, and second, in its comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of hydrovolcanism, including fuel-coolant interactions and hydrofracturing.

  18. Fate and identification of oil-brine contamination in different hydrogeologic settings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whittemore, D.O.

    2007-01-01

    Past disposal of oil-field brine at the surface has caused substantial contamination of water resources in Kansas. Natural saline water occurs in and discharges from Permian bedrock in parts of the state, and other anthropogenic sources of saline water exist, requiring clear identification of different sources. Time-series analysis of Cl- concentration and streamflow relative to pre-contamination contents, and end-member mixing plots, especially for Br- and Cl-, are practical methods for source differentiation and quantification. Although regulations preventing escape of saltwater from oil wells were first passed in Kansas in 1935, much oil and gas brine was disposed on the surface through the 1940s. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the areas with past surface disposal of oil brine differ appreciably and result in large differences in the ratio of saltwater transported in streams or ground water. Much of the brine disposed during the 1910s to 1940s in an area of silty clay soils overlying shale and limestone bedrock in south-central Kansas soon ran off or was flushed from the surface by rain into streams. Chloride concentration in the rivers draining this area often exceeded 1000 mg/L after the start of oil production up to the 1950s. Chloride content in the rivers then generally declined to about 100 mg/L or less in recent low flows. Oil brine was also disposed in surface ponds overlying the unconsolidated High Plains aquifer in south-central Kansas from the latter 1920s into the 1940s. Most of the surface-disposed brine infiltrated to the underlying aquifer. Where the High Plains aquifer is thin, saltwater has migrated along the top of clay layers or the underlying shaly bedrock and either discharged into small streams or flowed into thicker parts of the aquifer. Where the aquifer is thick, surface-disposed oil brine moved downward until reaching clay lenses, migrated latterly to the edge of the clay, and again moved downward if still dense enough. Water

  19. Los Azufres geothermal field: Observed response after 12-year exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    Exploitation of the Los Azufres Geothermal field was initiated in August 1982, with the electric power generation of five 5-MW wellhead units. Since then another 70 MW have been installed. A large amount of information has been compiled, including geologic, geochemical, production, and reservoir characteristics. The data were evaluated to detect the extent of observable changes in the main reservoir parameters over the twelve-year production period. Pressure and temperature measurements in Los Azufres wells show that geothermal fluid distribution is strongly influenced by the presence of permeable structures. Wellhead production and chemical analysis of the separated brine show that we are dealing with a highly heterogeneous reservoir, were the drawdown and enthalpy changes depend on the position of the well being studied.

  20. Polymer concrete lined pipe for use in geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeding, Albert O.

    1982-10-08

    A specific polymer concrete formulation was applied as a steel pipe liner in response to a need for durable, economical materials for use in contact with high temperature geothermal brine. Compressive strengths of up to 165.8 MPa and splitting tensile strengths of 23.5 MPa were measured at ambient temperature. Compressive strengths of 24 MPa and splitting tensile strengths of 2.5 MPa were measured at about 150 C. Cost of piping a geothermal plant with PC and PC-lined steel pipe is calculated to be $1.21 million, which compares favorably with a similar plant piped with alloy steel piping at a cost of $1.33 million. Life-cycle cost analysis indicates that the cost of PC-lined steel pipe would be 82% of that of carbon steel pipe over a 20-year plant operating life.

  1. Geothermal energy for the increased recovery of copper by flotation enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The possible use of geothermal energy (a) to speed the recovery of copper from ore flotation and/or leaching of flotation tailings and (b) to utilize geothermal brines to replace valuable fresh water in copper flotation operations was evaluated. Geothermal energy could be used to enhance copper and molybdenum recovery in mineral flotation by increasing the kinetics of the flotation process. In another approach, geothermal energy could be used to heat the leaching solution which might permit greater copper recovery using the same residence time in a tailings leach facility. Since there is no restriction on the temperature of the leaching fluid, revenues generated from the additional copper recovered would be greater for tailings leach operations than for other types of leach operations (for example, dump leaching operation) for which temperature restrictions exist. The estimated increase in total revenues resulting from two percent increase copper recovery in a 50,000 tons ore/day plant was estimated to be over $2,000,000 annually. It would require an estimated geothermal investment of about $2,130,000 for a geothermal well and pumping system. Thus, the capital investment would be paid out in about one year. Furthermore, considerable savings of fresh waters and process equipment are possible if the geothermal waters can be used directly in the mine-mill operations, which is believed to be practical.

  2. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D.

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  3. Synergistic desalination of potash brine-impacted groundwater using a dual adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Nick P; Dynes, James J; Chang, Wonjae

    2017-09-01

    The impact of saline mining effluent has been a significant environmental concern. Natural and modified clay-mineral adsorbents have been receiving increasing attention for salinity reduction of brine-impacted water, especially for natural resource extraction sites and surrounding environments. In this study, a dual-adsorbent treatment based on the sequential application of calcined layered double hydroxide (CLDH) and acid-treated zeolite was developed, evaluated and characterized for the desalination of potash brine-impacted groundwater. Potash brine produced by conventional potash mining in Saskatchewan (Canada) contains a large amount of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-). The CLDH and acid-treated clinoptilolite zeolites were combined to sequentially remove Cl(-) and Na(+). A series of batch adsorption experiments were conducted for synthetic saline water and potash brine-spiked groundwater using various combinations of adsorbents: natural zeolites (NZ) or acid-treated zeolites (AZ) with or without the CLDH pretreatment. The experiment revealed that the Na(+) removal percentage was synergistically increased by the dechlorination pretreatment using CLDH, and further improved by AZ. The CLDH-AZ dual adsorbent achieved a Langmuir Na(+) adsorption capacity of 24.4mg/g, a significant improvement over conventional approaches to zeolite-based desalination. Using the brine-impacted groundwater with a high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of 13.3±0.1, the CLDH-AZ dual adsorbent decreased the concentrations of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) by 87, 97, and 87%, respectively (below drinking water standards). It also exhibited the additional advantages of neutralizing the effluent pH and decreasing the hardness, SAR, and total dissolved sulfur concentration. This study addresses the removal mechanisms, which are associated with the structural memory effect, dealumination, protonic exchanges, and zeolite porosity changes. Synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy analyses provided

  4. Geothermal energy in Iceland

    SciTech Connect

    Ragnarsson, A.

    1996-11-01

    The annual primary energy supply in Iceland, which has a population of 268,000, is 98,000 TJ (T = 10{sup 12}) or 366 GJ per capita, which is among the highest in the world. Geothermal energy provides about 48.8% of the total, hydropower 17.2%, oil 31.5% and coal 2.5%. The main use of geothermal energy is for space heating. About 85% of all houses are heated with geothermal energy; the rest are heated mainly by electricity. So far, geothermal resources have only, to a limited extent, been used for electric power generation, because of the availability of relatively cheap hydropower resources. Of the total electricity production of 5,000 GWh in 1995, only 288 GWh or 5.8% came from geothermal energy, 94% from hydro and 0.2% from fuels.

  5. Feasibility of using saturated solar ponds for brine unmixing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-30

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate in the laboratory the feasibility of using saturated solar ponds for unmixing a brine of intermediate concentration into dilute and concentrated brine streams for salinity gradient energy conversion systems. This objective was accomplished by conducting experiments on laboratory saturated ponds using borax, potassium perchlorate, potassium nitrate, disodium phosphate and potassium alum. Results from ponds using borax, potassium nitrate and disodium phosphate conclusively demonstrated that saturated solar ponds can self-generate and self-maintain a stable density gradient. Moreover, these ponds reestablished stable density profiles after the ponds were externally mixed. Based on preliminary results, the residence time for unmixing of a brine of intermediate concentration into dilute and concentrated brine streams varies from a few days for the borax pond to about two weeks for the disodium phosphate pond, depending upon the characteristics of the individual saturated solution. Because of only a very small increase in the density of saturated solutions from 25/sup 0/C to 90/sup 0/C, the potassium perchlorate pond could not establish a stable density stratification.

  6. Microbial diversity and activity in seafloor brine lake sediments (Alaminos Canyon block 601, Gulf of Mexico).

    PubMed

    Crespo-Medina, M; Bowles, M W; Samarkin, V A; Hunter, K S; Joye, S B

    2016-09-01

    The microbial communities thriving in deep-sea brines are sustained largely by energy rich substrates supplied through active seepage. Geochemical, microbial activity, and microbial community composition data from different habitats at a Gulf of Mexico brine lake in Alaminos Canyon revealed habitat-linked variability in geochemistry that in turn drove patterns in microbial community composition and activity. The bottom of the brine lake was the most geochemically extreme (highest salinity and nutrient concentrations) habitat and its microbial community exhibited the highest diversity and richness indices. The habitat at the upper halocline of the lake hosted the highest rates of sulfate reduction and methane oxidation, and the largest inventories of dissolved inorganic carbon, particulate organic carbon, and hydrogen sulfide. Statistical analyses indicated a significant positive correlation between the bacterial and archaeal diversity in the bottom brine sample and NH4+ inventories. Other environmental factors with positive correlation with microbial diversity indices were DOC, H2 S, and DIC concentrations. The geochemical regime of different sites within this deep seafloor extreme environment exerts a clear selective force on microbial communities and on patterns of microbial activity.

  7. Generation of porphyry copper deposits by gas-brine reaction in volcanic arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundy, J.; Mavrogenes, J.; Tattitch, B.; Sparks, S.; Gilmer, A.

    2015-03-01

    Porphyry copper deposits, that is, copper ore associated with hydrothermal fluids rising from a magma chamber, supply 75% of the world's copper. They are typically associated with intrusions of magma in the crust above subduction zones, indicating a primary role for magmatism in driving mineralization. However, it is not clear that a single, copper-rich magmatic fluid could trigger both copper enrichment and the subsequent precipitation of sulphide ore minerals within a zone of hydrothermally altered rock. Here we draw on observations of modern subduction zone volcanism to propose an alternative process for porphyry copper formation. We suggest that copper enrichment initially involves metalliferous, magmatic hyper-saline liquids, or brines, that exsolve from large, magmatic intrusions assembled in the shallow crust over tens to hundreds of thousands of years. In a subsequent step, sulphide ore precipitation is triggered by the interaction of the accumulated brines with sulphur-rich gases, liberated in short-lived bursts from the underlying mafic magmas. We use high-temperature and high-pressure laboratory experiments to simulate such gas-brine interactions. The experiments yield copper-iron sulphide minerals and hydrogen chloride gas at magmatic temperatures of 700-800 °C, with textural and chemical characteristics that resemble those in porphyry copper deposits. We therefore conclude that porphyry copper ore forms in a two-stage process of brine enrichment followed by gas-induced precipitation.

  8. Salinity of oceanic hydrothermal fluids: a fluid inclusion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehlig, Pierre

    1991-03-01

    An extensive microthermometric study of quartz, epidote, plagioclase, anhydrite and sphalerite-hosted fluid inclusions from ophiolitic [Semail (Oman) and Trinity (California) ophiolites] and oceanic (East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vents, Gorringe Bank, ODP Leg 111 Hole 504B) crust has been carried out in order to constrain a model accounting for wide salinity variations measured in the oceanic hydrothermal fluids. Recorded salinities in fluid inclusions vary between 0.3 and 52 wt% NaCl eq. However, more than 60% of the mean (± standard deviation) salinities of the samples are within the range 3.2 ± 0.3wt% NaCl eq (= microthermometric error) and the mean salinity of all fluid inclusions (without the brines) is 4.0 wt% NaCl eq with a standard deviation of 1.6 wt% NaCl eq. Whereas most samples display slightly higher salinities than seawater, several samples exhibit very high salinities (more than two times that of seawater). These high salinities are restricted to the plagiogranites (Semail and Trinity ophiolites) which mark the top of the fossil magma chamber, in the transition zone between the plutonic sequence and the sheeted dyke complex. The fluid inclusion population studied in the plagiogranites is characterized by the occurrence of four major fluid inclusion families: (1) low- to medium-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions which homogenize into the liquid phase; (2) low-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions with pseudocritical homogenization; (3) low- to medium-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions which homogenize into the vapor phase; and (4) high-salinity Liquid/Vapor/Halite fluid inclusions which homogenize into the liquid phase by halite dissolution and exhibit salinities as high as 52 wt% NaCl eq. These fluid inclusion families are interpreted as resulting from phase separation occurring in hydrothermal or magmatic fluids within the transition zone between the hydrothermal system and the magma chamber at temperatures higher than 500°C. Very low

  9. Canadian Shield brine from the Con Mine, Yellowknife, NT, Canada: Noble gas evidence for an evaporated Palaeozoic seawater origin mixed with glacial meltwater and Holocene recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Shane; Battye, Nick; Clark, Ian; Kotzer, Tom; Bottomley, Dennis

    2008-08-01

    Dissolved noble gas concentrations were measured in high salinity (270 g/L) Ca(Na)-Cl groundwaters from the Con Mine, Yellowknife, Canada in an effort to discriminate between two possible origins, as either a brine generated by evaporative enrichment in a Paleozoic inland sea, or marine water concentrated by freezing during glacial times. Major ion and isotope geochemistry indicate that brines from the deepest level remain relatively undisturbed by mixing with modern water introduced by mining. Mixing calculations are used to quantify fractions of brine, glacial meltwater and modern water. From this, noble gas concentrations were corrected for excess air with Ne and normalized to 100% brine solution. Over-pressuring of helium and argon in the brine provide age constraints based on the accumulation of geogenic 4He and 40Ar. Radiogenic age calculations together with the local geological history suggest brine emplacement during early Palaeozoic time, likely during the Devonian when evaporitic inland seas existed in this region. The concentrations of the atmospherically derived noble gases in the brine fraction (Kr = 1.4E-8, Xe = 8.5E-10 cc/ccO) are close to atmospheric equilibrium for brine at 25 °C (Kr = 7.3E-9, Xe = 8.0E-10 cc/ccO), but are far lower than would be expected for closed-system concentration of seawater by freezing (Kr = 2.8E-6, Xe = 4.2E-7 cc/ccO). Thus, despite the complicated mixing history of the brine, the atmospheric and geogenic noble gases provide strong evidence for an origin as air-equilibrated brine from evaporated Paleozoic seawater, which infiltrated via density displacement through existing fractures and faults into the Canadian Shield.

  10. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  11. Review and problem definition of water/rock reactions associated with injection of spent geothermal fluids from a geothermal plant into aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.

    1986-07-01

    Among the technical problems faced by the burgeoning geothermal industry is the disposal of spent fluids from power plants. Except in unusual circumstances the normal practice, especially in the USA, is to pump these spent fluids into injection wells to prevent contamination of surface waters, and possibly in some cases, to reduce pressure drawdown in the producing aquifers. This report is a survey of experience in geothermal injection, emphasizing geochemical problems, and a discussion of approaches to their possible mitigation. The extraction of enthalpy from geothermal fluid in power plants may cause solutions to be strongly supersaturated in various dissolved components such as silica, carbonates, sulfates, and sulfides. Injection of such supersaturated solutions into disposal wells has the potential to cause scaling in the well bores and plugging of the aquifers, leading to loss of injectivity. Various aspects of the geochemistry of geothermal brines and their potential for mineral formation are discussed, drawing upon a literature survey. Experience of brine treatment and handling, and the economics of mineral extraction are also addressed in this report. Finally suggestions are made on future needs for possible experimental, field and theoretical studies to avoid or control mineral scaling.

  12. DOE's Current Geothermal Reservoir Programs and Comments on International Cooperation in Hydrothermal Research

    SciTech Connect

    Toms, Ronald S.H.

    1983-12-15

    DOE's geothermal program continues to emphasize a range of reservoir-related programs in reservoir definition, brine injection, stimulation, hot dry rock, geopressured resources and, now, magma resources. These programs are described briefly. Programs in international cooperation between the U.S. and 23 other countries on hydrothermal research have produced important gains in knowledge over the past ten years. Although the activity has diminished, a resurgence is anticipated.

  13. The campi flegrei (Italy) geothermal system: A fluid inclusion study of the mofete and San Vito fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de, Vivo B.; Belkin, H.E.; Barbieri, M.; Chelini, W.; Lattanzi, P.; Lima, A.; Tolomeo, L.

    1989-01-01

    A fluid inclusion study of core from the Mofete 1, Mofete 2, Mofete 5, San Vito 1, and San Vito 3 geothermal wells (Campi Flegrei, Campania, Italy) indicates that the hydrothermal minerals were precipitated from aqueous fluids (??CO2) that were moderately saline (3-4 wt.% NaCl equiv.) to hypersaline (> 26 wt.% NaCl equiv.) and at least in part, boiling. Three types of primary fluid inclusions were found in authigenic K-feldspar, quartz, calcite, and epidote: (A) two-phase [liquid (L) + vapor (V)], liquid-rich inclusions with a range of salinity; (B) two-phase (L + V), vaporrich inclusions with low salinity; and (C) three-phase [L + V + crystals (NaCL)], liquid-rich inclusions with hypersalinity. Results of microthermometric and crushing studies are reported for twenty drill core samples taken from the lower portions of the five vertical wells. Data presented for selected core samples reveal a general decrease in porosity and increase in bulk density with increasing depth and temperature. Hydrothermal minerals commonly fill fractures and pore-spaces and define a zonation pattern, similar in all five wells studied, in response to increasing depth (pressure) and temperature. A greenschist facies assemblage, defined by albite + actinolite, gives way to an amphibolite facies, defined by plagioclase (andesine) + hornblende, in the San Vito 1 well at about 380??C. The fluid inclusion salinity values mimic the saline and hypersaline fluids found by drilling. Fluid inclusion V/L homogenization temperatures increase with depth and generally correspond to the extrapolated down-hole temperatures. However, fluid inclusion data for Mofete 5 and mineral assemblage data for San Vito 3, indicate fossil, higher-temperature regimes. A limited 87Sr/86Sr study of leachate (carbonate) and the leached cores shows that for most samples (except San Vito 3) the carbonate deposition has been from slightly 87Sr-enriched fluids and that Sr isotopic exchange has been incomplete. However, San

  14. Optimization of injection scheduling in geothermal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lovekin, J.

    1987-05-01

    This study discusses the application of algorithms developed in Operations Research to the optimization of brine reinjection in geothermal fields. The injection optimization problem is broken into two sub-problems: (1) choosing a configuration of injectors from an existing set of wells, and (2) allocating a total specified injection rate among chosen injectors. The allocation problem is solved first. The reservoir is idealized as a network of channels or arcs directly connecting each pair of wells in the field. Each arc in the network is considered to have some potential for thermal breakthrough. This potential is quantified by an arc-specific break-through index, b/sub ij/, based on user-specified parameters from tracer tests, field geometry, and operating considerations. The sum of b/sub ij/-values for all arcs is defined as the fieldwide breakthrough index, B. Injection is optimized by choosing injection wells and rates so as to minimize B subject to constraints on the number of injectors and the total amount of fluid to be produced and reinjected. The study presents four computer programs which employ linear or quadratic programming to solve the allocation problem. In addition, a program is presented which solves the injector configuration problem by a combination of enumeration and quadratic programming. The use of the various programs is demonstrated with reference both to hypothetical data and an actual data set from the Wairakei Geothermal Field in New Zealand.

  15. Long-term freshening of the Dead Sea brine revealed by porewater Cl- and δO18 in ICDP Dead Sea deep-drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, B.; Sivan, O.; Yechieli, Y.; Levy, E. J.; Antler, G.; Gavrieli, I.; Stein, M.

    2014-08-01

    The geological evolution of the unique Dead Sea Ca-chloride brine has been the focus of many research efforts for several decades. These studies relied on the information obtained from sedimentary exposures of the marginal terraces of the modern Dead Sea, mostly documenting the history of the surface lake brine during its high stands periods. The present study is the first attempt to establish the history of the deepest part of the lake by direct measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of pore-fluids that were extracted from cores drilled during 2011 by ICDP in the deep basin of the Dead Sea at water depth of 300 m. The vertical profiles of chloride (Cl-) and oxygen isotopes (δO18) in pore brines reveal a substantial decrease in the salinity of the hyper-saline lake during the last glacial and particularly during MIS2 (∼31-17 ka BP). The Cl- concentration of the deep brine in the lake decreased gradually, reaching a minimum of less than 2/3 of its present value while the δO18 increased to maximum of ∼7‰ (3‰ higher than today). The low Cl- indicates significant dilution of the bottom water mass (hypolimnion) of Lake Lisan (the last glacial predecessor of the modern Dead Sea) during its highest stand period. Beforehand, during the interglacial and later during the post-glacial and the Holocene the Cl- concentrations and δO18 values were similar to those of the modern Dead Sea. The slow dilution of the deep Ca-chloride brine was caused probably by continuous turbulent mixing of the hypolimnion with the less saline high δO18 epilimnetic brine, across the epilimnion/hypolimnion interface (EHI). While the increase in δO18 during the salinity decrease of Lake Lisan is a result of “normal” evaporation of the less saline epilimnetic brine, the post-glacial δO18 decrease (contemporaneous with salinity increase) is attributed to the “reversed” behavior of δO18 during evaporation of high salinity brine. During the long freshening period the

  16. Long-term freshening of the Dead Sea brine during the last glacial revealed by porewater Cl- and δ18O in ICDP Dead Sea deep-drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Boaz; Sivan, Orit; Yechieli, Yosseph; Levi, Elan; Antler, Gilad; Gavrieli, Ittai; Stein, Mordechai

    2014-05-01

    The geological evolution of the unique Dead Sea Ca-chloride brine has been the focus of many research efforts for several decades. These studies relied on the information obtained from sedimentary exposures of the marginal terraces of the modern Dead Sea, mostly documenting the history of the surface lake brine during its high stands periods. The present study is the first attempt to establish the history of the deepest part of the lake by direct measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of pore-fluids that were extracted from cores drilled during 2011 by ICDP in the deep basin of the Dead Sea at water depth of 300 m. The vertical profiles of chloride (Cl-) and oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in pore brines reveal a substantial decrease in the salinity of the hyper-saline lake during the last glacial and particularly during MIS2 (~31-17 ka BP). The Cl- concentration of the deep brine in the lake decreased gradually reaching a minimum of less than 2/3 of its present value while the δ18O on the same time increased to maximum of ~7o (3o higher than today). The low Cl- indicates significant dilution of the bottom water mass (hypolimnion) of Lake Lisan (the last glacial predecessor of the modern Dead Sea) during its highest stand period. Beforehand, during the interglacial and later during the post-glacial and the Holocene the Cl- concentrations and δ18O values were similar to those of the modern Dead Sea. The slow dilution of the deep Ca-chloride brine was caused probably by continuous turbulent mixing of the hypolimnion with the less saline high δ18O epilimnetic brine, across the epilimnion/hypolimnion interface (EHI). While the increase in δ18O during the salinity decrease of Lake Lisan is a result of 'normal' evaporation of the less saline epilimnetic brine, the post-glacial δ18O decrease (contemporaneous with salinity increase) is attributed to the 'backward' behavior of δ18O during evaporation of high salinity brine. During the long freshening period the

  17. Effects of copper, cadmium, and zinc on the hatching success of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana).

    PubMed

    Brix, K V; Gerdes, R M; Adams, W J; Grosell, M

    2006-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that the hatching success of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts is surprisingly sensitive to ambient metal concentrations. These studies estimated median effective concentrations (EC50s) of 7, 5, and 28 microg l-1 for Cd, Cu, and Zn, suggesting that the hatching end point for A. franciscana is the most sensitive tested to date for Cd and Zn in saline environments and comparable in sensitivity with the most sensitive tested to date for Cu. Furthermore, these data suggest that brine shrimp are at significant risk from Cu and Zn in Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT, where ambient concentrations as high as 10 and 14 microg l-1, respectively, have been measured. Given that brine shrimp appear to be successfully reproducing in GSL, we hypothesized that these toxicity values were either biased low as a result of an artifact of the test method used or that site-specific water-quality conditions in the lake had decreased metal bioavailability such that brine shrimp could successfully reproduce. To test these hypotheses, we initiated a step-wise series of experiments. First we investigated the effects of pretreatment of brine shrimp cysts with antibiotics on brine shrimp sensitivity to metals because previous investigators as part of their test methods have used antibiotics. Next we considered the effect of ionic composition of the artificial test media on sensitivity. Finally, we evaluated the effects of the site-specific water quality of the GSL on metal bioavailability and toxicity. Results indicate that pretreatment of cysts with antibiotics had no effect on sensitivity. However, we were unable to repeat the previous values for Cd and Zn, obtaining EC50s of 11,859 and 289 microg l-1 for Cd and Zn, respectively. For Cu, however, we estimated an EC50 of 12 microg l-1, so we conducted further testing on the artificial media, adjusting the media composition to better reflect the Ca2+ and HCO3- concentration of normal seawater. This increased the EC50

  18. Enrichment of extremophilic exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells using Red Sea brine pools as inocula.

    PubMed

    Shehab, Noura A; Ortiz-Medina, Juan F; Katuri, Krishna P; Hari, Ananda Rao; Amy, Gary; Logan, Bruce E; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2017-09-01

    Applying microbial electrochemical technologies for the treatment of highly saline or thermophilic solutions is challenging due to the lack of proper inocula to enrich for efficient exoelectrogens. Brine pools from three different locations (Valdivia, Atlantis II and Kebrit) in the Red Sea were investigated as potential inocula sources for enriching exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) under thermophilic (70°C) and hypersaline (25% salinity) conditions. Of these, only the Valdivia brine pool produced high and consistent current 6.8±2.1A/m(2)-anode in MECs operated at a set anode potential of +0.2V vs. Ag/AgCl (+0.405V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). These results show that exoelectrogens are present in these extreme environments and can be used to startup MEC under thermophilic and hypersaline conditions. Bacteroides was enriched on the anode of the Valdivia MEC, but it was not detected in the open circuit voltage reactor seeded with the Valdivia brine pool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Carbon Dioxide Solubility Models in Brine for Use in Carbon Sequestration Reservoir Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamalidis, A.; Wang, Z.; Small, M.; Dilmore, R. M.; Goodman, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon sequestration into deep geological formations, such as saline formations and oil and gas fields, is a promising method to mitigate global warming. Estimating carbon dioxide solubility (TPX) in brine under carbon sequestration conditions with high temperature, pressure and salinity is crucial in choosing suitable carbon sequestration reservoirs and determining the carbon dioxide storage capacity of each. Multiple mathematical models are available for predicting the solubility of CO2 in brine. Although comparisons of each model with a particular experimental data set collected under certain TPX conditions have been published by the model developers, few studies have been done to compare these models using a comprehensive experimental data set and rigorous statistical methods. In this study, available CO2 solubility experimental data and nine mathematical models for the prediction of CO2 solubility in brine were collected. Five of these predictive models are empirical or semi-empirical and the remainders are based on different equations of state. Statistical criteria, such as the AIC and BIC were employed to determine the goodness of fit of each mathematical model with the CO2 solubility experimental data set. Results of this analysis determine the best mathematical predictive model for the calculation of carbon dioxide solubility under carbon sequestration conditions. Preliminary analysis shows that simplified models with fewer variables perform equally well with those having more. The study also presents a quantitative approach to determine the best CO2 solubility predictive model through use of a regression tree.

  20. Use of geothermal heat to recover alcohol and other valuable products

    SciTech Connect

    La Mori, P.N.; Zahradnik, R.L.

    1982-11-02

    Method for the use of heat, especially ''waste heat'', from geothermal steam or brines for the manufacture of chemicals such as alcohol, which comprises, according to one embodiment, flashing the brine to produce steam, passing the steam to a turbine for electrical energy generation, and employing the steam from the turbine discharge and/or the flashed brine to provide some or all of the heat requirements for the fermentation distillation process for production of alcohols, e.g. (methanol and/or ethanol) from agricultural wastes. The method can also be utilized for the production by distillation and/or by industrial fermentation and/or by hydrolysis of other chemicals (such as furfural and acetone).

  1. Preliminary study of solar ponds for salinity control in the Colorado River Basin. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Boegli, W.J.; Dahl, M.M.; Remmers, H.E.

    1982-12-01

    In this study, the Bureau of Reclamation investigates the technical and economic benefits of using solar salt-gradient ponds in the Colorado River Basin to provide salinity control and to produce project power and freshwater. It was assumed that the saline water needed for pond construction would be transported to one of two dry lakebeds in the Basin(Danby Dry Lake in southern California or Sevier Dry Lake in western Utah) as part of a salinity control/coal transport project. The ponds would be used to generate electric power that could be integrated with the Bureau's power grid or used in combination with thermal energy from the ponds to power commercially available desalination systems to produce freshwater. Economic benefits were compiled for two methods of concentrating the necessary brine for the ponds--one representing stage construction using collected brine only and the other using salt at the site to produce the concentrated brine.

  2. Scale Resistant Heat Exchanger for Low Temperature Geothermal Binary Cycle Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, Lance G.

    2014-11-18

    Phase 1 of the investigation of improvements to low temperature geothermal power systems was completed. The improvements considered were reduction of scaling in heat exchangers and a hermetic turbine generator (eliminating seals, seal system, gearbox, and lube oil system). A scaling test system with several experiments was designed and operated at Coso geothermal resource with brine having a high scaling potential. Several methods were investigated at the brine temperature of 235 ºF. One method, circulation of abradable balls through the brine passages, was found to substantially reduce scale deposits. The test heat exchanger was operated with brine outlet temperatures as low as 125 ºF, which enables increased heat input available to power conversion systems. For advanced low temperature cycles, such as the Variable Phase Cycle (VPC) or Kalina Cycle, the lower brine temperature will result in a 20-30% increase in power production from low temperature resources. A preliminary design of an abradable ball system (ABS) was done for the heat exchanger of the 1 megawatt VPC system at Coso resource. The ABS will be installed and demonstrated in Phase 2 of this project, increasing the power production above that possible with the present 175 ºF brine outlet limit. A hermetic turbine generator (TGH) was designed and manufacturing drawings produced. This unit will use the working fluid (R134a) to lubricate the bearings and cool the generator. The 200 kW turbine directly drives the generator, eliminating a gearbox and lube oil system. Elimination of external seals eliminates the potential of leakage of the refrigerant or hydrocarbon working fluids, resulting in environmental improvement. A similar design has been demonstrated by Energent in an ORC waste heat recovery system. The existing VPC power plant at Coso was modified to enable the “piggyback” demonstration of the TGH. The existing heat exchanger, pumps, and condenser will be operated to provide the required

  3. Technologies for Extracting Valuable Metals and Compounds from Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Stephen

    2014-04-30

    Executive Summary Simbol Materials studied various methods of extracting valuable minerals from geothermal brines in the Imperial Valley of California, focusing on the extraction of lithium, manganese, zinc and potassium. New methods were explored for managing the potential impact of silica fouling on mineral extraction equipment, and for converting silica management by-products into commercial products.` Studies at the laboratory and bench scale focused on manganese, zinc and potassium extraction and the conversion of silica management by-products into valuable commercial products. The processes for extracting lithium and producing lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide products were developed at the laboratory scale and scaled up to pilot-scale. Several sorbents designed to extract lithium as lithium chloride from geothermal brine were developed at the laboratory scale and subsequently scaled-up for testing in the lithium extraction pilot plant. Lithium The results of the lithium studies generated the confidence for Simbol to scale its process to commercial operation. The key steps of the process were demonstrated during its development at pilot scale: 1. Silica management. 2. Lithium extraction. 3. Purification. 4. Concentration. 5. Conversion into lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate products. Results show that greater than 95% of the lithium can be extracted from geothermal brine as lithium chloride, and that the chemical yield in converting lithium chloride to lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate products is greater than 90%. The product purity produced from the process is consistent with battery grade lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide. Manganese and zinc Processes for the extraction of zinc and manganese from geothermal brine were developed. It was shown that they could be converted into zinc metal and electrolytic manganese dioxide after purification. These processes were evaluated for their economic potential, and at the present time Simbol

  4. Platinum solubility and partitioning in a felsic melt vapor brine assemblage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Adam C.; Pettke, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The solubility and partitioning of Pt in a S-free vapor - brine - rhyolite melt - Pt metal assemblage has been quantified at 800 °C, f=NNO and pressures of 100 and 140 MPa. Vapor and brine were sampled at run conditions by trapping these phases as glass-hosted fluid inclusions as the melt cooled through the glass transition temperature. The vapor and brine were in equilibrium with the melt at the time of trapping and, thus, represent fluids which were sampled at the termination of each experimental run. The microthermometrically determined salinities of vapor and brine are ˜2 and ˜63 wt.% NaCl eq. and ˜9 and ˜43 wt.% NaCl eq. at 100 and 140 MPa, respectively. Platinum solubilities in vapor, brine and glass (i.e., quenched melt) were quantified by using laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Equilibrium is discussed with reference to the major and trace element concentrations of glass-hosted fluid inclusions as well as the silicate melt over run times that varied from 110 to 377 h at 140 MPa and 159 to 564 h at 100 MPa. Platinum solubility values (±1σ) in H 2O-saturated felsic melt are 0.28 ± 0.13 μg/g and 0.38 ± 0.06 μg/g at 140 and 100 MPa, respectively. Platinum solubility values ( ±1σ) at 140 and 100 MPa, respectively, in aqueous vapor are 0.91 ± 0.29 μg/g and 0.37 ± 0.17 μg/g and in are brine 16 ± 10 μg/g and 3.3 ± 1.0 μg/g. The measured solubility data were used to calculate Nernst-type partition coefficients for Pt between vapor/melt, brine/melt and vapor/brine. The partition coefficient values ( ±1σ) for vapor/melt, brine/melt and vapor/brine at 140 MPa are 2.9 ± 1.0, 67 ± 27, and 0.13 ± 0.05 and at 100 MPa are 1.0 ± 0.2, 6.8 ± 2.4, and 0.15 ± 0.05. The partitioning data were used to model the Pt-scavenging capacity of vapor and brine during the crystallization-driven degassing (i.e., second boiling) of a felsic silicate melt over a depth range (i.e., 3-6 km) consistent with the evolution of

  5. High intensity ultrasound effects on meat brining.

    PubMed

    Cárcel, J A; Benedito, J; Bon, J; Mulet, A

    2007-08-01

    Pork loin (longissimus dorsi) samples of two different geometries, cylinders and slabs, were immersed in saturated NaCl brine for 45min under different conditions: without brine agitation (STAT), with brine agitation (AG) and with ultrasound application (US) at eight levels of ultrasonic intensity. Moisture content change and NaCl gain were considered in order to evaluate the difference in the brining treatments. No significant differences were found in moisture and NaCl content of samples treated under STAT conditions and AG conditions, while the influence of ultrasound on the mass transfer process during meat brining depended on the intensity applied. There was an ultrasonic intensity threshold above which the influence of ultrasound appeared. At the highest level of intensity studied, the water content of samples was significantly higher than the initial water content of meat. As regards NaCl transfer, once above the intensity threshold, the increase in the NaCl content was proportional to the applied ultrasonic intensity. Not statistically significant differences were found for sample geometry.

  6. Chemical and isotopic ( 87Sr/ 86Sr, δ 18O, δD) constraints to the formation processes of Red-Sea brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierret, M. C.; Clauer, N.; Bosch, D.; Blanc, G.; France-Lanord, C.

    2001-04-01

    About twenty deeps filled with hot brines and/or metalliferous sediments, are located along the Red-Sea axis. These brines present a well-suited framework to study the hydrothermal activity in such a young ocean. The present study outlines the results of a geochemical approach combining major-, trace-element and isotopic (oxygen, hydrogen, strontium) analyses of brines in six of the deeps, to evaluate different processes of brine formation and to compare the evolution of each deep. Important heterogeneities in temperature, salinity, hydrographic structure and chemistry are recorded, each brine having its own characteristics. The intensity of hydrothermal circulation varies among the deeps and ranges from being strong (Atlantis II and Nereus) to weak (Port-Soudan) and even to negligible (Valdivia and Suakin) and it varies along the entire Red-Sea axis. These observations do not favour a unique formational model for all of the brines. For example, the brines of the Suakin deep appear to have been formed by an old sea water which dissolved evaporite beds, without significant fluid circulation and hydrothermal input, while others such as Atlantis II or Nereus Deeps appear to be dominated by hydrothermal influences. A striking feature is the absence of a relationship between the position of the deeps along the axis and their evolutionary maturity.

  7. Effect of brine composition and brining temperature on cheese physical properties in Ragusano cheese.

    PubMed

    Fucà, N; McMahon, D J; Caccamo, M; Tuminello, L; La Terra, S; Manenti, M; Licitra, G

    2012-01-01

    Composition and physical properties of cheeses are influenced by temperature, salt, and calcium concentration of brine. This work aimed to examine conditions of brine under which the cheese matrix contracts or expands in absence of restrictions imposed by surface rind development during overnight block formation. Three experimental 4-kg blocks of Ragusano cheese were produced at 3 different stretching temperatures (70, 80, and 90°C) and cut into pieces weighing approximately 40 to 50 g. One piece from each was chemically analyzed at time 0. All other pieces were measured for weight and volume and placed in plastic bags containing 300 mL of different brine solutions (2% NaCl with 0.1% Ca; 10% NaCl with 0, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4% Ca; 18% NaCl with 0.1% Ca; and 26% NaCl with 0.1% Ca) at 3 different temperatures (4, 12, and 20°C). After 24h of brining, the cheeses were analyzed for weight, volume, chemical, and microstructural changes. Salt concentration in brine significantly influenced composition, weight, and volume of the cheeses after brining. Salt concentration was inversely related to cheese volume and weight. Changes in weight caused by altering the brining temperature were sufficient to reach statistical significance, and statistically significant volume changes were induced by brining temperature and its interaction with salt content. The highest volume increase (30%) occurred in the cheese stored in the 2% NaCl brine at the coldest temperature, whereas the greatest volume decrease was recorded in cheeses brined in the 26% NaCl brine. Composition was not affected by brining temperature. Calcium concentration did influence weight, volume, and composition, except on a fat-on-dry-basis. When cheeses were brined without added calcium, cheese volume and weight increased at all temperatures. At high calcium levels (0.4%), syneresis occurred and volume decreased, especially at 20°C (-16.5%). Microstructural investigation with porosity measurement confirmed weight and

  8. Boise Geothermal Aquifer Study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report is the final product of a detailed review and quantitative evaluation of existing data for the Boise Front Geothermal Aquifer. Upon review of the many publications, and raw data for the Boise geothermal aquifer, it became clear that adequate data only exists for analysis of current and proposed development within a limited area. This region extends approximately 1.5 miles southeast of the State Capitol to 0.5 mile northwest. Though there are geothermal wells located along the Boise Front outside of this area, the lack of production and water level data preclude any detailed discussions and analysis of their relationship to the central resource. As a result, discussion will concentrate on major users such as the Capitol Mall (CM) Boise Geothermal LTD. (BGL), Veterans Administration (VA) and Boise Warm Springs Water District (BWSWD). The objectives of this study are: Define the inter-relationship of the existing wells and/or portions of the geothermal aquifer; evaluate the effects of current and proposed development on the geothermal aquifer; estimate longevity of the geothermal resource; and make recommendations for an on-going monitoring program. 44 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. PILOT TESTING: PRETREATMENT OPTIONS TO ALLOW RE-USE OF FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED BRINE FOR GAS SHALE RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, David

    2012-12-31

    The goal of the A&M DOE NETL Project No. DE-FE0000847 was to develop a mobile, multifunctional water treatment capability designed specifically for “pre-treatment” of field waste brine. The project consisted of constructing s mobile “field laboratory” incorporating new technology for treating high salinity produced water and using the lab to conduct a side-by-side comparison between this new technology and that already existing in field operations. A series of four field trials were performed utilizing the mobile unit to demonstrate the effectiveness of different technology suitable for use with high salinity flow back brines and produced water. The design of the mobile unit was based on previous and current work at the Texas A&M Separation Sciences Pilot Plant. The several treatment techniques which have been found to be successful in both pilot plant and field tests had been tested to incorporate into a single multifunctional process train. Eight different components were evaluated during the trials, two types of oil and grease removal, one BTEX removal step, three micro-filters, and two different nanofilters. The performance of each technique was measured by its separation efficiency, power consumption, and ability to withstand fouling. The field trials were a success. Four different field brines were evaluated in the first trial in New York. Over 16,000 gallons of brine were processed. Using a power cost of $.10 per kWh, media pretreatment power use averaged $0.004 per barrel, solids removal $.04 per barrel and brine “softening” $.84 per barrel. Total power cost was approximately $1.00 per barrel of fluid treated. In Pennsylvania, brines collected from frac ponds were tested in two additional trials. Each of the brines was converted to an oil-free, solids-free brine with no biological activity. Brines were stable over time and would be good candidates for use as a make-up fluid in a subsequent fracturing fluid design. Reports on all of