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Sample records for salivary gland cysts

  1. [Treatment of small and sublingual salivary glands cysts by laser].

    PubMed

    Bogatov, V V; Vybornov, V V; Malinovskiĭ, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    The differents variants of treatment of retention cysts of mucous membrane of oral cavity and sublingual salivary gland cysts were presented and analysed. Results of doppler examination as a method of research blood microcirculation in postoperation time were presented.

  2. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a salivary duct cyst of the parotid gland. Contribution to the development of tumours in salivary gland cysts.

    PubMed

    Seifert, G

    1996-12-01

    Concerning the hypothesis that distinct types of salivary gland cysts may be the starting point of a salivary gland tumour, a histological examination of 1,661 salivary gland cysts was performed in order to analyse the cell types and their proliferative activity. Epithelial alterations were found especially in salivary duct cysts of parotid gland and in mucous retention cysts of minor salivary glands. Characteristic cellular changes were epithelial metaplasias (goblet cells, clear cells, squamous cells) and focal epithelial proliferations with plump or papillary plaques projecting into the cyst lumen. Only in one case had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma developed in the wall of a parotid duct cyst. The epithelial metaplasia and focal proliferative activity in salivary duct cysts is comparable to similar alterations in odontogenic cysts as possible early manifestation of a tumour, especially of an ameloblastoma or mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The differential diagnosis of salivary duct cysts must take primarily cystadenomas and cystic mucoepidermoid carcinomas of well-differentiated type into account.

  3. Branchial cysts within the parotid salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cystic lesions within the parotid gland are uncommon and clinically they are frequently misdiagnosed as tumours. Many theories have been proposed as to their embryological origin. A 20-year retrospective review was undertaken of all pathological codes (SNOMED) of all of patients presenting with any parotid lesions requiring surgery. After analysis seven subjects were found to have histopathologically proven parotid branchial cysts in the absence of HIV infection and those patients are the aim of this review. Four of the most common embryological theories are also discussed with regard to these cases, as are their management. PMID:22607735

  4. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than ... otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands can ...

  5. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... in autoimmune diseases such as HIV and Sjögren's syndrome where the body's immune system attacks the salivary glands causing significant inflammation. Dry mouth or dry eyes are common. This may occur with other systemic ...

  6. [Mucous retention cysts of the minor salivary glands. A specific type of mucocele].

    PubMed

    Kakarantza-Angelopoulou, E; Triantaphyllou, A

    1989-08-01

    The mucous retention cyst of the minor salivary glands represent a specific type of oral mucocele which is lined by epithelium. It is caused probably from partial or complete obstruction of a duct. It affects older patients (over 40 years of age) most commonly women and it is located in different sites than the ordinary mucocele. In this paper we studied the histologic and histochemical features of four cases. The lining epithelium varied from cuboidal to columnar or flattened. Among the cells of the lining epithelium oncocytes were observed.

  7. [Mucoceles of the minor salivary glands. Extravasation mucoceles (mucus granulomas) and retention mucoceles (mucus retention cysts) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Seifert, G; Donath, K; von Gumberz, C

    1981-06-01

    360 cases of salivary glands cysts (= 6%) were collected in the Salivary Glands Register (Institute of Pathology, University of Hamburg) from 1965 until 1979 among a total of 5739 register cases. 273 cases of the cystic lesions (= 76%) were mucoceles of the minor salivary glands. The analysis of these 273 cases revealed the following results: 1. Two types of mucoceles can be morphologically distinguished: extravasation mucoceles and retention mucoceles. 2. The extravasation mucocele is in our material (240 cases = 88.7%) the most frequent type of mucocele. The term "extravasation mucocele" of the anglo-american literature is identical with the term "mucus granuloma" ("Schleimgranulom") introduced by Hamperl (1932). 3. The main signs of the mucus granulomas are: predominant location (79%) at the lower lip, age peak in the 2nd decade and more frequent occurrence (in 60%) in the male sex. 4. Three stages of development can be distinguished in the pathogenesis of the mucus granulomas: an initial stage (interstitial mucus lakes), a resorption stage (mucus granulomas with macrophages, foam cells and foreign bodies giant cells) and a terminal stage with the development of a pseudocyst (capsule of collagen tissue, no epithelial demarcation). 5. The retention mucocele (synonym: mucus retention cyst) is a rare type of mucocele (33 cases = 11.3%). The main signs are: nearly equal occurrence in all oral regions, age peak in the 8th decade, moderate predominance of the female sex. 6. The retention mucoceles contain viscous mucous material, possess always an epithelial demarcation of the cysts differentiated analogous to the different segments of the salivary duct system and show as a rule no inflammatory reaction compared with the extravasation mucoceles. 7. Microtraumas and mucus congestions play the important role in the development of the extravasation mucocele. The final formation depends on the amount of the overflowed mucus and the intensity of the mucus phagocytosis. 8

  8. Salivary gland disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bethan L; Brown, Jackie E; McGurk, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Salivary gland disease covers a wide range of pathological entities, including salivary gland-specific disease, as well as manifestations of systemic diseases. This chapter discusses the recent advances in managing obstructive salivary gland disease, the move from gland excision to gland preservation, the dilemmas in diagnosing and managing tumours of the salivary glands, and the international data collection to understand the aetiology and progression of Sjögren's disease. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  10. Salivary gland diseases: infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles.

    PubMed

    Delli, Konstantina; Spijkervet, Fred K L; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    The three most frequently diagnosed salivary gland diseases are salivary gland infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles. Salivary gland infections are usually of bacterial or viral etiology and can be divided into acute and chronic types. Occasionally they can result from obstruction of the salivary duct, an autoimmmune disease or cancer therapy. Infections can occur in all types of salivary glands and are observed at all ages. Sialolithiasis is characterized by the development of calcified structures in the salivary glands, especially in the submandibular gland. Sialoliths are generally attributed to retention of saliva and are usually accompanied by swelling and pain when a salivary stimulus is applied. Mucoceles can be differentiated into mucus extravasation phenomenon or mucus escape reaction, mucus retention cysts and ranulas. They result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissues or from retention of saliva within the duct.

  11. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  12. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: ... PDQ) - health professional version. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/adult/salivary-gland-treatment-pdq . Updated January ...

  14. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy References Miloro M, Kolokythas A. Diagnosis and management of salivary gland disorders. In: Hupp JR, Ellis E, Tucker MR, eds. Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery . 6th ed. St Louis, ...

  15. [The pathology of salivary glands. Tumors of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Mahy, P; Reychler, H

    2006-01-01

    The management of benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands requires precise knowledge of tumor histogenesis and classification as well as surgical skills. Pleomorphic adenoma and Whartin's tumor are the most frequent tumors in parotid glands while the probability for malignant tumors is higher in other glands, especially in sublingual and minor salivary glands. Those malignant salivary glands tumors are rare and necessitate multidisciplinar staging and management in close collaboration with the pathologist and the radiation oncologist.

  16. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  18. Epidemiology of salivary gland infections.

    PubMed

    Cascarini, Luke; McGurk, Mark

    2009-08-01

    This article approaches sialadenitis from a personal perspective based on 15 years of clinical practice limited mainly to salivary gland diseases. Disorders of the salivary glands are uncommon. When they occur, experience in managing the process is diluted over a range of disciplines. The result is that traditional views go unchallenged and are recast unchanged from one textbook to another. Sialadenitis of bacterial origin is a relatively uncommon occurrence today and is normally associated with sialoliths. The most common viral infection of the salivary glands is mumps.

  19. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer: Risk Factors Request Permissions Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... To see other pages, use the menu. A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance ...

  20. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  1. Sensitivity of Salivary Glands to Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Grundmann, O.; Mitchell, G.C.; Limesand, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer causes significant secondary side-effects in normal salivary glands, resulting in diminished quality of life for these individuals. Salivary glands are exquisitely sensitive to radiation and display acute and chronic responses to radiotherapy. This review will discuss clinical implications of radiosensitivity in normal salivary glands, compare animal models used to investigate radiation-induced salivary gland damage, address therapeutic advances, and project future directions in the field. PMID:19783796

  2. Diseases of the salivary glands in infants and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diseases of the salivary glands are rare in infants and children (with the exception of diseases such as parotitis epidemica and cytomegaly) and the therapeutic regimen differs from that in adults. It is therefore all the more important to gain exact and extensive insight into general and special aspects of pathological changes of the salivary glands in these age groups. Etiology and pathogenesis of these entities is still not yet fully known for the age group in question so that general rules for treatment, based on clinical experience, cannot be given, particularly in view of the small number of cases of the different diseases. Swellings of the salivary glands may be caused by acute and chronic inflammatory processes, by autoimmune diseases, by duct translocation due to sialolithiasis, and by tumors of varying dignity. Clinical examination and diagnosis has also to differentiate between salivary gland cysts and inflammation or tumors. Conclusion Salivary gland diseases are rare in childhood and adolescence. Their pattern of incidence differs very much from that of adults. Acute and chronic sialadenitis not responding to conservative treatment requires an appropriate surgical approach. The rareness of salivary gland tumors is particularly true for the malignant parotid tumors which are more frequent in juvenile patients, a fact that has to be considered in diagnosis and therapy. PMID:20156335

  3. General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Cancer Treatment (Adult) (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland Cancer Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  4. Management of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Andry, Guy; Hamoir, Marc; Locati, Laura D; Licitra, Lisa; Langendijk, Johannes A

    2012-09-01

    Surgery after proper imaging (MRI or CT scan) is the main stay of treatment for salivary gland tumors. Although excision margins should be ≥5 mm for malignant tumors in cases of parotid gland carcinoma, the facial nerve should be preserved whenever it is not infiltrated. Adjuvant external radiation is indicated for malignant tumors with high-risk features such as close (or invaded) margins, perineural speed, lymphatic and/or vascular invasion, lymph-node involvement and high-grade histology. A Phase II trial testing adjuvant concomitant cisplatin plus radiation therapy versus adjuvant radiation therapy alone after surgery is currently under investigation for high-risk salivary gland cancer. For inoperable cancers, photons combined with proton boost seem to be a valuable option. Even if protons or carbon ions are promising, access to the latter is limited for usual treatment. For recurrent and/or metastatic cancer, polychemotherapy (cisplatin based) gives a 25% response rate in adenoid cystic carcinoma and should be used when the disease is overtly in progression. Targeted therapies with anti-EGF receptor molecules, antiangiogenic agents and tyrosine kinase inhibitors are ongoing, but more trials are needed to establish their efficacy, as is the use of bortezomib followed by doxorubicin. The products of fusion oncogenes, which have a pathogenic role in some adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinomas, are of interest as potential therapeutic targets.

  5. Salivary duct cyst on lower lip: A rare entity and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Ankita; Sircar, Keya; Chowdhry, Aman; Bablani, Deepika

    2014-01-01

    Mucocele forms because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and is usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lips. Salivary duct cyst, however, is a type of mucous retention cyst which is almost never located on the lower lip. The aim of this paper is to report this extremely rare salivary duct cyst present on the lower lip and to critically review the literature to build important concepts that would help clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. PMID:25364168

  6. Salivary duct cyst on lower lip: A rare entity and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Ankita; Sircar, Keya; Chowdhry, Aman; Bablani, Deepika

    2014-09-01

    Mucocele forms because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and is usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lips. Salivary duct cyst, however, is a type of mucous retention cyst which is almost never located on the lower lip. The aim of this paper is to report this extremely rare salivary duct cyst present on the lower lip and to critically review the literature to build important concepts that would help clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology.

  7. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-06

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  8. Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic/Recurrent ACC of All Sites and Non-ACC Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-12

    Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Minor Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma

  9. Management of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Ram, Saravanan; Kumar, Satish; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2011-09-01

    Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are conditions that have been associated with increased prevalence of caries, periodontitis, and candidiasis. Oral health care providers must be aware of the etiologies and clinical manifestations of salivary gland hypofunction in order to identify patients with this condition and to prevent its potential complications. The various modalities available to manage this condition range from frequent sips of water to the intake of systemic medications like pilocarpine or cevimeline.

  10. [Surgical management of minor salivary gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Weiting; Li, Kelan; Zhang, Xiaotong; Wang, Wei

    2007-11-01

    To study the clinical features of minor salivary gland tumors and to discuss the treatment modalities for these tumors. Retrospective analysis of 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumor operated in our hospital from 1997 to 2004. Among 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumors in this series, 16 patients lost of follow up. Among the remaining 38 patients, 2 patients with nasal cavity adenoid cystic carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 2 and 3 years after the surgery respectively, one patient with laryngeal myoepithelial carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 3 years after the surgery and one patient with paranasal sinus mucoepidermoid carcinoma died of recurrence 17 months after the surgery. Two patients with paranasal sinus adenoid cystic carcinoma recurred after the primary surgery and were survived without tumor after salvage surgery. The other patients survived with no tumor recurrence. While different histopathology of minor salivary gland tumors were found in this group, malignant tumors were predominant, accounting for 81.4%. The choice of treatment for minor salivary gland tumors depends upon the location and the histopathology of the tumors. The treatment policy for benign tumors is simple tumor excision, while that for malignant tumors is surgery combined with pre- or post-operative radiation therapy. Complete surgical resection of tumor masses and tumor free margin is essential for successful treatment of malignant minor salivary gland tumors.

  11. Childhood Salivary Gland Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Childhood salivary gland tumor treatment usually includes surgery and radiation therapy. Learn more about the risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent salivary gland tumors in this expert-reviewed summary.

  12. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Salivary gland cancer treatment options include surgery with or without postoperative radiation therapy, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Get detailed information about the treatment for newly diagnosed and recurrent salivary gland cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  13. Salivary Glands in Predatory Mollusks: Evolutionary Considerations.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Giovanna; Modica, Maria Vittoria

    2017-01-01

    Many marine mollusks attain or increase their predatory efficiency using complex chemical secretions, which are often produced and delivered through specialized anatomical structures of the foregut. The secretions produced in venom glands of Conus snails and allies have been extensively studied, revealing an amazing chemical diversity of small, highly constrained neuropeptides, whose characterization led to significant pharmacological developments. Conversely, salivary glands, the other main secretory structures of molluscan foregut, have been neglected despite their shared occurrence in the two lineages including predatory members: Gastropoda and Cephalopoda. Over the last few years, the interest for the chemistry of salivary mixtures increased based on their potential biomedical applications. Recent investigation with -omics technologies are complementing the classical biochemical descriptions, that date back to the 1950s, highlighting the high level of diversification of salivary secretions in predatory mollusks, and suggesting they can be regarded as a pharmaceutical cornucopia. As with other animal venoms, some of the salivary toxins are reported to target, for example, sodium and/or potassium ion channels or receptors and transporters for neurotransmitters such as, glutamate, serotonin, neurotensin, and noradrenaline, thus manipulating the neuromuscular system of the preys. Other bioactive components possess anticoagulant, anesthetic and hypotensive activities. Here, we overview available knowledge on the salivary glands of key predatory molluscan taxa, gastropods, and cephalopods, summarizing their anatomical, physiological and biochemical complexity in order to facilitate future comparative studies on main evolutionary trends and functional convergence in the acquisition of successful predatory strategies.

  14. Salivary Glands in Predatory Mollusks: Evolutionary Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ponte, Giovanna; Modica, Maria Vittoria

    2017-01-01

    Many marine mollusks attain or increase their predatory efficiency using complex chemical secretions, which are often produced and delivered through specialized anatomical structures of the foregut. The secretions produced in venom glands of Conus snails and allies have been extensively studied, revealing an amazing chemical diversity of small, highly constrained neuropeptides, whose characterization led to significant pharmacological developments. Conversely, salivary glands, the other main secretory structures of molluscan foregut, have been neglected despite their shared occurrence in the two lineages including predatory members: Gastropoda and Cephalopoda. Over the last few years, the interest for the chemistry of salivary mixtures increased based on their potential biomedical applications. Recent investigation with -omics technologies are complementing the classical biochemical descriptions, that date back to the 1950s, highlighting the high level of diversification of salivary secretions in predatory mollusks, and suggesting they can be regarded as a pharmaceutical cornucopia. As with other animal venoms, some of the salivary toxins are reported to target, for example, sodium and/or potassium ion channels or receptors and transporters for neurotransmitters such as, glutamate, serotonin, neurotensin, and noradrenaline, thus manipulating the neuromuscular system of the preys. Other bioactive components possess anticoagulant, anesthetic and hypotensive activities. Here, we overview available knowledge on the salivary glands of key predatory molluscan taxa, gastropods, and cephalopods, summarizing their anatomical, physiological and biochemical complexity in order to facilitate future comparative studies on main evolutionary trends and functional convergence in the acquisition of successful predatory strategies. PMID:28848453

  15. Salivary gland enlargement during oesophageal stricture dilatation.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    A case of recurrent salivary gland enlargement occurring during fibreoptic oesophagoscopy and oesophageal stricture dilatation with Eder-Puestow dilators is described. The genesis of this condition is discussed and its transient and usually benign nature emphasized. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7393809

  16. Histopathology of malignant salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Seifert, G

    1992-07-01

    This report is based upon the Salivary Gland Register in Hamburg and on the second revised edition of the WHO Histological Typing of Salivary Gland Tumours. The group of malignant salivary gland tumours contains carcinomas, malignant non-epithelial tumours, malignant lymphomas and secondary tumours. The various carcinomas are classified in a continuous separate listing because the different types are distinguished not only by histopathology, but also by differences in prognosis and treatment. The term "tumour" is replaced by "carcinoma" in two entities: acinic cell carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. New entities are: polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, salivary duct carcinoma and malignant myoepithelioma. Carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma can be distinguished as non-invasive and invasive carcinoma, and carcinosarcoma. Malignant non-epithelial tumours are mostly malignant fibrous histiocytoma, malignant schwannoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. The large majority of malignant lymphomas are non-Hodgkin-lymphomas with high differentiation. Many lymphomas are associated with chronic immunosialadenitis (Sjögren's syndrome). Secondary tumours are mostly metastases from primary squamous cell carcinomas or from melanomas of the skin (head and neck area). Haematogeneous metastases are very rare (mainly from lung, kidney or breast).

  17. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. PMID:23209333

  18. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  19. Mucoceles of minor salivary glands in children. Own clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Bogumił; Brodowski, Robert; Pakla, Paweł; Makara, Aleksander; Stopyra, Wojciech; Startek, Bartek

    Mucoceles are benign lesions associated with the pathology of the oral mucosa of minor salivary glands. Two types of cysts are distinguished depending on their pathogenesis. Most often they occur as a result of mechanical trauma and mucus extravasation into tissues or obstruction of the gland ducts. The aim of the study was to present our own experiences regarding mucoceles of minor salivary glands in the oral cavity taking into account how frequently the individual types of cysts occur in children. The research was carried out based on medical files from the years 2005-2015. These were: medical case records, operating books and the medical registry of patients treated at the Clinic of Maxillofacial Surgery, Frederic Chopin Clinical Regional Hospital in Rzeszow. In that period 64 children and teenagers, 28 girls and 36 boys were treated. What was considered was the age and gender of the patients, the reason for their appointment with a doctor, the location, size and histopathological type of the cysts, as well as the course and results of the diagnostic and therapeutic process. In the group analyzed, the reasons for referral to the Clinic were: in 25 patients accidental ascertainment of a non-symptomatic tumor in the oral cavity during examination by a dentist, pediatrician or laryngologist which had not caused any discomfort to the children; in 13 patients concern had been raised by a gradually increasing tumor; in 18 cases there was an increased tissue tension surrounding the tumor, while in 3 children red oedema was observed in the oral cavity (suspicion of abscess). The most frequent mucocele location was the lower lip (34 children). The most frequent size was 2.1-3 cm (28 children). The most frequent histological type was MEP. All the patients were treated at the Clinic in the one-day surgery mode, with good outcome. Mucocele ascertainment in children's oral cavity could be made accidentally in routine pediatric examination, therefore it is necessary to extend

  20. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    PubMed

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  1. Molecular cues for development and regeneration of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    The hypofunction of salivary glands caused by Sjögren’s Syndrome or radiotherapy for head and neck cancer significantly compromises the quality of life of millions patients. Currently no curative treatment is available for the irreversible hyposalivation, whereas regenerative strategies targeting salivary stem/progenitor cells are promising. However, the success of these strategies is constrained by the lack of insights on the molecular cues of salivary gland regeneration. Recent advances in the molecular controls of salivary gland morphogenesis provided valuable clues for identifying potential regenerative cues. A complicated network of signaling molecules between epithelia, mesenchyme, endothelia, extracellular matrix and innervating nerves orchestrate the salivary gland organogenesis. Here we discuss the roles of several cross-talking intercellular signaling pathways, i.e., FGF, Wnt, Hedgehog, Eda, Notch, Chrm1/HB-EGF and Laminin/Integrin pathways, in the development of salivary glands and their potentials to promote salivary regeneration. PMID:24189993

  2. Warthin tumor arising from the minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Toshinori; Baba, Junichi; Murata, Shogo; Mitsudo, Kenji; Maegawa, Jiro; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Tohnai, Iwai

    2012-09-01

    Warthin tumor (WT) accounts for 4% to 13% of all salivary gland tumors. This benign tumor, which commonly arises in the parotid gland, is the second most common tumor of the salivary gland. WT is multicentric in 12% to 20% of patients and is bilateral in 5% to 14%. The mean age at diagnosis is 62 years (range, 12-92 years), and it rarely presents (<6%) before age 40 years. Extraparotid WT, arising from the submandibular gland or cervical lymph node for example, is very infrequent, with corresponding incidences of 0.4% to 6.9% and 8%, respectively. Moreover, WT arising from the minor salivary gland is extremely rare, with a reported incidence of merely 0.1% to 1.2%. We report here WT arising from the minor salivary gland in the buccal mucosa in a 66-year-old woman and review cases of WT of the minor salivary gland reported in the English literature.

  3. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru; National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  4. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  5. Promising Gene Therapeutics for Salivary Gland Radiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Renjith Parameswaran; Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan

    2017-01-01

    More than 0.5 million new cases of head and neck cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year, and approximately 75% of them are treated with radiation alone or in combination with other cancer treatments. A majority of patients treated with radiotherapy develop significant oral off-target effects because of the unavoidable irradiation of normal tissues. Salivary glands that lie within treatment fields are often irreparably damaged and a decline in function manifests as dry mouth or xerostomia. Limited ability of the salivary glands to regenerate lost acinar cells makes radiation-induced loss of function a chronic problem that affects the quality of life of the patients well beyond the completion of radiotherapy. The restoration of saliva production after irradiation has been a daunting challenge, and this review provides an overview of promising gene therapeutics that either improve the gland’s ability to survive radiation insult, or alternately, restore fluid flow after radiation. The salient features and shortcomings of each approach are discussed. PMID:28286865

  6. Salivary glands abnormalities in oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Davide; Manara, Renzo; Vio, Stefania; Ghiselli, Sara; Cantone, Elena; Mardari, Rodica; Toldo, Irene; Stritoni, Valentina; Castiglione, Alessandro; Lovo, Elisa; Trevisi, Patrizia; Bovo, Roberto; Martini, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Feeding and swallowing impairment are present in up to 80% of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) patients. Salivary gland abnormalities have been reported in OAVS patients but their rate, features, and relationship with phenotype severity have yet to be defined. Parotid and submandibular salivary gland hypo/aplasia was evaluated on head MRI of 25 OAVS patients (16 with severe phenotype, Goldenhar syndrome) and 11 controls. All controls disclosed normal salivary glands. Abnormal parotid glands were found exclusively ipsilateral to facial microsomia in 21/25 OAVS patients (84%, aplasia in six patients) and showed no association with phenotype severity (14/16 patients with Goldenhar phenotype vs 7/9 patients with milder phenotype, p = 0.6). Submandibular salivary gland hypoplasia was detected in six OAVS patients, all with concomitant ipsilateral severe involvement of the parotid gland (p < 0.001). Submandibular salivary gland hypoplasia was associated to Goldenhar phenotype (p < 0.05). Parotid gland abnormalities were associated with ipsilateral fifth (p < 0.001) and seventh cranial nerve (p = 0.001) abnormalities. No association was found between parotid gland anomaly and ipsilateral internal carotid artery, inner ear, brain, eye, or spine abnormalities (p > 0.6). Salivary gland abnormalities are strikingly common in OAVS. Their detection might help the management of OAVS-associated swallowing and feeding impairment.

  7. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Salivary Glands of an Invasive Whitefly

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. Conclusions/Significance: The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands

  8. Treatment of Bartholin gland cyst with CO2 laser

    PubMed Central

    Speck, Neila Maria de Góis; Boechat, Karol Pereira Ruela; dos Santos, Georgia Mouzinho Lima; Ribalta, Julisa Chamorro Lascasas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To describe the results of treatment with CO2 laser for Bartholin gland cysts. Methods Thirty-one women with Bartholin gland cysts were treated with CO2 laser at an outpatient´s setting. Skin incision was performed with focused laser beam, the capsule was opened to drain mucoid content, followed by internal vaporization of impaired capsule. Results There were no complications. Five patients had recurrence of the cyst and were submitted to a second and successful session. Conclusion CO2 laser surgery was effective to treat Bartholin gland cysts with minimal or no complications, and can be performed at an outpatient´s setting. PMID:27074230

  9. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  10. Salivary Gland NK Cells Are Phenotypically and Functionally Unique

    PubMed Central

    Brossay, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV). However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or Treg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells. PMID:21249177

  11. Dry mouth: Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Frydrych, Agnieszka M

    2016-07-01

    Mouth dryness may present as salivary gland hypofunction (SGH), xerostomia or both. It is considered one of the most underappreciated, underdiagnosed and undermanaged oral health conditions. Despite its common presentation and adverse impact on life quality, it is also generally poorly understood. Increased awareness of the condition is important in addressing these problems. This article discusses SGH and xerostomia, and the associated intra-oral and extra-oral implications. It also summarises currently available management approaches and the evidence behind them. SGH and xerostomia are complex problems. None of the currently available management approaches are entirely satisfactory. Addressing the causative or contributing factors is therefore paramount. While oral health complaints are generally left up to the dental professional to manage, the nature of mouth dryness necessitates increased dialogue between the dental and 
medical professions to ensure optimal patient care.

  12. Cystic lesions of the salivary glands: cytologic features in fine-needle aspiration biopsies.

    PubMed

    Layfield, Lester J; Gopez, Evelyn V

    2002-10-01

    A variety of neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions of the salivary glands have a predominantly cystic architecture. Fine-needle aspirates of these lesions yield watery or mucoid material, frequently of low cellularity. Such aspirates may be obtained from mucus retention cysts, lymphoepithelial cysts, cystadenomas, Warthin's tumors, cystic pleomorphic adenomas, low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas, cystadenocarcinomas, and examples of polycystic disease of the parotid gland. The cellular component within the fluid obtained from these lesions may be exceedingly scant or absent, making cytologic diagnosis difficult and, at times, impossible. We studied a series of 56 cystic lesions of the salivary glands, including 38 Warthin's tumors, 6 benign cysts, 2 lymphoepithelial cysts, 5 low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 1 cystic pleomorphic adenoma, 2 cystadenomas, and 2 cystadenocarcinomas. Careful attention to the cellular elements present often allowed definitive cytologic diagnosis, with an overall accuracy rate of 84%. The presence of atypical squamous metaplasia in oncocytic lesions was a significant cause of false-positive diagnoses of carcinoma (4 cases, 7%). Aspirates of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma may contain no epithelial cells and result in false-negative diagnoses (1 case, 2%). Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, improves salivary gland function following radiation.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Harris, Zoey I; Arnett, Deborah G; Klein, Rob R; Burd, Randy; Ann, David K; Limesand, Kirsten H

    2014-01-01

    The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate the chronic side

  14. Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density) and qualitative (mosquito species) immunological evaluation of malaria vectors/host contact. In this study, salivary gland protein repertoires (sialomes) from several Anopheles species were compared using in silico analysis and proteomics. The antigenic diversity of salivary gland proteins among different Anopheles species was also examined. Results In silico analysis of secreted salivary gland protein sequences retrieved from an NCBInr database of six Anopheles species belonging to the Cellia subgenus (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. funestus) and Nyssorhynchus subgenus (An. albimanus and An. darlingi) displayed a higher degree of similarity compared to salivary proteins from closely related Anopheles species. Additionally, computational hierarchical clustering allowed identification of genus-, subgenus- and species-specific salivary proteins. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses performed on salivary gland extracts from four Anopheles species (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. albimanus) indicated that heterogeneity of the salivary proteome and antigenic proteins was lower among closely related anopheline species and increased with phylogenetic distance. Conclusion This is the first report on the diversity of the salivary protein repertoire among species from the Anopheles genus at the protein level. This work demonstrates that a molecular diversity is exhibited among salivary proteins from closely related species despite their common pharmacological

  15. Preparation of Murine Submandibular Salivary Gland for Upright Intravital Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ficht, Xenia; Thelen, Flavian; Stolp, Bettina; Stein, Jens V

    2018-05-07

    The submandibular salivary gland (SMG) is one of the three major salivary glands, and is of interest for many different fields of biological research, including cell biology, oncology, dentistry, and immunology. The SMG is an exocrine gland comprised of secretory epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelial cells, nerves, and extracellular matrix. Dynamic cellular processes in the rat and mouse SMG have previously been imaged, mostly using inverted multi-photon microscope systems. Here, we describe a straightforward protocol for the surgical preparation and stabilization of the murine SMG in anesthetized mice for in vivo imaging with upright multi-photon microscope systems. We present representative intravital image sets of endogenous and adoptively transferred fluorescent cells, including the labeling of blood vessels or salivary ducts and second harmonic generation to visualize fibrillar collagen. In sum, our protocol allows for surgical preparation of mouse salivary glands in upright microscopy systems, which are commonly used for intravital imaging in the field of immunology.

  16. Caveolin-1 overexpression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Nazhvani, Ali Dehghani; Azizi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Caveolin-1, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, is supposed to have different regulatory roles as promoter or suppressor in many human cancers. However, no published study concerned its expression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of Cav-1 in the most common benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and evaluate its correlation with proliferation activity. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and Ki67 were evaluated in 49 samples, including 11 normal salivary glands, 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC), and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The expression of Cav-1 was seen in 18 % of normal salivary glands and 85 % of tumors. The immunoreaction in the tumors was significantly higher than normal tissues (P = 0.001), but the difference between benign and malignant tumors was not significant (P = 0.07). Expression of Cav-1 was correlated with Ki67 labeling index in PAs, but not in malignant tumors. Cav-1 expression was not in association with tumor size and stage. Overexpression of Cav-1 was found in salivary gland tumors in comparison with normal tissues, but no significant difference was observed between benign and malignant tumors. Cav-1 was inversely correlated with proliferation in PA. Therefore, this marker may participate in tumorigenesis of salivary gland tumors and may be a potential biomarker for cancer treatments.

  17. Dengue virus replicates and accumulates in Aedes aegypti salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Raquin, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.raquin@univ-lyon1

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an RNA virus transmitted among humans by mosquito vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti. DENV transmission requires viral dissemination from the mosquito midgut to the salivary glands. During this process the virus undergoes several population bottlenecks, which are stochastic reductions in population size that restrict intra-host viral genetic diversity and limit the efficiency of natural selection. Despite the implications for virus transmission and evolution, DENV replication in salivary glands has not been directly demonstrated. Here, we used a strand-specific quantitative RT-PCR assay to demonstrate that negative-strand DENV RNA is produced in Ae. aegypti salivary glands, providing conclusive evidencemore » that viral replication occurs in this tissue. Furthermore, we showed that the concentration of DENV genomic RNA in salivary glands increases significantly over time, indicating that active replication likely replenishes DENV genetic diversity prior to transmission. These findings improve our understanding of the biological determinants of DENV fitness and evolution. - Highlights: •Strand-specific RT-qPCR allows accurate quantification of DENV (-) RNA in mosquito tissues. •Detection of DENV (-) RNA in salivary glands provides evidence of viral replication in this tissue. •Viral replication in salivary glands likely replenishes DENV genetic diversity prior to transmission.« less

  18. [MALT lymphoma of the parotid salivary gland].

    PubMed

    Krasić, Dragan; Radović, Predrag; Burić, Nikola; Cosić, Andrija; Katić, Vuka

    2007-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma was described for the first time in 1983 by Isaacson and Wright. It was classified into extranodal non-Hodkin's lymphomas of B-cell lymphocytes of the marginal zone of reactive lymphe follicles. It is characterized by both hyperplasia and colonization of plasmocytic, centrocytoid and monocytoid cells, by the infiltration of interfollicular and parafollicular parts of interstitium, as well as by the invasion of clusters of neoplastic lymphoid cells of the glandular epithelium, forming the pathognomic lymphoepithelial MALT limphoma lesions. In this paper we presented the two female patients, 59 and 75 years of age, with MALT lymphomas, associated with Miculicz's and Sjögren's syndromes. The paper also underlined rather many-month-long, indolent clinical course, evalution of both tumors, massive in size, as well as two-sided localization in the case of the Miculicz's syndrome. After the subtotal parotidectomy, using conservation of nerve facialis, the tissue blocks were fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The paraffine sections were stained by routine histochemical and an immunohistochemical method by using monoclonal antibodies for both B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, due to the verification of lymphoepithelial lesions. The MALT lymphoma diagnosis was based on the histological criteria and confirmed by an immunohistochemical method. After the surgical therapy accompanied by chemotherapy, the patients were controlled at regular intervals, and residual MALT lymphoma did not appear. MALT lymphoma is a rare tumor of the salivary glands, with the most frequent localization in the parotide gland. It had a slow clinical course, without metastases in both patients. The diagnosis was made pathohistologically and confirmed immunohistochemically. The surgical therapy was accompained by adjuvant chemotherapy.

  19. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that

  20. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the salivary gland: problem cases.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, C B; Frable, W J

    1993-01-01

    Among 582 fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies of major and minor salivary glands performed between 1974 and 1990, lack of cytological histologic correlation was noted in 21 cases. Of these, the cause in 10 FNAs was inadequate cytological sampling of the lesion. [One case of malignant hemangiopericytoma was tentatively diagnosed as a monomorphic adenoma on FNA, a polymorphic T-cell lymphoma was diagnosed as granulomatous inflammation on aspiration biopsy, a benign lymphoepithelial lesion was diagnosed as a reactive lymph node, a branchial cleft cyst was called benign mixed tumor (BMT), one case of chronic sialoadenitis was called BMT by FNA, two cases of benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLEL) were diagnosed as cystic Warthin's tumor, two low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas were called BMT, and a BMT was cytologically diagnosed as a Warthin's tumor with squamous metaplasia versus low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. One case of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma was diagnosed only as a "cyst."] Review of these cases identifies constant features that permit differentiation between Warthin's tumor and BLEL, and among BMT, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and chronic sialoadenitis. Despite a few problem cases, FNA of the salivary gland is accurate in the preoperative diagnosis and classification of salivary gland neoplasms.

  1. Warthin tumor of the upper lip: an unusual location of a benign salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Almeida, Aroldo; Costa Hanemann, João Adolfo; Tostes Oliveira, Denise

    2011-06-01

    Warthin tumor (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum) is a benign salivary gland tumor involving almost exclusively the parotid gland. The lip is a very unusual location for this type of tumor, which develops only rarely in minor salivary glands. The case of 42-year-old woman with Warthin tumor arising in minor salivary glands of the upper lip is reported.

  2. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  3. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    SciTech Connect

    Deasy, Joseph O., E-mail: jdeasy@radonc.wustl.ed; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence

    2010-03-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than {approx}20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than {approx}25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. Amore » lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk.« less

  4. Primary midgut, salivary gland, and ovary cultures from Boophilus microplus.

    PubMed

    Mosqueda, Juan; Cossío-Bayugar, Raquel; Rodríguez, Elba; Falcón, Alfonso; Ramos, Alberto; Figueroa, Julio V; Alvarez, Antonio

    2008-12-01

    Primary cell cultures from different tick organs are a valuable tool for host parasite research in the study of the protozoan Babesia sp., which infects different organs of the tick. In this work we describe the generation of midgut, salivary gland, and ovary primary cell cultures from dissections of Boophilus microplus. Midguts, salivary glands, and ovaries were dissected from B. microplus ticks on different days after bovine infestation; different enzymatic disaggregating protocols were tested in the presence of proteolytic enzymes, such as trypsin and collagenase type I and II, for tissue disaggregation and primary cell culture generation. The dissected tick organs obtained 18-20 days after bovine infestation showed a major cellular differentiation and were easier to identify by cellular morphology. The enzymatic disaggregation results showed that each tissue required a different proteolytic enzyme for optimal disaggregation; collagenase type I produced the most complete disaggregation for ovaries but not for midgut or salivary glands. Collagenase type II was effective for salivary glands but performed poorly on ovaries and midgets, and typsin was effective for midguts only. The midgut and ovary primary cell cultures were maintained for 4 weeks in optimal conditions after the cells were no longer viable. The salivary gland cell cultures were viable for 8 months.

  5. The Role of Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction in Uncontrolled Type II Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, B; Sathasivasubramanian, S

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the salivary gland dysfunction in patients with uncontrolled type II diabetes using salivary gland scintigraphy and then to compare these ratios with quantitative whole salivary secretion rates. Using a gamma camera (siemens-diacam) equipped with a low energy all-purpose collimator, 32 uncontrolled type II diabetic patients and 30 normal healthy patients were studied by injecting a radio isotope (technetium 99m pertechnetate) about 5 mCi was injected intravenously in to anticubital vein and the activity was measured for the 1(st), 20(th) and 40(th) min. At 20 min after injection, vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and continued until the end of the study period (40 min). Before scintigraphy, salivary sampling was carried out in both diabetic and normal individuals in a quiet room, saliva was allowed to accumulate and was expectorated into the collecting vessel approximately once a minute for 15 min and the volume was recorded as Unstimulated salivary flow rate and after 5 min break vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and the patient was asked to expectorate the saliva in the collecting vessel for 5 min. The expectorated volume was recorded as stimulated salivary flow rate. The mean of the measurements of scintigraphic ratio and salivary secretion rates were compared using the paired Student's t-test. The scintigraphic mean uptake and excretory ratio (ER) and the salivary flow rates were correlated. The result shows that there was a significant correlation between salivary flow rate and scintigraphic uptake and ER. However, statistically significant result could not be derived as it may be due to smaller sample size and marginal difference in the scintigraphic values between the groups. Salivary gland scintigraphy plays a significant role in the evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction. However, its role as an independent investigative procedure in the evaluation of

  6. Establishment of immortal multipotent rat salivary progenitor cell line toward salivary gland regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yaniv, Adi; Neumann, Yoav; David, Ran; Stiubea-Cohen, Raluca; Orbach, Yoav; Lang, Stephan; Rotter, Nicole; Dvir-Ginzberg, Mona; Aframian, Doron J; Palmon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Adult salivary gland stem cells are promising candidates for cell therapy and tissue regeneration in cases of irreversible damage to salivary glands in head and neck cancer patients undergoing irradiation therapy. At present, the major restriction in handling such cells is their relatively limited life span during in vitro cultivation, resulting in an inadequate experimental platform to explore the salivary gland-originated stem cells as candidates for future clinical application in therapy. We established a spontaneous immortal integrin α6β1-expressing cell line of adult salivary progenitor cells from rats (rat salivary clone [RSC]) and investigated their ability to sustain cellular properties. This line was able to propagate for more than 400 doublings without loss of differentiation potential. RSC could differentiate in vitro to both acinar- and ductal-like structures and could be further manipulated upon culturing on a 3D scaffolds with different media supplements. Moreover, RSC expressed salivary-specific mRNAs and proteins as well as epithelial stem cell markers, and upon differentiation process their expression was changed. These results suggest RSC as a good model for further studies exploring cellular senescence, differentiation, and in vitro tissue engineering features as a crucial step toward reengineering irradiation-impaired salivary glands.

  7. Analysis of the Salivary Gland Transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Stafford-Banks, Candice A.; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R.; Whitfield, Anna E.; Ullman, Diane E.

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E−6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses

  8. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Stafford-Banks, Candice A; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R; Whitfield, Anna E; Ullman, Diane E

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses they

  9. Histochemical and ultrastructural study of the chicken salivary palatine glands.

    PubMed

    Samar, María E; Avila, Rodolfo E; Esteban, Francisco J; Olmedo, Luis; Dettin, Luis; Massone, Adriana; Pedrosa, Juan A; Peinado, María A

    2002-01-01

    Salivary glands are a good model to investigate the relationship between cell secretion and glandular structure. Most studies of this organ deal with mammals, but we are interested in a morphofunctional characterization of these glands in poultry in relation with particular feeding habits. For this purpose, conventional and lectin histochemical methods as well as ultrastructural methods have been applied to the chicken lateral and medial palatine salivary glands. It was found that periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive, alcianophilic, and metachromatic or orthochromatic cells were present with a more homogeneous distribution pattern in lateral glands than in medial palatine glands. Lectin staining depended on the lectin type that was applied, but also on the glandular part both in lateral and medial glands. Ultrastructural studies showed cytoplasmic membranous structures with a scattered granular or filamentous content depending on the secretory cell. In conclusion, morphofunctional characteristics of salivary glands of chicken suggest that their products are involved in lubrication and humidification of food ingested, and probably in protection of the oral surface, as has been previously described for other animals showing similar histochemical staining patterns.

  10. Minor Salivary Gland Transplantation for Severe Dry Eyes.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Tais Hitomi; SantʼAnna, Ana Estela Besteti Pires Ponce; Cristovam, Priscila Cardoso; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Wakamatsu, Alda; Gomes, José Alvaro Pereira

    2017-11-01

    Dry eye is a multifactorial disease comprising a wide spectrum of ocular surface alterations and symptoms of discomfort. In most patients with aqueous-deficient dry eye, pharmaceutical tear substitutes are used to control symptoms and prevent ocular surface damage. However, in severe dry eye conditions caused by cicatricial disorders, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome and ocular cicatricial mucous membrane pemphigoid, noninvasive treatments are insufficient, and patients are at risk of developing complications that can lead to blindness. The use of salivary glands as a source of lubrication to treat severe cases of dry eye has been proposed by different authors. The first reports proposed parotid or submandibular gland duct transplantation into the conjunctival fornix. However, complications limited the functional outcomes. Minor salivary gland autotransplantation together with labial mucosa has been used as a complex graft to the conjunctival fornix in severe dry eye with a good outcome. Our group demonstrated significant improvements in best-corrected visual acuity, Schirmer I test score, corneal transparency, and neovascularization after using this technique. A symptoms questionnaire applied to these patients revealed improvements in foreign body sensation, photophobia, and pain. Similar to tears, saliva has a complex final composition comprising electrolytes, immunoglobulins, proteins, enzymes, and mucins. We demonstrated the viability of minor salivary glands transplanted into the fornix of patients with dry eye by performing immunohistochemistry on graft biopsies with antibodies against lactoferrin, lysozyme, MUC1, and MUC16. The findings revealed the presence of functional salivary gland units, indicating local production of proteins, enzymes, and mucins.

  11. Childhood Salivary Gland Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Salivary gland tumors in children are very rare and prognosis is usually good. Salivary gland tumors may occur after radiation therapy and chemotherapy for treatment of primary leukemia or solid tumors. Get detailed information about the incidence, histology, clinical presentation and treatment of salivary gland tumors in this summary for clinicians.

  12. Sexual dimorphism and developmental change of the salivary glands in adult Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Perez de Leon, A A; Lloyd, J E; Tabachnick, W J

    1994-11-01

    Salivary glands of adult male and female Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) were sexually dimorphic when examined by phase contrast light microscopy. Female salivary glands were larger and more complex than those in males. Each female gland consisted of a main gland, which was subdivided into a proximal neck and a distal body with reference to the salivary duct, and four accessory glands. Each male salivary gland consisted of a pear-shaped body with a constriction, or neck, that divided it into a proximal and a distal portion, with reference to the salivary duct. Salivary glands of both sexes increased in length from emergence to day 3, followed by a sex-specific pattern of decrease. Based on these morphological observations, we suggest that the salivary glands of female C. variipennis are specialized in the production of secretory materials for blood-feeding.

  13. Lithiasis of salivary glands treated with a CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzesiak-Janas, Grazyna; Janas, Anna

    2003-10-01

    The study compares the results of classical surgical treatment with laserotherapy in lithiasis of submandibular salivary glands. The study included 48 patients, 26 of which were treated with application of a CO2 laser. The follow-up did not reveal any postoperative complications in the course of healing. No relapse of the disease was observed in patients.

  14. Apoptosis in Early Salivary Gland Duct Morphogenesis and Lumen Formation.

    PubMed

    Teshima, T H N; Wells, K L; Lourenço, S V; Tucker, A S

    2016-03-01

    Salivary glands are essential for the maintenance of oral health by providing lubrication and antimicrobial protection to the mucosal and tooth surfaces. Saliva is modified and delivered to the oral cavity by a complex multifunctional ductal system. During development, these ducts form as solid tubes, which undergo cavitation to create lumens. Apoptosis has been suggested to play a role in this cavitation process along with changes in cell polarity. Here, we show that apoptosis occurs from the very earliest stages of mouse salivary gland development, much earlier than previously reported. Apoptotic cells were observed in the center of the first epithelial stalk at early-stage embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) according to both TUNEL staining and cleaved caspase 3 immunofluorescence. The presumptive lumen space was highlighted by the colocalization of a predictive lumen marker, cytokeratin 7. At E14.5, as lumens start to form throughout the glands, apoptotic expression decreased while cytokeratin 7 remained positive. In vitro inhibition of all caspases in E12.5 and E13.5 salivary glands resulted in wider ducts, as compared with the controls, and a defect in lumen formation. In contrast, no such defect in lumen formation was observed at E14.5. Our data indicate that apoptosis is involved during early stages of gland formation (E12.5 onward) and appears important for shaping the forming ducts. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  15. Lithium Induces Glycogen Accumulation in Salivary Glands of the Rat.

    PubMed

    Souza, D N; Mendes, F M; Nogueira, F N; Simões, A; Nicolau, J

    2016-02-01

    Lithium is administered for the treatment of mood and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to verify whether treatment with different concentrations of lithium may affect the glycogen metabolism in the salivary glands of the rats when compared with the liver. Mobilization of glycogen in salivary glands is important for the process of secretion. Two sets of experiments were carried out, that is, in the first, the rats received drinking water supplemented with LiCl (38,25 and 12 mM of LiCl for 15 days) and the second experiment was carried out by intraperitoneal injection of LiCl solution (12 mg/kg and 45 mg LiCl/kg body weight) for 3 days. The active form of glycogen phosphorylase was not affected by treatment with LiCl considering the two experiments. The active form of glycogen synthase presented higher activity in the submandibular glands of rats treated with 25 and 38 mM LiCl and in the liver, with 25 mM LiCl. Glycogen level was higher than that of control in the submandibular glands of rats receiving 38 and 12 mM LiCl, in the parotid of rats receiving 25 and 38 mM, and in the liver of rats receiving 12 mM LiCl. The absolute value of glycogen for the submandibular treated with 25 mM LiCl, and the liver treated with 38 mM LiCl, was higher than the control value, although not statistically significant for these tissues. No statistically significant difference was found in the submandibular and parotid salivary glands for protein concentration when comparing experimental and control groups. We concluded that LiCl administered to rats influences the metabolism of glycogen in salivary glands.

  16. Polygalacturonase isozymes in Lygus hesperus Salivary Glands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The feeding strategy of mirids has been referred to as “lacerate or macerate and flush feeding” which supports high rates of food intake. In other words, plant bugs digest the plant tissue extra-orally, producing a liquefied brew rich in simple nutrient molecules. The insect's salivary polygalacturo...

  17. [Non-neoplastic enlargement of salivary glands: clinico-histologic analysis].

    PubMed

    González Guevara, Martha Beatriz; Torres Tejero, Marco Antonio; Martínez Mata, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective study on non-neoplastic enlargement of the salivary glands at the Oral Histopathology Diagnostic Center of the Autonomous Metropolitan University at Xochimilco (UAM-Xochimilco) in Mexico during a period of 24 years (1979-2003). From 5,625 biopsies received and analyzed, a total of 461 (8.2%) were non-neoplastic enlargement of the salivary glands; for each case, we registered demographic data as well as clinic characteristics. These lesions were characterized as a heterogeneous group of pathologic entities among which we included local, obstructive, infectious, and immunopathologic lesions. The most frequent lesion was the extravasation cyst in 341 (74%) cases, followed by chronic sialoadenitis and Sjögren's syndrome with 54 (11.7%) and 41 (8.8%) cases, respectively, and at a lesser percentage mucous retention cyst, sialosis, benign lymphoepithelial lesions and those related with sialolytes. Females were affected more frequently; mean age was second to third life decades. These lesions were most frequently localized on inferior labial mucosa.

  18. Intraoral Salivary Duct Cyst: Clinical and Histopathologic Features of 177 Cases.

    PubMed

    Stojanov, Ivan J; Malik, Umer A; Woo, Sook-Bin

    2017-12-01

    The salivary duct cyst (SDC) is a reactive ductal ectasia most frequently seen in major salivary glands, and likely caused by obstruction. The aim of this study is to define the clinical and histopathologic spectrum of intraoral SDCs. Cases were retrieved from the archives of Harvard School of Dental Medicine/StrataDx, Inc. from January 2012 to August 2014. There were 177 cases of which 103 (58.2%) occurred in females, with a median age of 56 (range 2-95). Approximately half of cases (45.8%) presented in the area of the buccal mucosa, lower lip mucosa, or mandibular vestibule, and 23.2% presented in the floor of mouth. SDCs were lined at least focally by 1-2 layers of cuboidal/columnar epithelium in 85.3% of cases and showed varying degrees of metaplasia (oncocytic, mucous cell, squamous, ciliated, apocrine-like) in 68.4% of cases. Intraluminal mucous stasis was present in 41.8% of SDCs, incipient calcification was present within 4.5% of SDCs, and chronic obstructive sialadenitis was seen in 90.2% of cases. No cysts showed adenomatous ductal proliferations or true papillary structures with fibrovascular cores, although 41.2% exhibited reactive undulation of cyst lining. Thirty-nine 'papillary oncocytic cystadenoma-like' SDCs (22.0%) demonstrated complete oncocytic metaplasia and marked undulation. An additional seven such cysts (4.0%) had a 'Warthin tumor-like' lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. Intraoral SDCs occur most commonly in the sixth decade of life in locations distinct from extravasation mucoceles, likely secondary to intraluminal obstruction. SDCs show diverse histopathology and certain phenotypic variants may be mistaken for papillary oncocytic cystadenoma or Warthin tumor.

  19. Salivary gland dysfunction markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Aitken-Saavedra, Juan; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana-Ramírez, Andrea; Escobar-Álvarez, Alejandro; Cortes-Coloma, Andrea; Reyes-Rojas, Montserrat; Viera -Sapiain, Valentina; Villablanca-Martínez, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease of the carbohydrate metabolism that, when not rigorously controlled, compromises systemic and organ integrity, thereby causing renal diseases, blindness, neuropathy, arteriosclerosis, infections, and glandular dysfunction, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative parameters of salivary alteration, which are indicators of salivary gland dysfunction, and the level of metabolic control of type 2 diabetes patients. Material and Methods A convenience sample of 74 voluntary patients with type 2 DM was selected, each of whom donated a sample of unstimulated saliva. Salivary parameters such as salivary flow rate, protein concentration, pH, and xerostomia were studied. Results There is a positive relationship between the level of metabolic control measured with HbA1 and the protein concentration in saliva (Spearman rho = 0.329 and p = 0.004). The same assay showed an inverse correlation between HbA1 and pH (Spearman rho = -0.225 and p = 0.05). Conclusions The protein concentration in saliva and, to a lesser extent, the pH may be useful as glandular dysfunction indicators in DM2 patients. Key words:Saliva, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pH, protein concentration, xerostomia. PMID:26535097

  20. Salivary gland dysfunction markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Aitken-Saavedra, Juan; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana-Ramírez, Andrea; Escobar-Álvarez, Alejandro; Cortes-Coloma, Andrea; Reyes-Rojas, Montserrat; Viera-Sapiain, Valentina; Villablanca-Martínez, Claudia; Morales-Bozo, Irene

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease of the carbohydrate metabolism that, when not rigorously controlled, compromises systemic and organ integrity, thereby causing renal diseases, blindness, neuropathy, arteriosclerosis, infections, and glandular dysfunction, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative parameters of salivary alteration, which are indicators of salivary gland dysfunction, and the level of metabolic control of type 2 diabetes patients. A convenience sample of 74 voluntary patients with type 2 DM was selected, each of whom donated a sample of unstimulated saliva. Salivary parameters such as salivary flow rate, protein concentration, pH, and xerostomia were studied. There is a positive relationship between the level of metabolic control measured with HbA1 and the protein concentration in saliva (Spearman rho = 0.329 and p = 0.004). The same assay showed an inverse correlation between HbA1 and pH (Spearman rho = -0.225 and p = 0.05). The protein concentration in saliva and, to a lesser extent, the pH may be useful as glandular dysfunction indicators in DM2 patients. Saliva, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pH, protein concentration, xerostomia.

  1. Treatment of salivary gland neoplasms with fast neutron radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Douglas, James G; Koh, Wui-jin; Austin-Seymour, Mary; Laramore, George E

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of fast neutron radiotherapy for the treatment of salivary gland neoplasms. Retrospective analysis. University of Washington Cancer Center, Neutron Facility, Seattle. The medical records of 279 patients treated with curative intent using fast neutron radiotherapy at the University of Washington Cancer Center were reviewed. Of the 279 patients, 263 had evidence of gross residual disease at the time of treatment (16 had no evidence of gross residual disease), 141 had tumors of a major salivary gland, and 138 had tumors of minor salivary glands. The median follow-up period was 36 months (range, 1-142 months). Local-regional control, cause-specific survival, and freedom from metastasis. The 6-year actuarial cause-specific survival rate was 67%. Multivariate analysis revealed that low group stage (I-II) disease, minor salivary sites, lack of skull base invasion, and primary disease were associated with a statistically significant improvement in cause-specific survival. The 6-year actuarial local-regional control rate was 59%. Multivariate analysis revealed size 4 cm or smaller, lack of base of skull invasion, prior surgical resection, and no previous radiotherapy to have a statistically significant improved local-regional control. Sixteen patients without evidence of gross residual disease had a 100% 6-year actuarial local-regional control. The 6-year actuarial freedom from metastasis rate was 64%. Factors associated with decreased development of systemic metastases included negative lymph nodes at the time of treatment and lack of base of skull involvement. The 6-year actuarial rate of development of grade 3 or 4 long-term toxicity (using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and European Organization for Research on the Treatment of Cancer criteria) was 10%. No patient experienced grade 5 toxic effects. Neuron radiotherapy is an effective treatment for patients with salivary gland neoplasms who have gross residual disease and achieves excellent

  2. [Anatomy and histology of salivary glands of Triatominae].

    PubMed

    Lacombe, D

    1999-01-01

    Histological studies upon the salivary glands of ten species of triatomine bugs were performed looking for their number and structural organization in different genera. It was possible to evaluate the celular epithelium type of each gland, as well as the merocrine and apocrine secretions of the glands. Secretion run until the hilo and after to salivary pump and hypofaringe. The glandular components, D1, D2 and D3 are always present in the Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Diptelogaster but in Rhodnius there are only the first two pairs of glands. The salivary channels and the hilo are analyzed by histology. The whole pair D3 has a clear valve that regularizes the exit of the secretions to the hilo. According to the genus the valves appear in different locations. They have low and dense epithelium, and their nucleus are rich in chromatin. The secondary channels leaving these valves, are very different, with clear chitinous ringer, low level of chromatin in the nucleus and homogeneous cytoplasm.

  3. Growth analysis of pulmonary metastases from salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Twardzik, F G; Sklaroff, D M

    1976-03-01

    Three cases of primary salivary gland tumors with lung metastasis are presented with extremely long survival (six, ten, and twelve years). The tumor doubling time was calculated and the growth rate of the pulmonary metastasis was found to be slow and erratic. A simplified table was devised, which permits rapid calculation of the tumor doubling time without the use of graphs. The presence of lung metastasis from some primary malignant salivary tumor is not necessarily an ominous sign: a long survival without symtoms is possible.

  4. A new identified complication of intracystic hemorrhage in a large pineal gland cyst.

    PubMed

    Mehrzad, Raman; Mishra, Suprav; Feinstein, Alexander; Ho, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Pineal gland cysts are typically asymptomatic, benign cysts most commonly found incidentally in adults. In rare cases, a large pineal gland cyst can be complicated by intracystic hemorrhage, which could then manifest with neurological symptoms. We report a new complication of intracystic hemorrhage in a large pineal gland cyst in a 40-year-old man with new onset seizures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Giant Sialolith of the Submandibular Salivary Gland.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Royce J; Arora, Sandeep

    2008-01-01

    We report the case of a 48-year-old man who had an unusually large submandibular gland sialolith (2.6 cm in greatest dimension), which led to sialadenitis and subsequent abscess formation. We describe the management of this patient and review the literature with emphasis on the various modalities available for diagnostic imaging.

  6. The morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of Zoraptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Dallai, R; Mercati, D; Mashimo, Y; Machida, R; Beutel, R G

    2017-07-01

    The salivary glands of two species of Zoraptera, Zorotypus caudelli and Zorotypus hubbardi, were examined and documented mainly using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results obtained for males and females of the two species are compared and functional aspects related to ultrastructural features are discussed. The salivary glands are divided into two regions: the secretory cell region and the long efferent duct, the latter with its distal end opening in the salivarium below the hypopharyngeal base. The secretory region consists of a complex of secretory cells provided with microvillated cavities connected by short ectodermal ducts to large ones, which are connected with the long efferent duct. The secretory cell cytoplasm contains a large system of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus producing numerous dense secretions. The cells of the efferent duct, characterized by reduced cytoplasm and the presence of long membrane infoldings associated with mitochondria, are possibly involved in fluid uptaking from the duct lumen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Transplantation of labial salivary glands for severe dry eye treatment].

    PubMed

    Soares, Eduardo Jorge Carneiro; França, Valênio Perez

    2005-01-01

    To study the clinical effects of the secretion of transplanted labial glands used as ocular lubricant to treat severe dry-eye cases, to evaluate the duration of the results and to simplify the surgical technique. Thirty-seven surgeries were performed in twenty-one patients during the period of July 2000 to January 2004. The graft, consisting of labial mucosa and underlying salivary glands, was transplanted to the previously prepared area in the conjunctival fornix. All procedures were recommended in severe dry-eye cases, that is, eyes with total or nearly total xerophthalmia. The preoperative and postoperative protocols are presented emphasizing the items which were used in the comparative analysis of the results as well as the technical description of the surgical procedure. The graft survival and integration into the host tissues were observed in 97.2% of the cases. The clinical improvement, demonstrated by the disappearance of the symptoms, better biomicroscopic aspect of the ocular surface, better vision and disuse of lubricant drops, was observed in 91.9% of the cases. The follow-up showed not only persistence but also stability of the results. Infection represented one case and ptosis represented three cases of the only four observed complications. The improvement of severe dry-eye cases detected after the transplantation of labial salivary glands is significant. It demonstrates that the lubricant ocular surface produced by the salivary secretion is efficient and well-tolerated. The follow-up shows that the result persists in the long term from which it is concluded that the production of the secretion is permanent. The surgical technique of transplanting the labial salivary gland to the conjunctival fornix is very simple and easily accessible to any ophthalmic surgeon.

  8. Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs): a novel group of insect pathogenic viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) are a unique, unclassified group of entomopathogenic, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been reported from three genera of Diptera. These viruses replicate in nuclei of salivary gland cells in adult flies, inducing gland enlargement with little obvious ...

  9. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Evaluate Major Salivary Gland Function Before and After Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dirix, Piet; Keyzer, Frederik de; Vandecaveye, Vincent

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI as a noninvasive tool to investigate major salivary gland function before and after radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: DW-MRI was performed in 8 HNC patients before and after parotid-sparing RT (mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland <26 Gy). A DW sequence was performed once at rest and then repeated continuously during salivary stimulation. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for both parotid and submandibular glands were calculated. Findings were compared with salivary gland scintigraphy. Results: Before RT, the mean ADC value at rest was significantly lower in the parotidmore » than in the submandibular glands. During the first 5 min of stimulation, the ADC value of the salivary glands showed a decrease, followed by a steady increase until a peak ADC, significantly higher than the baseline value, was reached after a median of 17 min. The baseline ADC value at rest was significantly higher after RT than before RT in the nonspared salivary glands but not in the spared parotid glands. In the contralateral parotid glands, the same response was seen as before RT. This pattern was completely lost in the nonspared glands. These results corresponded with remaining or loss of salivary function, respectively, as confirmed by salivary gland scintigraphy. Conclusions: Diffusion-weighted-MRI allows noninvasive evaluation of functional changes in the major salivary glands after RT and is a promising tool for investigating radiation-induced xerostomia.« less

  10. Elective neck management for high-grade salivary gland carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Herman, Michael P; Werning, John W; Morris, Christopher G; Kirwan, Jessica M; Amdur, Robert J; Mendenhall, William M

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether patients with clinically node negative (cNo) high grade salivary gland carcinomas benefit from an elective neck dissection prior to postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Between October 1964 and October 2009, 59 previously untreated patients with cNo high-grade salivary gland carcinomas (squamous cell carcinomas were excluded) were treated with curative intent using elective neck dissection (END; n=41), or elective neck irradiation (ENI; n=18) at the University of Florida College of Medicine (Gainesville, FL). All patients underwent resection of the primary cancer followed by postoperative RT. The median follow-up period was 5.2years (range, 0.3-34years). Occult metastases were found in 18 (44%) of the 41 patients in the END group. There were 4 recurrences (10%) in the END group and 0 recurrence in the ENI group. Neck control rates at 5years were: END, 90%; ENI, 100%; and overall, 93% (p=0.1879). Cause-specific survival was 94% in the ENI group, 84% in the END group, and 86% for all patients (p=0.6998). There were 3 reported grade 3 or 4 toxicities. Two patients had a postoperative fistula and one patient had a grade 4 osteoradionecrosis that required a partial mandibulectomy. Patients with cNo high grade salivary gland carcinomas who are planned to undergo surgery and postoperative RT likely do not benefit from a planned neck dissection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Botulinum Toxin Confers Radioprotection in Murine Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Youssef H.; Xiao, Nan; Cao, Hongbin; Kong, Christina; Le, Quynh-Thu; Sirjani, Davud

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Xerostomia is a common radiation sequela, which has a negative impact on the quality of life of patients with head and neck cancer. Current treatment strategies offer only partial relief. Botulinum toxins (BTX) have been successfully used in treating a variety of radiation sequelae such as cystitis, proctitis, fibrosis, and facial pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of BTX on radiation-induced salivary gland damage. Methods and Materials We used a previously established model for murine salivary gland irradiation (IR). The submandibular glands (SMGs) of C5BL/6 mice (n=6/group) were injected with saline or BTX 72 hours before receiving 15 Gy of focal irradiation. Saliva flow was measured 3, 7, and 28 days after treatment. The SMGs were collected for immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, and Western blotting. A cytokine array consisting of 40 different mouse cytokines was used to evaluate cytokine profiles after radiation treatment. Results Irradiated mice showed a 50% reduction in saliva flow after 3 days, whereas mice preinjected with BTX had 25% reduction in saliva flow (P<.05). Cell death detected by TUNEL staining was similar in SMG sections of both groups. However, neutrophil infiltrate, detected by myeloperoxidase staining, was 3-fold lower for the BTX treated mice. A cytokine array showed a 2-fold upregulation of LPS-induced chemokine (LIX/CXCL5) 3 days after IR. BTX pretreatment reduced LIX levels by 40%. At 4 weeks after IR, the saline (control) group showed a 40% reduction in basal SMG weight, compared with 20% in the BTX group. Histologically, BTX-pretreated glands showed relative preservation of acinar structures after radiation. Conclusions These data suggest that BTX pretreatment ameliorates radiation-induced saliva dysfunction. Moreover, we demonstrate a novel role for CXCL5 in the acute phase of salivary gland damage after radiation. These results carry important clinical implications for the treatment of

  12. Immunohistochemical Detection of Proliferative Marker Ki-67 in Benign and Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bussari, Smita; Ganvir, Sindhu M; Sarode, Manish; Jeergal, Prabhakar A; Deshmukh, Anjum; Srivastava, Himanshu

    2018-04-01

    Introduction: Salivary gland tumors are the most histologically heterogeneous group of tumors with the greatest diversity of morphologic features among their cells and tissues. The present study was aimed at assessing the validity of Ki-67, a cell proliferation marker, as a prognostic factor in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and to study whether it is related to age, sex, anatomical site, and size of the lesion in salivary gland tumors. Materials and methods: A retrospective study consisted of benign salivary gland tumors (BSGTs) (n = 15), malignant salivary gland tumors (n = 18), and normal salivary gland parenchyma (n = 15). Results: There was a significant difference of Ki-67 labeling index (LI, %) in normal salivary gland parenchyma, BSGTs, and malignant salivary gland tumors. The Ki-67 LI (%) in normal salivary gland parenchyma is negligible (0.27 ± 0.31%), whereas malignant salivary gland tumors showed very high Ki-67 LI (%) of 18.79 ± 18.06% compared with BSGTs being 0.76 ± 2.02%. There was a significant correlation statistically of mean ± standard deviation (SD) of Ki-67 LI (%) with the age of the patients being the maximum (32.68 ± 15.87%) in the 50 to 59 years age group, whereas sex, site of the lesion, and size of the lesion in salivary gland tumors had no significant correlation. Conclusion: The Ki-67 is a useful marker for assessing prolif-erative potential of tumors. Clinical significance: The Ki-67 LI% can be used as a reliable adjuvant diagnostic tool to differentiate between the subtypes and grading of certain malignant tumors, such as mucoepi-dermoid carcinoma (MEC), adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC), and acinic cell carcinoma (AcCC), which are usually difficult to diagnose on histopathological criteria alone. Keywords: Immunohistochemistry, Ki-67, Salivary gland neoplasms.

  13. Functional salivary gland regeneration by transplantation of a bioengineered organ germ

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Miho; Oshima, Masamitsu; Imamura, Aya; Sekine, Yurie; Ishida, Kentaro; Yamashita, Kentaro; Nakajima, Kei; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Salivary gland hypofunction, also known as xerostomia, occurs as a result of radiation therapy for head cancer, Sjögren’s syndrome or aging, and can cause a variety of critical oral health issues, including dental decay, bacterial infection, mastication dysfunction, swallowing dysfunction and reduced quality of life. Here we demonstrate the full functional regeneration of a salivary gland that reproduces the morphogenesis induced by reciprocal epithelial and mesenchymal interactions through the orthotopic transplantation of a bioengineered salivary gland germ as a regenerative organ replacement therapy. The bioengineered germ develops into a mature gland through acinar formations with a myoepithelium and innervation. The bioengineered submandibular gland produces saliva in response to the administration of pilocarpine and gustatory stimulation by citrate, protects against oral bacterial infection and restores normal swallowing in a salivary gland-defective mouse model. This study thus provides a proof-of-concept for bioengineered salivary gland regeneration as a potential treatment of xerostomia. PMID:24084982

  14. Dynamic relationship of the epithelium and mesenchyme during salivary gland initiation: the role of Fgf10

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kirsty L.; Gaete, Marcia; Matalova, Eva; Deutsch, Danny; Rice, David; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Salivary glands provide an excellent model for the study of epithelial–mesenchymal interactions. We have looked at the interactions involved in the early initiation and development of murine salivary glands using classic recombination experiments and knockout mice. We show that salivary gland epithelium, at thickening and initial bud stages, is able to direct salivary gland development in non-gland pharyngeal arch mesenchyme at early stages. The early salivary gland epithelium is therefore able to induce gland development in non-gland tissue. This ability later shifts to the mesenchyme, with non-gland epithelium, such as from the limb bud, able to form a branching gland when combined with pseudoglandular stage gland mesenchyme. This shift appears to involve Fgf signalling, with signals from the epithelium inducing Fgf10 in the mesenchyme. Fgf10 then signals back to the epithelium to direct gland down-growth and bud development. These experiments highlight the importance of epithelial–mesenchymal signalling in gland initiation, controlling where, when and how many salivary glands form. PMID:24167707

  15. Calcium signalling in salivary gland physiology and dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Studies over the past four decades have established that Ca2+ is a critical factor in control of salivary gland function and have led to identification of the critical components of this process. The major ion transport mechanisms and ion channels that are involved in fluid secretion have also been established. The key event in activation of fluid secretion is an increase in [Ca2+]i triggered by inositol 1,4,5‐trisphosphate (IP3)‐induced release of Ca2+ from ER via the IP3 receptor (IP3R). IP3Rs determine the site of initiation and the pattern of the [Ca2+]i signal in the cell. However, Ca2+ entry into the cell is required to sustain the elevation of [Ca2+]i and fluid secretion and is mediated by the store‐operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) mechanism. Orai1, TRPC1, TRPC3 and STIM1 have been identified as critical components of SOCE in these cells. Cells finely tune the generation and amplification of [Ca2+]i signals for regulation of cell function. An important emerging area is the concept that unregulated [Ca2+]i signals in cells can directly cause cell damage, dysfunction and disease. Alternatively, aberrant [Ca2+]i signals can also amplify and increase the rates of cell damage. Such defects in Ca2+ signalling have been described in salivary glands in conjunction with radiation‐induced loss of salivary gland function as well as in the salivary defects associated with the autoimmune exocrinopathy Sjögren's syndrome. Such defects have been associated with altered function or expression of key Ca2+ signalling components, such as STIM proteins and TRP channels. These studies offer new avenues for examining the mechanisms underlying the disease and development of novel clinical targets and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26592972

  16. Calcium signalling in salivary gland physiology and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ambudkar, Indu S

    2016-06-01

    Studies over the past four decades have established that Ca(2+) is a critical factor in control of salivary gland function and have led to identification of the critical components of this process. The major ion transport mechanisms and ion channels that are involved in fluid secretion have also been established. The key event in activation of fluid secretion is an increase in [Ca(2+) ]i triggered by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 )-induced release of Ca(2+) from ER via the IP3 receptor (IP3 R). IP3 Rs determine the site of initiation and the pattern of the [Ca(2+) ]i signal in the cell. However, Ca(2+) entry into the cell is required to sustain the elevation of [Ca(2+) ]i and fluid secretion and is mediated by the store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) mechanism. Orai1, TRPC1, TRPC3 and STIM1 have been identified as critical components of SOCE in these cells. Cells finely tune the generation and amplification of [Ca(2+) ]i signals for regulation of cell function. An important emerging area is the concept that unregulated [Ca(2+) ]i signals in cells can directly cause cell damage, dysfunction and disease. Alternatively, aberrant [Ca(2+) ]i signals can also amplify and increase the rates of cell damage. Such defects in Ca(2+) signalling have been described in salivary glands in conjunction with radiation-induced loss of salivary gland function as well as in the salivary defects associated with the autoimmune exocrinopathy Sjögren's syndrome. Such defects have been associated with altered function or expression of key Ca(2+) signalling components, such as STIM proteins and TRP channels. These studies offer new avenues for examining the mechanisms underlying the disease and development of novel clinical targets and therapeutic strategies. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Identification of factors that function in Drosophila salivary gland cell death during development using proteomics

    PubMed Central

    McPhee, C K; Balgley, B M; Nelson, C; Hill, J H; Batlevi, Y; Fang, X; Lee, C S; Baehrecke, E H

    2013-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors induce cell death and are used in cancer therapy, but little is known about the relationship between proteasome impairment and cell death under normal physiological conditions. Here, we investigate the relationship between proteasome function and larval salivary gland cell death during development in Drosophila. Drosophila larval salivary gland cells undergo synchronized programmed cell death requiring both caspases and autophagy (Atg) genes during development. Here, we show that ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) function is reduced during normal salivary gland cell death, and that ectopic proteasome impairment in salivary gland cells leads to early DNA fragmentation and salivary gland condensation in vivo. Shotgun proteomic analyses of purified dying salivary glands identified the UPS as the top category of proteins enriched, suggesting a possible compensatory induction of these factors to maintain proteolysis during cell death. We compared the proteome following ectopic proteasome impairment to the proteome during developmental cell death in salivary gland cells. Proteins that were enriched in both populations of cells were screened for their function in salivary gland degradation using RNAi knockdown. We identified several factors, including trol, a novel gene CG11880, and the cop9 signalsome component cop9 signalsome 6, as required for Drosophila larval salivary gland degradation. PMID:22935612

  18. Salivary Gland Hypofunction in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 Knockout Mice Is Due to Primary Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Westmuckett, Andrew D.; Siefert, Joseph C.; Tesiram, Yasvir A.; Pinson, David M.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein-tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of an unknown number of secreted and membrane proteins mediated by two known Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2). We reported that Tpst2-/- mice have mild-moderate primary hypothyroidism, whereas Tpst1-/- mice are euthyroid. While using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look at the thyroid gland we noticed that the salivary glands in Tpst2-/- mice appeared smaller than in wild type mice. This prompted a detailed analysis to compare salivary gland structure and function in wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2 -/- mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative MRI imaging documented that salivary glands in Tpst2-/- females were ≈ 30% smaller than wild type or Tpst1-/- mice and that the granular convoluted tubules in Tpst2-/- submandibular glands were less prominent and were almost completely devoid of exocrine secretory granules compared to glands from wild type or Tpst1-/- mice. In addition, pilocarpine–induced salivary flow and salivary α-amylase activity in Tpst2-/- mice of both sexes was substantially lower than in wild type and Tpst1-/- mice. Anti-sulfotyrosine Western blots of salivary gland extracts and saliva showed no differences between wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2-/- mice, suggesting that the salivary gland hypofunction is due to factor(s) extrinsic to the salivary glands. Finally, we found that all indicators of hypothyroidism (serum T4, body weight) and salivary gland hypofunction (salivary flow, salivary α-amylase activity, histological changes) were restored to normal or near normal by thyroid hormone supplementation. Conclusions/Significance Our findings conclusively demonstrate that low body weight and salivary gland hypofunction in Tpst2-/- mice is due solely to primary hypothyroidism. PMID:23951251

  19. Diffusion MRI: literature review in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Attyé, A; Troprès, I; Rouchy, R-C; Righini, C; Espinoza, S; Kastler, A; Krainik, A

    2017-07-01

    Surgical resection is currently the best treatment for salivary gland tumors. A reliable magnetic resonance imaging mapping, encompassing tumor grade, location, and extension may assist safe and effective tumor resection and provide better information for patients regarding potential risks and morbidity after surgical intervention. However, direct examination of the tumor grade and extension using conventional morphological MRI remains difficult, often requiring contrast media injection and complex algorithms on perfusion imaging to estimate the degree of malignancy. In addition, contrast-enhanced MRI technique may be problematic due to the recently demonstrated gadolinium accumulation in the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum. Significant developments in magnetic resonance diffusion imaging, involving voxel-based quantitative analysis through the measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient, have enhanced our knowledge on the different histopathological salivary tumor grades. Other diffusion imaging-derived techniques, including high-order tractography models, have recently demonstrated their usefulness in assessing the facial nerve location in parotid tumor context. All of these imaging techniques do not require contrast media injection. Our review starts by outlining the physical basis of diffusion imaging, before discussing findings from diagnostic studies testing its usefulness in assessing salivary glands tumors with diffusion MRI. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Adenoid cystic carcinoma associated with mucous retention cyst of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Hebbale, Manjula Advisha; Halli, Rajshekhar C; Kini, Yogesh K; Kharkar, Viraj R; Metgud, Rashmi

    2011-09-01

    Mucous retention cysts of the parotid gland are rare, and a coexistent adenoid cystic carcinoma is even an unusual occurrence. Such coexistent adenoid cystic carcinomas with mucous retention cyst of the parotid gland are difficult to diagnose clinically and, at times, stage difficulty in their management. We report a rare case of adenoid cystic carcinoma associated with mucous retention cyst of the parotid gland with its diagnostic and management dilemma in a 14-year-old adolescent girl.

  1. Mena, a new available marker in tumors of salivary glands?

    PubMed

    Gurzu, S; Krause, M; Ember, I; Azamfirei, L; Gobel, G; Feher, K; Jung, I

    2012-02-07

    Mena (mammalian Ena) is an actin regulatory protein involved in cell motility and adhesion. Based on its potential role in malignant transformation revealed in other organs, we analyzed the Mena expression in normal salivary glands (SG) and salivary tumors. Mena expression was determined in normal SG (n=10) and also benign (n=20) and malignant (n=35) lesions of SG. For the immunohistochemical staining we used the anti-Mena antibody. All normal SG and the benign lesions (10 pleomorphic adenomas, 10 Warthin's tumors) were Mena negative. Salivary duct carcinomas (n=5), carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma (n=5), acinic cell carcinomas (n=5), squamous cell carcinomas (n=10) and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=2) were positive. The lymphomas (n=5) and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=1) were Mena negative. In one case the lymphoblastic cells stained positive for Mena. Some of the endothelial cells, in the peritumoral vessels, were Mena positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in salivary tumors. Our study suggests that Mena protein seems to play a role in malignant transformation and its intensity is correlated with the type and grade of tumor and also with vascular invasion. Its positivity in endothelial cells may suggest its potential role in tumor angiogenesis.

  2. Multiscale Feature Analysis of Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Baydil, Banu; Daley, William P.; Larsen, Melinda; Yener, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Pattern formation in developing tissues involves dynamic spatio-temporal changes in cellular organization and subsequent evolution of functional adult structures. Branching morphogenesis is a developmental mechanism by which patterns are generated in many developing organs, which is controlled by underlying molecular pathways. Understanding the relationship between molecular signaling, cellular behavior and resulting morphological change requires quantification and categorization of the cellular behavior. In this study, tissue-level and cellular changes in developing salivary gland in response to disruption of ROCK-mediated signaling by are modeled by building cell-graphs to compute mathematical features capturing structural properties at multiple scales. These features were used to generate multiscale cell-graph signatures of untreated and ROCK signaling disrupted salivary gland organ explants. From confocal images of mouse submandibular salivary gland organ explants in which epithelial and mesenchymal nuclei were marked, a multiscale feature set capturing global structural properties, local structural properties, spectral, and morphological properties of the tissues was derived. Six feature selection algorithms and multiway modeling of the data was performed to identify distinct subsets of cell graph features that can uniquely classify and differentiate between different cell populations. Multiscale cell-graph analysis was most effective in classification of the tissue state. Cellular and tissue organization, as defined by a multiscale subset of cell-graph features, are both quantitatively distinct in epithelial and mesenchymal cell types both in the presence and absence of ROCK inhibitors. Whereas tensor analysis demonstrate that epithelial tissue was affected the most by inhibition of ROCK signaling, significant multiscale changes in mesenchymal tissue organization were identified with this analysis that were not identified in previous biological studies. We

  3. No Detectable Hypoxia in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wijffels, Karien; Hoogsteen, Ilse J.; Lok, Jasper

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: Hypoxia is detected in most solid tumors and is associated with malignant progression and adverse treatment outcomes. However, the oxygenation status of malignant salivary gland tumors has not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical relevance of hypoxia in this tumor type. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients scheduled for surgical resection of a salivary gland tumor were preoperatively injected with the hypoxia marker pimonidazole and the proliferation marker iododeoxyuridine. Tissue samples of the dissected tumor were immunohistochemically stained for blood vessels, pimonidazole, carbonic anhydrase-IX, glucose transporters-1 and -3 (Glut-1, Glut-3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha},more » iododeoxyuridine, and epidermal growth factor receptor. The tissue sections were quantitatively assessed by computerized image analysis. Results: The tissue material from 8 patients was of sufficient quality for quantitative analysis. All tumors were negative for pimonidazole binding, as well as for carbonic anhydrase-IX, Glut-1, Glut-3, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}. The vascular density was high, with a median value of 285 mm{sup -2} (range, 209-546). The iododeoxyuridine-labeling index varied from <0.1% to 12.2% (median, 2.2%). Epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels were mostly moderate to high. In one-half of the cases, nuclear expression of epidermal growth factor receptor was observed. Conclusion: The absence of detectable pimonidazole binding, as well as the lack of expression of hypoxia-associated proteins in all tumors, indicates that malignant salivary gland tumors are generally well oxygenated. It is unlikely that hypoxia is a relevant factor for their clinical behavior and treatment responsiveness.« less

  4. Gross morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of the mute cicada Karenia caelatata Distant (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hai-ying; Wei, Cong; Zhang, Ya-lin

    2013-02-01

    Salivary glands of the cicada Karenia caelatata Distant were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands are paired structures and consist of principal glands and accessory glands. The principal gland is subdivided into anterior lobe and posterior lobe; the former contains about 34-39 long digitate lobules, while the latter contains approximately 30-33 long digitate lobules and 13-22 short digitate lobules. These short digitate lobules, about one fifth or sixth as long as the long digitate lobules, locate at the base of the long digitate lobules of posterior lobe. All of these digitate lobules vary in size, disposition, length and shape. The anterior lobe and the posterior lobe are connected by an anterior-posterior duct. Two efferent salivary ducts, which connect with the posterior lobe, fuse to form a common duct. The accessory gland is composed of three parts: a greatly tortuous and folded accessory salivary tube, a circlet of gular gland constituting of several acini of the same size, and a non-collapsible accessory salivary duct. The digitate lobules and gular glands possess secretory cells containing abundant secretory granules vary in size, shape, and electron density, as might indicate different materials are synthesized in different secretory regions. The anterior-posterior duct lines with a player of cuticular lining, and cells beneath the cuticular lining lack of basal infoldings, as suggests the duct serves just to transport secretions. The accessory salivary duct is lined with cuticular lining; cells of the duct have well developed basal infoldings associated with abundant mitochondria, as probably suggests the duct is a reabsorptive region of ions. The cells of the accessory salivary tube possess deep basal infoldings and well developed apical dense microvilli, indicating the cells of the tube are secretory in function. Concentric lamellar structures and a peculiar structure with abundant membrane

  5. The use of laser CO2 in salivary gland diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciolfi, C.; Rocchetti, F.; Fioravanti, M.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Romeo, U.

    2016-03-01

    Salivary gland diseases can include reactive lesions, obstructive lesions, and benign tumors. All these clinical entities are slow growing. Salivary glands reactive lesions, such as mucoceles, can result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissue or from retention of saliva within the duct. Sialolithiasis, one of the most common obstructive lesions, is generally due to calculi, which are attributed to retention of saliva. Monomorphic adenoma is a salivary gland benign tumor, which is exclusively resulted from proliferation of epithelial cells, with no alterations interesting the connective tissue. The elective therapy of these lesions is surgical excision because sometimes they can be accompained by difficulties during chewing and phonation and can interfere with prosthesis's stability. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of CO2 laser in the treatment of patients with salivary gland diseases. Three different cases - a mucocele, a scialolithiasis and a monomorphic adenoma - were treated with CO2 laser excision (CW and 4W), under local anesthesia. Two different techniques were used: circumferential incision for the adenoma, and mucosa preservation technique for mucocele and sialolithiasis. In each case final haemostasis was obtained by thermocoagulation, but suture was applied to guarantee good healing by sewing up the flaps. The patients were checked after twenty days and the healing was good. The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas laser to be developed, and is still the highest-power continuous wave laser that is currently available. In dentistry the CO2 laser produces a beam of infrared light with the principal wavelength bands centering around 9.4 and 10.6 micrometers. Laser excision can be very useful in oral surgery. In the cases presented CO2 laser offered, differently from traditional surgery, simplified surgical technique, shorter duration of operation, minimal postoperative pain, minimal scarring

  6. [Application of water jet ERBEJET 2 in salivary glands surgery].

    PubMed

    Gasiński, Mateusz; Modrzejewski, Maciej; Cenda, Paweł; Nazim-Zygadło, Elzbieta; Kozok, Andrzej; Dobosz, Paweł

    2009-09-01

    Anatomical location of salivary glands requires from surgeon high precision during the operation in this site. Waterjet is one of the modern tools which allows to perform "minimal invasive" operating procedure. This tool helps to separate pathological structures from healthy tissue with a stream of high pressure saline pumped to the operating area via special designed applicators. Stream of fluid is generated by double piston pummp under 1 to 80 bar pressure that can be regulated. This allows to precise remove tumors, spare nerves and vessels in glandular tissue and minimize use of electrocoagulation. Waterjet is a modern tool that can help to improve the safety of patients and comfort of surgeon's work.

  7. Botulinum Toxin Confers Radioprotection in Murine Salivary Glands

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidan, Youssef H., E-mail: zeidan@miami.edu; Xiao, Nan; Cao, Hongbin

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a common radiation sequela, which has a negative impact on the quality of life of patients with head and neck cancer. Current treatment strategies offer only partial relief. Botulinum toxins (BTX) have been successfully used in treating a variety of radiation sequelae such as cystitis, proctitis, fibrosis, and facial pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of BTX on radiation-induced salivary gland damage. Methods and Materials: We used a previously established model for murine salivary gland irradiation (IR). The submandibular glands (SMGs) of C5BL/6 mice (n=6/group) were injected with saline or BTX 72 hoursmore » before receiving 15 Gy of focal irradiation. Saliva flow was measured 3, 7, and 28 days after treatment. The SMGs were collected for immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, and Western blotting. A cytokine array consisting of 40 different mouse cytokines was used to evaluate cytokine profiles after radiation treatment. Results: Irradiated mice showed a 50% reduction in saliva flow after 3 days, whereas mice preinjected with BTX had 25% reduction in saliva flow (P<.05). Cell death detected by TUNEL staining was similar in SMG sections of both groups. However, neutrophil infiltrate, detected by myeloperoxidase staining, was 3-fold lower for the BTX treated mice. A cytokine array showed a 2-fold upregulation of LPS-induced chemokine (LIX/CXCL5) 3 days after IR. BTX pretreatment reduced LIX levels by 40%. At 4 weeks after IR, the saline (control) group showed a 40% reduction in basal SMG weight, compared with 20% in the BTX group. Histologically, BTX-pretreated glands showed relative preservation of acinar structures after radiation. Conclusions: These data suggest that BTX pretreatment ameliorates radiation-induced saliva dysfunction. Moreover, we demonstrate a novel role for CXCL5 in the acute phase of salivary gland damage after radiation. These results carry important clinical implications for the

  8. Characterization of the myoepithelial cells in the major salivary glands of the fruit bat Artibeus jamaicensis.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Hernández, Julio; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma

    2016-08-01

    Bats constitute one of the most numerous mammalian species. Bats have a wide range of dietary habits and include carnivorous, haematophagous, insectivorous, frugivorous and nectivorous species. The salivary glands of these species have been of particular research interest due to their structural variability among chiropterans with different types of diets. Myoepithelial cells (MECs), which support and facilitate the expulsion of saliva from the secretory portions of salivary glands, are very important for their function; however, this cell type has not been extensively studied in the salivary glands of bats. In this study, we characterized the MECs in the major salivary glands of the fruit bat Artibeus jamaicensis. Herein, we describe the morphology of the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands of A. jamaicensis at the light- and electro-microscopic level and the distribution of MECs in these glands, as defined by their expression of smooth-muscle markers such as α-smooth muscle actin (SMAα) and desmin, and of epithelial cell markers, such as KRT14. We found that the anatomical locations of the major salivary glands in this bat species are similar to those of humans, except that the bat sublingual gland appears to be unique, extending to join the contralateral homologous gland. Morphologically, the parotid gland has the characteristics of a mixed-secretory gland, whereas the submandibular and sublingual glands were identified as mucous-secretory glands. MECs positive for SMAα, KRT14 and desmin were found in all of the structural components of the three glands, except in their excretory ducts. Desmin is expressed at a lower level in the parotid gland than in the other glands. Our results suggest that the major salivary glands of A. jamaicensis, although anatomically and structurally similar to those of humans, play different physiological roles that can be attributed to the dietary habits of this species. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  9. [Transplantation of autologous labial salivary glands for severe dry eye].

    PubMed

    Luo, Shun-rong; Zou, Liu-he; Yan, Chao; Pan, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Jing-ming; Chen, Zhi-yuan; Yin, Wei-hong

    2013-01-01

    Autologous labial salivary gland transplantation has been a promising alternative for the treatment of severe dry eye. In this article, we describe the results of the ocular surface changes after labial salivary gland transplantation and investigate the feasibility of this treatment. The results of this technique in 8 patients (eyes) who suffered from severe dry eye were prospectively analyzed after surgery (follow-up of 6 months). The best-corrected visual acuity, Schirmer I test, degree of discomfort, usage of pharmaceutical tear substitutes, tear interferometry and slit lamp examination were investigated at different time before and after surgery. All grafts remained viable and the survival rate is 100%. All patients showed significant increase in the Schirmer's test and they expressed great improvement in their ocular discomfort. The use of artificial tear substitutes was reduced because of the increased ocular surface lubrication. Although the authors' long-term experience still is limited, we believe that the procedure is a promising alternative approach for severe dry eye.

  10. [Middle ear salivary gland choristoma related to branchio-oto-renal syndrome diagnosed by array-CGH].

    PubMed

    Amrhein, P; Sittel, C; Spaich, C; Kohlhase, J; Boppert, R; Kohlhof, P; Koitschev, A

    2014-05-01

    Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is characterized by ear malformations associated with sensorineural or mixed hearing loss. In addition, preauricular tags, preauricular pits, branchial cleft fistulas and cysts, as well as renal dysplasia are seen. A genetic mutation on chromosome 8, either autosomal dominantly inherited or occuring as a spontaneous mutation, is the cause in the majority of cases. Using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), it is possible to detect even the smallest genetic changes. Salivary gland choristoma in the middle ear is very rare. Surgical removal and histological clarification are required.

  11. Dynamic uptake of radioactive substance in rat salivary gland following /sup 3/H-melatonin administration

    SciTech Connect

    Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Wongprapairot, P.; Trakulrungsi, W.

    Dynamics of radioactive accumulation in rat greater salivary gland following systemic administration of /sup 3/H-melatonin was studied to determine a possible action of the hormone in the gland. Progressive decline of /sup 3/H-melatonin concentrations was found in the serum, lung, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, and salivary gland during 60 min following the administration. On the contrary, there was a progressive accumulation of radioactive substance other than /sup 3/H-melatonin in the salivary gland but not in other tissues mentioned. The radioactivity was also progressively and preferentially localized in the nuclear fraction of the gland cells. These results suggest a possible directmore » action of melatonin derivative in rat salivary gland.« less

  12. Unraveling dual feeding associated molecular complexity of salivary glands in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Punita; Sharma, Swati; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Thomas, Tina; Das De, Tanwee; Rohilla, Suman Lata; Singh, Namita; Pandey, Kailash C.; Valecha, Neena; Dixit, Rajnikant

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mosquito salivary glands are well known to facilitate meal acquisition, however the fundamental question on how adult female salivary gland manages molecular responses during sugar versus blood meal uptake remains unanswered. To investigate these responses, we analyzed a total of 58.5 million raw reads generated from two independent RNAseq libraries of the salivary glands collected from 3–4 day-old sugar and blood fed Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. Comprehensive functional annotation analysis of 10,931 contigs unraveled that salivary glands may encode diverse nature of proteins in response to distinct physiological feeding status. Digital gene expression analysis and PCR validation indicated that first blood meal significantly alters the molecular architecture of the salivary glands. Comparative microscopic analysis also revealed that first blood meal uptake not only causes an alteration of at least 12–22% of morphological features of the salivary glands but also results in cellular changes e.g. apoptosis, confirming together that adult female salivary glands are specialized organs to manage meal specific responses. Unraveling the underlying mechanism of mosquito salivary gene expression, controlling dual feeding associated responses may provide a new opportunity to control vector borne diseases. PMID:26163527

  13. Is salivary gland function altered in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and obesity-insulin resistance?

    PubMed

    Ittichaicharoen, Jitjiroj; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2016-04-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction in several systemic diseases has been shown to decrease the quality of life in patients. In non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), inadequate salivary gland function has been evidenced to closely associate with this abnormal glycemic control condition. Although several studies demonstrated that NIDDM has a positive correlation with impaired salivary gland function, including decreased salivary flow rate, some studies demonstrated contradictory findings. Moreover, the changes of the salivary gland function in pre-diabetic stage known as insulin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this review is to comprehensively summarize the current evidence from in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies regarding the relationship between NIDDM and salivary gland function, as well as the correlation between obesity and salivary gland function. Consistent findings as well as controversial reports and the mechanistic insights regarding the effect of NIDDM and obesity-insulin resistance on salivary gland function are also presented and discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biocompatible tissue scaffold compliance promotes salivary gland morphogenesis and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sarah B; Naim, Nyla; Nelson, Deirdre A; Mosier, Aaron P; Cady, Nathaniel C; Larsen, Melinda

    2014-06-01

    Substrate compliance is reported to alter cell phenotype, but little is known about the effects of compliance on cell development within the context of a complex tissue. In this study, we used 0.48 and 19.66 kPa polyacrylamide gels to test the effects of the substrate modulus on submandibular salivary gland development in culture and found a significant decrease in branching morphogenesis in explants grown on the stiff 19.66 kPa gels relative to those grown on the more physiologically compliant 0.48 kPa gels. While proliferation and apoptosis were not affected by the substrate modulus, tissue architecture and epithelial acinar cell differentiation were profoundly perturbed by aberrant, high stiffness. The glands cultured on 0.48 kPa gels were similar to developing glands in morphology and expression of the differentiation markers smooth muscle alpha-actin (SM α-actin) in developing myoepithelial cells and aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in proacinar cells. At 19.66 kPa, however, tissue morphology and the expression and distribution of SM α-actin and AQP5 were disrupted. Significantly, aberrant gland development at 19.66 kPa could be rescued by both mechanical and chemical stimuli. Transfer of glands from 19.66 to 0.48 kPa gels resulted in substantial recovery of acinar structure and differentiation, and addition of exogenous transforming growth factor beta 1 at 19.66 kPa resulted in a partial rescue of morphology and differentiation within the proacinar buds. These results indicate that environmental compliance is critical for organogenesis, and suggest that both mechanical and chemical stimuli can be exploited to promote organ development in the contexts of tissue engineering and organ regeneration.

  15. Biocompatible Tissue Scaffold Compliance Promotes Salivary Gland Morphogenesis and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Sarah B.; Naim, Nyla; Nelson, Deirdre A.; Mosier, Aaron P.; Cady, Nathaniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Substrate compliance is reported to alter cell phenotype, but little is known about the effects of compliance on cell development within the context of a complex tissue. In this study, we used 0.48 and 19.66 kPa polyacrylamide gels to test the effects of the substrate modulus on submandibular salivary gland development in culture and found a significant decrease in branching morphogenesis in explants grown on the stiff 19.66 kPa gels relative to those grown on the more physiologically compliant 0.48 kPa gels. While proliferation and apoptosis were not affected by the substrate modulus, tissue architecture and epithelial acinar cell differentiation were profoundly perturbed by aberrant, high stiffness. The glands cultured on 0.48 kPa gels were similar to developing glands in morphology and expression of the differentiation markers smooth muscle alpha-actin (SM α-actin) in developing myoepithelial cells and aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in proacinar cells. At 19.66 kPa, however, tissue morphology and the expression and distribution of SM α-actin and AQP5 were disrupted. Significantly, aberrant gland development at 19.66 kPa could be rescued by both mechanical and chemical stimuli. Transfer of glands from 19.66 to 0.48 kPa gels resulted in substantial recovery of acinar structure and differentiation, and addition of exogenous transforming growth factor beta 1 at 19.66 kPa resulted in a partial rescue of morphology and differentiation within the proacinar buds. These results indicate that environmental compliance is critical for organogenesis, and suggest that both mechanical and chemical stimuli can be exploited to promote organ development in the contexts of tissue engineering and organ regeneration. PMID:24410370

  16. Common T cell receptor clonotype in lacrimal glands and labial salivary glands from patients with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, I; Tsubota, K; Satake, Y; Kita, Y; Matsumura, R; Murata, H; Namekawa, T; Nishioka, K; Iwamoto, I; Saitoh, Y; Sumida, T

    1996-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration into lacrimal and salivary glands leading to symptomatic dry eyes and mouth. Immunohistological studies have clarified that the majority of infiltrating lymphocytes around the lacrimal glands and labial salivary glands are CD4 positive alphabeta T cells. To analyze the pathogenesis of T cells infiltrating into lacrimal and labial salivary glands, we examined T cell clonotype of these cells in both glands from four SS patients using PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and a sequencing method. SSCP analysis showed that some infiltrating T cells in both glands expand clonally, suggesting that the cells proliferate by antigen-driven stimulation. Intriguingly, six to sixteen identical T cell receptor (TCR) Vbeta genes were commonly found in lacrimal glands and labial salivary glands from individual patients. This indicates that some T cells infiltrating into both glands recognize the shared epitopes on autoantigens. Moreover, highly conserved amino acid sequence motifs were found in the TCR CDR3 region bearing the same TCR Vbeta family gene from four SS patients, supporting the notion that the shared epitopes on antigens are limited. In conclusion, these findings suggest that some autoreactive T cells infiltrating into the lips and eyes recognized restricted epitopes of a common autoantigen in patients with SS. PMID:8621782

  17. [Structuro-functional units of the salivary and lacrimal glands].

    PubMed

    Kostilenko, Iu P; Mysliuk, I V; Deviatkin, E A

    1986-09-01

    By means of the multilayer graphic and plastic reconstruction methods using series of semithin sections, spatial tridimensional organization of the epithelial complexes and blood microcirculatory bed in the rat palatal salivary glands and the lacrimal gland of the human newborn have been studied. Since their ducts serve not only for discharging their secrete into the external medium, but also for accumulation (as collectors), the sublobular unit--adenomere should be referred to as a part of elementary level of organization of the epithelial complexes. The adenomere has in its composition a collecting centrally situating duct. However, while studying structure of the blood microcirculatory bed, it is found out that there is not any strict territorial correspondence between its functional units and structural units of the glandular epithelium. Nevertheless, giving a great importance to a tight syntopic connection of the collecting ducts of the adenomeres with the postcapillary venules (that belong to filtrating microvessels), these are sublobular units--adenomeres that are distinguished as structural-functional units in the glands.

  18. Submental epidermoid cysts in children.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Rafal; Zakrzewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are lesions, which form as a result of implantation of the epidermis in the layers of the dermis or the mucous membrane. The lesions are rare in adults with 7% occurring in the head and neck area and most often located in the submental region. In children population submental epidermoid cysts are extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of the lesions is necessary as it affects the choice of treatment methods. Among the pathological conditions occurring in that region, salivary retention cyst (ranula), thyroglossal duct cyst, vascular lymphatic malformation (cystic hygroma), median neck cyst, lymphadenopathy, thyroid gland tumor, laryngeal cyst, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, submental abscess, sialolithiasis and salivary gland inflammation should be considered. The authors of the present report demonstrate two cases of submental epidermoid cysts in children. Differential diagnosis in case of suspected submental epidermoid cyst in a child with proposed clinical practice and literature review is provided.

  19. Submental epidermoid cysts in children

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are lesions, which form as a result of implantation of the epidermis in the layers of the dermis or the mucous membrane. The lesions are rare in adults with 7% occurring in the head and neck area and most often located in the submental region. In children population submental epidermoid cysts are extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of the lesions is necessary as it affects the choice of treatment methods. Among the pathological conditions occurring in that region, salivary retention cyst (ranula), thyroglossal duct cyst, vascular lymphatic malformation (cystic hygroma), median neck cyst, lymphadenopathy, thyroid gland tumor, laryngeal cyst, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, submental abscess, sialolithiasis and salivary gland inflammation should be considered. The authors of the present report demonstrate two cases of submental epidermoid cysts in children. Differential diagnosis in case of suspected submental epidermoid cyst in a child with proposed clinical practice and literature review is provided. PMID:28352681

  20. An In Vitro Culture System for Long-Term Expansion of Epithelial and Mesenchymal Salivary Gland Cells: Role of TGF-β1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial and Mesenchymal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Janebodin, Kajohnkiart; Buranaphatthana, Worakanya; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Hays, Aislinn L.; Reyes, Morayma

    2013-01-01

    Despite a pivotal role in salivary gland development, homeostasis, and disease, the role of salivary gland mesenchyme is not well understood. In this study, we used the Col1a1-GFP mouse model to characterize the salivary gland mesenchyme in vitro and in vivo. The Col1a1-GFP transgene was exclusively expressed in the salivary gland mesenchyme. Ex vivo culture of mixed salivary gland cells in DMEM plus serum medium allowed long-term expansion of salivary gland epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The role of TGF-β1 in salivary gland development and disease is complex. Therefore, we used this in vitro culture system to study the effects of TGF-β1 on salivary gland cell differentiation. TGF-β1 induced the expression of collagen, and inhibited the formation of acini-like structures in close proximity to mesenchymal cells, which adapted a fibroblastic phenotype. In contrast, TGF-βR1 inhibition increased acini genes and fibroblast growth factors (Fgf-7 and Fgf-10), decreased collagen and induced formation of larger, mature acini-like structures. Thus, inhibition of TGF-β signaling may be beneficial for salivary gland differentiation; however, due to differential effects of TGF-β1 in salivary gland epithelial versus mesenchymal cells, selective inhibition is desirable. In conclusion, this mixed salivary gland cell culture system can be used to study epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and the effects of differentiating inducers and inhibitors. PMID:23841093

  1. 5-Fluorouracil induces inflammation and oxidative stress in the major salivary glands affecting salivary flow and saliva composition.

    PubMed

    Bomfin, Luana E; Braga, Cíntia M; Oliveira, Thais A; Martins, Conceição S; Foschetti, Danielle A; Santos, Ana A Q A; Costa, Deiziane V S; Leitão, Renata F C; Brito, Gerly A C

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on the histological aspects of the major salivary glands, salivary flow and saliva composition using an established oral mucositis model in hamsters. Oral mucositis was induced by two intraperitoneal administrations of 5-FU in two consecutive days (60 and 40mg/kg), followed by cheek pouch mucosa scratch, on day 4. The Pilocarpine-stimulated salivary flow was measured 4 and 10days after the first 5-FU injection. Salivary glands were harvested for histopathological analysis, measurement of inflammatory cells, quantification of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), investigation of cell death and cell proliferation. Oxidative stress and oxidative defense system were also investigated in the salivary gland tissues using MDA (malondialdehyde), nitrite, non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase). In addition, the CAT and lysozyme activities and the IgA and SOD levels were evaluated in the saliva samples. 5-FU significantly reduced the pilocarpine-stimulated salivary flow rate on the 4th experimental day, associated with an increase in the SOD levels in saliva. Recovery of the salivary flow and SOD were observed on day 10, when an increase in the saliva lysozyme levels was detected. In addition, 5-FU promoted vacuolization in parotid (P) and periductal edema in submandibular (SM) gland, combined with an increase in the inflammatory cells influx, mostly observed on the 4th day in SM gland and on 4th and 10th days in P. Oxidative stress was found mostly on day 10 in SM, SL and P glands, associated with release of proinflammatory cytokines, observed in SM and SL glands, but not in P. 5-FU induces an inflammatory response in the major salivary glands, most observed ten days after its first injection, which may contribute to the major salivary glands hypofunction, leading to alterations in the salivary flow rate and composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  2. Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Dysfunction Results From p53-Dependent Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, Jennifer L.; Grundmann, Oliver; Burd, Randy

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer causes adverse secondary side effects in the salivary glands and results in diminished quality of life for the patient. A previous in vivo study in parotid salivary glands demonstrated that targeted head-and-neck irradiation resulted in marked increases in phosphorylated p53 (serine{sup 18}) and apoptosis, which was suppressed in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Methods and Materials: Transgenic and knockout mouse models were exposed to irradiation, and p53-mediated transcription, apoptosis, and salivary gland dysfunction were analyzed. Results: The proapoptotic p53 target genes PUMA and Bax were induced in parotid salivary glandsmore » of mice at early time points after therapeutic radiation. This dose-dependent induction requires expression of p53 because no radiation-induced expression of PUMA and Bax was observed in p53-/- mice. Radiation also induced apoptosis in the parotid gland in a dose-dependent manner, which was p53 dependent. Furthermore, expression of p53 was required for the acute and chronic loss of salivary function after irradiation. In contrast, apoptosis was not induced in p53-/- mice, and their salivary function was preserved after radiation exposure. Conclusions: Apoptosis in the salivary glands after therapeutic head-and-neck irradiation is mediated by p53 and corresponds to salivary gland dysfunction in vivo.« less

  3. Metabolic remodeling triggered by salivation and diabetes in major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Fernando N; Carvalho, Rui A

    2017-02-01

    The metabolic profile of major salivary glands was evaluated by 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance isotopomer analysis ( 13 C NMR-IA) following the infusion of [U- 13 C]glucose in order to define the true metabolic character of submandibular (SM) and parotid (PA) glands at rest and during salivary stimulation, and to determine the metabolic remodeling driven by diabetes. In healthy conditions, the SM gland is characterized at rest by a glycolytic metabolic profile and extensive pyruvate cycling. On the contrary, the PA gland, although also dominated by glycolysis, also possesses significant Krebs' cycle activity and does not sustain extensive pyruvate cycling. Under stimulation, both glands increase their glycolytic and Krebs' cycle fluxes, but the metabolic coupling between the two pathways is further compromised to account for the much increased biosynthetic anaplerotic fluxes. In diabetes, the responsiveness of the PA gland to a salivary stimulus is seriously hindered, mostly as a result of the incapacity to burst glycolytic activity and also an inability to improve the Krebs' cycle flux to compensate. The Krebs' cycle activity in the SM gland is also consistently compromised, but the glycolytic flux in this gland is more resilient. This diabetes-induced metabolic remodeling in SM and PA salivary glands illustrates the metabolic need to sustain adequate saliva production, and identifies glycolytic and oxidative pathways as key players in the metabolic dynamism of salivary glands. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Oxidative Damage to the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes-Temporal Study: Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Knaś, M; Maciejczyk, M; Daniszewska, I; Klimiuk, A; Matczuk, J; Kołodziej, U; Waszkiel, D; Ładny, J R; Żendzian-Piotrowska, M; Zalewska, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated oxidative damage caused to the salivary glands in streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DM). Materials and Methods. Rats were divided into 4 groups: groups 1 and 2, control rats, and groups 3 and 4, DM rats. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyl (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE), oxidized and/or MDA-modified LDL-cholesterol (oxy-LDL/MDA), 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured at 7 (groups 1 and 3) and 14 (groups 2 and 4) days of experiment. Results. The unstimulated salivary flow in DM rats was reduced in the 2nd week, while the stimulated flow was decreased throughout the duration of the experiment versus control. OSI was elevated in both diabetic glands in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas 8-isoP and 8-OHdG were higher only in the parotid gland in the second week. PC and 4-HNE were increased in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas oxy-LDL/MDA was increased in the 2nd week in the diabetic parotid glands. Conclusions. Diabetes induces oxidative damage of the salivary glands, which seems to be caused by processes taking place in the salivary glands, independently of general oxidative stress. The parotid glands are more vulnerable to oxidative damage in these conditions.

  5. Adenoid cystic salivary gland carcinoma: treatment with irradiation and surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.R.; Thawley, S.E.; Matsuba, H.M.

    1984-05-01

    The recrods of 71 patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands were reviewed to determine the dose response relationships for this aggressive tumor. Local control after treament was determined for all patients and analyzed with respect to extent of surgery and dose of radiation. Of 70 patients who were available for evaluation of local control, 28 (40%) had a local recurrence and 42 (60%) did not. The highest control rates were found in patients who underwent both radiation therapy and surgery. Patients who received a dose equal to or greater than 6,000 rad (60 Gy) in addition tomore » surgery had significantly higher local control rates than those who received less than 6,000 rad (60 Gy). Distant metastases developed in 50% of patients regardless of local control, with the following distribution: 39% lung, 19% bone, and 10% disseminated soft-tissue metastases.« less

  6. Modulation of Sodium/Iodide Symporter Expression in the Salivary Gland

    PubMed Central

    La Perle, Krista M.D.; Kim, Dong Chul; Hall, Nathan C.; Bobbey, Adam; Shen, Daniel H.; Nagy, Rebecca S.; Wakely, Paul E.; Lehman, Amy; Jarjoura, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Physiologic iodide-uptake, mediated by the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), in the salivary gland confers its susceptibility to radioactive iodine–induced damage following 131I treatment of thyroid cancer. Subsequent quality of life for thyroid cancer survivors can be decreased due to recurrent sialoadenitis and persistent xerostomia. NIS expression at the three principal salivary duct components in various pathological conditions was examined to better our understanding of NIS modulation in the salivary gland. Methods NIS expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in human salivary gland tissue microarrays constructed of normal, inflamed, and neoplastic salivary tissue cores. Cumulative 123I radioactivity reflecting the combination of NIS activity with clearance of saliva secretion in submandibular and parotid salivary glands was evaluated by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging 24 hours after 123I administration in 50 thyroid cancer patients. Results NIS is highly expressed in the basolateral membranes of the majority of striated ducts, yet weakly expressed in few intercalated and excretory duct cells. The ratio of 123I accumulation between parotid and submandibular glands is 2.38±0.19. However, the corresponding ratio of 123I accumulation normalized by volume of interest is 1.19±0.06. The percentage of NIS-positive striated duct cells in submandibular salivary glands was statistically greater than in parotid salivary glands, suggesting a higher clearance rate of saliva secretion in submandibular salivary glands. NIS expression in striated ducts was heterogeneously decreased or absent in sialoadenitis. Most ductal salivary gland tumors did not express NIS. However, Warthin's tumors of striated duct origin exhibited consistent and intense NIS staining, corresponding with radioactive iodine uptake. Conclusions NIS expression is tightly modulated during the transition of intercalated to striated ducts and striated

  7. Aberrant Activation of the RANK Signaling Receptor Induces Murine Salivary Gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Allison P.; Dougall, William C.; Ittmann, Michael M.; Lydon, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Unlike cancers of related exocrine tissues such as the mammary and prostate gland, diagnosis and treatment of aggressive salivary gland malignancies have not markedly advanced in decades. Effective clinical management of malignant salivary gland cancers is undercut by our limited knowledge concerning the key molecular signals that underpin the etiopathogenesis of this rare and heterogeneous head and neck cancer. Without knowledge of the critical signals that drive salivary gland tumorigenesis, tumor vulnerabilities cannot be exploited that allow for targeted molecular therapies. This knowledge insufficiency is further exacerbated by a paucity of preclinical mouse models (as compared to other cancer fields) with which to both study salivary gland pathobiology and test novel intervention strategies. Using a mouse transgenic approach, we demonstrate that deregulation of the Receptor Activator of NFkB Ligand (RANKL)/RANK signaling axis results in rapid tumor development in all three major salivary glands. In line with its established role in other exocrine gland cancers (i.e., breast cancer), the RANKL/RANK signaling axis elicits an aggressive salivary gland tumor phenotype both at the histologic and molecular level. Despite the ability of this cytokine signaling axis to drive advanced stage disease within a short latency period, early blockade of RANKL/RANK signaling markedly attenuates the development of malignant salivary gland neoplasms. Together, our findings have uncovered a tumorigenic role for RANKL/RANK in the salivary gland and suggest that targeting this pathway may represent a novel therapeutic intervention approach in the prevention and/or treatment of this understudied head and neck cancer. PMID:26061636

  8. Molecular Characterization of Tick Salivary Gland Glutaminyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Steven W.; Browning, Rebecca E.; Chao, Chien-Chung; Bateman, Robert C.; Ching, Wei-Mei; Karim, Shahid

    2013-01-01

    Glutaminyl cyclase (QC) catalyzes the cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamate. This post-translational modification extends the half-life of peptides and, in some cases, is essential in binding to their cognate receptor. Due to its potential role in the post-translational modification of tick neuropeptides, we report the molecular, biochemical and physiological characterization of salivary gland QC during the prolonged blood-feeding of the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the gulf-coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum). QC sequences from I. scapularis and A. maculatum showed a high degree of amino acid identity to each other and other arthropods and residues critical for zinc-binding/catalysis (D159, E202, and H330) or intermediate stabilization (E201, W207, D248, D305, F325, and W329) are conserved. Analysis of QC transcriptional gene expression kinetics depicts an upregulation during the blood-meal of adult female ticks prior to fast feeding phases in both I. scapularis and A. maculatum suggesting a functional link with blood meal uptake. QC enzymatic activity was detected in saliva and extracts of tick salivary glands and midguts. Recombinant QC was shown to be catalytically active. Furthermore, knockdown of QC-transcript by RNA interference resulted in lower enzymatic activity, and small, unviable egg masses in both studied tick species as well as lower engorged tick weights for I. scapularis. These results suggest that the post-translational modification of neurotransmitters and other bioactive peptides by QC is critical to oviposition and potentially other physiological processes. Moreover, these data suggest that tick-specific QC-modified neurotransmitters/hormones or other relevant parts of this system could potentially be used as novel physiological targets for tick control. PMID:23770496

  9. Presumed minor salivary gland secretion in a patient with a history of oral mucous membrane graft.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Kiyotaka; Hayasaka, Seiji; Matsunou, Hisao; Nagaki, Yasunori

    2003-08-01

    To describe presumed minor salivary gland secretion in a patient with a history of oral mucous membrane graft in conjunctival plastic surgery. Interventional case report. A 74-year-old woman who had had an oral mucous membrane graft in the left eye complained of mucous discharge. Slit-lamp examination revealed a yellowish-red mass lesion in the superior bulbar conjunctiva. The lesion was excised. Histopathologic examination of the excised tissue revealed lobules and a duct of minor salivary glands. After removal of the mass, mucous discharge decreased. Minor salivary glands within a mucous membrane graft may cause mucous discharge in the eye.

  10. Neural control of salivary glands in ixodid ticks.

    PubMed

    Šimo, Ladislav; Zitňan, Dušan; Park, Yoonseong

    2012-04-01

    Studies of tick salivary glands (SGs) and their components have produced a number of interesting discoveries over the last four decades. However, the precise neural and physiological mechanisms controlling SG secretion remain enigmatic. Major studies of SG control have identified and characterized many pharmacological and biological compounds that activate salivary secretion, including dopamine (DA), octopamine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), ergot alkaloids, pilocarpine (PC), and their pharmacological relatives. Specifically, DA has shown the most robust activities in various tick species, and its effect on downstream actions in the SGs has been extensively studied. Our recent work on a SG dopamine receptor has aided new interpretations of previous pharmacological studies and provided new concepts for SG control mechanisms. Furthermore, our recent studies have suggested that multiple neuropeptides are involved in SG control. Myoinhibitory peptide (MIP) and SIFamide have been identified in the neural projections reaching the basal cells of acini types II and III. Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF)-immunoreactive neural projections reach type II acini, and RFamide- and tachykinin-immunoreactive projections reach the SG ducts, but the chemical nature of the latter three immunoreactive substances are unidentified yet. Here, we briefly review previous pharmacological studies and provide a revised summary of SG control mechanisms in ticks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Salivary gland tumors in Turkey: demographic features and histopathological distribution of 510 patients.

    PubMed

    Kızıl, Yusuf; Aydil, Utku; Ekinci, Ozgür; Dilci, Alper; Köybaşıoğlu, Ahmet; Düzlü, Mehmet; Inal, Erdoğan

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic and clinicopathologic data of salivary gland tumors managed at a tertiary referral medical center in Turkey. The data of 510 patients with salivary gland tumors managed during the period of January 1984 to May 2012, were reviewed. Only primary neoplasms derived from salivary glands were included. Out of 510 neoplasms, 352 (69.0 %) were classified as benign and 158 (31.0 %) were classified as malignant. There was a male predominance and male:female ratio was 1.23 (281/229). The most common location was parotid gland (372/510, 72.9 %) followed by minor salivary glands (97/510, 19.0 %) and submandibular gland (40/510, 7.9 %). The malignancy rates were 21.5, 40.0, and 56.7 % in parotid, submandibular, and minor salivary glands locations, respectively. The most common location for minor salivary gland neoplasms was oral cavity (61/97, 62.9 %). Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) was the most common histopathological type (45.3 %) in the whole study group and also among pediatric patients. The most common malignant neoplasms were adenoid cystic carcinoma (39/510, 7.6 %) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (5.7 %). Salivary gland tumors are more common in men. The malignancy rate is almost three times higher in neoplasms derived from minor glands when compared to parotid gland. PA is the most common histopathological tumor type in all locations and in all age groups.

  12. Report of a case of acinic cell carcinoma of the upper lip and review of Japanese cases of acinic cell carcinoma of the minor salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Fuyama, Shigemi; Kobayashi, Takehito; Waki, Takayoshi; Taira, Yukio; Iino, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) is a malignant tumor of the salivary glands. The majority of ACCs occur in the parotid gland, and ACCs of the minor salivary glands (MSGs) are relatively infrequent. We describe here a patient with ACC of the upper lip. The patient was a 31-year-old male who presented with a nodular mass on the left upper lip. The preoperative diagnosis was benign tumor or cyst, and the lesion was surgically excised. The histological diagnosis was ACC. The postoperative course was uneventful. No recurrence or metastasis was detected at 13 months postoperatively. In addition, we retrospectively reviewed 21 reported Japanese patients with ACC of the MSGs. In 7 of the 21 patients, the preoperative diagnosis was benign tumor, and the tumors were resected without preoperative biopsy. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that disease-free survival was worse in patients who underwent resection with a preoperative diagnosis of benign tumor than in patients who underwent resection with a preoperative diagnosis of malignant tumor. The rate of recurrence was higher for ACCs assumed to be benign lesions on a purely clinical basis, or without an accurate preoperative biopsy. ACCs of the MSGs are easy to be misdiagnosed for benign lesions such as mucous cysts or hemangiomas. Correct preoperative diagnosis and initial therapy may therefore be the most important prognostic factors. Key words:Acinic cell carcinoma, Kaplan-Meier analysis, minor salivary glands, prognosis, upper lip. PMID:27957284

  13. Glycoinositolphospholipids from Trypanosomatids Subvert Nitric Oxide Production in Rhodnius prolixus Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Gazos-Lopes, Felipe; Mesquita, Rafael Dias; Silva-Cardoso, Lívia; Senna, Raquel; Silveira, Alan Barbosa; Jablonka, Willy; Cudischevitch, Cecília Oliveira; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Machado, Ednildo Alcantara; Lima, Luize G.; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Nussenzveig, Roberto Henrique; Folly, Evelize; Romeiro, Alexandre; Vanbeselaere, Jorick; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; Previato, José Osvaldo; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Ribeiro, José Marcos Chaves; Atella, Georgia Correa; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-sucking bug vector of Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli. T. cruzi is transmitted by vector feces deposited close to the wound produced by insect mouthparts, whereas T. rangeli invades salivary glands and is inoculated into the host skin. Bug saliva contains a set of nitric oxide-binding proteins, called nitrophorins, which deliver NO to host vessels and ensure vasodilation and blood feeding. NO is generated by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) present in the epithelium of bug salivary glands. Thus, T. rangeli is in close contact with NO while in the salivary glands. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show by immunohistochemical, biochemical and molecular techniques that inositolphosphate-containing glycolipids from trypanosomatids downregulate NO synthesis in the salivary glands of R. prolixus. Injecting insects with T. rangeli-derived glycoinositolphospholipids (Tr GIPL) or T. cruzi-derived glycoinositolphospholipids (Tc GIPL) specifically decreased NO production. Salivary gland treatment with Tc GIPL blocks NO production without greatly affecting NOS mRNA levels. NOS protein is virtually absent from either Tr GIPL- or Tc GIPL-treated salivary glands. Evaluation of NO synthesis by using a fluorescent NO probe showed that T. rangeli-infected or Tc GIPL-treated glands do not show extensive labeling. The same effect is readily obtained by treatment of salivary glands with the classical protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate (SO). This suggests that parasite GIPLs induce the inhibition of a salivary gland PTP. GIPLs specifically suppressed NO production and did not affect other anti-hemostatic properties of saliva, such as the anti-clotting and anti-platelet activities. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these data suggest that trypanosomatids have overcome NO generation using their surface GIPLs. Therefore, these molecules ensure parasite survival and may ultimately enhance parasite transmission

  14. Synchronous papillary carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cyst and thyroid gland: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Mathew Pynumootil; Nair, Balakrishnan; Thomas, Shaji; Somanathan, Thara; Sebastian, Paul

    2009-10-01

    We report a rare case of synchronous occurrence of thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma and thyroid carcinoma and discuss its management in detail. A 59-year-old woman was clinically diagnosed to have a thyroglossal duct cyst and a solitary nodule. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed a papillary carcinoma in the thyroglossal duct cyst and a colloid in the thyroid nodule. Sistrunk's procedure along with a total thyroidectomy was performed followed by postoperative radioiodine ablation. Histopathologic examination revealed thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma and bilateral foci of papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland. She has remained free of disease on follow-up. Most cancers arising in thyroglossal duct cysts are of low risk, and Sistrunk's procedure is an adequate treatment for such cancers. However, for synchronously occurring cancers of the thyroglossal duct cyst and thyroid gland, or high-risk thyroglossal duct cyst cancers, more aggressive treatment comprising total thyroidectomy, Sistrunk's procedure, and radioiodine therapy is indicated. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Choroidal metastasis of a minor salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Portilla Blanco, R R; Roberts Martínez-Aguirre, I; Pontón Méndez, P; Zarzosa Martín, M E; Pérez-Salvador García, E

    2018-03-21

    A 61-year-old man with a lower lip minor salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma, suffered from a unilateral progressive visual acuity loss due to choroidal metastasis. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare primary tumour with significant metastatic potential. Our patient presented with a unilateral choroidal metastasis. According to the current literature, 8 cases of choroidal metastasis of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma have been reported. This is the second case reported of choroidal metastasis with origin in a minor salivary gland, and the first one with origin in the minor salivary glands of the lower lip. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Preserves Salivary Gland Function After Fractionated Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Limesand, Kirsten H., E-mail: limesank@u.arizona.ed; Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Avila, Jennifer L.

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer consists of fractionated radiation treatments that cause significant damage to salivary glands leading to chronic salivary gland dysfunction with only limited prevention and treatment options currently available. This study examines the feasibility of IGF-1 in preserving salivary gland function following a fractionated radiation treatment regimen in a pre-clinical model. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to fractionated radiation, and salivary gland function and histological analyses of structure, apoptosis, and proliferation were evaluated. Results: In this study, we report that treatment with fractionated doses of radiation results in a significant level of apoptotic cells in FVBmore » mice after each fraction, which is significantly decreased in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Salivary gland function is significantly reduced in FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation; however, myr-Akt1 transgenic mice maintain salivary function under the same treatment conditions. Injection into FVB mice of recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which activates endogenous Akt, suppressed acute apoptosis and preserved salivary gland function after fractionated doses of radiation 30 to 90 days after treatment. FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation had significantly lower levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive salivary acinar cells 90 days after treatment, which correlated with a chronic loss of function. In contrast, FVB mice injected with IGF-1 before each radiation treatment exhibited acinar cell proliferation rates similar to those of untreated controls. Conclusion: These studies suggest that activation of IGF-1-mediated pathways before head-and-neck radiation could modulate radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction and maintain glandular homeostasis.« less

  17. The expression of APRIL in Sjogren's syndrome: aberrant expression of APRIL in the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Vosters, Jelle L; Roescher, Nienke; Polling, Eline J; Illei, Gabor G; Tak, Paul P

    2012-09-01

    A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF) are B-cell-related mediators and may play a role in the pathogenesis in SS. In this descriptive study we assessed the expression of APRIL and BAFF in the minor salivary gland and serum from SS patients. Paraffin-embedded minor salivary gland sections from SS patients, non-SS controls and healthy volunteers were analysed by immunohistochemistry. Digital image quantification was performed to evaluate the expression of BAFF, APRIL and transmembrane activator and CAML interactor. Furthermore, serum was analysed for soluble BAFF and APRIL levels by ELISA. All the data were also analysed for subjects with decreased and normal stimulated salivary flow independent of the classification. APRIL expression was lower in minor salivary gland biopsies from SS patients compared with healthy volunteers and to a lesser extent non-SS controls, whereas BAFF expression was similar in all groups. Soluble APRIL levels in serum were increased in SS patients and in subjects with decreased salivary flow independent of the classification. APRIL salivary gland tissue levels are decreased, suggesting that targeting this cytokine locally in the salivary glands would not benefit SS patients. Moreover, the discrepancy between local and systemic levels is striking and future research should assess this in more detail.

  18. Re-engineering primary epithelial cells from rhesus monkey parotid glands for use in developing an artificial salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Tran, Simon D; Sugito, Takayuki; Dipasquale, Giovanni; Cotrim, Ana P; Bandyopadhyay, Bidhan C; Riddle, Kathryn; Mooney, David; Kok, Marc R; Chiorini, John A; Baum, Bruce J

    2006-10-01

    There is no satisfactory conventional treatment for patients who experience irreversible salivary gland damage after therapeutic radiation for head and neck cancer or because of Sjögren's syndrome. Additionally, if most parenchyma is lost, these patients also are not candidates for evolving gene transfer strategies. To help such patients, several years ago we began to develop an artificial salivary gland. In the present study, we used a non-human primate tissue source, parotid glands from rhesus monkeys, to obtain potential autologous graft cells for development of a prototype device for in situ testing. Herein, we present 3 major findings. First, we show that primary cultures of rhesus parotid gland (RPG) cells are capable of attaining a polarized orientation, with Na(+)/K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, zonula occludens-1, and claudin-1 distributed in specific domains appropriate for epithelial cells. Second, we show that RPG cells exhibit 2 essential epithelial functions required for graft cells in an artificial salivary gland device (i.e., an effective barrier to paracellular water flow and the generation of a moderate transepithelial electrical resistance). Third, we show that RPG cells can express functional water channels, capable of mediating directional fluid movement, after transduction by adenoviral and adeno-associated virus type 2 vectors. Together these results demonstrate that it is feasible to individually prepare RPG cells for eventual use in a prototype artificial salivary gland.

  19. Anopheles gambiae Circumsporozoite Protein–Binding Protein Facilitates Plasmodium Infection of Mosquito Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiuling; Zhang, Yue; Zhao, Yang O.; Li, Michelle W. M.; Zhang, Lili; Dragovic, Srdjan; Abraham, Nabil M.; Fikrig, Erol

    2013-01-01

    Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium species, causes substantial morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Plasmodium sporozoites mature in oocysts formed in the mosquito gut wall and then invade the salivary glands, where they remain until transmitted to the vertebrate host during a mosquito bite. The Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein (CSP) binds to salivary glands and plays a role in the invasion of this organ by sporozoites. We identified an Anopheles salivary gland protein, named CSP-binding protein (CSPBP), that interacts with CSP. Downregulation of CSPBP in mosquito salivary glands inhibited invasion by Plasmodium organisms. In vivo bioassays showed that mosquitoes that were fed blood with CSPBP antibody displayed a 25% and 90% reduction in the parasite load in infected salivary glands 14 and 18 days after the blood meal, respectively. These results suggest that CSPBP is important for the infection of the mosquito salivary gland by Plasmodium organisms and that blocking CSPBP can interfere with the Plasmodium life cycle. PMID:23801601

  20. Cancer Secretome May Influence BSP and DSP Expression in Human Salivary Gland Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Samantha Lynn; Ferando, Blake; Eapen, Asha Sarah; Yu, Jennifer Chian; Joy, Anita Rose

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in managing head and neck cancers, especially salivary gland cancers, is the identification of secreted biomarkers of the disease that can be evaluated noninvasively. A relevant source of enriched tumor markers could potentially be found in the tumor secretome. Although numerous studies have evaluated secretomes from various cancers, the influence of the cancer secretome derived from salivary gland cancers on the behavior of normal cells has not yet been elucidated. Our data indicate that secretome derived from salivary gland cancer cells can influence the expression of two potential biomarkers of oral cancer—namely, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP)—in normal salivary gland cells. Using routine immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting techniques, we demonstrate an enrichment of BSP and DSP in human salivary gland (HSG) cancer tissue, unique localizations of BSP and DSP in HSG cancer cells, and enriched expression of BSP and DSP in normal salivary gland cells exposed to a cancer secretome. The secretome domain of the cancer microenvironment could alter signaling cascades responsible for normal cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, thus enhancing cancer cell survival and the potential for cancer progression. The cancer secretome may be critical in maintaining and stimulating “cancer-ness,” thus potentially promoting specific hallmarks of metastasis. PMID:27881474

  1. Cancer Secretome May Influence BSP and DSP Expression in Human Salivary Gland Cells.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Samantha Lynn; Ferando, Blake; Eapen, Asha Sarah; Yu, Jennifer Chian; Joy, Anita Rose

    2017-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges in managing head and neck cancers, especially salivary gland cancers, is the identification of secreted biomarkers of the disease that can be evaluated noninvasively. A relevant source of enriched tumor markers could potentially be found in the tumor secretome. Although numerous studies have evaluated secretomes from various cancers, the influence of the cancer secretome derived from salivary gland cancers on the behavior of normal cells has not yet been elucidated. Our data indicate that secretome derived from salivary gland cancer cells can influence the expression of two potential biomarkers of oral cancer-namely, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP)-in normal salivary gland cells. Using routine immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting techniques, we demonstrate an enrichment of BSP and DSP in human salivary gland (HSG) cancer tissue, unique localizations of BSP and DSP in HSG cancer cells, and enriched expression of BSP and DSP in normal salivary gland cells exposed to a cancer secretome. The secretome domain of the cancer microenvironment could alter signaling cascades responsible for normal cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, thus enhancing cancer cell survival and the potential for cancer progression. The cancer secretome may be critical in maintaining and stimulating "cancer-ness," thus potentially promoting specific hallmarks of metastasis.

  2. Tumors of the salivary gland in Mexicans. A retrospective study of 360 cases.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Velázquez, C-P; Durán-Padilla, M-A; Gómez-Apo, E; Quezada-Rivera, D; Gaitán-Cepeda, L-A

    2012-03-01

    To establish distribution frequency and demographic characteristics of salivary gland tumours (SGT) in order to identify possible risk profiles. The present report constitutes an eight year retrospective study (January 2000-August 2007). The archives of the Clinical and Experimental Pathology Laboratory (Graduate and Research Division, Dental School, National Autonomous University of Mexico) as well as archives of the Surgical Pathology Service (General Hospital, Mexico City) were subject to revision in order to select all cases where SGT tumour diagnoses were emitted. Age and gender of patients as well as SGT topography were obtained from medical records. Selected cases were classified according to location of the lesion, histological lineage and biological behaviour. 360 cases of SGT were included, 227 (67%) cases were benign tumours, while 83 cases (23%) were malignant tumours. SGT were most frequent in women with ages ranging from their 3rd to 5th decades of life. 275 tumours were located in major salivary glands, 78.9% of them were identified in the parotid gland. The most frequent location of tumours arising from minor salivary glands (33 cases, 38%) was found in the palatine glands. Tumours of epithelial lineage were the predominant histological type. The most frequent benign tumours were pleomorphic adenomas (86.1%) and papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum (7.3%). The most frequent malignant tumours were adenoid cystic carcinomas (25%) and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (23.6%). Salivary gland tumours in Mexican population appear principally in major salivary glands of women in their 3rd to 5th decade of life.

  3. Impaired mitochondria and intracellular calcium transients in the salivary glands of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Ittichaicharoen, Jitjiroj; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Tanajak, Pongpan; Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-04-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) causes not only obese-insulin resistance, but is also associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in several organs. However, the effect of obese-insulin resistance on salivary glands has not been investigated. We hypothesized that obese-insulin resistance induced by HFD impaired salivary gland function by reducing salivation, increasing inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as impairing mitochondrial function and calcium transient signaling. Male Wistar rats (200-220 g) were fed either a ND or an HFD (n = 8/group) for 16 weeks. At the end of week 16, salivary flow rates, metabolic parameters, and plasma oxidative stress were determined. Rats were then sacrificed and submandibular glands were removed to determine inflammation, fibrosis, apoptosis, mitochondrial function and dynamics, and intracellular calcium transient signaling. Long-term consumption of an HFD caused obese-insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress, fibrosis, inflammation, and apoptosis in the salivary glands. In addition, impaired mitochondrial function, as indicated by increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and mitochondrial swelling in salivary glands and impaired intracellular calcium regulation, as indicated by a reduced intracellular calcium transient rising rate, decay rates, and amplitude of salivary acinar cells, were observed in HFD-fed rats. However, salivary flow rate and level of aquaporin 5 protein were not different between both groups. Although HFD consumption did not affect salivation, it caused obese-insulin resistance, leading to pathophysiological alteration of salivary glands, including impaired intracellular calcium transients, increased oxidative stress and inflammation, and salivary mitochondrial dysfunction.

  4. Effects and Mechanisms of Tastants on the Gustatory-Salivary Reflex in Human Minor Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Noriaki; Miyake, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Chiyo; Sasano, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    The effects and mechanisms of tastes on labial minor salivary gland (LMSG) secretion were investigated in 59 healthy individuals. Stimulation with each of the five basic tastes (i.e., sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami) onto the tongue induced LMSG secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Umami and sour tastes evoked greater secretion than did the other tastes. A synergistic effect of umami on LMSG secretion was recognized: a much greater increase in secretion was observed by a mixed solution of monosodium glutamate and inosine 5′-monophosphate than by each separate stimulation. Blood flow (BF) in the nearby labial mucosa also increased following stimulation by each taste except bitter. The BF change and LMSG secretion in each participant showed a significant positive correlation with all tastes, including bitter. Administration of cevimeline hydrochloride hydrate to the labial mucosa evoked a significant increase in both LMSG secretion and BF, while adrenaline, atropine, and pirenzepine decreased LMSG secretion and BF. The change in LMSG secretion and BF induced by each autonomic agent was significantly correlated in each participant. These results indicate that basic tastes can induce the gustatory-salivary reflex in human LMSGs and that parasympathetic regulation is involved in this mechanism. PMID:29651428

  5. Effects and Mechanisms of Tastants on the Gustatory-Salivary Reflex in Human Minor Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Satoh-Kuriwada, Shizuko; Shoji, Noriaki; Miyake, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Chiyo; Sasano, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    The effects and mechanisms of tastes on labial minor salivary gland (LMSG) secretion were investigated in 59 healthy individuals. Stimulation with each of the five basic tastes (i.e., sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami) onto the tongue induced LMSG secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Umami and sour tastes evoked greater secretion than did the other tastes. A synergistic effect of umami on LMSG secretion was recognized: a much greater increase in secretion was observed by a mixed solution of monosodium glutamate and inosine 5'-monophosphate than by each separate stimulation. Blood flow (BF) in the nearby labial mucosa also increased following stimulation by each taste except bitter. The BF change and LMSG secretion in each participant showed a significant positive correlation with all tastes, including bitter. Administration of cevimeline hydrochloride hydrate to the labial mucosa evoked a significant increase in both LMSG secretion and BF, while adrenaline, atropine, and pirenzepine decreased LMSG secretion and BF. The change in LMSG secretion and BF induced by each autonomic agent was significantly correlated in each participant. These results indicate that basic tastes can induce the gustatory-salivary reflex in human LMSGs and that parasympathetic regulation is involved in this mechanism.

  6. Labial salivary gland biopsy assessment in rheumatoid vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Flipo, R M; Janin, A; Hachulla, E; Houvenagel, E; Foulet, A; Cardon, T; Desbonnet, A; Grardel, B; Duquesnoy, B; Delcambre, B

    1994-10-01

    To assess the vascular involvement in labial salivary gland (LSG) from patients with rheumatoid vasculitis (RV). Forty seven patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) took part in a prospective study. Among them, 12 had proven RV. LSG biopsy was performed after local anaesthesia. Histological appearance of inflammatory vascular damage was observed in all but one patient with proven RV (92%). Inflammatory vascular involvement was also identified in LSG biopsy of seven patients with RA (20%) and only one patient in the control group (8%). A second specimen of LSG was studied after a mean treatment period of six months and failed to show any feature of inflammatory vascular involvement in three of the five cases that were analysed. The study emphasises the high incidence of immunopathological features of microvascular damage in patients with RV. LSG biopsy is minimally invasive and may be a potential useful tool for the diagnosis of RV especially when skin lesions are absent or impossible to biopsy. The assessment of the predictive value of positive LSG biopsy in RA requires a long term prospective study.

  7. Labial salivary gland biopsy assessment in rheumatoid vasculitis.

    PubMed Central

    Flipo, R M; Janin, A; Hachulla, E; Houvenagel, E; Foulet, A; Cardon, T; Desbonnet, A; Grardel, B; Duquesnoy, B; Delcambre, B

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the vascular involvement in labial salivary gland (LSG) from patients with rheumatoid vasculitis (RV). METHODS--Forty seven patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) took part in a prospective study. Among them, 12 had proven RV. LSG biopsy was performed after local anaesthesia. RESULTS--Histological appearance of inflammatory vascular damage was observed in all but one patient with proven RV (92%). Inflammatory vascular involvement was also identified in LSG biopsy of seven patients with RA (20%) and only one patient in the control group (8%). A second specimen of LSG was studied after a mean treatment period of six months and failed to show any feature of inflammatory vascular involvement in three of the five cases that were analysed. CONCLUSIONS--The study emphasises the high incidence of immunopathological features of microvascular damage in patients with RV. LSG biopsy is minimally invasive and may be a potential useful tool for the diagnosis of RV especially when skin lesions are absent or impossible to biopsy. The assessment of the predictive value of positive LSG biopsy in RA requires a long term prospective study. Images PMID:7979576

  8. WHOLE-GENOME SEQUENCING OF SALIVARY GLAND ADENOID CYSTIC CARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    Rettig, Eleni M; Talbot, C Conover; Sausen, Mark; Jones, Sian; Bishop, Justin A; Wood, Laura D; Tokheim, Collin; Niknafs, Noushin; Karchin, Rachel; Fertig, Elana J; Wheelan, Sarah J; Marchionni, Luigi; Considine, Michael; Ling, Shizhang; Fakhry, Carole; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Vogelstein, Bert; Ha, Patrick K; Agrawal, Nishant

    2016-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) of the salivary glands are challenging to understand, treat, and cure. To better understand the genetic alterations underlying the pathogenesis of these tumors, we performed comprehensive genome analyses of 25 fresh-frozen tumors, including whole genome sequencing, expression and pathway analyses. In addition to the well-described MYB-NFIB fusion which was found in 11 tumors (44%), we observed five different rearrangements involving the NFIB transcription factor gene in seven tumors (28%). Taken together, NFIB translocations occurred in 15 of 25 samples (60%, 95%CI=41–77%). In addition, mRNA expression analysis of 17 tumors revealed overexpression of NFIB in ACC tumors compared with normal tissues (p=0.002). There was no difference in NFIB mRNA expression in tumors with NFIB fusions compared to those without. We also report somatic mutations of genes involved in the axonal guidance and Rho family signaling pathways. Finally, we confirm previously described alterations in genes related to chromatin regulation and Notch signaling. Our findings suggest a separate role for NFIB in ACC oncogenesis and highlight important signaling pathways for future functional characterization and potential therapeutic targeting. PMID:26862087

  9. Multifocal canalicular adenoma of the minor labial salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Samar, María Elena; Avila, Rodolfo Esteban; Fonseca, Ismael Bernardo; Anderson, William; Fonseca, Gabriel M; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Canalicular adenoma (CA) is an uncommon benign neoplasia of salivary glands which is clinically difficult to recognise. Despite having an excellent prognosis, the histological diagnosis and clinical management of this entity can be troublesome. While the main differential diagnosis to consider is basal cell adenoma (BCA), similar histological patterns and multifocality have been observed in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA), both locally-aggressive malignancies which require radically different treatment to CA. An emphasis has been placed on the value of immunohistochemistry in avoiding diagnostic and surgical errors. CA is positive for AE1/AE3, CD117 and S-100 protein, and negative for p63, α-SMA, Ki 67 and vimentin. Here we discuss the case of a 61-year-old female with CA in her right upper lip, showing multifocal growth histologically. The differential diagnosis with other adenomas is discussed in addition to the role of immunohistochemical studies that can confirm the clinical and surgical findings. PMID:25550873

  10. Effects of Repeated Administration of Pilocarpine and Isoproterenol on Aquaporin-5 Expression in Rat Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Susa, Taketo; Sawai, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Takeo; Iizuka-Kogo, Akiko; Kogo, Hiroshi; Negishi, Akihide; Yokoo, Satoshi; Takata, Kuniaki; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins are water channel proteins which enable rapid water movement across the plasma membrane. Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is the major aquaporin and is expressed on the apical membrane of salivary gland acinar cells. We examined the effects of repeated administration of pilocarpine, a clinically useful stimulant for salivary fluid secretion, and isoproterenol (IPR), a stimulant for salivary protein secretion, on the abundance of AQP5 protein in rat salivary glands by immunofluorescence microscopy and semi-quantitative immunoblotting. Unexpectedly AQP5 was decreased in pilocarpine-administered salivary glands, in which fluid secretion must be highly stimulated, implying that AQP5 might not be required for fluid secretion at least in pilocarpine-administered state. The abundance of AQP5, on the other hand, was found to be significantly increased in IPR-administered submandibular and parotid glands. To address the possible mechanism of the elevation of AQP5 abundance in IPR-administered animals, changes of AQP5 level in fasting animals, in which the exocytotic events are reduced, were examined. AQP5 was found to be decreased in fasting animals as expected. These results suggested that the elevation of cAMP and/or frequent exocytotic events could increase AQP5 protein. AQP5 expression seems to be easily changed by salivary stimulants, although these changes do not always reflect the ability in salivary fluid secretion. PMID:24610966

  11. Cheilitis glandularis: immunohistochemical expression of protein water channels (aquaporins) in minor labial salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Nico, M M S; Melo, J N; Lourenço, S V

    2014-03-01

    Cheilitis glandularis (CG) is a rare condition in which thick saliva is secreted from dilated ostia of swollen minor salivary glands from the lips. Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins that exhibit channel activity specific for water and small solutes. AQPs are essential for corporal homeostasis, and are widely expressed through human tissues. Most AQPs studies are based on renal and nervous pathophysiology; few involve salivary glands. Some previous investigators hypothesized that minor salivary gland structure and function is normal on CG. To study possible salivary synthesis alterations in CG, we compared the expression of AQPs present in minor salivary glands in specimens with CG and controls by using immunohistochemistry.   Seven cases of CG and three normal controls were studied. Intensity and patterns of expression of AQP 1, 2 and 8 differed in CG compared with controls. AQP 4 and 5 (the most important AQP in salivary function) showed identical patterns in CG and controls. Our findings suggest that the expression and arguably, function of some of the AQPs may be altered in CG; consequently, water flow mechanism abnormalities with possible alteration in salivary composition seem to occur. External factors (mainly UV rays) seem to play an important role in CG; nonetheless, our findings suggest that there might be some degree of alteration on water transportation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. Functional differences in the acinar cells of the murine major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Jaramillo, Y; Choi, S; Catalan, M A; Melvin, J E

    2015-05-01

    In humans, approximately 90% of saliva is secreted by the 3 major salivary glands: the parotid (PG), the submandibular (SMG), and the sublingual glands (SLG). Even though it is known that all 3 major salivary glands secrete saliva by a Cl(-)-dependent mechanism, salivary secretion rates differ greatly among these glands. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the properties of the ion-transporting pathways in acinar cells that might account for the differences among the major salivary glands. Pilocarpine-induced saliva was simultaneously collected in vivo from the 3 major salivary glands of mice. When normalized by gland weight, the amount of saliva secreted by the PG was more than 2-fold larger than that obtained from the SMG and SLG. At the cellular level, carbachol induced an increase in the intracellular [Ca(2+)] that was more than 2-fold larger in PG and SMG than in SLG acinar cells. Carbachol-stimulated Cl(-) efflux and the protein levels of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel TMEM16A, the major apical Cl(-) efflux pathway in salivary acinar cells, were significantly greater in PG compared with SMG and SLG. In addition, we evaluated the transporter activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC1) and anion exchangers (AE), the 2 primary basolateral Cl(-) uptake mechanisms in acinar cells. The SMG NKCC1 activity was about twice that of the PG and more than 12-fold greater than that of the SLG. AE activity was similar in PG and SLG, and both PG and SLG AE activity was about 2-fold larger than that of SMG. In summary, the salivation kinetics of the 3 major glands are distinct, and these differences can be explained by the unique functional properties of each gland related to Cl(-) movement, including the transporter activities of the Cl(-) uptake and efflux pathways, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  13. [Inpatient Salivary Gland Surgery in Germany: A DRG-Based Nationwide Analysis, 2007-2011].

    PubMed

    Jensen, J E; Schlattmann, P; Guntinas-Lichius, O

    2016-09-01

    This is the first population-based analysis of inpatient salivary gland surgery across Germany. Nationwide Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG) statistics for 2007 to 2011 were analyzed regarding indications for salivary gland surgery based on ICD-10 codes. Age specific surgery rates were calculated for both sexes. Inpatient salivary gland surgical rates in 2007-2011 amounted for incisions (OPS [Classification of Operations and Procedures] code 5-260) 1.43 per 100 000 population, for excisions (5-261) 2.06 per 100 000, for salivary gland resections (5-262) 2.06 per 100 000, and for external incisions (5-270) 0.43 per 100 000. Regarding the mentioned four OPS codes, the surgical rates for benign tumors accounted to 10.08 per 100 000, for sialadenitis (without sialoliths) to 4.00 per 100 000, for malignant tumors to 3.90 per 100 000, and for sialolithiasis to 2.09 per 100 000. The increase of surgical rates from 2007 to 2011 was significant for malignant and benign tumors as well as for salivary stones. The surgical rates were highest for patients>60 years. Especially surgery for malignant tumors was more frequent than expected. In spite of the introduction of minimal invasive technique the rates for salivary gland resections in case of sialadenitis or sialolithiasis still seem to be high. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Major salivary gland flow rates in young and old, generally healthy African Americans and whites.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R. E.; Ship, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Saliva is essential to maintain and preserve oral health. Previous studies of primarily white populations demonstrated that salivary gland flow rates are age-stable in healthy adults, but there are little data on African Americans of different ages. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between age, gender, and race in unstimulated and stimulated parotid and submandibular salivary gland flow rates and to evaluate subjective responses to questions regarding salivary dysfunction. Sixty generally healthy, middle socioeconomic class African Americans and whites between the ages of 20 to 40 and 60 to 80 years were evaluated. The results indicate, in general, that objective and subjective measurements of major salivary gland flow rates are independent of age, gender, and race. Further studies are required using larger populations. These results suggest that signs and symptoms of dry mouth in the elderly regardless of race or gender should not be considered a normal sequela of aging. PMID:7897685

  15. SOX10-positive salivary gland tumors: a growing list, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland, sialoblastoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, basal cell adenoma/adenocarcinoma, and a subgroup of mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2016-10-01

    Transcription factor SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) is an important marker for melanocytic, schwannian, myoepithelial, and some salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate SOX10 expression more thoroughly in the salivary gland neoplasms, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma harboring specific genetic rearrangements. A new rabbit monoclonal anti-SOX10 antibody (clone EP268) was used to examine SOX10 expression in 14 different types of salivary gland tumors. We found that acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, sialoblastoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenoma, and pleomorphic adenoma were SOX10 positive. Salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma were SOX10 negative. Earlier, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was considered a SOX10-negative tumor. This study identified a subgroup of SOX10-positive MEC cases with characteristic polygonal epithelial cells, pale-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, and colloid-like dense eosinophilic material. Our data show SOX10 expression can be observed in salivary gland tumors with either one of the 4 cell types: acinic cells, cuboidal ductal cells with low-grade cytologic features, basaloid cells, and myoepithelial cells. In this article we thoroughly evaluated SOX10 expression in salivary gland tumors. SOX10 is useful in the differential diagnosis between myoepithelial carcinoma with clear cell features and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. It can also be used to discriminate low-grade salivary duct carcinoma from high-grade ones. Pathologists should be cautious with the interpretation of SOX10 positivity in salivary gland tumors, and correlation with histologic feature is mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mass Spectrometry Based Proteomic Analysis of Salivary Glands of Urban Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Sonam

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland proteins of Anopheles mosquitoes offer attractive targets to understand interactions with sporozoites, blood feeding behavior, homeostasis, and immunological evaluation of malaria vectors and parasite interactions. To date limited studies have been carried out to elucidate salivary proteins of An. stephensi salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to provide detailed analytical attributives of functional salivary gland proteins of urban malaria vector An. stephensi. A proteomic approach combining one-dimensional electrophoresis (1DE), ion trap liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and computational bioinformatic analysis was adopted to provide the first direct insight into identification and functional characterization of known salivary proteins and novel salivary proteins of An. stephensi. Computational studies by online servers, namely, MASCOT and OMSSA algorithms, identified a total of 36 known salivary proteins and 123 novel proteins analysed by LC/MS/MS. This first report describes a baseline proteomic catalogue of 159 salivary proteins belonging to various categories of signal transduction, regulation of blood coagulation cascade, and various immune and energy pathways of An. stephensi sialotranscriptome by mass spectrometry. Our results may serve as basis to provide a putative functional role of proteins in concept of blood feeding, biting behavior, and other aspects of vector-parasite host interactions for parasite development in anopheline mosquitoes. PMID:25126571

  17. Mass spectrometry based proteomic analysis of salivary glands of urban malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Sonam; Rawat, Manmeet; Sharma, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland proteins of Anopheles mosquitoes offer attractive targets to understand interactions with sporozoites, blood feeding behavior, homeostasis, and immunological evaluation of malaria vectors and parasite interactions. To date limited studies have been carried out to elucidate salivary proteins of An. stephensi salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to provide detailed analytical attributives of functional salivary gland proteins of urban malaria vector An. stephensi. A proteomic approach combining one-dimensional electrophoresis (1DE), ion trap liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and computational bioinformatic analysis was adopted to provide the first direct insight into identification and functional characterization of known salivary proteins and novel salivary proteins of An. stephensi. Computational studies by online servers, namely, MASCOT and OMSSA algorithms, identified a total of 36 known salivary proteins and 123 novel proteins analysed by LC/MS/MS. This first report describes a baseline proteomic catalogue of 159 salivary proteins belonging to various categories of signal transduction, regulation of blood coagulation cascade, and various immune and energy pathways of An. stephensi sialotranscriptome by mass spectrometry. Our results may serve as basis to provide a putative functional role of proteins in concept of blood feeding, biting behavior, and other aspects of vector-parasite host interactions for parasite development in anopheline mosquitoes.

  18. The value of fine needle aspiration cytology in the clinical management of rare salivary gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mezei, Tibor; Mocan, Simona; Ormenisan, Alina; Baróti, Beáta; Iacob, Alina

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Salivary gland tumors are relatively rare neoplasms, mostly located in the parotid gland, and few are malignant. Preoperative evaluation of salivary gland tumors includes fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of FNAC in the evaluation of rare salivary gland neoplasms. Material and Methods Four cases of rare salivary gland tumors were included, which were preoperatively assessed by clinical investigation, computed tomography, and FNAC. Results The presented cases include myoepithelial carcinoma, oncocytic carcinoma, undifferentiated lymphoepithelial carcinoma, and marginal zone lymphoma. Conclusion FNAC is a reliable diagnostic tool for common salivary gland neoplasms; however, rare tumors often represent diagnostic challenges. Clinical relevance In such rare tumors, the role of aspiration cytology may be limited to establishing the dignity of the lesion (benign/malignant). This knowledge enables the surgeon to choose the most appropriate therapeutic procedure. A definitive diagnosis of rare tumors (either epithelial or nonepithelial) is obtained by histological examination; cytology is limited in this regard due to overlapping features. PMID:29489937

  19. Clinical Management of Salivary Gland Hypofunction and Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients: Successes and Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Vissink, Arjan; Mitchell, James B.; Baum, Bruce J.

    The most significant long-term complication of radiotherapy in the head-and-neck region is hyposalivation and its related complaints, particularily xerostomia. This review addresses the pathophysiology underlying irradiation damage to salivary gland tissue, the consequences of radiation injury, and issues contributing to the clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia. These include ways to (1) prevent or minimize radiation injury of salivary gland tissue, (2) manage radiation-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia, and (3) restore the function of salivary gland tissue damaged by radiotherapy.

  20. Clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients: successes and barriers*

    PubMed Central

    Vissink, Arjan; Mitchell, James B; Baum, Bruce J; Limesand, Kirsten H; Jensen, Siri Beier; Fox, Philip C; Elting, Linda S; Langendijk, Johannes A; Coppes, Robert P; Reyland, Mary E

    2010-01-01

    The most significant long-term complication of radiotherapy in the head and neck region is hyposalivation and its related complaints, particularily xerostomia. This paper addresses the pathophysiology underlying irradiation damage to salivary gland tissue, the consequences of radiation injury, and issues contributing to the clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia. These include ways to: (1) prevent or minimize radiation injury of salivary gland tissue, (2) manage radiation-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia, and (3) restore the function of salivary gland tissue damaged by radiotherapy. PMID:20970030

  1. TAT-Mediated Delivery of Tousled Protein to Salivary Glands Protects Against Radiation-Induced Hypofunction

    SciTech Connect

    Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan, E-mail: gsunav@lsuhsc.edu; Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Richardson, Charles

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer invariably suffer its deleterious side effect, xerostomia. Salivary hypofunction ensuing from the irreversible destruction of glands is the most common and debilitating oral complication affecting patients undergoing regional radiotherapy. Given that the current management of xerostomia is palliative and ineffective, efforts are now directed toward preventive measures to preserve gland function. The human homolog of Tousled protein, TLK1B, facilitates chromatin remodeling at DNA repair sites and improves cell survival against ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we wanted to determine whether a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to rat salivary glands could protect againstmore » IR-induced salivary hypofunction. Methods: The cell-permeable TAT-TLK1B fusion protein was generated. Rat acinar cell line and rat salivary glands were pretreated with TAT peptide or TAT-TLK1B before IR. The acinar cell survival in vitro and salivary function in vivo were assessed after radiation. Results: We demonstrated that rat acinar cells transduced with TAT-TLK1B were more resistant to radiation (D{sub 0} = 4.13 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 0 Gy) compared with cells transduced with the TAT peptide (D{sub 0} = 4.91 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 20.2 Gy). Correspondingly, retroductal instillation of TAT-TLK1B in rat submandibular glands better preserved salivary flow after IR (89%) compared with animals pretreated with Opti-MEM or TAT peptide (31% and 39%, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results demonstrate that a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to the salivary glands effectively attenuates radiation-mediated gland dysfunction. Prophylactic TLK1B-protein therapy could benefit patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.« less

  2. Basal cell adenocarcinoma of minor salivary and seromucous glands of the head and neck region.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, I; Soares, J

    1996-05-01

    Basal cell adenocarcinoma of salivary glands is an uncommon and recently described entity occurring almost exclusively at the major salivary glands. This report provides an overview of the clinicopathologic profile of this neoplasm by including the personal experience on the clinical features, microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics, proliferation activity, and DNA tumor patterns of 12 lesions occurring at the minor salivary glands of the head and neck region, where basal cell adenocarcinoma is probably an underecognized entity, previously reported under different designations. Basal cell adenocarcinoma predominates at the seventh decade without sex preference. The tumors affecting the minor salivary glands occur most frequently at the oral cavity (jugal mucosa, palate) and the upper respiratory tract. The prevalent histologic tumor pattern is represented by solid neoplastic aggregates with a peripheral cell palisading arrangement frequently delineated by basement membrane-like material. The neoplastic clusters are formed by two cell populations: the small dark cell type (that predominates) and a large cell type. Necrosis, either of the comedo or the apoptotic type, is a frequent finding. Perineural growth occurs in 50% of the cases and vascular permeation in 25%. Immunohistochemistry identifies a dual differentiation with a reactivity pattern indicative of ductal epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation, which can be confirmed by electron microscopy. The differential diagnosis of the neoplasm includes its benign counterpart, the basal cell adenoma, solid variant of adenoid cystic carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, and basaloid squamous carcinoma. The tumors recur more frequently than lesions originating in major salivary glands. Mortality is associated with the anatomic site of the lesion, advanced stage, residual neoplasia at surgery, and tumor recurrence. The importance of recognizing basal cell adenocarcinoma outside major salivary glands is

  3. [Functional morphology of the submandibular salivary glands of white rats during aging involution].

    PubMed

    Rybakova, M G

    1979-12-01

    Functional morphology of different zones of submandibular glands of albino rats was studied quantitatively with due regard for the stages of neuroendocrine system involution. It is shown that function of salivary glands during ageing is not altered; cyclic fluctuations with estral cycle phases are maintained similarly to those in young animals. But the basal level of proteins and mucopolysaccharides is reduced, their mean levels being equal to the minimal level in young animals. On the other hand, activation of enzymes responsible for energy and transport processes takes place and their relationships change. The data obtained prove the relationship between salivary and endocrine glands and confirm the viewpoint that in early age involution disintegration occurs between different parameters of the functional activity of salivary glands rather than there take place changes in their function.

  4. Expression analysis of human salivary glands by laser microdissection: differences between submandibular and labial glands.

    PubMed

    Kouznetsova, Irina; Gerlach, Klaus L; Zahl, Christian; Hoffmann, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Both the major and minor salivary glands are the sources of saliva, a fluid vital for the maintenance of a healthy oral cavity. Here, the expression profiles of human submandibular (SMG) and labial glands (LG) were compared by RT-PCR analysis of laser microdissected mucous and serous cells, respectively. The focus was on trefoil factor family (TFF) genes, but also other genes encoding secretory proteins (mucins, lysozyme, amylase, statherin, and histatins) or aquaporin 5 were included. Immunofluorescence studies concerning TFF1-3, FCGBP, amylase, and lysozyme are also presented. It was shown that LGs clearly contain serous cells and that these cells differ in their expression profiles from serous SMG cells. Furthermore, all three TFF peptides, together with MUC5B, MUC7, MUC19, and FCGBP, were clearly detectable in mucous acini of both LGs and SMGs. In contrast, lysozyme was differentially expressed in LGs and SMGs. It can be expected that labial saliva may play a particularly important role for protecting the teeth. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. An autopsy case of sudden unexpected death due to a glial cyst of the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Na, Joo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Park, Jong-Tae

    2014-09-01

    Pineal cysts are usually asymptomatic; however, they may rarely cause symptoms such as chronic headache, paroxysmal headache with gaze paresis, postural syncope, loss of consciousness, and sudden death. A 30-year-old woman with no specific medical history except chronic headache was found collapsed in a public toilet per se. Postmortem examination revealed no external injuries or internal diseases except a cystic lesion of the pineal gland. Histologic examination showed an internal cyst surrounded by glial tissues and pineal parenchyma that was diagnosed as a glial cyst of the pineal gland. Although the pineal cyst cannot be confirmed as the cause of death, it was considered, as no other cause was evident. Herein, we report a pineal cyst considered as an assumed cause of death.

  6. Incidence of pineal gland cyst and pineoblastoma in children with retinoblastoma during the chemoreduction era.

    PubMed

    Ramasubramanian, Aparna; Kytasty, Christina; Meadows, Anna T; Shields, Jerry A; Leahey, Ann; Shields, Carol L

    2013-10-01

    To report on the frequency of cysts and tumors of the pineal gland in patients with retinoblastoma. Observational retrospective case control study. Institutional. study population: Four hundred eight patients treated for retinoblastoma from January 2000 to January 2012 at Wills Eye Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the pineal gland were evaluated in all patients with retinoblastoma. Characteristics of patients with pineal cysts and pineoblastoma were reviewed. Comparison of frequency of pineal gland cyst and pineoblastoma in children managed with systemic chemoreduction vs other methods. Of 408 patients, treatment included systemic chemoreduction in 252 (62%) and nonchemoreduction methods in 156 (38%). Overall, 34 patients (8%) manifested pineal gland cyst and 4 (1%) showed pineoblastoma. Of all 408 patients, comparison (chemoreduction vs nonchemoreduction) revealed pineal cyst (20/252 vs 14/156, P = .7) and pineoblastoma (1/252 vs 3/156, P = .1). The pineal cyst (n = 34) (mean diameter 4 mm) was asymptomatic (n = 34), followed conservatively (n = 34), and with minimal enlargement (n = 2, 9%) but without progression to pineoblastoma. The cyst was found in 22 germline and 12 nongermline patients (P = .15). Among the 4 patients with pineoblastoma, all had germline mutation and 2 had family history of retinoblastoma. Among all patients with family history of retinoblastoma (n = 45), 2 (4%) developed pineoblastoma. The pineoblastoma was asymptomatic in 2 patients and symptomatic with vomiting and headache in 2 patients. The mean interval from date of retinoblastoma detection to pineal cyst was 2 months (median 2, range 0-8 months) and to pineoblastoma was 27 months (median 28, range 7-46 months). Management included aggressive chemotherapy and radiotherapy, with 2 survivors. Pineal gland cyst was incidentally detected in 8% of retinoblastoma patients, causing no symptoms, and without progression to pineoblastoma

  7. MTA1 regulation of ERβ pathway in salivary gland carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohshiro, Kazufumi, E-mail: bcmkxo@gwu.edu; Kumar, Rakesh

    Abstracts: Although Metastatic-tumor antigen 1 (MTA1) is differentially expressed in metastatic cancer and coregulates the status and activity of nuclear receptors, its role upon estrogen receptor β (ERβ) – a potent tumor suppressor, remains poorly understood. Here we investigated whether MTA1 regulates the expression and functions of ERβ, an ER isoform predominantly expressed in salivary gland cancer cells. We found that the depletion of the endogenous MTA1 in the HSG and HSY salivary duct carcinoma cell lines enhances the expression of ERβ while MTA1 overexpression augmented the expression of ERβ in salivary duct carcinoma cells. Furthermore, MTA1 knockdown inhibited themore » proliferations and invasion of HSG and HSY cells. The noted ERβ downregulation by MTA1 overexpression involves the process of proteasomal degradation, as a proteasome inhibitor could block it. In addition, both MTA1 knockdown and ERβ overexpression attenuated the cell migration and inhibited the ERK1/2 signaling in the both cell lines. These findings imply that MTA1 dysregulation in a subset of salivary gland cancer might promote aggressive phenotypes by compromising the tumor suppressor activity of ERβ, and hence, MTA1-ERβ axis might serve a new therapeutic target for the salivary gland cancer. - Highlights: • MTA1 silencing upregulates ERβ expression in salivary gland carcinoma cells. • MTA1 overexpression downregulates ERβ expression via proteasomal degradation. • Upregulation of ERβ expression inhibits cell migration and ERK signaling. • MTA1 knockdown inhibits cell proliferation and invasion.« less

  8. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in salivary gland diseases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Frank Cheau-Feng; Chen, Pei-Liang; Tsao, Tang-Yi; Li, Chia-Ru; Jeng, Kee-Ching; Tsai, Stella Chin-Shaw

    2014-10-01

    The roles of human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in head and neck neoplasms have been well reported, but little is known about their relationship with salivary gland tumours. This study investigated the presence of HPV and EBV in salivary gland diseases. The presence of HPV 16/18 and EBV was analysed in archival pathological specimens collected from patients who had undergone surgery for salivary gland diseases. HPV 16/18 DNA was detected using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and further confirmed with immunohistochemistry. EBV DNA was detected using real-time PCR. A total of 61 pathological specimens were examined: 39.5% (15/38) of pleomorphic adenomas, 33.3% (3/9) of Warthin's tumours, 33.3% (one of 3) of mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and 25.0% (one of 4) of benign lymphoepithelial lesions were positive for high-risk HPV 16/18. Only two Warthin's tumours were positive for EBV. The infectious nature of salivary gland neoplasms was revealed by the high prevalence of HPV infection, and the specific presence of EBV in Warthin's tumours, suggesting a potential role for HPV and EBV in salivary gland diseases. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. ADVANCES IN SALIVARY GLAND GENE THERAPY – ORAL AND SYSTEMIC IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Bruce J.; Alevizos, Ilias; Chiorini, John A.; Cotrim, Ana P.; Zheng, Changyu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Much research demonstrates the feasibility and efficacy of gene transfer to salivary glands. Recently, the first clinical trial targeting a salivary gland was completed, yielding positive safety and efficacy results. Areas covered There are two major disorders affecting salivary glands; radiation damage following treatment for head and neck cancers and Sjögren’s syndrome. Salivary gland gene transfer has also been employed in preclinical studies using transgenic secretory proteins for exocrine (upper gastrointestinal tract) and endocrine (systemic) applications. Expert opinion Salivary gland gene transfer is safe and can be beneficial in humans. Applications to treat and prevent radiation damage show considerable promise. A first-in-human clinical trial for the former was recently successfully completed. Studies on Sjögren’s syndrome suffer from an inadequate understanding of its etiology. Proof of concept in animal models has been shown for exocrine and endocrine disorders. Currently, the most promising exocrine application is for the management of obesity. Endocrine applications are limited, as it is currently impossible to predict if systemically required transgenic proteins will be efficiently secreted into the bloodstream. This results from not understanding of how secretory proteins are sorted. Future studies will likely employ ultrasound assisted and pseudotyped adenoassociated viral vector-mediated gene. PMID:26149284

  10. Recent advances in mucin immunohistochemistry in salivary gland tumors and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Farzana

    2011-09-01

    This review focuses on the immunohistochemical expression of members of the MUC-type mucin family in salivary gland tumors and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Information is available on changes in the expression levels and distribution profiles of MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6 and MUC7 in tumors of the salivary glands; and of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 in HNSCC. In salivary gland tumors the expression patterns of MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC and MUC6 appear to be very closely correlated with the histopathological tumor type indicating their potential use to improve diagnostic accuracy in salivary gland neoplasia. Some MUC-type mucins have emerged as valuable prognostic indicators in pleomorphic adenoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and HNSCC. Nine antibodies directed against different MUC1 antigens have thus far been examined in HNSCC of which monoclonal antibodies DF3, HMFG-1 and Ma695 have shown significant correlations with disease outcome. The importance of taking the specific anti-MUC antibody into consideration when comparing the results of different studies on MUC expression in salivary gland tumors and HNSCC is also highlighted in this review. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MYB expression and translocation in adenoid cystic carcinomas and other salivary gland tumors with clinicopathologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Christina; Clarke, Nicole; Gilks, Thea; Lipsick, Joe; Cao, Hongbin; Kwok, Shirley; Montgomery, Kelli D.; Varma, Sushama; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2011-01-01

    Background Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a locally aggressive salivary gland neoplasm which has a poor long term prognosis. A chromosomal translocation involving the genes encoding the transcription factors MYB and NFIB has been recently discovered in these tumors. Methods MYB translocation and protein expression was studied in 37 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 112 other salivary gland neoplasms, and 409 non salivary gland neoplasms by FISH and immunohistochemistry. MYB translocation and expression status in adenoid cystic carcinoma was correlated with clinicopathologic features including outcome, with a median follow up of 77.1 months (range: 23.2–217.5) for living patients. Results A balanced translocation between MYB and NFIB is present in 49% of adenoid cystic carcinomas but is not identified in other salivary gland tumors or non-salivary gland neoplasms. There is no apparent translocation of MYB in 35% of the cases. Strong Myb immunostaining is very specific for adenoid cystic carcinomas but is only present in 65% of all cases. Interestingly, Myb immunostaining is confined to the basal cell component though the translocation is present in all the cells. Neoplasms with MYB translocation demonstrate a trend towards higher local relapse rates, but the results are not statistically significant with current case numbers. Conclusions MYB translocation and expression are useful diagnostic markers for a subset of adenoid cystic carcinomas. The presence of the translocation may be indicative of local aggressive behavior but a larger cohort may be required to demonstrate statistical significance. PMID:21164292

  12. Immunolocalization and distribution of functional temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Sobhan, Ubaidus; Sato, Masaki; Shinomiya, Takashi; Okubo, Migiwa; Tsumura, Maki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mitsuru; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are unique cellular sensors involved in multiple cellular functions. Their role in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. The expression and localization of temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of various TRP channel agonists on carbachol (CCh)-induced salivary secretion in the submandibular gland and on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in a submandibular epithelial cell line were also investigated. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of TRP-melastatin subfamily member 8 (TRPM8) and TRP-ankyrin subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in the sublingual, submandibular and parotid glands. In addition, TRP-vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), TRPV3 and TRPV4 were also expressed in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in all three types of gland. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results demonstrated the mRNA expression of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1 in acinar and ductal cells in these salivary glands. Perfusion of the entire submandibular gland with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (1 μM) via the submandibular artery significantly increased CCh-induced salivation, whereas perfusion with TRPM8 and TRPA1 agonists (0.5 μM WS12 and 100 μM allyl isothiocyanate) decreased it. Application of agonists for each of the thermosensitive TRP channels increased [Ca(2+)]i in a submandibular epithelial cell line. These results indicate that temperature-sensitive TRP channels are localized and distributed in acinar, ductal and myoepithelial cells in salivary glands and that they play a functional role in the regulation and/or modulation of salivary secretion.

  13. Altered autophagy and sympathetic innervation in salivary glands from high-fat diet mice.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Polliane Morais; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Carpenter, Guy Howard

    2017-03-01

    to investigate the effects of a high fat diet (HFD) on salivary glands in vivo, in a mouse model. In particular, whether it will induce the appearance of fat cells in salivary glands, alterations related to autophagy, mTOR pathway and sympathetic innervation. 27 adult female ICR mice were separated in six groups. Three groups fed with (HFD) containing 55% fat, for one, two and three month and another three groups fed with normal diet (2.7% of fat), for the same time periods. The submandibular glands and liver were dissected and part homogenized for protein analyses and part fixed in formalin for histological analyses. After three months the HFD fed mice total body weight fold change increased compared to controls. The Oil Red O staining showed no fat cells deposit in salivary gland however a large increase was observed in liver after three months of HFD. Adiponectin levels were significantly decreased in the HFD group after three months. The group fed with HFD for three months showed increased conversion of the LC3 autophagy marker in salivary gland. mTOR showed no activation regarding the time point studied. Tyrosine hydroxylase significantly decreased after two and three month of HFD. HFD caused several changes after three months however the earliest change was noticed after two months regarding sympathetic innervation. This suggests neural alteration may drive other diet induced changes in salivary glands. These early changes may be the starting point for longer term alterations of salivary glands with alterations in diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of neurotrophins related to stress in saliva and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Saruta, Juri; Sato, Sadao; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2010-10-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are well-studied neurotrophins involved in neurogenesis, differentiation, growth, and maintenance of selected peripheral and central populations of neuronal cells during development and adulthood. Neurotrophins, in concert with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, play key roles in modulating brain plasticity and behavioral coping, especially during ontogenetic critical periods, when the developing brain is particularly sensitive to external stimuli. Early life events, such as psychophysical stress, affect NGF and BDNF levels and induce dysregulation of the HPA axis, thereby affecting brain development and contributing to inter-individual differences in vulnerability to stress or psychiatric disorders. Immobilization stress modifies BDNF mRNA expression in some organs. We studied the effect of immobilization stress on BDNF and its receptor tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) in rat submandibular glands, and found increased BDNF expression in duct cells under immobilization stress. Upon further investigation on the influence of salivary glands on plasma BDNF using an acute immobilization stress model, we found that acute immobilization stress lasting 60 min significantly increases the plasma BDNF level. However, plasma BDNF elevation is markedly suppressed in bilaterally sialoadenectomized rats. This suggests that salivary glands may be the primary source of plasma BDNF under acute immobilization stress. This report reviews the structure of salivary glands, the role of neurotrophins in salivary glands, and the significance of BDNF in saliva and salivary glands, followed by a summary of the evidence that indicates the relationship between immobilization stress and BDNF expression within salivary glands.

  15. The salivary glands of Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae, Lacertilia). A morphological, morphometric and histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Lopes, R A; Costa, J R; Piccolo, A M; Petenusci, S O

    1982-01-01

    The authors studied morphological, morphometric, and histochemically the mucosubstances and proteins in the salivary glands of the lizard Ameiva. Based on the results, the authors concluded: 1. The labial salivary gland is formed by small mucous and mucoserous glands; the sublingual gland by mucoserous cells. 2. Mucous cells show neutral and sulphated mucosubstances and sialic acid. Mucoserous cells of the labial gland show neutral mucosubstance, sialic acid, hyaluronic acid and protein radicals. Mucoserous cells of the sublingual gland show neutral mucosubstance, sialic acid and protein radicals. 3. The average values for acinar area were: 1,198.11 microns 2 for mucoserous acini and 2,105.95 microns 2 for mucous acini of the labial salivary gland. The average values for nucleus volume were: 47.41 microns 3 for mucoserous cells and 38.97 microns 4 for mucous cells. 4. The average values for acinar area and nuclear volume of the mucoserous cells of the subingual gland were respectively: 1,474.62 microns 2 and 67.77 microns 3.

  16. Laminin-111-derived peptide conjugated fibrin hydrogel restores salivary gland function.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kihoon; Maruyama, Christina L; Wang, Ching-Shuen; Trump, Bryan G; Lei, Pedro; Andreadis, Stelios T; Baker, Olga J

    2017-01-01

    Hyposalivation reduces the patient quality of life, as saliva is important for maintaining oral health. Current treatments for hyposalivation are limited to medications such as the muscarinic receptor agonists, pilocarpine and cevimeline. However, these therapies only provide temporary relief. Therefore, alternative therapies are essential to restore salivary gland function. An option is to use bioengineered scaffolds to promote functional salivary gland regeneration. Previous studies demonstrated that the laminin-111 protein is critical for intact salivary gland cell cluster formation and organization. However, laminin-111 protein as a whole is not suitable for clinical applications as some protein domains may contribute to unwanted side effects such as degradation, tumorigenesis and immune responses. Conversely, the use of synthetic laminin-111 peptides makes it possible to minimize the immune reactivity or pathogen transfer. In addition, it is relatively simple and inexpensive as compared to animal-derived proteins. Therefore, the goal of this study was to demonstrate whether a 20 day treatment with laminin-111-derived peptide conjugated fibrin hydrogel promotes tissue regeneration in submandibular glands of a wound healing mouse model. In this study, laminin-111-derived peptide conjugated fibrin hydrogel significantly accelerated formation of salivary gland tissue. The regenerated gland tissues displayed not only structural but also functional restoration.

  17. Laminin-111-derived peptide conjugated fibrin hydrogel restores salivary gland function

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kihoon; Maruyama, Christina L.; Wang, Ching-Shuen; Trump, Bryan G.; Lei, Pedro; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2017-01-01

    Hyposalivation reduces the patient quality of life, as saliva is important for maintaining oral health. Current treatments for hyposalivation are limited to medications such as the muscarinic receptor agonists, pilocarpine and cevimeline. However, these therapies only provide temporary relief. Therefore, alternative therapies are essential to restore salivary gland function. An option is to use bioengineered scaffolds to promote functional salivary gland regeneration. Previous studies demonstrated that the laminin-111 protein is critical for intact salivary gland cell cluster formation and organization. However, laminin-111 protein as a whole is not suitable for clinical applications as some protein domains may contribute to unwanted side effects such as degradation, tumorigenesis and immune responses. Conversely, the use of synthetic laminin-111 peptides makes it possible to minimize the immune reactivity or pathogen transfer. In addition, it is relatively simple and inexpensive as compared to animal-derived proteins. Therefore, the goal of this study was to demonstrate whether a 20 day treatment with laminin-111-derived peptide conjugated fibrin hydrogel promotes tissue regeneration in submandibular glands of a wound healing mouse model. In this study, laminin-111-derived peptide conjugated fibrin hydrogel significantly accelerated formation of salivary gland tissue. The regenerated gland tissues displayed not only structural but also functional restoration. PMID:29095857

  18. Margins for Benign Salivary Gland Neoplasms of the Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; McCoy, James Michael

    2017-08-01

    The proper ablation of any neoplasm of the head and neck requires the inclusion of linear and anatomic barrier margins surrounding the neoplasm. Extirpative surgery of the major and minor salivary glands is certainly no exception to this surgical principle. To this end, the selection and execution of the most appropriate ablative surgical procedure for a major or minor benign salivary gland neoplasm is an essential exercise in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Of equal importance is the intraoperative identification and preservation of the pseudocapsule surrounding the benign neoplasm. This article reviews these important elements specifically related to ablative surgery of benign neoplasms of the parotid, submandibular and minor salivary glands with strict attention to observed nomenclature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sialolipoma of salivary glands: Two case reports and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Khazaeni, Kamran; Jafarian, Amir Hosein; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh; Rahpeyma, Amin; Asadi, Ladan

    2013-01-01

    Sialolipoma is a rare neoplasm of salivary glands, described as a distinct entity by Nagao et al. in 2001. Thirty-six cases of sialolipoma in minor and major salivary glands have been reported thus far in addition to the two new cases of sialolipoma arising in the major salivary glands in this study. Thirty-six cases of sialolipoma published in English language reports were analyzed considering gender, age, location, size, duration of symptoms, treatment mode, follow-up, and histologic findings. Congenital sialolipomas were considered in this study. The first case occurred in a 45-year-old female and presented as a localized swelling in right parotid area. The second case occurred in an 18-year-old female as a swelling in the left parotid region. On histopathological examination, these lesions were diagnosed as sialolipoma. PMID:23878570

  20. Salivary gland morphology, tissue tropism and the progression of tospovirus infection in Frankliniella occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Montero-Astúa, Mauricio; Ullman, Diane E; Whitfield, Anna E

    2016-06-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted by thrips in a propagative manner; however, progression of virus infection in the insect is not fully understood. The goal of this work was to study the morphology and infection of thrips salivary glands. The primary salivary glands (PSG) are complex, with three distinct regions that may have unique functions. Analysis of TSWV progression in thrips revealed the presence of viral proteins in the foregut, midgut, ligaments, tubular salivary glands (TSG), and efferent duct and filament structures connecting the TSG and PSG of first and second instar larvae. The primary site of virus infection shifted from the midgut and TSG in the larvae to the PSG in adults, suggesting that tissue tropism changes with insect development. TSG infection was detected in advance of PSG infection. These findings support the hypothesis that the TSG are involved in trafficking of TSWV to the PSG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Description of Phytomonas oxycareni n. sp. from the Salivary Glands of Oxycarenus lavaterae.

    PubMed

    Seward, Emily A; Votýpka, Jan; Kment, Petr; Lukeš, Julius; Kelly, Steven

    2017-02-01

    Phytomonas spp. (phytomonads) are a diverse and globally distributed group of unicellular eukaryotes that parasitize a wide range of plants and are transmitted by insect hosts. Here we report the discovery and characterisation of a new species of Phytomonas, named Phytomonas oxycareni n. sp., which was obtained from the salivary glands of the invasive species of true bug Oxycarenus lavaterae (Heteroptera). The new Phytomonas species exhibits a long slender promastigote morphology and can be found both within the lumen of the insect host's salivary glands as well as within the cells of the salivary gland itself. Sampling multiple individuals from the same population post-winter hibernation on two consecutive years revealed that infection was persistent over time. Finally, phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal RNA genes revealed that this species is sister to other species within the genus Phytomonas, providing new insight into the evolutionary history of the clade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacological Activation of the EDA/EDAR Signaling Pathway Restores Salivary Gland Function following Radiation-Induced Damage

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Grace; Headon, Denis; Harris, Zoey I.; Huttner, Kenneth; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy of head and neck cancers often results in collateral damage to adjacent salivary glands associated with clinically significant hyposalivation and xerostomia. Due to the reduced capacity of salivary glands to regenerate, hyposalivation is treated by substitution with artificial saliva, rather than through functional restoration of the glands. During embryogenesis, the ectodysplasin/ectodysplasin receptor (EDA/EDAR) signaling pathway is a critical element in the development and growth of salivary glands. We have assessed the effects of pharmacological activation of this pathway in a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. We report that post-irradiation administration of an EDAR-agonist monoclonal antibody (mAbEDAR1) normalizes function of radiation damaged adult salivary glands as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates. In addition, salivary gland structure and homeostasis is restored to pre-irradiation levels. These results suggest that transient activation of pathways involved in salivary gland development could facilitate regeneration and restoration of function following damage. PMID:25409170

  3. Comprehensive annotation of the Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus from Ethiopian tsetse flies: a proteogenomics approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV; family Hytrosaviridae) can establish a chronic covert asymptomatic infection and an acute overt symptomatic infection in its tsetse fly host (Diptera: Glossinidae). Expression of the disease symptoms, the salivary gland hypertrophy sy...

  4. The Salivary Glands of Adult Female Varroa Destructor (Acari: Varroidae), an Ectoparasite of the Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman 2000, an ectoparasite of honey bees, causes huge economic losses to apiculture annually. Its role as a vector of diseases is thought to involve the salivary glands as the terminal organs of transmission. The salivary glands are paired, oval, non-acinar organs...

  5. Establishment of Functional Acinar-like Cultures from Human Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Jang, S.I.; Ong, H.L.; Gallo, A.; Liu, X.; Illei, G.

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of human salivary glands resulting from therapeutic radiation treatment for head and neck cancers or from the autoimmune disease Sjögren syndrome (SS) frequently result in the reduction or complete loss of saliva secretion. Such irreversible dysfunction of the salivary glands is due to the impairment of acinar cells, the major glandular cells of protein, salt secretion, and fluid movement. Availability of primary epithelial cells from human salivary gland tissue is critical for studying the underlying mechanisms of these irreversible disorders. We applied 2 culture system techniques on human minor salivary gland epithelial cells (phmSG) and optimized the growth conditions to achieve the maintenance of phmSG in an acinar-like phenotype. These phmSG cells exhibited progenitor cell markers (keratin 5 and nanog) as well as acinar-specific markers—namely, α-amylase, cystatin C, TMEM16A, and NKCC1. Importantly, with an increase of the calcium concentration in the growth medium, these phmSG cells were further promoted to acinar-like cells in vitro, as indicated by an increase in AQP5 expression. In addition, these phmSG cells also demonstrated functional calcium mobilization, formation of epithelial monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and polarized secretion of α-amylase secretion after β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Taken together, suitable growth conditions have been established to isolate and support culture of acinar-like cells from the human salivary gland. These primary epithelial cells can be useful for study of molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the function of acinar cells and in the loss of salivary gland function in patients. PMID:25416669

  6. Relationship between exposure to vector bites and antibody responses to mosquito salivary gland extracts.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Albin; Pascual, Aurélie; Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Diouf, Ibrahima; Remoué, Franck; Pagès, Frédéric; Fusaï, Thierry; Rogier, Christophe; Almeras, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are major health problems worldwide. Serological responses to mosquito saliva proteins may be useful in estimating individual exposure to bites from mosquitoes transmitting these diseases. However, the relationships between the levels of these IgG responses and mosquito density as well as IgG response specificity at the genus and/or species level need to be clarified prior to develop new immunological markers to assess human/vector contact. To this end, a kinetic study of antibody levels against several mosquito salivary gland extracts from southeastern French individuals living in three areas with distinct ecological environments and, by implication, distinct Aedes caspius mosquito densities were compared using ELISA. A positive association was observed between the average levels of IgG responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts and spatial Ae. caspius densities. Additionally, the average level of IgG responses increased significantly during the peak exposure to Ae. caspius at each site and returned to baseline four months later, suggesting short-lived IgG responses. The species-specificity of IgG antibody responses was determined by testing antibody responses to salivary gland extracts from Cx. pipiens, a mosquito that is present at these three sites at different density levels, and from two other Aedes species not present in the study area (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). The IgG responses observed against these mosquito salivary gland extracts contrasted with those observed against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts, supporting the existence of species-specific serological responses. By considering different populations and densities of mosquitoes linked to environmental factors, this study shows, for the first time, that specific IgG antibody responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts may be related to the seasonal and geographical variations in Ae. caspius density. Characterisation of such immunological

  7. Establishment of functional acinar-like cultures from human salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Jang, S I; Ong, H L; Gallo, A; Liu, X; Illei, G; Alevizos, I

    2015-02-01

    Disorders of human salivary glands resulting from therapeutic radiation treatment for head and neck cancers or from the autoimmune disease Sjögren syndrome (SS) frequently result in the reduction or complete loss of saliva secretion. Such irreversible dysfunction of the salivary glands is due to the impairment of acinar cells, the major glandular cells of protein, salt secretion, and fluid movement. Availability of primary epithelial cells from human salivary gland tissue is critical for studying the underlying mechanisms of these irreversible disorders. We applied 2 culture system techniques on human minor salivary gland epithelial cells (phmSG) and optimized the growth conditions to achieve the maintenance of phmSG in an acinar-like phenotype. These phmSG cells exhibited progenitor cell markers (keratin 5 and nanog) as well as acinar-specific markers-namely, α-amylase, cystatin C, TMEM16A, and NKCC1. Importantly, with an increase of the calcium concentration in the growth medium, these phmSG cells were further promoted to acinar-like cells in vitro, as indicated by an increase in AQP5 expression. In addition, these phmSG cells also demonstrated functional calcium mobilization, formation of epithelial monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and polarized secretion of α-amylase secretion after β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Taken together, suitable growth conditions have been established to isolate and support culture of acinar-like cells from the human salivary gland. These primary epithelial cells can be useful for study of molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the function of acinar cells and in the loss of salivary gland function in patients. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  8. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    SciTech Connect

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after,more » or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.« less

  9. [Evaluation of salivary gland function in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Koczor-Rozmus, Aleksandra; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Sadlak-Nowicka, Jadwiga; Ilewicz, Leşzek; Mayer-Parka, Danuta; Wierucka-Młynarczyk, Beata

    2003-01-01

    The function of the salivary glands is regulated by nervous system which influences salivary circulation. Moreover the volume of secreted saliva depends on the humoral agents, including thyroid hormones. The aim of the study was to determine the quantity of the secreted mixed resting and stimulated saliva in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) depending on the function of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and euthyroidism). The association between thyroid antibody concentrations (TPO-Ab, Tg-Ab, TR-Ab) and volume of secreted saliva was also examined. Studies were performed in 106 women suffering from AITD and 15 healthy volunteers. In hyperthyroid women there was a decrease in volumes of resting (57.14%) and stimulated (89.29%) saliva. Similarly, a decrease in secretion of resting (75%) and stimulated (66.67%) saliva was shown in hypothyroid women. In euthyroid patients with AITD there was a partial normalisation of salivary glands function. The negative correlation between concentrations of TPO-Ab, Tg-Ab and the volume of resting and stimulated saliva was found. In conclusion, AITD may be associated with disturbances in salivary secretion which depends on thyroid hormones production. It can be suggested that autoimmunological processes within salivary glands may influence their function.

  10. Inhibition of Malaria Infection in Transgenic Anopheline Mosquitoes Lacking Salivary Gland Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kasashima, Katsumi; Sezutsu, Hideki; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is an important global public health challenge, and is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes during blood feeding. Mosquito vector control is one of the most effective methods to control malaria, and population replacement with genetically engineered mosquitoes to block its transmission is expected to become a new vector control strategy. The salivary glands are an effective target tissue for the expression of molecules that kill or inactivate malaria parasites. Moreover, salivary gland cells express a large number of molecules that facilitate blood feeding and parasite transmission to hosts. In the present study, we adapted a functional deficiency system in specific tissues by inducing cell death using the mouse Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) to the Asian malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. We applied this technique to salivary gland cells, and produced a transgenic strain containing extremely low amounts of saliva. Although probing times for feeding on mice were longer in transgenic mosquitoes than in wild-type mosquitoes, transgenic mosquitoes still successfully ingested blood. Transgenic mosquitoes also exhibited a significant reduction in oocyst formation in the midgut in a rodent malaria model. These results indicate that mosquito saliva plays an important role in malaria infection in the midgut of anopheline mosquitoes. The dysfunction in the salivary glands enabled the inhibition of malaria transmission from hosts to mosquito midguts. Therefore, salivary components have potential in the development of new drugs or genetically engineered mosquitoes for malaria control. PMID:27598328

  11. Salivary mucoceles.

    PubMed

    Waldron, D R; Smith, M M

    1991-06-01

    The overall incidence of salivary gland disease in dogs and cats is low. Salivary mucocele is the most frequently diagnosed disease of salivary glands. Mucoceles consist of collections of saliva in subcutaneous, sublingual, pharyngeal, or periorbital locations. Definitive therapy of salivary mucoceles consists of excision of the affected salivary gland and mucocele drainage.

  12. Larval salivary glands are a source of primer and releaser pheromone in honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Yves Le; Bécard, Jean-Marc; Costagliola, Guy; de Vaublanc, Gérard; Maâtaoui, Mohamed El; Crauser, Didier; Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.

    2006-05-01

    A brood pheromone identified in honeybee larvae has primer and releaser pheromone effects on adult bees. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid esters—the pheromonal compounds—in different parts of the larvae, we have localized the source of the esters as the larval salivary glands. A histochemical study describes the glands and confirms the presence of lipids in the glands. Epithelial cells of the gland likely secrete the fatty acids into the lumen of the gland. These results demonstrate the salivary glands to be a reservoir of esters, components of brood pheromone, in honeybee larvae.

  13. [Adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland origin: a recently described lesion. A case report].

    PubMed

    Advenier, Anne-Sophie; Poupart, Marc; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Barnoud, Raphaëlle

    2013-12-01

    Cribriform adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin is a rare and recently described lesion. In spite of the high incidence of metastatic spread, the prognosis remains very good. We report a case of a 64-year-old man with cribriform adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin of the ventral tongue without locoregional or distant metastasis. The patient is currently 43-month post treatment without any local or regional recurrence of the disease. This entity should be kept in mind regarding its good prognosis and its resemblances with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid and adenoid cystic carcinoma with which it should not be confused. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of subchronic zinc toxicity on rat salivary glands and serum composition.

    PubMed

    Mizari, Nazer; Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Shahinpour, Shervin; Ghalichi-Tabriz, Mostafa; Beigy, Maani; Yamini, Ali; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2012-11-01

    Zinc plays an important role in a wide variety of metabolic processes in animal systems. The role of zinc in preservative treatment, fungicidal action and medicine, and addition of supplementary zinc have increased the probability of zinc toxicity, specially the chronic type. It is known that the composition and quantity of saliva influence the oral health. Regarding people's exposure to zinc in routine life and the importance of saliva, our purpose was to investigate the effects of oral zinc intoxication on secretory function in rat salivary glands and also on serum composition. In this study, there were five groups of female rats. Four groups received zinc acetate dehydrate through their drinking water. After 3 months of experiment, the chemical characteristics and flow rate of saliva and weight of salivary glands were determined. The effects of zinc on hematological and chemical factors of plasma were assessed too. Flow rate of submandibular glands was significantly lower in experimental groups and there were significant changes in Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+) concentration both in saliva and in plasma. The serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glucose levels in the plasma and urine creatinine levels were also altered in experimental groups in comparison with the control group. Our results show that zinc toxicity will affect the quantity and quality of saliva probably through changes in the various neurologic pathways to the salivary glands or effects on acinar cells of the salivary glands. Furthermore, our results showed that zinc toxicity will affect the liver and renal function.

  15. Histological and immunohistochemical findings of the action of botulinum toxin in salivary gland: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J B; Evêncio-Neto, J; Baratella-Evêncio, L

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of sialorrhea is necessary for the constant risks posed by hypersalivation. A new therapeutic option comes up with the application of botulinum toxin in salivary glands. However, little is known about its mechanism of action in glandular tissue. Based on the above, this work had the objective to systematically review the literature about the action of botulinum toxin on submandibular and parotid salivary glands tissues. Electronic search was performed in databases of great relevance for this study (PubMed, SciELO, HighWire, Crossref, Scopus, Science Direct, MEDLINE, OLDMEDLINE, Serials Database, NLM Catalog, LILACS and IBECS). Inclusion and exclusion criteria for articles were established, and a total number of 14 articles were selected and used. There are few publications that clarify how the salivary gland acini behave with application of botulinum toxin. Although, the immunohistochemical findings were consistent among authors, showing weak immunoreactivity in glands treated with botulinum toxin. Histometric data are divergent, requiring more detailed studies to answer the questions about the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin in salivary glands.

  16. Effect of selenium supplementation for protection of salivary glands from iodine-131 radiation damage in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Son, Haiyoung; Lee, Sang Mi; Yoon, Ra Gyoung; Lee, Hakmin; Lee, Ilkyun; Kim, Soon; Chung, Woong Youn; Lee, Jeong Won

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we examined whether selenium supplementation during iodine-131 ( 131 I) treatment had a radio-protective effect on salivary glands. Sixteen patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were prospectively enrolled in the study. Patients after total thyroidectomy, before 131 I treatment, were divided into two groups; 8 patients in the selenium group and 8 patients in the control group. Patients in the selenium group received 300νg of selenium orally for 10 days, from 3 days before to 6 days after 131 I treatment. The control group received a placebo over the same period. To assess salivary gland function, salivary gland scintigraphy was performed before and 6 months after 131 I treatment. Serum amylase and whole blood selenium levels were measured before and 2 days and 6 months after 131 I treatment. Using salivary gland scintigraphy, maximum uptake ratio (MUR), maximum secretion percentage (MSP), and ejection fraction (EF) of each salivary gland were calculated. Baseline clinical characteristics, baseline amylase and selenium levels, and parameters of baseline salivary gland scintigraphy were not significantly different between selenium and control groups (P>0.05). On a blood test performed 2 days after 131 I treatment, the selenium group showed a significantly higher whole blood selenium level (P=0.008) and significantly lower serum amylase level (P=0.009) than the control group. On follow-up salivary gland scintigraphy, the control group showed significantly decreased, MUR of the bilateral parotid and left submandibular glands, MSP of the bilateral parotid and submandibular glands, and EF of the left submandibular glands (P<0.05), while the selenium group only had a significant decrease in MSP of the right submandibular gland and EF of the left submandibular gland (P<0.05). Selenium supplementation during 131 I treatment was effective to reduce salivary glands damage by 131 I radiation in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

  17. Sparing the region of the salivary gland containing stem cells preserves saliva production after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    van Luijk, Peter; Pringle, Sarah; Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali V.; Faber, Hette; Hovan, Allan; Baanstra, Mirjam; van der Laan, Hans P.; Kierkels, Roel G. J.; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Witjes, Max J.; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wu, Jonn; Coppes, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Each year, 500,000 patients are treated with radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, resulting in relatively high survival rates. However, in 40% of patients, quality of life is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequent xerostomia (dry mouth). New radiation treatment technologies enable sparing of parts of the salivary glands. We have determined the parts of the major salivary gland, the parotid gland, that need to be spared to ensure that the gland continues to produce saliva after irradiation treatment. In mice, rats, and humans, we showed that stem and progenitor cells reside in the region of the parotid gland containing the major ducts. We demonstrated in rats that inclusion of the ducts in the radiation field led to loss of regenerative capacity, resulting in long-term gland dysfunction with reduced saliva production. Then we showed in a cohort of patients with head and neck cancer that the radiation dose to the region of the salivary gland containing the stem/progenitor cells predicted the function of the salivary glands one year after radiotherapy. Finally, we showed that this region of the salivary gland could be spared during radiotherapy, thus reducing the risk of post-radiotherapy xerostomia. PMID:26378247

  18. Lysosomal Exoglycosidase Profile and Secretory Function in the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Kossakowska, Agnieszka; Szulimowska, Julita; Klimiuk, Anna; Knaś, Małgorzata; Car, Halina; Niklińska, Wiesława; Ładny, Jerzy Robert; Chabowski, Adrian; Zalewska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Before this study, there had been no research evaluating the relationship between a lysosomal exoglycosidase profile and secretory function in the salivary glands of rats with streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetes. In our work, rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: control groups (C2, C4) and diabetic groups (STZ2, STZ4). The secretory function of salivary glands-nonstimulated and stimulated salivary flow, α -amylase, total protein-and salivary exoglycosidase activities-N-acetyl- β -hexosaminidase (HEX, HEX A, and HEX B), β -glucuronidase, α -fucosidase, β -galactosidase, and α -mannosidase-was estimated both in the parotid and submandibular glands of STZ-diabetic and control rats. The study has demonstrated that the activity of most salivary exoglycosidases is significantly higher in the parotid and submandibular glands of STZ-diabetic rats as compared to the healthy controls and that it increases as the disease progresses. Reduced secretory function of diabetic salivary glands was also observed. A significant inverse correlation between HEX B, α -amylase activity, and stimulated salivary flow in diabetic parotid gland has also been shown. Summarizing, STZ-induced diabetes leads to a change in the lysosomal exoglycosidase profile and reduced function of the salivary glands.

  19. Prevention of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction utilizing a CDK inhibitor in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Martin, Katie L; Hill, Grace A; Klein, Rob R; Arnett, Deborah G; Burd, Randy; Limesand, Kirsten H

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck cancer with radiation often results in damage to surrounding normal tissues such as salivary glands. Permanent loss of function in the salivary glands often leads patients to discontinue treatment due to incapacitating side effects. It has previously been shown that IGF-1 suppresses radiation-induced apoptosis and enhances G2/M arrest leading to preservation of salivary gland function. In an effort to recapitulate the effects of IGF-1, as well as increase the likelihood of translating these findings to the clinic, the small molecule therapeutic Roscovitine, is being tested. Roscovitine is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that acts to transiently inhibit cell cycle progression and allow for DNA repair in damaged tissues. Treatment with Roscovitine prior to irradiation induced a significant increase in the percentage of cells in the G(2)/M phase, as demonstrated by flow cytometry. In contrast, mice treated with radiation exhibit no differences in the percentage of cells in G(2)/M when compared to unirradiated controls. Similar to previous studies utilizing IGF-1, pretreatment with Roscovitine leads to a significant up-regulation of p21 expression and a significant decrease in the number of PCNA positive cells. Radiation treatment leads to a significant increase in activated caspase-3 positive salivary acinar cells, which is suppressed by pretreatment with Roscovitine. Administration of Roscovitine prior to targeted head and neck irradiation preserves normal tissue function in mouse parotid salivary glands, both acutely and chronically, as measured by salivary output. These studies suggest that induction of transient G(2)/M cell cycle arrest by Roscovitine allows for suppression of apoptosis, thus preserving normal salivary function following targeted head and neck irradiation. This could have an important clinical impact by preventing the negative side effects of radiation therapy in surrounding normal tissues.

  20. A Prospective Study of Salivary Gland Function in Lymphoma Patients Receiving Head and Neck Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Neesha A.; Killion, Leah; Hickey, Gail

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the radiation dose-response relationship on salivary dysfunction and quality of life (QOL) over time in patients with lymphoma receiving radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck (H and N). Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective study on salivary-gland function in lymphoma patients receiving RT to the H and N. Fifteen patients were enrolled on the study. Dose-volume histograms and mean doses to the salivary glands were generated. Radiation-related toxicities and H and N-specific QOL were assessed before treatment and at prespecified time points posttreatment. Factors predicting a decrement in QOL were explored using Fisher's exactmore » test. Results: During RT, 47% of patients experienced Grade >= 2 acute toxicity of the salivary gland, mucous membrane, or both. QOL scores improved over time, but up to one third of patients continued to have persistent oral symptoms at 2 years. At 6 months, a mean dose to at least one of the parotids of > 31 Gy was significantly associated with persistent dry mouth (100% vs. 17%, p = 0.02) and sticky saliva (100% vs. 25%, p = 0.04); a mean dose of > 11 Gy to the minor salivary glands was significantly associated with persistent sticky saliva (100% vs. 25%, p = 0.04), although the difference was no longer significant at 1 year. Conclusions: Limiting the mean parotid dose to <= 31 Gy and mean minor salivary gland dose to <= 11 Gy in lymphoma patients treated to the H and N may help reduce the risk of subacute xerostomia.« less

  1. Cervical lymph node metastasis in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    2017-02-01

    To verify the prevalence of cervical lymph node metastasis in adenoid cystic carcinoma of major salivary glands, and to establish recommendations for elective neck treatment. A search was conducted of the US National Library of Medicine database. Appropriate articles were selected from the abstracts, and the original publications were obtained to extract data. Among 483 cases of major salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma, a total of 90 (18.6 per cent) had cervical metastasis. The prevalence of positive nodes from adenoid cystic carcinoma was 14.5 per cent for parotid gland, 22.5 per cent for submandibular gland and 24.7 per cent for sublingual gland. Cervical lymph node metastasis occurred more frequently in patients with primary tumour stage T3-4 adenoid cystic carcinoma, and was usually located in levels II and III in the neck. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the major salivary glands is associated with a significant prevalence of cervical node metastasis, and elective neck treatment is indicated for T3 and T4 primary tumours, as well as tumours with other histological risk factors.

  2. Therapeutic effect of intraductal irrigation of the salivary gland: A technical report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chena; Kim, Jo-Eun; Huh, Kyoung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive and inflammatory disease often occurs in the major salivary glands, and no predictive treatment has yet been developed for this condition. The aim of this report was to introduce an intraductal irrigation procedure and to illustrate its application to practical patient cases. Two patients complaining of pain and swelling in the parotid gland during meals who underwent sialography were diagnosed as having sialodochitis with sialadenitis. Intraductal irrigation was then performed on the parotid gland on the side of the complaint. The irrigation procedure was conducted in the same manner as the sialography procedure, except that saline was used as the filling solution. Symptom severity was evaluated with a numerical rating scale (NRS) at the initial visit and a month after the irrigation. The initial NRS value of patient 1 was 10. The value decreased to 6 and then to 0 after 2 irrigation procedures. The NRS value of patient 2 regarding the symptoms involving the left parotid gland decreased from 4-5 to 1 after 4 irrigation procedures performed at 1-month intervals. Intraductal irrigation of the salivary gland may be a simple, safe, and effective treatment option for patients with obstructive and inflammatory disease of the salivary gland that is capable of resolving their symptoms.

  3. Therapeutic effect of intraductal irrigation of the salivary gland: A technical report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chena; Kim, Jo-Eun; Huh, Kyoung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Obstructive and inflammatory disease often occurs in the major salivary glands, and no predictive treatment has yet been developed for this condition. The aim of this report was to introduce an intraductal irrigation procedure and to illustrate its application to practical patient cases. Materials and Methods Two patients complaining of pain and swelling in the parotid gland during meals who underwent sialography were diagnosed as having sialodochitis with sialadenitis. Intraductal irrigation was then performed on the parotid gland on the side of the complaint. The irrigation procedure was conducted in the same manner as the sialography procedure, except that saline was used as the filling solution. Symptom severity was evaluated with a numerical rating scale (NRS) at the initial visit and a month after the irrigation. Results The initial NRS value of patient 1 was 10. The value decreased to 6 and then to 0 after 2 irrigation procedures. The NRS value of patient 2 regarding the symptoms involving the left parotid gland decreased from 4-5 to 1 after 4 irrigation procedures performed at 1-month intervals. Conclusion Intraductal irrigation of the salivary gland may be a simple, safe, and effective treatment option for patients with obstructive and inflammatory disease of the salivary gland that is capable of resolving their symptoms. PMID:28680849

  4. Impact of selective pituitary gland incision or resection on hormonal function after adenoma or cyst resection.

    PubMed

    Barkhoudarian, Garni; Cutler, Aaron R; Yost, Sam; Lobo, Bjorn; Eisenberg, Amalia; Kelly, Daniel F

    2015-12-01

    With the resection of pituitary lesions, the anterior pituitary gland often obstructs transsphenoidal access to the lesion. In such cases, a gland incision and/or partial gland resection may be required to obtain adequate exposure. We investigate this technique and determine the associated risk of post-operative hypopituitarism. All patients who underwent surgical resection of a pituitary adenoma or Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) between July 2007 and January 2013 were analyzed for pre- and post-operative hormone function. The cohort of patients with gland incision/resection were compared to a case-matched control cohort of pituitary surgery patients. Total hypophysectomy patients were excluded from outcome analysis. Of 372 operations over this period, an anterior pituitary gland incision or partial gland resection was performed in 79 cases (21.2 %). These include 53 gland incisions, 12 partial hemi-hypophysectomies and 14 resections of thinned/attenuated anterior gland. Diagnoses included 64 adenomas and 15 RCCs. New permanent hypopituitarism occurred in three patients (3.8 %), including permanent DI (3) and growth hormone deficiency (1). There was no significant difference in the rate of worsening gland dysfunction nor gain of function. Compared to a control cohort, there was a significantly lower incidence of transient DI (1.25 vs. 11.1 %, p = 0.009) but no significant difference in permanent DI (3.8 vs. 4.0 %) in the gland incision group. Selective gland incisions and gland resections were performed in over 20 % of our cases. This technique appears to minimize traction on compressed normal pituitary gland during removal of large lesions and facilitates better visualization and removal of cysts, microadenomas and macroadenomas.

  5. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of salivary gland in four Mexican patients.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Arévalo, Mónica L; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Domínguez-Malagón, Hugo; Michal, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The Clinco-pathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings of four cases of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands found in Mexico are described. The cases were extracted from 253 salivary gland tumors from a single institution in Mexico City. The 85 Candidates for initial selection were: low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) (N=70 ), Acinic cell cancinoma (AciCC) (N=14), papillary cystadenocarcinoma (N=1), and adenocarcinoma NOS (N=0). Tumors with some histological features consistent with MASC (N= 17, 6.7%) were studied by immunohistochemistry for mammaglobin, STAT5, and S-100 protein and four cases were positive (1.5%), thus the diagnosis of MASC was established, and these were submitted for molecular studies for ETV6-NTRK3. Fusion gene was demonstrated in three cases, two had been erroneously diagnosed as poorly granulated AciCC, and one as low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Female gender predominated (3:1); one occurred in the parotid, two in minor salivary glands and one in the submaxillary gland; infiltrating borders, atypical mitosis and lymph node metastases were seen in the parotideal tumor. Two patients with major salivary gland tumors are alive and well at 10 and 20 months respectively, the two patients with minor salivary gland tumors are lost. It can be concluded that is important to think in MASC in poorly granulated AciCC and low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Immunohistochemisty studies confirm the diagnosis, preferentially supported by molecular studies. MASC may follow aggressive behavior or transform into a high grade neoplasm.

  6. Adenoid cystic carcinomas of the salivary gland, lacrimal gland, and breast are morphologically and genetically similar but have distinct microRNA expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Simon; Tan, Qihua; Agander, Tina Klitmøller; Steiner, Petr; Bjørndal, Kristine; Høgdall, Estrid; Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Erentaite, Daiva; Olsen, Caroline Holkmann; Ulhøi, Benedicte Parm; von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Wessel, Irene; Heegaard, Steffen; Homøe, Preben

    2018-02-21

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is among the most frequent malignancies in the salivary and lacrimal glands and has a grave prognosis characterized by frequent local recurrences, distant metastases, and tumor-related mortality. Conversely, adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare type of triple-negative (estrogen and progesterone receptor, HER2) and basal-like carcinoma, which in contrast to other triple-negative and basal-like breast carcinomas has a very favorable prognosis. Irrespective of site, adenoid cystic carcinoma is characterized by gene fusions involving MYB, MYBL1, and NFIB, and the reason for the different clinical outcomes is unknown. In order to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the discrepancy in clinical outcome, we characterized the phenotypic profiles, pattern of gene rearrangements, and global microRNA expression profiles of 64 salivary gland, 9 lacrimal gland, and 11 breast adenoid cystic carcinomas. All breast and lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinomas had triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes, while salivary gland tumors were indeterminate in 13% of cases. Aberrations in MYB and/or NFIB were found in the majority of cases in all three locations, whereas MYBL1 involvement was restricted to tumors in the salivary gland. Global microRNA expression profiling separated salivary and lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma from their respective normal glands but could not distinguish normal breast adenoid cystic carcinoma from normal breast tissue. Hierarchical clustering separated adenoid cystic carcinomas of salivary gland origin from those of the breast and placed lacrimal gland carcinomas in between these. Functional annotation of the microRNAs differentially expressed between salivary gland and breast adenoid cystic carcinoma showed these as regulating genes involved in metabolism, signal transduction, and genes involved in other cancers. In conclusion, microRNA dysregulation is the first class of molecules separating adenoid

  7. Pilocarpine effect on dose rate of salivary gland in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients treated with radioiodine.

    PubMed

    Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Ghaedian, Mehrnaz; Etemadi, Zahra; Entezarmahdi, Seyed M; Ghaedian, Tahereh

    2018-05-01

    Although different methods have been suggested on reducing salivary gland radiation after radioiodine administration, an effective preventive or therapeutic measure is still up for debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pilocarpine, as a sialagogue drug on the radioiodine content of the salivary gland, and radioiodine-induced symptoms of salivary gland dysfunction. Patients who were referred for radioiodine therapy were randomized into pilocarpine and placebo groups. The patients as well as the nurse who administered the tablets, and the specialist who analyzed the images, were all unaware of the patients' group. Anterior and posterior planar images including that of both the head and neck were obtained 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after the administration of radioiodine in all patients, and round regions of interest were drawn for both left and right parotid glands, with a rectangular region of interest in the region of the cerebrum as background. All patients were interrogated once, 6 months after radioiodine administration, by a phone call for subjective evaluation of symptoms related to salivary gland damage. There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to the mean age, sex, and initial iodine activity. The geometric mean of background-corrected count per administered dose and acquisition time was calculated for the bilateral parotid glands. This normalized parotid count showed a significant reduction in net parotid count in both groups during the first 48 h after radioiodine administration. However, no significant difference was found between the groups according to the amount and pattern of dose reduction in this time period. This study revealed that pilocarpine had no significant effect on the radioiodine content of parotid glands during the first 48 h after radioiodine administration. No significant difference was found in the incidence of symptoms between the two groups treated with placebo and pilocarpine.

  8. Effect of Excess Iodide Intake on Salivary Glands in a Swiss Albino Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Gloria Romina; Fabersani, Emanuel; Russo, Matías; Gómez, Alba; Japaze, Hugo; González, Silvia Nelina

    2017-01-01

    Iodine is an important micronutrient required for nutrition. Excess iodine has adverse effects on thyroid, but there is not enough information regarding its effect on salivary glands. In addition to food and iodized salt, skin disinfectants and maternal nutritional supplements contain iodide, so its intake could be excessive during pregnancy, lactation, and infancy. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of excess iodide ingestion on salivary glands during mating, gestation, lactation, and postweaning period in mouse. During assay, mice were allocated into groups: control and treatment groups (received distilled water with NaI 1 mg/mL). Water intake, glandular weight, and histology were analyzed. Treatment groups showed an increase in glandular weight and a significantly (p < 0.05) higher water intake than control groups. Lymphocyte infiltration was observed in animals of treatment groups, while there was no infiltration in glandular sections of control groups. Results demonstrated that a negative relationship could exist between iodide excess and salivary glands. This work is novel evidence that high levels of iodide intake could induce mononuclear infiltration in salivary glands. These results should be considered, especially in pregnant/lactating women, to whom a higher iodine intake is usually recommended. PMID:29250546

  9. Salivary gland and nasopharyngeal cancers in individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in United States.

    PubMed

    Shebl, Fatma M; Bhatia, Kishor; Engels, Eric A

    2010-05-15

    Individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) manifest an increased risk of cancer, particularly cancers caused by oncogenic viruses. Because some salivary gland and nasopharyngeal cancers are associated with Epstein Barr virus, the impact of AIDS on these cancers needs further evaluation. We used linked U.S. AIDS and cancer registry data (N = 519,934 people with AIDS) to derive standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) comparing risk of salivary gland and nasopharyngeal cancers to the general population. For salivary gland cancers (N = 43 cases), individuals with AIDS had strongly elevated risks for lymphoepithelial carcinoma (SIR 39, 95% CI 16-81) and squamous cell carcinoma (SIR 4.9, 95% CI 2.5-8.6). Among nasopharyngeal cancers (N = 39 cases), risks were elevated for both keratinizing and nonkeratinizing carcinomas (SIR 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-3.7 and SIR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.4, respectively). The elevated risks of salivary gland and nasopharyngeal cancers among people with AIDS suggest that immunosuppression and oncogenic viral infections are etiologically important.

  10. Genome sequence of a Proteus mirabilis strain isolated from the salivary glands of larval Lucilia sericata

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We announced a draft genome sequence of a Proteus mirabilis strain derived from Lucilia sericata salivary glands. This strain is demonstrated to attract and induce oviposition by L. sericata, a common blow fly important to medicine, agriculture, and forensics. The genome will help to dissect inter...

  11. Salivary Gland and Nasopharyngeal Cancers in Individuals with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in United States

    PubMed Central

    Shebl, Fatma M.; Bhatia, Kishor; Engels, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) manifest an increased risk of cancer, particularly cancers caused by oncogenic viruses. Because some salivary gland and nasopharyngeal cancers are associated with Epstein Barr virus, the impact of AIDS on these cancers needs further evaluation. We used linked U.S. AIDS and cancer registry data (N=519,934 people with AIDS) to derive standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) comparing risk of salivary gland and nasopharyngeal cancers to the general population. For salivary gland cancers (N=43 cases), individuals with AIDS had strongly elevated risks for lymphoepithelial carcinoma (SIR 39, 95% CI 16-81) and squamous cell carcinoma (SIR 4.9, 95% CI 2.5-8.6). Among nasopharyngeal cancers (N=39 cases), risks were elevated for both keratinizing and non-keratinizing carcinomas (SIR 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-3.7, and SIR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.4, respectively). The elevated risks of salivary gland and nasopharyngeal cancers among people with AIDS suggest that immunosuppression and oncogenic viral infections are etiologically important. PMID:19810095

  12. Copy number increase of ACTN4 is a prognostic indicator in salivary gland carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Watabe, Yukio; Mori, Taisuke; Yoshimoto, Seiichi; Nomura, Takeshi; Shibahara, Takahiko; Yamada, Tesshi; Honda, Kazufumi

    2014-01-01

    Copy number increase (CNI) of ACTN4 has been associated with poor prognosis and metastatic phenotypes in various human carcinomas. To identify a novel prognostic factor for salivary gland carcinoma, we investigated the copy number of ACTN4. We evaluated DNA copy number of ACTN4 in 58 patients with salivary gland carcinoma by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). CNI of ACTN4 was recognized in 14 of 58 patients (24.1%) with salivary gland carcinoma. The cases with CNI of ACTN4 were closely associated with histological grade (P = 0.047) and vascular invasion (P = 0.033). The patients with CNI of ACTN4 had a significantly worse prognosis than the patients with normal copy number of ACTN4 (P = 0.0005 log-rank test). Univariate analysis by the Cox proportional hazards model showed that histological grade, vascular invasion, and CNI of ACTN4 were independent risk factors for cancer death. Vascular invasion (hazard ratio [HR]: 7.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.98–28.06) and CNI of ACTN4 (HR: 3.23; 95% CI: 1.08–9.68) remained as risk factors for cancer death in multivariate analysis. Thus, CNI of ACTN4 is a novel indicator for an unfavorable outcome in patients with salivary gland carcinoma. PMID:24574362

  13. Genome sequence of a Providencia stuartii strain isolated from Lucilia sericata salivary glands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We present the draft genome sequence of a Providencia stuartii strain derived from salivary glands of larval Lucilia sericata; a common blow fly important to forensic, medical and veterinary science. The genome sequence will help dissect coinfections involving Providencia stuartii and Proteus mirab...

  14. lmmunohistochemical and Molecular Characterization of Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma in Salivary Glands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    study of six cases. Int J Surg Pathol. 2001; 9(4): 287-293. 24. Lima MDM, Artico G, Soares FA, et al. Follicular lymphoma in the palate with clinical...lymphomas of the salivary glands. Cancer. 1979 ; 37: 906-912. 27. Isaacson P, Wright DH. Malignant lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue: a

  15. Immunohistochemical Evaluation Of Oestrogen Receptors In Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Of Salivary Gland.

    PubMed

    Mujtaba, Hasan; Atique, Muhammad; Batool, Iffat; Umer, Muhammad Farooq

    2017-01-01

    Oestrogen has a physiological role throughout the body including oral cavity. The effects are mediated by binding to two receptors in nucleus alpha and beta, which are ligand-activated transcription factors. The alpha receptors have a prognostic significance in cancer of breast while in Adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands the results are inconsistent. This study was conducted to determine the oestrogen receptor Alpha staining in adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary gland. Paraffin blocks of thirty cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary gland were retrieved and evaluated through immunohistochemistry by anti-oestrogen antibody clone 1D5.The intensity and proportion of nuclear staining was scored using Allred scoring system. From total of thirty cases, 5 cases expressed as mild staining of oestrogen receptors using Allred scoring system. Three cases of cribriform and two cases from tubular pattern expressed positivity. In the case series selection of our study cohort there was no association seen in age, gender, site and histological type of tumour with the expression of oestrogen receptor. Role of oestrogen is well established in breast cancers, some of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma also express these receptors and could be involved in the pathogenesis. Further studies are recommended to seek possible explanation of variable staining pattern observed in many other studies, and also to determine the possible therapeutic use of tamoxifen in such tumours.

  16. Bioprospection of immature salivary glands of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Caleffe, Ronaldo Roberto Tait; de Oliveira, Stefany Rodrigues; Gigliolli, Adriana Aparecida Sinópolis; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Maria Claudia Colla; Conte, Helio

    2018-06-08

    Larval therapy (LT) comprises the application of sterile Calliphoridae larvae for wound debridement, disinfection, and healing in humans and animals. Larval digestion plays a key role in LT, where the salivary glands and gut produce and secrete proteolytic and antimicrobial substances. The objective of this work was to bioprospect the salivary glands of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) larvae, using ultrastructural, morphological, and histological observations, and the total protein electrophoretic profile. The salivary glands present a deferent duct, originating from the buccal cavity, which bifurcates into efferent ducts that insert through a slight dilatation to a pair of tubular-shaped tissues, united in the region of fat cells. Histologically, the secretion had protein characteristics. Cell cytoplasm presented numerous free ribosomes, autophagic vacuoles, spherical and elongated mitochondria, atypical Golgi complexes, and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum. In the apical cytoplasm, secretory granules and microvilli secretions demonstrated intense protein synthesis, basal cytoplasm with trachea insertions, and numerous mitochondria. The present work described the ultrastructure and morphology of C. megacephala third instar salivary glands, confirming intense protein synthesis and the molecular weight of soluble proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Salivary gland transfer to prevent radiation-induced xerostomia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sood, Amit J; Fox, Nyssa F; O'Connell, Brendan P; Lovelace, Tiffany L; Nguyen, Shaun A; Sharma, Anand K; Hornig, Joshua D; Day, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Salivary gland transfer (SGT) has the potential to prevent radiation-induced xerostomia. We attempt to analyze the efficacy of SGT in prevention of xerostomia and maintenance of salivary flow rates after radiation treatment (XRT). Systematic review and meta-analysis. Primary endpoint was efficacy of SGT in prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia. Secondary endpoint was change from baseline of unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates after XRT. Seven articles, accruing data from 12 institutions, met inclusion criteria. In a total of 177 patients at mean follow-up of 22.7months, SGT prevented radiation-induced xerostomia in 82.7% (95% CI, 76.6-87.7%) of patients. Twelve months after XRT, unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates rose to 88% and 76% of baseline values, respectively. In comparison to control subjects twelve months after XRT, SGT subjects' unstimulated (75% vs. 11%) and stimulated (86% vs. 8%) salivary flow rates were drastically higher in SGT patients. Salivary gland transfer appears to be highly effective in preventing the incidence of xerostomia in patients receiving definitive head and neck radiation therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional Transcriptomics of Wild-Caught Lutzomyia intermedia Salivary Glands: Identification of a Protective Salivary Protein against Leishmania braziliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Marcia W.; Miranda, José Carlos; Clarêncio, Jorge; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia; Barral, Aldina; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; de Oliveira, Camila I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmania parasites are transmitted in the presence of sand fly saliva. Together with the parasite, the sand fly injects salivary components that change the environment at the feeding site. Mice immunized with Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland (SG) homogenate are protected against Leishmania major infection, while immunity to Lutzomyia intermedia SG homogenate exacerbated experimental Leishmania braziliensis infection. In humans, antibodies to Lu. intermedia saliva are associated with risk of acquiring L. braziliensis infection. Despite these important findings, there is no information regarding the repertoire of Lu. intermedia salivary proteins. Methods and Findings A cDNA library from the Salivary Glands (SGs) of wild-caught Lu. intermedia was constructed, sequenced, and complemented by a proteomic approach based on 1D SDS PAGE and mass/mass spectrometry to validate the transcripts present in this cDNA library. We identified the most abundant transcripts and proteins reported in other sand fly species as well as novel proteins such as neurotoxin-like proteins, peptides with ML domain, and three small peptides found so far only in this sand fly species. DNA plasmids coding for ten selected transcripts were constructed and used to immunize BALB/c mice to study their immunogenicity. Plasmid Linb-11—coding for a 4.5-kDa protein—induced a cellular immune response and conferred protection against L. braziliensis infection. This protection correlated with a decreased parasite load and an increased frequency of IFN-γ-producing cells. Conclusions We identified the most abundant and novel proteins present in the SGs of Lu. intermedia, a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Americas. We also show for the first time that immunity to a single salivary protein from Lu. intermedia can protect against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis. PMID:23717705

  19. Functional transcriptomics of wild-caught Lutzomyia intermedia salivary glands: identification of a protective salivary protein against Leishmania braziliensis infection.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Tatiana R; Oliveira, Fabiano; Carneiro, Marcia W; Miranda, José Carlos; Clarêncio, Jorge; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia; Barral, Aldina; Ribeiro, José M C; Valenzuela, Jesus G; de Oliveira, Camila I

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania parasites are transmitted in the presence of sand fly saliva. Together with the parasite, the sand fly injects salivary components that change the environment at the feeding site. Mice immunized with Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland (SG) homogenate are protected against Leishmania major infection, while immunity to Lutzomyia intermedia SG homogenate exacerbated experimental Leishmania braziliensis infection. In humans, antibodies to Lu. intermedia saliva are associated with risk of acquiring L. braziliensis infection. Despite these important findings, there is no information regarding the repertoire of Lu. intermedia salivary proteins. A cDNA library from the Salivary Glands (SGs) of wild-caught Lu. intermedia was constructed, sequenced, and complemented by a proteomic approach based on 1D SDS PAGE and mass/mass spectrometry to validate the transcripts present in this cDNA library. We identified the most abundant transcripts and proteins reported in other sand fly species as well as novel proteins such as neurotoxin-like proteins, peptides with ML domain, and three small peptides found so far only in this sand fly species. DNA plasmids coding for ten selected transcripts were constructed and used to immunize BALB/c mice to study their immunogenicity. Plasmid Linb-11--coding for a 4.5-kDa protein--induced a cellular immune response and conferred protection against L. braziliensis infection. This protection correlated with a decreased parasite load and an increased frequency of IFN-γ-producing cells. We identified the most abundant and novel proteins present in the SGs of Lu. intermedia, a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Americas. We also show for the first time that immunity to a single salivary protein from Lu. intermedia can protect against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis.

  20. Surgical treatment of dry eye syndrome: conjunctival graft of the minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Güerrissi, Jorge Orlando; Belmonte, Javier

    2004-01-01

    Despite the availability of efficient tear substitutes, many patients with dry eye syndrome experience severe corneal injuries and a subsequent loss of vision. Surgical techniques using mayor salivary glands to provide a substitute for tears have been reported; with this technique the drainage of saliva goes into the conjunctival fornix, permitting corneal and conjunctival humidification. The authors describe a new surgical approach in which minor salivary glands are autotransplanted into the conjunctival fornix by means of a graft of the intraoral mucosa-transporting salivary glands. This approach was used in a 56-year-old woman with a 2-year history of refractory and pharmacologically untreatable dry eye syndrome caused by Sjögren's syndrome. The right eye had more severe corneal and conjunctival lesions than did the contralateral one, so the treatment was planned in the right eye only. A weekly follow-up during the first 6 months confirmed the significant improvement of dry eye symptoms in the surgically treated eye. Three months after surgery, a biopsy was performed in the minor salivary gland graft, and the histologic findings revealed the presence of glandular acinus, duct with mucin content, and lymphocyte infiltration. The significant improvement obtained in this patient suggests that the secretion from the grafted salivary minor glands was better in promoting homeostasis of the ocular surface than are artificial tears. This may be explained by: (1) The lacrimal and salivary secretions contain biologically active constituents that may protect from infection and promote normal growth epithelium; (2) The secreted mucin is thought to coat the epithelial surface, reducing the high surface tension of the eye wetted by aqueous tears; (3) The thick secretions of the minor gland might act in reducing the evaporation of the underlying tear layer and form a hydrophobic barrier along the lid margin that can retain the lid margin tear string and prevent its flow onto

  1. Lysosomal Exoglycosidase Profile and Secretory Function in the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kossakowska, Agnieszka; Szulimowska, Julita; Klimiuk, Anna; Knaś, Małgorzata; Car, Halina; Niklińska, Wiesława; Ładny, Jerzy Robert; Chabowski, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Before this study, there had been no research evaluating the relationship between a lysosomal exoglycosidase profile and secretory function in the salivary glands of rats with streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetes. In our work, rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: control groups (C2, C4) and diabetic groups (STZ2, STZ4). The secretory function of salivary glands—nonstimulated and stimulated salivary flow, α-amylase, total protein—and salivary exoglycosidase activities—N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase (HEX, HEX A, and HEX B), β-glucuronidase, α-fucosidase, β-galactosidase, and α-mannosidase—was estimated both in the parotid and submandibular glands of STZ-diabetic and control rats. The study has demonstrated that the activity of most salivary exoglycosidases is significantly higher in the parotid and submandibular glands of STZ-diabetic rats as compared to the healthy controls and that it increases as the disease progresses. Reduced secretory function of diabetic salivary glands was also observed. A significant inverse correlation between HEX B, α-amylase activity, and stimulated salivary flow in diabetic parotid gland has also been shown. Summarizing, STZ-induced diabetes leads to a change in the lysosomal exoglycosidase profile and reduced function of the salivary glands. PMID:29464184

  2. Current therapies for xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction associated with cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Nieuw Amerongen, A V; Veerman, E C I

    2003-04-01

    In cancer patients, as in the general population, medication is the most common cause of xerostomia. In general, saliva flow in these patients can be stimulated by mechanical or pharmacological stimulation of the salivary glands. Painful damaged oral mucosa can be treated by softening, lubricating mouthwashes or gels. A specific group of patients are those receiving radiotherapy for malignant tumours in the head and neck region. This treatment is inevitably associated with damages to the oral tissues, including the salivary glands, resulting in salivary gland hypofunction. When residual secretory capacity is present, it is advisable to stimulate the salivary glands by mechanical or gustatory stimuli regularly in these patients as supportive oral care. Alternatively, salivary flow can be stimulated by the use of cholinergic pharmaceutical preparations, such as pilocarpine or cevimeline. After the radiation therapy is ended, a dental check-up should be done every 3 months to allow control of any incipient oral inflammation and dental decay. For daily use, a special dentifrice (e.g. children's toothpaste) is recommended, since the taste of a regular dentifrice may be too strong for these patients. Nocturnal oral dryness can be alleviated by spraying the oral surfaces with water, or by applying a small amount of dentifrice on the dental smooth surfaces. When stimulation of salivary secretion fails, patients can be given palliative oral care in the form of application of mouthwashes and saliva substitutes. The daily use of a mouthwash, e.g. Biotène, Oral Balance or Zendium, or one of the saliva substitutes is indicated. Different types of saliva substitutes are now commercially available, containing different polymers as thickening agents, e.g. carboxymethylcellulose (Oralube and Glandosane), polyacrylic acid, and xanthan gum (Xialine). Recent developments, which are, however, still in the experimental stage, are bio-active saliva substitutes and mouthwashes containing

  3. Whey Protein Concentrate WPC-80 Improves Antioxidant Defense Systems in the Salivary Glands of 14-Month Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Falkowski, Mateusz; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Koprowicz, Tomasz; Mikołuć, Bożena; Milewska, Anna; Zalewska, Anna; Car, Halina

    2018-06-17

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) is characterized by powerful antioxidant properties, but its effect on redox homeostasis of salivary glands of aging organisms is still unknown. In this study, we are the first to evaluate the antioxidant barrier of salivary glands of 14-month Wistar rats fed WPC-80. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) are estimated in the submandibular and parotid glands of rats administered WPC-80 intragastrically for a period of 7 and 14 days. We demonstrate a significant increase in GSH, GPx and SOD in the salivary glands of rats fed WPC-80 for 14 days and a significant increase in TAS, GPx and SOD in the parotid glands of rats fed WPC-80 for 7 days compared to control rats. The beneficial effects of WPC-80 on salivary glands are also demonstrated by lower TOS and OSI in the parotid glands of rats fed WPC-80 compared to the submandibular glands. In summary, we demonstrate that WPC-80 improves redox homeostasis in salivary glands, particularly in the parotid glands of old rats.

  4. BPI-fold (BPIF) containing/plunc protein expression in human fetal major and minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Alves, Daniel Berretta Moreira; Bingle, Lynne; Bingle, Colin David; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa; Silva, Andréia Aparecida; Pereira, Débora Lima; Vargas, Pablo Agustin

    2017-01-16

    The aim of this study was to determine expression, not previously described, of PLUNC (palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone) (BPI-fold containing) proteins in major and minor salivary glands from very early fetal tissue to the end of the second trimester and thus gain further insight into the function of these proteins. Early fetal heads, and major and minor salivary glands were collected retrospectively and glands were classified according to morphodifferentiation stage. Expression of BPI-fold containing proteins was localized through immunohistochemistry. BPIFA2, the major BPI-fold containing protein in adult salivary glands, was detected only in the laryngeal pharynx; the lack of staining in salivary glands suggested salivary expression is either very late in development or is only in adult tissues. Early expression of BPIFA1 was seen in the trachea and nasal cavity with salivary gland expression only seen in late morphodifferentiation stages. BPIFB1 was seen in early neural tissue and at later stages in submandibular and sublingual glands. BPIFA1 is significantly expressed in early fetal oral tissue but BPIFB1 has extremely limited expression and the major salivary BPIF protein (BPIFA2) is not produced in fetal development. Further studies, with more sensitive techniques, will confirm the expression pattern and enable a better understanding of embryonic BPIF protein function.

  5. Dengue subgenomic flaviviral RNA disrupts immunity in mosquito salivary glands to increase virus transmission

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Menchie; Shan, Chao; Manokaran, Gayathri; Bradrick, Shelton S.; Missé, Dorothée; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Globally re-emerging dengue viruses are transmitted from human-to-human by Aedes mosquitoes. While viral determinants of human pathogenicity have been defined, there is a lack of knowledge of how dengue viruses influence mosquito transmission. Identification of viral determinants of transmission can help identify isolates with high epidemiological potential. Additionally, mechanistic understanding of transmission will lead to better understanding of how dengue viruses harness evolution to cycle between the two hosts. Here, we identified viral determinants of transmission and characterized mechanisms that enhance production of infectious saliva by inhibiting immunity specifically in salivary glands. Combining oral infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and reverse genetics, we identified two 3’ UTR substitutions in epidemic isolates that increased subgenomic flaviviral RNA (sfRNA) quantity, infectious particles in salivary glands and infection rate of saliva, which represents a measure of transmission. We also demonstrated that various 3’UTR modifications similarly affect sfRNA quantity in both whole mosquitoes and human cells, suggesting a shared determinism of sfRNA quantity. Furthermore, higher relative quantity of sfRNA in salivary glands compared to midgut and carcass pointed to sfRNA function in salivary glands. We showed that the Toll innate immune response was preferentially inhibited in salivary glands by viruses with the 3’UTR substitutions associated to high epidemiological fitness and high sfRNA quantity, pointing to a mechanism for higher saliva infection rate. By determining that sfRNA is an immune suppressor in a tissue relevant to mosquito transmission, we propose that 3’UTR/sfRNA sequence evolution shapes dengue epidemiology not only by influencing human pathogenicity but also by increasing mosquito transmission, thereby revealing a viral determinant of epidemiological fitness that is shared between the two hosts. PMID:28753642

  6. Intralobular ducts of human major salivary glands contain leptin and its receptor.

    PubMed

    De Matteis, R; Puxeddu, R; Riva, A; Cinti, S

    2002-11-01

    Leptin, a 16-kDa hormone, plays an important role in the control of food intake and in energy homeostasis both in rodents and in man. Leptin is mainly produced and secreted by adipocytes, but other tissues and gastric glands have also recently been shown to produce it in a dual (endocrine and exocrine) mode. In addition, a leptin receptor has been detected in taste cells of mouse circumvallate papillae and in rat intestinal epithelium. These data prompted us to carry out a detailed study of human salivary glands as potential leptin-producing organs. Biopsies of salivary glands (submandibular and parotid) obtained from male and female patients during surgery for different clinical indications were subjected to immunohistochemical study for the presence of leptin, its functional receptor, insulin and glucagon. The presence and cellular distribution of glucocorticoid receptor in leptin-secreting cells were also investigated. Double immunohistochemical staining (silver-gold intensification and avidin-biotin-peroxidase) was used for the visualization of glucocorticoid receptor and leptin labelling, respectively. The results show that intralobular duct cells of submandibular and parotid glands are immunoreactive for leptin, leptin receptor and glucagon but not for insulin. Leptin was also detected in some microglobules in whole saliva obtained from four healthy volunteers. Co-localization for leptin, leptin receptor and glucocorticoid receptor in the same cell type suggested a functional relationship between glucocorticoid hormone and leptin secretion also at the level of the salivary glands.

  7. Cell phone use and parotid salivary gland alterations: no molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Fabrício T A; Correia-Silva, Jeane F; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Siqueira, Elisa C; Duarte, Alessandra P; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Gomez, Ricardo S; Gomes, Carolina C

    2014-07-01

    The association between cell phone use and the development of parotid tumors is controversial. Because there is unequivocal evidence that the microenvironment is important for tumor formation, we investigated in the parotid glands whether cell phone use alters the expression of gene products related to cellular stress. We used the saliva produced by the parotid glands of 62 individuals to assess molecular alterations compatible with cellular stress, comparing the saliva from the gland exposed to cell phone radiation (ipsilateral) to the saliva from the opposite, unexposed parotid gland (contralateral) of each individual. We compared salivary flow, total protein concentration, p53, p21, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and salivary levels of glutathione (GSH), heat shock proteins 27 and 70, and IgA between the ipsilateral and contralateral parotids. No difference was found for any of these parameters, even when grouping individuals by period of cell phone use in years or by monthly average calls in minutes. We provide molecular evidence that the exposure of parotid glands to cell phone use does not alter parotid salivary flow, protein concentration, or levels of proteins of genes that are directly or indirectly affected by heat-induced cellular stress. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Possible etiology of calculi formation in salivary glands: biophysical analysis of calculus.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Masafumi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Ichinose, Shizuko; Kimijima, Yutaka; Amagasa, Teruo

    2005-09-01

    Sialolithiasis is one of the common diseases of the salivary glands. It was speculated that, in the process of calculi formation, degenerative substances are emitted by saliva and calcification then occurs around these substances, and finally calculi are formed. However, the exact mechanism of the formation of calculi is still unclear. In this study, we identify some possible etiologies of calculi formation in salivary glands through biophysical analysis. Calculi from 13 patients with submandibular sialolithiasis were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalyzer, and electron diffraction. Transmission electron microscopic observation of calculi was performed in the submandibular gland (n = 13). In 3 of the 13 cases, a number of mitochondria-like structures and lysosomes were found near calcified materials. Scanning electron microscopic examination of these materials revealed that there were lamellar and concentric structures and that the degree of calcification was different among the calculi. X-ray microanalysis disclosed the component elements in the calculi to be Ca, P, S, Na, etc., and the main constituents were Ca and P. The calcium-to-phosphorus ratio was 1.60-1.89. Analysis of the area including mitochondria-like structures, lysosomes, and the fibrous structures by electron diffraction revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite and calcified materials. It is speculated that mitochondria and lysosomal bodies from the ductal system of the submandibular gland are an etiological source for calcification in the salivary gland.

  9. Spontaneous necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular salivary gland in a Beagle dog

    PubMed Central

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Petterino, Claudio; Bradley, Alys

    2015-01-01

    A single mass was found on the left submandibular salivary gland at necropsy of a 15-month-old male commercially bred laboratory Beagle dog from a control dose group from a repeat toxicity study. Microscopically, the mass was composed of a well-demarcated area of coagulative necrosis surrounded and separated from the normal salivary gland tissue by a thick fibrovascular capsule. Necrosis was admixed with areas of hemorrhage, fibrin, edema, fibrinoid necrosis of the vascular tunica media, and thrombosis of small and large vessels. Within the necrotic tissue, there was marked ductal hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia of duct and acinar epithelium. The mass was diagnosed as necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular gland. Hyperplastic ductal elements and squamous metaplasia can be mistaken microscopically with squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, pathologists should be aware of this lesion as to avoid errors in the diagnosis of this benign pathologic condition. PMID:26441480

  10. Spontaneous necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular salivary gland in a Beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Petterino, Claudio; Bradley, Alys

    2015-07-01

    A single mass was found on the left submandibular salivary gland at necropsy of a 15-month-old male commercially bred laboratory Beagle dog from a control dose group from a repeat toxicity study. Microscopically, the mass was composed of a well-demarcated area of coagulative necrosis surrounded and separated from the normal salivary gland tissue by a thick fibrovascular capsule. Necrosis was admixed with areas of hemorrhage, fibrin, edema, fibrinoid necrosis of the vascular tunica media, and thrombosis of small and large vessels. Within the necrotic tissue, there was marked ductal hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia of duct and acinar epithelium. The mass was diagnosed as necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular gland. Hyperplastic ductal elements and squamous metaplasia can be mistaken microscopically with squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, pathologists should be aware of this lesion as to avoid errors in the diagnosis of this benign pathologic condition.

  11. Host plant driven transcriptome plasticity in the salivary glands of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni)

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, David A.; Grozinger, Christina M.; Felton, Gary W.

    2017-01-01

    Generalist herbivores feed on a wide array of plants and need to adapt to varying host qualities and defenses. One of the first insect derived secretions to come in contact with the plant is the saliva. Insect saliva is potentially involved in both the pre-digestion of the host plant as well as induction/suppression of plant defenses, yet how the salivary glands respond to changes in host plant at the transcriptional level is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine how the labial salivary gland transcriptome varies according to the host plant on which the insect is feeding. In order to determine this, cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) larvae were reared on cabbage, tomato, and pinto bean artificial diet. Labial glands were dissected from fifth instar larvae and used to extract RNA for RNASeq analysis. Assembly of the resulting sequencing reads resulted in a transcriptome library for T. ni salivary glands consisting of 14,037 expressed genes. Feeding on different host plant diets resulted in substantial remodeling of the gland transcriptomes, with 4,501 transcripts significantly differentially expressed across the three treatment groups. Gene expression profiles were most similar between cabbage and artificial diet, which corresponded to the two diets on which larvae perform best. Expression of several transcripts involved in detoxification processes were differentially expressed, and transcripts involved in the spliceosome pathway were significantly downregulated in tomato-reared larvae. Overall, this study demonstrates that the transcriptomes of the salivary glands of the cabbage looper are strongly responsive to diet. It also provides a foundation for future functional studies that can help us understand the role of saliva of chewing insects in plant-herbivore interactions. PMID:28792546

  12. Associations between xerostomia, histopathological alterations, and autonomic innervation of labial salivary glands in men in late midlife.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Christiane Elisabeth; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Reibel, Jesper; Lauritzen, Martin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Osler, Merete; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2014-09-01

    One aim of the present study was to investigate whether symptoms of oral dryness (xerostomia) during daytime, assessed in a study group of middle-aged male positive and negative outliers in cognition scores, were associated with age-related degenerative changes in human labial salivary glands and with quantitative measures of the glandular autonomic innervation. Another aim was to study the relation between the autonomic innervation and loss of secretory acinar cells in these glands. Labial salivary gland biopsies were taken from the lower lip from 190 men, born in 1953 and members of the Danish Metropolit birth cohort, who were examined for age-related changes in cognitive function and dental health as part of the Copenhagen University Center for Healthy Aging clinical neuroscience project. The glands were routinely processed and semi-quantitatively analyzed for inflammation, acinar atrophy, fibrosis, and adipocyte infiltration. Sections of labial salivary gland tissue were stained with the panneuronal marker PGP 9.5. In a subsample of 51 participants, the autonomic innervation of the glands was analyzed quantitatively by use of stereology. Labial salivary gland tissue samples from 33% of all participants displayed moderate to severe acinar atrophy and fibrosis (31%). Xerostomia was not significantly associated with structural changes of labial salivary glands, but in the subsample it was inversely related to the total nerve length in the glandular connective tissue. Acinar atrophy and fibrosis were negatively correlated with the parenchymal innervation and positively related to diffuse inflammation. The results from the present study indicate that aspects of the autonomic innervation of labial salivary glands may play a role in the occurrence of xerostomia which in the present study group was not significantly associated with degenerative changes in these glands. The findings further indicate that the integrity of labial salivary gland acini is related to the

  13. From Nitrate to Nitric Oxide: The Role of Salivary Glands and Oral Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Qu, X M; Wu, Z F; Pang, B X; Jin, L Y; Qin, L Z; Wang, S L

    2016-12-01

    The salivary glands and oral bacteria play an essential role in the conversion process from nitrate (NO 3 - ) and nitrite (NO 2 - ) to nitric oxide (NO) in the human body. NO is, at present, recognized as a multifarious messenger molecule with important vascular and metabolic functions. Besides the endogenous L-arginine pathway, which is catalyzed by complex NO synthases, nitrate in food contributes to the main extrinsic generation of NO through a series of sequential steps (NO 3 - -NO 2 - -NO pathway). Up to 25% of nitrate in circulation is actively taken up by the salivary glands, and as a result, its concentration in saliva can increase 10- to 20-fold. However, the mechanism has not been clearly illustrated until recently, when sialin was identified as an electrogenic 2NO 3 - /H + transporter in the plasma membrane of salivary acinar cells. Subsequently, the oral bacterial species located at the posterior part of the tongue reduce nitrate to nitrite, as catalyzed by nitrate reductase enzymes. These bacteria use nitrate and nitrite as final electron acceptors in their respiration and meanwhile help the host to convert nitrate to NO as the first step. This review describes the role of salivary glands and oral bacteria in the metabolism of nitrate and in the maintenance of NO homeostasis. The potential therapeutic applications of oral inorganic nitrate and nitrite are also discussed. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  14. The Essential Role of Tick Salivary Glands and Saliva in Tick Feeding and Pathogen Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Šimo, Ladislav; Kazimirova, Maria; Richardson, Jennifer; Bonnet, Sarah I.

    2017-01-01

    As long-term pool feeders, ticks have developed myriad strategies to remain discreetly but solidly attached to their hosts for the duration of their blood meal. The critical biological material that dampens host defenses and facilitates the flow of blood—thus assuring adequate feeding—is tick saliva. Saliva exhibits cytolytic, vasodilator, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and immunosuppressive activity. This essential fluid is secreted by the salivary glands, which also mediate several other biological functions, including secretion of cement and hygroscopic components, as well as the watery component of blood as regards hard ticks. When salivary glands are invaded by tick-borne pathogens, pathogens may be transmitted via saliva, which is injected alternately with blood uptake during the tick bite. Both salivary glands and saliva thus play a key role in transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to vertebrate hosts. During their long co-evolution with ticks and vertebrate hosts, microorganisms have indeed developed various strategies to exploit tick salivary molecules to ensure both acquisition by ticks and transmission, local infection and systemic dissemination within the vertebrate host. PMID:28690983

  15. Association of serum electrolytes and smoking with salivary gland stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Yiu, A. J.; Kalejaiye, A.; Amdur, R. L.; Hesham, H. N. Todd; Bandyopadhyay, B. C.

    2016-01-01

    To further define potential factors that may contribute to stone formation in salivary glands (sialolithiasis), a retrospective chart review was performed of patients diagnosed with sialolithiasis between March 1, 1998 and February 29, 2012. Information on salivary gland stone number, location, and size, medical history, medications, and serum electrolyte levels were collected. Associations between electrolyte levels and stone characteristics (such as stone number and size) were examined. Fifty-nine patients were identified; their median age was 58 years (range 25–89 years) and most were male (95%). Salivary stones were most commonly located in the submandibular glands (83%). Thirty-five patients (59%) had a smoking history, with 16 (27%) reported as current smokers. There was a significant association between current smoker status and stone size (mean largest stone size 12.4 ± 8.8 mm vs. 7.5 ± 4.8 mm in current smokers vs. non-smokers; P = 0.03). Serum sodium levels (r = 0.32, P = 0.014) and serum potassium levels (r = 0.31, P = 0.017) showed significant positive correlations with stone size. While the etiology of sialolithiasis remains unclear, smoking (which can contribute to reduced saliva flow) and higher serum sodium levels (which can reflect volume depletion) are associated with larger salivary stones. PMID:26969301

  16. The Essential Role of Tick Salivary Glands and Saliva in Tick Feeding and Pathogen Transmission.

    PubMed

    Šimo, Ladislav; Kazimirova, Maria; Richardson, Jennifer; Bonnet, Sarah I

    2017-01-01

    As long-term pool feeders, ticks have developed myriad strategies to remain discreetly but solidly attached to their hosts for the duration of their blood meal. The critical biological material that dampens host defenses and facilitates the flow of blood-thus assuring adequate feeding-is tick saliva. Saliva exhibits cytolytic, vasodilator, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and immunosuppressive activity. This essential fluid is secreted by the salivary glands, which also mediate several other biological functions, including secretion of cement and hygroscopic components, as well as the watery component of blood as regards hard ticks. When salivary glands are invaded by tick-borne pathogens, pathogens may be transmitted via saliva, which is injected alternately with blood uptake during the tick bite. Both salivary glands and saliva thus play a key role in transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to vertebrate hosts. During their long co-evolution with ticks and vertebrate hosts, microorganisms have indeed developed various strategies to exploit tick salivary molecules to ensure both acquisition by ticks and transmission, local infection and systemic dissemination within the vertebrate host.

  17. Association of serum electrolytes and smoking with salivary gland stone formation.

    PubMed

    Yiu, A J; Kalejaiye, A; Amdur, R L; Todd Hesham, H N; Bandyopadhyay, B C

    2016-06-01

    To further define potential factors that may contribute to stone formation in salivary glands (sialolithiasis), a retrospective chart review was performed of patients diagnosed with sialolithiasis between March 1, 1998 and February 29, 2012. Information on salivary gland stone number, location and size, medical history, medications, and serum electrolyte levels were collected. Associations between electrolyte levels and stone characteristics (such as stone number and size) were examined. Fifty-nine patients were identified; their median age was 58 years (range 25-89 years) and most were male (95%). Salivary stones were most commonly located in the submandibular glands (83%). Thirty-five patients (59%) had a smoking history, with 16 (27%) reported as current smokers. There was a significant association between current smoker status and stone size (mean largest stone size 12.4±8.8mm vs. 7.5±4.8mm in current smokers vs. non-smokers; P=0.03). Serum sodium levels (r=0.32, P=0.014) and serum potassium levels (r=0.31, P=0.017) showed significant positive correlations with stone size. While the aetiology of sialolithiasis remains unclear, smoking (which can contribute to reduced saliva flow) and higher serum sodium levels (which can reflect volume depletion) are associated with larger salivary stones. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Long-term outcome of patients treated by radiation therapy alone for salivary gland carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Bucci, M. Kara; Quivey, Jeanne M.

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To review a single-institution experience with the management of salivary gland cancers treated by radiation alone. Methods and Materials: Between 1960 and 2004, 45 patients with newly diagnosed salivary gland carcinomas were treated with definitive radiation to a median dose of 66 Gy (range, 57-74 Gy). Distribution of T-stage was: 24% T1, 18% T2, 31% T3, and 27% T4. Histology was: 14 mucoepidermoid (31%), 10 adenocarcinoma (22%), 8 adenoid cystic (18%), 4 undifferentiated (9%), 4 acinic (9%), 2 malignant mixed (4%), 2 squamous (4%), and 1 salivary duct carcinoma (2%). No patient had clinical or pathologic evidence of lymphmore » node disease. Median follow-up was 101 months (range, 3-285 months). Results: The 5-year and 10-year rate estimates of local control were 70% and 57%, respectively. A Cox proportional hazard model identified T3-4 disease (p = 0.004) and radiation dose lower than 66 Gy (p = 0.001) as independent predictors of local recurrence. The 10-year overall survival and distant metastasis-free rates were 46% and 67%, respectively. Conclusion: Radiation therapy alone is a reasonable alternative to surgery in the definitive management of salivary gland cancers and results in long-term survival in a significant proportion of patients. Radiation dose in excess of 66 Gy is recommended.« less

  19. Connexin 43 Is Necessary for Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis and FGF10-induced ERK1/2 Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Aya; Futagi, Masaharu; Fukumoto, Emiko; Saito, Kan; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Ishikawa, Masaki; Arakaki, Makiko; Hino, Ryoko; Sugawara, Yu; Ishikawa, Momoko; Naruse, Masahiro; Miyazaki, Kanako; Nakamura, Takashi; Fukumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Cell-cell interaction via the gap junction regulates cell growth and differentiation, leading to formation of organs of appropriate size and quality. To determine the role of connexin43 in salivary gland development, we analyzed its expression in developing submandibular glands (SMGs). Connexin43 (Cx43) was found to be expressed in salivary gland epithelium. In ex vivo organ cultures of SMGs, addition of the gap junctional inhibitors 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA) and oleamide inhibited SMG branching morphogenesis, suggesting that gap junctional communication contributes to salivary gland development. In Cx43−/− salivary glands, submandibular and sublingual gland size was reduced as compared with those from heterozygotes. The expression of Pdgfa, Pdgfb, Fgf7, and Fgf10, which induced branching of SMGs in Cx43−/− samples, were not changed as compared with those from heterozygotes. Furthermore, the blocking peptide for the hemichannel and gap junction channel showed inhibition of terminal bud branching. FGF10 induced branching morphogenesis, while it did not rescue the Cx43−/− phenotype, thus Cx43 may regulate FGF10 signaling during salivary gland development. FGF10 is expressed in salivary gland mesenchyme and regulates epithelial proliferation, and was shown to induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation in salivary epithelial cells, while ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HSY cells was dramatically inhibited by 18α-GA, a Cx43 peptide or siRNA. On the other hand, PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB separately induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in primary cultured salivary mesenchymal cells regardless of the presence of 18α-GA. Together, our results suggest that Cx43 regulates FGF10-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in salivary epithelium but not in mesenchyme during the process of SMG branching morphogenesis. PMID:26565022

  20. Connexin 43 Is Necessary for Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis and FGF10-induced ERK1/2 Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Aya; Futagi, Masaharu; Fukumoto, Emiko; Saito, Kan; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Ishikawa, Masaki; Arakaki, Makiko; Hino, Ryoko; Sugawara, Yu; Ishikawa, Momoko; Naruse, Masahiro; Miyazaki, Kanako; Nakamura, Takashi; Fukumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-08

    Cell-cell interaction via the gap junction regulates cell growth and differentiation, leading to formation of organs of appropriate size and quality. To determine the role of connexin43 in salivary gland development, we analyzed its expression in developing submandibular glands (SMGs). Connexin43 (Cx43) was found to be expressed in salivary gland epithelium. In ex vivo organ cultures of SMGs, addition of the gap junctional inhibitors 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA) and oleamide inhibited SMG branching morphogenesis, suggesting that gap junctional communication contributes to salivary gland development. In Cx43(-/-) salivary glands, submandibular and sublingual gland size was reduced as compared with those from heterozygotes. The expression of Pdgfa, Pdgfb, Fgf7, and Fgf10, which induced branching of SMGs in Cx43(-/-) samples, were not changed as compared with those from heterozygotes. Furthermore, the blocking peptide for the hemichannel and gap junction channel showed inhibition of terminal bud branching. FGF10 induced branching morphogenesis, while it did not rescue the Cx43(-/-) phenotype, thus Cx43 may regulate FGF10 signaling during salivary gland development. FGF10 is expressed in salivary gland mesenchyme and regulates epithelial proliferation, and was shown to induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation in salivary epithelial cells, while ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HSY cells was dramatically inhibited by 18α-GA, a Cx43 peptide or siRNA. On the other hand, PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB separately induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in primary cultured salivary mesenchymal cells regardless of the presence of 18α-GA. Together, our results suggest that Cx43 regulates FGF10-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in salivary epithelium but not in mesenchyme during the process of SMG branching morphogenesis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. [The influence of alcohol on the oral cavity, salivary glands and saliva].

    PubMed

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Kepka, Alina; Konarzewska, Beata; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Waszkiel, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol diffuses rapidly into saliva during the drinking, and immediately after its salivary concentration is temporarily much higher than in plasma. Within 30 minutes, salivary ethanol concentration equilibrates with the plasma level, thus suggesting that ethanol easily penetrates the whole body, including oral cavity tissues and salivary glands. After alcohol intake, the level of acetaldehyde in saliva strikingly exceeds the level in systemic blood. From saliva, acetaldehyde and ethanol easily reach all local tissues. Damage to the oral tissues seems to be ascribed mostly to the action of acetaldehyde, although some acute effects depend on a direct action of ethanol and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). It is known that the oral mucosal surface is the home of numerous normal flora microorganisms and is the portal of entry for the majority of pathogens. The oral cavity and salivary antimicrobial immune defense systems eliminate pathogens and prevent massive overgrowth of microorganisms. An oral defense system participate in the protection of not only oral tissues, but also in the protection of upper digestive and respiratory tracts, against a number of microbial pathogens. Saliva plays the role in the oral cavity lubrication, maintenance of mucosal and tooth integrity, esophageal physiology, digestion and gastric cytoprotection. As alcohol abuse affects the structure and function of oral cavity mucosa, salivary glands and saliva, the maintenance of oral and general health under normal conditions is seriously impaired during the drinking. The severe tissue damage occurs in particular when alcohol abuse coincides with smoking.

  2. Molecular Mechanism of Pancreatic and Salivary Glands Fluid and HCO3− Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Goo; Ohana, Ehud; Park, Hyun Woo; Yang, Dongki; Muallem, Shmuel

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and HCO3− secretion is a vital function of all epithelia and is required for the survival of the tissue. Aberrant fluid and HCO3− secretion is associated with many epithelial diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, Sjögren’s syndrome and other epithelial inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Significant progress has been made over the last 20 years in our understanding of epithelial fluid and HCO3− secretion, in particular by secretory glands. Fluid and HCO3− secretion by secretory glands is a two step process. Acinar cells secrete isotonic fluid in which the major salt is NaCl. Subsequently, the duct modifies the volume and electrolyte composition of the fluid to absorb the Cl− and secrete HCO3−. The relative volume secreted by acinar and duct cells and modification of electrolyte composition of the secreted fluids varies among secretory glands to meet their physiological functions. In the pancreas, acinar cells secrete small amount of NaCl-rich fluid, while the duct absorbs the Cl− and secretes HCO3− and the bulk of the fluid in the pancreatic juice. Fluid secretion appears to be driven by active HCO3− secretion. In the salivary glands, acinar cells secrete the bulk of the fluid in the saliva that contains high concentrations of Na+ and Cl− and fluid secretion is mediated by active Cl− secretion. The salivary glands duct absorbs both the Na+ and Cl− and secretes K+ and HCO3−. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanism of fluid and HCO3− secretion by the pancreas and salivary glands, to highlight the similarities of the fundamental mechanisms of acinar and duct cell functions, and point the differences to meet glands specific secretions. PMID:22298651

  3. Salivary histatins in human deep posterior lingual glands (of von Ebner).

    PubMed

    Piludu, Marco; Lantini, Maria Serenella; Cossu, Margherita; Piras, Monica; Oppenheim, Frank G; Helmerhorst, Eva J; Siqueira, Walter; Hand, Arthur R

    2006-11-01

    Human saliva contains a family of low molecular weight histidine-rich proteins, named histatins, characterised by bactericidal and fungicidal activities in vitro against several microbial pathogens, such as Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. They represent a major component of an innate host non-immune defense system. In an earlier study we described the distribution of histatins in the glandular parenchyma of human major salivary glands, confirming that all human major salivary glands are involved in the secretion of histatins into saliva. In the present study we determined the expression and localisation of histatins in human posterior deep lingual glands (von Ebner's glands) by means of immunoelectron microscopy. Thin sections of normal human salivary glands, embedded in Epon resin, were incubated with rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific for human histatins and successively with a gold conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG used as secondary antibody. Sections incubated with medium devoid of primary antibody or containing non-immune serum were used as controls. The serous secreting cells represented the main source of histatins in the glandular parenchyma of von Ebner's glands. At the electron microscopic level, labeling was associated with rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex and secretory granules that represented the main cytoplasmic site of histatin localisation. However, variability in the intensity of labeling was observed among adjacent cells. The present results show for the first time that human von Ebner's glands produce and represent a significant source of histatins, supporting the hypothesis of their important role in preventing microbial assaults on the tissues in the posterior region of the tongue and in the circumvallate papillae.

  4. L1 Peptide-Conjugated Fibrin Hydrogels Promote Salivary Gland Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Nam, K; Wang, C-S; Maruyama, C L M; Lei, P; Andreadis, S T; Baker, O J

    2017-07-01

    Hyposalivation contributes to dental caries, periodontitis, and microbial infections. Additionally, it impairs activities of daily living (e.g., speaking, chewing, and swallowing). Treatments for hyposalivation are currently limited to medications (e.g., the muscarinic receptor agonists pilocarpine and cevimeline) that induce saliva secretion from residual acinar cells and the use of saliva substitutes. However, given that these therapies provide only temporary relief, the development of alternative treatments to restore gland function is essential. Previous studies demonstrated that laminin 1 (L1) is critical for intact salivary cell cluster formation and organization. However, the full L1 sequence is not suitable for clinical applications, as each protein domain may contribute to unwanted effects, such as degradation, tumorigenesis, and immune responses that, when compounded, outweigh the potential benefits provided by their sum. Although the L1 peptides YIGSR and A99 linked to fibrin hydrogels (FHs) promote intact salivary epithelial formation in vitro, little is known about their role during salivary gland regeneration in vivo. Therefore, the goal of this study was to demonstrate whether L1 peptides conjugated to FHs promote tissue regeneration in a wound-healing model of mouse submandibular glands (mSMGs). Our results suggest that YIGSR-A99 peptides, chemically conjugated to FHs and applied to wounded mSMGs in vivo, formed new organized salivary tissue. In contrast, wounded mSMGs treated with FHs alone or in the absence of a scaffold showed disorganized collagen formation and poor tissue healing. Together these studies indicate that damaged salivary gland tissue can grow and differentiate when treated with FHs containing L1 peptides.

  5. Is the Salivary Gland Associated with Honey Bee Recognition Compounds in Worker Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)?

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephen J; Correia-Oliveira, Maria E; Shemilt, Sue; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2018-06-07

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) function as recognition compounds with the best evidence coming from social insects such as ants and honey bees. The major exocrine gland involved in hydrocarbon storage in ants is the post-pharyngeal gland (PPG) in the head. It is still not clearly understood where CHCs are stored in the honey bee. The aim of this study was to investigate the hydrocarbons and esters found in five major worker honey bee (Apis mellifera) exocrine glands, at three different developmental stages (newly emerged, nurse, and forager) using a high temperature GC analysis. We found the hypopharyngeal gland contained no hydrocarbons nor esters, and the thoracic salivary and mandibular glands only contained trace amounts of n-alkanes. However, the cephalic salivary gland (CSG) contained the greatest number and highest quantity of hydrocarbons relative to the five other glands with many of the hydrocarbons also found in the Dufour's gland, but at much lower levels. We discovered a series of oleic acid wax esters that lay beyond the detection of standard GC columns. As a bee's activities changed, as it ages, the types of compounds detected in the CSG also changed. For example, newly emerged bees have predominately C 19 -C 23 n-alkanes, alkenes and methyl-branched compounds, whereas the nurses' CSG had predominately C 31:1 and C 33:1 alkene isomers, which are replaced by a series of oleic acid wax esters in foragers. These changes in the CSG were mirrored by corresponding changes in the adults' CHCs profile. This indicates that the CSG may have a parallel function to the PPG found in ants acting as a major storage gland of CHCs. As the CSG duct opens into the buccal cavity the hydrocarbons can be worked into the comb wax and could help explain the role of comb wax in nestmate recognition experiments.

  6. Is salivary gland ultrasonography a useful tool in Sjögren's syndrome? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jousse-Joulin, Sandrine; Milic, Vera; Jonsson, Malin V; Plagou, Athena; Theander, Elke; Luciano, Nicoletta; Rachele, Pascale; Baldini, Chiara; Bootsma, Hendrika; Vissink, Arjan; Hocevar, Alojzija; De Vita, Salvatore; Tzioufas, Athanasios G; Alavi, Zarin; Bowman, Simon J; Devauchelle-Pensec, Valerie

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is a sensitive tool in the diagnosis of major salivary gland abnormalities in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). The aim of this systematic review was to assess the metric properties of this technique. PUBMED and EMBASE databases were searched. All publications between January 1988 and January 2013 were considered. Data were extracted from the articles meeting the inclusion criteria according to US definition of salivary gland scoring system and metric properties studied. The type and number of glands tested, study design and metric properties according to OMERACT filter (truth, discrimination, feasibility) were assessed. Of 167 publications identified initially with PUBMED and EMBASE, 31 met the inclusion criteria. The number of pSS patients varied among the studies from 16 to 140. The diagnosis of pSS was in line in most of the cases with the American-European Consensus Group (AECG) classification criteria for Sjögren's syndrome. The US examination was performed in suspected pSS only in studies in which the sensitivity ranged from 45.8 to 91.6% and specificity from 73 to 98.1%. There was heterogeneity in regard to the definition of US in B-mode and few studies used US in colour Doppler. Few studies reported reliability of US and sensitivity to change in pSS. US is a valuable tool for detecting salivary gland abnormalities in pSS. Its reliability has been poorly investigated and there is considerable variation in the definition of US abnormalities. Further studies are required to validate and standardize the US definition of salivary gland in pSS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Adjuvant radiation for salivary gland malignancies is associated with improved survival: A National Cancer Database analysis.

    PubMed

    Bakst, Richard L; Su, William; Ozbek, Umut; Knoll, Miriam A; Miles, Brett A; Gupta, Vishal; Rhome, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    There are no randomized data to support the use of postoperative radiation for salivary gland malignancies. This study uses the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to describe the epidemiology of salivary gland cancer patients and to investigate whether treatment with adjuvant radiation improves overall survival. A total of 8243 patients diagnosed with a major salivary gland cancer were identified from the NCDB. All patients received primary surgical resection of their malignancy. Patients were risk-stratified by adverse features, and overall survival rates were determined. Patients were considered high risk if they had extracapsular extension and/or positive margin after resection. Patients were considered intermediate risk if they did not meet the criteria for high risk but had pT3-T4 disease, pN+ disease, lymphovascular space invasion, adenoid cystic histology, or grade 2-3 disease. Patients who did not meet criteria for high or intermediate risk were considered low risk. Overall patient demographics, disease characteristics, treatment factors, and outcomes were summarized with descriptive statistics and analyzed with STATA. Median follow-up in this cohort was 42.4 months, with the median age of 58 years. Patients in the high-risk group had greater survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; P = .002; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-0.91) if they received adjuvant radiation therapy. In contrast, patients in the intermediate- (HR, 1.01; P = .904; 95% CI, 0.85-1.20) and low-risk groups (HR, 0.85; P  = .427; 95% CI, 0.57-1.26) did not experience a survival benefit with adjuvant radiation therapy. This large analysis compared survival outcomes between observation and adjuvant radiation alone in risk-stratified patients after resection of major salivary glands using a national database. The use of adjuvant radiation for high-risk major salivary gland cancers appears to offer a survival benefit. Although an overall survival benefit was not seen in low- and intermediate

  8. Relationship between Exposure to Vector Bites and Antibody Responses to Mosquito Salivary Gland Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Diouf, Ibrahima; Remoué, Franck; Pagès, Frédéric; Fusaï, Thierry; Rogier, Christophe; Almeras, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are major health problems worldwide. Serological responses to mosquito saliva proteins may be useful in estimating individual exposure to bites from mosquitoes transmitting these diseases. However, the relationships between the levels of these IgG responses and mosquito density as well as IgG response specificity at the genus and/or species level need to be clarified prior to develop new immunological markers to assess human/vector contact. To this end, a kinetic study of antibody levels against several mosquito salivary gland extracts from southeastern French individuals living in three areas with distinct ecological environments and, by implication, distinct Aedes caspius mosquito densities were compared using ELISA. A positive association was observed between the average levels of IgG responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts and spatial Ae. caspius densities. Additionally, the average level of IgG responses increased significantly during the peak exposure to Ae. caspius at each site and returned to baseline four months later, suggesting short-lived IgG responses. The species-specificity of IgG antibody responses was determined by testing antibody responses to salivary gland extracts from Cx. pipiens, a mosquito that is present at these three sites at different density levels, and from two other Aedes species not present in the study area (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). The IgG responses observed against these mosquito salivary gland extracts contrasted with those observed against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts, supporting the existence of species-specific serological responses. By considering different populations and densities of mosquitoes linked to environmental factors, this study shows, for the first time, that specific IgG antibody responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts may be related to the seasonal and geographical variations in Ae. caspius density. Characterisation of such immunological

  9. Sphingolipids metabolism in the salivary glands of rats with obesity and streptozotocin induced diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Garbowska, Marta; Mikłosz, Agnieszka; Wróblewski, Igor; Kurek, Krzysztof; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian‐Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Zalewska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is considered a major public health problem affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Remarkably, scientific reports regarding salivary glands sphingolipid metabolism in diabetes are virtually non‐existent. This is odd given the well‐established link between the both in other tissues (e.g., skeletal muscles, liver) and the key role of these glands in oral health preservation. The aim of this paper is to examine sphingolipids metabolism in the salivary glands in (pre)diabetes (evoked by high fat diet feeding or streptozotocin). Wistar rats were allocated into three groups: control, HFD‐, or STZ‐diabetes. The content of major sphingolipid classes in the parotid (PSG) and submandibular (SMSG) glands was assessed via chromatography. Additionally, Western blot analyses were employed for the evaluation of key sphingolipid signaling pathway enzyme levels. No changes in ceramide content in the PSG were found, whereas an increase in ceramide concentration for SMSG of the STZ group was observed. This was accompanied by an elevation in SPT1 level. Probably also sphingomyelin hydrolysis was increased in the SMSG of the STZ‐diabetic rats, since we observed a significant drop in the amount of SM. PSG and SMSG respond differently to (pre)diabetes, with clearer pattern presented by the later gland. An activation of sphingomyelin signaling pathway was observed in the course of STZ‐diabetes, that is, metabolic condition with rapid onset/progression. Whereas, chronic HFD lead to an inhibition of sphingomyelin signaling pathway in the salivary glands (manifested in an inhibition of ceramide de novo synthesis and accumulation of S1P). PMID:28369933

  10. The expression of APRIL in Sjögren’s syndrome: aberrant expression of APRIL in the salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    Roescher, Nienke; Polling, Eline J.; Illei, Gabor G.; Tak, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF) are B-cell-related mediators and may play a role in the pathogenesis in SS. In this descriptive study we assessed the expression of APRIL and BAFF in the minor salivary gland and serum from SS patients. Methods. Paraffin-embedded minor salivary gland sections from SS patients, non-SS controls and healthy volunteers were analysed by immunohistochemistry. Digital image quantification was performed to evaluate the expression of BAFF, APRIL and transmembrane activator and CAML interactor. Furthermore, serum was analysed for soluble BAFF and APRIL levels by ELISA. All the data were also analysed for subjects with decreased and normal stimulated salivary flow independent of the classification. Results. APRIL expression was lower in minor salivary gland biopsies from SS patients compared with healthy volunteers and to a lesser extent non-SS controls, whereas BAFF expression was similar in all groups. Soluble APRIL levels in serum were increased in SS patients and in subjects with decreased salivary flow independent of the classification. Conclusion. APRIL salivary gland tissue levels are decreased, suggesting that targeting this cytokine locally in the salivary glands would not benefit SS patients. Moreover, the discrepancy between local and systemic levels is striking and future research should assess this in more detail. PMID:22562936

  11. Salivary Gland Dysplasia in Fgf10 Heterozygous Mice: A New Mouse Model of Xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    May, A.J.; Chatzeli, L.; Proctor, G.B.; Tucker, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Xerostomia, or chronic dry mouth, is a common syndrome caused by a lack of saliva that can lead to severe eating difficulties, dental caries and oral candida infections. The prevalence of xerostomia increases with age and affects approximately 30% of people aged 65 or older. Given the large numbers of sufferers, and the potential increase in incidence given our aging population, it is important to understand the complex mechanisms that drive hyposalivation and the consequences for the dentition and oral mucosa. From this study we propose the Fgf10 +/- mouse as a model to investigate xerostomia. By following embryonic salivary gland development, in vivo and in vitro, we show that a reduction in Fgf10 causes a delay in branching of salivary glands. This leads to hypoplasia of the glands, a phenotype that is not rescued postnatally or by adulthood in both male and female Fgf10 +/- mice. Histological analysis of the glands showed no obvious defect in cellular differentiation or acini/ductal arrangements, however there was a significant reduction in their size and weight. Analysis of saliva secretion showed that hypoplasia of the glands led to a significant reduction in saliva production in Fgf10 +/- adults, giving rise to a reduced saliva pellicle in the oral cavity of these mice. Mature mice were shown to drink more and in many cases had severe tooth wear. The Fgf10 +/- mouse is therefore a useful model to explore the causes and effects of xerostomia. PMID:26321752

  12. Salivary Gland Dysplasia in Fgf10 Heterozygous Mice: A New Mouse Model of Xerostomia.

    PubMed

    May, A J; Chatzeli, L; Proctor, G B; Tucker, A S

    2015-01-01

    Xerostomia, or chronic dry mouth, is a common syndrome caused by a lack of saliva that can lead to severe eating difficulties, dental caries and oral candida infections. The prevalence of xerostomia increases with age and affects approximately 30% of people aged 65 or older. Given the large numbers of sufferers, and the potential increase in incidence given our aging population, it is important to understand the complex mechanisms that drive hyposalivation and the consequences for the dentition and oral mucosa. From this study we propose the Fgf10 +/- mouse as a model to investigate xerostomia. By following embryonic salivary gland development, in vivo and in vitro, we show that a reduction in Fgf10 causes a delay in branching of salivary glands. This leads to hypoplasia of the glands, a phenotype that is not rescued postnatally or by adulthood in both male and female Fgf10 +/- mice. Histological analysis of the glands showed no obvious defect in cellular differentiation or acini/ductal arrangements, however there was a significant reduction in their size and weight. Analysis of saliva secretion showed that hypoplasia of the glands led to a significant reduction in saliva production in Fgf10 +/- adults, giving rise to a reduced saliva pellicle in the oral cavity of these mice. Mature mice were shown to drink more and in many cases had severe tooth wear. The Fgf10 +/- mouse is therefore a useful model to explore the causes and effects of xerostomia.

  13. Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 protein in salivary glands: potential involvement in the diabetes-induced decrease in salivary flow.

    PubMed

    Sabino-Silva, R; Freitas, H S; Lamers, M L; Okamoto, M M; Santos, M F; Machado, U F

    2009-03-01

    Oral health complications in diabetes include decreased salivary secretion. The SLC5A1 gene encodes the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 protein, which not only transports glucose, but also acts as a water channel. Since SLC5A1 expression is altered in kidneys of diabetic subjects, we hypothesize that it could also be altered in salivary glands, contributing to diabetic dysfunction. The present study shows a diabetes-induced decrease (p < 0.001) in salivary secretion, which was accompanied by enhanced (p < 0.05) SGLT1 mRNA expression in parotid (50%) and submandibular (30%) glands. Immunohistochemical analysis of parotid gland of diabetic rats revealed that SGLT1 protein expression increased in the luminal membrane of ductal cells, which can stimulate water reabsorption from primary saliva. Furthermore, SGLT1 protein was reduced in myoepithelial cells of the parotid from diabetic animals, and that, by reducing cellular contractile activity, might also be related to reduced salivary flux. Six-day insulin-treated diabetic rats reversed all alterations. In conclusion, diabetes increases SLC5A1 gene expression in salivary glands, increasing the SGLT1 protein content in the luminal membrane of ductal cells, which, by increasing water reabsorption, might explain the diabetes-induced decrease in salivary secretion.

  14. Isolation of a neurotoxin from the salivary glands of female Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, G J; Bezuidenhout, J D; Oberem, P T; Vermeulen, N M; Visser, L; Gothe, R; Neitz, A W

    1986-12-01

    A quantitative study of the changes in the protein pattern of the salivary glands of female Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi during the entire repletion process was undertaken. These results, in conjunction with the previously determined toxic phase, indicated the presence of a toxic protein. The development of a sensitive in vitro assay using a Xenopus nerve-muscle preparation, made it possible to identify toxic phases during feeding and to assay fractions of salivary gland extracts during toxin isolation. Sufficient amounts of electrophoretically and chromatographically homogeneous toxin could be obtained through the use of chromatofocusing, enabling its characterization with respect to molecular weight (68 kDa; determined by gel permeation chromatography), pI (6.00), and amino acid composition. The toxin was inactivated by pronase digestion as well as by antiserum.

  15. SALIVARY GLAND EXTRACTS OF CULICOIDES SONORENSIS INHIBIT MURINE LYMPHOCYTE PROLIFERATION AND NO PRODUCTION BY MACROPHAGES

    PubMed Central

    BISHOP, JEANETTE V.; MEJIA, J. SANTIAGO; PÉREZ DE LEÓN, ADALBERTO A.; TABACHNICK, WALTER J.; TITUS, RICHARD G.

    2006-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges serve as vectors of pathogens affecting humans and domestic animals. Culicoides sonorensis is a vector of several arboviruses in North American that cause substantial economic losses to the US livestock industry. Previous studies showed that C. sonorensis saliva, like the saliva of many hematophagous arthropods, contains numerous pharmacological agents that affect hemostasis and early events in the inflammatory response, which may enhance the infectivity of Culicoides-borne pathogens. This paper reports on the immunomodulatory properties of C. sonorensis salivary gland extracts on murine immune cells and discusses the possible immunomodulatory role of C. sonorensis saliva in vesicular stomatitis virus infection of vertebrate hosts. Splenocytes treated with C. sonorensis mitogens were significantly affected in their proliferative response, and peritoneal macrophages secreted significantly less NO. A 66-kDa glycoprotein was purified from C. sonorensis salivary gland extract, which may be in part responsible for these observations and may be considered as a vaccine candidate. PMID:16968936

  16. Salivary gland extracts of Culicoides sonorensis inhibit murine lymphocyte proliferation and no production by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jeanette V; Mejia, J Santiago; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Tabachnick, Walter J; Titus, Richard G

    2006-09-01

    Culicoides biting midges serve as vectors of pathogens affecting humans and domestic animals. Culicoides sonorensis is a vector of several arboviruses in North American that cause substantial economic losses to the US livestock industry. Previous studies showed that C. sonorensis saliva, like the saliva of many hematophagous arthropods, contains numerous pharmacological agents that affect hemostasis and early events in the inflammatory response, which may enhance the infectivity of Culicoides-borne pathogens. This paper reports on the immunomodulatory properties of C. sonorensis salivary gland extracts on murine immune cells and discusses the possible immunomodulatory role of C. sonorensis saliva in vesicular stomatitis virus infection of vertebrate hosts. Splenocytes treated with C. sonorensis mitogens were significantly affected in their proliferative response, and peritoneal macrophages secreted significantly less NO. A 66-kDa glycoprotein was purified from C. sonorensis salivary gland extract, which may be in part responsible for these observations and may be considered as a vaccine candidate.

  17. Abnormal gallium scan patterns of the salivary gland in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.; Tanaka, T.T.; Niden, A.H.

    1978-12-01

    The findings of gallium imaging suggest that parotid abnormalities in sarcoidosis are common. Correlation with lung and mediastinal uptake suggests that this represents an early disease state and that it responds to steroid administration. That the findings after therapy do not simply represent suppression of the uptake mechanism for gallium is supported by objective improvement in pulmonary function as well as symptomatic relief. Salivary gland accumulation of gallium citrate occurred in one third of our control group patients--in those who had collagen disease and presumably either were alcoholic or had infectious parotitis. This may also be seen in lymphoma andmore » after radiation therapy. Although the combination of salivary gland, pulmonary, and hilar concentration of gallium is not specific, in the appropriate clinical setting the pattern may be helpful in suggesting the correct diagnosis.« less

  18. [Advances in understanding Drosophila salivary gland polytene chromosome and its applications in genetics teaching].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Chen, Fan-guo

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila salivary gland polytene chromosome, one of the three classical chromosomes with remarkable characteristics, has been used as an outstanding model for a variety of genetic studies since 1934. The greatest contribution of this model to genetics has been providing extraordinary angle of view in studying interphase chromosome structure and gene expression regulation. Additionally, it has been extensively used to understand some special genetic phenomena, such as dosage compensation and position-effect variegation. In this paper, we briefly review the advances in the study of Drosophila salivary gland chromosome, and try to systematically and effectively introduce this model system into genetics teaching practice in order to steer and inspire students' interest in genetics.

  19. Gene discovery in Boophilus microplus, the cattle tick: the transcriptomes of ovaries, salivary glands, and hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Santos, Isabel K F de Miranda; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Ribeiro, José Marcos C; de Castro, Marilia; Costa, Juliana Nardelli; Costa, Ana Maria; da Silva, Edson Ramiro; Neto, Olavo Bilac Rego; Rocha, Clarisse; Daffre, Sirlei; Ferreira, Beatriz R; da Silva, João Santana; Szabó, Matias Pablo; Bechara, Gervasio Henrique

    2004-10-01

    The quest for new control strategies for ticks can profit from high throughput genomics. In order to identify genes that are involved in oogenesis and development, in defense, and in hematophagy, the transcriptomes of ovaries, hemocytes, and salivary glands from rapidly ingurgitating females, and of salivary glands from males of Boophilus microplus were PCR amplified, and the expressed sequence tags (EST) of random clones were mass sequenced. So far, more than 1,344 EST have been generated for these tissues, with approximately 30% novelty, depending on the the tissue studied. To date approximately 760 nucleotide sequences from B. microplus are deposited in the NCBI database. Mass sequencing of partial cDNAs of parasite genes can build up this scant database and rapidly generate a large quantity of useful information about potential targets for immunobiological or chemical control.

  20. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of malignant hemangiopericytoma of the salivary gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, K; Ogura, S; Kobayashi, T K; Kushima, R; Toyokuni, S; Iwasa, Y; Sakurai, M

    1999-12-01

    A 79-yr-old woman presented with a 5-yr history of swelling of the left cheek. The fine-needle aspiration (FNA) smear showed a spindle-cell neoplasm with capillaries and benign endothelial cells. The spindle cells possessed pleomorphic, hyperchromatic elongated nuclei and a moderate amount of ill-defined cytoplasm. They also showed papillary arcades surrounded and encased by relatively small ovoid to short spindle cells. Subsequent surgical excision confirmed the presence of malignant hemangiopericytoma (HP). Immunohistochemical studies on the histologic section using vimentin were strongly positive, consistent with HP. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second published report of FNA cellular features of malignant HP of the salivary gland. Besides delineating the FNA cellular features of HP of the salivary gland, the present case illustrates the value of using immunohistochemical approaches. Diagn. Cytopathol. 1999;21:398-401. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Morphology of salivary gland and distribution of dopamine and serotonin on red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayah, A. S. Nurul; Wahida, O. Nurul; Shafinaz, M. N. Norefrina; Idris, A. G.

    2013-11-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) is insect pest to plants of the family Palmaceae. No study has been reported on the digestive mechanism of Red Palm Weevil (RPW). Salivary glands are responsible in the feeding regulation of insect while serotonin and dopamine play a significant role in the regulation of this gland. It is great to see the morphology of the salivary gland and how dopamine and serotonin possibly play their role in this gland. Two variation of RPW, striped and spotted RPW were chosen. The morphology of the gland of both RPW variants examined by using light microscopy was found to be a tubular type. Immunohistochemical analysis conducted showed that serotonin and dopamine in both variations did not innervate the glands suggesting they are not act as neurotransmitter. However, it can be detected on few areas within the glands. This suggests that serotonin and dopamine may act as a hormone because there is no evidence on the nerve fibers. The role of these biogenic amines in the salivary gland of RPW needs further investigation. Hopefully the data would help in understanding the mechanism of salivary glands control by biogenic amines in RPW specifically and insects with sucking mouthpart generally.

  2. Polyclonal chromosomal evolution in a benign mixed salivary gland tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.; Ekedahl, C.

    1987-10-01

    Banding analyses of a human benign pleomorphic adenoma in the parotid gland revealed a polyclonal pattern where structural rearrangements predominated. These deviations were different from the anomalies previously observed in 100 mixed tumors. The reason found for the differences in all likelihood was x-ray treatment of tuberculous lymphadenitis in the neck during childhood. Implications regarding origin and development of pleomorphic adenomas are discussed.

  3. The Impact of Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors on Major Salivary Gland Cancer Survival.

    PubMed

    Olarte, Lucia S; Megwalu, Uchechukwu C

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of demographic and socioeconomic factors on survival in patients with major salivary gland malignancies. Population-based study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer database. The study cohort consisted of 10,735 men and women ages 20 and older who were diagnosed with major salivary gland carcinoma from 1973 to 2009. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the overall and disease-specific survival was higher for women than for men (P < .001). Overall and disease-specific survival decreased with increasing age (P < .001) and differed by race (P < .001) and marital status (P < .001). Patients residing in counties with higher rates of high school completion had higher overall and disease-specific survival (P < .001). Patients residing in counties with higher median household incomes had better overall and disease-specific survival than patients from lower income counties (P < .001). On multivariable analysis, male sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-1.50), increasing age, and single status (HR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.27-1.44) had poor prognostic impact on overall survival. Male sex (HR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.27-1.49), increasing age, and single status (HR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.19-1.39) had poor prognostic impact on disease-specific survival. For patients with salivary gland malignancies, there is a survival benefit for younger patients, female patients, and married patients. This highlights the significance of demographic factors on survival outcomes for patients with salivary gland malignancies and highlights areas for further research on health disparities. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  4. Molecular characterization and functional significance of the Vti family of SNARE proteins in tick salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Ashley M.; Adamson, Steven W.; Browning, Rebecca E.; Khem Raj, B.C.; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Karim, Shahid

    2013-01-01

    Exocytosis involves membrane fusion between secretory vesicles and the plasma membrane. The Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment proteins (SNAPs) and their receptor proteins (SNAREs) interact to fuse vesicles with the membrane and trigger the release of their sialosecretome out of the tick salivary gland cells. In this study, we examined the functional significance of the Vti family of SNARE proteins of blood-feeding Amblyomma maculatum and A. americanum. Vti1A and Vti1B have been implicated in multiple functional roles in vesicle transport. QRT-PCR studies demonstrated that the highest transcriptional expression of vti1a and vti1b genes occurs in unfed salivary glands, suggesting that elevated secretory vesicle formation occurs prior to feeding but continues at low rates after blood feeding commences. Vti1A and Vti1B localize to the secretory vesicles in unfed tick salivary glands in immunofluorescence microscopy studies. Knockdown of vti1a and vti1b by RNA interference resulted in a significant decrease in the engorged tick weight compared to the control during prolonged blood-feeding on the host. RNA interference of vti1a or vti1b impaired oviposition and none of the ticks produced eggs masses. Surprisingly, the double knockdown did not produce a strong phenotype and ticks fed normally on the host and produced egg masses, suggesting a compensatory mechanism exists within the secretory system which may have been activated in the double knockdown. These results suggest an important functional role of the Vti family of SNARE proteins in tick blood feeding and ultimately oviposition. Understanding the basic functions of the Vti family of SNARE proteins in salivary glands may lead to better ways to prevent tick attachment and transmission of tick-borne diseases. PMID:23499931

  5. Effects of Diabetes on Salivary Gland Protein Expression of Tetrahydrobiopterin and Nitric Oxide Synthesis and Function.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Cassandra R; Obi, Nneka; Epane, Elodie C; Akbari, Alexander A; Halpern, Leslie; Southerland, Janet H; Gangula, Pandu R

    2016-06-01

    Xerostomia is defined as dry mouth resulting from a change in the amount or composition of saliva and is often a major oral health complication associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Studies have shown that xerostomia is more common in females at the onset of DM. Evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in healthy salivary gland function. However, the specific mechanisms by which NO regulates salivary gland function at the onset of DM have yet to be determined. This study has two aims: 1) to determine whether protein expression or dimerization of NO synthase enzymes (neuronal [nNOS] and endothelial [eNOS]) are altered in the onset of diabetic xerostomia; and 2) to determine whether the changes in nNOS/eNOS protein expression or dimerization are correlated with changes in NO cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthetic enzymes (guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 and dihydrofolate reductase). Functional and Western blot studies were performed in streptozotocin-induced and control Sprague-Dawley female rats with DM (type 1 [t1DM]) using standardized protocols. Confirmation of xerostomia was determined by increased water intake and decreased salivary flow rate. The results showed that in female rats with DM, salivary hypofunction is correlated with decreased submandibular and parotid gland sizes. The results also show a decrease in NOS and BH4 biosynthetic enzyme in submandibular glands. These results indicate that a decrease in submandibular NO-BH4 protein expression may provide insight pertaining to mechanisms for the development of hyposalivation in DM-induced xerostomia. Furthermore, understanding the role of the NO-BH4 pathway may give insight into possible treatment options for the patient with DM experiencing xerostomia.

  6. [Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands: the prognostic value of tumoral markers].

    PubMed

    Hoyek-Gebeily, J; Nehmé, E; Aftimos, G; Sader-Ghorra, C; Sargi, Z; Haddad, A

    2007-12-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is one of the most frequent malignant lesions of salivary glands. The treatment is based on clinical, paraclinical and histological data. Several studies on the prognostic value of molecular markers for these cancers were made with contradictory results. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the prognostic value of molecular markers of salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Sixteen patients were treated for mucoepidermoid carcinoma of principal and/or accessory salivary glands between 1994 and 2003. An immunohistochemical study of archive specimen was performed. Nine markers were specifically studied: 4 proteins/oncoproteins (p53, bcl2, c-erb-B2 and cd117), 2 markers of proliferation (PCNA and Ki67), 1 growing factor receptor (EGFR), 1 epithelial adhesion molecule (E-cadherin), and 1 angiogenic cytokine (PDGF). Nine men and 7 women were included, with a mean age of 43.7 years (14-80). The mean diameter of tumors was 3.1 mm (1-14), and the parotid gland was the most frequent location. The mean global survival rate was 57.3 months with a median of 55 months. The 2 to 5 years survival expectation rate were 82.5% and 46.4% respectively. The mean survival rate for women was superior to that of men (P=0.043). The expression of p53 and the high expression rate of EFGR were bad prognostic factors (respectively P=0.049 and P=0.012). The expression of PCNA was linked to the location (mainly the salivary gland) and to the diameter of the tumor (respectively P=0.037 and P=0.029). The degree of EFGR positivity and the histological grade were linked (P=0.027). The strong expression of EGFR was statistically linked to the histological tumor grade. The degree of PCNA positivity seemed to be associated to the preferential location in the main salivary glands and to the diameter of the tumor. The strong expression of p53 and EGFR were bad prognostic factors. These retrospective results need to be confirmed by prospective randomized and larger

  7. A histochemical study of rat salivary gland acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Isacsson, G

    1986-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4 mg pilocarpine/100 g body wt intraperitoneally or physiological saline as control and were killed at various intervals. Acid phosphatase was reacted on frozen sections from soft palate, parotid and submandibular glands using sodium-alpha-naphthyl acid phosphate as substrate. Various inhibitors were added to the incubation medium. The strongest acid phosphatase activity was in the parotid gland acinar and proximal secretory duct cells; the mucous minor glands of the palate were completely negative. Activity was found in the acinar cells, proximal secretory duct cells, granular and striated duct and excretory duct cells. Pilocarpine injection slightly reduced the activity up to 6 h after injection. Cupric chloride added to the incubation medium lowered the overall activity. Fluoride and molybdate inhibited the acid phosphatase reaction in all structures. Tartrate inhibited the reaction in all structures except the submandibular striated duct cells. The tartrate-resistant activity may be a Na+K+-dependent ATPase involved in re-absorbing water and electrolytes from the primary saliva.

  8. HIV-associated salivary gland disease--clinical or imaging diagnosis?

    PubMed

    da Silva Rath, Inês Beatriz; Beltrame, Ana Paula C A; Carvalho, Aroldo P; Schaeffer, Marcela B; Almeida, Izabel C S

    2015-07-01

    This work aimed at studying the salivary gland disease (SGD) as it relates to associated factors, such as persistent generalised lymphadenopathy (PGL), lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP), clinical and immunological features of AIDS, and salivary flow rate and pH, as well as at exploring the relationship between the clinical diagnosis and the imaging diagnosis by ultrasound (US) examination of the parotid glands. Information regarding the observation of parotid gland enlargement, PGL, LIP, and clinical and immunological features of AIDS was gathered from medical records, and a saliva sample for unstimulated salivary flow rate and pH measurement was collected from 142 children aged 3 through 10 years treated at the Department of Infectious Diseases of Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. High-resolution ultrasonography was performed in 58 children. Pearson's chi-square test and t-test were used to evaluate the association between the variables. A significant association was found between SGD and LIP. Ultrasound revealed a 50% higher incidence of SGD that was not reported in the patients' records. US examination proved to be essential for the correct diagnosis and monitoring of the progression of HIV/SGD. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. BK virus has tropism for human salivary gland cells in vitro: Implications for transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffers, Liesl K.; Madden, Vicki; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer@med.unc.ed

    Background: In this study, it was determined that BKV is shed in saliva and an in vitro model system was developed whereby BKV can productively infect both submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) salivary gland cell lines. Results: BKV was detected in oral fluids using quantitative real-time PCR (QRTPCR). BKV infection was determined using quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays. The infectivity of BKV was inhibited by pre-incubation of the virus with gangliosides that saturated the major capsid protein, VP1, halting receptor mediated BKV entry into salivary gland cells. Examination of infected cultures by transmission electron microscopy revealed 45-50 nm BKmore » virions clearly visible within the cells. Subsequent to infection, encapsidated BK virus was detected in the supernatant. Conclusion: We thus demonstrated that BKV was detected in oral fluids and that BK infection and replication occur in vitro in salivary gland cells. These data collectively suggest the potential for BKV oral route of transmission and oral pathogenesis.« less

  10. Muscarinic receptor immunoreactivity in the superior salivatory nucleus neurons innervating the salivary glands of the rat.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Hirotaka; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Masako; Kobashi, Motoi; Yamashiro, Takashi; Sugimoto, Tomosada; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Ryuji

    2011-07-15

    The superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) contains preganglionic parasympathetic neurons to the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands. Cevimeline, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, stimulates the salivary glands and is presently used as sialogogue in the treatment of dry mouth. Since cevimeline passes through the blood-brain barrier, it is also able to act on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system. Our preliminary experiment using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique has shown that cevimeline excites SSN neurons in rat brain slices, suggesting that SSN neurons have muscarinic acetylcholine receptors; however, it is unclear which subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors exist in SSN neurons. In the present study, we investigated immunohistochemically muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes, M1 receptor (M1R), M2R, M3R, M4R, and M5R in SSN neurons. SSN neurons innervating the salivary glands, retrogradely labeled with a fluorescent tracer from the chorda-lingual nerve, mostly expressed M3R immunoreactivity (-ir) (92.3%) but not M1R-ir. About half of such SSN neurons also showed M2R- (40.1%), M4R- (54.0%) and M5R-ir (46.0%); therefore, it is probable that SSN neurons co-express M3R-ir with at least two of the other muscarinic receptor subtypes. This is the first report to show that SSN neurons contain muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Function of the Membrane Water Channel Aquaporin-5 in the Salivary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Susa, Taketo; Shimizu, Kinue; Sawai, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Takeshi; Aoki, Takeo; Yokoo, Satoshi; Takata, Kuniaki

    2012-01-01

    The process of saliva production in the salivary glands requires transepithelial water transfer from the interstitium to the acinar lumen. There are two transepithelial pathways: the transcellular and paracellular. In the transcellular pathway, the aquaporin water channels induce passive water diffusion across the membrane lipid bilayer. It is well known that aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is expressed in the salivary glands, in which it is mainly localized at the apical membrane of the acinar cells. This suggests the physiological importance of AQP5 in transcellular water transfer. Reduced saliva secretion under pilocarpine stimulation in AQP5-null mice compared with normal mice further indicates the importance of AQP5 in this process, at least in stimulated saliva secretion. Questions remain therefore regarding the role and importance of AQP5 in basal saliva secretion. It has been speculated that there would be some short-term regulation of AQP5 such as a trafficking mechanism to regulate saliva secretion. However, no histochemical evidence of AQP5-trafficking has been found, although some of biochemical analyses suggested that it may occur. There are no reports of human disease caused by AQP5 mutations, but some studies have revealed an abnormal subcellular distribution of AQP5 in patients or animals with xerostomia caused by Sjögren’s syndrome and X-irradiation. These findings suggest the possible pathophysiological importance of AQP5 in the salivary glands. PMID:23209334

  12. Aspiration cytology of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Jung, Min Jung; Kim, Sang Yoon; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2015-04-01

    Aspiration cytologic findings of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), a newly established salivary gland neoplasm defined by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) ETV6-NTRK3 translocation, are not fully characterized to date. We report cytologic descriptions of nine cases of molecularly confirmed MASC, including two with unusual findings. Aspiration smears from nine MASCs of the salivary glands were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed according to the cellular and structural features of the corresponding surgical specimens. Aspiration smears of MASC generally reflected the histologic diversity of the tumors. Among usual histologic findings, a micropapillary pattern was associated with a predominance of vacuolated individual cells on aspiration smears, a papillary-cystic pattern with a predominance of thin branching papillary structures, and a microcystic pattern with a predominance of irregular sheets of eosinophilic cells. There were two unusual cases, one with three-dimensional groups of high-grade atypical cells, and one with epithelial clusters floating in a notably mucinous background. These cases represented MASC with high-grade transformation and MASC with cystadenocarcinoma-like features, respectively. The secretory activity of MASC was not prominent in the aspiration specimens. Although unusual cases were present, most MASC cases showed characteristic cytologic findings, which could aid the cytologic diagnosis of MASC. And knowledge of the histologic spectrum of MASC, including high-grade transformation, could be valuable for cytological differential diagnoses of salivary gland tumors, and the management of patients with MASC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Incompletely treated malignancies of the major salivary gland: Toward evidence-based care.

    PubMed

    Tam, Samantha; Sandulache, Vlad C; Metwalli, Kareem A; Rock, Crosby D; Eraj, Salman A; Sheu, Tommy; El-Naggar, Adel K; Fuller, Clifton D; Weber, Randal S; Lai, Stephen Y

    2018-05-07

    Unexpected malignancy is common in major salivary gland tumors due to variability of workup, creating challenging treatment decisions. The purpose of this study was to define treatment-related outcomes for patients with incompletely treated major salivary gland tumors. A retrospective cohort study was completed of patients with incompletely treated major salivary gland tumors. Tumor burden at presentation was established and treatment categorized. The Cox Proportional Hazards model was used to determine predictors of survival and failure. Of the 440 included patients, patients with gross residual or metastatic disease had a worse overall survival (OS; P < .001). Presentation status was an independent predictor of OS on multivariate analysis (gross residual disease adjusted hazard ratio [HR adjusted ] 2.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-5.30; metastatic disease HR adjusted 9.53; 95% CI 3.04-27.06). Failure to achieve gross total resection during initial surgery resulted in worse OS. Adequate preoperative planning is required for initial surgical management to optimize tumor control and survival. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cribriform adenocarcinoma of the tongue and minor salivary gland: transoral robotic surgical resection.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Douglas M; Brant, Jason A; Chai, Raymond L; Weinstein, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    Cribriform adenocarcinoma of the tongue and minor salivary gland (CATMSG) is a rare, locally invasive, and poorly recognized tumor, typically occurring on the base of the tongue. This case report describes the previously unreported use of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for the local resection of CATMSG in a novel location, the palatine tonsil, and leverages follow-up information to compare TORS to conventional surgical approaches. We performed transoral radical tonsillectomy, limited pharyngectomy, and base-of-tongue resection with staged left selective neck dissection. Tumor pathology revealed an infiltrating salivary gland carcinoma with perineural invasion and a histologically similar adenocarcinoma in 1 of 64 left neck lymph nodes. TORS was performed with no perioperative complications, and the patient was subsequently discharge on postoperative day 3 with a Dobhoff tube. Postoperatively, the Dobhoff tube was removed at 1 month, the patient was advanced to soft foods by mouth at 2 months, and 3-month positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan showed no evidence of distant metastases and evolving postsurgical changes in the left tonsillectomy bed. This case report highlights the use of TORS resection with minimal acute and long-term morbidity compared to conventional approaches for the resection of this rare, locally invasive salivary gland carcinoma in the palatine tonsil. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Apocrine Secretion in Drosophila Salivary Glands: Subcellular Origin, Dynamics, and Identification of Secretory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Farkaš, Robert; Ďatková, Zuzana; Mentelová, Lucia; Löw, Péter; Beňová-Liszeková, Denisa; Beňo, Milan; Sass, Miklós; Řehulka, Pavel; Řehulková, Helena; Raška, Otakar; Kováčik, Lubomír; Šmigová, Jana; Raška, Ivan; Mechler, Bernard M.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the well defined mechanism of merocrine exocytosis, the mechanism of apocrine secretion, which was first described over 180 years ago, remains relatively uncharacterized. We identified apocrine secretory activity in the late prepupal salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster just prior to the execution of programmed cell death (PCD). The excellent genetic tools available in Drosophila provide an opportunity to dissect for the first time the molecular and mechanistic aspects of this process. A prerequisite for such an analysis is to have pivotal immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, biochemical and proteomic data that fully characterize the process. Here we present data showing that the Drosophila salivary glands release all kinds of cellular proteins by an apocrine mechanism including cytoskeletal, cytosolic, mitochondrial, nuclear and nucleolar components. Surprisingly, the apocrine release of these proteins displays a temporal pattern with the sequential release of some proteins (e.g. transcription factor BR-C, tumor suppressor p127, cytoskeletal β-tubulin, non-muscle myosin) earlier than others (e.g. filamentous actin, nuclear lamin, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase). Although the apocrine release of proteins takes place just prior to the execution of an apoptotic program, the nuclear DNA is never released. Western blotting indicates that the secreted proteins remain undegraded in the lumen. Following apocrine secretion, the salivary gland cells remain quite vital, as they retain highly active transcriptional and protein synthetic activity. PMID:24732043

  16. Risk of Nodal Metastasis in Major Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Megwalu, Uchechukwu C; Sirjani, Davud

    2017-04-01

    Objective To determine the risk of nodal metastasis, examine risk factors for nodal metastasis, and evaluate the impact of nodal metastasis on survival in patients with major salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma. Study Design Retrospective cohort study from a large population- based cancer database. Methods Data were extracted from the SEER 18 database (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) of the National Cancer Institute. The study cohort included 720 patients diagnosed with major salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma between 1988 and 2013. Results The overall rate of lymph node metastasis was 17%. T3 disease (odds ratio, 4.74) and T4 disease (odds ratio, 9.24) were associated with increased risk of nodal metastasis. Age, sex, and site were not associated with nodal metastasis. Nodal metastasis was associated with worse overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.56) and disease-specific survival (hazard ratio, 3.27), after adjusting for T stage, presence of distant metastasis, site, surgical resection, radiotherapy, neck dissection, age, sex, race, marital status, and year of diagnosis. Conclusion Major salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma carries significant risk of nodal metastasis. Advanced T stage is associated with increased risk of nodal metastasis. Nodal metastasis is associated with worse survival.

  17. Hypoglycemic effects of an aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata on the salivary glands of diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Curcio, Sergio Augusto Fudaba; Stefan, Luciana Francine Bocchi; Randi, Bruno Azevedo; Dias, Marco Antonio; da Silva, Rodrigo Eduardo; Caldeira, Eduardo José

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the salivary glands in diabetic mice, analyzing alterations in the secretory epithelium and interactions with the stromal compartment acquired during a prolonged period of treatment with Bauhinia forficata extract. Female mice were divided into two groups: Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice treated with Bauhinia forficata (I), and NOD mice not treated with the hypoglycemic agent (II). After treatment, the salivary glands were collected for analysis by transmitted and polarized light microscopy, complemented by three-dimensional analysis of these tissues. The results showed weight loss in animals of group II and weight recovery in treated animals. Glucose levels were elevated in group II, but declined in group I. In the two groups, the salivary glands were characterized by involution of the secretory epithelium, presence of an inflammatory infiltrate and an increase of extracellular fibrillar components. It can be concluded that treatment with Bauhinia forficata reduced glucose levels and contributed to weight recovery in treated animals. However, the observation of tissue destructuring and compromised epithelial-stromal interactions, with consequent impairment of glandular function, demonstrates that Bauhinia forficata exerts an effect on the recovery of body metabolism but this improvement does not influence in the tissue recovery.

  18. Radioprotective Effect of Lidocaine on Function and Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands Receiving Fractionated Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hakim, Samer George, E-mail: samer.hakim@mkg-chir.mu-luebeck.de; Benedek, Geza Attila; Su Yuxiong

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common side effect after radiotherapy for head-and-neck malignancies. The aim of the present study was to examine the radioprotective effect of lidocaine hydrochloride during fractionated radiation in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: To evaluate the influence of different radiation doses on salivary gland function and the radioprotective effect of lidocaine, rabbits were irradiated with 15, 25, 30, and 35 Gy (equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions equivalent to 24, 40, 48, and 56 Gy, respectively). Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 and 12 mg/kg) was administered before every radiation fraction in the treatment groups. Salivary glandmore » function was assessed by flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy, and the morphologic changes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Functional impairment was first observed after 35 Gy and pretreatment with lidocaine improved radiation tolerance of both parotid and submandibular glands. The use of 12 mg/kg lidocaine was superior and displayed significant radioprotection with regard to flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy. The ultrastructure was largely preserved after pretreatment with both lidocaine doses. Conclusions: Lidocaine represents an effective radioprotective agent and a promising approach for clinical application to avoid radiation-induced functional impairment of salivary glands.« less

  19. Ultrastructure of the salivary glands in Lithobius forficatus (Myriapoda, Chilopoda, Lithobiidae) according to seasonal and circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Kamińska, K; Włodarczyk, A; Sonakowska, L; Ostróżka, A; Marchewka, A; Rost-Roszkowska, M

    2016-11-01

    The salivary glands (mandibular epidermal glands) of adult males and females of Lithobius forficatus (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) were isolated during spring, summer and autumn. In addition, the organs were isolated at different times of the day - at about 12:00 (noon) and about 00:00 (midnight). The ultrastructure of these organs depending on seasonal and circadian rhythms was analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histochemical methods. The paired salivary glands of L. forficatus are situated in the vicinity of the foregut and they are formed by numerous acini that are surrounded by the fat body, hemocytes and tracheolae. The salivary glands are composed of a terminal acinar component and a system of tubular ducts that are lined with a cuticle. The glandular part is composed of secretory epithelial cells that are at various stages of their secretory activity. The saliva that is produced by the secretory cells of the acini is secreted into the salivary ducts, which are lined with a simple epithelium that is based on the non-cellular basal lamina. The ultrastructural variations suggest that salivary glands function differently depending on seasonal rhythms and prepare the animal for overwintering. Therefore, the salivary glands of the centipedes that were analyzed participate in the accumulation of proteins, lipids and polysaccharides during the spring, summer and autumn. Subtle differences in the ultrastructure of the secretory cells of the salivary glands during the circadian cycle must be related to the physiological reactions of the organism. The salivary ducts showed no differences in the specimens that were analyzed during the day/night cycle or during the seasonal cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogels for Salivary Gland Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Shubin, Andrew D.; Felong, Timothy J.; Graunke, Dean; Ovitt, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    More than 40,000 patients are diagnosed with head and neck cancers annually in the United States with the vast majority receiving radiation therapy. Salivary glands are irreparably damaged by radiation therapy resulting in xerostomia, which severely affects patient quality of life. Cell-based therapies have shown some promise in mouse models of radiation-induced xerostomia, but they suffer from insufficient and inconsistent gland regeneration and accompanying secretory function. To aid in the development of regenerative therapies, poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels were investigated for the encapsulation of primary submandibular gland (SMG) cells for tissue engineering applications. Different methods of hydrogel formation and cell preparation were examined to identify cytocompatible encapsulation conditions for SMG cells. Cell viability was much higher after thiol-ene polymerizations compared with conventional methacrylate polymerizations due to reduced membrane peroxidation and intracellular reactive oxygen species formation. In addition, the formation of multicellular microspheres before encapsulation maximized cell–cell contacts and increased viability of SMG cells over 14-day culture periods. Thiol-ene hydrogel-encapsulated microspheres also promoted SMG proliferation. Lineage tracing was employed to determine the cellular composition of hydrogel-encapsulated microspheres using markers for acinar (Mist1) and duct (Keratin5) cells. Our findings indicate that both acinar and duct cell phenotypes are present throughout the 14 day culture period. However, the acinar:duct cell ratios are reduced over time, likely due to duct cell proliferation. Altogether, permissive encapsulation methods for primary SMG cells have been identified that promote cell viability, proliferation, and maintenance of differentiated salivary gland cell phenotypes, which allows for translation of this approach for salivary gland tissue engineering applications. PMID:25762214

  1. Hyaluronidase activity in the salivary glands of tabanid flies.

    PubMed

    Volfova, Vera; Tothova, Viktorie; Volf, Petr

    2016-06-01

    Tabanids are haematophagous insects that act as biological and mechanical vectors of various diseases, including viruses, bacteria and parasites. The saliva of these insects contains strong anticoagulant and vasodilatory activities as well as immunoregulatory peptides. Here we demonstrate pronounced hyaluronidase (hyase) activity in ten tabanid species of the genera Chrysops, Haematopota, Hybomitra and Tabanus. Compared to other haematophagous insects, the ability of tabanid hyases to hydrolyze hyaluronic acid (HA) is extremely high, for example the enzyme activity of Hybomitra muehlfeldi was found to be 32-fold higher than the salivary hyase activity of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi. Hyases of all ten tabanid species tested also cleaved chondroitin sulfate A, another glycosaminoglycan present in the extracellular matrix of vertebrates. The pH optimum of the enzyme activity was measured in eight tabanid species; the hyase of Haemopota pluvialis was the only one with optimum at pH 4.0, while in the other seven species the activity optimum was at 5.0. SDS PAGE zymography showed the monomeric character of the enzymes in all tabanid species tested. Under non-reducing conditions the activities were visible as single bands with estimated MW between 35 and 52 kDa. The very high hyaluronidase activity in tabanid saliva might be related to their aggressive biting behavior as well as to their high efficiency as mechanical vectors. As they are supposedly involved in the enlargement of feeding hematomas, hyases might contribute to the mechanical transmission of pathogens. Pathogens present in vector mouthparts are co-inoculated into the vertebrate host together with saliva and may benefit from increased tissue permeability and the immunomodulatory activity of the salivary hyase. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of cevimeline on radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction and AQP5 in submandibular gland in mice.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Katsuhiro; Takaki, Sachiko; Takeda, Ienaka; Hanaue, Nobuyuki; Kizu, Yasuhiro; Tonogi, Morio; Yamane, Gen-yuki

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of the muscarinic receptor agonist, cevimeline, on saliva flow and expression of aquaporin5 (AQP5) in submandibular gland after X-ray irradiation. Using a previously established radiation-induced xerostomia model mouse, saliva flow from at 7 days before irradiation to at 28 days after irradiation was investigated in mice that were treated with cevimeline before or after irradiation. Radiation caused a significant decrease in saliva flow compared with nonirradiated salivary glands. Cevimeline post-treatment also caused a significant decrease in saliva flow. In contrast, cevimeline pre-treatment did not significantly decrease saliva flow. Expression of AQP5 fluorescent intensity and mRNA were also analyzed. Irradiation significantly decreased expression of AQP5 in submandibular gland. However, pre-treatment with cevimeline prevented this decrease in AQP5 expression. These data suggest that pretreatment with cevimeline prevents radiation-induced xerostomia and radiation-induced decrease in expression of AQP5 in submandibular gland.

  3. Sudden and Unexpected Death During Sexual Activity, Due to a Glial Cyst of the Pineal Gland.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Rosario; Lo Pinto, Sara; Cuccì, Maria; Caputo, Fiorella; Fossati, Francesca; Fraternali Orcioni, Giulio; Ventura, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Cysts of the pineal gland are benign lesions. Often asymptomatic, in the majority of cases they are discovered incidentally during brain magnetic resonance imaging or autopsy. Sporadically, however, they may cause such symptoms as chronic headache, loss of consciousness, corticospinal and sensory impairment, and, in some cases, even sudden death. A 45-year-old woman, in apparently good health, collapsed and died suddenly, after reaching orgasm while engaged in sexual intercourse. According to the circumstantial account of her relatives, the woman suffered from severe headaches, which were exacerbated by certain types of physical strain, such as sexual activity. Postmortem examination revealed no external injuries or internal diseases except for a cystic lesion of the pineal gland. Microscopically, the wall of the cyst consisted of a layer of glial tissue surrounded by an area of pineal elements. A complete forensic approach concluded that the cause of death was fatal cardiorespiratory failure resulting from midbrain compression due to a nonneoplastic pineal gland cyst, exacerbated by sexual activity. In this case, the intracranial pressure increase, secondary to Valsalva maneuver during climax, may further aggravate compression on the brainstem, thus concurring to determine the death.

  4. Expression of membrane-associated mucins MUC1 and MUC4 in major human salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Lague, Jessica R; Nunes, David P; Toselli, Paul; Oppenheim, Frank G; Soares, Rodrigo V; Troxler, Robert F; Offner, Gwynneth D

    2002-06-01

    Mucins are high molecular weight glycoproteins secreted by salivary glands and epithelial cells lining the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. These glycoproteins, encoded in at least 13 distinct human genes, can be subdivided into gel-forming and membrane-associated forms. The gel-forming mucin MUC5B is secreted by mucous acinar cells in major and minor salivary glands, but little is known about the expression pattern of membrane-associated mucins. In this study, RT-PCR and Northern blotting demonstrated the presence of transcripts for MUC1 and MUC4 in both parotid and submandibular glands, and in situ hybridization localized these transcripts to epithelial cells lining striated and excretory ducts and in some serous acinar cells. The same cellular distribution was observed by immunohistochemistry. Soluble forms of both mucins were detected in parotid secretion after immunoprecipitation with mucin-specific antibodies. These studies have shown that membrane-associated mucins are produced in both parotid and submandibular glands and that they are expressed in different cell types than gel-forming mucins. Although the function of these mucins in the oral cavity remains to be elucidated, it is possible that they both contribute to the epithelial protective mucin layer and act as receptors initiating one or more intracellular signal transduction pathways.

  5. Alkaline phosphatase activity in salivary gland cells of Rhodnius neglectus and R. prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Lima-Oliveira, A P M; Alevi, K C C; Anhê, A C B; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-07-29

    Alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in salivary gland cells of the Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954, and R. prolixus Stal, 1859, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 (etiological agent of Chagas disease) and T. rangeli Tejera, 1920 (pathogenic to insect). The Gomori technique was used to demonstrate alkaline phosphatase activity. Alkaline phosphatase activity was observed throughout the entire gland, with an increased activity in the posterior region of the principal gland. In particular, phosphatase activity was found in the nucleolar corpuscles, suggesting a relationship with the rRNA transcription and ribosomal biogenesis. Alkaline phosphatase was also detected in the nuclear membrane and nuclear matrix, suggesting an association with the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of ribonucleoproteins and the mechanisms of cell cycle and DNA replication, respectively. This study highlights the importance of alkaline phosphatase in the salivary gland of R. prolixus and R. neglectus and emphasizes its importance in secretory activity. Secretory activity is directly involved in hematophagy and, consequently, in development during metamorphosis. The observed presence of alkaline phosphatase suggests its involvement in the production of saliva allowing feeding of these insects that are important vectors of Chagas disease.

  6. Xerostomia, salivary characteristics and gland volumes following intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a two-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Sim, Cpc; Soong, Y L; Pang, Epp; Lim, C; Walker, G D; Manton, D J; Reynolds, E C; Wee, Jts

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate changes in xerostomia status, salivary characteristics and gland volumes 2 years following radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Xerostomia scores, salivary flow rates, pH and buffering capacity were measured at pre-radiotherapy, mid-radiotherapy, 2 weeks, 3 months and 2 years post-radiotherapy. Salivary gland volumes and their correlation with radiation dose were also assessed. Mean radiation dose to oral cavity, parotid and submandibular glands (SMG) was 44.5, 65.0 and 38.6 Gy respectively. Parotid and SMG volumes decreased 33% at 3 months post-radiotherapy; volumes at 2 years post-radiotherapy were 84% and 51% of pre-radiotherapy levels, respectively. Correlations were observed between parotid gland volume per cent reduction and its radiation dose and between resting salivary flow rate reduction and post-radiotherapy/pre-radiotherapy SMG volume ratio. Salivary flow rates and resting saliva pH remained significantly low at 2 years post-radiotherapy (both flow rates, P = 0.001; resting saliva pH, P = 0.005). Similarly, xerostomia scores remained significantly higher compared with pre-radiotherapy levels. Submandibular gland volumetric shrinkage persisted 2 years after radiotherapy. Xerostomia scores remained significantly higher, and salivary flow rates and resting saliva pH remained significantly lower, suggesting that study participants were still at risk for hyposalivation-related oral diseases. © 2018 Australian Dental Association.

  7. Coexistence of salivary gland cysticercosis with squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Dipti; Khurana, Nita; Setia, Namrata

    2007-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by the pork tapeworm larval stage, Cysticercus cellulosae. The majority of the cases present in ocular, cerebral, and subcutaneous locations. We report the presence of cysticercosis inside the submandibular gland in association with squamous cell carcinoma of the inferior alveolar ramus of the mandible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report documenting cysticercosis inside a salivary gland. A 65-year-old male presented with complaints of an ulcerative lesion on the inferior alveolar ramus present for 2 months. Histological examination revealed a keratinizing well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma involving the alveolar margin and mandible. The histopathological examination of the submandibular gland revealed cysticercosis. This case emphasizes the importance of adequate sampling of all the tissues obtained for associated infectious disorders, more so in immunosuppressed patients, which will help the clinician to manage the case appropriately.

  8. Optical Coherence Tomography Identifies Lower Labial Salivary Gland Surface Density in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Jan K.; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Karnowski, Karol; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw

    2015-01-01

    The labial minor salivary glands (LSGs) are easily accessible mucus-secreting structures of the alimentary tract that may provide new information on the basis of gastrointestinal complications of cystic fibrosis (CF). It was shown that they are destructed in the course of cystic fibrosis. We employed wide-field, micrometer resolution in vivo optical coherence tomography to assess the surface density of LSGs in 18 patients with CF and 18 healthy subjects. The median LSGs’ surface densities in CF patients, and in the control group were 4.32 glands/cm2 and 6.58 glands/cm2, respectively (p = 0.006; Mann-Whitney U test). A lower LSG surface density is a previously unrecognized CF-related pathology of the alimentary tract. PMID:25622042

  9. Radiation-Induced Loss of Salivary Gland Function Is Driven by Cellular Senescence and Prevented by IL6 Modulation.

    PubMed

    Marmary, Yitzhak; Adar, Revital; Gaska, Svetlana; Wygoda, Annette; Maly, Alexander; Cohen, Jonathan; Eliashar, Ron; Mizrachi, Lina; Orfaig-Geva, Carmit; Baum, Bruce J; Rose-John, Stefan; Galun, Eithan; Axelrod, Jonathan H

    2016-03-01

    Head and neck cancer patients treated by radiation commonly suffer from a devastating side effect known as dry-mouth syndrome, which results from the irreversible loss of salivary gland function via mechanisms that are not completely understood. In this study, we used a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary hypofunction to investigate the outcomes of DNA damage in the head and neck region. We demonstrate that the loss of salivary function was closely accompanied by cellular senescence, as evidenced by a persistent DNA damage response (γH2AX and 53BP1) and the expression of senescence-associated markers (SA-βgal, p19ARF, and DcR2) and secretory phenotype (SASP) factors (PAI-1 and IL6). Notably, profound apoptosis or necrosis was not observed in irradiated regions. Signs of cellular senescence were also apparent in irradiated salivary glands surgically resected from human patients who underwent radiotherapy. Importantly, using IL6 knockout mice, we found that sustained expression of IL6 in the salivary gland long after initiation of radiation-induced DNA damage was required for both senescence and hypofunction. Additionally, we demonstrate that IL6 pretreatment prevented both senescence and salivary gland hypofunction via a mechanism involving enhanced DNA damage repair. Collectively, these results indicate that cellular senescence is a fundamental mechanism driving radiation-induced damage in the salivary gland and suggest that IL6 pretreatment may represent a promising therapeutic strategy to preserve salivary gland function in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Salivary Gland Proteomes of Two Glossina Species that Exhibit Differential Hytrosavirus Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Kariithi, Henry M.; İnce, İkbal Agah; Boeren, Sjef; Murungi, Edwin K.; Meki, Irene K.; Otieno, Everlyne A.; Nyanjom, Steven R. G.; van Oers, Monique M.; Vlak, Just M.; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV; family Hytrosaviridae) is a dsDNA virus exclusively pathogenic to tsetse flies (Diptera; Glossinidae). The 190 kb GpSGHV genome contains 160 open reading frames and encodes more than 60 confirmed proteins. The asymptomatic GpSGHV infection in flies can convert to symptomatic infection that is characterized by overt salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH). Flies with SGH show reduced general fitness and reproductive dysfunction. Although the occurrence of SGH is an exception rather than the rule, G. pallidipes is thought to be the most susceptible to expression of overt SGH symptoms compared to other Glossina species that are largely asymptomatic. Although Glossina salivary glands (SGs) play an essential role in GpSGHV transmission, the functions of the salivary components during the virus infection are poorly understood. In this study, we used mass spectrometry to study SG proteomes of G. pallidipes and G. m. morsitans, two Glossina model species that exhibit differential GpSGHV pathologies (high and low incidence of SGH, respectively). A total of 540 host proteins were identified, of which 23 and 9 proteins were significantly up- and down-regulated, respectively, in G. pallidipes compared to G. m. morsitans. Whereas 58 GpSGHV proteins were detected in G. pallidipes F1 progenies, only 5 viral proteins were detected in G. m. morsitans. Unlike in G. pallidipes, qPCR assay did not show any significant increase in virus titers in G. m. morsitans F1 progenies, confirming that G. m. morsitans is less susceptible to GpSGHV infection and replication compared to G. pallidipes. Based on our results, we speculate that in the case of G. pallidipes, GpSGHV employs a repertoire of host intracellular signaling pathways for successful infection. In the case of G. m. morsitans, antiviral responses appeared to be dominant. These results are useful for designing additional tools to investigate the Glossina-GpSGHV interactions

  11. A comparative study of salivary secretion by parotid and mandibular glands of anaesthetized Capra hircus: effect of pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    Castellano, C; Moreno, M; Raggi, L A; Martinez de Victoria, E; Mataix, F J

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of basal secretion and the effect of the infusion of pilocarpine on the flow and composition of saliva in the parotid and mandibular glands of the anaesthetized lactating goat. In the parotid gland there was a basal flow (1.6 +/- 0.29 microliter/min) which was not present in the mandibular gland. There is a statistically significant dose-effect relationship between pilocarpine and salivary flow in both glands. Salival composition and its variation with respect to the flow of saliva did not conform to either of the two glands to an exclusive monogastric or ruminant model.

  12. Clinicopathological analysis of salivary gland tumors over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Artur Cunha; Nör, Felipe; Meurer, Luise; Salvadori, Gabriela; Souza, Lélia Batista de; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) are rare neoplasms that generate interest due to their histopathological diversity and clinical behavior. The aims of the present study were to investigate clinicopathological aspects of SGTs diagnosed at a tertiary health center and compare the findings with epidemiological data from different geographic locations. Cases of tumor in the head and neck region at a single health center in the period between 1995 and 2010 were reviewed. Patient gender, age and ethnic group as well as anatomic location, histological type and clinical behavior of the tumor were recorded. Availability of complete information about these aspects was considered the inclusion criteria. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed using the frequencies of categorical variables. Among the 2168 cases of tumors in the head and neck region, 243 (11.20%) cases were diagnosed in the salivary glands, 109 of which met the inclusion criteria: 85 (78%) benign tumors and 24 (22%) malignant tumors. Mean patient age was 46.47 years. The female gender accounted for 56 cases (51.4%) and the male gender accounted for 53 (48.3%). The major salivary glands were affected more (75.2%) than the minor glands. The most frequent benign and malignant SGTs were pleomorphic adenoma (81.2%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (58.3%), respectively. In conclusion, pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are the most frequent benign and malignant lesions, respectively. Comparing the present data with previous studies on SGTs, one may infer that some demographic characteristics and the predominance of malignant tumors vary in different geographic regions.

  13. WHO is in and WHO is out of the mouth, salivary glands, and jaws sections of the 4th edition of the WHO classification of head and neck tumours.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, R A

    2018-02-01

    This review of changes to the 4th edition of the WHO classification of head and neck tumours focuses on their impact on the surgical care of diseases that affect the salivary glands, jaws, and oral cavity. Updates to the chapter on the salivary glands include the addition of secretory carcinoma and sclerosing polycystic adenosis. The odontogenic cysts are back, and the odontogenic keratocyst is listed among them, as it has now lost its brief and confusing designation as a neoplasm. The newly-defined sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma and primordial odontogenic tumour have been added. Oropharyngeal tumours have been separated from those of the oral cavity, which reflects the importance of HPV in carcinoma of the tonsils. The problems of grading oral epithelial dysplasia persist. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anticoagulant activity in salivary glands of the insect vector Culicoides variipennis sonorensis by an inhibitor of factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Pérez de León, A A; Valenzuela, J G; Tabachnick, W J

    1998-02-01

    Blood feeding by the insect vector Culicoides variipennis sonorensis involves laceration of superficial host tissues, an injury that would be expected to trigger the coagulation cascade. Accordingly, the salivary glands of C.v. sonorensis were examined for the presence of an antihemostatic that prevents blood coagulation. Assays using salivary gland extracts showed a delay in the recalcification time of plasma devoid of platelets, indicating the presence of anticoagulant activity. Retardation in the formation of a fibrin clot was also observed after the addition of tissue factor to plasma that was preincubated with salivary gland extracts. Similarly, an inhibitory effect by salivary gland extracts was detected in assays that included factors of the intrinsic pathway. Inhibition of the catalytic activity of purified factor Xa toward its chromogenic substrate suggested that it was the target of the salivary anticoagulant of C.v. sonorensis. This was corroborated by the coincidence of anticoagulant and anti-FXa activities obtained by reverse-phase HPLC. The depletion of anti-FXa activity from salivary glands during blood feeding suggests that the FXa inhibitor functions as anticoagulant. Molecular sieving HPLC yielded an apparent molecular mass of 28 kDa for the salivary FXa inhibitor of C.v. sonorensis. Preventing the formation of thrombin through the inhibition of FXa likely facilitates blood feeding by maintaining the pool of blood fluid at the feeding site. The salivary FXa inhibitor of C.v. sonorensis could impair the network of host-defense mechanisms in the skin microenvironment by avoiding blood coagulation at the site of feeding.

  15. aPKCζ-dependent Repression of Yap is Necessary for Functional Restoration of Irradiated Salivary Glands with IGF-1.

    PubMed

    Chibly, Alejandro M; Wong, Wen Yu; Pier, Maricela; Cheng, Hongqiang; Mu, Yongxin; Chen, Ju; Ghosh, Sourav; Limesand, Kirsten H

    2018-04-20

    Xerostomia and salivary hypofunction often result as a consequence of radiation therapy for head and neck cancers, which are diagnosed in roughly 60,000 individuals every year in the U.S. Due to the lack of effective treatments for radiation-induced salivary hypofunction, stem cell-based therapies have been suggested to regenerate the irradiated salivary glands. Pharmacologically, restoration of salivary gland function has been accomplished in mice by administering IGF-1 shortly after radiation treatment, but it is not known if salivary stem and progenitor cells play a role. We show that radiation inactivates aPKCζ and promotes nuclear redistribution of Yap in a population of label-retaining cells in the acinar compartment of the parotid gland (PG)- which comprises a heterogeneous pool of salivary progenitors. Administration of IGF-1 post-radiation maintains activation of aPKCζ and partially rescues Yap's cellular localization in label retaining cells, while restoring salivary function. Finally, IGF-1 fails to restore saliva production in mice lacking aPKCζ, demonstrating the importance of the kinase as a potential therapeutic target.

  16. MicroRNA Expression Profiles as Biomarkers of Minor Salivary Gland Inflammation and Dysfunction in Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alevizos, Ilias; Alexander, Stefanie; Turner, R. James; Illei, Gabor G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective MicroRNA reflect physiologic and pathologic processes and may be used as biomarkers of concurrent pathophysiologic events in complex settings such as autoimmune diseases. We generated microRNA microarray profiles from the minor salivary glands of control subjects without Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and patients with SS who had low-grade or high-grade inflammation and impaired or normal saliva production, to identify microRNA patterns specific to salivary gland inflammation or dysfunction. Methods MicroRNA expression profiles were generated by Agilent microRNA arrays. We developed a novel method for data normalization by identifying housekeeping microRNA. MicroRNA profiles were compared by unsupervised mathematical methods to test how well they distinguish between control subjects and various subsets of patients with SS. Several bioinformatics methods were used to predict the messenger RNA targets of the differentially expressed microRNA. Results MicroRNA expression patterns accurately distinguished salivary glands from control subjects and patients with SS who had low-degree or high-degree inflammation. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we validated 2 microRNA as markers of inflammation in an independent cohort. Comparing microRNA from patients with preserved or low salivary flow identified a set of differentially expressed microRNA, most of which were up-regulated in the group with decreased salivary gland function, suggesting that the targets of microRNA may have a protective effect on epithelial cells. The predicted biologic targets of microRNA associated with inflammation or salivary gland dysfunction identified both overlapping and distinct biologic pathways and processes. Conclusion Distinct microRNA expression patterns are associated with salivary gland inflammation and dysfunction in patients with SS, and microRNA represent a novel group of potential biomarkers. PMID:21280008

  17. WE-FG-202-12: Investigation of Longitudinal Salivary Gland DCE-MRI Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Ger, R; Howell, R; Li, H

    Purpose: To determine the correlation between dose and changes through treatment in dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI voxel parameters (Ktrans, kep, Ve, and Vp) within salivary glands of head and neck oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. Methods: 17 HNSCC patients treated with definitive radiation therapy completed DCE-MRI scans on a 3T scanner at pre-treatment, mid-treatment, and post-treatment time points. Mid-treatment and post-treatment DCE images were deformably registered to pre-treatment DCE images (Velocity software package). Pharmacokinetic analysis of the DCE images used a modified Tofts model to produce parameter maps with an arterial input function selected from each patient’s perivertebralmore » space on the image (NordicICE software package). In-house software was developed for voxel-by-voxel longitudinal analysis of the salivary glands within the registered images. The planning CT was rigidly registered to the pre-treatment DCE image to obtain dose values in each voxel. Voxels within the lower and upper dose quartiles for each gland were averaged for each patient, then an average of the patients’ means for the two quartiles were compared. Dose-relationships were also assessed by Spearman correlations between dose and voxel parameter changes for each patient’s gland. Results: Changes in parameters’ means between time points were observed, but inter-patient variability was high. Ve of the parotid was the only parameter that had a consistently significant longitudinal difference between dose quartiles. The highest Spearman correlation was Vp of the sublingual gland for the change in the pre-treatment to mid-treatment values with only a ρ=0.29. Conclusion: In this preliminary study, there was large inter-patient variability in the changes of DCE voxel parameters with no clear relationship with dose. Additional patients may reduce the uncertainties and allow for the determination of the existence of parameter and dose

  18. Melatonin Inhibits Embryonic Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis by Regulating Both Epithelial Cell Adhesion and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Jiro; Sakai, Manabu; Uchida, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Wataru; Nohara, Kanji; Maruyama, Yusuke; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Sakai, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Many organs, including salivary glands, lung, and kidney, are formed by epithelial branching during embryonic development. Branching morphogenesis occurs via either local outgrowths or the formation of clefts that subdivide epithelia into buds. This process is promoted by various factors, but the mechanism of branching morphogenesis is not fully understood. Here we have defined melatonin as a potential negative regulator or “brake” of branching morphogenesis, shown that the levels of it and its receptors decline when branching morphogenesis begins, and identified the process that it regulates. Melatonin has various physiological functions, including circadian rhythm regulation, free-radical scavenging, and gonadal development. Furthermore, melatonin is present in saliva and may have an important physiological role in the oral cavity. In this study, we found that the melatonin receptor is highly expressed on the acinar epithelium of the embryonic submandibular gland. We also found that exogenous melatonin reduces salivary gland size and inhibits branching morphogenesis. We suggest that this inhibition does not depend on changes in either proliferation or apoptosis, but rather relates to changes in epithelial cell adhesion and morphology. In summary, we have demonstrated a novel function of melatonin in organ formation during embryonic development. PMID:25876057

  19. Salivary gland carcinosarcoma: oligonucleotide array CGH reveals similar genomic profiles in epithelial and mesenchymal components.

    PubMed

    Vékony, Hedy; Leemans, C René; Ylstra, Bauke; Meijer, Gerrit A; van der Waal, Isaäc; Bloemena, Elisabeth

    2009-03-01

    In this study, we present a case of parotid gland de novo carcinosarcoma. Salivary gland carcinosarcoma (or true malignant mixed tumor) is a rare biphasic neoplasm, composed of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal components. It is yet unclear whether these two phenotypes occur by collision of two independent tumors or if they are of clonal origin. To analyze the clonality of the different morphologic tumor components, oligonucleotide microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (oaCGH) was performed on the carcinoma and the sarcoma entity separately. This technique enables a high-resolution, genome-wide overview of the chromosomal alterations in the distinct tumor elements. Analysis of both fractions showed a high number of DNA copy number changes. Losses were more prevalent than gains (82 and 49, respectively). The carcinomatous element displayed more chromosomal aberrations than the sarcomatous component. Specific amplifications of MUC20 (in mesenchymal element) and BMI-1 (in both elements) loci were observed. Overall homology between the two genomic profiles was 75%. DNA copy number profiles of the epithelial and mesenchymal components in this salivary gland carcinosarcoma displayed extensive overlap, indicating a monoclonal origin. Since losses are shared to a larger extent than gains, they seem to be more essential for initial oncogenic events. Furthermore, specific amplifications of a mucin and a Polycomb group gene imply these proteins in the tumorigenesis of carcinosarcomas.

  20. Distinct properties of proteases and nucleases in the gut, salivary gland and saliva of southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula

    PubMed Central

    Lomate, Purushottam R.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2016-01-01

    Stink bugs negatively impact numerous plant species of agricultural and horticultural importance. While efforts to develop effective control measures are underway, the unique digestive physiology of these pests presents a significant hurdle for either protein- or nucleotide-based management options. Here we report the comparative biochemical and proteomic characterization of proteases and nucleases from the gut, salivary gland and saliva of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula. The pH optimum for protease activity was acidic (5 to 6) in the gut with the primary proteases being cysteine proteases, and alkaline (8 to 9) in the saliva and salivary gland with the primary proteases being serine proteases. The serine proteases in saliva differ biochemically from trypsin and chymotrypsin, and the cathepsins in the gut and saliva showed distinct properties in inhibitor assays. Nuclease activity (DNase, RNase, dsRNase) was concentrated in the salivary gland and saliva with negligible activity in the gut. The most abundant proteins of the gut (530) and salivary gland (631) identified by proteomic analysis included four gut proteases along with eight proteases and one nuclease from the salivary gland. Understanding of N. viridula digestive physiology will facilitate the design of new strategies for management of this significant pest. PMID:27282882

  1. Injection of Botulinum Toxin for Preventing Salivary Gland Toxicity after PSMA Radioligand Therapy: an Empirical Proof of a Promising Concept.

    PubMed

    Baum, Richard P; Langbein, Thomas; Singh, Aviral; Shahinfar, Mostafa; Schuchardt, Christiane; Volk, Gerd Fabian; Kulkarni, Harshad

    2018-02-01

    The dose-limiting salivary gland toxicity of 225 Ac-labelled PSMA for treatment of metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer remains unresolved. Suppressing the metabolism of the gland by intraparenchymal injections of botulinum toxin appears to be a promising method to reduce off-target uptake. A 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT scan performed 45 days after injection of 80 units of botulinum toxin A into the right parotid gland in a 63-year-old patient showed a decrease in the SUVmean in the right parotid gland of up to 64% as compared with baseline. This approach could be a significant breakthrough for radioprotection of the salivary glands during PSMA radioligand therapy.

  2. Association of Xerostomia and Ultrasonographic Features of the Major Salivary Glands After Radioactive Iodine Ablation for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Soo Roh, Sang; Wook Kim, Dong; Jin Baek, Hye

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between xerostomia and sonographic features of the major salivary glands after patients undergo radioactive iodine ablation (RIA) for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The study included 256 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy, RIA, and neck ultrasound examinations. Changes in the ultrasound features of the parotid and submandibular glands after RIA were evaluated retrospectively by a single radiologist, on the basis of direct comparison of sonograms obtained before and after RIA. Clinical data, including the presence of xerostomia, were investigated retrospectively by the same radiologist via a review of the electronic medical records. For 111 of the 256 patients (43.4%), ultrasound examination revealed changes in the major salivary glands after RIA. The presence of xerostomia was undetermined in 85 of the 256 patients. Among the remaining 171 patients, the frequency of xerostomia was 36.8% (63/171). When patients with xerostomia were compared with those without xerostomia, no statistically significant differences in patient sex and age, the dose of RIA received, or the number of RIA sessions were noted (p > 0.05). Considering the changes in the ultrasound features of the major salivary glands after RIA, no statistically significant association was found between xerostomia and the number of involved major salivary glands or the presence of an involved submandibular gland (p > 0.05). In this study, ultrasound was unhelpful for evaluating xerostomia after RIA in patients with PTC.

  3. Anti-thrombosis Repertoire of Blood-feeding Horsefly Salivary Glands*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dongying; Wang, Yipeng; Yang, Hailong; Wu, Jing; An, Shu; Gao, Li; Xu, Xueqing; Lai, Ren

    2009-01-01

    Blood-feeding arthropods rely heavily on the pharmacological properties of their saliva to get a blood meal and suppress immune reactions of hosts. Little information is available on antihemostatic substances in horsefly salivary glands although their saliva has been thought to contain wide range of physiologically active molecules. In traditional Eastern medicine, horseflies are used as anti-thrombosis material for hundreds of years. By proteomics coupling transcriptome analysis with pharmacological testing, several families of proteins or peptides, which exert mainly on anti-thrombosis functions, were identified and characterized from 60,000 pairs of salivary glands of the horsefly Tabanus yao Macquart (Diptera, Tabanidae). They are: (I) ten fibrin(ogen)olytic enzymes, which hydrolyze specially alpha chain of fibrin(ogen) and are the first family of fibrin(ogen)olytic enzymes purified and characterized from arthropods; (II) another fibrin(ogen)olytic enzyme, which hydrolyzes both alpha and beta chain of fibrin(ogen); (III) ten Arg-Gly-Asp-motif containing proteins acting as platelet aggregation inhibitors; (IV) five thrombin inhibitor peptides; (V) three vasodilator peptides; (VI) one apyrase acting as platelet aggregation inhibitor; (VII) one peroxidase with both platelet aggregation inhibitory and vasodilator activities. The first three families are belonging to antigen five proteins, which show obvious similarity with insect allergens. They are the first members of the antigen 5 family found in salivary glands of blood sucking arthropods to have anti-thromobosis function. The current results imply a possible evolution from allergens of blood-sucking insects to anti-thrombosis agents. The extreme diversity of horsefly anti-thrombosis components also reveals the anti-thrombosis molecular mechanisms of the traditional Eastern medicine insect material. PMID:19531497

  4. Risk Factors of 131I-Induced Salivary Gland Damage in Thyroid Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hollingsworth, Brynn; Senter, Leigha; Zhang, Xiaoli; Brock, Guy N.; Jarjour, Wael; Nagy, Rebecca; Brock, Pamela; Coombes, Kevin R.; Kloos, Richard T.; Ringel, Matthew D.; Sipos, Jennifer; Lattimer, Ilene; Carrau, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Context: Sialadenitis and xerostomia are major adverse effects of 131I therapy in thyroid cancer patients. The risk factors for these adverse effects, other than administered activity of 131I, have not been investigated. Objective: The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for 131I-induced salivary gland damage among follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer patients. Design: We enrolled 216 thyroid cancer patients who visited The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center between April 2013 and April 2014. Symptoms of xerostomia and sialadenitis were identified via questionnaire and medical record search. To validate the findings in a large cohort, we retrospectively searched for ICD-9/10 codes for sialadenitis, xerostomia, and autoimmune disease associated with Sjögren's syndrome (AID-SS) in our existing database (n = 1507). Demographic and clinical information was extracted from medical records. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent predictors for salivary gland damage. Results: 131I treatment associated with higher incidence of xerostomia and sialadenitis. Patients with xerostomia had 46 mCi higher mean cumulative 131I activity and 21 mCi higher mean first-administered 131I activity than patients without xerostomia. Increased age associated with higher incidence of xerostomia, and females had a higher incidence of sialadenitis. Patients who experienced sialadenitis before 131I therapy had higher sialadenitis incidence after 131I therapy. 131I-treated patients diagnosed with AID-SS, whether before or after 131I treatment, had a higher incidence of xerostomia and sialadenitis among 131I-treated patients. Conclusion: Risk factors for 131I-induced salivary gland damage include administered 131I activity, age, gender, history of sialadenitis before 131I treatment, and AID-SS diagnosis. PMID:27533304

  5. Proteogenomic analysis of the total and surface-exposed proteomes of Plasmodium vivax salivary gland sporozoites

    PubMed Central

    Swearingen, Kristian E.; Lindner, Scott E.; Flannery, Erika L.; Vaughan, Ashley M.; Morrison, Robert D.; Patrapuvich, Rapatbhorn; Koepfli, Cristian; Muller, Ivo; Jex, Aaron; Moritz, Robert L.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax cause the majority of human malaria cases. Research efforts predominantly focus on P. falciparum because of the clinical severity of infection and associated mortality rates. However, P. vivax malaria affects more people in a wider global range. Furthermore, unlike P. falciparum, P. vivax can persist in the liver as dormant hypnozoites that can be activated weeks to years after primary infection, causing relapse of symptomatic blood stages. This feature makes P. vivax unique and difficult to eliminate with the standard tools of vector control and treatment of symptomatic blood stage infection with antimalarial drugs. Infection by Plasmodium is initiated by the mosquito-transmitted sporozoite stage, a highly motile invasive cell that targets hepatocytes in the liver. The most advanced malaria vaccine for P. falciparum (RTS,S, a subunit vaccine containing of a portion of the major sporozoite surface protein) conferred limited protection in Phase III trials, falling short of WHO-established vaccine efficacy goals. However, blocking the sporozoite stage of infection in P. vivax, before the establishment of the chronic liver infection, might be an effective malaria vaccine strategy to reduce the occurrence of relapsing blood stages. It is also thought that a multivalent vaccine comprising multiple sporozoite surface antigens will provide better protection, but a comprehensive analysis of proteins in P. vivax sporozoites is not available. To inform sporozoite-based vaccine development, we employed mass spectrometry-based proteomics to identify nearly 2,000 proteins present in P. vivax salivary gland sporozoites. Analysis of protein post-translational modifications revealed extensive phosphorylation of glideosome proteins as well as regulators of transcription and translation. Additionally, the sporozoite surface proteins CSP and TRAP, which were recently discovered to be glycosylated in P. falciparum salivary gland sporozoites

  6. Follicular lymphoma in the palate with clinical appearance similar to salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marina de Deus Moura; Artico, Gabriela; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Martins, Marília Trierveiler; Alves, Fabio Abreu

    2010-09-01

    Intraoral presentation of follicular lymphoma is rare, and only three cases in the palate have been reported to date. The present case report describes an uncommon case of follicular lymphoma affecting the palate. The clinical aspect was similar to salivary gland neoplasm, and an incisional biopsy was important to establish the correct diagnosis and consequently to plan the treatment. Also discussed is the differential diagnosis among follicular lymphoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and follicular lymphoid hyperplasia with regard to the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features.

  7. Multiple mucous retention cysts of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tal, H; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    1984-12-01

    While mucoceles of the oral mucosa are relatively common, multiple mucous retention cysts have not previously been reported. In this article two such cases, in which numerous minor salivary gland ducts had dilated to the point of cyst formation, are described. The number of individual cysts exceeded 100 in each case. Since it is clear that these cysts formed as a result of dilatation of salivary ducts, it would seem that either the ducts were blocked by altered secretion or there was an acquired or congenital weakness in their structure.

  8. Salivary gland function 5 years after radioactive iodine ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: direct comparison of pre- and postablation scintigraphies and their relation to xerostomia symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Shin Young; Kim, Hae Won; Lee, Sang-Woo; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jaetae

    2013-05-01

    Chronic sialadenitis is one of the most frequent chronic complications after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for thyroid cancer. To evaluate the long-term effects of RAI ablation on salivary gland function, we investigated scintigraphic changes in salivary glands by direct comparison of two salivary gland scintigraphies (SGSs) taken before and at 5 years after an RAI ablation. SGS was performed just before RAI ablation (pre-SGS) and ∼5 years after RAI ablation (F/U SGS) in 213 subjects who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer. The uptake score (U score) was graded, and the ejection fraction (EF) was quantified for the parotid and submandibular glands at pre-SGS and F/U SGS. Changes in salivary gland function were graded as mild, moderate, or severe according to the differences in U score and EF between the two SGSs. Xerostomia was assessed and compared with the SGS findings. Worsening of the U score was observed in 182 of 852 salivary glands (total: 21.3%; mild: 4.2%, moderate: 7.4%, severe: 9.7%), and 47.4% of the patients had a worsening U score for at least one of four salivary glands. A decrease in EF was observed in 173 of 852 salivary glands (total: 20.3%; mild: 5.4%, moderate: 6.8%, severe: 8.1%), and 43.7% of the patients experienced a decrease in the EF of at least one of the four salivary glands. Bilateral parotid gland dysfunction was the most commonly observed condition. Thirty-five (16.4%) patients complained of xerostomia at 5 years after RAI ablation. Scintigraphic changes in salivary gland function and xerostomia were more common in patients receiving 5.55 GBq, compared with 3.7 GBq. Xerostomia was more common in patients with submandibular gland dysfunction than those with parotid gland dysfunction (68.8% vs. 33.3%, p<0.05). The number of dysfunctional salivary glands was correlated with xerostomia (p<0.01). About 20% of the salivary glands were dysfunctional on SGS 5 years after a single RAI ablation, especially in patients who

  9. Classification of parotidectomies: a proposal of the European Salivary Gland Society.

    PubMed

    Quer, M; Guntinas-Lichius, O; Marchal, F; Vander Poorten, V; Chevalier, D; León, X; Eisele, D; Dulguerov, P

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive classification system for parotidectomy operations. Data sources include Medline publications, author's experience, and consensus round table at the Third European Salivary Gland Society (ESGS) Meeting. The Medline database was searched with the term "parotidectomy" and "definition". The various definitions of parotidectomy procedures and parotid gland subdivisions extracted. Previous classification systems re-examined and a new classification proposed by a consensus. The ESGS proposes to subdivide the parotid parenchyma in five levels: I (lateral superior), II (lateral inferior), III (deep inferior), IV (deep superior), V (accessory). A new classification is proposed where the type of resection is divided into formal parotidectomy with facial nerve dissection and extracapsular dissection. Parotidectomies are further classified according to the levels removed, as well as the extra-parotid structures ablated. A new classification of parotidectomy procedures is proposed.

  10. Zygomatic salivary gland diseases in the dog: three cases diagnosed by MRI.

    PubMed

    Boland, Laetitia; Gomes, Eymeric; Payen, Guillaume; Bouvy, Bernard; Poncet, Cyrill

    2013-01-01

    This article describes three original cases of zygomatic gland disease in the dog diagnosed by low-field MRI and treated by a modified lateral orbitotomy with zygomatic osteotomy. Presenting complaints included exophthalmia, protrusion of the third eyelid, and periorbital swelling without any history of trauma. Low-field MRI allowed for adequate diagnosis of zygomatic gland disease in all cases and provided detailed information about both the specific tissue characteristics of each lesion and extension into surrounding structures. MRI findings were also helpful for surgical planning and dictated the choice of a modified lateral orbitotomy without removal of the orbital ligament. Histopathologic diagnosis for each of the three dogs was a mucocele, a malignant mixed salivary tumor, and sialadenitis.

  11. Association of salivary gland hypofunction with diabetes mellitus and drugs among the elderly in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Lone, Muneeb Ahmed; Shaikh, Sameer; Lone, Maham Muneeb; Afaq, Ashar; Lone, Mohid Abrar

    2017-05-01

    Studies from Pakistan on salivary dysfunction are lacking, and the Pakistani elderly population is rapidly growing. Among the most common problems in the elderly that could have a deleterious impact on their quality of life are salivary gland hypofunction (SGH), diabetes mellitus (DM), and the intake of drugs with adverse effects on salivary function. In the present study, we aimed to find the association of SGH with DM and drugs among the elderly in Karachi, Pakistan. The inclusion criterion was affirmative answers to a series of standardized questions related to the symptoms of dry mouth. A total of 110 individuals were selected from a convenience sample of 200 people aged between 60 and 70 years. Diabetes, drug use, and SGH in the participants were determined by detailed medical and drug history, clinical examination, and sialometry. Similar to their international counterparts, the majority of the study participants demonstrated objective evidence of SGH. More importantly SGH was found to be statistically significant with respect to DM and medication (P < 0.05). For participants on medication, the minimum and maximum salivary flow rates were found to be 0.09 mL/min and 0.3 ml/min, respectively, whereas the minimum and maximum salivary flow rates in diabetic participants were 0.01 mL/min and 0.09 mL/min, respectively. In the present study, the majority of elderly participants whose presenting complaint was oral dryness was found to have objective evidence of SGH, with a statistically-significant association with DM and drugs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of large-cell undifferentiated carcinoma of the salivary glands: presentation of two cases, literature review, and differential cytodiagnosis of high-grade salivary gland malignancies.

    PubMed

    Moore, J G; Bocklage, T

    1998-07-01

    Primary undifferentiated carcinoma of the salivary glands is a rare, high-grade neoplasm which accounts for a very small number (1-5.5%) of malignant salivary gland tumors. The large-cell variant (LCU) is less well-characterized than the small-cell form. We report on the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy findings of 2 cases of LCU, one arising in the parotid gland, and the other in a buccal mucosa accessory salivary gland. The 2 cases were similar in composition: isolated and loosely cohesive large cells with abundant cytoplasm, and variability pleomorphic nuclei with prominent nucleoli. One case also featured multinucleated tumor giant cells and macrophage polykaryons; the latter has not previously been described in FNA biopsies of LCU. There was no evidence of squamous, myoepithelial, or widespread mucinous differentiation by morphological, cytochemical, or immunohistochemical analyses (focal rare mucin production identified on special stains in one case). The differential diagnosis is lengthy and consists of other high-grade primary salivary gland malignancies as well as metastatic lesions, including melanoma. The pattern of immunohistochemical reactivity (positive keratin, negative S-100, and HMB-45 antigens), and lack of conspicuous mucin production of significant lymphoidinfiltrate, were useful in establishing the correct diagnosis.

  13. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  14. Salivary Gland Tumors Treated With Adjuvant Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With or Without Concurrent Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfeld, Jonathan D., E-mail: jdschoenfeld@partners.org; Sher, David J.; Norris, Charles M.

    Purpose: To analyze the recent single-institution experience of patients with salivary gland tumors who had undergone adjuvant intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 35 salivary gland carcinoma patients treated primarily at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 2005 and 2010 with surgery and adjuvant IMRT. The primary endpoints were local control, progression-free survival, and overall survival. The secondary endpoints were acute and chronic toxicity. The median follow-up was 2.3 years (interquartile range, 1.2-2.8) among the surviving patients. Results: The histologic types included adenoid cystic carcinoma in 15 (43%), mucoepidermoid carcinomamore » in 6 (17%), adenocarcinoma in 3 (9%), acinic cell carcinoma in 3 (9%), and other in 8 (23%). The primary sites were the parotid gland in 17 (49%), submandibular glands in 6 (17%), tongue in 4 (11%), palate in 4 (11%), and other in 4 (11%). The median radiation dose was 66 Gy, and 22 patients (63%) received CRT. The most common chemotherapy regimen was carboplatin and paclitaxel (n = 14, 64%). A trend was seen for patients undergoing CRT to have more adverse prognostic factors, including Stage T3-T4 disease (CRT, n = 12, 55% vs. n = 4, 31%, p = .29), nodal positivity (CRT, n = 8, 36% vs. n = 1, 8%, p = .10), and positive margins (n = 13, 59% vs. n = 5, 38%, p = .30). One patient who had undergone CRT developed an in-field recurrence, resulting in an overall actuarial 3-year local control rate of 92%. Five patients (14%) developed distant metastases (1 who had undergone IMRT only and 4 who had undergone CRT). Acute Grade 3 mucositis, esophagitis, and dermatitis occurred in 8%, 8%, and 8% (1 each) of IMRT patients and in 18%, 5%, and 14% (4, 1, and 3 patients) of the CRT group, respectively. No acute Grade 4 toxicity occurred. The most common late toxicity was Grade 1 xerostomia (n = 8, 23%). Conclusions

  15. Immunohistochemichal Assessment of the CrkII Proto-oncogene Expression in Common Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors and Pleomorphic Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Askari, Mitra; Darabi, Masoud; Jahanzad, Esa; Mostakhdemian Hosseini, Zahra; Musavi Chavoshi, Marjan; Darabi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Various morphologies are seen in different salivary gland tumorsor within an individual tumor, and the lesions show divers biological behaviors. Experimental results support the hypothesis that increased CrkII proto-oncogene is associated with cytokine-induced tumor initiation and progression by altering cell motility signaling pathway. The aim of this study was to assess the CrkII expression in common malignant salivary gland tumors and pleomorphic ade-noma. Materials and methods. Immunohistochemical analysis of CrkII expression was performed on paraffin blocks of 64 car-cinomas of salivary glands, 10 pleomorphic adenomas, and 10 normal salivary glands. Biopsies were subjected to immu-nostaining with EnVision detection system using monoclonal anti-CrkII. Evaluation of immunoreactivity of CrkII was based on the immunoreaction intensity and percentage of stained tumor cells which were scored semi-quantitatively on a scale with four grades 0 to 3. Kruskal-wallis test and additional Mann-Whitney statistical test were used for analysis of CrkII expression levels. Results. Increased expression of CrkII was seen (P=0.005) in malignant tumors including: mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, but CrkII expression in acinic cell carcinoma was weak. CrkII expression in pleomorphic adenoma was weak or negative. A weak staining was sparsely seen in normal acinar serous cell. Conclusion. Increased expression of CrkII and its higher intensity of staining in tumors with more aggressive biologic behavior in carcinomas of salivary gland is consistent with a role for this proto-oncogene in salivary gland tumorigenesis and cancer progression.

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis of salivary glands of two populations of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, that differ in virulence.

    PubMed

    Ji, Rui; Yu, Haixin; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Hongdan; Ye, Wenfeng; Li, Shaohui; Lou, Yonggen

    2013-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), a destructive rice pest in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. Herbivore saliva plays an important role in plant-herbivore interactions, including in plant defense and herbivore virulence. However, thus far little is known about BPH saliva at the molecular level, especially its role in virulence and BPH-rice interaction. Using cDNA amplification in combination with Illumina short-read sequencing technology, we sequenced the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations with different virulence; the populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population) and Mudgo (M population). In total, 37,666 and 38,451 unigenes were generated from the salivary glands of these populations, respectively. When combined, a total of 43,312 unigenes were obtained, about 18 times more than the number of expressed sequence tags previously identified from these glands. Gene ontology annotations and KEGG orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism, binding and transport were significantly active in the salivary glands. A total of 352 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins, and some might play important roles in BPH feeding and BPH-rice interactions. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of the two populations revealed that the genes related to 'metabolism,' 'digestion and absorption,' and 'salivary secretion' might be associated with virulence. Moreover, 67 genes encoding putative secreted proteins were differentially expressed between the two populations, suggesting these genes may contribute to the change in virulence. This study was the first to compare the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our data provide a rich molecular resource for future functional studies on salivary glands and will be useful for elucidating the

  17. CELLULAR AND SECRETORY PROTEINS OF THE SALIVARY GLANDS OF SCIARA COPROPHILA DURING THE LARVAL-PUPAL TRANSFORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Been, Anita C.; Rasch, Ellen M.

    1972-01-01

    The cellular and secretory proteins of the salivary gland of Sciara coprophila during the stages of the larval-pupal transformation were examined by electrophoresis in 0.6 mm sheets of polyacrylamide gel with both SDS-continuous and discontinuous buffer systems. After SDS-electrophoresis, all electrophoretograms of both reduced and nonreduced proteins from single glands stained with Coomassie brilliant blue revealed a pattern containing the same 25 bands during the stages of the larval-pupal transformation. With the staining procedures used in this study, qualitative increases and decreases were detected in existing proteins and enzymes. There was no evidence, however, for the appearance of new protein species that could be correlated with the onset of either pupation or gland histolysis. Electrophoretograms of reduced samples of anterior versus posterior gland parts indicated that no protein in the basic pattern of 25 bands was unique to either the anterior or posterior gland part. Electrophoretograms of reduced samples of secretion collected from either actively feeding or "cocoon"-building animals showed an electrophoretic pattern containing up to six of the 25 protein fractions detected in salivary gland samples, with varied amounts of these same six proteins in electrophoretograms of secretion samples from a given stage. Zymograms of non-specific esterases in salivary gland samples revealed a progressive increase in the amount of esterase reaction produce in one major band and some decrease in the second major band during later stages of the larval-pupal transformation. PMID:4116523

  18. Sialome of a Generalist Lepidopteran Herbivore: Identification of Transcripts and Proteins from Helicoverpa armigera Labial Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Celorio-Mancera, Maria de la Paz; Courtiade, Juliette; Muck, Alexander; Heckel, David G.; Musser, Richard O.; Vogel, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    Although the importance of insect saliva in insect-host plant interactions has been acknowledged, there is very limited information on the nature and complexity of the salivary proteome in lepidopteran herbivores. We inspected the labial salivary transcriptome and proteome of Helicoverpa armigera, an important polyphagous pest species. To identify the majority of the salivary proteins we have randomly sequenced 19,389 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a normalized cDNA library of salivary glands. In parallel, a non-cytosolic enriched protein fraction was obtained from labial salivary glands and subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and de novo peptide sequencing. This procedure allowed comparison of peptides and EST sequences and enabled us to identify 65 protein spots from the secreted labial saliva 2DE proteome. The mass spectrometry analysis revealed ecdysone, glucose oxidase, fructosidase, carboxyl/cholinesterase and an uncharacterized protein previously detected in H. armigera midgut proteome. Consistently, their corresponding transcripts are among the most abundant in our cDNA library. We did find redundancy of sequence identification of saliva-secreted proteins suggesting multiple isoforms. As expected, we found several enzymes responsible for digestion and plant offense. In addition, we identified non-digestive proteins such as an arginine kinase and abundant proteins of unknown function. This identification of secreted salivary gland proteins allows a more comprehensive understanding of insect feeding and poses new challenges for the elucidation of protein function. PMID:22046331

  19. Chronic inflammation in the pancreas and salivary glands--lessons from similarities and differences in pathophysiology and treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Rakonczay, Zoltán; Vág, János; Földes, Anna; Nagy, Krisztina; Nagy, Ákos; Hegyi, Péter; Varga, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas and salivary glands have similar anatomical structures and physiological functions producing bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive enzymes and other components to be delivered into the gut. Despite these similarities, the two organs are also different in numerous respects, especially regarding the inflammatory diseases affecting them. This article will summarize the pathophysiology and current and potential pharmacological treatments of chronic inflammatory diseases such as chronic pancreatitis, autoimmune pancreatitis, Sjögren's syndrome and irradiation-induced salivary gland atrophy. Despite the differences, in both organs the inflammatory process is accompanied by epithelial tissue destruction and fibrosis. Both in pancreatic and in salivary research, an important task is to stop or even reverse this process. The utilization of stem/progenitor cell populations previously identified in these organs and the application of mesenchymal stem cells are very promising for such regenerative purposes. In addition, gene therapy and tissue engineering research progressively advance and have already yielded clinically beneficial preliminary results for salivary gland diseases. For the hard-to-access, hard-to-regenerate pancreas these developments may also offer new solutions, especially since salivary and pancreatic progenitors are very similar in characteristics and may be mutually useful to regenerate the respective other organ as well. These novel developments could be of great significance and may bring new hope for patients since currently used therapeutic protocols in salivary and in pancreatic chronic inflammatory diseases offer primarily symptomatic treatments and limited beneficial outcome.

  20. MUC4 (sialomucin complex) expression in salivary gland tumors and squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract.

    PubMed

    Weed, D T; Gomez-Fernandez, C; Bonfante, E; Lee, T D; Pacheco, J; Carvajal, M E; Goodwin, W J; Carraway, K L

    2001-02-01

    This study investigates MUC4 expression in normal squamous epithelia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), and in salivary gland neoplasms. MUC4 antigens in tumor and adjacent normal tissue are localized by immunocytochemical studies. Fresh frozen tissues from surgical resection specimens are further analyzed by Western blot. MUC4 is identified by immunocytochemical staining throughout the normal UADT mucosa, in 34 of 40 primary UADT SCC, and in 11 of 12 metastatic cervical lymph nodes. A trend toward decreased MUC4 staining in moderately and poorly differentiated tumors is noted. Immunoblots show MUC4 in 4 of 5 SCC analyzed. Immunocytochemical staining of MUC4 in 13 major and minor salivary gland neoplasms reveal variable staining of normal and neoplastic tissue. MUC4 is demonstrated in immunoblots of normal parotid tissue and in the single parotid malignancy analyzed, but is not demonstrated in one minor salivary gland malignancy. These findings characterize normal UADT mucosal and salivary MUC4 expression, and MUC4 expression in SCC of the UADT and in salivary gland tumors. Correlation of MUC4 expression with clinical outcomes may establish MUC4 as a potential molecular prognostic marker for these tumors.

  1. Physiologic distribution of PSMA-ligand in salivary glands and seromucous glands of the head and neck on PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Klein Nulent, Thomas J W; Valstar, Matthijs H; de Keizer, Bart; Willems, Stefan M; Smit, Laura A; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Smeele, Ludwig E; van Es, Robert J J; de Bree, Remco; Vogel, Wouter V

    2018-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is used for detection and (re)staging of prostate cancer. However, healthy salivary, seromucous, and lacrimal glands also have high PSMA-ligand uptake. This study aimed to describe physiologic PSMA-ligand uptake distribution characteristics in the head and neck to aid in PSMA PET/CT interpretation and to identify possible new clinical applications for PSMA-ligand imaging. Thirty consecutive patients who underwent PSMA PET/CT for prostate cancer were evaluated. Tracer maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max ) in the salivary, seromucous, and lacrimal glands were determined visually and quantitatively. Overall and intraindividual variations were reported. All gland locations had increased tracer uptake. The mean SUV max  ± standard deviation varied: parotid 12.3 ± 3.9; submandibular 11.7 ± 3.5; sublingual 4.5 ± 1.9; soft palate 2.4 ± 0.5; pharyngeal wall 4.3 ± 1.3; nasal mucosa 3.4 ± 0.9; supraglottic larynx 2.7 ± 0.7; and lacrimal 6.2 ± 2.2. The parotid had the largest overall variation in SUV max (5.2-22.9), and the sublingual glands had the largest mean intraindividual difference (18.1%). Major and minor salivary and seromucous glands consistently have high PSMA-ligand uptake. Minor gland locations can be selectively visualized by this technique for the first time. This provides potential new applications such as quantification of present salivary gland tissues and individualization of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer or lutetium-177-PSMA radionuclide treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Pathological character and treatment of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary gland].

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Wu, Guo-hao; Chen, Fu-jin; Zhang, Quan; Wei, Mao-wen; Chen, Wen-kuan

    2006-04-01

    To review and evaluate pathologic features and treatment of epithelial-myoepithelial. Retrospectively reviewed 14 cases' pathological and clinical materials of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary gland. Eight cases origine from parotid gland, 2 cases from hard palate, 3 cases from submandibular gland and 1 case from nasal cavity. Three cases were performed induction chemotherapy preoperation. One case had palliative radiotherapy. Thirteen cases were performed radical surgery and 6 cases had radiotherapy postoperation. Tumor arisen mostly from parotid gland and neck lymph node metastasis rate was 14.28% (2/14). The survival rate was calculated with Kaplan-Meier method. The overall 3-, 5- and 10-year survival rate were 67.20%, 45.49% and 17.06%. Its histological characteristics were inner layer composed by adenoid cells and outer layer composed by myoepithelial cells. Immunohistochemical exam show cytokeratin, S-100 and actin reaction positive. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma easily develops recurrence. It is sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy to some extent. It is suitable to adopt surgical treatment as primary modality combined with other therapies.

  3. Water permeability of acinar cell membranes in the isolated perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Steward, M C; Seo, Y; Rawlings, J M; Case, R M

    1990-01-01

    1. The diffusive water permeability of epithelial cell membranes in the perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland was measured at 37 degrees C by a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation method using an extracellular relaxation reagent, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd(DTPA)). 2. In glands perfused with a HEPES-buffered solution containing 10 mmol l-1 Gd(DTPA), the spin-lattice (T1) relaxation of the water protons showed two exponential components. The water compartment responsible for the slower component corresponded in magnitude to 71 +/- 5% of the wet weight of the gland, and was attributed to the exchangeable intracellular water of the acinar cells. 3. The rate constant for water efflux from the cells was estimated to be 4.1 +/- 0.1 s-1 which would be consistent with a diffusive membrane permeability (Pd) of approximately 3 x 10(-3) cm s-1. Stimulation with acetylcholine (10(-6) mol l-1) did not cause any detectable change in membrane water permeability. 4. Since the basolateral membrane probably provides the main pathway for water efflux, the osmotic water permeability of this barrier (expressed per gland) was estimated to be less than 6.2 cm3 s-1. This would be insufficient to account for the generation of a near-isosmotic fluid at the flow rates observed during secretion, and suggests that a substantial fraction of the flow of water occurs via a paracellular route. PMID:1966053

  4. The Induction of Adenomas by the Irradiation of Salivary Glands of Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Glücksman, A.; Cherry, C. P.; Glucksman, A.

    1962-08-01

    Local irradiation induces adenomas in the three major salivary glands of rats. Their incidence varies with dose, over-all time of treatment, and sex of the animals. The sublingual gland is most and the parotid the least prone to adenoma formation; the submandibular gland is intermediate. With fractionated protracted doses of x rays the tumor formation is greater than with concentrated smaller doses in the parotid, the submandibular, and the skin, but lower in the sublingunal. For the same dose of x rays the sublingual produces 100% adenomas in males and 50% in females, but none in castrated females. Adenomae occurmore » only in regions in which the acini have disappeared. They are of acinar type in the sublingual and submandibular, formed by the proliferative activity of intercalated ducts. In the parotid they are of tubular type and formed by dedifferentiated ducts. Radiation causes compensatory secretory activity in the intercalated ducts of the sublingunal and the tubules of the submandibular gland but the disappearance of secretory granules in the intercalated ducts of the parotid. Adenoma formation follows the stimulation of regenerative activity in intercalated ducts and in the parotid of excretory ducts by the progressive disappearance of acini and the compensatory activity of the secretory tubules. It is influenced by the sex of the rats and by the type of radiation treatment, but is not a function of radiation dose.« less

  5. Effect of Leflunomide, Cidofovir and Ciprofloxacin on replication of BKPyV in a salivary gland in vitro culture system.

    PubMed

    Jeffers-Francis, Liesl K; Burger-Calderon, Raquel; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is a known kidney tropic virus that has been detected at high levels in HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIV-SGD), one of the most important AIDS associated oral lesions. BKPyV has been detected in HIV-SGD patient saliva and replicates in salivary gland cells in vitro. BKPyV antivirals are currently in wide use to guard against BKPyV mediated organ rejection in kidney transplant recipients. The goal of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of three such antiviral agents, Ciprofloxacin, Cidofovir, and Leflunomide in BKPyV infected salivary gland cells. Human salivary gland cells, and Vero cells, were infected with BKPyV, treated with antiviral drugs and assessed for BKPyV gene expression and viral replication for up to 5 days post infection. The kinetics of BKPyV replication were different in salivary gland cells compared to kidney cells. Ciprofloxacin and Cidofovir had minimal effect on metabolic activity and host cell DNA replication, however, cell toxicity was detected at the protein level with Leflunomide treatment. Ciprofloxacin decreased BKV T Ag and VP1 mRNA expression by at least 50% in both cell types, and decreased T Ag protein expression at days 3 and 4 post infection. A 2.5-4 log decrease in intracellular DNA replication and a 2-3 log decrease in progeny release were detected with Ciprofloxacin treatment. Cidofovir and Leflunomide also inhibited BKPyV gene expression and DNA replication. The three drugs diminished progeny release by 30-90% and 2- to 6-fold decreases in infectious virus were detected post drug treatment by fluorescence focus assay. Additionally, three clinical BKPyV isolates were assessed for their responses to these agents in vitro. Cidofovir and Leflunomide, but not Ciprofloxacin treatment resulted in statistically significant inhibition of BKPyV progeny release from salivary gland cells infected with HIVSGD BKPyV isolates. All three drugs decreased progeny release from cells infected with a

  6. Effects of Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus on the Reproductive Behavior of the Housefly, Musca domestica▿

    PubMed Central

    Lietze, Verena-Ulrike; Geden, Christopher J.; Blackburn, Patrick; Boucias, Drion G.

    2007-01-01

    Pathological studies demonstrated that the salivary gland hypertrophy virus of houseflies (MdSGHV) shuts down reproduction in infected females. The mechanism that underlay the disruption of reproduction functioned on several levels. Females infected at the previtellogenic stage did not produce eggs, reflecting a block in the gonadotropic cycle. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis of hemolymph samples demonstrated that MdSGHV infection reduced the levels of both the female-specific hexamerin and egg yolk proteins. Furthermore, reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time PCR data demonstrated that infection blocked hexamerin and yolk protein gene transcription. When females were allowed to develop eggs prior to infection (postvitellogenic stage), the outcome of mating attempts depended upon when mating took place. If egg-containing, virus-infected females were mated within 24 h of infection, they copulated and deposited a single batch of fertilized eggs. However, if mating was delayed for a longer period, the egg-containing females refused to copulate with healthy males. Both of these results suggested that a virus-induced signal influenced the central nervous system, shutting down female receptivity and egg production. All experiments demonstrated that MdSGHV-infected males did not display azoospermia and were fertile. Both healthy females mated with infected males, and the resulting F1 progeny were free of salivary gland hypertrophy symptoms, which suggests that the virus is not sexually or vertically transmitted. PMID:17827327

  7. Use of microgravity bioreactors for development of an in vitro rat salivary gland cell culture model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. L.; Moriarity, D. M.; Campbell, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    During development, salivary gland (SG) cells both secrete factors which modulate cellular behavior and express specific hormone receptors. Whether SG cell growth is modulated by an autocrine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-mediated signal transduction pathway is not clearly understood. SG tissue is the synthesis site for functionally distinct products including growth factors, digestive enzymes, and homeostasis maintaining factors. Historically, SG cells have proven difficult to grow and may be only maintained as limited three-dimensional ductal-type structures in collagen gels or on reconstituted basement membrane gels. A novel approach to establishing primary rat SG cultures is use of microgravity bioreactors originally designed by NASA as low-shear culture systems for predicting cell growth and differentiation in the microgravity environment of space. These completely fluid-filled bioreactors, which are oriented horizontally and rotate, have proven advantageous for Earth-based culture of three-dimensional cell assemblies, tissue-like aggregates, and glandular structures. Use of microgravity bioreactors for establishing in vitro models to investigate steroid-mediated secretion of EGF by normal SG cells may also prove useful for the investigation of cancer and other salivary gland disorders. These microgravity bioreactors promise challenging opportunities for future applications in basic and applied cell research.

  8. Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland with therapeutic misadventure: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Jagdeep S; Mohindroo, Narinder K; Mohindroo, Shobha; Sharma, Dev R; Thakur, Anamika

    2010-01-08

    The benign tumors of nasopharynx are least encountered tumors in otolaryngology, as nasopharynx is considered one of notorious anatomical site for the malignant tumors. Pleomorphic adenoma of the minor salivary gland of nasopharynx and parapharyngeal space is rare. We present a pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland which was mismanaged. An adult male presented with left nostril obstruction for five months. The examination found big mass extending from nasopharynx to oropharynx. On CT scan, this tumor was quite big and extending to the parapharyngeal space. The FNAB found it a carcinoma but it did not respond to radiotherapy. The excision biopsy of tumor revealed it as pleomorphic adenoma. We found only five published reports on this tumor arising from nasopharynx. Although, in this case report exact origin of the tumor could not be ascertained as it also appeared to be a parapharyngeal tumor but we kept the possibility of a nasopharyngeal tumor on the basis of clinical features. The pleomorphic adenoma of nasopharynx is rare. It can be misdiagnosed as malignant epithelial tumor on histopathology. The differentiation from its malignant variant is also difficult. A possibility of benign tumor should always be kept in nasopharyngeal growth with no evidence of metastasis, and histopathological diagnosis of growth should be available before any definitive treatment.

  9. Salivary gland oncocytes in African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) mimicking cytomegalic inclusion disease.

    PubMed

    Brunnert, S R; Hensley, G T; Citino, S B; Herron, A J; Altman, N H

    1991-07-01

    The salivary glands from three African hedgehogs contained multiple foci of cytomegalic cells, which occasionally had a mild to moderate infiltrate of lymphocytes at the periphery. The cytomegalic cells were 35 to 40 microns in diameter with abundant acidophilic granular to hyalin cytoplasm. The nuclei were enlarged with clumped marginalized chromatin and a large, (6 to 8 microns in diameter) central, brightly eosinophilic nucleolus that had the appearance of an inclusion body by light microscopy. Histochemically most of the cytomegalic cells contained cytoplasmic metachromatic granules with Feyrter's thionine inclusion stain. Scattered cells at the periphery of the cytomegalic foci contained periodic acid-Schiff-positive cytoplasmic granules. Ultrastructurally the cytomegalic cells contained numerous tightly-packed, often bizarre, enlarged mitochondria that completely filled the cytoplasm. The nucleus consisted of a dense central core of chromatin associated with the nucleolus and the remaining chromatin was clumped and marginalized. Nuclear and cytoplasmic virions consistent with cytomegalovirus were not present. Histochemical stains of the nucleus for heavy metals were negative. The ultrastructural and histochemical findings of the cytomegalic cells were consistent with oncocytes. Previous reports in the literature of similar cells in the salivary glands of insectivores appear to have been erroneously described as cytomegalovirus infections.

  10. The salivary secretome of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) infected by salivary gland hypertrophy virus.

    PubMed

    Kariithi, Henry M; Ince, Ikbal A; Boeren, Sjef; Abd-Alla, Adly M M; Parker, Andrew G; Aksoy, Serap; Vlak, Just M; Oers, Monique M van

    2011-11-01

    The competence of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae) to acquire salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), to support virus replication and successfully transmit the virus depends on complex interactions between Glossina and SGHV macromolecules. Critical requisites to SGHV transmission are its replication and secretion of mature virions into the fly's salivary gland (SG) lumen. However, secretion of host proteins is of equal importance for successful transmission and requires cataloging of G. pallidipes secretome proteins from hypertrophied and non-hypertrophied SGs. After electrophoretic profiling and in-gel trypsin digestion, saliva proteins were analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS. MaxQuant/Andromeda search of the MS data against the non-redundant (nr) GenBank database and a G. morsitans morsitans SG EST database, yielded a total of 521 hits, 31 of which were SGHV-encoded. On a false discovery rate limit of 1% and detection threshold of least 2 unique peptides per protein, the analysis resulted in 292 Glossina and 25 SGHV MS-supported proteins. When annotated by the Blast2GO suite, at least one gene ontology (GO) term could be assigned to 89.9% (285/317) of the detected proteins. Five (∼1.8%) Glossina and three (∼12%) SGHV proteins remained without a predicted function after blast searches against the nr database. Sixty-five of the 292 detected Glossina proteins contained an N-terminal signal/secretion peptide sequence. Eight of the SGHV proteins were predicted to be non-structural (NS), and fourteen are known structural (VP) proteins. SGHV alters the protein expression pattern in Glossina. The G. pallidipes SG secretome encompasses a spectrum of proteins that may be required during the SGHV infection cycle. These detected proteins have putative interactions with at least 21 of the 25 SGHV-encoded proteins. Our findings opens venues for developing novel SGHV mitigation strategies to block SGHV infections in tsetse production facilities such as

  11. The Salivary Secretome of the Tsetse Fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) Infected by Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kariithi, Henry M.; Ince, Ikbal A.; Boeren, Sjef; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.; Parker, Andrew G.; Aksoy, Serap; Vlak, Just M.; van Oers, Monique M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The competence of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae) to acquire salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), to support virus replication and successfully transmit the virus depends on complex interactions between Glossina and SGHV macromolecules. Critical requisites to SGHV transmission are its replication and secretion of mature virions into the fly's salivary gland (SG) lumen. However, secretion of host proteins is of equal importance for successful transmission and requires cataloging of G. pallidipes secretome proteins from hypertrophied and non-hypertrophied SGs. Methodology/Principal Findings After electrophoretic profiling and in-gel trypsin digestion, saliva proteins were analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS. MaxQuant/Andromeda search of the MS data against the non-redundant (nr) GenBank database and a G. morsitans morsitans SG EST database, yielded a total of 521 hits, 31 of which were SGHV-encoded. On a false discovery rate limit of 1% and detection threshold of least 2 unique peptides per protein, the analysis resulted in 292 Glossina and 25 SGHV MS-supported proteins. When annotated by the Blast2GO suite, at least one gene ontology (GO) term could be assigned to 89.9% (285/317) of the detected proteins. Five (∼1.8%) Glossina and three (∼12%) SGHV proteins remained without a predicted function after blast searches against the nr database. Sixty-five of the 292 detected Glossina proteins contained an N-terminal signal/secretion peptide sequence. Eight of the SGHV proteins were predicted to be non-structural (NS), and fourteen are known structural (VP) proteins. Conclusions/Significance SGHV alters the protein expression pattern in Glossina. The G. pallidipes SG secretome encompasses a spectrum of proteins that may be required during the SGHV infection cycle. These detected proteins have putative interactions with at least 21 of the 25 SGHV-encoded proteins. Our findings opens venues for developing novel SGHV mitigation strategies

  12. Double emulsion electrospun nanofibers as a growth factor delivery vehicle for salivary gland regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foraida, Zahraa I.; Sharikova, Anna; Peerzada, Lubna N.; Khmaladze, Alexander; Larsen, Melinda; Castracane, James

    2017-08-01

    Sustained delivery of growth factors, proteins, drugs and other biologically active molecules is necessary for tissue engineering applications. Electrospun fibers are attractive tissue engineering scaffolds as they partially mimic the topography of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, they do not provide continuous nourishment to the tissue. In search of a biomimetic scaffold for salivary gland tissue regeneration, we previously developed a blend nanofiber scaffold composed of the protein elastin and the synthetic polymer polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA). The nanofiber scaffold promoted in vivo-like salivary epithelial cell tissue organization and apicobasal polarization. However, in order to enhance the salivary cell proliferation and biomimetic character of the scaffold, sustained growth factor delivery is needed. The composite nanofiber scaffold was optimized to act as a growth factor delivery system using epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a model protein. The nanofiber/EGF hybrid nanofibers were synthesized by double emulsion electrospinning where EGF is emulsified within a water/oil/water (w/o/w) double emulsion system. Successful incorporation of EGF was confirmed using Raman spectroscopy. EGF release profile was characterized using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA) of the EGF content. Double emulsion electrospinning resulted in slower release of EGF. We demonstrated the potential of the proposed double emulsion electrospun nanofiber scaffold for the delivery of growth factors and/or drugs for tissue engineering and pharmaceutical applications.

  13. Impedance Biosensors and Deep Crater Salivary Gland Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, Robert A.

    The salivary gland is a complex, branching organ whose primary biological function is the production of the fluid critical to alimentary function and the lubrication and maintenance of the oral cavity, saliva. The most frequent disruption of the salivary organ system is one in which the rate of supply of saliva into the oral cavity is diminished, and this may vary from a minor reduction, to near cessation. Regenerative medicine is a field which seeks to find ways to overcome the symptoms of organ malfunction or damage by inducing regrowth, repair and replacement of partial or whole organ function. Historically, the only methods available to medical experts were certain chemical drugs and transplantation, each of which suffers from significant risks and drawbacks. Tissue Engineering arose in the past few decades thanks to the seminal work of Robert Langer with the charter mission of finding new biomaterials and techniques to achieve these ends. The original concept of tissue engineering was the cell or tissue scaffold, which is supports the regrowth of cells by making intimate contact with adherent cells, and induces improved regrowth in vitro or in vivo by providing mechanical or chemical signaling cues. Epithelial cell types such as salivary glands have structural functional polarity at the cellular level, an apical side which faces a void, and a basal side which faces the support substrate. While 3D scaffolds such as hydrogels maximize interaction area between cells and substrate, they struggle to develop cohesive tissues beyond the scale of small cellular clusters . 2D scaffolds enforce a defined polarity by allowing cell interaction at only one side of the cell. Langer pioneered the use of polymer nanofibers as the premier synthetic 2D scaffold biomaterial, due to their exceptionally high nano-scale surface area, and collagen-imitating structure. Prior work has established PLGA nanofibers, which allow salivary cells to attach, proliferate, and generate a

  14. Iodine kinetics and dosimetry in the salivary glands during repeated courses of radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B.; Huang, R.; Kuang, A.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The present study was conducted to investigate salivary iodine kinetics and dosimetry during repeated courses of radioiodine ({sup 131}I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Such data could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of {sup 131}I induced salivary toxicity and help to develop appropriate methods to reduce this injury. Methods: Seventy-eight consecutive DTC patients (mean age 45 {+-} 17 years, 60%, female) undergoing {sup 131}I therapy for remnant ablation or metastatic tumors were prospectively recruited. Planar quantitative scintigraphy of head-neck images was serially acquired after administration of 2.9-7.4 GBq of {sup 131}I to assess kinetics in themore » salivary glands of patients. Salivary absorbed doses were calculated based on the schema of Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry. Results: The maximum uptakes in percentage of administered {sup 131}I activity per kilogram of gland tissue (%/kg) were 12.9% {+-} 6.5%/kg (range, 0.4%-37.3%/kg) and 12.3% {+-} 6.2%/kg (range, 0.4%-35.1%/kg) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Statistically significant correlations of maximum uptake versus cumulative activity (r = -0.74, P < 0.01, for the parotid glands; r = -0.71, P < 0.01, for the submandibular glands) and treatment cycle (P < 0.001, for both gland types) were found. The effective half-lives of {sup 131}I in the parotid and submandibular glands were 9.3 {+-} 3.5 h (range, 1.5-19.8 h) and 8.6 {+-} 3.2 h (range, 0.8-18.0 h), respectively. A statistically significant correlation was observed between effective half-life with cumulative activity (r = 0.37, P < 0.01) and treatment cycle (P = 0.03) only for the parotid glands. The calculated absorbed doses were 0.20 {+-} 0.10 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-0.92 mGy/MBq) and 0.25 {+-} 0.09 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-1.52 mGy/MBq) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. The photon contribution to the salivary absorbed dose was minimal in relation to the beta

  15. Parasympathomimetic drugs for the treatment of salivary gland dysfunction due to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew N; Thompson, Jo

    2015-10-05

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review on parasympathomimetic drugs for the treatment of salivary gland dysfunction due to radiotherapy (published in Issue 3, 2007). Salivary gland dysfunction is a predictable side effect of radiotherapy to the head and neck region. Pilocarpine hydrochloride (a choline ester) is licensed in many countries for the treatment of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Other parasympathomimetics have also been used 'off licence' in the treatment of this condition. To determine the efficacy and tolerability of parasympathomimetic drugs in the treatment of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction (specifically radiation-induced xerostomia). For this update, we ran searches of the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL in July 2015. We checked the reference lists of retrieved articles for additional studies, contacted experts in the field for unpublished and ongoing trials, and contacted relevant pharmaceutical companies for unpublished and ongoing trials. The selection criteria for the review were: 1) randomised controlled trials; 2) people suffering from radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction; 3) people treated with parasympathomimetic drugs; and 4) assessable data available on primary outcome measure. The two review authors independently collected data from the full-text version of relevant papers including: 1) citation details; 2) participants; 3) interventions; 4) assessments; 5) outcomes (that is efficacy, tolerability); and 6) quality issues.Due to a lack of appropriate data, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. In the original review, three studies, including a total of 298 participants, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All three studies involved the use of pilocarpine hydrochloride. We have included no additional studies in the update of the review; we have excluded eight additional

  16. Quantitative Methylation Profiles for Multiple Tumor Suppressor Gene Promoters in Salivary Gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Durr, Megan L.; Mydlarz, Wojciech K.; Shao, Chunbo; Zahurak, Marianna L.; Chuang, Alice Y.; Hoque, Mohammad O.; Westra, William H.; Liegeois, Nanette J.; Califano, Joseph A.; Sidransky, David; Ha, Patrick K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Methylation profiling of tumor suppressor gene (TSGs) promoters is quickly becoming a powerful diagnostic tool for the early detection, prognosis, and even prediction of clinical response to treatment. Few studies address this in salivary gland tumors (SGTs); hence the promoter methylation profile of various TSGs was quantitatively assessed in primary SGT tissue to determine if tumor-specific alterations could be detected. Methodology DNA isolated from 78 tumor and 17 normal parotid gland specimens was assayed for promoter methylation status of 19 TSGs by fluorescence-based, quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP). The data were utilized in a binary fashion as well as quantitatively (using a methylation quotient) allowing for better profiling and interpretation of results. Principal Findings The average number of methylation events across the studied genes was highest in salivary duct carcinoma (SDC), with a methylation value of 9.6, compared to the normal 4.5 (p<0.0003). There was a variable frequency and individual methylation quotient detected, depending on the TSG and the tumor type. When comparing normal, benign, and malignant SGTs, there was a statistically significant trend for increasing methylation in APC, Mint 1, PGP9.5, RAR-β, and Timp3. Conclusions/Significance Screening promoter methylation profiles in SGTs showed considerable heterogeneity. The methylation status of certain markers was surprisingly high in even normal salivary tissue, confirming the need for such controls. Several TSGs were found to be associated with malignant SGTs, especially SDC. Further study is needed to evaluate the potential use of these associations in the detection, prognosis, and therapeutic outcome of these rare tumors. PMID:20520817

  17. The effect of chewing-gum on dose rate of salivary gland in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients treated with radioiodine.

    PubMed

    Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Nowshad, Reza; Etemadi, Zahra; Ghaedian, Tahereh

    2018-04-26

    Although, different methods have been suggested on reducing salivary gland radiation after radioiodine administration, an effective preventive or therapeutic measure is still debateful. To the best of our knowledge this is the second study that aimed to evaluate the effect of chewing-gum as a sialagogue on the radioiodine content of salivary gland, and radioiodine- induced symptoms of salivary gland dysfunction. Twenty two patients who were referred to radioiodine therapy were randomized into chewing-gum (group A) and control (group B) groups. Anterior and posterior planar images including both head and neck were obtained 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after the administration of radioiodine in all patients and round regions of interest (ROI) were drawn for both left and right parotid glands with a rectangular ROI in the region of cerebrum as the background. All patients were followed once, 6 months after radioiodine administration via a phone call for subjective evaluation of symptoms related to salivary gland damage. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the mean age, gender and initial iodine activity. The geometric mean of background-corrected count per administrated dose and acquisition time was calculated for bilateral parotid glands. This normalized parotid count showed a significant reduction in net parotid count in both groups during the first 48 hours after the radioiodine administration. However, no significant difference was found between the groups according to the amount and pattern of dose reduction in this time period. This study revealed that chewing-gum had no significant effect on the radioiodine content of parotid glands during the first 48 hours after radioiodine administration. Also, no significant difference was found in the incidence of relevant symptoms after 6 months comparing both groups.

  18. Musca domestica Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus, a Globally Distributed Insect Virus that Infects and Sterilizes Female Houseflies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The house fly, Musca domestica, is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock and poultry that is of economic, veterinary, and public health importance. Populations of M. domestica are naturally infected with salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV), a non-occluded dsDNA virus that inhibits egg production in...

  19. Impact of house fly salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) on a heterologous host, Stomoxys calcitrans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) on selected fitness parameters of stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans [L.]) was examined in the laboratory. Virus-injected stable flies of both genders suffered substantially higher mortality than control flies. By day 9, female...

  20. A protein from the salivary glands of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, is essential in feeding on a host plant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In feeding, aphids inject saliva into plant tissues, gaining access to phloem sap and eliciting (and sometimes overcoming) plant responses. We are examining the involvement, in this aphid-plant interaction, of individual aphid proteins and enzymes, as identified in a salivary gland cDNA library. Her...

  1. Morphology and proteome characterization of the salivary glands of the western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus (Hemiptera: Blissidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber, is a serious pest of buffalograss due to physical and chemical damage caused during the feeding process. Although previous work has investigated the feeding behaviors of chinch bugs in the Blissus complex, no study to date has explored salivary gland ...

  2. Identification of Leishmania spp. promastigotes in the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus actively infesting dogs.

    PubMed

    Viol, Milena Araúz; Guerrero, Felix D; de Oliveira, Bruno César Miranda; de Aquino, Monally Conceição Costa; Loiola, Saulo Hudson; de Melo, Guilherme Dias; de Souza Gomes, Aparecida Helena; Kanamura, Cristina Takami; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Andreotti, Renato; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2016-09-01

    Sand flies are recognized as the major vector of canine visceral leishmaniasis. However, in some areas of Brazil where sand flies do not occur, this disease is found in humans and dogs. There has been speculation that ticks might play a role in transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis and the DNA of Leishmania spp. has been reported in whole ticks. We investigated the presence of Leishmania spp. promastigotes in the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from tick-infested dogs in two cities of Brazil. We used 66 dogs that tested positive and 33 that tested negative for Leishmania spp. according to direct cytological examination assays. Ten ticks were collected from each dog and dissected to collect the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands for immunohistochemistry (IHC) and diagnostic real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). IHC results showed Leishmania spp. in 98, 14, and 8 % of the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands, respectively. Real-time PCR showed that 89, 41, and 33 % of the tick intestine, ovary, and salivary glands, respectively, were positive for Leishmania spp. The verification of promastigotes of Leishmania spp. by two independent techniques in ticks collected from these urban region dogs showed that there is need for clarification of the role of ticks in the transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

  3. Role of inward rectifier potassium channels in salivary gland function and sugar feeding of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The arthropod salivary gland is of critical importance for horizontal transmission of pathogens, yet a detailed understanding of the ion conductance pathways responsible for saliva production and excretion is lacking. A superfamily of potassium ion channels, known as inward rectifying potassium (Ki...

  4. Transgene-mediated suppression of dengue viruses in the salivary glands of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Mathur, G; Sanchez-Vargas, I; Alvarez, D; Olson, K E; Marinotti, O; James, A A

    2010-12-01

    Controlled sex-, stage- and tissue-specific expression of antipathogen effector molecules is important for genetic engineering strategies to control mosquito-borne diseases. Adult female salivary glands are involved in pathogen transmission to human hosts and are target sites for expression of antipathogen effector molecules. The Aedes aegypti 30K a and 30K b genes are expressed exclusively in adult female salivary glands and are transcribed divergently from start sites separated by 263 nucleotides. The intergenic, 5'- and 3'-end untranslated regions of both genes are sufficient to express simultaneously two different transgene products in the distal-lateral lobes of the female salivary glands. An antidengue effector gene, membranes no protein (Mnp), driven by the 30K b promoter, expresses an inverted-repeat RNA with sequences derived from the premembrane protein-encoding region of the dengue virus serotype 2 genome and reduces significantly the prevalence and mean intensities of viral infection in mosquito salivary glands and saliva. © 2010 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies in Denmark: Prevalence, host range, and comparison with a Florida isolate.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    House flies (Musca domestica) infected with Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) were found in fly populations collected from 12 out of 18 Danish livestock farms that were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. Infection rates ranged from 0.5% to 5% and averaged 1.2% overall. None of the ...

  6. Disease dynamics and persistence of Musca domestica salivary gland hypertropy virus infections in laboratory house fly (Musca domestica) populations.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Past surveys of feral house fly populations have shown that Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) has a world-wide distribution with an average prevalence varying between 0.5% and 10%. How this adult-specific virus persists in nature is unknown. In the present study, experiments ...

  7. Zonula occludens-1, occludin and E-cadherin expression and organization in salivary glands with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mellas, Rachel E; Leigh, Noel J; Nelson, Joel W; McCall, Andrew D; Baker, Olga J

    2015-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes secretory dysfunction of the salivary glands leading to dry mouth. Previous studies reported that tight junction (TJ) proteins are down-regulated and lose polarity in human minor salivary glands with SS, suggesting that TJ structure is compromised in SS patients. In this paper, we utilized the NOD/ShiLtJ mouse with the main goal of evaluating this model for future TJ research. We found that the organization of apical proteins in areas proximal and distal to lymphocytic infiltration remained intact in mouse and human salivary glands with SS. These areas looked comparable to control glands (i.e., with no lymphocytic infiltration). TJ staining was absent in areas of lymphocytic infiltration coinciding with the loss of salivary epithelium. Gene expression studies show that most TJs are not significantly altered in 20-week-old NOD/ShiLtJ mice as compared with age-matched C57BL/6 controls. Protein expression studies revealed that the TJ proteins, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudin-12, as well as E-cadherin, do not significantly change in NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Our results suggest that ZO-1, occludin and E-cadherin are not altered in areas without lymphocytic infiltration. However, future studies will be necessary to test the functional aspect of these results. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Rapid Development of Salivary Gland Carcinomas upon Conditional Expression of K-ras Driven by the Cytokeratin 5 Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, Ana R.; Vitale-Cross, Lynn; Amornphimoltham, Panomwat; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Molinolo, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    We have used a recently described model in which a ras oncogene is expressed in cytokeratin 5 (K5)-expressing cells on doxycycline administration to explore the effects of this oncogene in salivary glands of adult mice. Inducible expression of a mutated K-ras gene under the control of the K5 promoter led to the development of hyperplastic and dysplastic epithelial lesions and carcinomas, with an incidence of 100% and a minimum latency of a week. All major salivary glands were affected, as well as a set of previously undescribed buccal accessory salivary glands located on the apex of the masseter muscle, close to the oral angle. The tumors appear to arise from the cytokeratin 5-positive basal cell compartment. Myoepithelial cells participated in the hyperplasias but not in carcinomas, because the tumors are negative for smooth muscle actin. Carcinomas did not accumulate immunoreactive p53 but are positive for p63, as assayed by immunohistochemistry using an antibody against the N terminus of ΔN p63, a splice variant of p63 that can inhibit p53 transcriptional activity. In this study, we provide evidence that the ras oncogene, targeted to a specifically sensitive cell compartment within the salivary glands, can trigger a series of event that are sufficient for full carcinogenesis. PMID:16651631

  9. Immunohistochemical localization of Clara cell secretory proteins (CC10-CC26) and Annexin-1 protein in rat major salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Cecchini, Maria Paola; Merigo, Flavia; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Osculati, Francesco; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The oral cavity is continuously bathed by saliva secreted by the major and minor salivary glands. Saliva is the first biological medium to confront external materials that are taken into the body as part of food or drink or inhaled volatile substances, and it contributes to the first line of oral defence. In humans, it has been shown that sputum and a variety of biological fluids contain Clara cell secretory proteins (CC10–CC26). Various studies of the respiratory apparatus have suggested their protective effect against inflammatory response and oxidative stress. Recently, CC10 deficiency has been related to the protein Annexin-1 (ANXA1), which has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Considering the defensive role of both Clara cell secretory proteins and ANXA1 in the respiratory apparatus, and the importance of salivary gland secretion in the first line of oral defence, we decided to evaluate the expression of CC10, CC26 and ANXA1 proteins in rat major salivary glands using immunohistochemistry. CC10 expression was found only in the ductal component of the sublingual gland. Parotid and submandibular glands consistently lacked CC10 immunoreactivity. In the parotid gland, both acinar and ductal cells were always CC26-negative, whereas in the submandibular gland, immunostaining was localized in the ductal component and in the periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-positive area. In the sublingual gland, ductal cells were always positive. Acinar cells were not immunostained at all. ANXA1 was expressed in ductal cells in all three major glands. In parotid and sublingual glands, acinar cells were negative. In submandibular glands, immunostaining was present in the mucous PAS-positive portion, whereas serous acinar cells were consistently negative. The existence of some CC10-CC26–ANXA1-positive cells in rat salivary glandular tissue is an interesting preliminary finding which could support the hypothesis, suggested for airway tissue, that these proteins have a

  10. Susceptibility of Tsetse Species to Glossina pallidipes Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (GpSGHV)

    PubMed Central

    Demirbas-Uzel, Güler; Kariithi, Henry M.; Parker, Andrew G.; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Mach, Robert L.; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.

    2018-01-01

    Salivary gland hytrosaviruses (SGHVs, family Hytrosaviridae) are non-occluded dsDNA viruses that are pathogenic to some dipterans. SGHVs primarily replicate in salivary glands (SG), thereby inducing overt salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms in their adult hosts. SGHV infection of non-SG tissues results in distinct pathobiologies, including reproductive dysfunctions in tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) and house fly. Infection with the G. pallidipes virus (GpSGHV) resulted in the collapse of several laboratory colonies, which hindered the implementation of area wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs that had a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. Although the impact of GpSGHV infection has been studied in some detail in G. pallidipes, the impact of the virus infection on other tsetse species remains largely unknown. In the current study, we assessed the susceptibility of six Glossina species (G. pallidipes, G. brevipalpis, G. m. morsitans, G. m. centralis, G. f. fuscipes, and G. p. gambiensis) to GpSGHV infections, and the impact of the viral infection on the fly pupation rate, adult emergence, and virus replication and transmission from the larval to adult stages. We also evaluated the ability of the virus to infect conspecific Glossina species through serial passages. The results indicate that the susceptibility of Glossina to GpSGHV varied widely amongst the tested species, with G. pallidipes and G. brevipalpis being the most susceptible and most refractory to the virus, respectively. Further, virus injection into the hemocoel of teneral flies led to increased viral copy number over time, while virus injection into the third instar larvae delayed adult eclosion. Except in G. pallidipes, virus injection either into the larvae or teneral adults did not induce any detectable SGH symptoms, although virus infections were PCR-detectable in the fly carcasses. Taken together, our results indicate that although GpSGHV may only

  11. RNA-seq based transcriptomic map reveals new insights into mouse salivary gland development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Gluck, Christian; Min, Sangwon; Oyelakin, Akinsola; Smalley, Kirsten; Sinha, Satrajit; Romano, Rose-Anne

    2016-11-16

    Mouse models have served a valuable role in deciphering various facets of Salivary Gland (SG) biology, from normal developmental programs to diseased states. To facilitate such studies, gene expression profiling maps have been generated for various stages of SG organogenesis. However these prior studies fall short of capturing the transcriptional complexity due to the limited scope of gene-centric microarray-based technology. Compared to microarray, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) offers unbiased detection of novel transcripts, broader dynamic range and high specificity and sensitivity for detection of genes, transcripts, and differential gene expression. Although RNA-seq data, particularly under the auspices of the ENCODE project, have covered a large number of biological specimens, studies on the SG have been lacking. To better appreciate the wide spectrum of gene expression profiles, we isolated RNA from mouse submandibular salivary glands at different embryonic and adult stages. In parallel, we processed RNA-seq data for 24 organs and tissues obtained from the mouse ENCODE consortium and calculated the average gene expression values. To identify molecular players and pathways likely to be relevant for SG biology, we performed functional gene enrichment analysis, network construction and hierarchal clustering of the RNA-seq datasets obtained from different stages of SG development and maturation, and other mouse organs and tissues. Our bioinformatics-based data analysis not only reaffirmed known modulators of SG morphogenesis but revealed novel transcription factors and signaling pathways unique to mouse SG biology and function. Finally we demonstrated that the unique SG gene signature obtained from our mouse studies is also well conserved and can demarcate features of the human SG transcriptome that is different from other tissues. Our RNA-seq based Atlas has revealed a high-resolution cartographic view of the dynamic transcriptomic landscape of the mouse SG at

  12. Syndromes with salivary dysfunction predispose to tooth wear: Case reports of congenital dysfunction of major salivary glands, Prader-Willi, congenital rubella, and Sjögren's syndromes.

    PubMed

    Young, W; Khan, F; Brandt, R; Savage, N; Razek, A A; Huang, Q

    2001-07-01

    Four cases-of congenital dysfunction of the major salivary glands as well as of Prader-Willi, congenital rubella, and Sjögren's syndromes-were identified in a series of 500 patients referred for excessive tooth wear. Although there was evidence of consumption of highly acidic drinks, some occlusal parafunction, and unacceptable toothbrushing habits, salivary dysfunction was the salient factor predisposing a patient to tooth wear in these syndromal cases. The 500 subjects have been characterized either as having medical conditions and medications that predispose them to xerostomia or lifestyles in which workplace- and sports-related dehydration lead to reduced salivary flow. Normal salivation, by buffering capacity, clearance by swallowing, pellicle formation, and capacity for remineralization of demineralized enamel, protects the teeth from extrinsic and intrinsic acids that initiate dental erosion. Thus, the syndromes, unrelated in many respects, underline the importance of normal salivation in the protection of teeth against tooth wear by erosion, attrition, and abrasion.

  13. Humoral response of captive zebra sharks Stegostoma fasciatum to salivary gland proteins of the leech Branchellion torpedinis.

    PubMed

    Marancik, David P; Leary, John H; Fast, Mark M; Flajnik, Martin F; Camus, Alvin C

    2012-10-01

    Parasitism by the marine leech Branchellion torpedinis is known to cause disease and mortality in captive elasmobranchs and is difficult to control when inadvertently introduced into public aquaria. Preliminary characterization of the salivary gland transcriptome of B. torpedinis has identified anticoagulants, proteases, and immunomodulators that may be secreted into host tissues to aid leech feeding. This retrospective study examined antigen-specific serum IgM responses in captive zebra sharks Stegostoma fasciatum to leech salivary gland extract. Antibody response was examined by ELISA and Western blot assays in 20 serum samples from six zebra sharks, with a 5 year history of leech infection, and 18 serum samples from 8 captive bred zebra sharks, with no history of leech exposure. ELISA demonstrated significantly higher serum IgM titers to salivary gland extract in exposed zebra sharks compared to the non-exposed population. No obvious trends in antibody titers were appreciated in exposed zebra sharks over a four-year period. One-dimensional and two-dimensional Western blot assays revealed IgM targeted specific salivary gland proteins within the 40, 55, 70 and 90 kD range. Antigenic proteins identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and de novo peptide sequencing include a secreted disintegrin, metalloproteinase and thrombospondin motif containing protein (ADAMTS), tubulin, aldehyde dehydrogenase and two unknown proteins. Humoral immune responses to leech salivary gland proteins warrants further investigation as there may be options to exploit immune mechanisms to reduce parasite burdens in aquaria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prognostic significance of p53 immunohistochemical expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chuanming; Wang, Jiafeng; Ge, Minghua

    2017-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands is a rare adenocarcinoma and has been placed in “high-risk” category as poor long-term prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate p53 protein expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. Literatures were searched from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science, which investigated the relationships between p53 expression and pathological type, clinical stage, local recurrence, metastasis, nerve infiltration and overall survival. A total of 1,608 patients from 36 studies were included in the analysis. The results showed that p53-postive expression rate was 49% in adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands (OR=10.34, 95%CI: 4.93-21.71, P < 0.0001). The p53-postive expression was closely related to tumor types (OR=0.30, 95%CI: 0.14-0.65, P < 0.0001). The tumor with solid histological subtype had a strong positive correlation with p53 expression. The combined analysis revealed that the p53-positive expression rate among patients in T1and T2 stage was 41.4%, compared to 53.2% among those in T3 and T4 stage. However, there was no significant correlation between tumor stage and p53 expression (OR=0.47, 95% CI: 0.17-1.29, P = 0.14). Besides, compared to patients with p53-negative expression, those with p53-positive expression had a greater chance of developing metastasis, local recurrence and nerve infiltration as well as poorer 5-year overall survival (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the p53 expression is related to the survival of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands. It can be considered as the auxiliary detection index in treatment and prognosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands. PMID:28206977

  15. Prognostic significance of p53 immunohistochemical expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinglin; Huang, Ping; Zheng, Chuanming; Wang, Jiafeng; Ge, Minghua

    2017-04-25

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands is a rare adenocarcinoma and has been placed in "high-risk" category as poor long-term prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate p53 protein expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. Literatures were searched from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science, which investigated the relationships between p53 expression and pathological type, clinical stage, local recurrence, metastasis, nerve infiltration and overall survival. A total of 1,608 patients from 36 studies were included in the analysis. The results showed that p53-postive expression rate was 49% in adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands (OR=10.34, 95%CI: 4.93-21.71, P < 0.0001). The p53-postive expression was closely related to tumor types (OR=0.30, 95%CI: 0.14-0.65, P < 0.0001). The tumor with solid histological subtype had a strong positive correlation with p53 expression. The combined analysis revealed that the p53-positive expression rate among patients in T1and T2 stage was 41.4%, compared to 53.2% among those in T3 and T4 stage. However, there was no significant correlation between tumor stage and p53 expression (OR=0.47, 95% CI: 0.17-1.29, P = 0.14). Besides, compared to patients with p53-negative expression, those with p53-positive expression had a greater chance of developing metastasis, local recurrence and nerve infiltration as well as poorer 5-year overall survival (P < 0.01).In conclusion, the p53 expression is related to the survival of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands. It can be considered as the auxiliary detection index in treatment and prognosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands.

  16. Effect of Diet on Adult House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Injected With the Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (MdSGHV).

    PubMed

    Schaler, Jennifer; Stoffolano, John; Fausto, Anna Maria; Gambellini, Gabriella; Burand, John

    2018-05-01

    Research to date on the salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV) in three species of flies has focused on adult flies having access to and taking a proteinaceous diet. Since many studies have shown that diet affects viral infection in numerous organisms, this study examined the effect of a protein-free diet on the effect of the SGHV virus in adult house flies, Musca domestica. L. Adults infected with the virus, and maintained on a sugar diet only, showed salivary glands with a blue rather than a grayish color and mild hypertrophy compared with protein-fed flies. It was possible to retrieve the virus from these glands and successfully infect noninfected flies. When injected at various ages, female flies fed only sugar showed that regardless of age, sugar-fed flies still became infected and showed the pathology of the glands. In addition, electron microscope studies revealed at the ultrastructural level that there was no difference between viral replication in cells from salivary glands of adults fed a proteinaceous-free diet and those feeding on protein.

  17. Heterotopic salivary gland tissue: a case report demonstrating evolution and association with the branchial apparatus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Yu; Lee, Ka-Wo; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2005-09-01

    Heterotopic salivary gland tissue (HSGT) in the lower neck is an unusual developmental anomaly with characteristic clinical and microscopic findings. The exact embryogenesis remains unclear. This rare entity must be considered in the differential diagnosis of neck mass with fistula. We present a typical HSGT totally removed using the stepladder excision technique and showing an internal fistula. Interpretation of this case from the anatomical and pathological points of view, we support the argument that the embryogenesis of HSGT is more probably related to ectodermal heteroplasia of the precervical sinus of His and further conclude that an association with branchial cleft sinus may exist and cannot be seen as an exclusion criteria for diagnosis of HSGT. Due to possible but infrequent neoplastic transformation, it is important to check HSGT in every encountered cervical anomaly related to any branchial apparatus derived lesion.

  18. Conductance changes associated with the secretory potential in the cockroach salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Ginsborg, B L; House, C R; Silinsky, E M

    1974-02-01

    1. Conductance changes in the acini of the cockroach salivary gland have been examined during nerve stimulation by means of two intracellular electrodes placed in the same acinus, the first electrode being used for recording membrane potential and the second for current injection.2. The transient hyperpolarization (secretory potential) in the acinus evoked by nerve stimuli is accompanied by a rise in membrane conductance. The conductance, however, remains high for a longer period than that of the response.3. Applying the analysis of Trautwein & Dudel (1958) to the secretory potentials recorded in the acinus (assumed to behave electrically like a single cell) gives estimates of the ;transmitter equilibrium potential'. The values indicate that the neurotransmitter increases the membrane potassium conductance.4. The hyperpolarization of the acinus evoked by 10(-6)M dopamine in the bathing fluid is also associated with an increase in membrane potassium conductance.

  19. Zika Virus in Salivary Glands of Five Different Species of Wild-Caught Mosquitoes from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Medina-Sánchez, Aarón; Sánchez-González, Jorge M; Eckert, Kristen Allison; Villalobos-Sánchez, Erendira; Navarro-Zúñiga, Antonio Rigoberto; Sánchez-Tejeda, Gustavo; Correa-Morales, Fabián; González-Acosta, Cassandra; Arias, Carlos F; López, Susana; Del Ángel, Rosa María; Pando-Robles, Victoria; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando E

    2018-01-16

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen, and Aedes aegypti has been identified as the main vector of the disease. Other mosquito species in the Aedes and Culex genera have been suggested to have the potential for being competent vectors based on experimental exposition of mosquitoes to an infectious blood meal containing ZIKV. Here, we report the isolation in cell culture of ZIKV obtained from different body parts of wild-caught female mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti, Ae. vexans, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. coronator, and Cx. tarsalis) and whole male mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus) in Mexico. Importantly, this is the first report that shows the presence of the virus in the salivary glands of the wild-caught female mosquitoes species, Cx. coronator, Cx. tarsalis, and Ae. vexans. Our findings strongly suggest that all the species reported herein are potential vectors for ZIKV.

  20. [Effect of thyroid hormones on the histotopography of lectin receptors in the rat salivary gland].

    PubMed

    Lutsik, A D; Iashchenko, A M; Detiuk, E S

    1987-04-01

    Using lectin-peroxidase technique, the influence of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on histotopography of glycoconjugates has been investigated in rat submandibular gland. The following lectins were used: peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Laburnum anagyroides lectin (LAL) and concanavalin A (con A). It has been demonstrated that hyperthyroidism is accompanied by the loss of con A, WGA and LAL receptor sites. Hypothyrodism enhanced con A binding to granular duct cells with a parallel reduction in WGA and LAL binding to these or other duct cells. Hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism markedly enhanced PNA binding to duct epitheliocytes with redistribution of these lectin binding sites from the luminal surface of salivary ducts into the cytoplasm of duct cells. Possible interpretations of the observed phenomena are discussed.

  1. [Search for protective antigens in Ixodes persulcatus (ixodidae) salivary gland extracts].

    PubMed

    Shtannikov, A V; Reshetniak, T V; Repolovskaia, T V; Panfertsev, E A; Perovskaia, O N; Gutova, V P; Vasil'eva, I S; Ershova, A S; Prilipov, A G; Biketov, S F; Zeidner, N

    2010-01-01

    RT-PCR evaluation of the activity of eight Ixodes persulcatus salivary gland genes shows clear distinctions in their expression depending of the stage of tick feeding. Out of them, only Salp 10 and Salp 15 proteins may be regarded as candidates for protective antigens to develop anti-tick and anti-Borrelia vaccines. Firstly they play an important role in feeding a tick and modifying a host's immune response. Secondly, the increasing expression of the salp 10 and salp 10 genes begins at early tick feeding stages. Thirdly, the activity of these genes increases with the beginning of feeding by tens and hundreds times and keeps at this level until the third tick feeding stage is over.

  2. Mycoplasma orale infection affects K+ and Cl- currents in the HSG salivary gland cell line.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, K T; Fatherazi, S; Belton, C M; Oda, D; Cartwright, F D; Kenny, G E

    1996-06-01

    The relations between K+ channel and Cl- channel currents and mycoplasma infection status were studied longitudinally in HSG cells, a human submandibular gland cell line. The K+ channel currents were disrupted by the occurrence of mycoplasma infection: muscarinic activation of K+ channels and K+ channel expression as estimated by ionomycin- or hypotonically induced K+ current responses were all decreased. Similar decreases in ionomycin- and hypotonically induced responses were observed for Cl- channels, but only the latter decrease was statistically significant. Also, Cl- currents could be elicited more frequently than K+ currents (63% of cases versus 0%) in infected cells when tested by exposure to hypotonic media, indicating that mycoplasma infection affects K+ channels relatively more than Cl- channels. These changes occurred in the originally infected cells, were ameliorated when the infection was cleared with sparfloxacin, and recurred when the cells were reinfected. Such changes would be expected to result in hyposecretion of salivary fluid if they occurred in vivo.

  3. The Justy mutant mouse strain produces a spontaneous murine model of salivary gland cancer with myoepithelial and basal cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Andrean L.; Lu, Ping; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N.; Robinson, Robert A.; Meyerholz, David K.; Colgan, John D.

    2013-01-01

    We previously identified a novel mutant mouse strain on the C3HeB/FeJ background named Justy. This strain bears a recessive mutation in the Gon4l gene that greatly reduces expression of the encoded protein, a nuclear factor implicated in transcriptional regulation. Here, we report that Justy mutant mice aged 6 months or older spontaneously developed carcinomas with myoepithelial and basaloid differentiation in salivary glands with an incidence of ~25%. Tumors developed proximate to submandibular glands and to a lesser extent in the sublingual and parotid glands. Histologically, tumors often had central cavitary lesions filled with necrotic debris that was lined by tumors cells and had spindle and epithelioid cell differentiation with lesser basaloid to clear cell features. Tumor tissue often had variable evidence of a high mitotic rate, pleomorphism and invasion into adjacent salivary glands. Neoplastic cells had diffuse immunoreactivity for pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and p63. While CK5/6 immunostaining was seen in the much of the tumor cells, it was often lacking in pleomorphic areas. Tumor cells lacked immunoreactivity for alpha-smooth muscle actin, S100, c-Kit and glial fibrillary acid protein. Additionally, tumors had immunoreactivity for phosphorylated and total epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), suggesting that EGFR signaling may participate in growth regulation of these tumors. These findings indicate that the salivary gland carcinomas occur spontaneously in Justy mice and that these tumors may offer a valuable model for study of EGFR regulation. Combined, our data suggest that Justy mice warrant further investigation for use as a mouse model for human salivary gland neoplasia. PMID:23608756

  4. On approaches to the functional restoration of salivary glands damaged by radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, with a review of related aspects of salivary gland morphology and development.

    PubMed

    Redman, R S

    2008-06-01

    Radiation therapy for cancer of the head and neck can devastate the salivary glands and partially devitalize the mandible and maxilla. As a result, saliva production is drastically reduced and its quality adversely altered. Without diligent home and professional care, the teeth are subject to rapid destruction by caries, necessitating extractions with attendant high risk of necrosis of the supporting bone. Innovative techniques in delivery of radiation therapy and administration of drugs that selectively protect normal tissues can reduce significantly the radiation effects on salivary glands. Nonetheless, many patients still suffer severe oral dryness. I review here the functional morphology and development of salivary glands as these relate to approaches to preventing and restoring radiation-induced loss of salivary function. The acinar cells are responsible for most of the fluid and organic material in saliva, while the larger ducts influence the inorganic content. A central theme of this review is the extent to which the several types of epithelial cells in salivary glands may be pluripotential and the circumstances that may influence their ability to replace cells that have been lost or functionally inactivated due to the effects of radiation. The evidence suggests that the highly differentiated cells of the acini and large ducts of mature glands can replace themselves except when the respective pools of available cells are greatly diminished via apoptosis or necrosis owing to severely stressful events. Under the latter circumstances, relatively undifferentiated cells in the intercalated ducts proliferate and redifferentiate as may be required to replenish the depleted pools. It is likely that some, if not many, acinar cells may de-differentiate into intercalated duct-like cells and thus add to the pool of progenitor cells in such situations. If the stress is heavy doses of radiation, however, the result is not only the death of acinar cells, but also a marked

  5. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    SciTech Connect

    Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Gilbert, Ethel S.

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 casesmore » of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.« less

  6. A prognostic index for predicting lymph node metastasis in minor salivary gland cancer.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Shane; Yu, James B; Ross, Douglas A; Wilson, Lynn D; Decker, Roy H

    2010-01-01

    Large studies examining the clinical and pathological factors associated with nodal metastasis in minor salivary gland cancer are lacking in the literature. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we identified 2,667 minor salivary gland cancers with known lymph node status from 1988 to 2004. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with the use of neck dissection, the use of external beam radiation therapy, and the presence of cervical lymph node metastases. Four hundred twenty-six (16.0%) patients had neck nodal involvement. Factors associated with neck nodal involvement on univariate analysis included increasing age, male sex, increasing tumor size, high tumor grade, T3-T4 stage, adenocarcinoma or mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and pharyngeal site of primary malignancy. On multivariate analysis, four statistically significant factors were identified, including male sex, T3-T4 stage, pharyngeal site of primary malignancy, and high-grade adenocarcinoma or high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas. The proportions (and 95% confidence intervals) of patients with lymph node involvement for those with 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 of these prognostic factors were 0.02 (0.01-0.03), 0.09 (0.07-0.11), 0.17 (0.14-0.21), 0.41 (0.33-0.49), and 0.70 (0.54-0.85), respectively. Grade was a significant predictor of metastasis for adenocarcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma but not for adenoid cystic carcinoma. A prognostic index using the four clinicopathological factors listed here can effectively differentiate patients into risk groups of nodal metastasis. The precision of this index is subject to the limitations of SEER data and should be validated in further clinical studies.

  7. Ixodes ricinus and Its Endosymbiont Midichloria mitochondrii: A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Salivary Glands and Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Di Venere, Monica; Fumagalli, Marco; Cafiso, Alessandra; De Marco, Leone; Epis, Sara; Plantard, Olivier; Bardoni, Anna; Salvini, Roberta; Viglio, Simona; Bazzocchi, Chiara; Iadarola, Paolo; Sassera, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Hard ticks are hematophagous arthropods that act as vectors of numerous pathogenic microorganisms of high relevance in human and veterinary medicine. Ixodes ricinus is one of the most important tick species in Europe, due to its role of vector of pathogenic bacteria such as Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, of viruses such as tick borne encephalitis virus and of protozoans as Babesia spp. In addition to these pathogens, I. ricinus harbors a symbiotic bacterium, Midichloria mitochondrii. This is the dominant bacteria associated to I. ricinus, but its biological role is not yet understood. Most M. mitochondrii symbionts are localized in the tick ovaries, and they are transmitted to the progeny. M. mitochondrii bacteria have however also been detected in the salivary glands and saliva of I. ricinus, as well as in the blood of vertebrate hosts of the tick, prompting the hypothesis of an infectious role of this bacterium. To investigate, from a proteomic point of view, the tick I. ricinus and its symbiont, we generated the protein profile of the ovary tissue (OT) and of salivary glands (SG) of adult females of this tick species. To compare the OT and SG profiles, 2-DE profiling followed by LC-MS/MS protein identification were performed. We detected 21 spots showing significant differences in the relative abundance between the OT and SG, ten of which showed 4- to 18-fold increase/decrease in density. This work allowed to establish a method to characterize the proteome of I. ricinus, and to detect multiple proteins that exhibit a differential expression profile in OT and SG. Additionally, we were able to use an immunoproteomic approach to detect a protein from the symbiont. Finally, the method here developed will pave the way for future studies on the proteomics of I. ricinus, with the goals of better understanding the biology of this vector and of its symbiont M. mitochondrii.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Human Salivary Gland-Derived Intact Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Si; Brown, Joseph N.; Tolic, Nikola

    There are several notable challenges inherent to fully characterizing the entirety of the human saliva proteome using bottom-up approaches, including polymorphic isoforms, post-translational modifications, unique splice variants, deletions, and truncations. To address these challenges, we have developed a top-down based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach, which cataloged 20 major human salivary proteins with a total of 83 proteoforms, containing a broad range of post-translational modifications. Among these proteins, several previously reported disease biomarker proteins were identified at the intact protein level, such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M). In addition, intact glycosylated proteoforms of several saliva proteins were also characterized, including intactmore » N-glycosylated protein prolactin inducible protein (PIP) and O-glycosylated acidic protein rich protein (aPRP). These characterized proteoforms constitute an intact saliva proteoform database, which was used for quantitative comparison of intact salivary proteoforms among six healthy individuals. Human parotid (PS) and submandibular/sublingual gland (SMSL) secretion samples (2 μg of protein each) from six healthy individuals were compared using RPLC coupled with the 12T FTICR mass spectrometer. Significantly different protein and PTM patterns were resolved with high reproducibility between PS and SMSL glands. The results from this study provide further insight into the potential mechanisms of PTM pathways in oral glandular secretion, expanding our knowledge of this complex yet easily accessible fluid. Intact protein LC-MS approach presented herein can potentially be applied for rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers from only a few microliters of human glandular saliva.« less

  9. [Cytologic diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands and distinction from basal cell adenoma].

    PubMed

    Bai, Y P; Zhang, Y; Tian, C; Xing, L; Liu, H G

    2018-04-08

    Objective: To describe the cytologic features of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ADCC) of salivary glands, and to identify distinguishing cytologic features of ADCC and basal cell adenoma (BCA). Methods: A retrospective review of cytology smears of 30 cases of ADCC and 12 cases of BCA of salivary glands were performed. All cases were collected from Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2010 to January 2017. Except for 2 aspirate smears of ADCC, all were touch imprint smears. All cases had further histological confirmation. Results: Neoplastic ductal cells of ADCC were arranged in three-dimensional clusters, sheets and singles. Hyaline globules were found in most cases (20/30, 66.7%). The nuclei were round to oval, showing varying degrees of nuclear atypia. These included (1) the nuclei were hyperchromatic, demonstrating coarse or slightly coarse, irregularly distributed chromatin; (2) the nuclei were slightly large and vary in size; (3) appearance of the nuclei had a different degree of irregularity (often mild). Nucleoli were common seen (21/30, 70.0%), and were prominent in some cases. Mitosis and necrosis were rare. Cytologically, BCA showed cell arrangements and nuclear features overlapped with those of ADCC. The cytologic difference between these two tumors included: (1) the tumor cells presented rarely in singles; (2) hyaline globules were very uncommon (1/12) in BCA; (3) nuclei of BCA were hypochromatic or slightly hyperchromatic, homogeneous and uniform in appearance and size, overall without nuclear atypia and they were smaller and slender then those of ADCC and (4) individual cells of BCA showed relatively abundant cytoplasm. Conclusions: The cytologic features of ADCC and BCA both overlap and different from each other. Most cases can be diagnosed by cytologic examination. The presence of hyaline globules is an important diagnostic clue of ADCC, although not pathognomonic. Nuclear atypia of neoplastic ductal cells is an essential

  10. Analysis and significance of c-MET expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Bell, Diana; Ferrarotto, Renata; Fox, Melanie D; Roberts, Dianna; Hanna, Ehab Y; Weber, Randal S; El-Naggar, Adel K

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a rare salivary gland malignancy, is a histogenetic, morphologic, and clinical heterogeneous disease. Extensive efforts have been made to characterize molecular events associated with these tumors, including the identification of prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Increased copy number gain and amplification of c-Met, the cell surface receptor for hepatocyte growth factor, has been shown to enhance tumor growth and invasiveness and promote metastasis in certain tumor types. In this study, we evaluated the expression of c-Met by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a large cohort of salivary gland ACCs and examined its clinicopathologic implications. Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks from 200 ACC patients were used in this study. Pathologic patterns and phenotypic expression of c-Met were recorded and compared with clinical factors including gender, age, disease stage at diagnosis, and clinical outcomes. Correlations between c-MET expression and clinical characteristics were assessed by Pearson's chi-square test or by the 2-tailed Fisher exact test. Curves describing overall survival were generated by Kaplan-Meier product limit method. Strong c-MET expression was seen in inner ductal and outer myoepithelial cells in 53.2% of the cases. There was no correlation between c-Met overexpression and clinicopathologic parameters or patient's overall survival ( p = .94074). In conclusion, c-MET expression is high in a significant subgroup of ACC patients. While c-MET expression is not a prognostic factor in ACC, its role as a predictive marker of benefit from MET inhibitors deserves further investigation.

  11. A Prognostic Index for Predicting Lymph Node Metastasis in Minor Salivary Gland Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, Shane; Yu, James B.; Ross, Douglas A.

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Large studies examining the clinical and pathological factors associated with nodal metastasis in minor salivary gland cancer are lacking in the literature. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we identified 2,667 minor salivary gland cancers with known lymph node status from 1988 to 2004. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with the use of neck dissection, the use of external beam radiation therapy, and the presence of cervical lymph node metastases. Results: Four hundred twenty-six (16.0%) patients had neck nodal involvement. Factors associated with neck nodal involvement on univariatemore » analysis included increasing age, male sex, increasing tumor size, high tumor grade, T3-T4 stage, adenocarcinoma or mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and pharyngeal site of primary malignancy. On multivariate analysis, four statistically significant factors were identified, including male sex, T3-T4 stage, pharyngeal site of primary malignancy, and high-grade adenocarcinoma or high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas. The proportions (and 95% confidence intervals) of patients with lymph node involvement for those with 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 of these prognostic factors were 0.02 (0.01-0.03), 0.09 (0.07-0.11), 0.17 (0.14-0.21), 0.41 (0.33-0.49), and 0.70 (0.54-0.85), respectively. Grade was a significant predictor of metastasis for adenocarcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma but not for adenoid cystic carcinoma. Conclusions: A prognostic index using the four clinicopathological factors listed here can effectively differentiate patients into risk groups of nodal metastasis. The precision of this index is subject to the limitations of SEER data and should be validated in further clinical studies.« less

  12. Correlation between structure, protein composition, morphogenesis and cytopathology of Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus.

    PubMed

    Kariithi, Henry M; van Lent, Jan W M; Boeren, Sjef; Abd-Alla, Adly M M; Ince, Ikbal Agah; van Oers, Monique M; Vlak, Just M

    2013-01-01

    The Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV) is a dsDNA virus with rod-shaped, enveloped virions. Its 190 kb genome contains 160 putative protein-coding ORFs. Here, the structural components, protein composition and associated aspects of GpSGHV morphogenesis and cytopathology were investigated. Four morphologically distinct structures: the nucleocapsid, tegument, envelope and helical surface projections, were observed in purified GpSGHV virions by electron microscopy. Nucleocapsids were present in virogenic stroma within the nuclei of infected salivary gland cells, whereas enveloped virions were located in the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of infected cells appeared disordered and the plasma membranes disintegrated. Treatment of virions with 1 % NP-40 efficiently partitioned the virions into envelope and nucleocapsid fractions. The fractions were separated by SDS-PAGE followed by in-gel trypsin digestion and analysis of the tryptic peptides by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray and tandem mass spectrometry. Using the MaxQuant program with Andromeda as a database search engine, a total of 45 viral proteins were identified. Of these, ten and 15 were associated with the envelope and the nucleocapsid fractions, respectively, whilst 20 were detected in both fractions, most likely representing tegument proteins. In addition, 51 host-derived proteins were identified in the proteome of the virus particle, 13 of which were verified to be incorporated into the mature virion using a proteinase K protection assay. This study provides important information about GpSGHV biology and suggests options for the development of future anti-GpSGHV strategies by interfering with virus-host interactions.

  13. Expression of Hormone Receptors and HER-2 in Benign and Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors.

    PubMed

    Can, Nhu Thuy; Lingen, Mark W; Mashek, Heather; McElherne, James; Briese, Renee; Fitzpatrick, Carrie; van Zante, Annemieke; Cipriani, Nicole A

    2018-03-01

    With the advent of targeted therapies, expression of sex hormone receptors and HER-2 in salivary gland tumors (SGTs) is of clinical interest. Previous reports of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor expression have varied. Androgen receptor (AR) and HER-2 overexpression are frequently reported in salivary duct carcinoma (SDC), but have not been studied systematically in other SGTs. This study examines ER, PR, AR, and HER-2 expression in SGTs. Immunohistochemistry for ER, PR, AR, and HER-2 was performed on 254 SGTs (134 malignant). ER, PR, and AR expression was scored using Allred system. HER-2 expression was scored using Dako HercepTest guidelines. FISH for HER-2 amplification was performed on select cases with HER-2 overexpression (2-3+). No SGT demonstrated strong expression of ER or PR. Combined strong AR and HER-2 expression was seen in 22 carcinomas: 14/25 SDC, 3/16 poorly differentiated, two oncocytic, and one each carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, squamous cell, and intraductal carcinoma. Eighteen additional high grade carcinomas had HER-2 overexpression with absent, weak, or moderate AR expression; eight high grade carcinomas had isolated strong AR expression with 0-1+ HER-2 staining. Of 15 tested cases, six demonstrated HER-2 amplification by FISH, all of which had 3+ immunoreactivity. Neither benign nor malignant SGTs had strong expression of ER or PR. None of the benign SGTs overexpressed AR or HER-2. Coexpression of AR and HER-2 should not define SDC, but immunostaining should be considered in high grade salivary carcinomas, as some show overexpression and may benefit from targeted therapy.

  14. The salivary gland transcriptome of the eastern tree hole mosquito, Ochlerotatus triseriatus.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Eric; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Favreau, Amanda J; Barbian, Kent D; Pham, Van M; Olson, Kenneth E; Ribeiro, José M C

    2010-05-01

    Saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains a complex mixture of peptides that affect their host's hemostasis, inflammation, and immunity. These activities can also modify the site of pathogen delivery and increase disease transmission. Saliva also induces hosts to mount an antisaliva immune response that can lead to skin allergies or even anaphylaxis. Accordingly, knowledge of the salivary repertoire, or sialome, of a mosquito is useful to provide a knowledge platform to mine for novel pharmacological activities, to develop novel vaccine targets for vector-borne diseases, and to develop epidemiological markers of vector exposure and candidate desensitization vaccines. The mosquito Ochlerotatus triseriatus is a vector of La Crosse virus and produces allergy in humans. In this work, a total of 1,575 clones randomly selected from an adult female O. triseriatus salivary gland cDNA library was sequenced and used to assemble a database that yielded 731 clusters of related sequences, 560 of which were singletons. Primer extension experiments were performed in selected clones to further extend sequence coverage, allowing for the identification of 159 protein sequences, 66 of which code for putative secreted proteins. Supplemental spreadsheets containing these data are available at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/Ochlerotatus_triseriatus/S1/Ot-S1.xls and http://exon.niaid. nih.gov/transcriptome/Ochlerotatus_triseriatus/S2/Ot-S2.xls.

  15. The salivary glands of two sand fly vectors of Leishmania: Lutzomyia migonei (França) and Lutzomyia ovallesi (Ortiz)(Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Elsa; Buelvas, Neudo; Rondón, Maritza; González, Néstor

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the intradermal inoculation of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) promastigotes together with saliva during the bite of an infected sand fly. The salivary glands were compared from two vector species, Lutzomyia ovallesi (Ortiz,1952) and Lutzomyia migonei (França,1920) (Diptera: Psychodidae). Protein profiles by SDS PAGE of salivary glands were compared among species as well as their development at several times post feeding. First, mice were immunized to salivary proteins by exposure to biting by L. ovallesi and of L. migonei. Antibodies in these mice against salivary gland-specific proteins were evaluated by immunoblotting. No apparent change was revealed in the kinetic expression of salivary proteins induced by the different physiological states post feeding. Qualitative and quantitative variations were detected in16-18 polypeptides with molecular weights ranging from 6 to 180 kDa. Species-specific proteins were demonstrated for L. migonei and L. ovallesi. In addition, antibodies against salivary gland specific proteins were found in mice immunized by the saliva of both species. Basic information was obtained concerning the nature of salivary gland proteins of L. migonei and L. ovallesi. This information helps to elucidate the role of salivary proteins and their potential as effective tools in screening risk factors in human and other vertebrate hosts.

  16. Retinoic Acid signaling regulates Krt5 and Krt14 independently of stem cell markers in submandibular salivary gland epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Abashev, Timur M.; Metzler, Melissa A.; Wright, Diana M.; Sandell, Lisa L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Retinoic Acid (RA), the active metabolite of Vitamin A, has been demonstrated to be important for growth and branching morphogenesis of mammalian embryonic salivary gland epithelium. However, it is not known whether RA functions directly within epithelial cells or in associated tissues that influence morphogenesis of salivary epithelium. Moreover, downstream targets of RA regulation have not been identified. Results Here we show that canonical RA signaling occurs in multiple tissues of embryonic mouse salivary glands, including epithelium, associated parasympathetic ganglion neurons, and non-neuronal mesenchyme. By culturing epithelium explants in isolation from other tissues we demonstrate that RA influences epithelium morphogenesis by direct action in that tissue. Moreover, we demonstrate that inhibition of RA signaling represses cell proliferation and expression of FGF10 signaling targets, and upregulates expression of basal epithelial keratins Krt5 and Krt14. Importantly, we show that the stem cell gene Kit is regulated inversely from Krt5/Krt14 by RA signaling. Conclusions RA regulates Krt5 and Krt14 expression independently of stem cell character in developing salivary epithelium. RA, or chemical inhibitors of RA signaling, could potentially be used for modulating growth and differentiation of epithelial stem cells for the purpose of re-populating damaged glands or generating bioengineered organs. PMID:27884045

  17. Retinoic acid signaling regulates Krt5 and Krt14 independently of stem cell markers in submandibular salivary gland epithelium.

    PubMed

    Abashev, Timur M; Metzler, Melissa A; Wright, Diana M; Sandell, Lisa L

    2017-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of vitamin A, has been demonstrated to be important for growth and branching morphogenesis of mammalian embryonic salivary gland epithelium. However, it is not known whether RA functions directly within epithelial cells or in associated tissues that influence morphogenesis of salivary epithelium. Moreover, downstream targets of RA regulation have not been identified. Here, we show that canonical RA signaling occurs in multiple tissues of embryonic mouse salivary glands, including epithelium, associated parasympathetic ganglion neurons, and nonneuronal mesenchyme. By culturing epithelium explants in isolation from other tissues, we demonstrate that RA influences epithelium morphogenesis by direct action in that tissue. Moreover, we demonstrate that inhibition of RA signaling represses cell proliferation and expression of FGF10 signaling targets, and upregulates expression of basal epithelial keratins Krt5 and Krt14. Importantly, we show that the stem cell gene Kit is regulated inversely from Krt5/Krt14 by RA signaling. RA regulates Krt5 and Krt14 expression independently of stem cell character in developing salivary epithelium. RA, or chemical inhibitors of RA signaling, could potentially be used for modulating growth and differentiation of epithelial stem cells for the purpose of re-populating damaged glands or generating bioengineered organs. Developmental Dynamics 246:135-147, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effect of mobile phone use on salivary concentrations of protein, amylase, lipase, immunoglobulin A, lysozyme, lactoferrin, peroxidase and C-reactive protein of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Hashemipour, M S; Yarbakht, M; Gholamhosseinian, A; Famori, H

    2014-05-01

    The possibility of side effects associated with the electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phones is a controversial issue. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of mobile phone use on parotid gland salivary concentrations of protein, amylase, lipase, immunoglobulin A, lysozyme, lactoferrin, peroxidase and C-reactive protein. Stimulated salivary samples were collected simultaneously from both parotid glands of 86 healthy volunteers. Salivary flow rate and salivary concentrations of proteins, amylase, lipase, lysozyme, lactoferrin, peroxidase, C-reactive protein and immunoglobulin A, were measured. Data were analysed using t-tests and one-way analyses of variance. Salivary flow rate and parotid gland salivary concentrations of protein were significantly higher on the right side compared to the left in those that predominantly held mobile phones on the right side. In addition, there was a decrease in concentrations of amylase, lipase, lysozyme, lactoferrin and peroxidase. The side of dominant mobile phone use was associated with differences in salivary flow rate and parotid gland salivary concentrations, in right-dominant users. Although mobile phone use influenced salivary composition, the relationship was not significant.

  19. Primary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Salivary Glands: A Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study

    SciTech Connect

    Anacak, Yavuz, E-mail: yavuz.anacak@ege.edu.tr; Miller, Robert C.; Constantinou, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Involvement of salivary glands with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is rare. This retrospective study was performed to assess the clinical profile, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors of MALT lymphoma of the salivary glands. Methods and Materials: Thirteen member centers of the Rare Cancer Network from 10 countries participated, providing data on 63 patients. The median age was 58 years; 47 patients were female and 16 were male. The parotid glands were involved in 49 cases, submandibular in 15, and minor glands in 3. Multiple glands were involved in 9 patients. Staging was as follows: IE in 34, IIEmore » in 12, IIIE in 2, and IV in 15 patients. Results: Surgery (S) alone was performed in 9, radiotherapy (RT) alone in 8, and chemotherapy (CT) alone in 4 patients. Forty-one patients received combined modality treatment (S + RT in 23, S + CT in 8, RT + CT in 4, and all three modalities in 6 patients). No active treatment was given in one case. After initial treatment there was no tumor in 57 patients and residual tumor in 5. Tumor progression was observed in 23 (36.5%) (local in 1, other salivary glands in 10, lymph nodes in 11, and elsewhere in 6). Five patients died of disease progression and the other 5 of other causes. The 5-year disease-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival were 54.4%, 93.2%, and 81.7%, respectively. Factors influencing disease-free survival were use of RT, stage, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Factors influencing disease-specific survival were stage, recurrence, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this report represents the largest series of MALT lymphomas of the salivary glands published to date. This disease may involve all salivary glands either initially or subsequently in 30% of patients. Recurrences may occur in up to 35% of patients at 5 years; however, survival is not affected. Radiotherapy is the only treatment modality that improves disease

  20. Salivary gland sparing and improved target irradiation by conformal and intensity modulated irradiation of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Eisbruch, Avraham; Ship, Jonathan A; Dawson, Laura A; Kim, Hyungjin M; Bradford, Carol R; Terrell, Jeffrey E; Chepeha, Douglas B; Teknos, Theodore N; Hogikyan, Norman D; Anzai, Yoshimi; Marsh, Lon H; Ten Haken, Randall K; Wolf, Gregory T

    2003-07-01

    The goals of this study were to facilitate sparing of the major salivary glands while adequately treating tumor targets in patients requiring comprehensive bilateral neck irradiation (RT), and to assess the potential for improved xerostomia. Since 1994 techniques of target irradiation and locoregional tumor control with conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) have been developed. In patients treated with these modalities, the salivary flow rates before and periodically after RT have been measured selectively from each major salivary gland and the residual flows correlated with glands' dose volume histograms (DVHs). In addition, subjective xerostomia questionnaires have been developed and validated. The pattern of locoregional recurrence has been examined from computed tomography (CT) scans at the time of recurrence, transferring the recurrence volumes to the planning CT scans, and regenerating the dose distributions at the recurrence sites. Treatment plans for target coverage and dose homogeneity using static, multisegmental IMRT were found to be significantly better than standard RT plans. In addition, significant parotid gland sparing was achieved in the conformal plans. The relationships among dose, irradiated volume, and the residual saliva flow rates from the parotid glands were characterized by dose and volume thresholds. A mean radiation dose of 26 Gy was found to be the threshold for preserved stimulated saliva flow. Xerostomia questionnaire scores suggested that xerostomia was significantly reduced in patients irradiated with bilateral neck, parotid-sparing RT, compared to patients with similar tumors treated with standard RT. Examination of locoregional tumor recurrence patterns revealed that the large majority of recurrences occurred inside targets, in areas that had been judged to be at high risk and that had received RT doses according to the perceived risk. Tangible gains in salivary gland sparing and target coverage are being

  1. Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Water, Tara A. van de, E-mail: t.a.van.de.water@rt.umcg.nl; Lomax, Antony J.; Bijl, Hendrik P.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements.more » In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose-volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves

  2. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-01: EIT Imaging to Monitor Human Salivary Gland Functionality: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, K; Karvat, A; Liu, J

    Purpose: Clinically, there exists a need to develop a non-invasive technique for monitoring salivary activity. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of a using the electrical conductivity information from Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to monitor salivary flow activity. Methods: To acquire EIT data, eight Ag/AgCl ECG electrodes were placed around the mandible of the subject. An EIT scan was obtained by injecting current at 50 KHz, 0.4 mA through each pair of electrodes and recording voltage across other electrode pairs. The functional conductivity image was obtained through reconstruction of the voltage data, using Electrical Impedance Tomography and Diffuse Opticalmore » Tomography Reconstruction Software (EIDORS) in Matlab. In using EIDORS, forward solution was obtained using a user-defined finite element model shape and inverse solution was obtained using one-step Gaussian solver. EIT scans of volunteer research team members were acquired for three different physiological states: pre-stimulation, stimulation and post-stimulation. For pre-stimulation phase, data were collected in intervals of 5 minutes for 15 minutes. The salivary glands were then stimulated in the subject using lemon and the data were collected immediately. Post-stimulation data were collected at 4 different timings after stimulation. Results: Variations were observed in the electrical conductivity patterns near parotid regions between the pre- and post-stimulation stages. The three images acquired during the 15 minute pre-stimulation phase showed no major changes in the conductivity. Immediately after stimulation, electrical conductivity increased near parotid regions and 15 minutes later slowly returned to pre-stimulation level. Conclusion: In the present study involving human subjects, the change in electrical conductivity pattern shown in the EIT images, acquired at different times with and without stimulation of salivary glands, appeared to be consistent with the change in

  3. Cytokine markers of B lymphocytes in minor salivary gland infiltrates in Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Mendoza, Erika P; Aguirre-Valencia, David; Posso-Osorio, Iván; Correa-Forero, Shirley Vanessa; Torres-Cutiva, Daniel-Felipe; Loaiza, Diana; Tobón, Gabriel J

    2018-05-03

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterised by the clinical presence of sicca syndrome. SS compromises the dysfunction of exocrine glands due to the presence of focal, mononuclear cell infiltrates that surround the ducts and replace the secretory units. Abnormal expression of different cytokines and chemokines such as B-cell activating factor, CXC Motif Chemokine Ligand 13, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-22, and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand as well as that of their corresponding receptors has been implicated in the inflammatory process. The severity of glandular infiltration has been suggested to be associated with the presence of extra-glandular systemic manifestations, contributing to a clinical spectrum of the most severe disease. This review describes several cytokines and chemokines associated with B lymphocytes expressed in the minor salivary gland, their chemical structures, and their roles in SS as possible early predictors of lymphoma development and disease progression. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Classification of parotidectomy: a proposed modification to the European Salivary Gland Society classification system.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wai Keat; Shetty, Subhaschandra

    2017-08-01

    Parotidectomy remains the mainstay of treatment for both benign and malignant lesions of the parotid gland. There exists a wide range of possible surgical options in parotidectomy in terms of extent of parotid tissue removed. There is increasing need for uniformity of terminology resulting from growing interest in modifications of the conventional parotidectomy. It is, therefore, of paramount importance for a standardized classification system in describing extent of parotidectomy. Recently, the European Salivary Gland Society (ESGS) proposed a novel classification system for parotidectomy. The aim of this study is to evaluate this system. A classification system proposed by the ESGS was critically re-evaluated and modified to increase its accuracy and its acceptability. Modifications mainly focused on subdividing Levels I and II into IA, IB, IIA, and IIB. From June 2006 to June 2016, 126 patients underwent 130 parotidectomies at our hospital. The classification system was tested in that cohort of patient. While the ESGS classification system is comprehensive, it does not cover all possibilities. The addition of Sublevels IA, IB, IIA, and IIB may help to address some of the clinical situations seen and is clinically relevant. We aim to test the modified classification system for partial parotidectomy to address some of the challenges mentioned.

  5. Neuropeptide K potently stimulates salivary gland secretion and potentiates substance P-induced salivation.

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Y; Krause, J E

    1989-01-01

    Neuropeptide K (NPK) is an N-terminally extended derivative of neurokinin A (NKA) that can be a final product in the posttranslational processing of beta-preprotachykinin. A rat salivation bioassay was used to demonstrate potent effects of NPK at low doses, while effects due to NKA were much weaker at higher doses. The rank order of potency of beta-preprotachykinin-derived peptides on salivation responses was NPK greater than substance P greater than NKA much greater than beta-preprotachykinin-(72-96)-peptide. The time course of the NPK response was longer than that observed with substance P. The responses elicited by NPK were blocked by the tachykinin antagonist [D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9]substance P but not by atropine. In peptide coinfusion studies, NPK strikingly potentiated the salivation responses elicited by substance P. NPK in vitro displayed a 100 times lower potency than substance P in displacing 3H-labeled substance P binding in submandibular gland membranes, a tissue rich in SP-P type (NK-1) receptors. The possible cellular mechanisms by which NPK stimulates salivary gland secretion are discussed. We conclude that NPK and substance P may be cotransmitters derived by posttranslational processing of beta-preprotachykinin. Images PMID:2463627

  6. Immune response against the coiled coil domain of Sjögren's syndrome associated autoantigen Ro52 induces salivary gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sroka, Magdalena; Bagavant, Harini; Biswas, Indranil; Ballard, Abigail; Deshmukh, Umesh S

    2018-01-31

    The structural domains of Ro52, termed the RING, B-box, coiled coil (CC) and B30.2/SPRY are targets of anti-Ro52 in multiple autoimmune disorders. In Sjögren's syndrome patients, the presence of anti-Ro52 is associated with higher disease severity, and in mice, they induce salivary gland hypofunction. This study was undertaken to investigate whether immune responses against different domains of Ro52, influences salivary gland disease in mice. Female NZM2758 mice were immunised with Ro52 domains expressed as recombinant fusion proteins with maltose binding protein (MBP) [MBP-RING-B-box, MBP-CC, MBP-CC(ΔC19), MBP-B30.2/SPRY]. Sera from immunised mice were studied for IgG antibodies to Ro52 by immunoprecipitation, and to salivary gland cells by immunofluorescence. Pilocarpine-induced saliva production was measured to evaluate salivary gland function. Submandibular glands were investigated by histopathology for inflammation and by immune-histochemistry for IgG deposition. Mice immunised with different Ro52-domains had comparable reactivity to Ro52 and to salivary gland cells. However, only mice immunised with the CC domain and its C-terminal truncated version CC(ΔC19) showed a significant drop in saliva production. None of the mice developed severe salivary gland inflammation. The salivary gland hypofunction significantly correlated with increased intra-lobar IgG deposits in the submandibular salivary glands. Our data demonstrate that epitope specificity of anti-Ro52 antibodies plays a critical role in the induction of glandular dysfunction. Clearly, screening Sjögren's syndrome patients for relative levels of Ro52 domain specific antibodies will be more informative for associating anti-Ro52 with clinical measures of the disorder.

  7. Micromorphology of sialoliths in submandibular salivary gland: a scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis.

    PubMed

    Kasaboğlu, Oğuzcan; Er, Nuray; Tümer, Celal; Akkocaoğlu, Murat

    2004-10-01

    Sialoliths are common in the submandibular gland and its duct system. The exact cause of formation of a sialolith is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to analyze 6 sialoliths ultrastructurally to determine their development mechanism in the submandibular salivary glands. Six sialoliths retrieved from the hilus and duct of the submandibular salivary glands of 6 patients with sialadenitis were analyzed ultrastructurally by scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer. Scanning electron microscope revealed mainly irregular, partly rudely hexagonal, needle-like and plate-shaped crystals. The cross-section from the surface to the inner part of the sialoliths showed no organic material. X-ray diffraction showed that the sialoliths were composed of hydroxyapatite crystals. Energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis showed that all of the samples contained high levels of Ca and P, and small amounts of Mg, Na, Cl, Si, Fe, and K. The main structures of the submandibular sialoliths were found to be hydroxyapatite crystals. No organic cores were observed in the central parts of the sialoliths. In accordance with these preliminary results, sialoliths in the submandibular salivary glands may arise secondary to sialadenitis, but not via a luminal organic nidus.

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Salivary Glands of Two Populations of Rice Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, That Differ in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongdan; Ye, Wenfeng; Li, Shaohui; Lou, Yonggen

    2013-01-01

    Background The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), a destructive rice pest in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. Herbivore saliva plays an important role in plant–herbivore interactions, including in plant defense and herbivore virulence. However, thus far little is known about BPH saliva at the molecular level, especially its role in virulence and BPH–rice interaction. Methodology/Principal Findings Using cDNA amplification in combination with Illumina short-read sequencing technology, we sequenced the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations with different virulence; the populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population) and Mudgo (M population). In total, 37,666 and 38,451 unigenes were generated from the salivary glands of these populations, respectively. When combined, a total of 43,312 unigenes were obtained, about 18 times more than the number of expressed sequence tags previously identified from these glands. Gene ontology annotations and KEGG orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism, binding and transport were significantly active in the salivary glands. A total of 352 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins, and some might play important roles in BPH feeding and BPH–rice interactions. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of the two populations revealed that the genes related to ‘metabolism,’ ‘digestion and absorption,’ and ‘salivary secretion’ might be associated with virulence. Moreover, 67 genes encoding putative secreted proteins were differentially expressed between the two populations, suggesting these genes may contribute to the change in virulence. Conclusions/Significance This study was the first to compare the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our data provide a rich molecular resource for

  9. Mechanism involved in Danshen-induced fluid secretion in salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fei; Wei, Mu-Xin; Murakami, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Danshen’s capability to induce salivary fluid secretion and its mechanisms were studied to determine if it could improve xerostomia. METHODS: Submandibular glands were isolated from male Wistar rats under systemic anesthesia with pentobarbital sodium. The artery was cannulated and vascularly perfused at a constant rate. The excretory duct was also cannulated and the secreted saliva was weighed in a cup on an electronic balance. The weight of the accumulated saliva was measured every 3 s and the salivary flow rate was calculated. In addition, the arterio-venous difference in the partial oxygen pressure was measured as an indicator of oxygen consumption. In order to assess the mechanism involved in Danshen-induced fluid secretion, either ouabain (an inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase) or bumetanide (an inhibitor of NKCC1) was additionally applied during the Danshen stimulation. In order to examine the involvement of the main membrane receptors, atropine was added to block the M3 muscarinic receptors, or phentolamine was added to block the α1 adrenergic receptors. In order to examine the requirement for extracellular Ca2+, Danshen was applied during the perfusion with nominal Ca2+ free solution. RESULTS: Although Danshen induced salivary fluid secretion, 88.7 ± 12.8 μL/g-min, n = 9, (the highest value around 20 min from start of DS perfusion was significantly high vs 32.5 ± 5.3 μL/g-min by carbamylcholine, P = 0.00093 by t-test) in the submandibular glands, the time course of that secretion differed from that induced by carbamylcholine. There was a latency associated with the fluid secretion induced by Danshen, followed by a gradual increase in the secretion to its highest value, which was in turn followed by a slow decline to a near zero level. The application of either ouabain or bumetanide inhibited the fluid secretion by 85% or 93%, and suppressed the oxygen consumption by 49% or 66%, respectively. These results indicated that Danshen activates Na+/K+ ATPase

  10. Tsetse Salivary Gland Proteins 1 and 2 Are High Affinity Nucleic Acid Binding Proteins with Residual Nuclease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Caljon, Guy; Ridder, Karin De; Stijlemans, Benoît; Coosemans, Marc; Magez, Stefan; De Baetselier, Patrick; Van Den Abbeele, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the tsetse fly salivary gland EST database revealed the presence of a highly enriched cluster of putative endonuclease genes, including tsal1 and tsal2. Tsal proteins are the major components of tsetse fly (G. morsitans morsitans) saliva where they are present as monomers as well as high molecular weight complexes with other saliva proteins. We demonstrate that the recombinant tsetse salivary gland proteins 1&2 (Tsal1&2) display DNA/RNA non-specific, high affinity nucleic acid binding with KD values in the low nanomolar range and a non-exclusive preference for duplex. These Tsal proteins exert only a residual nuclease activity with a preference for dsDNA in a broad pH range. Knockdown of Tsal expression by in vivo RNA interference in the tsetse fly revealed a partially impaired blood digestion phenotype as evidenced by higher gut nucleic acid, hematin and protein contents. PMID:23110062

  11. Vaccine-induced rabies in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes): isolation of vaccine virus in brain tissue and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Hostnik, Peter; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Rihtarič, Danijela; Toplak, Ivan; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-04-01

    Oral vaccination campaigns to eliminate fox rabies were initiated in Slovenia in 1995. In May 2012, a young fox (Vulpes vulpes) with typical rabies signs was captured. Its brain and salivary gland tissues were found to contain vaccine strain SAD B19. The Basic Logical Alignment Search Tool alignment of 589 nucleotides determined from the N gene of the virus isolated from the brain and salivary glands of the affected fox was 100% identical to the GenBank reference SAD B19 strain. Sequence analysis of the N and M genes (4,351 nucleotides) showed two nucleotide modifications at position 1335 (N gene) and 3114 (M gene) in the KC522613 isolate identified in the fox compared to SAD B19.

  12. Quantitative detection of multiple fluorophore sites as a tool for diagnosis and monitoring disease progression in salivary glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannot, Israel; Bonner, Robert F.; Gannot, Gallya; Fox, Philip C.; You, Joon S.; Waynant, Ronald W.; Gandjbakhche, Amir H.

    1997-08-01

    A series of fluorescent surface images were obtained from physical models of localized fluorophores embedded at various depths and separations in tissue phantoms. Our random walk theory was applied to create an analytical model of multiple flurophores embedded in tissue-like phantom. Using this model, from acquired set of surface images, the location of the fluorophores was reconstructed and compared it to their known 3-D distributions. A good correlation was found, and the ability to resolve fluorophores as a function of depth and separation was determined. In parallel in in-vitro study, specific coloring of sections of minor salivary glands was also demonstrated. These results demonstrate the possibility of using inverse methods to reconstruct unknown locations and concentrations of optical probes specifically bound to infiltrating lymphocytes in minor salivary glands of patients with Sjogren's syndrome.

  13. Invertebrate Specific D1-like Dopamine Receptor in Control of Salivary Glands in the Black-Legged Tick Ixodes scapularis

    PubMed Central

    Šimo, Ladislav; Koči, Juraj; Kim, Donghun; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-01-01

    The control of tick salivary secretion, which plays a crucial role in compromising the host immune system, involves complex neural mechanisms. Dopamine is known to be the most potent activator of salivary secretion, as a paracrine/autocrine factor. We describe the invertebrate specific D1-like dopamine receptor (InvD1L), which is highly expressed in tick salivary glands. The InvD1L phylogenic clade was found only in invertebrates, suggesting that this receptor was lost in the vertebrates during evolution. InvD1L expressed in CHO-K1 cells was activated by dopamine with a median effective dose (EC50) of 1.34 μM. Immunohistochemistry using the antibody raised against InvD1L revealed two different types of immunoreactivities: basally located axon terminals that are colocalized with myoinhibitory peptide (MIP) and SIFamide neuropeptides, and longer axon-like processes that are positive only for the InvD1L antibody and extended to the apical parts of the acini. Both structures were closely associated with the myoepithelial cell, as visualized by beta-tubulin antibody, lining the acinar lumen in a web-like fashion. Subcellular localizations of InvD1L in the salivary gland suggest that InvD1L modulates the neuronal activities including MIP/SIFamide varicosities, and leads the contraction of myoepithelial cells and/or of the acinar valve to control the efflux of the luminal content. Combining the previously described D1 receptor with its putative function for activating an influx of fluid through the epithelial cells of acini, we propose that complex control of the tick salivary glands is mediated through two different dopamine receptors, D1 and InvD1L, for different downstream responses of the acinar cells. PMID:24307522

  14. ALX/FPR2 receptor for RvD1 is expressed and functional in salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Joel W.; Leigh, Noel J.; Mellas, Rachel E.; McCall, Andrew D.; Aguirre, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and destruction of salivary and lacrimal glands, leading to dry mouth, dry eyes, and the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies. Despite modern advances, the current therapies for SS have no permanent benefit. A potential treatment could involve the use of resolvins, which are highly potent endogenous lipid mediators that are synthesized during the resolution of inflammation to restore tissue homeostasis. Our previous studies indicate that ALX/FPR2, the receptor for RvD1, is expressed and active in the rat parotid cell line Par-C10. Specifically, activation of ALX/FPR2 with RvD1 blocked inflammatory signals caused by TNF-α and enhanced salivary epithelial integrity. The goal of this study was to investigate RvD1 receptor expression and signaling pathways in primary salivary cells. Additionally, we determined the role of the aspirin-triggered 17R analog (AT-RvD1, a more chemically stable RvD1 epimeric form) in prevention of TNF-α-mediated salivary inflammation in mouse submandibular glands (mSMG). Our results indicate that ALX/FPR2 is expressed in mSMG and is able to elicit intracellular Ca2+ responses and phosphorylation of Erk1/2, as well as Akt. Given that these signaling pathways are linked to cell survival, we investigated whether AT-RvD1 was able to prevent programmed cell death in mSMG. Specifically, we determined that AT-RvD1 prevented TNF-α-mediated caspase-3 activation. Finally, we show that ALX/FPR2 is expressed in human minor salivary glands with and without SS, indicating the potential therapeutic use of AT-RvD1 for this condition. PMID:24259417

  15. ALX/FPR2 receptor for RvD1 is expressed and functional in salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Joel W; Leigh, Noel J; Mellas, Rachel E; McCall, Andrew D; Aguirre, Alfredo; Baker, Olga J

    2014-01-15

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and destruction of salivary and lacrimal glands, leading to dry mouth, dry eyes, and the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies. Despite modern advances, the current therapies for SS have no permanent benefit. A potential treatment could involve the use of resolvins, which are highly potent endogenous lipid mediators that are synthesized during the resolution of inflammation to restore tissue homeostasis. Our previous studies indicate that ALX/FPR2, the receptor for RvD1, is expressed and active in the rat parotid cell line Par-C10. Specifically, activation of ALX/FPR2 with RvD1 blocked inflammatory signals caused by TNF-α and enhanced salivary epithelial integrity. The goal of this study was to investigate RvD1 receptor expression and signaling pathways in primary salivary cells. Additionally, we determined the role of the aspirin-triggered 17R analog (AT-RvD1, a more chemically stable RvD1 epimeric form) in prevention of TNF-α-mediated salivary inflammation in mouse submandibular glands (mSMG). Our results indicate that ALX/FPR2 is expressed in mSMG and is able to elicit intracellular Ca2+ responses and phosphorylation of Erk1/2, as well as Akt. Given that these signaling pathways are linked to cell survival, we investigated whether AT-RvD1 was able to prevent programmed cell death in mSMG. Specifically, we determined that AT-RvD1 prevented TNF-α-mediated caspase-3 activation. Finally, we show that ALX/FPR2 is expressed in human minor salivary glands with and without SS, indicating the potential therapeutic use of AT-RvD1 for this condition.

  16. [Changes in the expression of salivary gland genes in Ixodes persulcatus (Ixodidae) depending on the stage of tick feeding].

    PubMed

    Shtannikov, A V; Perovskaia, O N; Reshetniak, T V; Repolovskaia, T V; Panfertsev, E A; Sergeeva, E E; Gutova, V P; Vasil'eva, I S; Ershova, A S; Prilipov, A G; Biketov, S F; Zeidner, N

    2009-01-01

    By using the guanidine-isothiocyanate test, the authors isolated a summary RNA preparation from Ixodes persulcatus salivary gland extracts. Activity products of the genes responsible for the expression of some salivary proteins were first identified using the RT-PCR. It has been shown that, firstly, I. persulcatus synthesizes at least 3 transcripts homologous to the respective salivary components of the related species I. scapularis, the translation product of which is likely to be immunodominant antigens; secondly, the number of each of these transcripts, as in I. scapularis, depends on the stage of tick feeding. The changes in the expression of each transcript are specific: monotonously increasing changes in Salp 17 and cyclic ones in Salp 16, and synthesis, only when the ticks are fully ingested, in Salp 25.

  17. Diagnostic performance of labial minor salivary gland flow measurement for assessment of xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Satoh-Kuriwada, Shizuko; Iikubo, Masahiro; Shoji, Noriaki; Sakamoto, Maya; Sasano, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    Minor salivary gland flow rate (MF) has been proposed as a key feature of xerostomia (subjective feeling of dry mouth). To assess its diagnostic performance, MF was compared in xerostomia and control subjects. Sixty-six subjects with xerostomia and 30 controls were enrolled. MF was measured in the lower labial mucosa using the iodine-starch filter paper method. Stimulated whole salivary flow rates were also measured using the gum test (stimulated-WF). Both labial-MF and stimulated-WF were significantly lower in xerostomia subjects than in controls. There was a positive correlation between labial-MF and stimulated-WF in control but not xerostomia subjects. In xerostomia subjects compared to controls, there was a significantly larger reduction in labial-MF than in stimulated-WF. Xerostomia was most accurately diagnosed using a labial-MF cutoff value of 0.25 μL/cm(2)/min. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy at this cutoff value were 1.00, 0.87, 0.93, 1.00, and 0.96, respectively. Compared to respective values of 0.64, 1.00, 1.00, 0.56, and 0.75 for stimulated-WF at the traditional cutoff of 1.0 mL/min, these data indicate the higher sensitivity, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of labial-MF. Xerostomia was more strongly related to reduction of labial-MF than to that of stimulated-WF. Xerostomia was most likely triggered at a labial-MF cut-off value of 0.25 μL/cm(2)/min based on results from the iodine-starch method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Importance of Minor Salivary Gland Biopsy in Sjögren Syndrome Diagnosis and the Clinicopathological Correlation.

    PubMed

    Serin, Gürdeniz; Karabulut, Gonca; Kabasakal, Yasemin; Kandiloğlu, Gülşen; Akalin, Taner

    2016-01-01

    Minor salivary gland biopsy is one of the objective tests used in the diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome. The aim of our study was to compare the clinical and laboratory data of primary and secondary Sjögren syndrome cases with a lymphocyte score 3 and 4 in the minor salivary gland biopsy. Data from a total of 2346 consecutive minor salivary gland biopsies were retrospectively evaluated in this study. Clinical and autoantibody characteristics of 367 cases with lymphocyte score 3 or 4 and diagnosed with primary or secondary Sjögren syndrome were compared. There was no difference between lymphocyte score 3 and 4 primary Sjögren syndrome patients in terms of dry mouth, dry eye symptoms and Schirmer test results but Anti-Ro and Antinuclear Antibody positivity was statistically significantly higher in cases with lymphocyte score 4 (p= 0.025, p= 0.001). Anti-Ro test results were also found to be statistically significantly higher in secondary Sjögren syndrome patients with lymphocyte score 4 (p= 0.048). In this study, the high proportion of cases with negative autoantibody but positive lymphocyte score is significant in terms of showing the contribution of minor salivary gland biopsy to Sjögren syndrome diagnosis. Lymphocyte score 3 and 4 cases were found to have similar clinical findings but a difference regarding antibody positivity in primary Sjögren syndrome. We believe that cases with lymphocyte score 4 may be Sjögren syndrome cases whose clinical manifestations are relatively established and higher autoantibody levels are therefore found.

  19. The use of intraoral ultrasound in the characterization of minor salivary gland malignancy: report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jackie; Rudralingam, Meena

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that ultrasound is now the first line of imaging of palpable lumps of the neck. Standardized protocols exist for the evaluation of thyroid, salivary gland and nodal disease, and sonography is increasingly being used in the characterization of intraoral soft tissue lesions. Here, we present two cases where intraoral sonography was invaluable in the early detection of oral malignancy. PMID:26954288

  20. Salivary gland proteome analysis reveals modulation of anopheline unique proteins in insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistant Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Cornelie, Sylvie; Rossignol, Marie; Seveno, Martial; Demettre, Edith; Mouchet, François; Djègbè, Innocent; Marin, Philippe; Chandre, Fabrice; Corbel, Vincent; Remoué, Franck; Mathieu-Daudé, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistance due to a mutation in the acetylcholinesterase (ace) encoding ace-1 gene confers cross-resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in Anopheles gambiae populations from Central and West Africa. This mutation is associated with a strong genetic cost revealed through alterations of some life history traits but little is known about the physiological and behavioural changes in insects bearing the ace-1(R) allele. Comparative analysis of the salivary gland contents between An. gambiae susceptible and ace-1(R) resistant strains was carried out to charaterize factors that could be involved in modifications of blood meal process, trophic behaviour or pathogen interaction in the insecticide-resistant mosquitoes. Differential analysis of the salivary gland protein profiles revealed differences in abundance for several proteins, two of them showing major differences between the two strains. These two proteins identified as saglin and TRIO are salivary gland-1 related proteins, a family unique to anopheline mosquitoes, one of them playing a crucial role in salivary gland invasion by Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. Differential expression of two other proteins previously identified in the Anopheles sialome was also observed. The differentially regulated proteins are involved in pathogen invasion, blood feeding process, and protection against oxidation, relevant steps in the outcome of malaria infection. Further functional studies and insect behaviour experiments would confirm the impact of the modification of the sialome composition on blood feeding and pathogen transmission abilities of the resistant mosquitoes. The data supports the hypothesis of alterations linked to insecticide resistance in the biology of the primary vector of human malaria in Africa.

  1. Current update on established and novel biomarkers in salivary gland carcinoma pathology and the molecular pathways involved.

    PubMed

    Stenner, Markus; Klussmann, J Peter

    2009-03-01

    This review aims to take stock of the new information that has accumulated over the past decade on the molecular pathology of salivary gland cancer. Emphasis will be placed on established and novel immunohistochemical markers, the pathways involved, and on findings of prognostic importance as well as new therapeutic concepts. Whenever reasonable, analogies to tumors of better explored, histologically related glandular organs such as pancreas and breast are established.

  2. Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) expression and humoral response in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sumit; Parashar, Deepak; Gupta, Namita; Jagadish, Nirmala; Thakar, Alok; Suri, Vaishali; Kumar, Rajive; Gupta, Anju; Ansari, Abdul S; Lohiya, Nirmal Kumar; Suri, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland cancers are highly aggressive epithelial tumor associated with metastatic potential and high mortality. The tumors are biologically diverse and are of various histotypes. Besides, the detection and diagnosis is a major problem of salivary gland cancer for available treatment modalities. In the present study, we have investigated the association of sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) expression with salivary gland tumor (SGT). Clinical specimens of benign (n = 16) and malignant tumors (n = 86) were examined for the SPAG9 expression. In addition, the sera and adjacent non-cancerous tissues (n = 72) from available patients were obtained. Our in situ RNA hybridization and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis revealed significant difference (p = 0.0001) in SPAG9 gene and protein expression in benign (63%) and malignant tumor (84%) specimens. Further, significant association was also observed between SPAG9 expression and malignant tumors (P = 0.05). A cut-off value of >10% cells expressing SPAG9 protein designated as positive in IHC, predicted presence of malignant SGT with 83.72% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% PPV and 83.72% NPV. Humoral response against SPAG9 protein was generated in 68% of SGT patients. A cut-off value of 0.212 OD for anti-SPAG9 antibodies in ELISA predicted presence of malignant SGT with 69.23% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% PPV and 78.94% NPV. Collectively, our data suggests that the majority of SGT show significant difference and association among benign and malignant tumors for SPAG9 gene and protein expression and also exhibit humoral response against SPAG9 protein. Hence, SPAG9 may be developed as a biomarker for detection and diagnosis of salivary gland tumors. PMID:25941602

  3. Comprehensive annotation of Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus from Ethiopian tsetse flies: a proteogenomics approach

    PubMed Central

    Kariithi, Henry M.; Cousserans, François; Parker, Nicolas J.; İnce, İkbal Agah; Scully, Erin D.; Boeren, Sjef; Geib, Scott M.; Mekonnen, Solomon; Vlak, Just M.; Parker, Andrew G.; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Bergoin, Max

    2016-01-01

    Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV; family Hytrosaviridae) can establish asymptomatic and symptomatic infection in its tsetse fly host. Here, we present a comprehensive annotation of the genome of an Ethiopian GpSGHV isolate (GpSGHV-Eth) compared with the reference Ugandan GpSGHV isolate (GpSGHV-Uga; GenBank accession number EF568108). GpSGHV-Eth has higher salivary gland hypertrophy syndrome prevalence than GpSGHV-Uga. We show that the GpSGHV-Eth genome has 190 291 nt, a low G+C content (27.9 %) and encodes 174 putative ORFs. Using proteogenomic and transcriptome mapping, 141 and 86 ORFs were mapped by transcripts and peptides, respectively. Furthermore, of the 174 ORFs, 132 had putative transcriptional signals [TATA-like box and poly(A) signals]. Sixty ORFs had both TATA-like box promoter and poly(A) signals, and mapped by both transcripts and peptides, implying that these ORFs encode functional proteins. Of the 60 ORFs, 10 ORFs are homologues to baculovirus and nudivirus core genes, including three per os infectivity factors and four RNA polymerase subunits (LEF4, 5, 8 and 9). Whereas GpSGHV-Eth and GpSGHV-Uga are 98.1 % similar at the nucleotide level, 37 ORFs in the GpSGHV-Eth genome had nucleotide insertions (n = 17) and deletions (n = 20) compared with their homologues in GpSGHV-Uga. Furthermore, compared with the GpSGHV-Uga genome, 11 and 24 GpSGHV ORFs were deleted and novel, respectively. Further, 13 GpSGHV-Eth ORFs were non-canonical; they had either CTG or TTG start codons instead of ATG. Taken together, these data suggest that GpSGHV-Eth and GpSGHV-Uga represent two different lineages of the same virus. Genetic differences combined with host and environmental factors possibly explain the differential GpSGHV pathogenesis observed in different G. pallidipes colonies. PMID:26801744

  4. Labial salivary gland transplantation for severe dry eye due to chemical burns and Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Diane R; Burmann, Tiana G; Kwitko, Sérgio

    2010-01-01

    Salivary gland transplantation has been a promising alternative for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. In this article, we describe the results of an autotransplant procedure of labial salivary glands in the upper conjunctival fornix of patients with severe dry eye. A total of 14 eyes from 14 patients presenting with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and chemical burns were prospectively analyzed after surgery (average follow-up of 14 months). We evaluated their underlying symptoms, visual acuity, biomicroscopy, Schirmer's test, break-up time, and need for lubricants before and after transplantation. All patients expressed improvement in their ocular discomfort. Nine eyes showed a slight best-corrected visual acuity improvement, while the vision of the remainder stayed stable. Corneal staining, present in all patients before surgery, was persistent in only four patients, but in a reduced area. Schirmer's test and break-up time showed significant increase in all patients (p < 0.05). In 71% of the patients, the use of lubricants was reduced. Labial salivary gland transplantation can improve the life quality of patients with compromised ocular surfaces who suffer from severe dry eye syndrome.

  5. The regulation of focal adhesion complex formation and salivary gland epithelial cell organization by nanofibrous PLGA scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Sharon J.; Soscia, David A.; Oztan, Basak; Mosier, Aaron P.; Jean-Gilles, Riffard; Gadre, Anand; Cady, Nathaniel C.; Yener, Bülent; Castracane, James; Larsen, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Nanofiber scaffolds have been useful for engineering tissues derived from mesenchymal cells, but few studies have investigated their applicability for epithelial cell-derived tissues. In this study, we generated nanofiber (250 nm) or microfiber (1200 nm) scaffolds via electrospinning from the polymer, poly-L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA). Cell-scaffold contacts were visualized using fluorescent immunocytochemistry and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Focal adhesion (FA) proteins, such as phosphorylated FAK (Tyr397), paxillin (Tyr118), talin and vinculin were localized to FA complexes in adult cells grown on planar surfaces but were reduced and diffusely localized in cells grown on nanofiber surfaces, similar to the pattern observed in adult mouse salivary gland tissues. Significant differences in epithelial cell morphology and cell clustering were also observed and quantified, using image segmentation and computational cell-graph analyses. No statistically significant differences in scaffold stiffness between planar PLGA film controls compared to nanofibers scaffolds were detected using nanoindentation with atomic force microscopy, indicating that scaffold topography rather than mechanical properties accounts for changes in cell attachments and cell structure. Finally, PLGA nanofiber scaffolds could support the spontaneous self-organization and branching of dissociated embryonic salivary gland cells. Nanofiber scaffolds may therefore have applicability in the future for engineering an artificial salivary gland. PMID:22285464

  6. Morphological alterations in salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to neem seed oil with known azadirachtin concentration.

    PubMed

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Sá, I C G; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2016-04-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has attracted the attention of researchers worldwide due to its repellent properties and recognized effects on the morphology and physiology of arthropods, including ticks. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the effects of neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, targets of great veterinary interest because of their ability to transmit pathogens to dogs. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil, with known azadirachtin concentrations (200, 400 and 600ppm). After dissection, salivary glands were collected and evaluated through morphological techniques in light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, so that the possible relation between neem action and further impairment in these ectoparasites feed performance could be established. Neem oil demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The agranular (type I) and granular acini (types II and III) showed, particularly in individuals treated with the highest concentrations of the product, cells with irregular shape, intense cytoplasmic disorganization and vacuolation, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum lumen, besides alterations in mitochondrial intermembrane space. These morphological damages may indicate modifications in salivary glands physiology, demonstrating the harmful effects of compounds present in neem oil on ticks. These results reinforce the potential of neem as an alternative method for controlling R. sanguineus ticks, instead of synthetic acaricides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microwave-induced increase of water and conductivity in submaxillary salivary gland of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mikolajczyk, H.

    Hypersalivation is an important mechanism for heat dissipation by animals without sweat glands. The water content and conductivity (at 20 kHz) in submaxillary salivary glands (SSG) and in other tissues were investigated in adult male rats exposed to microwaves (2880 MHz, 1.5 microsecond pulses at 1000 Hz) or to conventional heat at 40 degrees C. Eighty rats in one series were exposed, one at a time, for 30 min to microwaves producing a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.2, 6.3, 6.8, 8.4, 10.8 or 12.6 W/kg. Fifty rats were sham-exposed under similar environmental conditions. In the second series, ten ratsmore » were sham-exposed, 33 rats were exposed one at time, for 15, 30 or 60 min to microwaves at a SAR of 9.5 W/kg, and 32 rats were exposed for similar periods to conventional heat at 40 degrees C. In rats of the first series colonic temperatures were elevated significantly at a SAR of 4.2 W/kg, while SSG water content and conductivity increased significantly at SAR values of 6.3 W/kg and higher. In the second series of experiments increases in colonic temperature and SSG water content were greater after 15 and 30 min of microwave exposure than after exposure to heat. Also, SSG conductivity was significantly depressed by heat and significantly increased by microwaves after exposure for 15 or 30 min. The results support the hypothesis that water content and conductivity of SSG of rats can be used as a sensitive specific test of a microwave induced thermal response.« less

  8. Apyrase activity and adenosine diphosphate induced platelet aggregation inhibition by the salivary gland proteins of Culicoides variipennis, the North American vector of bluetongue viruses.

    PubMed

    Pérez de León, A A; Tabachnick, W J

    1996-02-01

    Salivary gland homogenates of Culicoides variipennis, the primary vector of bluetongue (BLU) viruses in North America, were analyzed for apyrase activity. Apyrase (ATP diphosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.5) is an anti-hemostatic and anti-inflammatory salivary enzyme of most hematophagous arthropods. The enzyme activity was measured by the release of orthophosphate using ATP, ADP, and AMP as substrates with Ca2+ as the divalent cation. ATPase (11.5 +/- 1 mU/pair of glands), ADPase (7.3 +/- 0.7 mU/pair of glands), and insignificant (P < 0.05) AMPase (0.07 mU/pair of glands) activities were detected in female salivary glands. Male salivary glands contained lower amounts of ATPase and ADPase activity (P < 0.05). The ATPase and ADPase activities were greatest at pH 8.5, and were similarly activated by Mg2+. Molecular sieving HPLC of salivary gland homogenates generated a single peak which coincided with ATPase and ADPase, but no AMPase, activity; the protein has an estimated molecular mass of 35,000 Da. ATPase and ADPase activity, and total protein concentration, were reduced (P < 0.05) in the salivary glands of females after taking a blood meal from a sheep. Salivary gland homogenates also inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. It is concluded that the salivary ATPase and ADPase activities of C. variipennis reside in one enzyme, and that this enzyme is likely an apyrase. The apyrase activity is thought to be responsible for the inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, as indicated by the apparent discharge of apyrase from salivary glands into the host during blood feeding. This suggests that apyrase is one of the salivary proteins present in C. variipennis acting as antigens in the development of Culicoides hypersensitivity in ruminants and horses. Apyrase may inhibit an inflammatory response at the feeding site through the subsequent degradation of its end-product, AMP, to adenosine, a potent anti-inflammatory substance, by the ecto-5' nucleotidase

  9. Isolation, purification, and characterization of avian antimicrobial glycopeptide from the posterior salivary gland of Sepia pharaonis.

    PubMed

    Karthik, R; Saravanan, R; Ebenezar, K Kumar; Sivamalai, T

    2015-02-01

    A proteinaceous glycopeptide was isolated from the posterior salivary gland (PSG) of Sepia pharaonis by gel (Sephadex G-100) filtration chromatography and purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Among the collected fractions, fraction 12 showed a retention time (RT) of 31 min. The total protein and neutral sugar contents of the purified glycopeptide were recorded as 68.14 and 2.95 mg, respectively. The molecular weight of the purified glycopeptide was found to be ~50 kDa. The infrared (IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of peptide and secondary structure in the purified glycopeptide. The antibacterial activity of the purified glycopeptide against avian bacterial strains was also determined. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the purified glycopeptide revealed the likely compounds for the antibacterial activity such as 22, 23-dibromostigmasterol acetate, 3-methyl 2-(2-oxypropyl) furan, and 2,4,4-trimethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-5A-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-cyclohexene. These three compounds found in the purified glycopeptide could be responsible for the antibacterial activity against the avian pathogens. The results of this study suggest that the purified glycopeptide from the PSG of S. pharaonis could be an antibacterial agent against avian bacterial pathogens.

  10. Novel viruses in salivary glands of mosquitoes from sylvatic Cerrado, Midwestern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Lara Pinto, Andressa Zelenski; Santos de Carvalho, Michellen; de Melo, Fernando Lucas; Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Maria; Morais Ribeiro, Bergmann

    2017-01-01

    Viruses may represent the most diverse microorganisms on Earth. Novel viruses and variants continue to emerge. Mosquitoes are the most dangerous animals to humankind. This study aimed at identifying viral RNA diversity in salivary glands of mosquitoes captured in a sylvatic area of Cerrado at the Chapada dos Guimarães National Park, Mato Grosso, Brazil. In total, 66 Culicinae mosquitoes belonging to 16 species comprised 9 pools, subjected to viral RNA extraction, double-strand cDNA synthesis, random amplification and high-throughput sequencing, revealing the presence of seven insect-specific viruses, six of which represent new species of Rhabdoviridae (Lobeira virus), Chuviridae (Cumbaru and Croada viruses), Totiviridae (Murici virus) and Partitiviridae (Araticum and Angico viruses). In addition, two mosquito pools presented Kaiowa virus sequences that had already been reported in South Pantanal, Brazil. These findings amplify the understanding of viral diversity in wild-type Culicinae. Insect-specific viruses may present a broader diversity than previously imagined and future studies may address their possible role in mosquito vector competence. PMID:29117239

  11. Detection of AA-type amyloid protein in labial salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Sacsaquispe, Sonia-Julia; Antúnez-de Mayolo, Eleazar-Antonio; Vicetti, Rodolfo; Delgado, Wilson-Alejandro

    2011-03-01

    Among the diverse forms of amyloidosis, secondary type is the most frequent one. Diagnosis of amyloid deposition is based on the identification of the fibrillary protein amyloid by means of Congo Red (CR) or crystal violet (CV) stains, but these techniques do not differentiate between the different types of amyloid fibrils. The aim of this study was to identify by immunofluorescence (IF) AA amyloid a pathological fibrillar low-molecular-weight protein formed by cleavage of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein in labial salivary gland (LSG) biopsies from patients with secondary amyloidosis. 98 LSG were studied, 65 were from patients with secondary amyloidosis and 33 from subjects with chronic inflammatory diseases without evidence of this anomaly. All sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H &E), CV, CR and IF using anti-AA antibodies. Positive and negative controls were used for all techniques. CV and CR demonstrated that the amyloid substance was found mainly distributed periductally (93.8%), followed by periacinar and perivascular locations (p <0.001); however, the IF demonstrated that amyloid AA substance predominates in the periacinar area (73.8%), followed by periductal and perivascular locations (p <0.001). IF has a sensitivity of 83%, 100% of specificity, 100% of predictive positive value and 75% of predictive negative value. The results of this study confirm the efficacy of the LSG biopsy as a highly reliable method for diagnosis of secondary amyloidosis.

  12. Biocompatibility of tungsten disulfide inorganic nanotubes and fullerene-like nanoparticles with salivary gland cells.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Elisheva B; Zak, Alla; Tenne, Reshef; Kartvelishvily, Elena; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Neumann, Yoav; Stiubea-Cohen, Raluca; Palmon, Aaron; Hovav, Avi-Hai; Aframian, Doron J

    2015-03-01

    Impaired salivary gland (SG) function leading to oral diseases is relatively common with no adequate solution. Previously, tissue engineering of SG had been proposed to overcome this morbidity, however, not yet clinically available. Multiwall inorganic (tungsten disulfide [WS2]) nanotubes (INT-WS2) and fullerene-like nanoparticles (IF-WS2) have many potential medical applications. A yet unexplored venue application is their interaction with SG, and therefore, our aim was to test the biocompatibility of INT/IF-WS2 with the A5 and rat submandibular cells (RSC) SG cells. The cells were cultured and subjected after 1 day to different concentrations of INT-WS2 and were compared to control groups. Growth curves, trypan blue viability test, and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) proliferation assay were obtained. Furthermore, cells morphology and interaction with the nanoparticles were observed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results showed no significant differences in growth curves, proliferation kinetics, and viability between the groups compared. Moreover, no alterations were observed in the cell morphology. Interestingly, TEM images indicated that the nanoparticles are uptaken by the cells and accumulate in cytoplasmic vesicles. These results suggest promising future medical applications for these nanoparticles.

  13. Biocompatibility of Tungsten Disulfide Inorganic Nanotubes and Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles with Salivary Gland Cells

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Elisheva B.; Zak, Alla; Tenne, Reshef; Kartvelishvily, Elena; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Neumann, Yoav; Stiubea-Cohen, Raluca; Palmon, Aaron; Hovav, Avi-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Impaired salivary gland (SG) function leading to oral diseases is relatively common with no adequate solution. Previously, tissue engineering of SG had been proposed to overcome this morbidity, however, not yet clinically available. Multiwall inorganic (tungsten disulfide [WS2]) nanotubes (INT-WS2) and fullerene-like nanoparticles (IF-WS2) have many potential medical applications. A yet unexplored venue application is their interaction with SG, and therefore, our aim was to test the biocompatibility of INT/IF-WS2 with the A5 and rat submandibular cells (RSC) SG cells. The cells were cultured and subjected after 1 day to different concentrations of INT-WS2 and were compared to control groups. Growth curves, trypan blue viability test, and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) proliferation assay were obtained. Furthermore, cells morphology and interaction with the nanoparticles were observed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results showed no significant differences in growth curves, proliferation kinetics, and viability between the groups compared. Moreover, no alterations were observed in the cell morphology. Interestingly, TEM images indicated that the nanoparticles are uptaken by the cells and accumulate in cytoplasmic vesicles. These results suggest promising future medical applications for these nanoparticles. PMID:25366879

  14. Transcriptomes define distinct subgroups of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma with different driver mutations and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Frerich, Candace A.; Brayer, Kathryn J.; Painter, Brandon M.; Kang, Huining; Mitani, Yoshitsugu; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Ness, Scott A.

    2018-01-01

    The relative rarity of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and its slow growing yet aggressive nature has complicated the development of molecular markers for patient stratification. To analyze molecular differences linked to the protracted disease course of ACC and metastases that form 5 or more years after diagnosis, detailed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis was performed on 68 ACC tumor samples, starting with archived, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples up to 25 years old, so that clinical outcomes were available. A statistical peak-finding approach was used to classify the tumors that expressed MYB or MYBL1, which had overlapping gene expression signatures, from a group that expressed neither oncogene and displayed a unique phenotype. Expression of MYB or MYBL1 was closely correlated to the expression of the SOX4 and EN1 genes, suggesting that they are direct targets of Myb proteins in ACC tumors. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering identified a subgroup of approximately 20% of patients with exceptionally poor overall survival (median less than 30 months) and a unique gene expression signature resembling embryonic stem cells. The results provide a strategy for stratifying ACC patients and identifying the high-risk, poor-outcome group that are candidates for personalized therapies. PMID:29484115

  15. Localization of extracellular matrix components in developing mouse salivary glands by confocal microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in developing organisms is well established. Proteoglycans and interstitial collagens are required for the growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation of epithelial organs and the distribution of these molecules has been described. However, much less is known about other ECM macromolecules in developing epithelial organs. We used confocal microscopy to examine the distribution of laminin, heparan sulfate (BM-1) proteoglycan, fibronectin, and collagen types I, IV, and V, in mouse embryonic salivary glands. Organ rudiments were isolated from gestational day 13 mouse embryos and cultured for 24, 48, or 72 hours. Whole mounts were stained by indirect immunofluorescence and then examined using a Zeiss Laser Scan Microscope. We found that each ECM component examined had a distinct distribution and that the distribution of some molecules varied with culture time. Laminin was mainly restricted to the basement membrane. BM-1 proteoglycan was concentrated in the basement membrane and also formed a fine network throughout the mesenchyme. Type IV collagen was mainly located in the basement membrane of the epithelium, but it was also present throughout the mesenchyme. Type V collagen was distributed throughout the mesenchyme at 24 hours, but at 48 hours was principally located in the basement membrane. Type I collagen was distributed throughout the mesenchyme at all culture times, and accumulated in the clefts and particularly at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface as time in culture increased. Fibronectin was observed throughout the mesenchyme at all times.

  16. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of salivary gland origin with the ETV6 gene rearrangement by FISH: expanded morphologic and immunohistochemical spectrum of a recently described entity.

    PubMed

    Connor, Ashton; Perez-Ordoñez, Bayardo; Shago, Mary; Skálová, Alena; Weinreb, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described tumor predominantly arising in the parotid gland. These tumors represent locally invasive malignancies with microcystic architecture, low-grade nuclei, and granular pink vacuolated cytoplasm. They display strong vimentin and S100 positivity and harbor an identical t(12;15)(p13;q25) to their breast counterpart, leading to a ETV6-NTRK3 fusion oncogene. These features help exclude the most important differential diagnostic considerations, namely, acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) and low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. Here we present a series of 7 recent examples of MASC, which showed features not previously described. These 7 cases were observed in patients ranging in age from 14 to 77 years (mean, 40 y), occurred almost exclusively in male patients (6:1), and showed >50% (4 of 7 cases) involvement of the oral cavity, with only 2 arising in the parotid. The remaining case is the first reported in the submandibular gland. The tumors showed a variety of patterns including single macrocysts, combined macrocystic and microcystic spaces, and solid architecture. They showed prominent hobnailing in the cystic areas. Secretions within the cysts and tubular areas tended to be positive for periodic acid schiff, periodic acid schiff diastage and mucicarmine, the latter also showing occasional intracytoplasmic mucin droplets, a feature not previously recognized. One case showed prominent mucinous differentiation, which, coupled with high-molecular-weight keratins (HMWK) positivity, mimicked mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). The tumors were generally positive for HMWK (6 of 7), S100 (5 of 7), vimentin, CK19, and other epithelial markers. The finding of duct involvement, proven with an incomplete p63-positive basal layer surrounding a minority of tumor cell nests and cysts, raised the possibility of a ductal epithelial origin for MASC. Alternatively, this could represent secondary ductal involvement by

  17. Radiation inhibits salivary gland function by promoting STIM1 cleavage by caspase-3 and loss of SOCE through a TRPM2-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xibao; Gong, Baijuan; de Souza, Lorena Brito; Ong, Hwei Ling; Subedi, Krishna P.; Cheng, Kwong Tai; Swaim, William; Zheng, Changyu; Mori, Yasuo; Ambudkar, Indu S.

    2017-01-01

    Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is critical for salivary gland fluid secretion. We report that radiation treatment caused persistent salivary gland dysfunction by activating a TRPM2-dependent mitochondrial pathway, leading to caspase-3–mediated cleavage of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) and loss of SOCE. After irradiation, acinar cells from the submandibular glands of TRPM2+/+, but not those from TRPM2−/− mice, displayed an increase in the concentrations of mitochondrial Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of caspase-3, which was associated with a sustained decrease in STIM1 abundance and attenuation of SOCE. In a salivary gland cell line, silencing the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter or caspase-3 or treatment with inhibitors of TRPM2 or caspase-3 prevented irradiation-induced loss of STIM1 and SOCE. Expression of exogenous STIM1 in the salivary glands of irradiated mice increased SOCE and fluid secretion. We suggest that targeting the mechanisms underlying the loss of STIM1 would be a potentially useful approach for preserving salivary gland function after radiation therapy. PMID:28588080

  18. Adenovirus-mediated hAQP1 expression in irradiated mouse salivary glands causes recovery of saliva secretion by enhancing acinar cell volume decrease

    PubMed Central

    Teos, LY; Zheng, C-Y; Liu, X; Swaim, WD; Goldsmith, CM; Cotrim, AP; Baum, BJ; Ambudkar, IS

    2017-01-01

    Head and neck irradiation (IR) during cancer treatment causes by-stander effects on the salivary glands leading to irreversible loss of saliva secretion. The mechanism underlying loss of fluid secretion is not understood and no adequate therapy is currently available. Delivery of an adenoviral vector encoding human aquaporin-1 (hAQP1) into the salivary glands of human subjects and animal models with radiation-induced salivary hypofunction leads to significant recovery of saliva secretion and symptomatic relief in subjects. To elucidate the mechanism underlying loss of salivary secretion and the basis for AdhAQP1-dependent recovery of salivary gland function we assessed submandibular gland function in control mice and mice 2 and 8 months after treatment with a single 15-Gy dose of IR (delivered to the salivary gland region). Salivary secretion and neurotransmitter-stimulated changes in acinar cell volume, an in vitro read-out for fluid secretion, were monitored. Consistent with the sustained 60% loss of fluid secretion following IR, a carbachol (CCh)-induced decrease in acinar cell volume from the glands of mice post IR was transient and attenuated as compared with that in cells from non-IR age-matched mice. The hAQP1 expression in non-IR mice induced no significant effect on salivary fluid secretion or CCh-stimulated cell volume changes, except in acinar cells from 8-month group where the initial rate of cell shrinkage was increased. Importantly, the expression of hAQP1 in the glands of mice post IR induced recovery of salivary fluid secretion and a volume decrease in acinar cells to levels similar to those in cells from non-IR mice. The initial rates of CCh-stimulated cell volume reduction in acinar cells from hAQP1-expressing glands post IR were similar to those from control cells. Altogether, the data suggest that expression of hAQP1 increases the water permeability of acinar cells, which underlies the recovery of fluid secretion in the salivary glands

  19. Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus, a globally distributed insect virus that infects and sterilizes female houseflies.

    PubMed

    Prompiboon, Pannipa; Lietze, Verena-Ulrike; Denton, John S S; Geden, Christopher J; Steenberg, Tove; Boucias, Drion G

    2010-02-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica, is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock and poultry and is of economic, veterinary, and public health importance. Populations of M. domestica are naturally infected with M. domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV), a nonoccluded double-stranded DNA virus that inhibits egg production in infected females and is characterized by salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms. MdSGHV has been detected in housefly samples from North America, Europe, Asia, the Caribbean, and the southwestern Pacific. In this study, houseflies were collected from various locations and dissected to observe SGH symptoms, and infected gland pairs were collected for MdSGHV isolation and amplification in laboratory-reared houseflies. Differences among the MdSGHV isolates were examined by using molecular and bioassay approaches. Approximately 600-bp nucleotide sequences from each of five open reading frames having homology to genes encoding DNA polymerase and partial homology to the genes encoding four per os infectivity factor proteins (p74, pif-1, pif-2, and pif-3) were selected for phylogenetic analyses. Nucleotide sequences from 16 different geographic isolates were highly homologous, and the polymorphism detected was correlated with geographic source. The virulence of the geographic MdSGHV isolates was evaluated by per os treatment of newly emerged and 24-h-old houseflies with homogenates of infected salivary glands. In all cases, 24-h-old flies displayed a resistance to oral infection that was significantly greater than that displayed by newly eclosed adults. Regardless of the MdSGHV isolate tested, all susceptible insects displayed similar degrees of SGH and complete suppression of oogenesis.

  20. Musca domestica Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus, a Globally Distributed Insect Virus That Infects and Sterilizes Female Houseflies▿

    PubMed Central

    Prompiboon, Pannipa; Lietze, Verena-Ulrike; Denton, John S. S.; Geden, Christopher J.; Steenberg, Tove; Boucias, Drion G.

    2010-01-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica, is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock and poultry and is of economic, veterinary, and public health importance. Populations of M. domestica are naturally infected with M. domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV), a nonoccluded double-stranded DNA virus that inhibits egg production in infected females and is characterized by salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms. MdSGHV has been detected in housefly samples from North America, Europe, Asia, the Caribbean, and the southwestern Pacific. In this study, houseflies were collected from various locations and dissected to observe SGH symptoms, and infected gland pairs were collected for MdSGHV isolation and amplification in laboratory-reared houseflies. Differences among the MdSGHV isolates were examined by using molecular and bioassay approaches. Approximately 600-bp nucleotide sequences from each of five open reading frames having homology to genes encoding DNA polymerase and partial homology to the genes encoding four per os infectivity factor proteins (p74, pif-1, pif-2, and pif-3) were selected for phylogenetic analyses. Nucleotide sequences from 16 different geographic isolates were highly homologous, and the polymorphism detected was correlated with geographic source. The virulence of the geographic MdSGHV isolates was evaluated by per os treatment of newly emerged and 24-h-old houseflies with homogenates of infected salivary glands. In all cases, 24-h-old flies displayed a resistance to oral infection that was significantly greater than that displayed by newly eclosed adults. Regardless of the MdSGHV isolate tested, all susceptible insects displayed similar degrees of SGH and complete suppression of oogenesis. PMID:20023109

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in Decreasing Salivary Gland Damage following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Michihiro; Okizaki, Atsutaka; Takahashi, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of aromatherapy in decreasing salivary gland damage for patients undergoing radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Materials and Methods. The subjects were 71 patients with DTC. They were divided into aromatherapy group (group A, n = 35) and a control group (group B, n = 36). We blended 1.0 mL of lemon and 0.5 mL of ginger essential oils. The patients in the inhalation aromatherapy group inhaled this blend oil and those in the control group inhaled distilled water as placebo for 10 min during admission. We statistically compared salivary gland function before and after treatment between groups A and B. Results. In comparison with group B, the rate of change of the accumulation rate was significantly higher in the parotid glands and submandibular glands of group A ( P < 0.05). In comparison with group B, a significant increase in rate of secretion change before and after treatment was noted in the bilateral parotid glands in group A ( P < 0.05). Conclusion. Because an amelioration of salivary gland function was observed in the present study, our results suggest the efficacy of aromatherapy in the prevention of treatment-related salivary gland disorder. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trial Registry: UMIN000013968.

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in Decreasing Salivary Gland Damage following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okizaki, Atsutaka; Takahashi, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of aromatherapy in decreasing salivary gland damage for patients undergoing radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Materials and Methods. The subjects were 71 patients with DTC. They were divided into aromatherapy group (group A, n = 35) and a control group (group B, n = 36). We blended 1.0 mL of lemon and 0.5 mL of ginger essential oils. The patients in the inhalation aromatherapy group inhaled this blend oil and those in the control group inhaled distilled water as placebo for 10 min during admission. We statistically compared salivary gland function before and after treatment between groups A and B. Results. In comparison with group B, the rate of change of the accumulation rate was significantly higher in the parotid glands and submandibular glands of group A (P < 0.05). In comparison with group B, a significant increase in rate of secretion change before and after treatment was noted in the bilateral parotid glands in group A (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Because an amelioration of salivary gland function was observed in the present study, our results suggest the efficacy of aromatherapy in the prevention of treatment-related salivary gland disorder. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trial Registry: UMIN000013968. PMID:28042578

  3. Role of amino acids in salivation and the localization of their receptors in the rat salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Shida, T; Kondo, E; Ueda, Y; Takai, N; Yoshida, Y; Araki, T; Kiyama, H; Tohyama, M

    1995-11-01

    The distribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subunits such as GABAAR-gamma 1 and GABAAR-gamma 2, and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) type receptor subunits such as GluR-1, GluR-2/3 and GluR-4, and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) type subunits such as NR1 were investigated by immunocytochemistry. Furthermore, the roles of these amino acids, GABA and glutamate, on salivation were analyzed in the rat submandibular and sublingual glands. Some similarities were observed in the distribution patterns of GABAA type receptors and AMPA receptors. In the submandibular ganglion cells, collecting ducts and striated ducts, these subunits were expressed strongly; however, there were some differences in their expression patterns between the submandibular and sublingual gland acinar cells. Since these receptor subunits were expressed in the acinar cell bodies of the submandibular gland, they were not expressed in the acinar cells but were expressed in the myoepithelial cells in the sublingual gland. On the other hand, no NR1 expression was observed. To examine the roles of GABA and glutamate in salivation, the submandibular and sublingual glands were perfused partially with Ringer's solution via a facial artery to avoid systemic influence, and substrates were infused into the perfusion solution. No salivary secretion was evoked by GABA or glutamate infusion in the absence of electrical stimulation (2-3 V, 5 ms, 20 Hz). Salivary flow evoked by electrical stimulation of the chorda-lingual nerve caused significant inhibition by GABA (10(-6), 10(-5), 10(-4) and 10(-3) M) and the GABAAR agonist muscimol 10(-3) and 10(-6) M) (n = 6, P < 0.05). Such GABA-induced inhibition was antagonized by the GABAAR antagonists bicuculline (BCC; 10(-6) and 10(-3) M) and picrotoxin (PTX; 10(-6) and 10(-3) M). On the other hand, salivary flow evoked by electrical stimulation (8-10 V, 5 ms, 20 Hz) of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) was not affected by

  4. High expression of Polycomb group protein EZH2 predicts poor survival in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vékony, H; Raaphorst, F M; Otte, A P; van Lohuizen, M; Leemans, C R; van der Waal, I; Bloemena, E

    2008-06-01

    The prognosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a malignant salivary gland tumour, depends on clinicopathological parameters. To decipher the biological behaviour of ACC, and to identify patients at risk of developing metastases, additional markers are needed. Expression of the cell cycle proteins p53, cyclin D1, p16(INK4a), E2F1 and Ki-67, together with the Polycomb group (PcG) proteins BMI-1, MEL-18, EZH2 and EED was investigated immunohistochemically 21 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary ACCs in relation to tumour characteristics. ACC revealed significantly increased expression of the cell cycle proteins compared to normal salivary tissue (n = 17). Members of the two PcG complexes displayed mutually exclusive expression in normal salivary gland tissue, with BMI-1 and MEL-18 being abundantly present. In ACC, this expression pattern was disturbed, with EZH2 and EED showing significantly increased expression levels. In univariate analysis, presence of recurrence, poor differentiation and high EZH2 levels (>25% immunopositivity) significantly correlated with unfavourable outcome. ACCs with high proliferative rate (>25% Ki-67 immunopositivity) significantly correlated with high levels of EZH2 and p16. Only the development of recurrence was an independent prognostic factor of survival in multivariate analysis. Expression of PcG complexes and of essential cell cycle proteins is highly deregulated in ACC. Also, EZH2 expression has prognostic relevance in this malignancy.

  5. Managing xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction: executive summary of a report from the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs.

    PubMed

    Plemons, Jacqueline M; Al-Hashimi, Ibtisam; Marek, Cindy L

    2014-08-01

    Xerostomia, also known as "dry mouth," is a common but frequently overlooked condition that is typically associated with salivary gland hypofunction, which is the objective measurement of reduced salivary flow. Patients with dry mouth exhibit symptoms of variable severity that are commonly attributed to medication use, chronic disease and medical treatment, such as radiotherapy to the head and neck region. Chronic xerostomia significantly increases the risk of experiencing dental caries, demineralization, tooth sensitivity, candidiasis and other oral diseases that may affect quality of life negatively. This article presents a multidisciplinary approach to the clinical management of xerostomia, consistent with the findings of published systematic reviews on this key clinical issue. Initial evaluation of patients with dry mouth should include a detailed health history to facilitate early detection and identify underlying causes. Comprehensive evaluation, diagnostic testing and periodic assessment of salivary flow, followed by corrective actions, may help prevent significant oral disease. A systematic approach to xerostomia management can facilitate interdisciplinary patient care, including collaboration with physicians regarding systemic conditions and medication use. Comprehensive management of xerostomia and hyposalivation should emphasize patient education and lifestyle modifications. It also should focus on various palliative and preventive measures, including pharmacological treatment with salivary stimulants, topical fluoride interventions and the use of sugar-free chewing gum to relieve dry-mouth symptoms and improve the patient's quality of life.

  6. Identification of the active components in Bone Marrow Soup: a mitigator against irradiation-injury to salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Fang, Dongdong; Hu, Shen; Liu, Younan; Quan, Vu-Hung; Seuntjens, Jan; Tran, Simon D

    2015-11-03

    In separate studies, an extract of soluble intracellular contents from whole bone marrow cells, named "Bone Marrow (BM) Soup", was reported to either improve cardiac or salivary functions post-myocardial infarction or irradiation (IR), respectively. However, the active components in BM Soup are unknown. To demonstrate that proteins were the active ingredients, we devised a method using proteinase K followed by heating to deactivate proteins and for safe injections into mice. BM Soup and "deactivated BM Soup" were injected into mice that had their salivary glands injured with 15Gy IR. Control mice received either injections of saline or were not IR. Results at week 8 post-IR showed the 'deactivated BM Soup' was no better than injections of saline, while injections of native BM Soup restored saliva flow, protected salivary cells and blood vessels from IR-damage. Protein arrays detected several angiogenesis-related factors (CD26, FGF, HGF, MMP-8, MMP-9, OPN, PF4, SDF-1) and cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-16) in BM Soup. In conclusion, the native proteins (but not the nucleic acids, lipids or carbohydrates) were the therapeutic ingredients in BM Soup for functional salivary restoration following IR. This molecular therapy approach has clinical potential because it is theoretically less tumorigenic and immunogenic than cell therapies.

  7. Identification of the active components in Bone Marrow Soup: a mitigator against irradiation-injury to salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Dongdong; Hu, Shen; Liu, Younan; Quan, Vu-Hung; Seuntjens, Jan; Tran, Simon D.

    2015-01-01

    In separate studies, an extract of soluble intracellular contents from whole bone marrow cells, named “Bone Marrow (BM) Soup”, was reported to either improve cardiac or salivary functions post-myocardial infarction or irradiation (IR), respectively. However, the active components in BM Soup are unknown. To demonstrate that proteins were the active ingredients, we devised a method using proteinase K followed by heating to deactivate proteins and for safe injections into mice. BM Soup and “deactivated BM Soup” were injected into mice that had their salivary glands injured with 15Gy IR. Control mice received either injections of saline or were not IR. Results at week 8 post-IR showed the ‘deactivated BM Soup’ was no better than injections of saline, while injections of native BM Soup restored saliva flow, protected salivary cells and blood vessels from IR-damage. Protein arrays detected several angiogenesis-related factors (CD26, FGF, HGF, MMP-8, MMP-9, OPN, PF4, SDF-1) and cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-16) in BM Soup. In conclusion, the native proteins (but not the nucleic acids, lipids or carbohydrates) were the therapeutic ingredients in BM Soup for functional salivary restoration following IR. This molecular therapy approach has clinical potential because it is theoretically less tumorigenic and immunogenic than cell therapies. PMID:26526154

  8. Bcl-2 protein expression in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands: a single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Janjua, Omer Sefvan; Qureshi, Sana Mehmood; Khan, Tariq Sarfraz; Alamgir, Wajiha

    2012-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common salivary gland tumor with varying behavior among different histopathological grades. The objective of this study was to determine the expression of Bcl-2 protein in mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) and to correlate with histological grades. The records of 40 cases of MEC were collected from the histopathology department. Fresh slides were prepared and fresh diagnoses were made using the grading criteria for MEC. Immunohistochemical markers for Bcl-2 were applied and the results analyzed using the chi-square test. Of 40 cases, 20 were males and 20 were females. The range in age of the patients was 6 to 67 years mean (SD) was 42.6 (1.85) years. Twenty-two were low grade (55%), 11 high grade (27.5%) and 7 (17.5%) were intermediate grade MEC. Among these 40 cases, Bcl-2 expression was positive in 24 cases and negative in 16 cases. In 22 cases of low-grade MEC, 19 were positive while only 3 were negative. In high-grade tumors, all 11 cases were found to have a negative expression of Bcl-2 protein. In intermediate-grade MEC, 5 cases showed positive expression while only 2 cases showed negative expression. Bcl-2 protein expression showed positive expression in low-grade and negative expression in high-grade MEC. Intermediate grade showed more than 50% positive results for Bcl-2. Correlation between grades of MEC and expression of Bcl-2 is statistically significant and can be used for the depicting the prognosis of MEC along with other prognostic and clinico-pathological parameters.

  9. Optical Coherence Tomography of the Labial Salivary Glands Reveals Age‐Related Differences in Women

    PubMed Central

    Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Karnowski, Karol; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The labial minor salivary glands (LSGs) play a role in medical research and practice due to their superficial location and involvement in both systemic and localized diseases. Swept‐source optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive modality that enables in vivo, micrometer resolution, wide‐field three‐dimensional imaging in seconds. A purpose‐built swept‐source OCT instrument was employed to acquire three‐dimensional datasets covering the area of 2.43 cm2 of the mucosa of the lower lip to the depth of 3.4 mm in young (n = 14; mean age ± SD: 27 ± 3 years; body mass index [BMI] 20.4 ± 2.3 kg/m2) and middle‐aged women (n = 11; 54 ± 6 years; 25.5 ± 3.2 kg/m2). Glandular tissue reflectivity mode (range 0–255; 86 ± 17 vs. 68 ± 12, p = 0.005), average single LSG area in tissue sample (5.26 ± 2.62 mm2 vs. 2.87 ± 1.26 mm2, p = 0.011), and LSG surface filling factor (0.23 ± 0.13 vs. 0.11 ± 0.10, p = 0.027) had higher values in younger than in middle‐aged women. A correlation between BMI and glandular tissue reflectivity mode (Spearman's ρ = –0.60) was found (p = 0.002). The results highlight the potential value of LSGs’ OCT morphometry in research regarding ageing. PMID:26530049

  10. Role of flotillins in the endocytosis of GPCR in salivary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Moon-Yong; Kim, Nahyun; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-08-05

    Endocytosis has numerous functions in cellular homeostasis. Defects in the endocytic pathway of receptors may lead to dysfunction of salivary gland secretion. Therefore, elucidating the complex mechanisms of endocytosis may facilitate solutions for disease treatment and prevention. The muscarinic type 3 receptor (M3R), a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) located in the plasma membrane, is involved in numerous physiological activities such as smooth muscle contraction and saliva secretion. M3R enters cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), while flotillins (flot-1 and -2), highly conserved proteins residing in lipid-raft microdomains, make use of clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) for their internalization. Since these two proteins use two discrete pathways for endocytic entry, the association of flotillins with CME is poorly understood. We examined whether flotillins play a role in CME of M3R using immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, co-immunoprecipitation, and RNA interference techniques in secretory epithelial cells. Upon stimulation with a cholinergic agonist, M3R, flot-1, and flot-2 each internalized from the plasma membrane into intracellular sites. The addition of chlorpromazine and cytochalasin D, well-known inhibitors of CME, inhibited internalization of M3R via CME. Filipin III and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mβCD) acting as lipid raft inhibitors disrupted internalization of flot-1/2 via CIE. Interestingly, filipin III and mβCD slightly reduced expression level of M3R whereas chlorpromazine and cytochalasin D did not affect internalization of the flotillin isoforms. M3R and flot-1/2 colocalized and interacted with each other as they entered the cytosol during limited periods of incubation. Moreover, knockdown of flot-1 or -2 by flotillin-specific siRNA prevented internalization and reduced the endocytic efficiency of M3R. Our results suggest that flot-1 and -2 are partially involved in CME of M3R by

  11. Enhancing longevity of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum sporozoites after dissection from mosquito salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Lupton, Emily J; Roth, Alison; Patrapuvich, Rapatbhorn; Maher, Steve P; Singh, Naresh; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Adams, John H

    2015-04-01

    The pre-erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum remain challenging for experimental research in part due to limited access to sporozoites. An important factor limiting availability is the laboratory support required for producing infected mosquitoes and the ephemeral nature of isolated extracellular sporozoites. This study was undertaken to investigate methods to improve the availability of this limited resource by extending the longevity of the extracellular sporozoites after mosquito dissection. Our goal in this study was to determine whether buffer conditions more closely mimicking the insect microenvironment could prolong longevity of ex vivo P. vivax and P. falciparum sporozoites. The study compared the current standard dissection buffer RPMI1640 to Hank's Balanced Salt Solution with 1g/L glucose (HBSS-1) or 2g/L glucose (HBSS-2) and Grace's Insect Medium for ability to extend longevity of ex vivo P. vivax and P. falciparum sporozoites. The effect of each buffer on sporozoite viability was evaluated by measuring sporozoite gliding motility at 0, 4, 8, and 24h post-dissection from mosquito salivary glands. Comparisons of mean gliding percentages of ex vivo sporozoites in the different buffers and time points found that RPMI and Grace's both showed strong gliding at 0h. In contrast, by 4h post-dissection sporozoites in RPMI consistently had the lowest gliding activity, whereas sporozoites in Grace's had significantly more gliding compared to all other buffers at almost all time points. Our results indicate that P. vivax and P. falciparum sporozoites maintained in insect media rather than the standard dissection buffer RPMI and HBSS retain viability better over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cytoplasmic expression of survivin is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with salivary gland cancer.

    PubMed

    Stenner, Markus; Weinell, Antje; Ponert, Tobias; Hardt, Aline; Hahn, Moritz; Preuss, Simon F; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Klussmann, Jens Peter

    2010-11-01

    The expression of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin has been shown to be a significant prognostic indicator in various human cancers. The aim was to assess its expression and prognostic value in salivary gland adenocarcinoma and muco-epidermoid carcinoma. Survivin expression was analysed in 48 patients with parotid gland cancer (21 muco-epidermoid, 27 adenocarcinomas) by means of immunohistochemistry. The experimental findings were correlated with clinicopathological and survival parameters. A high cytoplasmic expression of survivin was found in 30% of the examined tumours without any significant correlation with the patients' clinicopathological characteristics (P > 0.05). Within all patients, the estimated overall survival rate of muco-epidermoid carcinomas was significantly better than that of adenocarcinomas (P = 0.013). A high cytoplasmic survivin expression significantly indicated a poor 5-year disease-free survival rate compared to patients with a low cytoplasmic survivin expression in the whole group (P = 0.001) and in adenocarcinomas (P = 0.004). In a multivariate analysis, a high cytoplasmic survivin expression was the only independent prognostic indicator for a significantly poorer 5-year disease-free survival rate (P = 0.001). The correlation between cytoplasmic survivin expression and survival in salivary gland malignancies might make this an effective tool in patient follow-up, prognosis and targeted therapy in future. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  13. Association between high expression of phosphorylated Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin and improved survival in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Dai-Qiao; Liang, Li-Zhong; Ke, Zun-Fu; Zheng, Guang-Sen; Weng, De-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Fa; Su, Yu-Xiong; Liao, Gui-Qing

    2017-06-01

    Previous genomic studies revealed phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway mutation in human salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). No validation of its prognostic value has been reported. P-Akt, pan-Akt, phosphorylated-mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR), PI3K, and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor beta (IGF-1Rβ) were detected on 120 salivary gland ACC/adjacent salivary gland pairs immunohistochemically and were correlated with clinicopathological data. Expression of cytoplasmic and nuclear p-Akt, cytoplasmic p-mTOR, nuclear pan-Akt, and nuclear IGF-1Rβ were higher in ACC than in adjacent salivary glands. P-Akt, p-mTOR, PI3K, and IGF-1Rβ expression were correlated with one another in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Low p-mTOR expression in both subcellular compartments was associated with locoregional recurrence, poor disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Low nuclear p-Akt (Ser473) and p-mTOR expression were independent predictors for poor OS and DFS, respectively. High level of Akt/mTOR activation in ACC is correlated with a significantly improved survival. P-mTOR and nuclear p-Akt are prognostic biomarkers of salivary gland ACC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 1145-1154, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... and location. Sometimes, a cyst looks like a skin cancer and may need to be removed to be ... and pits. In: Patterson JW, ed. Weedon's Skin Pathology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2016: ...

  15. Benign symptomatic glial cysts of the pineal gland: a report of seven cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, P; Rubinstein, L J

    1989-01-01

    Seven cases of clinically symptomatic benign glial cyst of the pineal gland are reported. The cysts' size ranged from 1.0-4.5 cm in diameter. They were characterised by a golden or, less frequently, brown-reddish proteinaceous or haemorrhagic fluid content. The cyst wall, up to 2 mm thick, consisted of clusters of normal pineal parenchymal cells, often compressed and distorted, surrounded by reactive gliotic tissue which sometimes contained Rosenthal fibres. The presenting clinical features included headache (6/7), signs of raised intracranial pressure, partial or complete Parinaud's syndrome (5/7), cerebellar deficits (2/7), corticospinal and corticopontine fibre (2/7) or sensory (1/7) deficits, and emotional disturbances (2/7). CT and MRI (in 2/7 cases) scans showed a hypodense or nonhomogeneous lesion in the region of the pineal gland, with or without contrast enhancement. Surgical excision resulted in complete clearance of the symptoms in 5/7 patients. The previous literature is reviewed and the clinicopathological correlations and the possible pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed. The need to distinguish this benign lesion from other mass lesions of the pineal region, in particular from pinealocytoma, is stressed. Images PMID:2677249

  16. Role of minor salivary glands in developing patient-rated xerostomia and sticky saliva during day and night.

    PubMed

    Beetz, Ivo; Schilstra, Cornelis; Visink, Arjan; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Bijl, Henk P; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Steenbakkers, Roel J H M; Langendijk, Johannes A

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the relationship between xerostomia during the day (XERday) and night (XERnight) and sticky saliva during the day (STICday) and night (STICnight) and dose distributions in different major and minor salivary glands among head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with primary radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiation (CHRT). The study population was composed of 201 consecutive HNC patients treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). All patients were included in a standard follow up programme in which acute and late side effects and quality of life (QoL) were prospectively assessed, prior to, during and after treatment. The primary endpoints were XERday, XERnight, STICday, STICnight as assessed by the Groningen Radiotherapy Induced Xerostomia questionnaire (GRIX) six months after completion of treatment. Organs at risk (OARs) potentially involved in salivary function were delineated on planning-CT, including the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands and the minor glands in the soft palate, buccal mucosa and lips. Patients with moderate-to-severe xerostomia or moderate-to-severe sticky saliva, respectively, at baseline were excluded. In order to determine which salivary glands were most important, a multivariate logistic regression analysis with an extended bootstrapping technique was used. In total, 29% and 19% of the cases suffered from XERday and XERnight, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that baseline xerostomia and the mean parotid gland dose were the most important predictors for XERday and XERnight. At 6months after (CH)RT, 10% and 12% of the cases reported STICday and STICnight respectively. We were not able to identify prognostic factors related to dose distributions with regard to STICday. The mean submandibular gland dose was associated with STICnight. Baseline xerostomia and sticky saliva scores on the GRIX were associated

  17. Specificity of neutral amino acid uptake at the basolateral side of the epithelium in the cat salivary gland in situ.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, J C; Mann, G E; Yudilevich, D L

    1981-01-01

    Km of 6.4 +/- 0.8 mmol . 1-1 and a Vmax of 1719 +/- 94 nmol . min-1g.-1 6. Since the fenestrated capillaries in the salivary gland are readily permeable to the test amino acid and D-mannitol, it is most probable that the amino acid carriers are located in the basolateral side of the epithelium. 7. The use of a paired-tracer dilution technique to measure uptake in a single circulatory passage has enabled a detailed characterization of neutral amino acid transport in the salivary gland and has overcome the limitation of previous studies based on solute transfer from blood to saliva.

  18. Updating the salivary gland transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi (Tunisian strain): the search for sand fly-secreted immunogenic proteins for humans.

    PubMed

    Abdeladhim, Maha; Jochim, Ryan C; Ben Ahmed, Melika; Zhioua, Elyes; Chelbi, Ifhem; Cherni, Saifedine; Louzir, Hechmi; Ribeiro, José M C; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2012-01-01

    Sand fly saliva plays an important role in both blood feeding and outcome of Leishmania infection. A cellu